3D printing

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pages: 307 words: 92,165

Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing by Hod Lipson, Melba Kurman

3D printing, a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, game design, global supply chain, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, lifelogging, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, Minecraft, new economy, off grid, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, the market place

The first wave of commercially available 3D printed body parts are already out there walking around inside the bodies or regular people, perhaps even in yours. Non-living prosthetics such as 3D printed bone implants, dental crowns, contact lenses, and hearing aids reside in thousands of humans worldwide. Phil Reeves, the managing director of Econolyst, a consulting company dedicated to the 3D printing industry, estimates that today there are “ten million 3D printed hearing aids in circulation worldwide.”4 Invisalign braces—3D printed, custom-made, clear disposable plastic braces that hide over a patient’s teeth to pull them into alignment—have been a tremendous commercial success. There are an estimated half to three-quarters of a million 3D printed dental implants travelling around in people’s mouths right now.5 Like high-end 3D printed titanium airplane parts, 3D printed human body parts represent the ultimate in small batch, direct to digital custom manufacturing.

However until now, the only way to see the inner message has been to shatter (hence destroy) the cuneiform. One of the benefits of CT scanning and 3D printing a replica of a cuneiform is that you can cheerfully smash the printed replica to pieces to read what’s written on the inside. The ten principles of 3D printing Predicting the future is a crapshoot. When we were writing this book and interviewing people about 3D printing, we discovered that a few underlying “rules” kept coming up. People from a broad and diverse array of industries and backgrounds and levels of expertise described similar ways that 3D printing helped them get past key cost, time and complexity barriers. We have summarized what we learned. Here are ten principles of 3D printing we hope will help people and businesses take full advantage of 3D printing technologies. Principle one: Manufacturing complexity is free.

Nature Chemistry, 4 (2012): 349-354. doi:10.1038/nchem.1313 4 Nikki Olson, “3D Printing Laboratories: The Age of DIY Designer Drugs Begins.” Institute for Ethics & Emerging Technologies (April 26, 2012). http://ieet.org/index.php/ieet/more/olson20120426 5 Peter Hanna. “The Next Napster? Copyright questions as 3D printing comes of age.” Ars Technica (April 6, 2011). http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2011/04/the-next-napster-copyright-questions-as-3d-printing-comes-of-age/2/ 6 Erin McCarthy, “SXSW: The Looming Legal Battles over 3D Printing.” Popular Mechanics (March 14, 2012). http://www.popularmechanics.com/how-to/blog/sxw-the-looming-legal-battles-over-3d-printing-7333888 7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent 8 Simon Bradshaw, Adrian Bowyer, and Patrick Haufe, “The Intellectual Property Implications of Low-Cost 3D Printing.” SCRIPTed, Volume 7, Issue 1 (2010). http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/ahrc/script-ed/vol7-1/bradshaw.asp 9 Phillip Torrone, “MAKE’s Exclusive Interview with Alicia Gibb – President of the Open Source Hardware Association.”


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The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

http://www.technologyreview.com/news/429248/this-robotcould-transform-manufacturing/ 94 See http://www.stratasys.com/. 95 Dan Worth, “Business use of 3D printing is years ahead of consumer uptake”, V3.co.uk, 19 August 2014. http://www.v3.co.uk/v3-uk/news/2361036/business-use-of-3d-printing-is-years-ahead-of-consumer-uptake 96 “The 3D Printing Startup Ecosystem”, SlideShare.net, 31 July 2014. http://de.slideshare.net/SpontaneousOrder/3d-printing-startup-ecosystem 97 Alban Leandri, “A Look at Metal 3D Printing and the Medical Implants Industry”, 3DPrint.com, 20 March 2015. http://3dprint.com/52354/3d-print-medical-implants/ 98 “The Need is Real: Data”, US Department of Health and Human Services, organdonor.gov. http://www.organdonor.gov/about/data.html 99 “An image of the future”, The Economist, 19 May 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/18710080 100 Jessica Hedstrom, “The State of 3D Printing”, 23 May 2015. http://jesshedstrom.quora.com/The-State-of-3D-Printing 101 Maurizio Bellemo, “The Third Industrial Revolution: From Bits Back to Atoms”, CrazyMBA.Club, 25 January 2015.

This further reduces the cost of accessing consumer goods and increases the availability of 3D printed objects. Current usage areas for 3D printing (Figure VII) indicate several sectors related to developing and producing consumer products (proof of concept, prototype and production). Figure VII: Use of 3D Printing in Various Areas (% of respondents*) * Percentages are of respondents from the Sculpteo survey. Source: Sculpteo, The State of 3D Printing (survey of 1,000 people), as published in Hedstrom, J., “The State of 3D Printing…”, Quora100 Positive impacts – More personalized products and personal fabrication – Creating niche products, and making money selling them – Fastest growth of 3D printing where each customer has slightly different needs from a product – e.g. a particular shaped foot requires a specially sized shoe – Reduced logistics costs, with the possibility of huge energy savings101 – Contributing to abundant local activities; crafting own goods that benefit from the removal of logistics costs (circular economy) Negative impacts – Global and regional supply and logistics chain: lower demand resulting in job losses – Gun control: opening opportunities for printing objects with high levels of abuse, such as guns – Growth in waste for disposal, and further burden on the environment – Major disruption of production controls, consumer regulations, trade barriers, patents, taxes and other government restrictions; and, the struggle to adapt The shift in action Almost 133,000 3D printers were shipped worldwide in 2014, a 68% increase from 2013.

In agriculture, the use of drones – combined with data analytics – will enable more precise and efficient use of fertilizer and water, for example. 3D printing Also called additive manufacturing, 3D printing consists of creating a physical object by printing layer upon layer from a digital 3D drawing or model. This is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing, which is how things have been made until now, with layers being removed from a piece of material until the desired shape is obtained. By contrast, 3D printing starts with loose material and then builds an object into a three-dimensional shape using a digital template. The technology is being used in a broad range of applications, from large (wind turbines) to small (medical implants). For the moment, it is primarily limited to applications in the automotive, aerospace and medical industries. Unlike mass-produced manufactured goods, 3D-printed products can be easily customized.


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The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In Doctorow’s dystopian society, a powerful authoritarian government makes the 3D printing of physical copies of goods illegal. Doctorow’s protagonist, an early prosumer, is imprisoned for ten years for 3D printing. After serving his prison sentence, the hero realizes that an overthrow of the existing order is best accomplished not by just printing a few products, but rather by printing printers. He proclaims, “I’m going to print more printers. Lots more printers. One for everyone. That’s worth going to jail for. That’s worth anything.”14 Fab Labs are the new high-tech arsenals where DIY hackers are arming themselves with the tools to eclipse the existing economic order. Hackers are just beginning to turn their attention to 3D printing of some of the many components that make up the IoT infrastructure.

If infofacturers are going to print furniture, why not print the building the furniture will be housed in? Engineers, architects, and designers are scrambling to bring 3D-printed buildings to market. While the technology is still in the R&D stage, it is already clear that 3D printing of buildings will reinvent construction in the coming decades. Dr. Behrokh Khoshnevis is a professor of industrial and systems engineering and director of the Center for Rapid Automated Fabrication Technologies at the University of Southern California. With support and financing from the U.S. Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Khoshnevis is experimenting with a 3D printing process called “contour crafting” to print buildings. He has created a form-free composite-fiber concrete that can be extruded and that is strong enough to allow a printed wall to support itself during construction.

A new home could be potentially printed at a cost far below standard construction because of the cheap composite materials being used and the additive infofacturing process, which uses far fewer materials and human labor. He believes that 3D-printed building construction will be the dominant industry standard by 2025 around the world. Khoshnevis is not alone. The MIT research lab is using 3D printing to explore ways to create the frame of a house in one day with virtually no human labor. That same frame would take an entire construction crew a month to put up.21 Janjaap Ruijssenaars, a Dutch architect, is collaborating with Enrico Dini, chairman of Monolite, a U.K.-based 3D printing company. The two Europeans have announced that they will print out six-by-nine-foot frames made of sand and inorganic binder and then fill the frames with fiber-reinforced concrete.


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Soonish: Ten Emerging Technologies That'll Improve And/or Ruin Everything by Kelly Weinersmith, Zach Weinersmith

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, connected car, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, market design, megastructure, microbiome, moral hazard, multiplanetary species, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, personalized medicine, placebo effect, Project Plowshare, QR code, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Skype, stem cell, Tunguska event

Their approach blends the versatility of robotic arms with the power of large-scale 3D printing. And it’s on a truck. As a general method for doing things, 3D printing brings a lot of fringe benefits to construction; 3D printers could make complex structures that would be difficult or expensive to create by traditional means. This could mean cheaper, better-constructed houses, with more beautiful design elements (Gargoyles! Gargoyles for everyone!). For example, at least with some versions of 3D printing, you can vary the porosity of concrete, thus using less material and having structures that are heavy or light depending on need. You can also create shapes, like honeycombs, that are hard to make by traditional means. The ability to finely vary materials this way is something 3D printing does that is either difficult or impossible to do any other way.

Thanks to previous space missions, the surface makeup of the moon and a number of planets is fairly well known. That means, here on Earth, we can try to figure out how a robot might build a house using only moondust. So instead of paying to blast tons of building supplies into space, we can build your cabin out of local materials. Nota Bene on 3D Printed Food As we researched this chapter, we got really into the geeky 3D printing movement. We’ve mostly stuck to the clearly useful stuff, but listen—when life presents you with a 3D printed cornbread octopus, by God you’ve got to tell the world. In their book Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing, Dr. Hod Lipson and Melba Kurman suggest a perfected 3D food printer. Imagine a machine that can print you out a perfect muffin in less time than it’d take to make it from scratch. Better still, suppose you’re on a diet—the machine prints each of your meals, carefully tracking fat, carbs, salt, and overall calories.

And since you’re building up layer by layer, a funky pattern* takes about the same amount of time as a more conventional design. You can also use 3D printing to interlace different materials. If you’ve seen a simple desktop 3D printer, typically they only print in one color of plastic at a time. If you add more nozzles, you can get more colors. Industrial 3D printers don’t just add colors—they add materials. So you can create unique arrangements of metals, plastics, resins, and other inputs, which would be more or less impossible to do either by hand or using traditional manufacturing methods. The other cool thing about 3D printing is you can make unusual structures. For instance, suppose you want to create a ball with a honeycomb structure inside. This is impossible with an injection mold, but is relatively easy with 3D printing. All these qualities make 3D printing a potentially great way to build extremely complex structures, like body parts.


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The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

The idea of retail has changed so much that when it’s physical, it’s not even about what we buy from the store, but the experience provided during the process. Online we can get anything from anywhere at the best price possible. So what happens when the stuff we want can be made on demand at home? It’s hard to believe, but 3D printing will make this an everyday reality. What is fragmenting Retail is no longer just the end of the supply chain; it’s something every business and person can do now. What it means for business If you make, you must sell. The power lies with those who have a direct connection with their buyers or audience. CHAPTER 10 Bigger than the internet: 3D printing I’ve been mildly obsessed with 3D printing since I first learned about it. Also referred to as ‘additive manufacturing’ or ‘digital fabrication’, it’s a process where a three-dimensional, solid object is created by placing down successive layers of material fused together by laser (digital light processing) and a multitude of other methods that are evolving rapidly, almost daily.

Human performances can’t be replaced — yet. Importantly, we need to think of 3D printing beyond widgets, tools and mechanical devices. We need to understand that a multi-material, one-process-to-print-everything is rapidly approaching. It’s quite a human process to lament the missed and seemingly obvious opportunities in hindsight. I sometimes think to myself that I should have continued coding on my 16KB RAM-only TRS-80 home computer in the 1980s and that I should have implemented some of my internet startup ideas in 1995, when I first got on the web (I finally did it 10 years later). The era for 3D printing is now. It’s early days and there’s enough time for any company or entrepreneur to get involved. It’s the burgeoning period of possibility. 3D printing is going to impact every business. Observing its development is not enough; it requires participation.

Fuller’s vision was that ephermalization would result in ever-increasing standards of living for an ever-growing population despite finite resources. His oft-cited example was Henry Ford’s assembly line, which to this day has led to better products at a lower cost, in perpetuity. With 3D printing still largely on the tech-hacker fringes in terms of actual usage, the level of innovation is astounding. This non-exhaustive list provides a perspective of the potential impact of this technology and demonstrates how widely it is being embraced. Cars. Entire car bodies have been printed, both replicas and new models. The Urbee 2 is a vehicle for which more than 50 per cent was 3D printed and it can reach speeds of about one-hundred and ten kilometres per hour. Tools. Tools of every type, shape and mechanical movement have been made, all of which were printed in metals and even carbon composites stronger than most metals.


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Come and Take It: The Gun Printer's Guide to Thinking Free by Cody Wilson

3D printing, 4chan, active measures, Airbnb, airport security, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, assortative mating, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, disintermediation, fiat currency, Google Glasses, gun show loophole, jimmy wales, lifelogging, Mason jar, means of production, Menlo Park, Minecraft, national security letter, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, thinkpad, WikiLeaks, working poor

* * * I consider myself lucky to have been attending the University of Texas at Austin when we began the work that would lead to the 3D printed pistol. The university was at the forefront of developing 3D printing techniques in the 1980s, and in the years since I began the project, I’ve been regularly surprised by its academic and commercial contributions to the technologies I was exploring—not to mention the contributions of the state of Texas as a whole. Over the years I’ve picked through the old papers on the printing innovations, usually with an eye for the personalities of the early authors and industry players. When I read Dr. Paul Jacobs’s work from the early nineties, what stood out to me most was his American optimism. He believed the technology was and would be a great boon to American enterprise. So, 3D printing has been around for a while. But the consumer at large mostly started hearing about it only in the last several years.

But the consumer at large mostly started hearing about it only in the last several years. Why? A New York startup named Makerbot brought to market the first successful line of retail 3D printers in 2011. If the success of our printed pistol was not your introduction to the idea of 3D printing, it was most likely Makerbot in 2012 and 2013 that caught your attention: the company’s rise and disgraceful fall have been almost totally responsible for shaping the public’s perceptions and expectations of 3D printing. And here we are . . . I knew almost none of this when I began the work of Defense Distributed. People have asked me why we printed a gun. Why I set out to print a handgun instead of, say, a heart valve. But our story doesn’t begin with the question put that way. In private conversation, when I try to answer the question why, I like to remind people what was said about our pistol (and by whom) after it was released.

“The bottom line is I like to help people and share my knowledge from my history with 3D printing.” He spoke directly off camera. “I was involved in the early days of 3D Systems when Carl Deckard would roll into the lab in his powder-filled chair playing the harmonica when I was working the third shift and going to college.” He stood surer in the key light. “I’ve seen an evolution of the technology that I fell in love with, and I’m seeing all these new faces. This is a good thing. Even though this idea is not really new, you can see innovation is never stagnant.” We sat together at his workbench while they filmed the laser in the SLA machine. Erin continued to talk him up. “You’re seeing this moment because of the expiration of old patents. 3D Systems had been the first to market with the invention of stereolithography, or literally 3D printing. Like the abuse of laser patents in the early days, 3D practiced the ‘art’ of submarining patents by extending their claims back to the original patent priority date.”


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Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

For example, replacement organs, such as kidneys and livers, could be developed by 2030. 3D Bioprinting As discussed in chapter 2, 3D printers have the potential for some incredible applications in the way we manufacture products, even at home, in the future. However, one specific application of 3D printing that holds huge promise in the field of medicine is bioprinting. Bioprinting in its simplest form is using a 3D printer to “print” an organ, bone or muscle tissue to replace damaged parts of your body. One of the more exciting applications is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. 3D printing has already been used widely in facial reconstruction surgery. Figure 5.11: 3D-printed “bone” is commonly used in facial reconstruction surgery. (Credit: Osteofab) Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and tissue and vasculature construction.

Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. 3D printing has already been used in numerous medical procedures. For example, in 2012, physicians at the University of Michigan successfully utilised 3D printing to construct a synthetic trachea for three-month-old Kaiba Gionfriddo, who suffered from recurrent airway collapses.22 Other successes include printing bone to replace one patient’s jaw and part of the skull in another patient. As a developing industry, 3D printed body parts generated over US$500 million in revenue for companies globally in 2014, and that is expected to double by 2016. In 2006, Wake Forest University’s Dr Anthony Atala was successful in using inkjet printers to “grow” replacement bladders.

In March 2015, the actor Robert Downey Jr, who is well known for his portrayal of Tony Stark in Marvel’s Iron Man and Avengers franchises, gave his support to a Microsoft initiative called the Collective Project. Downey was asked by the group to reprise his role as Tony Stark to present a next-generation 3D-printed robotic arm to seven-year-old Alex Pring, a Central Florida boy who is missing his right arm from just above his elbow. The arm, made by Limbitless Solutions,5 was designed to look like Iron Man’s robotic enhanced suit and cost just US$350 to print. Quite an achievement when a prosthetic might often sell for more than US$40,000. Figure 6.2: This Iron Man-themed prosthetic limb was 3D printed for around US$350. (Credit: Microsoft Collective Project) A 3D-printed bionic hand designed by prosthetics start-up Open Bionics was the recipient of the 2015 UK James Dyson Award for design engineering innovation. What makes the Open Bionics hand stand out is its design, which enables it to be cheaper and faster to produce than many of the prosthetics currently available for amputees.


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Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

There would also be a multitude of free or open source designs—probably for nearly any conceivable product—available for download. The bottom line is that personal 3D printing would come to look much like the Internet: lots of free or inexpensive stuff for consumers, but far fewer opportunities for the vast majority of people to generate a significant income. This is not to say that 3D printing won’t be a transformative technology. The real action is likely to happen at industrial scale. Rather than displacing traditional manufacturing, 3D printing will be integrated with it. In fact, that’s already happening. The technology has made significant inroads in the aerospace industry, where it is often used to create lighter-weight components. General Electric’s aviation division plans to use 3D printing to produce at least 100,000 parts by 2020, resulting in a potential weight reduction of 1,000 pounds for a single aircraft engine.1 To get a sense of how much fuel lopping half a ton off every engine could save, consider that in 2013, American Airlines replaced the paper flight manuals carried in its cockpits with digital versions loaded onto Apple iPads.

The technology will be used where it is most cost-effective: for example, in creating those parts that need to be customized, or perhaps in printing complex components that would otherwise require extensive assembly. Where 3D printing can’t be used to directly fabricate high-volume parts, it will often find a role in rapidly creating the molds and tools required in traditional manufacturing techniques. In other words, 3D printing is likely to end up being another form of factory automation. Manufacturing robots and industrial printers will work in unison—and increasingly without the involvement of workers. Three-dimensional printers can be used with virtually any type of material, and the technology is finding many important uses outside of manufacturing. Perhaps the most exotic application is in printing human organs. San Diego–based Organovo, a company that specializes in bio-printing, has already fabricated experimental human liver and bone tissue by 3D-printing material containing human cells.

Organs suitable for transplant likely remain at least a decade in the future, but if the technology arrives, the implications would be staggering for the roughly 120,000 people awaiting organ transplants in the United States alone.4 Aside from addressing the shortage, 3D printing would also allow organs to be fabricated from a patient’s own stem cells, essentially eliminating the danger of rejection after a transplant. Food printing is another popular application. Hod Lipson suggests in his 2013 book Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing that digital cuisine may turn out to be 3D printing’s “killer app”—in other words, the application that motivates huge numbers of people to go out and buy a home printer.5 Food printers are currently used to produce designer cookies, pastries, and chocolates, but they also have the potential to combine ingredients in unique ways, synthesizing unprecedented tastes and textures.


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Apart from pioneer Stratasys, which patented the most widely used depositional processes, and has never made any bones about the fact that it is a commercial, profit-seeking entity,28 it is interesting how much of the early innovation in 3D printing specifically was generated by groups of people who explicitly situated their work in the informational commons, including the RepRap project itself, MakerBot and the community around it, and the original Ultimaker. Just as RepRap eventually abandoned the project of unlimited self-replication, though, its direct descendants ultimately gave up on openness. Similarly, both MakerBot and Ultimaker reinvented themselves as closed ecosystems, alienating a significant proportion of their community in the process, including some of 3D printing’s earliest and most prominent developers.29 There is excellent reason to believe that this retrenchment will have strongly negative consequences for the future of digital fabrication.

Until the residents of Meridiana perceive a direct connection between the things that a 3D printer or a CNC milling machine can do and the wants they experience in their own lives, a Fablab or anything like it is the worst sort of imposition. And this is true in every similarly situated community on Earth. As evangelical as they often can be, partisans of digital fabrication have done a relatively poor job of communicating what it might offer to anyone beyond those audiences already inclined to be enthused by it; the 3D printed nameplates, lasercut signs and similar tat often produced as proof of what can be done with these techniques certainly don’t help press the case. The 3D-printing kiosk that used to stand in South London’s Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre was an excellent example of this tendency: it stood for months, locked up and gathering dust, surrounded by busy stalls catering to the neighborhood’s Eastern European, Latin American and African immigrant communities, and offered nothing that any of the shoppers streaming past it might conceivably need.

Acquiring this sophistication will help us avoid the blunders well-intentioned thinkers often make, in offering recipes for the transition out of capitalism that are based on technologies they simply don’t understand very well. When Jeremy Rifkin argues, for example, that a “3D printing process embedded in an Internet of Things infrastructure means that virtually anyone in the world can [make] his or her own products for use or sharing, employing open-source software,” we may very well share his hope for the defeat of scarcity and the emergence of a planetary commons. But in proposing 3D printing, the internet of things and open-source software as the engines of this transition, we know he cannot possibly have reckoned with the contestations, the complexities and the outright vulnerability to capture that vex every single term in this equation.


pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

Financial advisers, business magazines, and online investment sites such as the Motley Fool believe 3D printing companies will clean up big-time, because their overhead will be so much lower, and they’ll sell only the clever designs or raw materials. Not right away. Most people will probably still find it more convenient to buy ready-made things. But soon enough, in the next fifteen years, 3D printing will revolutionize life from manufacturing to art, and practical visionaries like Lipson feel certain it will usher in the next great cultural and psychological revolution. For some, that future is the obvious sequel to the digital revolution. For others, it’s as magical as a picture painted on water. “Just like the Industrial Revolution, the assembly line, the advent of the internet and the Social Media phenomenon,” Forbes magazine forecasts, “3D Printing will be a game changer.”

In China’s Forbidden City, researchers use a 3D printer to inexpensively restore damaged buildings and artworks. NASA used 3D printing to build a prototype of a two-man Space Exploration Vehicle (an oversized SUV astronauts can live in while they explore Mars). A USC professor, Behrokh Khoshnevis, has devised a method known as Contour Crafting for printing out an entire house, layer by layer—including the plumbing, wiring, and other infrastructure—in twenty hours. When 3D printers are linked to geological maps, houses can be made to fit their terrain perfectly. Khoshnevis is designing both single houses and colonies for urban planning, or for use after hurricanes, tornadoes, and other natural disasters when fully functional emergency houses will be 3D-printed from the ground up. Boeing is 3D-printing seven hundred parts for its fleet of 747s; it’s already installed twenty thousand such parts on military aircraft.

It’s still a wildly useful method, if sloppy; it creates heaps of waste and leftovers, which means extracting even more raw materials from the earth. Also, mass-produced items, whether clothing or electronics, require a predicament of cheap labor to add the final touches. In contrast, there’s “additive manufacturing,” also known as 3D printing, a new way of making objects in which a special printer, given the digital blueprint for a physical item, can produce it in three dimensions. Solidly, in precise detail, many times, and with minimal overhead. The stuff of Star Trek “replicators” or wish-granting genies. 3D printing doesn’t cut or remove anything. Following an electronic blueprint as if it were a musical score, a nozzle glides back and forth over a platform, depositing one microscopic drop after another in a molten fugue, layer upon layer until the desired object rises like a sphinx from the sands of disbelief.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

Metal sheets are then trimmed and cut by CNC milling machines to form the required shape. The applications in industry are vast as 3D printing lends itself to all sorts of rapid prototyping, architecting, and construction. 3D printing enables not just rapid modeling but one lot sized production of customized objects as only the base software template file needs changed. This is very attractive in manufacturing where previously to change a products design required weeks of work refitting production lines and reconfiguring machines. With 3D printing, lot sizes of one can be entertained profitably and cost effectively. It is important to differentiate between the media-hyped consumer market for 3D printing and the industrial reality. Components created using 3D printing in industry are not models or gimmicks as they are used by NASA, and in the aviation industry in jet engines.

In short, only the boundaries of imagination and innovation of the developers and industry adopters of the technology limit the use-cases for AR when coupled with the Industrial Internet. 3D Printing Additive printing or what is more commonly known as 3D printing is a major technology that enables the financial reality of the IIoT across many industrial use-cases. 3D printing works by creating an image as a computer file of either an existing product or through a CAD design one thin layer at a time. It builds on each subsequent layer until a full copy of the subject or CAD image has been completed. Once that computer file has been generated, it can then be fed to a 3D printer, which can interpret the coordinates to recreate the design using several techniques and substrates to create a physical representation of the subject. Industry 4.0 3D printing enables a product to be created from a source file, which is not much different from how a programmable lathe machine creates a 2D product; however, it is the way that it does it in 3D that is different. 3D printing is therefore perfect for proof of concept, and modeling of theoretical designs as it is cheap and relatively quick.

Components created using 3D printing in industry are not models or gimmicks as they are used by NASA, and in the aviation industry in jet engines. Similarly, they are commonly utilized in cars, with at least one manufacturer making their entire vehicle via 3D printing. 3D printing goes beyond just manipulating polymers, ceramics, paper, and metal—it also can be used in health care. Additive manufacturing is used in prosthetics and medical components such as medical sensors and actuators implanted within the body, such as heart pace-makers for example. However, the latest research is being driven by bio-medical requirements such as creating 3D printed skin, and other body tissue, and perhaps soon even complete organs. The goal here is to reproduce a patient’s failing organs using 3D printing to create a replacement without the requirement of a donor transplant. 61 62 Chapter 3 |TheTechnical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet The way this works is that layers of living cells harvested from the patient are deposited via the 3D printer onto a culture plate to build up each layer of the three-dimensional organic structure.


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Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, longitudinal study, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Davenport, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

Why not repeat this process over and over, thereby gradually building up not just a two-dimensional pattern, but instead a three-dimensional structure? It would take a while, since each layer was so thin, but making things this way would open up a huge range of possibilities. For one thing, complexity would be free, as 3D printing researcher Luana Iorio puts it. In other words, it would cost no more to make an extraordinarily complex part than a very simple one, since both are, at base, simply a bunch of very thin layers. An assembly of interlocking gears, for example, would be as easy to create as a single 3D-printed component. Innovators have also brought the techniques of 3D printing to making metal parts, which are built up by having a laser melt successive thin layers of powdered metal onto the structure below (which is itself made up previous layers). This process gives rise to another highly desirable property: hardness becomes free.

DTM Corporation of Austin, Texas, accomplished this by 3D-printing metal alloy molds that have many small, thin channels running through them in complex paths that could not have been created by conventional means. Hot plastic doesn’t flow through these channels; cold liquids do, in order to quickly cool things down after each new part is formed. As a result, parts can be produced 20%–35% faster and with greater quality. A skeptic might ask at this point whether we want to generate innovations that keep flooding the world with more and more cheap plastic parts, stuffing our landfills and fouling our oceans with them. We see things differently. While we agree that overconsumption and inappropriate disposal of plastics are bad, we think that the advances in 3D printing are profoundly beneficial. Consider the case of the 3D-printed tumor model.

Consider the case of the 3D-printed tumor model. Prior to the advent of 3D printing, surgeons simply had no realistic way to make an accurate representation of the mass of malignant tissue they were going after. They could not have afforded the dollars and time required to create a conventional mold, which makes economic sense only when you know you’re going to make many copies of a part. But what if you want to make only a single model or prototype? Or a part fails and you want a single spare, quickly? Or you want to make a small set of parts, each one a bit different from the others? Conventional fabrication methods have been largely useless in these cases. 3D printing is ideal for them. The most profound benefit of 3D printing is probably that it makes experimentation and customization inexpensive. The path from idea or need to finished, useful part no longer has to include the time-consuming and expensive steps like mold making and other conventional manufacturing practices.


pages: 400 words: 88,647

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

The falling cost of 3D printers and personalisation platforms has made this easier and cheaper. For instance, the entry-level 3D printer from Replicator (“the Apple of 3D printing”) sells for $1,375, but several crowdfunded start-ups such as New Matter and M3D intend to mass-market 3D printers that sell for as little as $149. Autodesk, a leader in computer-aided design software, has launched a consumer-friendly open-source 3D printer and 3D printing software in an effort to democratise manufacturing. Shapeways, a global network of large-scale 3D printing factories, allows people who do not want to print objects at home to upload their designs to a website and have 3D-printed versions delivered. Lastly, consumers can now not only design and build industrial-quality products themselves, but also sell these online. This is possible through online platforms such as Etsy, a leading e-commerce site that specialises in hand-made items and now boasts more than 1 million sellers and $1 billion in sales.

A large number of open-source initiatives and crowdfunded projects are drastically bringing down the cost of 3D printers, making personalised manufacturing more affordable and accessible to more people. For instance, in May 2014, in an effort to make 3D printing accessible “to billions”, Autodesk, a design software provider, released Spark, an open-software platform that aims to make 3D printing simpler and more reliable. The same month, M3D, a start-up, raised a whopping $3.4 million on Kickstarter to produce a $300 super-easy-to-use 3D printer. One particularly impressive product of 3D printers is spare parts for fighter aircraft. In December 2013, BAE Systems, a British multinational defence and aerospace company, tested Tornado jets that had several 3D printed metal components in them. The company is now developing ready-made parts for four squadrons of Tornado GR4 aircraft. BAE Systems engineers believe that some components will now cost less than £100 ($158).

GE is also organising open innovation challenges, hosted on crowdsourcing platform NineSigma, inviting inventive minds worldwide to create affordable and sustainable solutions in its core health-care, energy and aviation businesses. Its Healthymagination programme, for example, is seeking new ways to fight breast cancer. The challenge received 500 proposals from 40 countries, from which 5 winners were each given $100,000 seed money, mentoring and access to GE’s R&D resources. GE also launched the 3D Printing Design Quest to design lighter, next-generation aircraft engine brackets that can be 3D-printed. The winner, Arie Kurniawan, an engineer from Salatiga, Indonesia, beat 699 other entries from 56 countries. Kurniawan’s bracket weighs 84% less than the original, but can withstand loads of 9,5001b or 4,310kg. Amazingly, Kurniawan had no aviation engineering experience, and it took him just a few weeks to create his ingenious solution. Recognising the value of amateurs and tinkerers, GE has teamed up with TechShop to set up GE Garages, mobile units with advanced manufacturing labs fully equipped with 3D printers, CNC mills, laser cutters and injection moulders.


pages: 219 words: 74,775

Liquid: The Delightful and Dangerous Substances That Flow Through Our Lives by Mark Miodownik

3D printing, airport security, clean water, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, mass immigration, megacity, The Design of Experiments

Bees were using 3D printing to build their honeycombs long before humans happened upon the technique. Human 3D printing technology is now catching up with the bees and wasps. Plastics, for instance, can be squirted out of a printer, layer by layer, to create solid objects even more complex than honeycombs. Objects can even be 3D printed with moving parts, a technique being used in medicine to create prosthetics with functioning joints, all made in one piece, at low cost. 3D printing can also be used to print biological materials. In 2018 Chinese scientists conducted the first clinical trials to create replacement ears for children suffering from birth deformities. They did this using the children’s own cell tissue and 3D printers to create the scaffold for the cells to grow into ears. 3D printing works for metals too. The Dutch company MX3D is using 3D printing to make steel bridges, adding molten steel together, blob by blob, relying on techniques borrowed from welding technology.

In our research group at the Institute of Making, we are working on technologies that can help repair asphalt efficiently once the cracks have already got bigger: we’ve started 3D printing tar. The 3D printing process. A print head converts a solid to a liquid (often by heating), and squirts it out in a predetermined pattern in an x–y plane. Once cooled, this creates a single solid layer. Then the printing platform is moved down and another layer in a different pattern is printed. Printing hundreds of layers this way creates a whole object. 3D printing is a relatively new way of making and repairing objects. Thousands of years ago, printing was invented in China as a process of transferring ink on to a page via a wooden printing block. The rest of the world caught on and innovated, giving us a world of books, newspapers and magazines – an information revolution. But all that is 2D printing. 3D printing takes the approach one stage further; instead of printing a thin, two-dimensional layer of liquid ink on to a page, 3D printing allows you to print many two-dimensional layers of liquid on top of one another, each one solidifying before the next is applied, ultimately constructing a 3D object.

But all that is 2D printing. 3D printing takes the approach one stage further; instead of printing a thin, two-dimensional layer of liquid ink on to a page, 3D printing allows you to print many two-dimensional layers of liquid on top of one another, each one solidifying before the next is applied, ultimately constructing a 3D object. Of course, you don’t need to use ink to make a 3D print. You can use any material that can transform from a liquid into a solid. Just look at bees. This is exactly how bees make their extraordinary hexagonal honeycombs. When they are between twelve and twenty days old, worker bees develop a special gland for converting honey into soft wax flakes. They chew up the wax and deposit it layer by layer to make the honeycomb. Wasps use the same trick to make their nests, chewing wood fibres and mixing them with saliva to create paper houses for their larvae. Bees were using 3D printing to build their honeycombs long before humans happened upon the technique.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Replicator_(Star_Trek) 58 Will 3D Printing Change The World?, 2012. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/gcaptain/2012/03/06/will-3d-printing-change-the-world/print/ 59 Objet Connex 3D printers. http://www.ops-uk.com/3d-printers/objet-connex 60 iPhone 4’s Retina Display Explained, Chris Brandrick, 2010. PC World. http://www.pcworld.com/article/198201/iphone_4s_retina_display_explained.html 61 3D printing. http://www.explainingthefuture.com/3dprinting.html 62 A primer on 3D printing, Lisa Harouni, 2001. TEDSalon London Spring 2011. http://www.ted.com/talks/lisa_harouni_a_primer_on_3d_printing.html 63 3D-printed prosthetics offer amputees new lease on life, 2012. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/video/2012/02/27/3d-printed-prosthetics-offer-amputees-ne?videoId=230878689 64 3D printer used to make bone-like material, 2011.

Thingiverse has thousands of free designs that people can download, print, or improve upon,67 and The Pirate Bay recently announced a new section called “Physible”, CAD designs of physical objects, legal or not68. In a few years, most of us will all have a micrometre-precision 3D printer that prints multiple materials and colours in our house. Designs will be dead cheap, or they will cost nothing at all. Today 3D printing is little more than a hobby, but it can soon become a game changer for entire industries. Another advantage of 3D printing is that instead of conforming to sizes and shapes defined by the economies of scale, the object can adapt to you instead, moving from an economy of mass production to an economy of mass personalisation. How many jobs today rely on manufacturing? 7.4 Automated Construction Typically, it can take from 6 weeks to 6 months to build a 2-storey-house in the US or Canada, mostly because dozens of humans do all the work.

http://wsutoday.wsu.edu/pages/publications.asp?Action=Detail&PublicationID=29002&TypeID=1 65 Making a bit of me, a machine that prints organs is coming to market, 2010. The Economist. http://www.economist.com/node/15543683 66 What drives us. Bespoke. http://www.bespokeinnovations.com/content/what-drives-us 67 Thingiverse. http://www.thingiverse.com 68 First Downloaded and 3D Printed Pirate Bay Ship Arrives, 2012. TorrentFreak. http://torrentfreak.com/first-downloaded-and-3d-printed-pirate-bay-ship-arrives-120205/ 69 30-storey building built in 15 days Construction time lapse. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=Hdpf-MQM9vY 70 Time lapse captures 30-story hotel construction that took just 15 days to build, 2012. The Blaze. http://www.theblaze.com/stories/time-lapse-captures-30-story-hotel-construction-that-took-just-15-days-to-build/ 71 Annenberg Foundation Puts Robotic Disaster Rebuilding Technology on Fast Track, 2005.


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Building Habitats on the Moon: Engineering Approaches to Lunar Settlements by Haym Benaroya

3D printing, biofilm, Black Swan, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, carbon-based life, centre right, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, gravity well, inventory management, Johannes Kepler, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, performance metric, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, telepresence, telerobotics, the scientific method, urban planning, X Prize, zero-sum game

When not teaching, broadcasting, writing, or just playing, Livingston is a business consultant working with clients on business, financial and strategic planning. Our Interview Lunar structures have been grouped into three categories: I – habitats brought from Earth, II – habitats with components from Earth, but also components made from lunar resources, and III – habitats primarily made from lunar resources; ISRU , perhaps 3D printed structures. The longer it takes for us to get back to the Moon to stay, the more certain technologies advance, for example 3D printing. Would you keep the above categories, or modify them in some way? I would keep them because in my opinion we are still pretty far out from even starting a lunar structures project. I suggest lots and lots of flexibility as this will change and evolve once a valid project is actually being planned for real, financed, and implemented.

Among the criteria for evaluating lunar base concepts are: Transportation: The mass and volume that has to be transported greatly affects the total cost and time. Second- and third-generation structures will be increasingly based on 3D printing technologies utilizing in-situ resources. Ease of construction: Does the erection process of the structure need a shirt-sleeve environment? Simple modular connections result in less astronaut construction time and astronauts should not be construction workers. The ISS is a lesson. What kind of heavy construction equipment is needed? Heavy construction equipment is unlikely for the Moon, and the use of deployable /self-erecting structures can help to minimize EVA activities. Given that 3D printing technologies were not even on the radar screen several decades ago, it is not beyond reason to expect that in one or two decades – the current timeline for a manned return to the Moon – such technologies will offer completely autonomous, in-situ-created, structural fabrication in conjunction with advances in automation and robotics .

I hope that the record of commercial crew safety improves and that they do not suffer another loss . Lunar structures have been grouped into three categories: I – habitats brought from Earth, II – habitats with components from Earth, but also components made from lunar resources, and III – habitats primarily made from lunar resources, ISRU , perhaps 3D printed structures. The longer it takes for us to get back to the Moon to stay, the more certain technologies advance, for example 3D printing. Would you keep the above categories, or modify them in some way? It is awkward and unfortunate to begin your first question with a passive verb construction , Lunar structures have been grouped …, but who grouped them? You must recall that in the 1997 NASA Habitats and Surface Construction Roadmap – 20 years ago – Kriss Kennedy and I identified three classes of habitat: I.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Virtual worlds Implications: Philip Rosedale notes that Hollywood special effects migrate to the desktop after five years. Avatar is now three years old and will soon be available on the Oculus Rift. Almost perfect VR is around the corner, and will deliver experiential reality and transform retail, travel, and living and working environments. 3D printing Implications: 3D printing (and soon 4D) will not radically change big manufacturing, but it will enable an entirely new class of products that will displace traditional manufacturing. A Kinko’s model of local 3D printing of virtually anything will appear shortly and the technology will have a major impact on warehousing and transportation. U.S. manufacturing will be revitalized as recent offshoring trends reverse. Disruption of payment systems Implications: In 2012, Visa and MasterCard credit card purchases totaled more than $1.5 trillion in the U.S. alone.

First, these three billion people represent a new population of consumers who have never bought anything before. Consequentially, they represent a long tail of tens-of-trillions of dollars of emerging buying power. If they are not your direct customers, fear not; they are likely your customer’s customers. Second, this group—the “rising billion”—is a new entrepreneurial class powered with the latest generation of Internet-delivered technologies—everything from Google and Artificial Intelligence, to 3D printing and synthetic biology. As such, we will see an explosion in the rate of innovation, as millions of new innovators begin to experiment and upload their products and services and launch new businesses. If you think the rate of innovation has been fast in recent years, let me be among the first to tell you: you haven’t seen anything yet. Today the only constant is change, and the rate of change is increasing.

Third, once that doubling pattern starts, it doesn’t stop. We use current computers to design faster computers, which then build faster computers, and so on. Finally, several key technologies today are now information-enabled and following the same trajectory. Those technologies include artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, biotech and bioinformatics, medicine, neuroscience, data science, 3D printing, nanotechnology and even aspects of energy. Never in human history have we seen so many technologies moving at such a pace. And now that we are information-enabling everything around us, the effects of the Kurzweil’s Law of Accelerating Returns are sure to be profound. What’s more, as these technologies intersect (e.g., using deep-learning AI algorithms to analyze cancer trials), the pace of innovation accelerates even further.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Eventually (and not too far away) about 100% of this genre of product will be acquired online. 147 See e.g. teledildonics 148 One could also think of data nouns as bits, the smallest unit of information that can be stored or manipulated on a computer, where eight bits equals a byte. 149 Two examples of 3D printing of pizzas or other food are: http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/06/tech/innovation/foodini-machine-print-food/ and http://www.theverge.com/2014/1/24/5342180/watch-this-3d-printer-make-pizza-fit-for-astronauts 150 Some thoughts on how 3D printing will change the world, see: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gcaptain/2012/03/06/will-3d-printing-change-the-world/ 151 Thomas Birtchnell (2012, 11th of December), « 3D printing: towards a freightless future? », Mobile Lives Forum. Connnexion on 16th of December 2014, URL: http://en.forumviesmobiles.org/video/2012/12/11/3d-printing-towards-freightless-future-510 http://en.forumviesmobiles.org/video/2012/12/11/3d-printing-towards-freightless-future-510 152 Andy Greenberg (2014-05-14) How 3D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year.

Or think of how instead of meeting in person, people transmit moving pictures of themselves in the form of data over digital networks (e.g., Skyping with video calling, or broadcasting live with Meerkat or Periscope). While it is difficult to conceive of things moving over digital networks, the rise of 3D printing means data is being sent and instantly manufactured at physically remote locations. Ordering — and delivering — a pizza over the Internet, might be here sooner than later.149 Producing three dimensional solid objects from a digital file is clearly in its infancy. But three-dimensional (3D) printing is here.150 Alternative 3D printing scenarios are currently playing out that have different implications.151 As 3D printers improve more goods will be manufactured closer to their point of final consumption. Freight shipments will still occur, and the dry weight will be similar, in that the material used in the printing is still shipped as a raw commodity, though the water will be added later, similar to freeze dried camping meals or Coca-Cola from a fountain.

Dematerializing from things into data is perhaps the final stage of shrinkage. Compiling these thoughts into a new framework, in Table 6.1 we offer a Matrix of Accessibility to help redefine these fresh means of access and flows. We populate the box with some examples. We encourage the reader to think of others. Networks Physical Networks Digital Networks Nouns Things [almost all focus has been here] Travel, Goods Delivery 3D printing Data Mail, Books, Newspapers, CDs, DVDs Streaming music or movies 7. Autonomous Autos Set in the Mojave Desert straddling the Nevada/California border — in the middle of nowhere — DARPA153 hosted the first Grand Challenge on vehicle automation in March 2004. With the potential of $1 million going to the winner, the objective was for driverless cars to complete a 150 mile (240 km) route.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

George Dvorsky, ‘Record-Setting Hard Drive Writes Information One Atom at a Time’, Gizmodo, 18 July 2016 <http://gizmodo. com/record-setting-hard-drive-writes-information-one-atoma-1783740015 > (accessed 30 November 2017). 106. Wallach, Dangerous Master, 59; Rick Kelly, ‘The Next Battle for Internet Freedom Could Be Over 3D Printing’, TechCrunch, 26 August 2012 <https://techcrunch.com/2012/08/26/the-nextbattle-for-internet-freedom-could-be-over-3d-printing/> (accessed 30 November 2017). 107. Jaron Lanier, Who Owns the Future? (London: Allen Lane, 2014), 79. 108. Wallach, Dangerous Master, 59. 109. Stuart Dredge, ‘30 Things Being 3D Printed Right Now (and None of them are Guns)’, The Guardian, 29 January 2014 <https://www. theguardian.com/technology/2014/jan/29/3d-printing-limbscars-selfies> (accessed 30 November 2017). 110. Jerome Groopman, ‘Print Thyself ’, New Yorker, 24 November 2014 <https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/11/24/print-­ thyself> (accessed 30 November 2017). 111.

Printing splints for broken OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS Increasingly Integrated Technology 57 limbs is now relatively common,108 and customized replacement tracheae (windpipes) can now be printed in fifteen minutes.109 Surgeons have printed stents, prosthetics, and even bespoke replacement segments of human skull.110 Researchers at Cornell University have printed a human ear.111 Human kidneys, livers, and other organs, as well as blood vessels, are in development.112 A 3D-printed exoskeleton embedded with bionic technology has restored mobility to people unable to walk.113 Outside medicine, 3D printers have been used to make full-sized replica motorbikes,114 bikinis,115 aeroplane parts,116 entire houses,117 synthetic chemical compounds (i.e. drugs),118 and replicas of sixteenthcentury sculptures.119 Food is an area of growth, with 3D-printed chocolate, candy, pizza, ravioli, and chickpea nuggets all ‘on the menu’.120 Eventually, it is predicted, a plethora of materials will be used as ingredients for 3D-printing, including plastics, a­ luminium, ceramic, stainless steel, and advanced alloys. Producing these mater­ ials used to be the work of an entire factory.121 ‘4D’ printing is also in the works—intended to create materials programmed to change shape or properties over time.122 Immersive Humankind, wrote T.

Researchers at Delft University in the Netherlands have created an ‘atomic hard drive’ capable of storing 500 terabits of information in a single square inch. Put another way, it could store the entire contents of the US Library of Congress in a cube measuring 0.1 mm each way.105 Another constitutive technology is 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing. It enables us to print physical things from digital designs. Some think it could herald an era of ‘desktop manufacturing’ in which many people have 3D printers in their home or office and can ‘print’ a wide range of objects.106 Or municipal 3D printers could allow people to print what they need using opensource online digital templates.107 So far, some of the most useful 3D-printed objects have been in medicine. Printing splints for broken OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS Increasingly Integrated Technology 57 limbs is now relatively common,108 and customized replacement tracheae (windpipes) can now be printed in fifteen minutes.109 Surgeons have printed stents, prosthetics, and even bespoke replacement segments of human skull.110 Researchers at Cornell University have printed a human ear.111 Human kidneys, livers, and other organs, as well as blood vessels, are in development.112 A 3D-printed exoskeleton embedded with bionic technology has restored mobility to people unable to walk.113 Outside medicine, 3D printers have been used to make full-sized replica motorbikes,114 bikinis,115 aeroplane parts,116 entire houses,117 synthetic chemical compounds (i.e. drugs),118 and replicas of sixteenthcentury sculptures.119 Food is an area of growth, with 3D-printed chocolate, candy, pizza, ravioli, and chickpea nuggets all ‘on the menu’.120 Eventually, it is predicted, a plethora of materials will be used as ingredients for 3D-printing, including plastics, a­ luminium, ceramic, stainless steel, and advanced alloys.


Free Money for All: A Basic Income Guarantee Solution for the Twenty-First Century by Mark Walker

3D printing, 8-hour work day, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, commoditize, financial independence, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, market clearing, means of production, new economy, obamacare, off grid, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, science of happiness, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, universal basic income, working poor

Wittbrodt et al., “Life-Cycle Economic Analysis of Distributed Manufacturing with Open-Source 3-D Printers,” Mechatronics 23, 6 (2013): 713–726. 28. Ibid. 29. Kira, “Exclusive: WinSun China Builds World’s First 3D Printed Villa and Tallest 3D Printed Apartment Building,” www.3ders.org, January 18, 2015, http://www.3ders.org/articles/20150118-winsun-builds-world-first-3d-printed-villa-and-tallest-3d-printed-building-in-china.html. 30. Megan Gannon, News Gannor, “3D Printer Could Transform Moon Dirt Into Lunar Base,” Space.com, accessed May 18, 2015, http:// www.space.com/18694-moon-dirt-3d-printing-lunar-base.html. NOTES 233 31. “The owl of Minerva takes its flight only when the shades of night are gathering,” Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosophy of Right (London: George Bell and Sons, 1896). 32.

Government Accountability Office. Accessed May 11, 2015. http://www.gao.gov/key_issues/tax_expenditures/ issue_summary. Khosla, Vinod. “Technology Will Replace 80% of What Doctors Do.” CNN, 2102. http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/12/04/technology-doctorskhosla/. Kira. “Exclusive: WinSun China Builds World’s First 3D Printed Villa and Tallest 3D Printed Apartment Building.” www.3ders.org, January 18, 2015. http://www.3ders.org/articles/20150118-winsun-builds-worldfirst-3d-printed-villa-and-tallest-3d-printed-building-in-china.html. Krueger, Alan B., and David A. Schkade. “The Reliability of Subjective WellBeing Measures.” Journal of Public Economics 92, 8 (2008): 1833–45. Krugman, Paul. “Degrees and Dollars.” New York Times, March 6, 2011. http:// www.lib.tku.edu.tw/service/exampdf/dayexam/01day/10143027.pdf.

“The owl of Minerva takes its flight only when the shades of night are gathering,” Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosophy of Right (London: George Bell and Sons, 1896). 32. “USDA Economic Research Service—Detail,” accessed May 18, 2015, http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/chart-gallery/detail. aspx?chartId=40094&ref=collection&embed=True. 33. Drexler, Nanosystems. 34. Andy Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved Into Serious Weapons in Just One Year,” WIRED, May 15, 2014, http://www. wired.com/2014/05/3d-printed-guns/. 9 Concluding Unscientific Postscript 1. For some interesting thoughts on the political feasibility in the UK of a BIG at present, see Donald Hirsch, “Could a ‘Citizen’s Income’ Work?” (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015), http://www.jrf.org. uk/sites/files/jrf/citizens-income-full.pdf. 2. For more on the Alaska permanent fund see, Karl Widerquist and Michael W. Howard, Alaska’s Permanent Fund Dividend: Examining Its Suitability as a Model (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).


pages: 277 words: 72,603

Built: The Hidden Stories Behind Our Structures by Roma Agrawal

3D printing, British Empire, clean water, David Attenborough, Dmitri Mendeleev, Guggenheim Bilbao, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method

I love the fact that, as well as working with traditional materials in a futuristic way – from geometric concrete blocks with irregular perforations to small gorgeously patterned hexagonal clay tiles for use on facades – they are also experimenting with waste materials, including those from the local wine industry. Some of their designs are self-supporting and don’t require any additional structure. It got me to thinking about how 3D printing, along with exciting new combinations of materials, could lead to a future where we print these pieces and then assemble our own homes. And 3D printing is not only being used on a modular scale – in fact, the world’s first 3D-printed footbridge was opened in Madrid in December 2016. At 12m long, it was analysed to find out exactly where the forces were being channelled; material was then deposited only in those sections – meaning minimal material, less waste and a lighter end product. Robots are also being designed to lay bricks and pour concrete on site: manufacturing embraced this trend decades ago, and now its the turn of the construction industry to catch up.

Human ingenuity is boundless; we will always aspire to manufacture more, to live better, to solve the next problem – and then the next. Engineering has created, in the most literal way, the fabric of our lives; it has shaped the spaces in which we live, work and exist. And it’ll shape our future, too. Already, I can see certain trends in engineering – irregular geometry, technology such as robotics and 3D printing, a quest for more sustainability, the merging of different disciplines (such as in biomedical engineering), a mimicking of Nature – that will once again change the way our landscape looks and feels, and the ways in which we inhabit the planet. Even if some of these seem the stuff of science fiction at the moment. Computing capacity has made it possible for us to draw complicated, cambering shapes, such as the flowing surfaces of the Spanish Pavilion at 2010’s World Expo, the undulating Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, and the Heydar Aliyev Center in Azerbaijan, which is as intricately shaped as a conch shell.

But the challenge so far has been that we’re simply not used to working this way. It completely changes the aesthetics of structures: architects and engineers need to catch up, as do the logistics and procurement of construction. But they will, and I bet you that when they do, I won’t be the only one caught stroking concrete in public. Talking about stroking materials: at the University of California, Berkeley, I once got my hands on some 3D printed modules (which ranged in size from my palm to a dinner plate) that could be assembled to make small installations, walls, facades and shelters. The modules were in a range of colours, and when I asked why I was gobsmacked by the answer. The white ones were salt. The black ones, recycled rubber tyres. The brown and the grey ones were more familiar materials – clay and concrete, respectively – but the purple ones were made of grape skins.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

Teenagers delight in “bot-tipping”, but with all the cameras and other sensory equipment protecting the bots, it is a risky pastime. 2. Manufacturing. Many large factories and warehouses are dark: no light is required because no humans work there. People are becoming a rarity in smaller sites too. 3D printing has advanced less quickly than many expected, as it remained more expensive than mass production. But it is common in niche applications, like urgently required motor parts. 3. Agriculture. Farmers are moving heavily into leisure services, as their families and staff are losing their roles to robots. 4. Retail. Online shopping reaches 75% of all retail purchases, with a small but growing number of items being 3D printed domestically or in neighbourhood facilities, often with an element of customisation by the consumer. Human shop assistants are starting to be replaced by robots, except in high-margin sectors where they help create an experience rather than simply facilitating straightforward transactions. 5.

The population of cars has declined dramatically as they are used far more efficiently, and the automotive industry has contracted. Large numbers of dependent businesses (and jobs) are disappearing too, including repair shops and insurance brokers. 2. Manufacturing. Almost all factories and warehouses are dark. 3D printing is beginning to look competitive with some forms of mass production. 3. Agriculture. Robots do most farm work. Some countries have large communally-owned agricultural processing concerns which send out meal ingredients on drones in a service described as Netflix for food. 4. Retail. Most items are now bought online, and around half of all products sold at retail are 3D printed. Retail outlets on High Streets and city centres are mostly experiential rather than transactional, and mostly staffed by AIs and robots. 5. Construction. Robots now carry out most of the work on construction sites. 6.

None of the robots completed all the tasks, and there was a great deal of hesitation and falling over. Many jobs involving manual dexterity or the ability to traverse un-mapped territory are currently hard to automate. But as we will see in the next section, that is changing fast. Tipping points and exponentials New technologies sometimes lurk for years or even decades before they are widely adopted. 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing[cxxxi]) has been around since the early 1980s but is only now coming to general attention. Fax machines, surprisingly, were first patented in 1843, some 33 years before the invention of the telephone.[cxxxii] Sometimes the delay happens because there is at first no obvious application for the inventions or discoveries. Sometimes it is because they are initially too expensive, and engineers have to work on reducing their cost before they can become popular.


pages: 315 words: 89,861

The Simulation Hypothesis by Rizwan Virk

3D printing, Albert Einstein, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, butterfly effect, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, game design, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Minecraft, natural language processing, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Zeno's paradox

Real-world rendering technologies are the focus of this next stage on the road to the simulation point. The two technologies that I would like to present in the next stage, Stage 6, Real-World Rendering, are light-field display and 3D printing, both of which happen without computer screens. Light-field display is a way to render an object in the real world by analyzing how that object affects and reflects light. By simulating how light bounces off an object, it is possible to create a holograph-like projection of the object that appears real in the physical world without a screen and, eventually, without any glasses. 3D printing is a field that has taken off in the last decade. It shows us that in the same way that a rendering engine transforms information into pixels on a computer screen, and a printer converts pixels on the screen to dots on paper, the physical world also can have “rendering engines” that transform information about an object into a physical object consisting of physical pixels.

Science Fiction—How the Simulation Hypothesis Went Mainstream Quantum Physics and the Idea of a “Subjective Reality” Eastern Mysticism and the Western Afterlife Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, and Simulated Consciousness Simulations, Computation, and Chaos The Great Simulation—Our Shared Video Game The Simulation Hypothesis Uses Information to Explain the Unexplainable Part I: How to Build the Matrix: The Computer Science 23 Stages 0 to 3: From Pong to MMORPGs 24 The Road to the Simulation Point The Modern Stages of Video Game Technology Stage 0: Text Adventures and the “Game World” (1970s to mid-1980s) Stage 1: Early Graphical Arcade and Console Games (1970s-1980s) Stage 2: Graphical Adventure/RPG Games (1980s-1990s) Stage 3: 3D Rendered MMORPGs and Virtual Worlds (1990s-Today) Where We Have Arrived on the Road Stages 4 to 8: From Virtual Reality to Mind Interfaces 53 Stage 4: Immersion Using Virtual Reality Stage 5: Photorealistic Augmented and Mixed Reality (AR, MR) Stage 6: Real-World Rendering: Light-Field Display and 3D Printing Stage 7: Mind Interfaces Stage 8: Implanted Memories Stages 9 to 10: Artificial Intelligence and Downloadable Consciousness 81 Stage 9: Artificial Intelligence and NPCs The History and Rise of AI Reaching Stage 9 From HAL to Data—Portrayals of Artificial Consciousness The Ethics of AI and Its Uses Stage 10: Downloadable Consciousness and Digital Immortality Altered Carbon and Downloading Consciousness The Upshot: Consciousness as Information Stage 11: The Simulation Point, Ancestor Simulations and Beyond 106 Stage 11: Reaching the Simulation Point What are Ancestor Simulations?

The main obstacle is not of resolution but one of speed—the speed of the rendering engines and the speed at which real-world objects can be modeled in 3D. As with other graphics before, both of these can be improved via optimization. When they are, our underlying theme in this book that the physical world is comprised of information (the 3D models of the objects) and processing of that information (the rendering of these objects), will be validated. Stage 6: Real-World Rendering: Light-Field Display and 3D Printing Of course, today’s VR relies on VR glasses and AR relies on AR glasses, but once photorealism has been achieved inside these glasses, we move to the next stage: the promise of being able to render these objects in the physical world without glasses. As before, we will need new optimized rendering techniques and new software, but also new ideas about what constitutes a projector and what constitutes a screen.


pages: 197 words: 49,296

The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac

3D printing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, trade route, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

See also Erik Solheim and William Lacy Swing, “Migration and Climate Change Need to Be Tackled Together,” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, September 7, 2018, https://unfccc.int/​news/​migration-and-climate-change-need-to-be-tackled-together. 27. Richard B. Rood, “What Would Happen to the Climate If We Stopped Emitting Greenhouse Gases Today?” The Conversation, December 11, 2014. http://theconversation.com/​what-would-happen-to-the-climate-if-we-stopped-emitting-greenhouse-gases-today-35011. 28. The 3D-printed version is already building houses at speed. See Adele Peters, “This House Can Be 3D-Printed for $4,000,” Fast Company, March 12, 2018, https://www.fastcompany.com/​40538464/​this-house-can-be-3d-printed-for-4000. 4. WHO WE CHOOSE TO BE 1. Joanna Macy and Chris Johnstone, Active Hope: How to Face the Mess We’re in Without Going Crazy (San Francisco: New World Library, 2012), 32. 5. STUBBORN OPTIMISM 1. Kendra Cherry, “Learned Optimism,” Verywell Mind, July 25, 2019, https://www.verywellmind.com/​learned-optimism-4174101. 2.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, “68% of the World Population Projected to Live in Urban Areas by 2050, Says UN,” May 16, 2018, https://www.un.org/​development/​desa/​en/​news/​population/​2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html. 22. David Dudley, “The Guy from Lyft Is Coming for Your Car,” CityLab, September 19, 2016, https://www.citylab.com/​transportation/​2016/​09/​the-guy-from-lyft-is-coming-for-your-car/​500600/. 23. Annie Rosenthal, “How 3D Printing Could Revolutionize the Future of Development,” Medium, May 1, 2018, https://medium.com/​@plus_socialgood/​how-3d-printing-could-revolutionize-the-future-of-development-54a270d6186d; Elizabeth Royte, “What Lies Ahead for 3-D Printing?” Smithsonian, May 2013, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/​science-nature/​what-lies-ahead-for-3-d-printing-37498558/. 24. Marissa Peretz, “The Father of Drones’ Newest Baby Is a Flying Car,” Forbes, July 24, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/​sites/​marissaperetz/​2019/​07/​24/​the-father-of-drones-newest-baby-is-a-flying-car/. 25.

These agreements work well most of the time, but things get thrown off balance occasionally when a country flirts with fascism for an election cycle or two. Technology and business sectors stepped up, too, seizing the opportunity of government contracts to provide large-scale solutions for distributing food and providing shelter for the newly displaced. One company invented a giant robot that could autonomously build a four-person dwelling within days.28 Automation and 3D printing have made it possible to quickly and affordably construct high-quality housing for refugees. The private sector has innovated with water transportation technology and sanitation solutions. Fewer tent cities and housing shortages have led to less cholera. Everyone understands that we are all in this together. A disaster that occurs in one country is likely to occur in another in only a matter of years.


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Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

All this feels like old news when set against the headlines since the turn of the new millennium: 9/11; devastating tsunamis and hurricanes; a global financial crisis that struck dumb the world’s highest-paid brains; a nuclear meltdown in hyper-safe Japan; suicide bombings in the heart of Paris, City of Love; riots over inequality—and happier events like the explosion of mobile and social media, cracking the human genome, the advent of 3D printing, the breaking of long-standing taboos such as gay marriage, the detection of gravitational waves and the discovery of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars. It seems every day we wake up to a new shock. And shock itself is the most compelling evidence that this age is very different, because it’s data that comes from within. Shock is our own personal proof of historic change—a psychic collision of reality and expectations—and it has been the relentless theme of all our lives.

Print gave rise to the novel, the essay and the pamphlet; digitization has given rise to blogs, video channels, mashups, tweets and Pinterest boards, and an endless variety of virtual goods like apps and eBooks. In its first decade the Internet’s usefulness consisted chiefly of disseminating information quickly and cheaply. Now (enabled by the spread of broadband and mobile) it invites users into content collaborations (like Quora for facts, GitHub for software coding or Thingiverse for 3D print designs), curated opinion portals (such as The Huffington Post or Project Syndicate), or science projects like the Open Tree of Life. All these new forms share one common characteristic: they involve a switch from audience to participant—from consumer to producer and distributor of content. Finally, we are building a new layer of group intelligence. We can convene, sense, speak and act as groups with greater ease, power and speed.

Finally, as with the rise of new trade intermediaries in the Renaissance, global flows today are being enabled by a variety of new pay-for-service platforms—in advertising, payment processing, warehousing, data crunching, professional services, capital-raising—that make big business infrastructure available to small firms in small increments, and help many more merchants pile into global markets. These platforms have made viable: global niche markets for everything from bacon-flavored soap to Japanese Zen garden designers; micro-scale transaction models like micro-lending, micro-payments and micro-work; high-frequency trading on Wall Street; and global vacancy searches for job seekers. The arrival of 3D printing means that even manufacturing is becoming a pay-per-use service. Across a growing range of products, the expensive, customized molds and dies needed to form plastics and shape steel can be replaced by cheap digital blueprints. A robot can then assemble the physical version, one layer at a time, when and where it is wanted. Engineers can take advantage of this technology to craft objects too complex for traditional manufacturing, like parts for a SpaceX rocket engine, but so can millions of designers who lack the funds or scale to prototype their ideas in a factory.


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The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

But for mission-critical products like these, there’s also a risk, one that’s put into context by James Regenor, director of the additive manufacturing and innovation unit at precision parts manufacturer Moog, Inc.: “How can the maintenance crew on a U.S. aircraft carrier have absolute confidence that the software file they downloaded to 3D-print a new part for a fighter jet hasn’t been hacked by a foreign adversary?” To tackle this problem, Regenor’s team at Moog has launched a service it calls Veripart, which uses blockchain technology to, among other things, verify the software design and upgrading work performed by different providers of 3D-printed products along a supply chain. It plans to incorporate a host of features that, among other things, will protect intellectual property and make it more flexible and dynamic as an asset. The team at Moog plans to invite all members of its far-flung global supply chain to participate.

For many of the new technologies that innovators are rolling out today, designers are thinking about how blockchain concepts will be part of the general enabling framework: •  Internet of Things solutions will require a decentralized system for machine-to-machine transactions; •  Virtual reality content creation, by which future imaginary worlds will be collaboratively produced by writers and coders, could use a blockchain system for divvying up royalties via smart contracts; •  Artificial intelligence and Big Data systems will need a way to assure that the data they are receiving from multiple, unknown sources has not been corrupted; •  “Industry 4.0” systems for smart manufacturing, 3D printing, and flexible, collaborative supply chains need a decentralized system for tracking each supplier’s work processes and inputs. In short, the blockchains may provide the architecture framework that makes possible the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution that brings “bits and atoms” together and thrives off massive amounts of processed, global information. It makes the aspirational goal of an Internet of “open data” possible.

This would allow all members of a supply-chain community to monitor the activity of each other’s credentialed staff. Chipotle, for example, could see in real time whether a properly credentialed person in a beef facility is carrying out appropriate sterilization and disinfection procedures. This kind of provable, transparent credentialing will be especially important for what’s called additive manufacturing. That technology, the industrial version of 3D printing, is central to the dynamic, on-demand production model of the so-called Industry 4.0 movement, a phrase that describes a manufacturing sector that can respond in rapid time to changing consumer and other demands. 3D printers are already producing parts that are lighter than traditionally built parts, are much stronger in design, and are more readily produced on demand for machines as sophisticated as NASA rockets and Air Force fighters.


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China's Disruptors: How Alibaba, Xiaomi, Tencent, and Other Companies Are Changing the Rules of Business by Edward Tse

3D printing, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, bilateral investment treaty, business process, capital controls, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, experimental economics, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Lyft, money market fund, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, reshoring, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, wealth creators, working-age population

China is making big steps to realize its goal of being the world’s leading developer of 3D printing technology. It already produces machines that can make steel and other heavy metal components up to six meters (nearly 20 feet) in diameter and weighing up to 300 tons for use in nuclear, thermal, hydro-, and other power applications. Perhaps its most impressive development to date is a printer that builds titanium alloy structures, including the landing gear, main force-bearing frames, and windshield frames for a narrow-body airliner being developed by Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China as a rival to similar aircraft from Boeing and Airbus. Printing the main windshield frame of a C919 using 3D printing technology takes 55 days and costs less than $200,000. Traditional techniques would take around two years and cost $2 million.

Headquartered in Beijing, Sinovac Biotech is currently awaiting approval for a vaccine against the EV71 virus that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and is conducting clinical trials for a vaccine that could protect people from one of the most common bacterial causes of pneumonia and meningitis. In manufacturing, China is starting to benefit from advances in digital technology. The last few years have seen much speculation on the possibility of robots and 3D printing leading to a “reshoring” of manufacturing back to developed countries, including the United States. The likelihood, however, is rather the opposite: as Chinese companies refine their ability to introduce new practices and technologies to enhance their manufacturing prowess, they will find themselves in a strong position to claim a greater share of higher-end processes. Robots are widely regarded as a solution to worker shortages and rising wages.

Traditional techniques would take around two years and cost $2 million. Industry groups forecast that by 2016, the country’s 3D printer market will be worth around $1.65 billion, 10 times bigger than in 2012, and large enough to displace the United States as the world’s largest user of 3D printing technology. While most developments continue to take place within state-owned companies, private companies are also making strides in this arena. In June 2014, a Qingdao-based company unveiled a printer able to produce objects measuring up to 12 meters (about 40 feet) high, wide, and deep—large enough to fabricate a house. Using glass fiber–reinforced plastics, the printer can produce entire buildings in one run, giving it a role in areas such as post-earthquake reconstruction. PRIVATE BACKING As China becomes richer and develops more products of its own instead of adapting those from other places, more financial support for innovation will accompany its growth.


Innovation and Its Enemies by Calestous Juma

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deskilling, disruptive innovation, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, global value chain, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, smart grid, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick

With the held evidence, regulators “can use experimental rules, regulatory sunsets, or rulemaking deadlines to calibrate their approach to novel technologies or business practices.”60 The point is to provide a framework for informed decisionmaking and rule-making. Equally important is the role of science and technology advice in ensuring that the law can adequately reflect the characteristics of emerging technologies. An example of the tensions is the rise of additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, which is advancing faster than the law can catch up.61 One of the main legal challenges is the potential convergence of digital information and physical objects.62 Proposals to reduce technological tensions could include exempting digital information used in 3D printing from copyright infringement.63 What may appear on the surface as being intellectual property concerns may in fact reflect deeper tensions between technological innovation and incumbency. Inclusive innovation is not just about symbolic efforts to foster wider societal participation.

Sunstein, “Empirically Informed Regulation,” University of Chicago Law Review 78, no. 4 (2011): 1350. 60. Nathan Cortez, “Regulating Disruptive Innovations,” Berkeley Technology Law Review 29, no. 1 (2014: 277. 61. Anne Lewis, “The Legality of 3D Printing: How Technology Is Moving Faster Than the Law,” Tulane Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property 17 (2014): 303–318. 62. Lucas S. Osborn, “Regulating Three-Dimensional Printing: The Converging Worlds of Bits and Atoms,” San Diego Law Review 51, no. 2 (2014): 553–621. 63. Deven R. Desai and Gerard N. Magliocca, “Patents, Meet Napster: 3D Printing and the Digitization of Things,” Georgetown Law Journal 102, no. 6 (2014): 1691–1720. 64. Jeffrey P. Baker, “The Incubator and the Medical Discovery of the Premature Infant,” Journal of Perinatology 5 (2000): 321–328. 65.

Leaders who think technological matters should be handled by experts may not be fully cognizant of the extent to which innovation is interwoven with politics. This is true at all levels of economic development. Emerging economies have to make complex decisions related to the impact of infrastructure projects in the same way that advanced countries grapple with social concerns in new fields such as nanotechnology, robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles, synthetic biology, artificial intelligence, and additive manufacturing (3D printing).8 Much of the public debate is intended to influence government policy on science, technology, and engineering. In this regard, the capacity of governments to assess the available information and use it for decisionmaking is an essential element of the debate. Political leadership on innovation and the existence of requisite institutions of science and technology advice are an essential aspect of economic governance.


Robot Futures by Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Burning Man, commoditize, computer vision, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, phenotype, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, stealth mode startup, strong AI, telepresence, telepresence robot, Therac-25, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

In this possible robot future, the robotics revolution can affirm the most nonrobotic quality of our world: our humanity. 120 Chapter 6 now I see where this revolution is leading To the withering of the individual man and a slow merging into uniformity to the death of choice to self denial to deadly weakness in a state which has no contact with individuals but which is impregnable So I turn away I am one of those who has to be defeated and from this defeat I want to seize all I can get with my own strength I step out of my place and watch what happens without joining in observing noting down my observations and all around me stillness And when I vanish I want all trace of my existence to be wiped out —Peter Weiss, The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade, 49–50 Glossary 3D printing A rapid prototyping process by which material is added in layers, often using plastics that are heated and melted on, to create a three-dimensional model. In robotics, 3D printing can even be used to create structural elements that are bolted or glued together to create robot parts such as a chassis or manipulator fingers. Adjustable autonomy An architectural consideration for robot control that embodies the notion that robots should be able to act on their own (autonomously) whenever possible, but that humans should be able to take gradual control of the robot along a sliding scale, from providing strategic oversight to manually and directly controlling the robot’s joints.

These pioneers study the boundaries of weight and mechanics to create machines that are so energy efficient that, when they do need to walk uphill, they will use just a fraction of the energy of conventional walking robots (McGeer 1990; Omer et al. 2009). Doing research in robot structure used to be especially challenging because realizing new designs meant outfitting a research lab with high-end machining and fabrication equipment, including lathes, milling machines, and welding equipment. But over the past five years there has been a small revolution in lowcost, rapid prototyping thanks to 3D printing and laser cutting technologies. 3D printers can deposit hot plastic, one layer at a time, to create any three-dimensional form. Laser cutters can cut plastic, wood, and even metal into intricate patterns that can be assembled into a new robot frame. Every robot lab now has the ability to invent a new shape and have it prototyped and ready for testing in a matter of hours or days, at prices so affordable that they can make tens and even hundreds of experimental robot bodies in a matter of weeks.

Salt Lake City, UT. 130 References A Swarm of Nano Quadrotors. 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=YQIMGV5vtd4 (accessed January 31, 2012). Turkle, Sherry. 2011. Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books. Walker, Matt. 2009. “Ant Mega-Colony Takes over World.” BBC Earth News. July 1. Wilber, B. M. 1972. “A Shakey Primer.” Technical Report. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA. November. Index 3D Printing, 28, 30, 121 Abuse, 57–60, 117 Academia, 112, 113, 118, Accelerometers, xv, 36, 95, Accountability, 100–103, 107, 110, 117 Action, xvi, xviii, 60, 100, 103, 110, 111, 121 Adjustable autonomy, 45, 46, 77, 80, 102, 103, 121 Advertising, 4, 13, 14, Agency, 60, 61, 81, 121 Air quality, 74, 113–115 Analytics, 5–9, 12, 13, 121 Android, xiv, 29, 40, 55 Artificial Intelligence, xv, xxi, 79, 81, 98, 105, 118, 121 Attention dilution disorder, 65, 82 Batteries, 19, 28, 30, 33–35, 111 Big data, 6, 122 Blade Runner, 55, 56 Blue, xi, 10 Browser, 5, 7 BumBot, 24, 25, 110 Carnegie Mellon University, x, xviii, 113 Chips, 57, 58 Cognition, xvi, xvii, 11, 41, 122 Colonies, 40, 42, 97–99 Common ground, xix, 126 Community, 38–40, 43, 112–116 Computer vision, 11–14, 21, 23, 30, 39, 102, 103, 122 CREATE Lab, x, 113 Data mining, 6, 8–13, 16, 17, 81, 122 Dehumanization, 60, 63, 107 Dick, Philip K., 55 Digital walls, 14 Disempowerment, 110 Do-it-yourself (DIY), 25–27 Driverless vehicle, 49–51, 59, 60, Drone, 76, 102, 103 132 Electric motor.


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Sprint: How to Solve Big Problems and Test New Ideas in Just Five Days by Jake Knapp, John Zeratsky, Braden Kowitz

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Anne Wojcicki, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Wall-E

“An industrial pump sounds too complicated to prototype and test in a week.” But the team wouldn’t give up so easily. If limited to just five days, they could prototype a brochure for the pump’s new features and try it in sales visits. That kind of test could answer questions about marketability. But what about the pump itself? The engineers had ideas for that, too. To test ease-of-use, they could 3D print new nozzles and attach them to existing pumps. To test installation, they could bring cables and hoses to nearby manufacturing plants and get reactions from assembly line workers. These tests wouldn’t be perfect. But they would answer big questions, before the pump even existed. Jake was wrong. The industrial pump wasn’t too complicated for a sprint. The team of engineers accepted the five-day constraint and used their domain expertise to think creatively.

to string the screens together and load them in a web browser or on a mobile phone. But it’s not all software. You read on page 176 about Foundation Medicine, a cancer diagnostics company whose product is a paper medical report. We designed their report in Keynote, then printed it out and showed it to oncologists. (Again, this kind of paper prototype actually makes sense.) For physical products, Keynote will be less useful. You may need to use 3D printing or make modifications to your existing product. But then again, many hardware devices have a software interface. Recall the story of Savioke, where part of our prototype involved attaching an iPad to their robot. And what, you may ask, was on that iPad? Keynote. The hits continue. Plus, for many physical-product sprints, you may not need to prototype the product at all. One of our favorite shortcuts is the Brochure Façade: Instead of prototyping the device, prototype the website, video, brochure, or slide deck that will be used to sell the device.

• If it’s on paper (report, brochure, flyer, etc.)—use Keynote, PowerPoint, or word processing software like Microsoft Word. • If it’s a service (customer support, client service, medical care, etc.)—write a script and use your sprint team as actors. • If it’s a physical space (store, office lobby, etc.)—modify an existing space. • If it’s an object (physical product, machinery, etc.)—modify an existing object, 3D print a prototype, or prototype the marketing using Keynote or PowerPoint and photos or renderings of the object. Building a prototype in one day sounds daunting, but when you put together a diverse sprint team you’ll have all the right expertise in the room. Chances are, a few people in your sprint will do most of the work, but we’ve found time and again that there’s a role for everyone. Once you’ve selected your tools, it’ll be time to assign some jobs.


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The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Online, It Might Cost You,” New York Times, September 22, 2013. 55 Charles Arthur, “How Low-Paid Workers at ‘Click Farms’ Create Appearance of Online Popularity,” Guardian, August 2, 2014. 56 Tim Wu, “Little Lies the Internet Told Me,” New Yorker, April 17, 2014. 57 Pippa Stephens, “Trust Your Doctor, Not Wikipedia, Say Scientists,” BBC Health News, May 27, 2014. 58 Tom Simonite, “The Decline of Wikipedia,” MIT Technology Review, October 22, 2013. 59 Ibid. 60 Anne Perkins, “Whose Truth Is Wikipedia Guarding?,” Guardian, August 7, 2014. 61 James R. Hagerty and Kate Linebaugh, “Next 3-D Frontier: Printed Plane Parts,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2012. 62 Stuart Dredge, “30 Things Being 3D Printed Right Now (and None of Them Are Guns),” Guardian, January 29, 2014. 63 Chris Anderson, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution (New York: Crown, 2012), p. 12. 64 Eliza Brooke, “Why 3D Printing Will Work in Fashion,” TechCrunch, July 20, 2013. 65 Alice Fisher, “3D-Printed Fashion: Off the Printer, Rather Than Off the Peg,” Guardian, October 12, 2013. 66 Rebecca Hiscott, “Will 3D Printing Upend Fashion Like Napster Crippled the Music Industry?,” Mashable, March 3, 2014. 67 Katrina Dodd, “Monetize Me: Selfies, Social and Selling,” Contagious, May 19, 2014. 68 Alex Hudson, “Is Digital Piracy Possible on Any Object?

And over the next quarter of a century, as the Maker 3.0 revolution of 3-D printing begins to popularize the manufacturing of personalized clothing, these stores may—like Oxford Street’s 60,000-square-foot HMV music emporium—become redundant. The Silicon Valley hype machine is beginning to identify the world’s fashion industry as the source of the next great disruption. “Why 3D printing will work in fashion,” one TechCrunch writer glibly reveals.64 “3D-printed fashion: off the printer, rather than off the peg,” is how the Guardian’s Alice Fisher describes the so-called democratization of fashion in which we can all design our own personalized clothing. “It could revolutionize garment sizing and product development in mass production,” Fisher promises. “It could also allow startup labels to produce small orders to avoid unsold stock, and allow easy customization.”65 But weren’t we promised this same customized, personalized, democratized cornucopia in the nineties about the music industry?


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Infinite Detail by Tim Maughan

3D printing, augmented reality, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, friendly fire, global supply chain, Internet of things, Mason jar, off grid, Panamax, post-Panamax, ransomware, RFID, security theater, self-driving car, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning

“Buying it would be hard and expensive, and probably more illegal than using it, as I believe it’s classified as a weapons system at present. It’s not unfeasible, though, that they may have built it themselves. It’s certainly possible to do so, with a mix of off-the-shelf and 3D-printed components. The know-how is available online if you know where to look.” Certainly a do-it-yourself attitude seems prevalent amongst the community in the Croft. “It’s really the essence of what we’re trying to do here,” Manaan tells me as he shows me around the neighbourhood, pointing out the several boutique 3D print and bespoke component shops. “We’re all about finding alternatives to top-down approaches to technology, so it’s unsurprising that we’ve attracted people that want to start businesses and workshops along these lines. People also come here because they know they’re not being watched—people who perhaps want to tinker with existing technologies without large companies or lawyers breathing down their necks.

“No prints, that’s the thing.” They took his passport, too. “Sorry?” “No prints, see?” The guy waves his right hand at him, wiggles his fingers. Rush recognizes the words, but right now they make no sense. How long has it been? “I—” “No fingerprints.” The guy is unbuttoning the sleeve of his shirt, and gently but purposefully pulling it up, an act often and proudly repeated, it’s clear. Plastic is revealed, 3D-printed prosthetic pink, a municipal flesh tone that sits far more comfortably with the official beige than the present color of this guy’s real skin. The guy flexes his arm and plastic carapaces shift against one another. The faint sound of motors whirring now that Rush knows to listen for them. “Lost it in Nigeria, back in ’17.” The guy’s southern drawl is instantly more pronounced. “Was contracting for a Chinese mining company.

The few remaining yellow cabs, artifacts from a dying age, honk in support, their human drivers reaching out of wound-down windows to high-five protestors as they pass. At Rush’s insistence both he and Scott have got their scarves and hoods up to try to mask their faces from the police drones that float constantly above their heads. Most of the rest of the marchers have done the same: if not hoodies or scarves then actual masks—3D-printed re-creations of too many other black men and women slain by the police, to keep their memories alive as much as to hide identities, as if vengeful ghosts have been summoned to march with them. Pretty much everyone is wearing spex, too, which gives Rush some pause. When he jumps into the #blacklivesmatter hashtag channel he can see why they are: virtual protest signs appear floating above heads, demands and slogans, calls to action, tweets from supporters across the globe, and video streams from simultaneous marches in Atlanta, D.C., L.A.


pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

It is telling that semiconductor fabrication facilities are huge, housing arrays of machines that can cost billions of dollars, while molecular fabrication today—with full atomic precision, beyond the reach of even high-resolution photolithography—is often done by university students using tools like pipettes and glass beakers. A Special Manufacturing Method: 3D Printing Another emerging method for manufacturing also breaks the pattern of making and then assembling parts: 3D printing, sometimes known as additive manufacturing. 3D printing differs from the traditional ways of shaping materials. Some traditional methods make a shape all at once using a costly, specialized tool, like a mold to shape plastic, a die to stamp steel, or an optical mask in semiconductor lithography. Other traditional methods carve shapes by removing small bits of material using general-purpose equipment like lathes, drills, and milling machines. 3D printing, by contrast, makes shapes by adding small bits of material using general-purpose machines guided by digital data files. 3D printing can make shapes beyond the reach of casting or carving.

Other traditional methods carve shapes by removing small bits of material using general-purpose equipment like lathes, drills, and milling machines. 3D printing, by contrast, makes shapes by adding small bits of material using general-purpose machines guided by digital data files. 3D printing can make shapes beyond the reach of casting or carving. Today, the most common 3D printers produce structures by moving a nozzle as it lays down patterns of melted plastic in much the same way that ink-jet printers make 2D images by moving a print head as it lays down patterns of ink. 3D printing technologies can do more than this, however, and are advancing rapidly, with falling costs and an expanding range of materials and products. Although costs remain high by mass-production standards, 3D printers offer matchless flexibility for making unique or intricate objects. At the high-cost end of the market, some machines make metal objects with unprecedented freedom of form, for example, customized titanium jaw implants for reconstructive surgery. Meanwhile, in industry, aerospace companies see potential applications for engine components with optimized forms and organically sculpted titanium manifolds.

Consumers can choose, not just from what is in stock, but from a potentially unlimited library. Because of design costs and licensing fees (copyrights, patents), digital products are sometimes expensive to buy, and for the same reasons, per-unit purchase costs for APM products could likewise be much more than their cost of production. Nonetheless, artists, photographers, and software developers sometimes release products for free, and this trend continues in the emerging 3D printing community. The open-source model can apply equally well to APM. PERFORMANCE, COSTS, AND PRESSURES FOR CHANGE This chapter marks a threshold in a journey of ideas that leads from physical principles to prospects with human consequences on a global scale. The path has led from the concept of a timeless landscape of technological potential, through physics, engineering, and the methodology of exploratory engineering, to a partial view of the realm of atomically precise manufacturing and its potential products.


Bit Rot by Douglas Coupland

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, bitcoin, Burning Man, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, index card, jimmy wales, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, McJob, Menlo Park, nuclear paranoia, Pepto Bismol, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Ted Kaczynski, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, young professional

Drones deliberately transmit STDs. Drones are abortionists. Drones are rape. Drones are the embodiment of sexual damage. In Hall 6, people continued to 3D-print stuff, but not the stuff they make on their own—the things they’d never dare print out in public. Sex toys are massive download categories in the 3D-printing universe, as are weapons. This is mirrored in the world of Internet searches, where quests for porn and violence in all their forms are both copious and relentless. There, at the end of the hall, flew the drones. One of them, I was told, was a 3D-printed drone, which feels not just ironic but somehow inevitable. Was my red drone a 3D-printed drone? Does it matter? When I think of aliens, I think of the alien from M.N. Shyamalan’s Signs (2002), standing in Mel Gibson’s living room, missing a finger, dripping acid, and bent on revenge.

Creep On May 2, 2015, I was visiting Hall 6 of Paris’s annual trade fair, the Foire de Paris, the site of a Maker Faire. Half of the sports arena–sized space was filled with exhibitors mostly displaying 3D printing devices and the services that support them: printing filament, software and electronic add-ons. Booths tended to be staffed by twentysomethings radiating the cockiness that comes from knowing one is riding the winning historical wave. The hall’s visitors were also on the young side: young parents with palpably creative children, as well as (almost entirely) young men who can only be cheerfully described as nerds. And, as one might expect, everyone was making stuff: 3D-printed dodecahedrons, skulls, anime figurines, bionic arms, gears, doodads, frogs, vaping devices, cats, vases and…well, anything, really. A favoured goal of members of the maker movement is to make something that could never have existed, even five years ago: interlocked polyhedrons; hard copies of algebraic equations; animal forms rendered with slick mathematical skins.

Coffinshark picked himself up off the flattened corn, looked down at his torso, at his arms and legs, and saw that what little cartoonification had occurred to him had vanished—and he missed it already. “Screw this,” he said to himself. He took all the money he made from saving the world and flew to Beverly Hills, where he had large amounts of cosmetic surgery—after which he leveraged his new looks to become a successful TV newscaster. The 2½th Dimension The plastic busts that illustrate this essay were 3D printed with plastic filament. There’s that rare moment we all know when we walk down a street and catch a glimpse of someone reflected in a window and we say to ourselves, “Why, what an attractive and likeable human being that person is! Dang, I wish I could look like that!”…only to realize we were looking at our own reflection…at which point we say to ourselves, “Maybe I shouldn’t be so hard on my self-image as I tend to be.”


pages: 244 words: 69,183

Squid Empire: The Rise and Fall of the Cephalopods by Danna Staaf

3D printing, colonial rule, Kickstarter, nuclear winter, Skype, wikimedia commons

“Cephalopods constitute a small-enough class of mollusks that an effort to digitally scan one representative from each genus or species would constitute a realistic goal,” writes Xavier.7 Imagine a digital cephalopod library that you could browse on your computer or virtual reality headset. You could pace the length of a giant squid, cup a blue-ringed octopus in your hand with no fear. And once there are 3D scans, there can be 3D prints. You could select any cephalopod species to print in your own lab or home to peruse at your leisure—rocketing the dusty old science of taxonomy into the twenty-first century. Thus, the study of modern living cephalopods meets the study of dead fossilized ones, as computed tomography, 3D printing, and scanning become practical tools for daily research. In one lab, we can imagine Xavier scanning and printing octopuses; in another, Ritterbush scans and prints ammonoid shells. Both avenues open our eyes to the wonder and majesty of the natural world, present and past.

For example, one of the most important parameters in calculating the force of a jet, and therefore an ammonoid’s swimming speed, is the volume inside the living chamber. That’s incredibly difficult to estimate for ammonoids with complex sutures (which is to say, most ammonoids). But 3D scans mean we don’t have to estimate. We can measure. Such scans become even more powerful in conjunction with the rapidly advancing field of 3D printing. Ritterbush is in the midst of creating a laboratory setup that would allow her to pick any fossil, scan it, and print it. Just as premium golf balls are constantly tested for speed and spin, Ritterbush’s goal is to plop ammonoids of every shape into a water tank for testing. Her succinct description of the project is “to look at the shell as just a pain in the ass.” There’s no getting around the fact that a shell is fantastically annoying to an animal trying to travel through the water, and with her model setup, she hopes to illuminate all the ways evolution might have dealt with that challenge.

As small as these structures are, it’s possible to trace their evolution through rock because their hard material fossilizes rather well.6 Squid hooks and sucker rings are made of the same tough material that coleoids use for their beaks: chitin. (Scientists and engineers have found an astonishing array of uses for squid chitin in recent years, from prosthetics for amputees to biothermoplastic for 3D printing.) No suckers, rings, or hooks have been found on any fossil ammonoids or nautiloids, so these appendage accessories are considered one of the many exclusive coleoid inventions.7 The ink sac is another, of course, and so is the breathtaking ability to change skin color, pattern, and texture. Modern nautiluses do not change their skin, and indeed the trick seems far less useful for an animal that keeps most of its body inside a shell.


pages: 321 words: 89,109

The New Gold Rush: The Riches of Space Beckon! by Joseph N. Pelton

3D printing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, Carrington event, Colonization of Mars, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, global pandemic, Google Earth, gravity well, Iridium satellite, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, life extension, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, megastructure, new economy, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-industrial society, private space industry, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, Tim Cook: Apple, Tunguska event, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, X Prize

One such exploratory project is with the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) , This PISCES-NASA project involves 3D printing on a construction scale using basalt. Here on Earth, 3-D printers in prototype form are already building houses using recycled materials. Launching construction materials for a space colony via a rocket is much too costly. Basalt rocks, which are abundant on Earth and on many celestial bodies including the Moon and Mars, could be the key to building infrastructure in space using robots. Because Hawaii’s basalt is quite similar to the regolith found on Mars and the Moon, it could be used to 3D print shelters, landing pads, and tools that could be used on other planets. If we could employ the building materials available on Mars or the Moon then construction costs become much cheaper.

Fig. 5.3Artist’s conception of a solar power system fabricated from materials mined from an asteroid (Image courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Space-based_​solar_​power#/​media/​File:​Solar_​power_​satellite_​from_​an_​asteroid.​jpg.) This analysis, which was admittedly undertaken as part of the rationale in support of space mining ventures, argues that if space mining and space-based fabrication using 3D printing technology are all taken amazing results can be achieved—perhaps by or even before 2050. In these scenarios the future of space transportation, space-based energy generation, and space-based manufacturing and fabrications are not really separate ventures, but integrated and symbiotic activities that become a win-win-win type enterprise. The one failing that you cannot attribute to the space visionaries of our times would be that of thinking too small.

Due to the exciting potential of such technology, Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) is one of four partners chosen by NASA to work on a project involving robotic-enabled construction. Hawaiian lawmakers—through Hawaii Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 83—have backed this initiative with local funding support. Under the proposed plans, PISCES and NASA would work together to 3D print a landing pad, a curved wall and a dome-shaped structure in Hawaii using basalt. The first phase of the project began in October 2014 and is expected to continue through 2017 [8]. Although this may sound exotic there are already large scale 3D printers large enough to “print out” an entire house in a single day. Figure 8.3 below shows a scale model of a 3D printer designed by Prof. Behrokh Khoshnevis of CRAFT , which is a research center at the University of Southern California (USC) [9].


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

There are fledgling experiments with printers that realize physical products including working electronic components. A chip is just a pattern deposited by something like a printing process to begin with. So is a flat display. In theory, it ought to be possible, in the not-so-distant future, to print out a working phone or tablet. It is still unknown how good 3D printing will become, or how soon. The little gotchas and annoyances of technology are not predictable and can add decades of uncertainty to the timing of technological change. But it seems likely that 3D printing can close the various loops and become a fairly complete technology in this century. But notice that once a 3D printer can be deployed in a factory, it might just as well be placed close to where the product will be used. Being able to make things on the spot could remove a huge part of humanity’s carbon footprint: the transportation of goods.

Detail work (like fitting touchscreens into the frame of a tablet) is still mostly done by hand, but that might change soon. At first manufacturing robots will be expensive, and there will be plenty of well-paying jobs created to operate them, but eventually they will become cheap and the data to operate them might then be crowdsourced, sending manufacturing down the same road traveled by the recorded music industry. A current academic and hobbyist craze is known as “3D printing.” A 3D printer looks a little like a microwave oven. Through the glass door, you can watch roaming robotic nozzles deposit various materials under software control in an incremental way to form a product as if by magic. You download a design from the ’net, as if you were downloading a movie file, send it to your 3D printer, and come back after a while. There, before you, is a physical object, downloaded from afar.

Instead of melting it down, little nozzles with specialized solvents and cutting tools will separate each striation that originated from a different antecedent goop. The process will not be perfect, since the laws of thermodynamics cannot be revoked, but it will be hugely more efficient than what we do today. Between the obsolescence of shipping and an extreme increase in recycling precision, 3D printing could create a massive explosion of convenience and fun, and at the same time vastly reduce humanity’s carbon footprint and reliance on nonrenewable resources. All this modulo the gotchas we don’t know about yet, of course. But supposing that some portions of the benefits appear, it certainly would be foolish to oppose this stream of progress. How could a liberal not like the reduced carbon footprint?


The Matter of the Heart: A History of the Heart in Eleven Operations by Thomas Morris

3D printing, Albert Einstein, Charles Lindbergh, experimental subject, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, placebo effect, popular electronics, randomized controlled trial, stem cell

This scaffold could then be seeded with living cells and incubated in the normal way.74 Pushing the technology further, Adam Feinberg, a materials scientist at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, recently succeeded in fabricating the first anatomically accurate 3D-printed heart. He used the heart of a chick embryo, chosen because its complex internal anatomy made it particularly difficult to replicate. The tiny organ, just 2.5 millimetres in diameter, was mapped microscopically to provide a template for the printer, which was set up so that it produced a replica ten times life size. This facsimile was made of hydrogel and contained no tissue, but it did show a remarkable fidelity to the original organ.75 Since then, Feinberg has used natural proteins such as fibrin and collagen to 3D-print hearts; his group is now aiming to include living cardiac cells in the hydrogels extruded by the device so that it is able to print living tissue and so construct a viable organ.76 For many researchers in this field a fully tissue-engineered heart is the ultimate prize, but even those involved acknowledge that their goal is a long way off.

The original heart came from a pig, and after it had been decellularised it was populated with human vascular cells and cardiac cells harvested from a newborn rat.fn6 After ten days the walls of the organ had become lined with new myocardium which even showed signs of electrical activity.73 As a proof of concept the experiment was a success, though after three weeks of culture the organ could neither contract nor pump blood. Growing tissues and organs in a bioreactor is a laborious business, but recent improvements in 3D printing offer the tantalising possibility of manufacturing a new heart rapidly and to order. 3D printers work by breaking down a three-dimensional object into a series of thin two-dimensional ‘slices’, which are laid down one on top of another. The technology has already been employed to manufacture complex engineering components out of metal or plastic, but it is now being used to generate tissues in the laboratory.

When I asked one whether he could see it being a realistic alternative to transplantation, he laughed before suggesting that it would take another forty years to perfect. We are, therefore, left with several competing visions of the future. Within a few decades it is possible that we will be breeding transgenic pigs in vast sterile farms and harvesting their hearts to implant in sick patients. Or that new organs will be 3D-printed to order in factories, before being dispatched in drones to wherever they are needed. Or maybe an unexpected breakthrough in energy technology will make it possible to develop a fully implantable, permanent mechanical heart. More mundanely, it’s also conceivable that advances in drug therapy and preventative care will render such dramatic interventions largely unnecessary. A few retired medics can still recall wards full of patients suffering from polio, tuberculosis or scarlet fever; perhaps heart disease will go the same way as these illnesses, which have now virtually disappeared in the West.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

At the San Francisco headquarters of Autodesk, a leading design software company, we handled a working adjustable wrench that was printed as a single part, no assembly required.40 This wrench was a demonstration product made out of plastic, but 3D printing has expanded into metals as well. Autodesk CEO Carl Bass is part of the large and growing community of additive manufacturing hobbyists and tinkerers. During our tour of his company’s gallery, a showcase of all the products and projects enabled by Autodesk software, he showed us a beautiful metal bowl he designed on a computer and had printed out. The bowl had an elaborate lattice pattern on its sides. Bass said that he’d asked friends of his who were experienced in working with metal—sculptors, ironworkers, welders, and so on—how the bowl was made. None of them could figure out how the lattice was produced. The answer was that a laser had built up each layer by fusing powdered metal. 3D printing today is not just for art projects like Bass’s bowl.

Analysts project revenue to fall 0.3 percent year-over-year to $2.84 billion for the quarter, after being $2.85 billion a year ago. For the year, revenue is projected to roll in at $11.82 billion.39 Even computer peripherals like printers are getting in on the act, demonstrating useful capabilities that seem straight out of science fiction. Instead of just putting ink on paper, they are making complicated three-dimensional parts out of plastic, metal, and other materials. 3D printing, also sometimes called “additive manufacturing,” takes advantage of the way computer printers work: they deposit a very thin layer of material (ink, traditionally) on a base (paper) in a pattern determined by the computer. Innovators reasoned that there is nothing stopping printers from depositing layers one on top of the other. And instead of ink, printers can also deposit materials like liquid plastic that gets cured into a solid by ultraviolet light.

At the intersection where our general interests met the specifics of writing a book is a set of colleagues, family, and friends who we simply can’t thank enough. To give us up-close encounters with the technologies we were writing about, Dave Ferrucci and his colleagues at IBM brought Watson to campus, Rod Brooks introduced us to Baxter the humanoid robot, Carl Bass at Autodesk headquarters let us handle a range of objects made by 3D printing, and Betsy Masiello and Hal Varian worked their magic at Google to get us a ride in one of their driverless cars. We’re grateful for the students in our classes who served as sounding boards for many of the ideas that made it into this book, and even more that didn’t make the cut. We are particularly grateful to our Digital Frontier team, a self-selecting group of people who are interested in the same things we are, and who get together periodically to generate, share, and refine ideas, a lot of which made their way into this book.


Work in the Future The Automation Revolution-Palgrave MacMillan (2019) by Robert Skidelsky Nan Craig

3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, anti-work, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data is the new oil, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, post-work, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, wealth creators, working poor

Researchers like Frank Wilson have tried to validate neurologically this connection between the head and the hand: the hand problematises the head. 4 Patterns and Types of Work in the Past: Part 2 35 So it’s not a matter of being a Ruskinian Romantic, nor a Luddite bent on smashing the infernal machine. The architectural designer needs both CAD and the pencil—the pencil to think, CAD to execute. So is this the case with 3D printing: so easy to use, which means so numbing. Good 3D modellers start with thinking in wet clay. The uncertainty and open-­ endedness of actual physical effort is a way to open up what should be produced as an object, which you can then summon into being by 3D printing via mimetic algorithms on screen. Rather than craftsmanship, particularly hand-craftsmanship, being put out of date by any kind of mechanical labour, we have to have a much more sophisticated notion of connecting the bodily work we do to the mental labour we do.

You need not think about how your tool works, what problems or possibilities it excludes in the name of friendliness. You do not need to worry, and so you do not think. The challenge in labour, it seems to me, is how to organise technology so that it is a partner rather than a replacement. What we are trying to do in our design lab, as is the Media Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in experimenting with computerised prostheses in surgery, is to use devices like CAD or 3D printing as technologies which enable more human choice, rather than replace choice with one standard. As in Stradivarius’ studio, we are trying to design these two machines so that they are challenging rather than “friendly”. 36 R. Sennett As a generality, I would say that thinking fresh about labour requires new ways of connecting material and sensate experience to mental understanding. That means recovering the lessons of craftsmanship in the age before machines dominated the productive process—which is my defence of craftsmanship to you. 5 Patterns and Types of Work in the Past: Wageworker and Housewife from a Global Perspective: Birth, Variations and Limits of the Modern Couple Andrea Komlosy The modern couple consists of a breadwinning husband and a wife who lives from his earnings.

, 29 Srnicek, Nick, 5, 59, 179n2 Star Trek, 146–148 Status goods, 88 Stirling, Alfie, 177 Stoics (view of work), 74 Stradivarius, 33–35 Subsistence, 27, 38, 40, 41, 44, 45, 73, 75, 76 Summers, Larry, 2 Supply and demand, 16, 21 Susskind, Daniel, 5 Susskind, Richard, 127, 132 T Tasks routine vs. non-routine, 126, 127, 129, 131 simplification, 91, 92 Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 30 Technological determinism, 5 Technological progress, 9, 18, 59, 89, 93, 96, 131, 176 Technological unemployment, 2, 6, 10, 16, 160, 173, 192 Technology, 2–5, 7, 9, 16–19, 27–30, 35, 57, 59, 61, 62, 75, 83–96, 110, 111, 115, 117, 119, 120, 126, 129, 131, 133, 139, 140, 145, 149, 150, 160, 161, 180, 181, 189–195, 198–200 Terkel, Studs, 4 Textile industry, 85, 182 3D printing, 35 Time and motion studies, 30 Toffler, Alvin, 159 Tokumitsu, Miya, 73 Tools/tool-making, 11, 26–28, 34, 35, 70, 109, 149, 197, 198 Trades Union Congress (TUC), 175, 177 Trump, Donald, 94, 95 Turello, Dan, 103 Turing, Alan, 100, 105 Turing test, 91, 101n1 U Uber, 6, 133–137 Uberisation (of the economy), 27, 133, 134, 184 Index Unemployment, 10, 11, 16, 17, 59, 60, 68, 78, 89, 160, 164, 171, 178, 179, 183, 193, 195 Unions, 68, 69, 136, 176–178, 182, 184, 185, 193 United Kingdom, 6, 26, 68, 127, 151, 163, 164, 175–185 Universal Basic Income (UBI), 70, 78, 171, 199 USA, 15, 28, 68, 83, 85, 86, 89, 126, 151, 165, 166, 178, 194 Utility, 55, 62, 94, 166 V Value extraction of, 134 labour theory of, 165 of work, 11, 31, 58, 60, 61, 65, 66, 73, 163, 165–167 Van Wanrooy, Brigid, 178 Veblen, Thorstein, 27, 56–58, 62 Venture capital, 111, 114, 135 Violin making, 34 Vivarelli, Marco, 191 Vocational training, 68 Voice, 69, 106, 147, 159 Volf, Miroslav, 176, 180 Vonnegut, Kurt, 158, 160 Walsh, Toby, 119 Weaving industry, 18, 29, 38, 85 Weber, Max, 75 Weeks, Kathi, 79 Welfare, 5, 54, 60, 66–70, 135, 160, 171 Welfare state, 66, 69, 70, 160, 171 Welfarist understanding of work, 65 Wellbeing, 19, 27, 66, 177, 179 West, Darell, 196 Western Europe, 4, 37, 39, 44 Williams, Alex, 59, 179n2 Williamson, O, 55 Wilson, Frank, 34 Work as a cost/burden, 13, 18, 44, 55, 57, 58, 60, 75, 77, 78 freedom from, 39, 60, 77, 78 as meaningful, 76, 77, 179, 180 as pleasurable, 3 Workforce skills, 6 Working hours increase vs falls in, 19 part-time vs. full-time, 181 targeted reduction of, 185 Working Hours Adjustment Act 2000, 181 ‘Working poor’ model, 67, 68 Work-life balance, 79, 179 Wright, Chris F., 185 W Wages minimum, 69 stagnation, 87, 89, 94, 183 211 Z Zuckerberg, Mark, 138


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Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck

3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day

Overall, the impact would be significantly greater for women, who would lose five jobs for every job gained compared with men losing three jobs for every job gained. That’s an unfortunate trend that we will need to keep an eye on. As with so many technologies today, social robotics has also seen a number of open-source approaches. Ono, a DIY Open Source Platform for Social Robotics Project out of Belgium; Poppy, an open-source robotics platform based on 3D printing; and Open Robot Hardware have worked to apply the open-source concept to robotics systems. All of these include social robot designs and programs in their platforms. (A platform is a group of technologies that support the development of other application, services, and, in this case, robots.) It can be argued that the robots aren’t as sophisticated as some of products coming out of commercially and institutionally-based robotics labs; nevertheless, if history is any indication, platforms such as these will play an increasingly important role in the continuing cycle of innovation.

In one of these, Tzezana’s research team established timeframes in which different combinations of emerging technology could potentially start becoming a threat, as well as calculating their relative likelihood and severity of impact. Most of these fell under the heading of cybercrime because of the increasingly interconnected and digital nature of our world. However, there were also elements that normally fall under other headings, such as bioterrorism, 3D printed weapons, and aerial drone technology. The likelihood of different technologies being used for different categories of crime was ranked, then re-explored as a particular tech was combined with two, three, or four others. In the end a range of new threats and vulnerabilities were revealed. The same methodology might be applied to affective technologies and social robotics in order to better foresee how these could be misused, particularly in combination with other technologies.

Apart from the difficulties of actually justifying such distinctions—it would be impossible to successfully ban sex toys entirely, since they’ve been around for millennia—opponents would be up against the reality of living in a globally connected world. People would no doubt be able to purchase and import from jurisdictions where emotionally aware sex toys were still legal. Others could download plans off the Internet to build feature-rich devices themselves, perhaps even 3D printing them from digital files. An effective ban is essentially unsustainable over the long term, so it’s safe to say that sexbots are here to stay. Aside from this, would it even be ethical to try to ban such devices? Consider those places in the world where there are significant disparities between the numbers of available men and women. Would it be right to consign some portion of that populace to a life without love, without companionship, simply because the numbers don’t work out?


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

This is equally important because two additional future trends are intrinsically linked with the hacking culture: 1. 3D printing. Imagine being able to “print up” a three-dimensional product in much the same way you hit the print button for your word processing software. The hacker culture has given rise to many startups and centers of innovation within major corporations that are tinkering with the printer of the future. This printer doesn’t put images and words on paper, but actually creates physical objects. The current limitations of the technology (both hardware and software) make it as crude as the early days of dot matrix printing, but groups like MakerBot are running Hackathons to demonstrate the power and potential of 3D printing. Business is going to change dramatically when making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital file is as simple as hitting “command P” on your keyboard.

A business’s ability to produce rapid prototypes and to sell individualized products to consumers will create the next generation of upheaval. This is a profound change and can be witnessed in how the medical field is currently prototyping body parts and more using 3D printing. Imagine a world—in the not too distant future—when a failing kidney can simply be replaced by a healthy one that was just printed up on one of these printers. This type of innovation is already in development. 2. Maker Movement. In 2006, an event called Maker Faire was born. What can only be described as a contemporary subculture, this annual event showcases “makers”—people who create robotics, electronics, woodworking, 3D printing, and more. These hobbyists embody the next generation of the same philosophical ideologies that brought together people interested in computers and computing back in the 1970s at computer clubs and meetups (the places that people like Bill Gates and Steve Wozniak used to hang out).


pages: 193 words: 51,445

On the Future: Prospects for Humanity by Martin J. Rees

23andMe, 3D printing, air freight, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, blockchain, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic transition, distributed ledger, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, global village, Hyperloop, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, life extension, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, quantitative hedge fund, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanislav Petrov, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

If this happens, the freedom to choose your family size, proclaimed as one of the UN’s fundamental rights, may come into question when the negative externalities of a rising world population are weighed in the balance. We must hope that the global population declines rather than increases after 2050. Even though nine billion can be fed (with good governance and efficient agribusiness), and even if consumer items become cheaper to produce (via, for instance, 3D printing) and ‘clean energy’ becomes plentiful, food choices will be constrained and the quality of life will be reduced by overcrowding and reductions in green space. 1.4. STAYING WITHIN PLANETARY BOUNDARIES We’re deep into the Anthropocene. This term was popularised by Paul Crutzen, one of the scientists who determined that the ozone in the upper atmosphere was being depleted by CFCs—chemicals then used in aerosol cans and refrigerators.

And we’ve all seen distressing TV footage of a mother with a sick child pleading that she is ‘desperate for a donor’—desperate, in other words, for another child to die, perhaps from a fatal accident, to supply the needed organ. These moral ambiguities, together with a shortage of organ donors, will continue (and indeed be aggravated) until xenotransplantation—harvesting organs for human use from pigs or other animals—becomes routine and safe. Better still (though more futuristically), techniques akin to those being developed in order to make artificial meat could enable 3D printing of replacement organs. These are advances that should be prioritised. Advances in microbiology—diagnostics, vaccines, and antibiotics—offer prospects of sustaining health, controlling disease, and containing pandemics. But these benefits have triggered a dangerous ‘fight back’ by the pathogens themselves. There are concerns about antibiotic resistance whereby bacteria evolve (via speeded-up Darwinian selection) to be immune against the antibiotics used to suppress them.

See also solar system Sundback, Gideon, 202 superconductors, 190–91 sustainability, Vatican conference on, 34 sustainable development, 26–27, 28 sustainable intensification of agriculture, 23, 24 technology: improvement in most people’s lives due to, 6, 60, 215; need for appropriate deployment of, 4, 26, 60; optimism about, 5, 225–26; as practical application of science, 202; preserving basic methods for the apocalypse, 216–17; for scientific experiments, 206–7; timescales for advance of, 152; unintended destructive consequences of, 215 telescopes: on far side of Moon, 144; optical Earth-based, 134–35, 137; radio telescopes, 134, 144, 157, 207; space telescopes, 137, 142, 143 Teller, Edward, 110 telomeres, 79 terrorism: biological techniques and, 73, 75, 77–78; in interconnected world, 215; new technology and, 100; nuclear weapons and, 20 Thomas, Chris, 74 thorium-based reactor, 54 3D printing: making consumer items cheaper, 31; of replacement organs, 72 tidal energy, 50–51 timescales: of planning for global challenges, 3–4, 59–60, 217. See also short-termism tipping points, 4, 32, 41, 42 Titan, 128, 136 Tito, Dennis, 147 translation by computer, 85, 89, 104 Trump regime, and climate change, 37–38 Tunguska event of 1908, 15 23andMe, 80 universal income, 96 universe: Dyson on numerical bounds for, 179–80; fine-tuned for life, 186, 197–98.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

The triumph of the commons is certainly evident in the digital commons, which are fast turning into one of the most dynamic arenas of the global economy. It is a transformation made possible, argues the economic analyst Jeremy Rifkin, by the ongoing convergence of networks for digital communications, renewable energy and 3D printing, creating what he has called ‘the collaborative commons’. What makes the convergence of these technologies so powerfully disruptive is their potential for distributed ownership, networked collaboration, and minimal running costs. Once the solar panels, computer networks and 3D printers are in place, the cost of producing one extra joule of energy, one extra download, one extra 3D printed component, is close to nothing, leading Rifkin to dub it ‘the zero-marginal-cost revolution’.39 The result is that a growing range of products and services can be produced abundantly, nearly for free, unleashing potential such as open-source design, free online education, and distributed manufacturing.

In the Togolese capital of Lomé, architect Sénamé Agbodjinou and colleagues set up Woelab in 2012, a ‘low-high tech’ workshop making its own design of open-source 3D printers using the component parts of defunct computers, printers and scanners that have been dumped in West Africa. ‘We wanted to make our 3D printer from the resources we have at hand – and electronic waste is now practically our primary material available in Africa,’ says Agbodjinou. The project is exploring the most useful local applications for 3D printing. ‘Doctors have told us that when a little piece of equipment breaks, it takes at least two months for the replacement parts to come from Europe or the United States,’ he explains. ‘With this technology – if we can master it – we can create these parts, repair the equipment faster, and perhaps help to save a life.’42 These open-source innovations are impressive but still fledgling, and to many the movement may look unfeasibly utopian.

‘It is time to re-examine the pursuit of economic growth at all costs,’ concludes US energy economist David Murphy; ‘we should expect the economic growth rates of the next 100 years to look nothing like those of the last 100 years.’39 Furthermore, some in the prepare-for-landing crowd doubt that the weightless economy can be as dematerialised as its name implies, given the material- and energy-intensive infrastructure that underpins the coming digital revolution.40 Others, meanwhile, doubt that the weightless economy will contribute as much to GDP growth as the growth optimists expect. A wide array of online products and services like software, music, education and entertainment are already available almost for free because, thanks to the Internet, they can be created and reproduced at near-zero marginal cost. Analysts such as Jeremy Rifkin believe that today’s emerging horizontal networks of renewable energy generation and 3D printing are set to amplify this trend. If they do, it could result in a great deal of economic value that was once sold at a profit in the marketplace being shared for low or no cost in the collaborative commons. The sharing economy is also growing, in which the culture of ownership – with every household equipped with its own washing machine and car – is giving way to a culture of access, with households sharing laundry facilities and renting cars by the hour from a local car club.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

For an explanation of Latour's construction (and an idiosyncratic rejoinder), see Bruno Latour, Graham Harman, and Peter Erdélyi, The Prince and the Wolf: Latour and Harman at the LSE (Winchester, UK: ZERO Books, 2011). 17.  For such strangeness, see Mark Wilson, “The DRM Chair Self-Destructs after 8 Sittings,” Fast Company, March 7, 2013, http://www.fastcodesign.com/1672050/the-drm-chair-self-destructs-after-8-sittings. 18.  Consider the following regarding potential interfaces between viral systems of various scales. John Baichtal, “3D Printed Model of a Virus Self Assembles When Shaken,” MAKE, August 16, 2011, http://makezine.com/2011/08/16/3d-printed-model-of-a-virus-self-assembles-when-shaken/. 19.  Not just in Charles Stross's Rule 34, malware for 3D printers is live and at play. Kerry Stevenson, “The 3D Printer Virus, Really?” Fabbaloo, April 7, 2010, http://www.fabbaloo.com/blog/2010/4/7/the-3d-printer-virus-really.html. 20.  Cory Doctorow, “Metacrap: Putting the Torch to Seven Straw-men of the Meta-Utopia,” Well, August 26, 2011. 21. 

We see it in a politics of radial transparency aligned with another politics of radical privacy, in journalists’ self-congratulation at the use of social media in the Arab Spring as supposedly outlining an anterior stratum of crowds and power (absent in their coverage of the shock economies of Haiti, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Louisiana, for example), in how Wikipedia formalizes taxonomic consensus from a heteroglossia of interests and how WikiLeaks inverted the ocular and occult body of the state, or in how Google cloud services both circumvent and circumscribe state authority in China and in how much of China's direct perception of computational supply chains is invisible to Californian search engines. Both events and pseudoevents are plentiful and it's hard to know what signals a new situation and what is trivial: the Google Earth stand-off between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, Prism and Data.Gov, hyperbolic packet-routing topologies, Dot-P2P and OpenDNS, net neutrality and the golden shield, downloadable guns 3D printed out of synthetic biopolymers paid for with Bitcoins, the National Security Agency (NSA) versus Unit 6139, NSA versus Anonymous, Anonymous versus Syrian Electronic Army, NSA versus Syrian Electronic Army versus ISIL versus FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) versus North Korea versus Samsung versus Apple versus European Parliament, and on and on. Which of these situations scales well into a general lesson and which actually obscures the critical junctures?

As Amazon further shrinks the remote order-delivery cycle from a network of nearby distribution hubs and subhubs toward the same-day and instantaneous downloadable delivery of items, the remaining functions of local retail become both more constricted and more open.61 On the one hand, ever greater supply chain compression may further transform retail space into purely experiential demonstration theaters, designed to motivate later online purchase, or may push to reprogram them all as publicly accessible storage facilities: a Tesla showroom or Home Depot, and not much in between. In time, 3D printing and other digital fabrication technologies may accelerate and overpower even this process, as your Kindle evolves from an e-book reader to an e-goods fabricator key and license library. Perhaps the Amazon model will lead away from today's warehouse archipelagos dotting rural landscapes connected by cargo trucks and toward a denser network of print stations where furniture, electronics, appliances, clothes, and other products are fabricated on demand for pickup or shuttled to nearby residences (by drones, maybe—and maybe not).


pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

A fascinating special report by The Economist in 2012 extrapolates these trends even further.2 It notes that manufacturing may be going through a new industrial revolution due to the advent of “3D printing” (also called additive manufacturing), which bundles virtually all stages of manufacturing into a single machine. Combined with the virtual designing made possible by computer-aided design systems, 3D printing would take manufacturing very close to the Star Trek replicators. While it seems more than a few years away, we are clearly moving toward a reality where “if I can imagine it, the computer can make it for me.” Supply chain unbundling would be seriously undermined by radical advances in the direction of mass customization and 3D printing by sophisticated machines. Whether these machines end up in high-wage, high-skill nations or are distributed to be near every large customer base, the impact would be a very substantial reduction in supply chain trade.

Other aspects of ICT, by contrast, make it easier for individual workers to master more tasks—call them information technologies (IT). Since IT basically means automation, better IT disfavors specialization by reducing the cost of grouping many tasks into a single occupation. This happens in several ways. Today, many factories can be thought of as computer systems where the peripherals are industrial robots, computerized machine tools, and guided vehicles. Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is the extreme where IT allows a single worker to perform all tasks simply by operating one machine. Perhaps this type of advanced manufacturing should be called “compufacturing” since rather than machines helping workers make things, the workers are helping machines make things. To sum up, coordination technologies and information technologies cut in opposite directions when it comes to fractionalization.


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Nicole Perlroth and David Sanger (15 Mar 2018), “Cyberattacks put Russian fingers on the switch at power plants, U.S. says,” New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/15/us/politics/russia-cyberattacks.html. 2The hacker wrote a program: Christopher Meyer (8 Feb 2017), “This teen hacked 150,000 printers to show how the Internet of Things is shit,” Vice Motherboard, https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/nzqayz/this-teen-hacked-150000-printers-to-show-how-the-internet-of-things-is-shit. 2Earlier in the same year: Carl Straumsheim (27 Jan 2017), “More anti-Semitic fliers printed at universities,” Inside Higher Ed, https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2017/01/27/more-anti-semitic-fliers-printed-universities. 3These are still in their infancy: Jennifer Kite-Powell (29 Oct 2014), “3D printed virus to attack cancer cells,” Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jenniferhicks/2014/10/29/3d-printed-virus-to-attack-cancer-cells/#7a8dbddb104b. Katie Collins (16 Oct 2014), “Meet the biologist hacking 3D printed cancer-fighting viruses,” Wired UK, https://www.wired.co.uk/article/andrew-hessel-autodesk. 4Modern pacemakers: University of the Basque Country (28 Jan 2015), “Pacemakers with Internet connection, a not-so-distant goal,” Science Daily, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150128113715.htm. 4insulin pumps: Brooke McAdams and Ali Rizvi (4 Jan 2016), “An overview of insulin pumps and glucose sensors for the generalist,” Journal of Clinical Medicine 5, no. 1, http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/5/1/5.

Coats (13 Feb 2018), “Statement for the record: Worldwide threat assessment of the US intelligence community,” Office of the Director of National Intelligence, https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Newsroom/Testimonies/2018-ATA---Unclassified-SSCI.pdf. 90In 2015, Lloyd’s of London developed: Simon Ruffle et al. (6 Jul 2015), “Business blackout: The insurance implications of a cyber attack on the U.S. power grid,” Lloyd’s Cambridge Centre for Risk Studies, https://www.lloyds.com/news-and-insight/risk-insight/library/society-and-security/business-blackout. 90Someone with a gun can do more damage: Stephen Paddock is an example of this. Alex Horton (3 Oct 2017), “The Las Vegas shooter modified a dozen rifles to shoot like automatic weapons,” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2017/10/02/video-from-las-vegas-suggests-automatic-gunfire-heres-what-makes-machine-guns-different. 91That gun-carrying drone will become: ReprapAlgarve (23 Sep 2016), “DIY 3D printed assassination drone,” YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3mdUjT6C5w. 91Liberal democracies are more vulnerable: Jack Goldsmith and Stuart Russell (5 Jun 2018), “Strengths Become Vulnerabilities: How a Digital World Disadvantages the United States in Its International Relations,” Aegis Series Paper, Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/381100534-strengths-become-vulnerabilities.pdf 92“Our economy is more digitalized”: Barack Obama (16 Dec 2016), “Press conference by the president,” White House Office of the Press Secretary, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/12/16/press-conference-president. 92This asymmetry makes deterrence more difficult: Joseph Nye has written extensively about deterrence in cyberspace.

Baker (22 Jul 2016), “The case for limited hackback rights,” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2016/07/22/the-case-for-limited-hackback-rights. 205For example, what Mattel, Disney: Charles Finocchiaro (18 Mar 2013), “Personal factory or catalyst for piracy? The hype, hysteria, and hard realities of consumer 3-D printing,” Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal 31, http://www.cardozoaelj.com/issues/archive/2012-13. Matthew Adam Susson (Apr 2013), “Watch the world ‘burn’: Copyright, micropatent and the emergence of 3D printing,” Chapman University School of Law, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2253109. 206I worry that analogous laws: Cory Doctorow (10 Jan 2012), “Lockdown: The coming war on general-purpose computing,” Boing Boing, http://boingboing.net/2012/01/10/lockdown.html. Cory Doctorow (23 Aug 2012), “The coming civil war over general purpose computing,” Boing Boing, http://boingboing.net/2012/08/23/civilwar.html. 206With respect to radios, one solution: Kristen Ann Woyach et al. (23–26 Sep 2008), “Crime and punishment for cognitive radios,” 2008 46th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4797562. 12.


pages: 94 words: 26,453

The End of Nice: How to Be Human in a World Run by Robots (Kindle Single) by Richard Newton

3D printing, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, lateral thinking, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Paul Erdős, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, social intelligence, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Y Combinator

Let computers compute Computers, and robots can do a lot of things but they can’t break the rules. The Machine can only do what is logical based on a set of rules. But it can’t do what is inexplicable. …And that inexplicable thing is something uniquely human, something that no other animal does, that no machine can do, that provides joy and fulfillment and cannot be routinised, replicated and 3D-printed – it is simply to be creative. Being futureproof is about creativity in the broadest sense. The sense that recognises the daring, the flights of imagination realised by chemists, builders, business owners, chefs, growth hackers and teachers can be creative. It’s what comes from wanting to make a difference, to make a connection, to innovate and add value by bringing the best of yourself to bear upon the world.

In contrast the clunky incentive plans of the Nice Age – hold on for a pension plan and a bonus – will attract only the calibre of people they deserve. And as jobs and companies get accelerated into the history books by permanent acceleration, this sort of motivation will bring forth only more shallow results. In contrast, start-up companies are bursting with a sense of mission and a satchel full of doubt. The very creation of a business that dreams to do something new and better – whether it’s 3D printing jewellery, sorting out online storage (like Dropbox), or disrupting the taxi business (Uber)the important thing they do is acknowledge that yes, they have doubts and then they press on and start to make, solve, fix, do, create. That first step gets them on the path to working things out en route. P.G. Wodehouse, the prolific author of the Jeeves and Bertie Wooster stories, would start writing before he felt he even had a book ready to write.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Autonomous Killer Robots Are Already Here,” NBC News, May 14, 2014. 79 Goldman Sachs has noted: Goldman Sachs, 2013 Annual Report, http://​www.​goldmansachs.​com/; Matt Clinch, “3-D Printing Market to Grow 500% in 5 Years,” CNBC, April 1, 2014. 314 Digital fabrication: Jessica Leber, “This Man Thinks He Can 3-D Print an Entire House,” Co.Exist, Nov. 12, 2013. 80 Bio-fabricating printers: Lyndsey Gilpin, “New 3D Bioprinter to Reproduce Human Organs, Change the Face of Healthcare,” Tech-Republic, Aug. 1, 2014; Melissa Davey, “3D Printed Organs Come a Step Closer,” Guardian, July 4, 2014; Kate Lyons, “Humans Could Be Fitted with Kidneys Made on 3D Printers,” Mail Online, May 23, 2014. 81 Today most 3-D printers: Ben Rooney, “The 3D Printer That Prints Itself,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2011; Brad Hart, “Will 3D Printing Change the World?,” Forbes, March 6, 2012. 82 The Gartner group: Gartner, “Gartner Says Uses of 3D Printing Will Ignite Major Debate on Ethics and Regulation,” Gartner.​com, Jan. 29, 2014. 83 Digital manufacturing will also be a boon: Drew Prindle, “KeyMe Joins Forces with Shapeways to Bring You Custom 3D-Printed Key Copies,” Digital Trends, Dec. 17, 2013. 84 There are apps too: Ann Givens and Chris Glorioso, “New Technology Could Let Thieves Copy Keys,” NBC New York, May 21, 2014. 85 In 2012, cops uncovered: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Opens High Security Handcuffs with 3D-Printed and Laser-Cut Keys,” Forbes, July 16, 2012. 86 While the potential humanitarian benefits: Tim Adams, “The ‘Chemputer’ That Could Print Out Any Drug,” Guardian, July 21, 2012. 87 Wilson created the Wiki Weapon Project: Carole Cadwalladr, “Meet Cody Wilson, Creator of the 3D-Gun, Anarchist, Libertarian,” Guardian, Feb. 8, 2014. 88 The lower receiver: Andy Greenberg, “Here’s What It Looks Like to Fire a (Partly) 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, Dec. 3, 2012. 89 In May 2013: Andy Greenberg, “Meet the ‘Liberator’: Test-Firing the World’s First Fully 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, May 5, 2013. 90 Wilson’s efforts have left: Andy Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year,” Wired, May 15, 2014. 316 These plastic firearms: Cheryl K.

,” Forbes, March 6, 2012. 82 The Gartner group: Gartner, “Gartner Says Uses of 3D Printing Will Ignite Major Debate on Ethics and Regulation,” Gartner.​com, Jan. 29, 2014. 83 Digital manufacturing will also be a boon: Drew Prindle, “KeyMe Joins Forces with Shapeways to Bring You Custom 3D-Printed Key Copies,” Digital Trends, Dec. 17, 2013. 84 There are apps too: Ann Givens and Chris Glorioso, “New Technology Could Let Thieves Copy Keys,” NBC New York, May 21, 2014. 85 In 2012, cops uncovered: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Opens High Security Handcuffs with 3D-Printed and Laser-Cut Keys,” Forbes, July 16, 2012. 86 While the potential humanitarian benefits: Tim Adams, “The ‘Chemputer’ That Could Print Out Any Drug,” Guardian, July 21, 2012. 87 Wilson created the Wiki Weapon Project: Carole Cadwalladr, “Meet Cody Wilson, Creator of the 3D-Gun, Anarchist, Libertarian,” Guardian, Feb. 8, 2014. 88 The lower receiver: Andy Greenberg, “Here’s What It Looks Like to Fire a (Partly) 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, Dec. 3, 2012. 89 In May 2013: Andy Greenberg, “Meet the ‘Liberator’: Test-Firing the World’s First Fully 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, May 5, 2013. 90 Wilson’s efforts have left: Andy Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year,” Wired, May 15, 2014. 316 These plastic firearms: Cheryl K.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Rakuten requires English competence, and at Uniqlo, English is the official workplace language. According to Rakuten founder Hiroshi Mikitani, “The greatest business risk [Japan] faces is that of staying at home.”20 Japan is invigorating its already deep advantages in precision industries through new public-private alliances amounting to several trillion dollars devoted to the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, AI, 3D printing, robotics, biotech, health care, clean energy, enhanced agriculture, and other sectors—all ready for export to Asia’s high-growth markets. SoftBank has become Japan’s standout example of a bridge between Japan, Asia, and the world. SoftBank’s Vision Funds—in which Saudi Arabia is the largest investor followed by the UAE—are the largest technology portfolio in the world, making aggressive investments in semiconductors, satellites, artificial intelligence, and IoT companies around the world.

The evidence is visible at the Manila campuses of the Canadian-owned Telus Corporation, where more than fifteen thousand staff provide data analytics services for US tech giants as well as banks such as JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo. Similarly, professional services and consulting firms such as McKinsey & Company, Deloitte, KPMG, Accenture, and Ernst & Young have all expanded their Asia-based practice areas from infrastructure advisory to fintech to help Asian clients improve their corporate governance and consumer offerings. The growing adoption of 3D printing for designing and producing auto components, medical devices, and various consumer products on a large scale might replace large volumes of goods mass-manufactured in Asia and reimported to the United States and Europe. But since most such goods are sold in Asia anyway, more and more companies are positioning these technologies as much abroad as at home. The San Francisco–based Flex (formerly Flextronics), one of the world’s largest and most technologically sophisticated supply-chain managers, is deploying advanced design and tailored manufacturing solutions for clients ranging from Cisco Systems to Nike—especially in Asia, where the customers are.

The German architect Ole Scheeren has designed award-winning East Asian buildings such as the Interlace in Singapore, the MahaNakhon tower in Bangkok and, in Ho Chi Minh City, the Empire City project, where green design will meet the natural green of Vietnam’s tropical flora. British architect Norman Foster designed an entire new sustainable capital city, Amaravati, for the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. And for Asia’s masses, a dozen European companies have developed low-cost 3D printed homes made of snap-together parts.7 Another valuable service Europeans have to offer Asians is moving money across borders. HSBC, Standard Chartered, and other banks with colonial origins have been operating in dozens of Asian markets for generations and have broad regional networks that most national Asian banks haven’t yet built. Standard Chartered has effectively become a Silk Road bank, focused almost exclusively on outbound Chinese and pan–Indian Ocean BRI-related projects.


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New Power: How Power Works in Our Hyperconnected World--And How to Make It Work for You by Jeremy Heimans, Henry Timms

"side hustle", 3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, battle of ideas, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Chris Wanstrath, Columbine, Corn Laws, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, future of work, game design, gig economy, hiring and firing, IKEA effect, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, Kibera, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, profit motive, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Snapchat, social web, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, web application, WikiLeaks

But despite good intentions, these people often end up as “digital beards,” providing cover for a risk-averse leader and an unchanging strategy, and relegated to the margins of power and influence within the organization. They are often a small department paid to think about the future, resented by the rest of the organization for not doing what is considered “real work.” They cut ribbons at openings for 3D printing labs but in reality are often siloed and underfunded. Instead of the “beard,” what organizations really need is a “bridge,” that person who can meaningfully connect his organization to the new power world, making the practical “jumps” between old and new power. A bridge’s work is structural, above all. At the Lego Group, that bridge figure was senior director Tormod Askildsen. It was Askildsen who had conducted the earliest new power experiments there and was tapped by the CEO when the company was ready to make a bigger shift.

And yet our next story is of a company that is making cars in a distinctly twenty-first-century way, one that relies closely on blending old and new power. “We do our best thinking and creating behind open doors.” That slogan is one of the rallying cries of Local Motors, and it announces a very different kind of car company. The Financial Post describes Local Motors’ business model as “so radical that it’s hard to comprehend at first: crowd-sourced, 3D-printed electric vehicles built in local microfactories the size of grocery stores, then sold directly to consumers.” Local Motors has a community of 50,000 people not on its payroll who design and develop concepts for vehicles that the company makes and sells in small batches. Think artisanal jam, only with engines. And it sometimes assembles these vehicles with the help of those community members. This is the opposite of Fordism, the last century’s reigning mode of manufacturing, in which standardized products are made in great numbers on assembly lines and then sold to a mass market.

You’ve said that today’s automakers make it difficult to access parts and perform simple tasks like replacing headlights and charging dead batteries. You’ve said that identifying rattles and noises is difficult because parts are buried within the inaccessible depths of your cars’ structures. It’s like we’re all driving mystery machines.” Here’s how Local Motors framed one of its most recent challenges to its community: to imagine the world’s first highway-ready 3D-printed car, with open-source design and parts so that anyone can repair it, and a modular concept that allows the owner to create a vehicle to his or her own specifications. The winning design was the “Swim,” the brainchild of Kevin Lo of Vancouver (username Reload), a Hewlett-Packard engineer who had taken to learning about car design in his spare time to get better at the user-interaction aspects of his full-time job.


pages: 114 words: 30,715

The Four Horsemen by Christopher Hitchens, Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett

3D printing, Andrew Wiles, cognitive dissonance, cosmological constant, dark matter, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, phenotype, Richard Feynman, stem cell, Steven Pinker

Your smartphone, your laptop computer, the satnav in your car and the satellites that feed it, your car itself, the giant airliner that can loft not just its own weight plus passengers and cargo but also the 120 tons of fuel it ekes out over a thirteen-hour journey of seven thousand miles. Less familiar, but destined to become more so, is 3D printing. A computer ‘prints’ a solid object, say a chess bishop, by depositing a sequence of layers, a process radically and interestingly different from the biological version of ‘3D printing’ which is embryology. A 3D printer can make an exact copy of an existing object. One technique is to feed the computer a series of photographs of the object to be copied, taken from all different angles. The computer does the formidably complicated mathematics to synthesize the specification of the solid shape by integrating the angular views.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the sewing machine, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management

Hence, they prefer to stick with the old, proven therapies and are highly reluctant to participate in something new. Only terminally ill people see some benefit.”82 In spite of these formidable barriers and the generally stagnant trends of the past several decades—from unchanging cancer treatments to static new drug approvals—medical optimists continue to extol inventions such as diagnostic robots83 or 3D printing of internal organs. Even if robots and 3D printing can improve the efficacy of surgery, however, the gains will likely be minor compared to the achievements of the decades between 1940 and 1970, including antibiotics and the development of the basic tools to fight CVD and cancer. Furthermore, as we will see in the following section, the problems of the U.S. medical system lie not in the scarcity of advanced modern technology, but rather, at least to some extent, in its overuse.

The difference between picking up a lace nightgown versus unraveling a pair of crumpled jeans knotted with other clothes is a calculation that requires massive computing power and a soft touch.55 3D printing is another revolution described by the techno-optimists. Its most important advantage is the potential to speed up the design process of new products. New prototypes can be designed in days or even hours rather than months and can be created at relatively low cost, lowering one major barrier to entry for entrepreneurs trying to attract financing for their startups. New design models can be simultaneously produced at multiple locations around the world. 3D printing also excels at one-off customized operations, such as the ability to create a crown in a dentist office instead of having to send out a mold, reducing the process of creating and installing a dental crown from two office visits to one.

New design models can be simultaneously produced at multiple locations around the world. 3D printing also excels at one-off customized operations, such as the ability to create a crown in a dentist office instead of having to send out a mold, reducing the process of creating and installing a dental crown from two office visits to one. Thus it may contribute to productivity growth by reducing certain inefficiencies and lowering barriers to entrepreneurship, but these are unlikely to be huge effects felt throughout the economy. 3D printing is not expected to have much effect on mass production and thus on how most U.S. consumer goods are produced. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence. The core of the optimists’ case lies not with physical robots or 3D printing but with the growing sophistication and humanlike abilities of computers that are often described as “artificial intelligence.” Brynjolfsson and McAfee provide many examples to demonstrate that computers are becoming sufficiently intelligent to supplant a growing share of human jobs. “They wonder if automation technology is near a tipping point, when machines finally master traits that have kept human workers irreplaceable.“56 Thus far, it appears that the vast majority of big data is being analyzed within large corporations for marketing purposes.


pages: 138 words: 40,525

This Is Not a Drill: An Extinction Rebellion Handbook by Extinction Rebellion

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, feminist movement, full employment, gig economy, global pandemic, ice-free Arctic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, mass immigration, Peter Thiel, place-making, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, Sam Altman, smart grid, supply-chain management, the scientific method, union organizing, urban sprawl, wealth creators

It was by far the largest fee I had ever been offered for a talk – about half my annual professor’s salary – all to deliver some insight on the subject of ‘the future of technology’. I’ve never liked talking about the future. The Q&A sessions always end up more like parlour games where I’m asked to opine on the latest technology buzzwords as if they were ticker symbols for potential investments: blockchain, 3D printing, CRISPR. The audiences are rarely interested in learning about these technologies or their potential impacts beyond the binary choice of whether or not to invest in them. But money talks, so I took the gig. After I arrived, I was ushered into what I thought was the Green Room. But instead of being wired with a microphone or taken to a stage, I just sat there at a plain round table as my audience was brought to me: five super-wealthy guys – yes, all men – from the upper echelon of the hedge-fund world.

To appreciate the possibilities, go beyond last century’s focus on redistributing incomes and embrace the twenty-first-century opportunity of pre-distributing the sources of wealth creation. For the first time in human history, innovations in four key technologies – how we generate energy, how we make things, how we communicate and how we share knowledge – are giving us the chance to create economies that are far more distributive by design. Energy generation is switching from oil rig to solar panel. Making things is shifting from mega factory to desktop 3D printing. Communications have already leapt from switchboards to mobile networks. And knowledge sharing is evolving from patents to open source. Of course, these technologies – especially digital networks – can also be captured in few hands, but if regulated, designed and owned for the common good, their distributive potential is profound. Getting this right is a key twenty-first-century economic issue.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Amir Taaki: Dark Wallet co-creator and lead developer of Darkmarket, later forked to Open Bazaar. Peter Todd: Bitcoin core developer. Ross Ulbricht: Was accused and convicted of being Dread Pirate Roberts; his case is under appeal. Roger Ver: Angel investor and Bitcoin evangelist; CEO of Memorydealers.com, one of the first sites to accept Bitcoin, and founder of the company Blockchain. Cody Wilson: Dark Wallet co-creator and 3D-printed gun designer. Craig Wright: A recent addition to the search for Satoshi Nakamoto. Wired magazine recently reported he was “probably” the creator of Bitcoin (or wanted the world to think he was). In May 2016, he attempted to prove that he had created Bitcoin by signing a message using an account associated with Satoshi Nakamoto. Many were convinced at that point, including Gavin Andresen. However, much of the community remained skeptical.

Although regulators and fearmongers have attempted to paint Bitcoin as a tool that destroys the status quo, the truth is that it is only reestablishing the status quo that has existed for thousands of years before electronic transactions ever took place. One of the most promising technologies in this specific niche of the Bitcoin ecosystem was Darkwallet, but it seems development has halted on the project as the developers ran out of money, despite having raised a lot of it. It is not currently in a usable state. Co-invented by Cody Wilson, the creator of the 3D-printed gun, and Amir Taaki, the creator of Darkmarket, Darkwallet is a decentralized mixing service. Both of its inventors have anti-authoritarian, pro-individual freedom histories and politics. Nevertheless, their projects shouldn’t be considered as radical as they are often painted by the mainstream media. Darkwallet has been portrayed as something designed to fund terrorism, buy drugs, and launder money.4 The truth is, Darkwallet is simply a tool, albeit one that can be used by criminals and innocent people alike.

Open-source software is proving to be a powerful tool in their quest. The documentary Deep Web, directed by Alex Winter, opens with a quote from OpenBazaar developer Amir Taaki: “The fascists, they have resources, but we have imagination. We are making the tools to take back our sovereignty.”7 The same sort of philosophy was behind the Silk Road. It also continues to motivate Brian Hoffman’s OpenBazaar, Cody Wilson’s 3D-printed gun, Darkwallet, and a dozen other tools that scare the shit out of people who have devoted their whole lives to upholding the status quo. The Silk Road was an unregulated marketplace and a gathering place for like-minded individuals, many of whom were true believers in the philosophy described by Amir Taaki in the Deep Web documentary. On October 2, 2013, FBI agents arrested Ross William Ulbricht and accused him of being the infamous Dread Pirate Roberts, the elusive administrator of the Internet’s largest underground marketplace, the Silk Road.


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Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

Self-driving cars, computer-based personal assistants that can predict and anticipate our needs or manage our calendar without needing to ask us any questions; holographic telepresence when we’re away from our loved ones; computers built into everything, from the paint we put on our walls, the clothes to jewellery we wear, to sensors in our bathrooms that can monitor our health based on our morning’s ablutions . . . However, one of the most significant developments Kurzweil predicts centres around the development of 3D printing and replication technologies. “Ten years ago, if I wanted to send you a movie, I would have sent you a FedEx package. I can now send you an email attachment. The same goes for a music file or a book. What used to be physical products can now be sent as files of information.” —Ray Kurzweil, Vice Magazine interview, 20098 Ubiquitous 3D printing technology means I might soon be able to email you a toaster, toast, a blouse, a solar panel or a module to build housing or transportation. What we now consider physical products will eventually become information files—email attachments.

What we now consider physical products will eventually become information files—email attachments. In the past, manufacturing something made out of a plastic was generally done through a technique called injection moulding. For metal forms, components were either cut from a block of raw material, cast via a mould, or cut from steel plate. Often these methods required a very expensive mould or die that was used for that one single component. 3D printing allows new techniques such as additive manufacturing, where raw materials are used to build up the form gradually, printing one layer at a time. Figure 9.3: 3D printers are a reality today 3D printers are advancing in capability rapidly. Already 3D printers today can print wearable fabrics, integrated circuits, blood vessels, cells and organs (a kidney, a bladder and an ear have recently been printed, for example9), engine components, model aircraft, etc.

Technology is no longer exceptional, nor is it an alternative choice for consumers—it is the way we do our banking in the Bank 3.0 world. It is the primary, day-to-day relationship channel for your customers now. The branch cannot compete in any meaningful way. What will such a future bring? How does it impact service providers in the finance space? How can they prepare? Keywords: Disruptive, Moore’s Law, 3D Printing, Screens, Image Recognition, Exponential Growth, Haptic Touch, Artificial Intelligence, The Singularity Endnotes 1 Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore’s Law (Intel Corporation, 2005), p.1 2 IBM: History of Transistors, IBM 1401 3 http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/Ferranti/Ferranti.Sirius.1961.102646236.pdf 4 mKomo.org, “A history of storage costs” (http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte) 5 See http://www.netlingo.com/word/gilders-law.php 6 See Wikipedia.org articles on WiMax, 4G, UMTS, and Spectra Efficiency of long-range networks utilizing 802.11, 802.16, and 802.20 standards 7 CNET News, 19 Nov 2008,Q&A: Kurzweil on tech as a double-edged sword, Natasha Lomas, http://news.cnet.com/cutting-edge/?


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Net Zero: How We Stop Causing Climate Change by Dieter Helm

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Boris Johnson, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demand response, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, fixed income, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, market design, means of production, North Sea oil, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, remote working, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Thomas Malthus

There will be ‘hands-free’ fields.[10] The world within which the current farmers honed their expertise will be largely replaced by a new digital one. With the average age of farmers in most developed countries (including the US) at around 60, it will be a generational change too, with maths graduates increasingly taking over from students at agricultural training colleges. Digitalisation is not confined to robots, data and AI, but also includes the things that these will enable. 3D printing ushers in a much greater degree of customisation, as products are printed from digital images and instructions. The food chain itself has already been digitalised, but there is more to come here too, with blockchain and the internet-of-things allowing precision identification and tracking of each item and payment. Agricultural activities are increasingly being integrated with food processing and logistics supply chains.

Airports are terrible places for carbon emissions, as are docks and ports. In both cases, while there may be long-run technological solutions, like solar- and battery-powered planes and hydrogen-powered ships, the more efficient answer is to reduce the demand. One of the silver linings of the developing trade wars and tariff increases is that they may reduce shipping. Once carbon consumption is considered, and 3D printing and robotics undermine the advantages of cheap labour in the Far East and especially China, reshoring of production is economically more attractive. This may, for non-carbon reasons, be the beginning of a slow but possibly permanent decline in global trade, and with it shipping. Add in carbon border adjustments so that the playing field is properly levelled, and trade should fall a bit further.

acid rain 25, 194 Africa xiv, xv, 2, 25, 30, 38, 44, 45, 47, 48, 51, 137, 229 agriculture 2, 6, 12, 13, 14, 23, 35–6, 43, 44–5, 70, 76, 86, 87–8, 95, 100, 102, 109, 116, 146–7, 149, 159, 163–80, 181, 183, 192, 197, 198, 206, 220 baseline, the 164–8 biodiversity loss and 2, 5, 100, 164, 165, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174, 180 biofuels and 197–8 carbon emissions and 2, 12, 13, 35–6, 76–7, 146–7, 163–80 carbon price and 167–70, 171, 172, 173, 180 China and 28–9, 35, 45, 180 economics of 76, 165, 166–7, 171, 174 electricity and 13, 166, 168, 174, 178, 180 fertiliser use see fertiliser lobby 14, 110, 164, 165, 169, 170, 197 methane emissions 23, 84, 177, 178, 179 net gain and 172–4 net value of UK 76, 166 new technologies/indoor farming 87–8, 174–9, 180, 213 peat bogs and 2, 179 pesticide use see pesticides petrochemicals and 166 polluter-pays principle and 76, 168–70, 172, 173 pollution 36, 86, 163, 165–6, 168–70, 172, 173, 177–8, 230 public goods, agricultural 170–4, 180 sequestering carbon and 12, 95, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173–4, 177, 179, 180 soils and 2, 146, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 179 subsidies 14, 76, 102, 109, 116, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 172, 180, 228 25 Year Plan and 179–80 Agriculture Bill (2018), UK 170 air conditioning 135–6, 224, 233 air quality xiii, 13, 25, 46, 52, 61, 70, 135, 153, 177, 180, 201, 216, 230, 232 air transport 3–4, 6, 11, 13, 22, 50, 53, 73, 87, 88, 92, 107, 125, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 149, 156–7, 186, 195, 201, 203–5 aluminium 7, 117 Amazon rainforest 2, 34, 35, 95, 145, 149–50, 151, 155, 229, 230 ammonia 35, 137, 191 anaerobic digesters 35, 165, 230 animal welfare 167, 177 antibiotics 93, 165, 174 Arctic 26, 46, 114, 178 artificial intelligence (AI) 32, 175, 220, 231 autonomous vehicles 13, 129, 132, 175, 189–90, 231 Balkans 137–8 Bank of England 121 batteries 6, 31, 131, 135, 141, 183, 184, 185–90, 191, 199, 204, 213, 214, 219, 220, 221, 225, 231 beef 5, 95, 116, 117, 167, 230 Berlin, Isaiah 104 big 5 polluter products 117–18, 120 bin Salman, Mohammad 27 biocrops 36 biodiversity xiv, 2, 5, 12, 13, 28, 35, 51, 76, 94, 100, 148, 149, 152, 153, 158, 159, 164, 165, 168, 169–70, 171, 172, 174, 180, 227, 233 bioenergy 31, 34–5, 36 biofuels 21, 35, 49, 50, 67, 70, 95, 135, 183, 184, 197–8, 210, 230 biomass 32, 34, 49, 50, 67, 69, 109, 146, 147, 151, 210, 217 bonds, government 220 BP 27, 149, 187, 199 Deepwater Horizon disaster, Gulf of Mexico (2010) 147 Brazil 2, 35, 38, 44–5, 47, 95, 145, 149–50, 155, 198 Brexit 42, 47, 56, 117, 165 British Gas 102, 139 British Steel x, 194 broadband networks 6, 11, 90, 92, 125, 126, 127–8, 130–1, 132–3, 135, 140–1, 199, 201, 202, 205, 211, 214, 231, 232 Brundtland Commission 45 BT 127–8, 141 Openreach 214 Burn Out (Helm) ix, xiv Bush, George W. 36, 48, 53, 103 business rates 76, 165 Canada 52, 191, 193 capitalist model 26, 42, 99, 227 carbon border tax/carbon border adjustment xii, 11, 13, 60, 80, 115–20, 194–6, 204 carbon capture and storage (CCS) xiv, 12, 75–6, 95, 109, 146, 147–8, 149, 154, 159, 203–4, 207, 209, 222, 223 Carbon Crunch, The (Helm) ix, xiv, 221 carbon diary 4–5, 8, 10, 11, 64–6, 83, 86, 116, 143, 144, 155, 156, 167, 180, 181, 185, 203, 205 carbon emissions: agriculture and see agriculture by country (2015) 30 during ice ages and warm periods for the past 800,000 years 21 economy and 81–159 electricity and see electricity global annual mean concentration of CO2 (ppm) 19 global average long-term concentration of CO2 (ppm) 20 measuring 43–6 since 1990 1–14, 17–37 transport and see individual method of transport 2020, position in 36–7 UN treaties and 38–57 unilateralism and 58–80 see also unilateralism carbon offsetting xiii–xiv, 4, 5, 12, 34, 45, 72, 74, 79, 94–6, 97, 105, 143–59, 192, 201, 203, 207, 214, 222, 223, 234 for companies 148–50 for countries 151–5 for individuals 155–7 markets 71–2, 110–13, 117, 144, 157–9, 208 travel and 156, 201–3 see also sequestration carbon permits 71–2, 79, 110–13, 117, 144, 208 carbon price/tax xii, xiii, xv, 8, 11, 12, 13, 26, 60, 61, 71, 72, 77, 79, 80, 84, 85–6, 102–3, 105, 106–24, 134, 143, 146, 147, 150, 151–4, 157, 159, 192, 197, 198, 199, 203, 227–30, 232, 234 agriculture and 167, 168, 169–70, 171, 173, 180 domain of the tax/carbon border adjustment xii, 11, 13, 60, 80, 115–20, 121, 124, 192, 194–6, 197, 204, 227 electric pollution and 216–18 ethics of 107–10 floor price 115, 117, 208 for imports 11, 13 prices or quantities/EU ETS versus carbon taxes 110–13 setting 113–15 transport and 192–9 what to do with the money 121–4 where to levy the tax 119–20 who fixes the price 120–1 carbon sinks 2, 5, 166, 169, 203 carboniferous age 34 cars 1, 3, 4, 7, 20, 22, 36, 44, 70, 73, 114, 129, 181, 182, 183, 184–5, 190, 191, 193, 196, 197, 198, 199 see also electric vehicles cartels 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 56 cattle farming 35, 36, 95, 150, 166, 167, 173, 177, 198 Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) 102, 139, 218 cement 6, 7, 26, 29, 34, 87, 117, 171 charging networks, electric vehicle 91, 129–30, 141–2, 184, 185–90, 199, 200, 202, 219 Chernobyl 78 China xi, xv, 1–2, 5, 8, 18, 42, 46, 47, 48, 64, 66, 74, 101, 180, 229 Belt and Road Initiative 28, 45 coal use 1–2, 8, 23–4, 24, 28, 31, 38, 117, 154, 206, 208 Communist Party 2, 27, 42, 46 demand for fossil fuels/carbon emissions 1–2, 8, 18, 20, 22, 23–4, 24, 25, 27–31, 36, 38, 51, 73, 117, 154, 206, 208 export market x–xi, 5, 9, 64, 66, 117, 155, 194 fertiliser use 35 GDP xv, 27, 29 nationalism and 42 petrochemical demand 22 renewables companies 9, 32, 73, 74, 77, 79 Tiananmen Square 42 unilateralism and 58, 59 UN treaties and 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59 US trade war 56, 118 Churchill, Winston 183 citizen assemblies 99–101 climate change: carbon emissions and see carbon emissions 1.5° target 38, 57 2° target 1, 10, 22–3, 28, 30, 38, 39, 45, 47, 54, 55, 57, 108, 122, 155, 206 see also individual area of climate change Climate Change Act (2008) 66, 74–7 Clinton, Bill 40, 48 Club of Rome 98 coal 1–2, 5, 8, 13, 20, 23–5, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52, 53, 60–1, 67, 72, 77, 78–9, 101, 109, 112, 116, 117, 119, 134, 136, 145, 147, 148, 151, 154, 155, 182, 183, 194, 196, 206–9, 210, 212, 214, 216, 217, 218, 229, 230 coastal marshes 146, 159 colonialism 45 Committee on Climate Change (CCC), UK x–xi, 7, 74–5, 120, 164, 166, 169, 217, 235 ‘Net Zero: The UK’s Contribution to Stopping Global Warming’ report x–xi conference/video calls 6, 129, 156, 202, 205 Conference of the Parties (COP) xii, 10, 48, 50, 53–4, 55, 59, 205 congestion charges 198 Copenhagen Accord 48, 53–4, 59 Coronavirus see Covid-19 cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 71, 108, 110, 114, 138 cost of living 116 Covid-19 x, xi–xii, 1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 19, 22, 25, 27, 30, 37, 44, 46, 50, 57, 65, 69, 80, 89, 93, 129, 135, 148, 171, 201, 202, 204, 232 CRISPR 176 crop yields 172, 177 dams 2, 36, 52–3, 179 DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 100 deforestation 2, 5, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 44, 47, 55, 87, 95, 145, 146, 149–50, 155, 172–3, 179, 197–8, 229 Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 170 deindustrialisation x, 29, 46, 52, 54, 59, 72–4, 218 Deng Xiaoping 27 Denmark 69–70, 136–7 desalination 135–6, 179 diesel 4, 20–1, 70, 76, 86, 109, 119, 121, 129, 132, 164, 165, 166, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 185, 186, 191, 192, 196–7, 208, 217, 230 ‘dieselgate’ scandal 196–7 digitalisation 1, 8, 11, 13, 33, 92, 117, 136, 174, 175, 180, 206, 211, 215, 221, 228–9, 231 DONG 69 Drax 147, 151, 154, 218 economy, net zero 10–12, 81–159 delivering a 96–103 intergenerational equity and 96–7 markets and 103–5 net environmental gain see net environmental gain political ideologies and 98–101 polluter-pays principle see polluter-pays principle public goods, provision of see public goods, provision of technological change and 98 EDF 139, 218 Ehrlich, Paul 98 electricity 1–2, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 23, 31, 32, 49, 53, 61, 65, 66, 68, 70, 73, 77, 78, 79, 91, 92, 101, 102, 109, 117, 125, 127, 128, 129–30, 131–2, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 149, 158, 166, 168, 174, 178, 180, 182, 183, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 235 coal, getting out of 206–7 electric pollution and the carbon price 216–18 electric vehicles 4, 6, 13, 20, 23, 49, 61, 91, 92, 94, 121, 125, 128, 129–30, 131–2, 134, 141, 183–92, 193, 194, 197, 200, 201, 202, 206, 219, 228 equivalent firm power auctions and system operators 210–16 future of 206–25 gas, how to get out of 207–9 infrastructure, electric 185–90, 218–20 low-carbon options post-coal and gas 209–10 net gain and our consumption 222–5 R&D and next-generation renewables 220–2 renewable see renewables Energy Market Reform (EMR) 219 equivalent firm power (EFP) 212–16, 217, 220 ethanol 35, 71, 95, 197 eucalyptus trees xiv, 152 European Commission 60, 71, 72, 112 European Union (EU) xiv, 2, 7, 8, 9, 37, 42, 44, 46, 47, 117, 137, 165, 166, 197; baseline of 1990 and 51–2 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 76, 165 competition regime and customs union 56 deindustrialisation and 46, 52, 54, 59, 72–4 directives for 2030 66 Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) 71–2, 73, 79, 110–13, 117, 144, 208 importing carbon emissions 59 Internal Energy Market (IEM) 68, 71 Kyoto and 9, 51, 59, 66–7 Mercosur Agreement 44, 95 net zero target for 2050 66, 115, 143, 155, 167, 180 Paris and 54 Renewable Energy Directive 68–71, 73, 109 2020 targets signed into law 66 2020–20–20 targets 67, 69, 74 unilateralism and 59, 66–71, 80 Eurostar 133 externalities 104, 170, 180, 196 Extinction Rebellion 6 farmers 14, 26, 35, 36, 43, 71, 76, 86, 95, 102, 109, 110, 146–7, 164, 165, 166, 169, 170, 174, 175, 196, 197, 198 fertiliser 4, 6, 7, 26, 29, 35, 61, 73, 86, 87, 116, 117, 119, 163, 165, 169, 174, 175, 178, 179, 191, 194, 197 fibre/broadband networks 6, 11, 90, 92, 125, 126, 127–8, 130–1, 132–3, 135, 140–1, 201, 202, 205, 211, 214, 231, 232 financial crisis (2007/8) 1, 19, 69 first-mover advantage 75 First Utility 199 flooding 13, 77, 149, 152, 153, 159, 170, 233 food miles 167 food security 170–1 food waste 178, 180, 231 Forestry Commission xiv Formula One 186, 196 fossil fuels, golden age of 20–5 see also individual fossil fuel France 46, 47, 52, 56, 73, 78, 101, 113, 130, 136, 138 free-rider problem 39–40, 43, 62–4, 106, 119 fuel duty 121, 195–6 fuel efficiency 197 fuel prices 26, 112–13, 209 fuel use declaration 195 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011) 52, 78 Fukuyama, Francis: The End of History and the Last Man 40–1 gardens 6, 43, 143, 156 gas, natural ix, 2, 5, 8, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 36, 50, 52, 68, 69, 79, 102, 109, 117, 119, 129, 136, 137, 146, 147–8, 149, 183, 190, 193, 194, 207–9, 210, 211, 214, 216–17 G8 47 gene editing 172, 176, 231 general election (2019) 121 genetics 98, 172, 174–6, 231 geoengineering 177 geothermal power 137, 178 Germany 9, 30, 47, 52, 59, 60, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77–80, 83, 91, 101, 112, 136, 137, 138, 144, 206, 208, 209 Energiewende (planned transition to a low-carbon, nuclear-free economy) 59, 69, 77–80, 112, 144, 208 Gilets Jaunes 101, 113 GMOs (genetically modified organisms) 176, 177 Great Northern Forest, Britain 151 Green and Prosperous Land (Helm) xiii, xiv, 165, 169, 234 greenbelt 173 greenhouse effect 17 green new deal 90, 102, 234 green parties/green votes 69, 77, 78 green QE (quantitative easing) 102–3 green walls 153, 231 greenwash 156 gross domestic product (GDP) xii, xv, 1, 25, 27, 29, 41, 57, 59, 73, 76, 83, 93, 98, 103, 133, 165, 207, 227, 229, 233 growth nodes 133 G7 47 G20 47 Haber-Bosch process 35, 163 Hamilton, Lewis 186 ‘hands-free’ fields 175 Harry, Prince 6 Heathrow 133, 134 hedgerow 76, 166, 167, 172 Helm Review (‘The Cost of Energy Review’) (2017) ix, 120, 141, 200, 210, 212, 215, 217, 220, 238 herbicide 163 home insulation 102 House of Lords 170 housing 101, 223–4 HS2 92, 125, 132–4, 138, 202 Hume, David 49 hydrogen 13, 49, 92, 125, 128, 135, 137, 183, 184, 190–2, 199, 200, 204, 206, 213, 228 hydro power 31, 35, 36, 50, 52–3, 70, 136, 137, 191 Iceland 137, 178 imports x–xi, xiii, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 62, 68, 70, 117–18, 155, 167, 178, 173, 180, 196, 227 income effect 72, 111 income tax 121, 122, 232 India xiv, xv, 25, 30, 31, 38, 43, 44, 47, 48, 51, 54, 55, 57, 154, 229 individuals, net zero for 155–7 Indonesia 2, 35 indoor farming 87–8, 177–8, 180, 213 indoor pollutants 223, 232 Industrial Revolution 1, 18, 19, 25, 47, 116, 145 INEOS Grangemouth petrochemical plant xi information and communications technology (ICT) 117, 202, 231 infrastructures, low-carbon xiii, xiv, 11–12, 14, 28, 60, 62, 65, 66, 90, 91–4, 96, 105, 109, 123, 125–42, 143, 147, 151, 154, 159, 171, 184, 186, 187, 190, 199–200, 214, 218–20, 228, 230, 231–2, 234–5 centrality of infrastructure networks 128–30 electric 125–41, 218–20 making it happen 141–2 net zero national infrastructure plan 130–6 private markets and 125–8, 141–2 regional and global infrastructure plan 136–7 state intervention and 126, 127–8, 141–2 system operators and implementing the plans 138–41 inheritance tax 76, 165 insects 164, 177, 231 insulation 102, 224 Integrated Assessment Models 114 intellectual property (IP) 75 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 17–18, 47, 55, 57, 108, 172 internal combustion engine 13, 22, 181–2, 183, 184, 200, 221, 228 Internal Energy Market (IEM) 68, 71, 138 International Energy Agency (IEA) 25, 207 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 51 internet banking 131, 213 internet-of-things 128, 175 Iran 27, 42, 113, 137 Iraq 56, 192 Ireland 43, 157 Italy 137, 182 Japan 27, 28, 30, 52, 73, 78, 101, 185 Jevons Paradox 224 Johnson, Boris 89–90 Kant, Immanuel 104 Keynes, John Maynard 89, 102, 103, 105 Kyoto Protocol (1997) xii, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17–18, 37, 38, 39, 40–1, 47–8, 49, 51, 52–3, 59, 66–7, 119 laissez-faire 104, 138, 188 land use 35, 61, 95, 172, 237 LED (light-emitting diode) lighting 87, 178, 179, 180, 213 liquefied natural gas (LNG) 136, 183 lithium-ion battery 185 lobbying 10, 14, 33, 69, 71, 109, 110, 111–12, 115, 121, 157, 169, 170, 187, 197, 209, 223, 227, 228 location-specific taxes 194 maize 35, 165, 197 Malaysia 2, 229 Malthus, Thomas 98 Mao, Chairman 27, 42 meat xi, 65, 164, 177, 180, 232 Mekong River 2, 28, 179, 229 Mercosur Agreement 44, 95 Merkel, Angela 78 methane 4, 23, 84, 177, 178, 179, 216 microplastics 22 miracle solution 49–50, 55, 209 mobile phone 5, 125, 185 National Farmers’ Union (NFU) 110, 164, 165, 169, 170, 171 National Grid 139, 141, 189, 200, 211, 214, 219 nationalisations 101–2, 126–7 nationalism 41, 43, 55, 56, 138 nationally determined contributions (NDCs) 54–5 natural capital xiii, 14, 33–6, 51, 85, 86, 88, 90, 94, 97, 154, 158, 168, 171, 173–4, 236 Nature Fund 123, 169, 234 net environmental gain principle xiii, xiv, 10, 12, 62, 84, 94–6, 105, 143–59, 169, 172–4, 192, 201–3, 222–5 agriculture and 169, 172–4 carbon offsetting and see carbon offsetting electricity and 222–5 principle of 94–6, 143–4 sequestration and see sequestration transport and 192, 201–3 Netherlands 138 Network Rail 214 net zero agriculture and see agriculture defined x–xv, 3–14 economy 10–12, 81–159 see also economy, net zero electricity and see electricity transport and see individual method of transport 2025 or 2030 target 89 2050 target x, xi, 5, 59, 66, 74, 75, 115, 120, 135, 143, 155, 167, 169, 180, 184, 216, 217, 222, 226, 230, 231, 232 unilateralism and see unilateralism NHS 65 non-excludable 91, 93, 126, 170 non-rivalry 91, 93, 126, 170 North Korea 42 North Sea oil/gas 9, 40, 75, 97, 102, 137, 139, 147, 148, 193 Norway 130, 137, 191 nuclear power 5, 9, 12, 18, 23, 52, 60, 73, 77–9, 109, 125, 128, 129, 136, 140, 178, 194, 199, 206, 207, 208, 209–10, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219, 222, 228 Obama, Barack 48, 53, 54, 59 oceans 2, 14, 22, 33, 85, 86, 88, 148, 163, 231 offsetting see carbon offsetting offshore wind power 31, 69, 75–6, 208, 212, 219, 221 Ofgem 220 oil ix, 2, 20, 22–3, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 36, 39, 40, 50, 67, 69, 86, 97, 117, 119, 129, 136, 137, 146, 147, 148–9, 150–1, 152, 181–3, 184, 185, 187, 189, 190, 192–4, 196, 197, 199, 206, 209, 210, 216–17, 229 OPEC 39, 40, 193 Orbán, Viktor 41, 42 organic food 61, 87, 178 Ørsted 70 palm oil 2, 5, 6, 35, 36, 66, 71, 167, 173, 197–8, 230 pandemic see Covid-19 Paris Climate Change Agreement (2015) xii, 2, 10, 13, 18, 30, 37, 38, 39, 48, 49, 54–5, 56, 57, 58, 66, 80, 105, 106, 118, 119, 227 peat bogs xiv, 2, 13, 14, 33, 35, 36, 43, 109, 146, 169, 179 pesticides 4, 26, 61, 163, 165, 169, 174, 178, 231 petrochemicals xi, 7, 8, 20, 22–3, 29, 73, 80, 86, 117, 166, 182 petrol 4, 86, 119, 121, 129, 185, 186, 187, 191, 192, 199 photosynthesis 34, 197 plastics 1, 22, 28, 35, 43, 66, 86, 87, 119, 143, 166, 184, 231 polluter-pays principle xiii, xv, 84–90 agriculture and 76, 168–70, 172, 173 carbon price and see carbon price/tax generalised across all sources of pollution 86 identifying polluters that should pay 86 importance of 10–11, 13, 61, 62, 65 intergenerational balance and 96–7 net environmental gain and 94 sequestration and see sequestration, carbon sustainable economy and 96–7, 105, 106 transport and 192–5, 198–9 see also individual type of pollution population growth 93, 97, 177, 178, 179, 232 privatisation 127, 140, 218–19, 220 property developers 94 public goods, provision of xiii, 10, 11–12, 62, 75, 84, 90–4, 96, 104, 105, 109, 122, 123, 126, 128, 141, 147, 151, 153, 159, 164, 168, 173–4, 180, 192, 199–200, 202, 218, 229, 230 agricultural 170–4, 180 low-carbon infrastructures see infrastructures, low-carbon research and development (R&D) see research and development (R&D) Putin, Vladimir 27, 41, 42, 89 railways 11, 13, 13, 87, 91, 92, 94, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132–3, 138, 139, 156, 182, 183, 187, 202, 212, 214, 232 rainforest 2, 5, 34, 35, 36, 38, 44, 47, 55, 87, 95, 145, 149, 155, 173, 179–80, 197, 229 rationalism 40–1 Reagan, Ronald 103 red diesel 76, 109, 164, 165, 196 regulated asset base (RAB) 127, 141, 215, 220 remote working 128, 156, 201–2, 205 renewables ix, 6, 8, 9–10, 18, 19, 21, 26, 31–5, 36, 49, 50, 55, 61, 67, 72, 77, 79, 85, 86, 109, 110, 112, 123, 125, 128, 131, 135, 138, 140, 144, 149, 178, 188, 191, 194, 197, 199, 207, 209–10, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220–2, 224, 228 Chinese domination of market 9, 32, 73, 74, 77, 79 cost-competitiveness of 9–10, 49, 51, 61, 68 failure of, 1990-now 19, 31–3, 36 modern global renewable energy consumption measured in TWh per year 32 miracle solution and 49–51 Renewable Energy Directive 68–71, 73, 109 subsidies ix, 9, 10, 50, 68–9, 71, 79, 80 see also individual renewable energy source Renewables UK 110 research and development (R&D) xiv, 12, 13, 14, 62, 65, 66, 90, 93–4, 104, 109, 123, 165, 172, 192, 200, 218, 220–2, 223, 228, 234 reshoring businesses 8, 204 rivers 2, 22, 28, 86, 128, 152, 165, 169, 179, 214, 230 roads 11, 28, 45, 91, 92, 125, 129, 131–2, 140, 165, 182, 189, 194, 198, 202, 232 robotics 32, 175, 204, 206, 231 Rosneft 26 Royal Navy 183 Russia 26, 27, 30, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52, 55, 56, 192, 193 RWE 139, 218 Ryanair 156–7 rye grass 35 salmon 169, 177 Saudi Arabia 26, 33, 40, 42, 50, 137, 192, 193 Saudi Aramco 26, 50 seashells 34 sequestration, carbon xi, xiv, 12, 61, 66, 85, 90, 95, 143–59, 228, 229, 231, 232 agriculture and 12, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176–7, 179, 180 baseline definition and 146–7 biofuels and 35, 146, 217 carbon capture and storage (CCS) xiv, 12, 75–6, 95, 109, 146, 147–8, 149, 154, 159, 203–4, 207, 209, 222, 223 companies, net zero for 148–51 countries, offsetting for 151–5 electricity and 222, 223 gas and 207 individuals, net zero for xi, xiv, 155–7 markets, offsetting 157–9 natural capital destruction and 2, 19, 33–6, 44, 45, 51 natural sequestration xi, xiii, 2, 7, 12, 14, 33–6, 37, 45, 52, 66, 85, 90, 94–6, 105, 143–59, 163, 168, 171, 173, 176–7, 179, 180, 203, 206, 207, 222, 223 net gain principle and 143–4, 146, 149–50 offsetting principle and 143–5 peat bogs and see peat bogs principle of xi, xiii, 2, 7, 12–13 soils and see soils transport and 185, 190, 203 tree planting and see trees, planting/sequestration and types of 145–8 wetlands/coastal marshes and 146, 159, 233 shale gas 8, 208 Shell 27, 149, 199 shipping 8, 13, 22, 28, 36, 49, 114, 125, 137, 181, 182–3, 191, 194–5, 203–5, 217 Siberia 2, 46 smart appliances 128, 129, 132 smart charging 11, 13, 128, 129, 130, 139, 214, 219 soils xiii, 2, 5, 7, 12, 14, 33, 35, 36, 43, 55, 76, 109, 146, 149, 152, 156, 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 179, 203, 228 solar panels/solar photovoltaics (PV) 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 21, 31, 32, 33, 49, 53, 68, 69, 71, 74, 79, 87, 91, 135, 136, 137, 178, 179, 188, 204, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224–5 Sony 185 Soviet Union 18, 40, 52, 67–8, 89 soya 95 Spain 69, 130, 137 sport utility vehicles (SUVs) 106, 121, 192 spruce xiv, 152, 170 standard of living xv, 1, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14, 229, 233 staycations 201 steel x–xi, 6, 7, 8, 26, 28, 29, 53, 66, 73, 80, 87, 116, 117, 118, 119, 171, 184, 194–5 Stern, Nicholas: The Economics of Climate Change 41, 63 subsidies ix, 9, 10, 14, 32, 50, 51, 52, 53, 69, 71, 76, 79, 80, 89, 102, 109, 110, 113, 116, 123, 140, 154, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 172, 180, 193, 196, 198, 209, 215, 221, 222, 228, 230 sugar cane 35, 71, 95, 197, 198 sulphur pollution 22, 25, 28, 78, 191, 194, 197, 230 sustainable economic growth xv, 10, 12, 14, 61, 83, 92, 94, 97, 98, 105, 227, 233 Taiwan 42 taxation xii, 11, 62, 71, 72, 76, 80, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 97, 101, 102, 103, 106–24, 126, 127, 130, 133, 147, 150, 151–2, 153–4, 157, 159, 165, 169, 170, 192–6, 197, 198, 199, 203, 232, 234 technological change 98, 127, 141, 174–5, 221 Thatcher, Margaret 17 Thompson, Emma 6 3D printing 175, 204 Thunberg, Greta 6, 205 tidal shocks 159 top-down treaty frameworks 13, 38–57, 80, 110, 119 tourism/holidays 6, 22, 36, 88, 94, 107, 114, 128, 156, 201, 204–5 transport, reinventing 181–205 aviation 195, 201, 203–5 see also air transport batteries and charging networks 185–90 biofuels 196–8 electric alternative 183–5 hydrogen and fuel cells 190–2 innovation, R&D and new infrastructures 199–200 internal combustion engine 181–2 net gain and offsets (reducing travel versus buying out your pollution) 201–3 oil 183–4 polluter pays/carbon tax 192–6 shipping 203–5 urban regulation and planning 198–9 vehicle standards 196–8 see also individual type of transport Treasury, UK 120–2 trees, planting/sequestration and xi, xiii, xiv, 2, 7, 13, 14, 33, 34, 45, 76, 85, 94–6, 146, 148, 149–51, 152–3, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 168, 169, 172, 179, 203, 231 trophy project syndrome 133 Trump, Donald 2, 8, 41, 42, 48, 89, 99, 103, 121 25 Year Environment Plan xiii, 153, 170, 179–80 UK 47, 69 agriculture and 164, 166, 167, 173 carbon emissions (2015) 30 carbon price and 115, 120 Climate Change Act (2008) 66, 74–7 coal, phasing out of 24–5, 60–1, 77, 208 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) x–xi, 7, 74–6, 120, 164, 166, 169, 217, 235 deindustrialisation and 72–4 80 per cent carbon reduction target by 2050 74 electricity and 206, 208, 218, 219, 224 Helm Review (‘The Cost of Energy Review’) (2017) ix, 120, 141, 200, 210, 212, 215, 217, 220, 238 infrastructure 125, 132–3, 134, 137, 139–40 net zero passed into law (2019) 66 sequestration and 145, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156 transport and 195–6, 197, 198 unilateralism and 58–9, 60–1, 65, 66, 69, 72–7, 80 unilateralism xi, 8, 10, 11, 25, 58–80, 83, 105, 106, 119, 125, 143, 144, 155, 164, 167, 197, 203, 227 in Europe 66–80 incentive problem and 58–60 morality and 62–6 no regrets exemplars and/showcase examples of how decarbonisation can be achieved 60–2 place for 80 way forward and 80, 83 United Nations xi, xii, 6, 10, 17, 37, 38, 118 carbon cartel, ambition to create a 39–40, 43, 45, 46–7, 56 climate treaty processes xi, 6, 10, 13, 17–18, 36, 37, 38–57, 59, 80, 110, 118, 119, 204–5 see also individual treaty name Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 17–18, 36, 38, 59 miracle solution and 50–1 origins and philosophy of 41 Security Council 46, 47, 57 United States 8, 74, 139, 206 agriculture in 175, 176, 197 carbon emissions 8, 29, 30 China and 27–8, 42, 118 coal and 2, 24, 28, 29, 208 economic imperialism 45 energy independence 50 gas and 8, 20, 23, 24, 29, 50, 208 oil production 40, 50, 193 pollution since 1990 29 unilateralism and 58, 59, 74 UN climate treaty process and 38, 40–1, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 56 universal service obligations (USOs) 92, 126, 131, 202 utilitarianism 41, 63–4, 108, 110 VAT 117, 119–20, 121, 122, 232 Vesta 69 Volkswagen 196–7 water companies 76, 214, 230 water pollution/quality xiv, 12, 22, 61, 76, 152, 153, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 232 Wen Jiabao 53, 59 wetlands 159, 233 wildflower meadow 164, 184 wind power 5, 9, 12, 21, 31, 32, 33, 49, 53, 68, 69–70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 91, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 178, 188, 191, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214–15, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222 wood pellets 67, 217, 230 Woodland Trust 156, 158 World Bank 51 World Trade Organization (WTO) 52, 56, 118 World War I 183 World War II (1939–45) 78, 90, 92, 101, 106, 171 Xi Jinping 27, 41, 42 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS So much is now discussed, written and published about climate change that it is impossible to keep track of all the ideas and conversations that have influenced my understanding of the subject.


pages: 586 words: 186,548

Architects of Intelligence by Martin Ford

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flash crash, future of work, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, information retrieval, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game, Zipcar

We’re going to grow food with vertical agriculture in AI-controlled buildings with hydroponic fruits and vegetables, and in vitro cloning of muscle tissue for meat, providing very high-quality food without chemicals at very low cost, and without animal suffering. Information technology has a 50% deflation rate; you get the same computation, communication, genetic sequencing that you could purchase a year ago for half the price, and this massive deflation is going to attend to these traditionally physical products.” MARTIN FORD: So, you think that technologies like 3D printing or robotic factories and agriculture could drive costs down for nearly everything? RAY KURZWEIL: Exactly, 3D printing will print out clothing in the 2020s. We’re not quite there yet for various reasons, but all that’s moving in the right direction. The other physical things that we need will be printed out on 3D printers, including modules which will snap together a building in a matter of days. All the physical things we need will ultimately become facilitated by these AI-controlled information technologies.

RODNEY BROOKS: It is not going to be a simple substitution of a robotic system for a person, but there is going to be a demand so there will be motivated people working on trying to come up with solutions because it is going to be an incredible market. I think we will also see a pull for construction work because we are urbanizing the world at an incredible rate. Many of the techniques that we use in construction were invented by the Romans, there’s room for a little technological update in some of those. MARTIN FORD: Do you think that would be construction robots or would it be construction scale 3D printing? RODNEY BROOKS: 3D printing may come in for aspects of it. It’s not going to be printing the whole building, but certainly we might see printed pre-formed components. We’ll be able to manufacture a lot more parts off-site, which will in turn lead to innovation in delivering, lifting, and moving those parts. There’s room for a lot of innovation there. Agriculture is another industry that will potentially see robotics and AI innovation, particularly with climate change disrupting our food chain.

MARTIN FORD: Let’s talk about the future of robotics, which sounds like something you spend a great deal of your time thinking about. What’s coming down the line in terms of future innovations? DANIELA RUS: Our world has already been transformed by robotics. Today, doctors can connect with patients, and teachers can connect with students that are thousands of miles away. We have robots that help with packing on factory floors, we’ve got networked sensors that we deploy to monitor facilities, and we have 3D printing that creates customized goods. Our world has already been transformed by advances in artificial intelligence and robotics, and when we consider adding even more extensive capabilities from our AI and robot systems, extraordinary things will be possible. At the high level, we have to picture a world where routine tasks will be taken off our plate because this is the sweet spot for where technology is today.


pages: 348 words: 102,438

Green and Prosperous Land: A Blueprint for Rescuing the British Countryside by Dieter Helm

3D printing, Airbnb, barriers to entry, British Empire, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, digital map, facts on the ground, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, precision agriculture, quantitative easing, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl

There will be very few wild salmon left, but lots of fish farms and more Trump-style golf courses. Nature will be ever-more confined to reserved areas – like zoos in an increasingly urban and industrial landscape. There will be compensations. You will have communications technologies that cannot even be imagined today, just as I have an iPhone now, which was unimaginable a couple of decades ago. Everything will be digital, with robots, 3D printing and artificial intelligence (AI) fulfilling many of your needs. You will know your genome, and have medical treatments available to you that again are hard to imagine now. Some economists continue to think that the natural capital you will have lost is a price worth paying for all these new benefits. But much of this can’t be simply substituted, because natural capital is not like that, open to a marginal loss here and a marginal loss there.

The result will be a more silent and browner environment. The countryside becomes more and more industrialised. To these incremental technological advances, two new and transformational ones are being added, together already further changing the face of agriculture. These are digitalisation and genetics. Digitalisation enables both precision farming based on big data, and a further switch away from labour to robotics, 3D printing and AI. Genetics means that centuries of careful plant and animal breeding can be leapfrogged in a test tube. The very building blocks of species can be manipulated and changed, and all at a fast pace. These two changes are probably each more profound than the switch from horse power to tractors. Together they herald a very big revolution. The impacts of this intensification depend on location and the specific geologies, and on the particular incentives in the subsidy regimes.

The ultimate driver of economic growth is technology, and technological progress is advancing, perhaps faster than it has in the past. In the last 20 years, the digital communications revolution has changed almost all economic activity, and most personal behaviours too. The smartphone, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram are a world away from the fixed telephone line, letters drafted on a typewriter and photographic slides. Ahead lies genetics as a technology for all, robotics, 3D printing, new materials and AI. It is safe to assume that future generations will have more and much better technologies than we do. For this reason we should discount their future – a bit. A less convincing reason relates to whether in fact we and our predecessors will have done so much damage to the environment that they will be worse off. They will inherit the climate change and the loss of biodiversity.


pages: 372 words: 101,678

Lessons from the Titans: What Companies in the New Economy Can Learn from the Great Industrial Giants to Drive Sustainable Success by Scott Davis, Carter Copeland, Rob Wertheimer

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, airport security, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, clean water, commoditize, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, Covid-19, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, factory automation, global pandemic, hydraulic fracturing, Internet of things, iterative process, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, megacity, Network effects, new economy, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, random walk, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, skunkworks, software is eating the world, strikebreaker, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy

Those efforts gained urgency when the Federal Reserve designated the company a systemically important financial institution—a step that brought the kind of governmental oversight that Immelt hated. But as he reduced the company’s exposure to financial services, he needed something to replace the lost earnings. He settled on two big initiatives: digital transformation and the acquisition of a large French power infrastructure company named Alstom. With digital, Immelt saw enormous potential in the industrial internet and additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing), and he wanted to supply the software as well as the hardware. He turned the company’s small IT support unit into a separate GE Digital division. It had the ambition and budget to become a world-class software house. The digital foray won the company good press, but it would be many years of heavy investment before anything tangible emerged, and even then, finding new revenues was difficult.

Loree spent two decades at GE, the epitome of old corporate America, in a culture that failed in the 2000s and 2010s: disproportionately white and male. At SBD, he and other leaders had executed well on the playbook of systematizing operations. Many companies fail to get that far. The next step, however, required a reinvention. Loree saw the pace of change in the world increasing as systems that unlock growth and innovation stack onto each other—artificial intelligence, rapid prototyping with 3D printing, factory connectivity and automation. He wanted to push SBD ahead, to keep his workforce engaged, flexible, and filled with lifetime learners who can continually adapt to emerging tech and new challenges. Loree spends a lot of time explaining the company’s vision, and he’s enthusiastic about it. We’ve never seen him happier, though, than when he spoke on the flow of diversity and new talent that the pivot toward advanced technology was bringing into the company.

Most industrials aren’t situated next to innovation centers: only one in five industrial companies has an office in or near Silicon Valley. That limits immersion in the buzz of innovation via employee networks, as well as opportunities for cross-pollination from hiring. Stanley Ventures aimed to sync with that ecosystem. The company partnered with leading accelerator TechStars to create an external accelerator in Hartford, Connecticut, near SDB’s headquarters in New Britain. The accelerator was focused on 3D printing and packaging, thereby investing in SBD’s community and in advanced manufacturing at the same time. Internally Stanley Black & Decker created an Exponential Learning Unit in Silicon Valley, both to attract talent from that area and to serve as an incubator of ideas. A look at the company’s Facebook Workplace page will show a dozen activities and links showcasing the organization’s openness: makerspaces, scholarships for students, sponsorships for vocational skills competitions, support for LGBT events, a women-founded 3D design lab.


pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

Much to their credit, they have realised the opportunity to benefit from the fan works and have on many occasions chosen to permit the use of their trademarks rather than use them heavy-handedly to ban fan works. A company called “We Love Fine” produces and sells a wide range of T-shirts with My Little Pony fan art that requires both copyright permission from the fan creators of the art and trademark permission from Hasbro. Hasbro have also begun licensing the creators of 3D models based on their characters to sell 3D prints of those models, starting with My Little Pony and planning to expand to their other toy franchises such as Transformers. This is very forward looking because 3D printing may soon come to have a significant impact on the toy market. These kinds of interconnections between cultural works, and between the creators and the fans, are great examples of the increasingly prominent intertwingularity of the modern world. I hope that Ted’s Xanadu ideas will continue to inspire the tools we all use to navigate this ever more interwingled Internet world and will enable people to more easily create interconnected works and discover and communicate the connections between them.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Amazon has revolutionised shopping. Big boxy televisions have been junked for cheaper flat-screens with pin-sharp images. Thanks to imports from China and elsewhere, the cost of clothing, toys and much else has plummeted. Supermarkets provide a wider range of better food. Flying around Europe is no longer a luxury. High-speed rail has proliferated; even Britain has one short link. Cars are starting to drive themselves. 3D printing shops are opening on high streets. Fears that we would run short of fossil fuels have proved false: shale oil and gas (and coal) are plentiful. AIDS has become a chronic disease, not a quickly fatal one. Viagra has given many men a new lease of life. Starting with the Netherlands in 2001, ten European countries have allowed gays to marry; England and Wales are due to do so in 2014. Britain introduced a minimum wage in 1997.

Industrial policy often subsidises sunset industries, rather than rising ones. Even when it is more future-oriented, its priorities tend to be distorted by fashion and favour. Antonio Tajani, the buffoon appointed by Silvio Berlusconi to the European Commission, wants to craft a European industrial policy which – surprise, surprise – favours his chums in Italian industry. His six priorities are: new manufacturing technologies in areas such as robotics and 3D printing; basic “enabling technology” such as optical electronics and new materials linked to novel products; biotech-based production techniques; low-carbon and other low-pollution manufacturing techniques; “clean” vehicles, such as cars using new forms of hybrid engines; and equipment needed for new “smart grids” to facilitate more efficient energy use. Tajani wants the EU’s manufacturing output to rise from 15.5 per cent of GDP in 2011 to 20 per cent in 2020.645 That is an absurd target, given that manufacturing is shrinking as a share of the economy even in China.

Many domestic markets are dominated by big players that deter (and stamp on) competition, cosseted by a host of regulations that impede new entrants. Silicon Valley is the cauldron of many American start-ups. But the US is also much more enterprising generally. Witness how shale gas has revolutionised America’s energy landscape within a few years. Cheap energy, in turn, could spark a new manufacturing revolution in the US, together with 3D printing. Genetic modification is breeding better, hardier, cheaper, tastier and more nutritious food. America is also pouring many more resources into the biotech revolution. Stopped-up Europe Four types of barrier hold European enterprise back: education systems that fail to encourage entrepreneurship; a cultural aversion to risk-taking, diversity and many new technologies; flawed regulations that restrict competition, stymie start-ups and hamper smaller businesses; and a shortage of finance.


pages: 537 words: 149,628

Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War by P. W. Singer, August Cole

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, augmented reality, British Empire, digital map, energy security, Firefox, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Google Glasses, IFF: identification friend or foe, Just-in-time delivery, low earth orbit, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, old-boy network, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, trade route, Wall-E, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

.,” Digital Journal, June 4, 2011, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.digitaljournal.com/image/88949. 163 graphene was light and strong: “The Story of Graphene,” University of Manchester, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.graphene.manchester.ac.uk/explore/the-story-of-graphene/. 163 also known as a 3-D printer: Bob Tita, “How 3-D Printing Works,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2013, accessed August 20, 2014, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323716304578483062211388072. 164 a manufacturing revolution: “3D printing: Second Industrial Revolution Is Under Way,” New Scientist, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.newscientist.com/special/3D-printing. 165 just spoken Klingon: Klingon Pocket Dictionary, Klingonska Akademien, accessed August 20, 2014, http://klingonska.org/dict/. 166 “Russian Foundation for Advanced Research Projects”: “Putin Seeks to Create Russian DARPA Equivalent,” Global Security Newswire, June 21, 2012, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.nti.org/gsn/article/putin-seeks-create-darpa-equivalent/. 167 the electronic ink used: Jason Koebler, “This E-Tattoo Uses Conventional Chips, No Nanotech Required,” Motherboard, April 4, 2014, accessed August 20, 2014, http://motherboard.vice.com/read/this-e-tattoo-uses-conventional-chips-no-nanotech-required. 167 Dmitri Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony: “Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5,” Keeping Score, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.pbs.org/keepingscore/shostakovich-symphony-5.html. 169 Iliahi Elementary School: “About Iliahi,” Iliahi Elementary School, accessed August 20, 2014, https://sites.google.com/a/dragons.k12.hi.us/iliahiel/. 173 community development units: “Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs),” Department of State, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.state.gov/p/nea/ci/iz/c21830.htm; fictional unit. 174 Directorate Z-8K assault helicopters: “Product Information — Z8 Helicopter,” Changhe Aircraft Industries Group, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.changhe.com/english/ecpxx/ecpxx.htm. 174 “It was always a risk”: Charles J.

., “Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies,” RAND Corporation, 2013, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR291z2.html. 261 civilian-style Great Wall pickups: “Wingle 5,” Great Wall Motors, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.gwm-global.com/wingle5.html. 265 the two metallic hands: Francie Diep, “A Mind-Controlled Robotic Hand with a Sense of Touch,” Popular Science, February 5, 2014, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.popsci.com/article/science/mind-controlled-robotic-hand-sense-touch. 266 “lenses of the wrong prescription”: Emily Gold Boutilier, “Thinking the World into Motion,” Brown Alumni Magazine, January 2005, accessed August 23, 2014, http://archive.today/hf0P9. 266 “William Gibson’s 1984 novel Neuromancer”: Ed Cumming, “The Man Who Saw Tomorrow,” Guardian, July 27, 2014, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jul/28/william-gibson-neuromancer-cyberpunk-books. Also see http://williamgibsonbooks.com/books/neuromancer.asp. 267 the five-foot-tall spider-bot: Lance Ulanoff, “3D-Printed Spiderbot Is Stuff of Dreams and Nightmares,” Mashable.com, July 5, 2013, accessed August 24, 2014, http://mashable.com/2013/07/05/3d-printed-spider-robot/. 267 sifting through rubble: Dan Nosowitz, “Meet Japan’s Earthquake Search-and-Rescue Robots,” Popular Science, March 11, 2011, accessed August 24, 2014, http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2011-03/six-robots-could-shape-future-earthquake-search-and-rescue. 269 “What we observe”: Werner Heisenberg, as quoted in Robert Pine, Science and the Human Prospect (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1999), online edition, accessed July 15, 2014, http://home.honolulu.hawaii.edu/~pine/book1qts/chapter8qts.html. 276 a Type 98 bayonet knife: Fan Zhibin, “Regiment in Bayonet Training,” People’s Daily Online, accessed August 24, 2014, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90786/7689290.html. 276 QSZ-92: “NORINCO QSZ-92 (Type 92) Semi-Automatic Pistol (1998),” MilitaryFactory.com, September 2, 2011, accessed August 24, 2014, http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/detail.asp?


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A World Without Work: Technology, Automation, and How We Should Respond by Daniel Susskind

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, precariat, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor, working-age population, Y Combinator

Evan Ackerman, “AI Startup Using Robots and Lidar to Boost Productivity on Construction Sites,” IEEE Spectrum, 24 January 2018. 32.  See https://www.balfourbeatty.com/innovation2050 (accessed April 2019). 33.  Alan Burdick, “The Marriage-Saving Robot That Can Assemble Ikea Furniture, Sort Of,” New Yorker, 18 April 2018. 34.  For “kippot,” see Eitan Arom, “The Newest Frontier in Judaica: 3D Printing Kippot,” Jerusalem Post, 24 October 2014; for all others, see J. Susskind, Future Politics, pp. 56–7. 35.  Tomas Kellner, “Mind Meld: How GE and a 3D-Printing Visionary Joined Forces,” GE Reports, 10 July 201710; “3D Printing Prosthetic Limbs for Refugees,” Economist, 18 January 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_W1veGQxMe4 (accessed August 2018). 36.  Debra Cassens Weiss, “JPMorgan Chase Uses Tech to Save 460,000 Hours of Annual Work by Lawyers and Loan Officers,” ABA Journal, 2 March 2017. 37.  


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

“Print Me a Jet Engine,” Schumpeter (blog), The Economist, November 22, 2012 (www.economist.com/blogs/schumpeter/2012/11/additive-manufacturing). 30. “Difference Engine: The PC All Over Again?” Babbage (blog), The Economist, September 9, 2012 (www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2012/09/3d-printing). 10-2151-2 notes.indd 220 5/20/13 7:00 PM NOTES TO PAGES 77–81 221 31. “Print Me a Jet Engine.” See also “Difference Engine: The PC All Over Again?”; Vivek Srinivasan and Jarrod Bassan, “Manufacturing the Future: 10 Trends to Come in 3D Printing,” Forbes, December 7, 2012 (www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/ 2012/12/07/manufacturing-the-future-10-trends-to-come-in-3d-printing/). 32. Fay Hanleybrown, John Kania, and Mark Kramer, “Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work,” Stanford Social Innovation Review, January 26, 2012 (www.ssireview.org/blog/entry/channeling_change_making_collective_ impact_work?


pages: 374 words: 111,284

The AI Economy: Work, Wealth and Welfare in the Robot Age by Roger Bootle

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, anti-work, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mega-rich, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, positional goods, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, Y2K, Yogi Berra

To read about these subjects is to immerse yourself in a sea of waffle, wonder, and worship at the altar of “technology.” You risk drowning in the onrush of loose language, flabby concepts, crude extrapolation, impenetrable jargon and lack of perspective, all wrapped up in an aura of supposed inevitability. And yet something truly amazing is happening in the world of technology, not just increasing digitization, or the development of nanotechnology, biotechnology and 3D printing, but also with regard to robots and AI. In this cocktail of ingredients for a technological revolution it is AI that stands out. It may offer the greatest benefits, but it also seems the most threatening to individual human beings and to society as a whole. For it seems to penetrate deep into the human realm and to pose fundamental questions about who we are and what we may become. My task here is not only to survive the deluge of technobabble myself and to ensure that my readers do not drown in it but, more importantly, to salvage the many nuggets of truth amid this sea of exaggeration and to draw out the possible implications for our future.

We consistently fail to grasp how many ideas remain to be discovered … Possibilities do not merely add up; they multiply.33 The first of the new “ideas” is biotechnology, which may make a major contribution to agricultural production, food processing, and protection of the environment. And developments in medical science promise both major improvements in the quality of life and a much-extended lifespan. Meanwhile, nanotechnology and 3D printing also hold out the prospect of increases in productivity in many traditional areas of manufacturing. And now, on top of this, we have robots and AI. Back to the future This lightning tour of our economic history has brought out several key points: • Continued improvement in living standards has not been our lot since the beginning of time. Indeed, for most of our history there has been next to no improvement from year to year

Accordingly, it would be most unwise to assume that their own market position is set in stone for all time. Because of economies of scale and first mover advantage, they may not be very vulnerable to competitors trying to do the same as them – although they cannot be sure of this. Their real vulnerability is that some new technology may come along and undermine them, just as happened to those who preceded them. Furthermore, some modern technologies, such as blockchain and 3D printing, facilitate small-scale production. Moreover, another surprising possible effect on the income distribution springs up from the discussion of work versus leisure in Chapter 4. It transpires that, in a turnaround from most of human history, in today’s society, those at the top of the income distribution currently tend to work longer hours that those at the bottom. There is some evidence that this does not accord with people’s preferences – in either group.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

So if you want a new set of eight blue plates for a dinner party, they could be assembled in your own PMU. Thus, transport, logistics, inventory, waste disposal and retail all disappear right in front of your eyes. This ushers in a whole new economic system that is less reliant on physical resources and human labor. In other words, we no longer experience physical constraints. 3D printing In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Industrial Revolution created mass production, which in turn allowed economies of scale and turned both business and society upside down. So too, 3D printing (also known as fabbing)—is in one sense a very early and very crude version of atomically precise manufacturing, and it could turn everything upside down once again by making it as cheap to produce one of something as it is to produce many. How does it work? Think of it like a computer printer, but instead of printing pages or flat images using ink, you “print” 3D objects, ranging from a pair of shoes or a new chair to tables or aircraft parts, by adding consecutive layers of liquid, which then hardens.


pages: 523 words: 61,179

Human + Machine: Reimagining Work in the Age of AI by Paul R. Daugherty, H. James Wilson

3D printing, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, friendly AI, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lyft, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, software as a service, speech recognition, telepresence, telepresence robot, text mining, the scientific method, uber lyft

The manufacturing firm uses Universal Robotics’ robots, which can learn tasks on the go and can flexibly move between tasks, making them handy helpers to humans on the factory floor.c a. Dave Gershgorn, “Hitachi Hires Artificially Intelligent Bosses for Their Warehouses,” Popular Science, September 8, 2015, www.popsci.com/hitachi-hires-artificial-intelligence-bosses-for-their-warehouses. b. Mike Murphy, “Siemens is building a swarm of robot spiders to 3D-print objects together,” Quartz, April 29, 2016, https://qz.com/672708/siemens-is-building-a-swarm-of-robot-spiders-to-3d-print-objects-together/. c. Robotiq, “Inertia Switch Case Study – Robotiq 2-Finger Adaptive Gripper – ROBOTIQ,” YouTube video, 1:32 minutes, posted July 28, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJftrfiGyfs. Kindler, Gentler Robots During the second AI “winter,” Rodney Brooks challenged one of the fundamental ideas that had driven previous AI research—namely, the reliance on predetermined symbols and relationships between symbols to help computers make sense of the world (see the sidebar “Two AI Winters”).


pages: 238 words: 46

When Things Start to Think by Neil A. Gershenfeld

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Bretton Woods, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Dynabook, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, invention of movable type, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, low earth orbit, means of production, new economy, Nick Leeson, packet switching, RFID, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush

These techniques can all go from a computer model to something that you can hold, without requiring any special operator training or setup. This convenience is significantly decreasing the time it takes companies to make product prototypes. The machines are currently expensive and slow, but like any promising machinist they are steadily becoming more efficient. As interesting as 3D printing is, it's still like using a PC to execute a mainframe program. The end result is not very different from what can be made with conventional machine tools, it's just the path to get there that is simpler. The real question posed by our Any Thing design review was whether 3D printing could be extended as Lego had been to incorporate sensors and actuators, computing and communications. If we could do this, then instead of forcing people to use their infinitely flexible and personal computers to browse through catalogs reflecting someone else's guesses at what they want, they could directly output it.


pages: 391 words: 71,600

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

Public sector leadership should be complemented by efforts to showcase local entrepreneurship and leading-edge technologies, including providing financial incentives where appropriate. As leaders ask themselves, “Where can we be the best in the world?” the answers might be surprising—desert farming in Australia or local banking in Dubai. Some other country or community might strive to become the world’s leader for innovations in IoT; ambient intelligence; mobile payment systems; virtual reality; silicon photonics; 3D printing; wearables; lightweight, low altitude satellites; drones; native advertising; driverless cars; robotics and industrial automation; adaptive, gamified education; nano-machines; genomics; or economical solar, wind, and tidal power. Each represents an opportunity for leadership that no single community or region has yet seized. Seattle, for example, has become the center of excellence for cloud computing as the home of both Amazon and Microsoft.

See also specific products Tait, Richard, 7, 29 talent development, 117–18 TCI company, 28 teachers, 104, 106, 198, 226 teams and team building, 1, 39, 56, 107, 117–18 technology boom of 1990s, 24 democratizing and personalizing, 69 diffusion of, 216–17, 219 disruption and, 12 empathy and, 42–43 future of, 140–44 human performance augmented by, 142–43, 201 intensity of use, 217, 219, 221, 224–26 soul and, 68–69 transformation and, 11–12 TED talks, 180 telecommunications, 225 teleconferencing, shared-screen, 142 telegraph, 186 telepresence, 236 telerobotics, 236 tensor-processing unit (TPU), 161 Teper, Jeff, 29 terrorism, 172, 177–79 TextIt, 216 theoretical physicists, 162–64 think weeks, 64 32-bit operating systems, 29 Thiruvengadam, Arun, 187 Thompson, John, 14–15 3D printing, 228 three C s, 122–23, 141 Three Laws of Robotics, 202 ThyssenKrupp, 59–60 Tiger Server project, 30 time management model, 138 Tirupati, India, 19 topological quantum computing (TQC), 166 Toyota, 127 Tractica, 198 trade, 229–31, 236 training, 92, 227 transfer learning, 151, 153, 155 transformation, 11–12, 57, 67, 90 cloud and, 42, 55–56, 71 cultural (see culture, transforming) Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 230–31 transparency, 135, 174–75, 191–92, 202, 204–6 Trump, Donald, 212, 230 trust, 56, 88, 107, 135, 169–94, 205, 236 Turing, Alan, 26 Turner, Kevin, 3 TV white space, 99, 225 Twilight Zone, The (TV show), 159 Twitter, 174 2001 (film), 201 two-in-one computers, 129 two-sided markets, 50 Uber, 44, 126, 153 uncertainty, 38, 111, 157 United Kingdom, 215, 236 United Nations, 44 U.S.


pages: 268 words: 75,850

The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems-And Create More by Luke Dormehl

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, disruptive innovation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, lifelogging, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

.: MIT Press, 2002). 13 For anyone interested, the formula he came up with was S(pi + Pii + Piii . . . P) Y = T, where S equals the sum of the principles (P), Y equals intuition, and T equals artistic creation. 14 Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (London: Penguin, 2008). 15 Clark, Liat. “2D Photos Translated into 3D-Printed Translucent Artworks.” Wired, May 23, 2013. wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-05/23/3d-printed-touch-photos. 16 Kim, Seung-Chan, Ali Israr, and Ivan Poupyrev. “Tactile Rendering of 3D Features on Touch Surfaces.” Proceedings of the 26th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology—UIST 2013 (2013): 531–38. disneyresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/uist-2013-final.pdf. 17 Poupyrev, Ivan. “Researchers Develop Algorithm for Rendering 3-D Tactile Features on Touch Surfaces.”


pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Wave and Pay

Nest, unlike every other physical thermostat, aggregates data about energy consumption across all thermostats in an area and provides consolidated analytics and insights to utilities. Today’s products and services benefit from platform-powered communities. A traditional camera, gymnasium, or thermostat would never have employed such business models, but in a constantly connected world, they provide enormous value to all connected parties. f. 3D printing – The distributed factory With the rise of the Internet, manufacturing firms have increasingly relied on external innovators for sourcing industrial design. However, there has never been a concerted shift toward distributed manufacturing because the costs of manufacturing at these individual distributed locations would be too high compared to manufacturing centrally. With the rise of the 3D printer, there are an increasing number of indicators that some forms of manufacturing will move from pipes to platforms, leading to the creation of entirely new markets.

Who can create value units, how they are created, and what differentiates a high-quality unit from a low-quality one are all critical design decisions when building a platform. As we progress through this section, we will increasingly note that all platform design decisions are built around the core value unit. PLATFORM SCALE IMPERATIVE The age of the industrial economy accorded inordinate power to those who held the means of production. In the age of platforms, production is decentralized. Whether it is the decentralization of manufacturing through 3D printing, the decentralization of marketing and journalism through social media, or the decentralization of service providers in the collaborative economy, the means of production are no longer limited to large companies or entities. With decentralized production, the platforms that enable and aggregate this production are the new winners. In a platformed world, the people and processes that determine quality and quantity of value units determine success.


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

Lovejoy, “Stanford University Develops $90 iPhone Accessory to Replace Ophthalmology Kit Costing Tens of Thousands,” 9 to 5 Mac, March 17, 2014, http://9to5mac.com/2014/03/17/stanford-university-develops-90-iphone-accessory-to-replace-ophthalmology-kit-costing-tens-of-thousands/. 58. D. Myung et al., “Simple, Low-Cost Smartphone Adapter for Rapid, High Quality Ocular Anterior Segment Imaging: A Photo Diary,” Journal MTM 3, no. 1 (2014): 2–8. 59a. M. Aderholt, “Researchers 3D Print Smartphone Compatible Microscope Lenses for 1 Penny,” 3D Print, April 27, 2014, http://3dprint.com/2721/3d-print-smartphone-microscope-lenses/. 59b. A. Nemiroskia et al., “Universal Mobile Electrochemical Detector Designed for Use in Resource-Limited Applications,” PNAS Early Edition, August 4, 2014, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1405679111. 59c. A. Simmonds, “Handheld Device Could Enable Low-Cost Chemical Tests,” Nature, August 4, 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/handheld-device-could-enable-low-cost-chemical-tests-1.15662. 60.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, young professional

<http://autodeskresearch.com/projects/dreamcatcher> (accessed 8 March 2015). 290 <http://www.sketchup.com>, <http://www.chiefarchitect.com>, <http://www.mattermachine.com>. 291 Steven Kurutz, ‘Computer Programs Help Users Bypass the Architect’, New York Times, 20 June 2012 <http://www.nytimes.com> (accessed 8 March 2015). 292 <http://www.webuildhomes.nl/en> (accessed 8 March 2015). 293 <http://www.arcbazar.com>. 294 See both ‘WikiHouse 4.0’, WikiHouse website, <http://www.wikihouse.cc/news-2/> (accessed 8 March 2015), and also Rory Stott, ‘WikiHouse Unveils World’s First Two-Storey Open-Source House at London Design Festival’, ArchDaily, 22 Sept. 2014 <http://www.archdaily.com/> (accessed 8 March 2015). 295 <http://www.paperhouses.co>. 296 <http://openarchitecturenetwork.org> (accessed 9 March 2015). 297 Andrew Blackman, ‘Real-Estate Crowdfunding Finds Its Footing’, Wall Street Journal, 13 Apr. 2014 <http://www.wsj.com> (accessed 9 March 2015). 298 <http://www.luchtsingel.org/en/> (accessed 9 March 2015). 299 Naushad Forbes, ‘India’s Higher Education Opportunity’, in Economic Reform in India: Challenges, Prospects, and Lessons, ed. Nicholas C. Hope et al. (2014), 261. 300 Marcus Fairs, ‘In the future we might print not only buildings, but entire urban sections’, 21 May 2013, Dezeen magazine, <http://www.dezeen.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 301 Rory Olcayto, ‘How 3D printing could transform building design’, Financial Times, 30 May 2014 <http://www.ft.com/> (accessed 8 March 2015). 302 Alexandra Witze, ‘NASA to send 3D printer into space’, Nature, 513: 7517 (2014), 156. ‘3DPrinting: Food in Space’, NASA, 23 May 2013 <http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/%20home/feature_3d_food.html#.VP18-N5mjww> (accessed 9 March 2015). 303 Kelly Smith, ‘Minnesota man builds castle with 3-D concrete printer’, Minnesota Star Tribune, 2 Sept. 2014 <http://www.startribune.com> (accessed 9 March 2015). 304 Chris Anderson, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution (2012), 52. 305 Norman Hack and Willi Viktor Lauer, ‘Mesh-Mould: Robotically Fabricated Spatial Meshes as Reinforced Concrete Formwork’, Architectural Design, 84: 3 (2014), 44–53. 306 AKT II, deliverance of Design (2013) and ‘UK Pavilion: Shanghai Expo 2010’, Heatherwick Studio website <http://www.heatherwick.com/uk-pavilion/> (accessed 9 March 2015). 307 <http://brickdesign.rob-technologies.com>. 308 <http://gramaziokohler.arch.ethz.ch/web/e/forschung/221.html> (accessed 9 March 2015). 309 Matthias Kohler, Fabio Gramazio, and Jan Williamson, The Robotic Touch: How Robots Change Architecture (2014), 310–23. 310 Justin Werfel, ‘Collective Construction with Robot Swarms’, in Morphogenetic Engineering: Understanding Complex Systems, ed.

Mountain, Darryl, ‘Disrupting Conventional Law Firm Business Models Using Document Assembly’, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 15: 2 (2007), 170–91. Mumford, Lewis, Technics and Civilization (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010). Nagel, Thomas, Equality and Partiality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991). Narrative Science, ‘Earnings Increase Expected for Dick’s Sporting Goods’, Forbes, 3 Feb. 2015 <http://www.forbes.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). NASA, ‘3D Printing: Food in Space’, 23 May 2013 <http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/home/feature_3d_food.html#.VP18-N5mjww> (accessed 9 March 2015). Negroponte, Nicholas, Being Digital (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1995). Neville, Sarah, ‘Hospital Takes the Pulse of Nursing by Video’, Financial Times, 5 Oct. 2014 <http://www.ft.com/> (accessed 6 March 2015). The New York Times, ‘Innovation Report’, retrieved from Jason Abbruzzese, ‘The Full New York Times Innovation Report’, Mashable, 16 May 2014 <http://mashable.com> (accessed 8 March 2015).

O’Connor, Sarah, ‘Larry Summers: “Robots Are Already Taking Your Jobs”’, Financial Times, 27 May 2014 <http://blogs.ft.com/money-supply/2014/05/27/larry-summers-robots-are-already-taking-your-jobs/> (accessed 10 March 2015) O’Hara, Kieron, Noshir Contractor, Wendy Hall, James Hendler, and Nigel Shadbolt, Web Science: Understanding the Emergence of Macro-Level Features of the World Wide Web (Now Publishers, 2013). OECD, ‘The Internet Economy on the Rise: Progress since the Seoul Declaration’, Sept. 2013. Office for National Statistics, ‘Internet Access—Households and Individuals 2014’, Office for National Statistics, 7 August 2014 <http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/index.html> (accessed 7 March 2015). Olcayto, Rory, ‘How 3D Printing Could Transform Building Design’, Financial Times, 30 May 2014 <http://www.ft.com/> (accessed 8 March 2015). Ollman, Bertell, Alienation (London: Cambridge University Press, 1973). Olmstead, Kenneth, Amy Mitchell, Jesse Holcomb, and Nancy Vogt, ‘News Video on the Web’, Pew Research Center, 26 March 2014 <http://www.journalism.org> (accessed 8 March 2014). Olmstead, Kenneth, Amy Mitchell, and Tom Rosensteil, ‘The Top 25’, Pew Research Center, 9 May 2011 <http://www.journalism.org> (accessed 8 March 2015).


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Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

As we will discuss in upcoming Chapters, there remains much to be done to address technological and social challenges. For those millions of people that will die in the intervening period, we surely have a duty to make it happen as fast as is practicable. It is also worth pointing out that these driverless cars do not operate in isolation and the parallel development of many other technologies will also shape our future landscape - for example, many commentators believe that 3D printing may see the term “factory” redefined and lead to mass layoffs in manufacturing. There are also many more anticipated developments in communications, materials sciences and energy production, not to mention healthcare and even other forms of transport up to and including the mythical flying car (which has recently started to seem less mythical with demonstrations from companies such as Lilium[8] and Uber,[9] among others).

We are facing some decisions we may be poorly equipped to take as we reach a point in our evolution where our technical capabilities challenge long-established pillars of our society and threaten social, political and economic change on an unprecedented scale. The reach of emerging technologies will make the Luddite movement of the industrial revolution seem very, very small in nature. And it’s not just driverless cars - changes are coming thick and fast - from transport, to health to 3D printing, robots and virtual reality - it’s the Hard Wave and we can’t assess this change with a mentality of ceteris paribus (all else being equal). The final push towards driverless cars is going to require a massive amount of engineering effort but, more importantly, regulatory and societal accord about acceptable levels of risk (including very sizable risks to a whole swathe of human employment).


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

He tells me it’s an exciting time at CIC because the residents are currently in negotiations to buy the entire factory complex, with each person paying 25,000 euros for a flat. For now, it’s all rented. Just over 100 euros will get you a room and working space for a month. Throw in the communal cooking system, and you can get by on very little, and be free to develop your own projects (when you’re not putting in some free labour for the community). Dark Wallet is one of dozens of projects at Calafou, Pablo says. Just before I arrived there had been a session on 3D printing. In the room next door, there is a scientific experiment to grow a strand of amoeba that can store energy. The long-term plan is to create organic computers. Other residents are creating compost toilets, manufacturing solar panels, selling clay ovens and building open-source telecommunications. All the apartments are now full, but there are always extra people couch surfing, especially if there is a public event on, which is often.

He started working on a number of Bitcoin-related projects, and even founded and ran the UK’s first Bitcoin exchange called ‘Britcoin’, which allowed people to exchange Bitcoins directly into pounds sterling, rather than via dollars. Digging around the Bitcoin protocols, he noticed it wasn’t quite as secure and anonymous as everyone thought. It was a brilliant invention, of course, but with a few additions could be made even more subversive. That’s when he came up with the idea of Dark Wallet. He moved to Calafou, brought in Pablo alongside Cody Wilson – the American crypto-anarchist who created the first 3D printed gun – and together they raised $50,000 in a month via the crowdfunding site Indiegogo. Although Amir’s technical know-how and experience are admired, his ideals and motivations have put him on the fringes of what has become an increasingly respectable Bitcoin community. Dark Wallet has pitted itself directly against organisations seeking to capitalise and control Bitcoin and its market. ‘Many prominent Bitcoin developers are actively in collusion with members of law enforcement and seeking approval from government legislators,’ reads the Dark Wallet blurb.


pages: 505 words: 147,916

Adventures in the Anthropocene: A Journey to the Heart of the Planet We Made by Gaia Vince

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, bank run, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, mobile money, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, supervolcano, sustainable-tourism

This means going for resource-safe technologies, basing our innovations on readily available materials that are economically and environmentally benign. Carbon nanotubes, which are so tiny as to be transparent, are also excellent conductors, and offer perhaps the most sustainable solution to the indium problem. Carbon is one of the most abundant elements on Earth, and sheets of carbon nanotubes, called graphene, have several performance advantages over ITO. The invention of 3D printing, which will enable people to manufacture things as and when they need them, may spell an end to unnecessary products – such as novelty items – being made and marketed, and an end to excess packaging. Or, it may lead to an increase in the production of poorly made, one-use disposable items. Currently, only a limited range of plastic items can be made in this way, but as more materials and techniques become available, it would be wise to design concurrent recycling methods.

Foundation 342 Goodall, Chris 322 Google 28, 44 Google Earth/Maps 51, 366, 367 Goreau, Thomas 167 gorillas 237, 248, 276 granite 299 graphene 317 grasses/grasslands 7, 106, 109, 129, 221, 222, 231, 238, 240, 271, 287 Great Acceleration 3, 8, 307, 320 Great Barrier Reef, Australia 169 Green Revolution 109, 114, 133, 317 greenhouse gases 8, 23, 34, 35, 51, 67, 68, 144, 146 and biofuel production 145 see also carbon dioxide; methane greenhouses 65 desalinated seawater 219–20 Greenland 73, 177, 178, 182, 215 Greenpeace 183 Gregory, John and Sue 153 Grindr app 367 groundwater 47 contamination of 310 extraction of 50, 72, 115, 203, 215, 379 Groupon (online shopping network) 367 guanacos 74 guano 108 Gujarat, India 110–14, 115–16, 212 Guyana Shield 267 Haber, Fritz 108 Hadley Cell 15–16 Hadley Centre for Climate Research 66 Hadzabe people 223–7, 320 Haiti 28, 366 Haiyan, typhoon 66 Hansen, James 177 Hartmann, Peter 80–82, 85, 86 Haywood, Jim 66 HCFCs 374 helium 298, 329 H5N1 influenza 349 HidroAysén (company) 79–80, 86–7 high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines 213–14 Hilbertz, Wolf 167 Himalayas 19, 40, 46, 47, 51–3 Hippocrates 304 hippopotamuses 207, 229 Hiroshima, bombing of 327 HIV/Aids 135, 198, 234, 245, 283, 349 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 89, 380 Ho Tong Yen 360–61, 362 Hoatzin/‘stink bird’ 271–2 Hobbs, Richard 253–4 Hofmeister, Anke 172 Holocene epoch 4, 7, 8, 9, 17, 238, 264, 299, 338 honey badgers 199–200, 226 honey birds 199–200, 226 Hong Kong 90, 346, 340, 369–70 Hooker, Joseph 285–6 Hoover Dam, USA 77 Huaneng Group: carbon capture facility 330 huemal deer 82, 83 Hulhumalé, the Maldives 162 Hunt Oil 280 hunter gatherers 7, 11, 94, 107, 124, 223–7, 233, 238, 279, 338, 345 Hurricane Katrina (2005) 380 Hurricane Sandy (2012) 379 Huvadhoo atoll, the Maldives 164 hydrocarbon fuels 214, 296 hydrodams see dams hydroelectricity/hydropower 31–2, 39–42, 52, 77–8, 213–14, 327 see also dams hydrogen 16, 214, 298, 329, 365 ‘hydropeaking’ 85 hydropower see dams; hydroelectricity Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol 98 ibex 50, 260 ice ages 7, 17, 34, 264 ice melt 177–81 see also glaciers Iceland 184, 213 ICRISAT see International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics IGCC see integrated gasification combined cycle power plants IMF 135 Imja glacial lake, Nepal 52 Incas, the 62, 270, 333, 334 Independent 178 India 34, 37, 116–17, 147, 320 air-conditioning units 374 air pollution/‘brown cloud’ 37, 38 aquifers 111, 112, 114 biofuel production 145, 332 coal-fired stations 325 GM crops 140, 141 groundwater extraction 115, 117 irrigation 114, 115, 211 land bought in Africa 102–3 mobile phones 28 Slum-Dwellers International network 350 tanka system 115–16, 117 tigers 244, 247 water shortages 110, 114–15 see also Ladakh India Space Research Centre 112 indium 315–16 indium tin oxide (ITO) 316 Indonesia 2, 35, 129, 256 ‘Indus Oasis’ (casino) 113 Indus River 53, 71–2 Industrial Revolution 3, 35, 263, 300, 307, 310 industrial symbiosis manufacture see ‘closed-loop’ manufacture insects 1, 17, 71, 108, 141, 142, 263, 271, 291 as food 97, 148, 388--9 and pest-control 134 see also ants; bees integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants 330, 331, 332 Interface (carpet manufacturer) 319 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) 139–40 International Energy Agency (IEA) 213, 318, 325 International Institute for Environment and Development 98 International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) 328–9 Internet, the 11, 18, 24, 26, 27, 29–34, 136, 322, 367–9 Inuit, the 182 invasive species 250, 252–6 iron 298, 299, 306, 307 Irrawaddy River 53 irrigation 72, 79, 109, 114, 115, 118, 121, 132, 133, 143 with desalinated seawater 219–20 in deserts 107 drip 112, 113, 114, 120 in India 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 211 in Libya 215 solar-powered 211 Isiolo, Kenya 193, 194 Isla Incahuasi, Bolivia 334 Israel: electric cars 373 Itaipu dam, Brazil/Paraguay border 102 ITER see International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITO see indium tin oxide Ito, Akinori 326 Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo 246 ivory trade 198, 246 Jadeja, Hardevsinh 110–14, 143 jaguars 240–43, 237, 247, 260, 270, 275, 278 Janjaweed, the 245 Japan 102, 147, 161, 186, 318–19, 327, 340 jatropha 145 jellyfish 185–6 JET experiment 329 jet stream, the 180–81 Jinja, Uganda 122 Jones, Steve 378 Kalinowski, Celestino 279, 280 Kalinowski, Jan 279–80 Kalundborg, Denmark 320 Kampala, Uganda 112 Kandholhudhoo, the Maldives 160, 161, 163 Karachi, Pakistan: Orangi slum 350 Kathmandu, Nepal 18, 30, 32, 36–7, 39, 42 Kenya 135 drought 193, 195–6, 200–1, 206 education 204–5 206 M-Pesa 28 missionaries/missions 193–4, 199, 202, 204–5, 206–7, 208 pastoralists 196, 201, 205–6, 210 road-building 197–8 shanty towns 350 tribal conflict 193, 194–5, 196–7, 201, 206 see also missionaries; Turkana, Lake Kenya, Mount 46, 235 Kew Gardens, London 286 kha-nyou (rodent) 94 Khone Phaphene Falls, Laos 97 Khulna, Bangladesh 343, 346, 347, 352 Kikwete, Jakaya Mrisho, President of Tanzania 230, 259 Kilimanjaro, Mount 46 Kilimo Trust 120 Kinabalu, Mount 46 kingfishers 268, 271 Kipling, Rudyard 18 Kiribati 174–7 Kissinger, Henry 109 koala bears 237, 250 Kolkata, India: 2 Nehru Colony 366–7 Konik ponies 236 Korea, South 90, 102, 124, 346, 365 POSCO iron and steel consortium 336 krill 180 Kubuqi Desert, China 192 Kyakamese village, Uganda 118–20 Laama, Ringin 40 labour, division of 339 Lackner, Klaus 294, 295–6 Ladakh, India 48–51 artificial glaciers 53, 56–61 Laetoli, Tanzania 223–4 landslides 40, 46, 52 languages 26, 55, 62, 224, 273, 277, 347, 378 Lanzhou, China 362 Laos 88, 97, 98, 99 cluster bombs 90 Communist government 90, 91, 94 opium use 89 road-building 91–2 slash-and-burn 89 see also Mekong River La Paz, Bolivia 274, 275, 310 Las Vegas, Nevada 103, 193 ‘Late Heavy Bombardment’ 298 Laurance, Bill 255 lead/lead mining 301, 310, 315, 316 Leakey, Mary 223–4, 232 legumes 38, 133, 134 Leh, Ladakh, India 50–51, 54–5 leishmaniasis 274 lemurs, Madagascan 247, 250, 256 Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University 294 León, German Cardinas 348 Leonard, Annie: The Story of Stuff 319 leopards 94, 227, 229 snow leopards 33, 260 leprosy 343 Li Quan 247 Libya: Great Man-made River project 215 Licancabur volcano, Bolivia 333 Licapa, Peru 62–4 ‘light-bulb conspiracy’ 312 lighting/light bulbs 315, 371 Lima, Peru 216–17 asentamientos humanos (AAHH; slums) 62, 217, 218, 347–8, 352 fog-harvesting 217–19 lions 227, 228, 229, 239–40, 248 Liquiñe–Ofqui fault line 85 lithium 332, 335–6 Liverpool 349 livestock 147, 148, 196, 200–1, 206 see also cattle; sheep; yaks llamas 74, 221, 300, 334 logging industry 9, 267, 268, 270, 273, 274, 276, 277, 283, 288, 289--90 Loiyangalani, Kenya 199, 204–5, 206–8 London 317, 349, 350, 364, 372, 378 ‘Gherkin’ 374 ‘guerrilla gardeners’ 377 smog 3, 35 Thames Barrier 379 Lopes, Antonio Francisco Bonfim (‘Nem’) 356 Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) 126, 245 Loshner, Gabriella 83 Lovelock, James 294 Lowoi (schoolteacher) 201, 202 Luang Prabang, Laos 89 Lugo, Ariel 254 Luis Val, Adalberto 291, 292 Lummerich, Anne 218 Luna, Javier Torres 217–18 Lyme disease 242 lysine 138 Ma’aden aluminium mine, Saudi Arabia 104 Maasai, the 224, 229–31 macaws 268, 271, 278, 281 McDougall, Gerald 188–9 McKinsey (consultants) 103, 319 Macquarie Island: rabbits 255 Madagascan lemurs 247, 250, 256 Madagascar 93, 124, 237, 264 Madidi National Park, Amazon Basin 267, 269–72, 273–4, 277–8 Madre de Dios region, Peru 278–84 Madre de Dios River, Peru 280–81, 283 Madrid: Canada Real Galiana 344 mahogany trees 270, 275, 279, 289 maize 125, 129, 130, 138, 144, 250 Makerere University, Kampala 137, 138 malaria 43, 121, 135, 199, 224, 274, 283, 293, 341, 367 Malawi 135 Malaysia 28 Petronas Towers 370 see also Singapore Maldives, the 152–3, 156--9, 175, 186 artificial islands/floating islands 157, 162–3 coral reefs 158, 159, 160, 161–2, 164, 166–8 ‘designer islands’ 160–61 heroin dependency 156 overfishing 169–70, 171–2 Soneva Fushi 172–3 tourists 153–4, 156, 158, 160, 163, 171, 172, 173 Malé, the Maldives 153, 154, 156, 161 Mamang-Kanga, Jean-Baptiste 245 Manaus, Brazil 290–91 manta rays 170, 185, 245 Manu National Park, Madre de Dios, Peru 278–80 Manu River 280–81 Manu Wildlife Centre 279, 281 marijuana 357, 369 marine reserves 186–7 Mascho-Piro tribe 279 Masdar, Abu Dhabi 366 Matterhorn, the 48 Mawlamyaing, Burma 91 meat consumption 147, 148, 290, 322 Medellín, Colombia 353–4, 357 Mekong River 53, 88–9, 90–91, 95, 99–101, 105 fish/fishing 95–6, 100, 101 hydrodams 83, 88, 89, 91, 92–4, 95–6 meltwater see glaciers Mesozoic era 221 metals 298, 299–300 rare earth 305, 315, 373 see also copper; gold; gold mining; iron; silver; silver mining methane 41, 78, 129, 134, 178, 214 methanol 296 metro/underground systems 346, 353, 354, 357, 364, 372, 373 Mexico City 379 miconia shrub 252 ‘microloan’ cooperatives 130 millets 130, 139, 143 minerals 191, 272, 298–9, 300, 305 mining 8, 9, 300, 308–9 see also coal; copper mining; gold mining; silver mining miscarriages 203 missionaries/missions see Kenya mobile phones/smartphones 27–9, 34, 118, 136, 210, 212, 231, 300, 304, 311, 312, 315–16, 335, 367 see also M-Pesa Mohammed, Fatima 161 Mojave Desert, California 209, 213, 214 monkeys 275, 291 chimpanzees 3–4, 306 howler monkeys 271, 281 spider monkeys 267, 271, 275–6, 277, 278, 281 Monsanto (company) 140–41 Montana, USA 236 Morales, Evo, President of Bolivia 274, 277, 278, 282, 335, 336 Morgan, Ned 121 mosquitoes 47, 274, 293, 341 moths, urban 377 mountains 8, 45–8, 66–7 painting white 62–4 M-Pesa mobile phone banking service 28, 208, 211, 350 mulch/mulching 133, 134, 145 Mumbai, India 344, 374 Murray River 72 Museveni, Yuweri, President of Uganda 126 mussels 187 Mutharika, Bingu wa, President of Malawi 135 Mwanawasa, Levy, President of Zambia 175 Nagasaki, bombing of 327 Nairobi 200, 207, 209, 210, 344 Nakai, Laos 92–4 Nam Theun II dam, Laos 92–4 Namibia 215, 216, 362 Nangi, Nepal 21, 24, 25–7, 30–32, 33, 36, 43 Napoleon Bonaparte 285 NASA 177, 294, 333 NaSARRI see under Uganda Nasheed, Laila 154 Nasheed, Mohamed (‘Anni’), President of the Maldives 153–8, 160, 161, 163, 172, 173–5, 190 National Geographic 273 Neanderthals 2, 238, 259, 306 Neem trees 134 Nepal 18–20, 21–3, 24–7, 43 Bengal tigers 243–5 electricity 20, 27, 41–2, see also hydropower (below) glacier melt 37, 40–41 hydropower 31–2, 39–40, 41 Internet/Wi-Fi 24, 27, 30–31, 32, 33, 34 tourism 32–3, 39 yak herders 24, 33, 37, 40 see also Kathmandu; Nangi Netherlands, the 236–7, 379 New Guinea: rainforest 264 New Orleans: and Hurricane Katrina 380 New Songdo City, South Korea 365 New York City 35, 317, 349, 350, 365, 378, 379 Bank of America Tower 371 raised railway park 377 water sources 104 New York Times 77 New Zealand 47, 175, 184, 237, 308 Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania 224, 228–30 Niger Delta 309 Nigeria 114 Nile, River 71–2, 79, 103, 122, 204, 207 Nineveh 339, 340 nitrogen 8–9, 16, 108, 133, 146, 373 nitrogen-’fixing’ plants 133, 136, 142, 143–4 Nomura’s jellyfish 186 Norphel, Chewang 53–9, 60–61, 69 North-East Passage 181 North Pole, the 177, 182 Norway: hydroelectricity 213–14 Nottingham, University of: Frozen Ark project 259 Nubian Sandstone Aquifer 215 nuclear energy/power stations 327–8 nuclear fusion plants 328–30 nylon stockings/tights 312 obsolescence, planned 312–14 oceans 150–52 acidification 3, 9, 152, 153, 165, 168–9 conservation zones/reserves 186–7 phytoplankton 152, 180, 190 pollution 152, 187–9 see also Arctic Ocean; sea-levels, rising ocelots 240 Odentethes hatcheri (fish) 83 Ohtake, Ruy 358 oil/oil industry 23–4, 181–2, 183, 280, 284, 296, 308, 309, 318, 326 oil spills 182 Okehampton, Devon 349 Okello, David Kalule 135–9 Olmaikorit-Oumo, Florence 130 Ologara village, Uganda 125–6, 127–31 Oman: peridotite 296 Omo Valley, Ethiopia 203, 204 Omoding, Ephrem 125, 127 Omoding, Winifred 125–7, 129–33, 143 One-Laptop-One-Child organisation 31 Oostvaardersplassen, the Netherlands 236–7 opium industry 89–90 orang-utans 248, 273, 276–7 Ordos, Inner Mongolia 331, 359 organic farming 133–4 orius (pirate bugs) 219 oryx, Arabian 256 oscar (fish) 291–2 ostriches 197 otters 83, 270 oxygen 16, 142, 214, 285, 293–4 lack of 133, 185, 186, 187, 291–2 and photosynthesis 263, 264, 284, 299 oysters 168 ozone 35, 37, 38, 373 ozone layer 3, 11, 17, 66 painting mountains/roofs white 62–4, 374 palm oil 276, 290 palm trees 172, 204, 266, 270, 293, 343 Panama Canal 320–21 pandas, Chinese 257 Pangaea 45 pangolins 245 Pantanal, the 240–42 Paraguay 102, 240 Parana River 102 Parco, Salamon 62–4 Paris 347, 364, 373 Parker, Ted 280 parks, national 236 see Bardia, Madidi, Manu, Serengeti and Yellowstone National Park Pascua River dam, Patagonia 73, 75–6 passenger pigeons 259 pastoralists 205–6, 210, 214, 220, 225 see also Maasai, the Patagonia 74–5, 81, 86 hydroelectric dams 73–4, 75–7, 79–88 Peak District, England 310 peanuts 118–19, 120, 129, 132–3, 136, 143 genetically modified 138, 139–40 peas 51, 139 peat 263, 310 Pemuteran, Bali 167 peridotite 296 Peru 41, 52, 108, 278–84, 332 mountain painting 62–4 pest-control/pesticides 129, 132, 134, 136, 141, 143, 185, 219, 243, 293 petrels 186 petroleum 309, 325–6 Petronas Towers, Malaysia 370 Phakding, Himalayas 39 pharmaceuticals 272 Philippines 28, 65, 66 Phnom Penh, Cambodia 100 Phoenix, Arizona 103, 193 photography 304 photosynthesis 2, 16, 38, 143–4, 165, 180, 190, 214, 263, 264, 265, 284–5, 291, 293–4, 297, 299, 317 photovoltaic (PV) panels see solar energy Phuktse, Ladakh, India: artificial glacier 58–9 phytoplankton 152, 180, 190 piezoelectric generators 363 Pilon Lajas Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia 278 Pinatubo, Mount (Philippines): eruption of (1991) 65 pine beetles 236 Piñera, Sebastian, President of Chile 80, 87 PlanIT Valley, Portugal 365 plankton 84, 168, 185, 309, 386 see also phytoplankton plants 1–2, 47, 70–71, 262, 263, 288, 326 plastic 5, 187–8, 311 bags 4, 128, 189, 323, 341 3D-printed items 317 turning back into oil 326 plate tectonics see tectonic movements platinum 214, 298 Playas de Rosarito, Mexico: proposed desalination plants 102 Pleistocene epoch 236, 237, 238 plutonium 328 Pokhara, Nepal 18, 19–20, 30 polar bears 178, 187 polio vaccination 367 pollution 310, 312, 318, 321, 330, 360–61 and environmental services fees 322–3 radioactive 7, 11 see also air pollution; ocean; waste; polyester garments 187 population growth 3, 9, 11, 36, 146–7, 251 POSCO iron and steel consortium 336 potatoes, sweet 140, 143 Potosí, Bolivia: silver mines 300–6, 307, 310 prickly pear 251, 256 printers, electronic 313 3-D 317 public transport 345, 372–3, see also metro Puerto Maldonado, Peru 283–4, 288 Puerto Rico, Gran Canaria: International Institute of Tropical Forestry 254 pumas 73 pumps, groundwater 50, 51, 115, 121, 122 see also boreholes; wells Pun, Mahabir 18–19, 21–7, 30–33, 37 Pun tribe 24, 27, 41 Putin, Vladimir, President of Russia 181–2 PV panels see solar energy pyrolysis 326 Qatar 219 Quechua 62, 347 Racoviteanu, Adina 60–61 radio 17–18 Rahmsdorf, Stefan 177 rain/rainfall 15, 37–8, 46, 47, 150, 151 acid rain 3, 310 in Africa 118, 122, 195 artificial production of 66, 132 harvesting and storing 115–17, 121–2, 216 in India 49–50, 111 in Lima, Peru 216, 217 in Uganda 118, 119, 122, 128 rainforests 15–16, 262, 264–5, 272–3 Borneo 264, 276–7 see also Amazon rainforests Raj-Samadhiyala, Gujarat, India 110–14 Rajkot, Gujarat, India 110, 115 Rajoelina, Andry, President of Madagascar 124 rats 250, 255 Ravalomanana, Marc, President of Madagascar 124 recycling see waste; water REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) 287–8, 289 redwoods, Californian 218, 293 Rees, Richard 171 refrigerants 17 Reid, Brian 84 reservoir-building 53, 77–8, 104, 112 Restore and Revive 259 rhinoceroses 227, 228, 246, 248, 258 rhododendrons 250 Ribeiro da Silva, José Claudio 268 rice/rice-growing 78, 90, 97, 101, 109, 134, 136, 143–4, 147, 185, 250 genetically modified 140, 141 Rift Valley 203, 223, 232 Rimac River 216 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: favelas 354–8, 367 Rio Grande 72 rivers 4, 8, 50, 53, 70–73, 104, 308 see also dams and specific rivers road-building Amazon rainforest 281–4 Burma–Vietnam 91–2 Serengeti 258–9 Robichaud, Bill 92, 94 Robinah, Byarindaba 118–20, 121 Rockefeller Foundation 138, 139 ‘rock glaciers’ 60 rocks 2, 46, 74, 108, 299–300 Rome/Romans 34, 307 roofs, whitewashing 64, 374 Roosevelt, Theodore, US President 227 Rotterdam, Netherlands 379 Rubbish Island, 163 Ruiz, Rosa Maria 266–72, 273–4, 275, 277, 278 ruminants 221–2, see cattle Rurrenabaque, Bolivia 265–6, 269 Rwanda: gorillas 276 Sahara Desert 195 aquifers 215 Desertec solar power plant 213 Great Green Wall 192 minerals from 191, 272 salamander, jumping 257 Sale, Peter 164, 167 salmon, farmed 185 salt production 334 Salter, Stephen 66 Samburu tribe 195, 197, 201, 204, 208 Samso island, Denmark 325 San Cristobel, Bolivia: silver/zinc mine 333 San Diego, California: Zoo 259 San people 232–5 Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo 273 sand dams 198, 216 sanitation 11, 20–21, 38, 115, 339 see also toilets Santa Cruz, island of, Galapagos 251–3 Charles Darwin Research Station 251–2, 253, 254 Santiago, Chile 75 São Paulo, Brazil: Heliopolis favela 358 saola antelope 94 Sarima, Kenya 201–3 SARS 349 satellites 18, 22–3 mapping by 60–61, 112, 367 Saudi Arabia 102, 104, 308 solar-powered desalination plants 216 superfarms 148 savannahs 221–3, 238, 265 Save the Children 135 scalesia (Scalesia pedunculata) 251, 252, 253 schizophrenia 377 schools see education seabirds 186 sea cucumbers 168–9 seagulls 377 sea-levels, rising 5, 9, 52, 151, 153, 159–60, 174–8, 189–90, 343, 379 Seasteading Institute 189 Semiletov, Igor 178 Seoul, South Korea 346 Serengeti National Park 223, 227–32, 256, 258 Serere bird 271–2 Serere Sanctuary, Amazon Basin 268 service manuals 313–14 sesame seeds 125, 131, 138 Shabab, the 245 Shanghai 35, 89, 211, 321, 322, 379 shanty towns see slums sharks 164, 171–2, 185, 242 whale 170–71 shearwaters 186 sheep 74, 81, 82, 221, 236 Shemenauer, Bob 219 ships 65, 317, 320–21 Shivdasani, Sonu 172–3 Shrestha, Alok 41 Siem Reap, Cambodia 99 silica 84 silicosis 301, 302, 303, 306 silver 304–5, 312 silver mining, Bolivian 300–6, 333 silver nitrate 304 Silvestre, Elizabeth 216–17 Simpson Valley, Chile 83 Singapore 90, 346, 360, 362, 369 Marina Bay Sands 376 Si Phan Don, Laos 95 Siteram (Nepali guide) 243–4 Skarra, Ladakh, India 53 Skinner, Jamie 98 skyscrapers 370–71 slash-and-burn 107, 128, 277 sleeping sickness 225 sloths 237, 250, 270 slums/shanty towns 341–4, 346, 347, 348–53, 366–7, 378 in Brazil (favelas) 354–8, 367 smartphones see mobile phones Smil, Vaclav 250–51 Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC 227 Smits, Willie 276–7 social media sites see Facebook; Twitter soil(s) 108, 127–9, 142 solar energy/power 30, 211–14 combined with wind projects 209, 213, 361 for desalination plants 193, 216, 219–20 for public and private buildings 363–4, 366 panels/photovoltaic (PV) panels 116, 211–12, 214, 315, 331, 332 and payback schemes 211, 212, 323 storage and distribution 213–14, 365 solar radiation management 63–5, 68–9, 132 Soneva Fushi, the Maldives 172–3 sorghum 120, 125, 130, 139, 143, 144 Soroti, Uganda 125–6, 132, 135 Soules, Luke 313, 314 South Africa 118, 236, 351–2 Southern Ice Field 73 soya/soybean 281, 289, 290 Spain 65, 128, 184, 213, 216, 301, 307 spotted fever 242 Stakmo, Ladakh, India 48–50, 61 Stanbic Bank Uganda 120 star coral 257 Starbucks 368 steam power 213, 219, 307, 365 Stone Age 2–3, 307 stoves see cooking stromatolites 16 sturgeon 71 sugar cane 122, 144, 145, 290 Sumatra: rainforest 264 Sumerian cities 339 Sundrop Farms, South Australia 219 sunflowers 125, 131, 138, 145 sunlight see solar energy; solar radiation management Survival International 234 sustainability 323–5, 369, 371, 375–6 Suzano (Brazilian consortium) 290 Svalbard islands, the Arctic 37 Switzerland 20, 21, 48, 60 Syncrude mine, Athabasca oil sands, Canada 4 syngas 296, 330 Syngenta 140–41 Tacana people 269, 277 Taiwan 90, 146–7 tamarin, pied 291 tanka system 115–16 Tanzania 223–4 road-building 258–9 tourism 227, 231 UAE hunting reserves 227, 230 see also Serengeti National Park tapirs 237, 240, 270, 275, 281 tar sands 309 tara trees 218 Target (supermarket) 369 tarpans 236 Tashi (Indian farmer) 48, 49, 61 Tasmanian devils 247 Tasmanian tigers 260 taxes 97, 123, 194, 324, 350, 356, 357, 368, 372 tectonic movements 45–6, 73, 85, 250, 263, 299, 334 telegraphy 27 television sets 313, 314, 315 tenebrionid desert beetle 218 Thailand 90, 91, 93, 100, 256 Thakek, Laos 91, 95 Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India 209 Thiel, Peter 189 Thiladhunmathi atoll, the Maldives 164 Thilafushi, the Maldives 163 Thompson, Lonny 64 thorium/thorium reactors 315, 328 3D printing 317 Three Gorges Dam, China 83 Thupstan (Indian farmer) 50 Tianjin, China Eco-city 360–63, 375 GreenGen energy plant 330 Tiedemann, Kai 218 tigers 94, 243–5, 246–8, 249, 260 tiger wine 245, 246 Tigris, River 71–2 tilapia 207, 208 tin/tin mining 299, 301, 310, 316 tin oxides, non-stochiometric 316 Toba, Indonesia: volcanic eruption 2 toilets 20–21, 25, 26, 113, 115, 116, 348, 363 tokamaks 329 tokay geckos 256 Tokyo: population 340 Tomasetti, Roberto 166–7 Tong, Anote, President of Kiribati 174–6, 190 Tonle Sap, Lake 99–100 Torres, Geronimo 63–4 tortoises 214, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255 Toshiba 314 tourism industry/tourists Amazon rainforest 270, 273, 276, 279 Cambodia 99 and ‘conservation fees’ 248 India 50–51, 57, 244 Maldives 153–4, 156, 158, 160, 163, 171, 172, 173 Nepal 32–3, 39 Serengeti 228, 231 in Tanzania 227, 231 TRAFFIC 245, 246 trains, maglev 372 trees 129, 263 artificial 295–6, 297 fog-trapping 218 see also deforestation; forests tryptophan 138 tsetse flies 225 Tsodilo Hills, Botswana 233 tsunamis 160, 161, 328 tuberculosis 135, 234 Tullow Oil 210 tuna 169–70, 185, 187 tundra, Arctic 178, 293 tungsten 298 tunqui (bird) 279 Turkana, Lake (Kenya) 193, 199, 203–4, 205, 208, 209 and see below ‘Turkana Boy’ 203 Turkana Corridor Low Level Jet Stream 208–9 Turkana solar power station 210–11 Turkana tribe 194–5, 197, 201–2, 204, 207–8, 242, 316 Turkana wind farm 208–9, 210 Turkmenistan 59 turtles 170, 174, 185, 187, 268, 280 Tuvalu 174 Twitter 28–9, 367, 368 Uganda 26, 118–22 agriculture 118–22, 125, 126–33, 135, 136, 137–8, 140, 144 gorillas 276 National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI) 130–31, 136, 138 roads 144 United Arab Emirates: Tanzanian hunting reserves 227, 230 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity 247 Environment programme 37, 248 Food and Agriculture programme 145 GRIDMAP programme 203 United States of America 157 Agency for International Development 133 biofuel production 145 dams 77, 98 maglev trains 372 meat consumption 147, 148 National Ignition Facility, California 329 Natural Resources Defense Council 374 no-till agriculture 142 oil consumption 318 water use 102, 362 see also specific states and towns Ur 339 uranium 308, 315, 327, 328 Uribe, Freddie 342 Uunartoq Qeqertaq 178 Uyuni, Bolivia 332–3, 336–7 salar (salt flats) 333–6, 337 Vabbinfaru, the Maldives 166–7 Vanua Levu, Fiji 176 VCRs 313–14 vegetables 26, 61, 65, 97, 272 see also legumes Venice 168 vetifer 129 Victoria, Queen 27 Vientiane, Laos 91 Vietnam 90, 92, 100–1 floating markets 101 Villa Hermosa, Colombia 341, 342–3, 344, 346, 347, 352 villages 338–9, 378 Vio, Francisco 82 Vishwanath (‘Zen Rainman’) 116–17 vitamin A deficiency 140 VoIP phones 31 volcanoes/volcanic eruptions 2, 5, 36, 65, 66, 68, 73, 79, 85, 299, 333 Vong, Mr (restaurateur) 96–7 Wageningen, Carlo van 210 Walker, Barry 279, 280–81 warthogs 229 waste 310–11, 312–13, 361 electronic 311–12, 313 food 144, 147 plastic 5, 187–8, 326 recycling 319–20, 322, 323, 324, 351 waste-pickers 350, 351–2 water 11, 46–7, 72–3, 215 fetching 202–3 recycling 115, 323, 362–3 ‘virtual water’ trade 102–3 see also aquifers; boreholes; dams; desalination; fossil water; glaciers; groundwater; irrigation; rain; reservoirs; rivers; wells water shortages 72–3, 103–4, 215–16 Africa 118, 121, 122–3, 215 India 49–51, 57, 110, 111–13, 114–15 see also droughts wattieza (plants) 263 wells, hand-dug 121, 122, 132 Westpoint Island, Belize 188–9 wetlands 53, 71, 78, 85 artificial 104–5 whale sharks 170–71 whales 73, 164, 180 wheat 7, 23, 38, 43, 51, 88, 109, 136, 138, 193, 250, 251 Wiens, Kyle 313, 314–15 Wi-Fi 24, 30–31, 32, 356 Wikipedia 12 wildebeest 228, 229, 231, 258 wildlife see animals and specific animals Wilson, E.

Foundation 342 Goodall, Chris 322 Google 28, 44 Google Earth/Maps 51, 366, 367 Goreau, Thomas 167 gorillas 237, 248, 276 granite 299 graphene 317 grasses/grasslands 7, 106, 109, 129, 221, 222, 231, 238, 240, 271, 287 Great Acceleration 3, 8, 307, 320 Great Barrier Reef, Australia 169 Green Revolution 109, 114, 133, 317 greenhouse gases 8, 23, 34, 35, 51, 67, 68, 144, 146 and biofuel production 145 see also carbon dioxide; methane greenhouses 65 desalinated seawater 219–20 Greenland 73, 177, 178, 182, 215 Greenpeace 183 Gregory, John and Sue 153 Grindr app 367 groundwater 47 contamination of 310 extraction of 50, 72, 115, 203, 215, 379 Groupon (online shopping network) 367 guanacos 74 guano 108 Gujarat, India 110–14, 115–16, 212 Guyana Shield 267 Haber, Fritz 108 Hadley Cell 15–16 Hadley Centre for Climate Research 66 Hadzabe people 223–7, 320 Haiti 28, 366 Haiyan, typhoon 66 Hansen, James 177 Hartmann, Peter 80–82, 85, 86 Haywood, Jim 66 HCFCs 374 helium 298, 329 H5N1 influenza 349 HidroAysén (company) 79–80, 86–7 high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines 213–14 Hilbertz, Wolf 167 Himalayas 19, 40, 46, 47, 51–3 Hippocrates 304 hippopotamuses 207, 229 Hiroshima, bombing of 327 HIV/Aids 135, 198, 234, 245, 283, 349 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 89, 380 Ho Tong Yen 360–61, 362 Hoatzin/‘stink bird’ 271–2 Hobbs, Richard 253–4 Hofmeister, Anke 172 Holocene epoch 4, 7, 8, 9, 17, 238, 264, 299, 338 honey badgers 199–200, 226 honey birds 199–200, 226 Hong Kong 90, 346, 340, 369–70 Hooker, Joseph 285–6 Hoover Dam, USA 77 Huaneng Group: carbon capture facility 330 huemal deer 82, 83 Hulhumalé, the Maldives 162 Hunt Oil 280 hunter gatherers 7, 11, 94, 107, 124, 223–7, 233, 238, 279, 338, 345 Hurricane Katrina (2005) 380 Hurricane Sandy (2012) 379 Huvadhoo atoll, the Maldives 164 hydrocarbon fuels 214, 296 hydrodams see dams hydroelectricity/hydropower 31–2, 39–42, 52, 77–8, 213–14, 327 see also dams hydrogen 16, 214, 298, 329, 365 ‘hydropeaking’ 85 hydropower see dams; hydroelectricity Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol 98 ibex 50, 260 ice ages 7, 17, 34, 264 ice melt 177–81 see also glaciers Iceland 184, 213 ICRISAT see International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics IGCC see integrated gasification combined cycle power plants IMF 135 Imja glacial lake, Nepal 52 Incas, the 62, 270, 333, 334 Independent 178 India 34, 37, 116–17, 147, 320 air-conditioning units 374 air pollution/‘brown cloud’ 37, 38 aquifers 111, 112, 114 biofuel production 145, 332 coal-fired stations 325 GM crops 140, 141 groundwater extraction 115, 117 irrigation 114, 115, 211 land bought in Africa 102–3 mobile phones 28 Slum-Dwellers International network 350 tanka system 115–16, 117 tigers 244, 247 water shortages 110, 114–15 see also Ladakh India Space Research Centre 112 indium 315–16 indium tin oxide (ITO) 316 Indonesia 2, 35, 129, 256 ‘Indus Oasis’ (casino) 113 Indus River 53, 71–2 Industrial Revolution 3, 35, 263, 300, 307, 310 industrial symbiosis manufacture see ‘closed-loop’ manufacture insects 1, 17, 71, 108, 141, 142, 263, 271, 291 as food 97, 148, 388--9 and pest-control 134 see also ants; bees integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants 330, 331, 332 Interface (carpet manufacturer) 319 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) 139–40 International Energy Agency (IEA) 213, 318, 325 International Institute for Environment and Development 98 International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) 328–9 Internet, the 11, 18, 24, 26, 27, 29–34, 136, 322, 367–9 Inuit, the 182 invasive species 250, 252–6 iron 298, 299, 306, 307 Irrawaddy River 53 irrigation 72, 79, 109, 114, 115, 118, 121, 132, 133, 143 with desalinated seawater 219–20 in deserts 107 drip 112, 113, 114, 120 in India 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 211 in Libya 215 solar-powered 211 Isiolo, Kenya 193, 194 Isla Incahuasi, Bolivia 334 Israel: electric cars 373 Itaipu dam, Brazil/Paraguay border 102 ITER see International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITO see indium tin oxide Ito, Akinori 326 Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo 246 ivory trade 198, 246 Jadeja, Hardevsinh 110–14, 143 jaguars 240–43, 237, 247, 260, 270, 275, 278 Janjaweed, the 245 Japan 102, 147, 161, 186, 318–19, 327, 340 jatropha 145 jellyfish 185–6 JET experiment 329 jet stream, the 180–81 Jinja, Uganda 122 Jones, Steve 378 Kalinowski, Celestino 279, 280 Kalinowski, Jan 279–80 Kalundborg, Denmark 320 Kampala, Uganda 112 Kandholhudhoo, the Maldives 160, 161, 163 Karachi, Pakistan: Orangi slum 350 Kathmandu, Nepal 18, 30, 32, 36–7, 39, 42 Kenya 135 drought 193, 195–6, 200–1, 206 education 204–5 206 M-Pesa 28 missionaries/missions 193–4, 199, 202, 204–5, 206–7, 208 pastoralists 196, 201, 205–6, 210 road-building 197–8 shanty towns 350 tribal conflict 193, 194–5, 196–7, 201, 206 see also missionaries; Turkana, Lake Kenya, Mount 46, 235 Kew Gardens, London 286 kha-nyou (rodent) 94 Khone Phaphene Falls, Laos 97 Khulna, Bangladesh 343, 346, 347, 352 Kikwete, Jakaya Mrisho, President of Tanzania 230, 259 Kilimanjaro, Mount 46 Kilimo Trust 120 Kinabalu, Mount 46 kingfishers 268, 271 Kipling, Rudyard 18 Kiribati 174–7 Kissinger, Henry 109 koala bears 237, 250 Kolkata, India: 2 Nehru Colony 366–7 Konik ponies 236 Korea, South 90, 102, 124, 346, 365 POSCO iron and steel consortium 336 krill 180 Kubuqi Desert, China 192 Kyakamese village, Uganda 118–20 Laama, Ringin 40 labour, division of 339 Lackner, Klaus 294, 295–6 Ladakh, India 48–51 artificial glaciers 53, 56–61 Laetoli, Tanzania 223–4 landslides 40, 46, 52 languages 26, 55, 62, 224, 273, 277, 347, 378 Lanzhou, China 362 Laos 88, 97, 98, 99 cluster bombs 90 Communist government 90, 91, 94 opium use 89 road-building 91–2 slash-and-burn 89 see also Mekong River La Paz, Bolivia 274, 275, 310 Las Vegas, Nevada 103, 193 ‘Late Heavy Bombardment’ 298 Laurance, Bill 255 lead/lead mining 301, 310, 315, 316 Leakey, Mary 223–4, 232 legumes 38, 133, 134 Leh, Ladakh, India 50–51, 54–5 leishmaniasis 274 lemurs, Madagascan 247, 250, 256 Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University 294 León, German Cardinas 348 Leonard, Annie: The Story of Stuff 319 leopards 94, 227, 229 snow leopards 33, 260 leprosy 343 Li Quan 247 Libya: Great Man-made River project 215 Licancabur volcano, Bolivia 333 Licapa, Peru 62–4 ‘light-bulb conspiracy’ 312 lighting/light bulbs 315, 371 Lima, Peru 216–17 asentamientos humanos (AAHH; slums) 62, 217, 218, 347–8, 352 fog-harvesting 217–19 lions 227, 228, 229, 239–40, 248 Liquiñe–Ofqui fault line 85 lithium 332, 335–6 Liverpool 349 livestock 147, 148, 196, 200–1, 206 see also cattle; sheep; yaks llamas 74, 221, 300, 334 logging industry 9, 267, 268, 270, 273, 274, 276, 277, 283, 288, 289--90 Loiyangalani, Kenya 199, 204–5, 206–8 London 317, 349, 350, 364, 372, 378 ‘Gherkin’ 374 ‘guerrilla gardeners’ 377 smog 3, 35 Thames Barrier 379 Lopes, Antonio Francisco Bonfim (‘Nem’) 356 Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) 126, 245 Loshner, Gabriella 83 Lovelock, James 294 Lowoi (schoolteacher) 201, 202 Luang Prabang, Laos 89 Lugo, Ariel 254 Luis Val, Adalberto 291, 292 Lummerich, Anne 218 Luna, Javier Torres 217–18 Lyme disease 242 lysine 138 Ma’aden aluminium mine, Saudi Arabia 104 Maasai, the 224, 229–31 macaws 268, 271, 278, 281 McDougall, Gerald 188–9 McKinsey (consultants) 103, 319 Macquarie Island: rabbits 255 Madagascan lemurs 247, 250, 256 Madagascar 93, 124, 237, 264 Madidi National Park, Amazon Basin 267, 269–72, 273–4, 277–8 Madre de Dios region, Peru 278–84 Madre de Dios River, Peru 280–81, 283 Madrid: Canada Real Galiana 344 mahogany trees 270, 275, 279, 289 maize 125, 129, 130, 138, 144, 250 Makerere University, Kampala 137, 138 malaria 43, 121, 135, 199, 224, 274, 283, 293, 341, 367 Malawi 135 Malaysia 28 Petronas Towers 370 see also Singapore Maldives, the 152–3, 156--9, 175, 186 artificial islands/floating islands 157, 162–3 coral reefs 158, 159, 160, 161–2, 164, 166–8 ‘designer islands’ 160–61 heroin dependency 156 overfishing 169–70, 171–2 Soneva Fushi 172–3 tourists 153–4, 156, 158, 160, 163, 171, 172, 173 Malé, the Maldives 153, 154, 156, 161 Mamang-Kanga, Jean-Baptiste 245 Manaus, Brazil 290–91 manta rays 170, 185, 245 Manu National Park, Madre de Dios, Peru 278–80 Manu River 280–81 Manu Wildlife Centre 279, 281 marijuana 357, 369 marine reserves 186–7 Mascho-Piro tribe 279 Masdar, Abu Dhabi 366 Matterhorn, the 48 Mawlamyaing, Burma 91 meat consumption 147, 148, 290, 322 Medellín, Colombia 353–4, 357 Mekong River 53, 88–9, 90–91, 95, 99–101, 105 fish/fishing 95–6, 100, 101 hydrodams 83, 88, 89, 91, 92–4, 95–6 meltwater see glaciers Mesozoic era 221 metals 298, 299–300 rare earth 305, 315, 373 see also copper; gold; gold mining; iron; silver; silver mining methane 41, 78, 129, 134, 178, 214 methanol 296 metro/underground systems 346, 353, 354, 357, 364, 372, 373 Mexico City 379 miconia shrub 252 ‘microloan’ cooperatives 130 millets 130, 139, 143 minerals 191, 272, 298–9, 300, 305 mining 8, 9, 300, 308–9 see also coal; copper mining; gold mining; silver mining miscarriages 203 missionaries/missions see Kenya mobile phones/smartphones 27–9, 34, 118, 136, 210, 212, 231, 300, 304, 311, 312, 315–16, 335, 367 see also M-Pesa Mohammed, Fatima 161 Mojave Desert, California 209, 213, 214 monkeys 275, 291 chimpanzees 3–4, 306 howler monkeys 271, 281 spider monkeys 267, 271, 275–6, 277, 278, 281 Monsanto (company) 140–41 Montana, USA 236 Morales, Evo, President of Bolivia 274, 277, 278, 282, 335, 336 Morgan, Ned 121 mosquitoes 47, 274, 293, 341 moths, urban 377 mountains 8, 45–8, 66–7 painting white 62–4 M-Pesa mobile phone banking service 28, 208, 211, 350 mulch/mulching 133, 134, 145 Mumbai, India 344, 374 Murray River 72 Museveni, Yuweri, President of Uganda 126 mussels 187 Mutharika, Bingu wa, President of Malawi 135 Mwanawasa, Levy, President of Zambia 175 Nagasaki, bombing of 327 Nairobi 200, 207, 209, 210, 344 Nakai, Laos 92–4 Nam Theun II dam, Laos 92–4 Namibia 215, 216, 362 Nangi, Nepal 21, 24, 25–7, 30–32, 33, 36, 43 Napoleon Bonaparte 285 NASA 177, 294, 333 NaSARRI see under Uganda Nasheed, Laila 154 Nasheed, Mohamed (‘Anni’), President of the Maldives 153–8, 160, 161, 163, 172, 173–5, 190 National Geographic 273 Neanderthals 2, 238, 259, 306 Neem trees 134 Nepal 18–20, 21–3, 24–7, 43 Bengal tigers 243–5 electricity 20, 27, 41–2, see also hydropower (below) glacier melt 37, 40–41 hydropower 31–2, 39–40, 41 Internet/Wi-Fi 24, 27, 30–31, 32, 33, 34 tourism 32–3, 39 yak herders 24, 33, 37, 40 see also Kathmandu; Nangi Netherlands, the 236–7, 379 New Guinea: rainforest 264 New Orleans: and Hurricane Katrina 380 New Songdo City, South Korea 365 New York City 35, 317, 349, 350, 365, 378, 379 Bank of America Tower 371 raised railway park 377 water sources 104 New York Times 77 New Zealand 47, 175, 184, 237, 308 Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania 224, 228–30 Niger Delta 309 Nigeria 114 Nile, River 71–2, 79, 103, 122, 204, 207 Nineveh 339, 340 nitrogen 8–9, 16, 108, 133, 146, 373 nitrogen-’fixing’ plants 133, 136, 142, 143–4 Nomura’s jellyfish 186 Norphel, Chewang 53–9, 60–61, 69 North-East Passage 181 North Pole, the 177, 182 Norway: hydroelectricity 213–14 Nottingham, University of: Frozen Ark project 259 Nubian Sandstone Aquifer 215 nuclear energy/power stations 327–8 nuclear fusion plants 328–30 nylon stockings/tights 312 obsolescence, planned 312–14 oceans 150–52 acidification 3, 9, 152, 153, 165, 168–9 conservation zones/reserves 186–7 phytoplankton 152, 180, 190 pollution 152, 187–9 see also Arctic Ocean; sea-levels, rising ocelots 240 Odentethes hatcheri (fish) 83 Ohtake, Ruy 358 oil/oil industry 23–4, 181–2, 183, 280, 284, 296, 308, 309, 318, 326 oil spills 182 Okehampton, Devon 349 Okello, David Kalule 135–9 Olmaikorit-Oumo, Florence 130 Ologara village, Uganda 125–6, 127–31 Oman: peridotite 296 Omo Valley, Ethiopia 203, 204 Omoding, Ephrem 125, 127 Omoding, Winifred 125–7, 129–33, 143 One-Laptop-One-Child organisation 31 Oostvaardersplassen, the Netherlands 236–7 opium industry 89–90 orang-utans 248, 273, 276–7 Ordos, Inner Mongolia 331, 359 organic farming 133–4 orius (pirate bugs) 219 oryx, Arabian 256 oscar (fish) 291–2 ostriches 197 otters 83, 270 oxygen 16, 142, 214, 285, 293–4 lack of 133, 185, 186, 187, 291–2 and photosynthesis 263, 264, 284, 299 oysters 168 ozone 35, 37, 38, 373 ozone layer 3, 11, 17, 66 painting mountains/roofs white 62–4, 374 palm oil 276, 290 palm trees 172, 204, 266, 270, 293, 343 Panama Canal 320–21 pandas, Chinese 257 Pangaea 45 pangolins 245 Pantanal, the 240–42 Paraguay 102, 240 Parana River 102 Parco, Salamon 62–4 Paris 347, 364, 373 Parker, Ted 280 parks, national 236 see Bardia, Madidi, Manu, Serengeti and Yellowstone National Park Pascua River dam, Patagonia 73, 75–6 passenger pigeons 259 pastoralists 205–6, 210, 214, 220, 225 see also Maasai, the Patagonia 74–5, 81, 86 hydroelectric dams 73–4, 75–7, 79–88 Peak District, England 310 peanuts 118–19, 120, 129, 132–3, 136, 143 genetically modified 138, 139–40 peas 51, 139 peat 263, 310 Pemuteran, Bali 167 peridotite 296 Peru 41, 52, 108, 278–84, 332 mountain painting 62–4 pest-control/pesticides 129, 132, 134, 136, 141, 143, 185, 219, 243, 293 petrels 186 petroleum 309, 325–6 Petronas Towers, Malaysia 370 Phakding, Himalayas 39 pharmaceuticals 272 Philippines 28, 65, 66 Phnom Penh, Cambodia 100 Phoenix, Arizona 103, 193 photography 304 photosynthesis 2, 16, 38, 143–4, 165, 180, 190, 214, 263, 264, 265, 284–5, 291, 293–4, 297, 299, 317 photovoltaic (PV) panels see solar energy Phuktse, Ladakh, India: artificial glacier 58–9 phytoplankton 152, 180, 190 piezoelectric generators 363 Pilon Lajas Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia 278 Pinatubo, Mount (Philippines): eruption of (1991) 65 pine beetles 236 Piñera, Sebastian, President of Chile 80, 87 PlanIT Valley, Portugal 365 plankton 84, 168, 185, 309, 386 see also phytoplankton plants 1–2, 47, 70–71, 262, 263, 288, 326 plastic 5, 187–8, 311 bags 4, 128, 189, 323, 341 3D-printed items 317 turning back into oil 326 plate tectonics see tectonic movements platinum 214, 298 Playas de Rosarito, Mexico: proposed desalination plants 102 Pleistocene epoch 236, 237, 238 plutonium 328 Pokhara, Nepal 18, 19–20, 30 polar bears 178, 187 polio vaccination 367 pollution 310, 312, 318, 321, 330, 360–61 and environmental services fees 322–3 radioactive 7, 11 see also air pollution; ocean; waste; polyester garments 187 population growth 3, 9, 11, 36, 146–7, 251 POSCO iron and steel consortium 336 potatoes, sweet 140, 143 Potosí, Bolivia: silver mines 300–6, 307, 310 prickly pear 251, 256 printers, electronic 313 3-D 317 public transport 345, 372–3, see also metro Puerto Maldonado, Peru 283–4, 288 Puerto Rico, Gran Canaria: International Institute of Tropical Forestry 254 pumas 73 pumps, groundwater 50, 51, 115, 121, 122 see also boreholes; wells Pun, Mahabir 18–19, 21–7, 30–33, 37 Pun tribe 24, 27, 41 Putin, Vladimir, President of Russia 181–2 PV panels see solar energy pyrolysis 326 Qatar 219 Quechua 62, 347 Racoviteanu, Adina 60–61 radio 17–18 Rahmsdorf, Stefan 177 rain/rainfall 15, 37–8, 46, 47, 150, 151 acid rain 3, 310 in Africa 118, 122, 195 artificial production of 66, 132 harvesting and storing 115–17, 121–2, 216 in India 49–50, 111 in Lima, Peru 216, 217 in Uganda 118, 119, 122, 128 rainforests 15–16, 262, 264–5, 272–3 Borneo 264, 276–7 see also Amazon rainforests Raj-Samadhiyala, Gujarat, India 110–14 Rajkot, Gujarat, India 110, 115 Rajoelina, Andry, President of Madagascar 124 rats 250, 255 Ravalomanana, Marc, President of Madagascar 124 recycling see waste; water REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) 287–8, 289 redwoods, Californian 218, 293 Rees, Richard 171 refrigerants 17 Reid, Brian 84 reservoir-building 53, 77–8, 104, 112 Restore and Revive 259 rhinoceroses 227, 228, 246, 248, 258 rhododendrons 250 Ribeiro da Silva, José Claudio 268 rice/rice-growing 78, 90, 97, 101, 109, 134, 136, 143–4, 147, 185, 250 genetically modified 140, 141 Rift Valley 203, 223, 232 Rimac River 216 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: favelas 354–8, 367 Rio Grande 72 rivers 4, 8, 50, 53, 70–73, 104, 308 see also dams and specific rivers road-building Amazon rainforest 281–4 Burma–Vietnam 91–2 Serengeti 258–9 Robichaud, Bill 92, 94 Robinah, Byarindaba 118–20, 121 Rockefeller Foundation 138, 139 ‘rock glaciers’ 60 rocks 2, 46, 74, 108, 299–300 Rome/Romans 34, 307 roofs, whitewashing 64, 374 Roosevelt, Theodore, US President 227 Rotterdam, Netherlands 379 Rubbish Island, 163 Ruiz, Rosa Maria 266–72, 273–4, 275, 277, 278 ruminants 221–2, see cattle Rurrenabaque, Bolivia 265–6, 269 Rwanda: gorillas 276 Sahara Desert 195 aquifers 215 Desertec solar power plant 213 Great Green Wall 192 minerals from 191, 272 salamander, jumping 257 Sale, Peter 164, 167 salmon, farmed 185 salt production 334 Salter, Stephen 66 Samburu tribe 195, 197, 201, 204, 208 Samso island, Denmark 325 San Cristobel, Bolivia: silver/zinc mine 333 San Diego, California: Zoo 259 San people 232–5 Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo 273 sand dams 198, 216 sanitation 11, 20–21, 38, 115, 339 see also toilets Santa Cruz, island of, Galapagos 251–3 Charles Darwin Research Station 251–2, 253, 254 Santiago, Chile 75 São Paulo, Brazil: Heliopolis favela 358 saola antelope 94 Sarima, Kenya 201–3 SARS 349 satellites 18, 22–3 mapping by 60–61, 112, 367 Saudi Arabia 102, 104, 308 solar-powered desalination plants 216 superfarms 148 savannahs 221–3, 238, 265 Save the Children 135 scalesia (Scalesia pedunculata) 251, 252, 253 schizophrenia 377 schools see education seabirds 186 sea cucumbers 168–9 seagulls 377 sea-levels, rising 5, 9, 52, 151, 153, 159–60, 174–8, 189–90, 343, 379 Seasteading Institute 189 Semiletov, Igor 178 Seoul, South Korea 346 Serengeti National Park 223, 227–32, 256, 258 Serere bird 271–2 Serere Sanctuary, Amazon Basin 268 service manuals 313–14 sesame seeds 125, 131, 138 Shabab, the 245 Shanghai 35, 89, 211, 321, 322, 379 shanty towns see slums sharks 164, 171–2, 185, 242 whale 170–71 shearwaters 186 sheep 74, 81, 82, 221, 236 Shemenauer, Bob 219 ships 65, 317, 320–21 Shivdasani, Sonu 172–3 Shrestha, Alok 41 Siem Reap, Cambodia 99 silica 84 silicosis 301, 302, 303, 306 silver 304–5, 312 silver mining, Bolivian 300–6, 333 silver nitrate 304 Silvestre, Elizabeth 216–17 Simpson Valley, Chile 83 Singapore 90, 346, 360, 362, 369 Marina Bay Sands 376 Si Phan Don, Laos 95 Siteram (Nepali guide) 243–4 Skarra, Ladakh, India 53 Skinner, Jamie 98 skyscrapers 370–71 slash-and-burn 107, 128, 277 sleeping sickness 225 sloths 237, 250, 270 slums/shanty towns 341–4, 346, 347, 348–53, 366–7, 378 in Brazil (favelas) 354–8, 367 smartphones see mobile phones Smil, Vaclav 250–51 Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC 227 Smits, Willie 276–7 social media sites see Facebook; Twitter soil(s) 108, 127–9, 142 solar energy/power 30, 211–14 combined with wind projects 209, 213, 361 for desalination plants 193, 216, 219–20 for public and private buildings 363–4, 366 panels/photovoltaic (PV) panels 116, 211–12, 214, 315, 331, 332 and payback schemes 211, 212, 323 storage and distribution 213–14, 365 solar radiation management 63–5, 68–9, 132 Soneva Fushi, the Maldives 172–3 sorghum 120, 125, 130, 139, 143, 144 Soroti, Uganda 125–6, 132, 135 Soules, Luke 313, 314 South Africa 118, 236, 351–2 Southern Ice Field 73 soya/soybean 281, 289, 290 Spain 65, 128, 184, 213, 216, 301, 307 spotted fever 242 Stakmo, Ladakh, India 48–50, 61 Stanbic Bank Uganda 120 star coral 257 Starbucks 368 steam power 213, 219, 307, 365 Stone Age 2–3, 307 stoves see cooking stromatolites 16 sturgeon 71 sugar cane 122, 144, 145, 290 Sumatra: rainforest 264 Sumerian cities 339 Sundrop Farms, South Australia 219 sunflowers 125, 131, 138, 145 sunlight see solar energy; solar radiation management Survival International 234 sustainability 323–5, 369, 371, 375–6 Suzano (Brazilian consortium) 290 Svalbard islands, the Arctic 37 Switzerland 20, 21, 48, 60 Syncrude mine, Athabasca oil sands, Canada 4 syngas 296, 330 Syngenta 140–41 Tacana people 269, 277 Taiwan 90, 146–7 tamarin, pied 291 tanka system 115–16 Tanzania 223–4 road-building 258–9 tourism 227, 231 UAE hunting reserves 227, 230 see also Serengeti National Park tapirs 237, 240, 270, 275, 281 tar sands 309 tara trees 218 Target (supermarket) 369 tarpans 236 Tashi (Indian farmer) 48, 49, 61 Tasmanian devils 247 Tasmanian tigers 260 taxes 97, 123, 194, 324, 350, 356, 357, 368, 372 tectonic movements 45–6, 73, 85, 250, 263, 299, 334 telegraphy 27 television sets 313, 314, 315 tenebrionid desert beetle 218 Thailand 90, 91, 93, 100, 256 Thakek, Laos 91, 95 Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India 209 Thiel, Peter 189 Thiladhunmathi atoll, the Maldives 164 Thilafushi, the Maldives 163 Thompson, Lonny 64 thorium/thorium reactors 315, 328 3D printing 317 Three Gorges Dam, China 83 Thupstan (Indian farmer) 50 Tianjin, China Eco-city 360–63, 375 GreenGen energy plant 330 Tiedemann, Kai 218 tigers 94, 243–5, 246–8, 249, 260 tiger wine 245, 246 Tigris, River 71–2 tilapia 207, 208 tin/tin mining 299, 301, 310, 316 tin oxides, non-stochiometric 316 Toba, Indonesia: volcanic eruption 2 toilets 20–21, 25, 26, 113, 115, 116, 348, 363 tokamaks 329 tokay geckos 256 Tokyo: population 340 Tomasetti, Roberto 166–7 Tong, Anote, President of Kiribati 174–6, 190 Tonle Sap, Lake 99–100 Torres, Geronimo 63–4 tortoises 214, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255 Toshiba 314 tourism industry/tourists Amazon rainforest 270, 273, 276, 279 Cambodia 99 and ‘conservation fees’ 248 India 50–51, 57, 244 Maldives 153–4, 156, 158, 160, 163, 171, 172, 173 Nepal 32–3, 39 Serengeti 228, 231 in Tanzania 227, 231 TRAFFIC 245, 246 trains, maglev 372 trees 129, 263 artificial 295–6, 297 fog-trapping 218 see also deforestation; forests tryptophan 138 tsetse flies 225 Tsodilo Hills, Botswana 233 tsunamis 160, 161, 328 tuberculosis 135, 234 Tullow Oil 210 tuna 169–70, 185, 187 tundra, Arctic 178, 293 tungsten 298 tunqui (bird) 279 Turkana, Lake (Kenya) 193, 199, 203–4, 205, 208, 209 and see below ‘Turkana Boy’ 203 Turkana Corridor Low Level Jet Stream 208–9 Turkana solar power station 210–11 Turkana tribe 194–5, 197, 201–2, 204, 207–8, 242, 316 Turkana wind farm 208–9, 210 Turkmenistan 59 turtles 170, 174, 185, 187, 268, 280 Tuvalu 174 Twitter 28–9, 367, 368 Uganda 26, 118–22 agriculture 118–22, 125, 126–33, 135, 136, 137–8, 140, 144 gorillas 276 National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI) 130–31, 136, 138 roads 144 United Arab Emirates: Tanzanian hunting reserves 227, 230 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity 247 Environment programme 37, 248 Food and Agriculture programme 145 GRIDMAP programme 203 United States of America 157 Agency for International Development 133 biofuel production 145 dams 77, 98 maglev trains 372 meat consumption 147, 148 National Ignition Facility, California 329 Natural Resources Defense Council 374 no-till agriculture 142 oil consumption 318 water use 102, 362 see also specific states and towns Ur 339 uranium 308, 315, 327, 328 Uribe, Freddie 342 Uunartoq Qeqertaq 178 Uyuni, Bolivia 332–3, 336–7 salar (salt flats) 333–6, 337 Vabbinfaru, the Maldives 166–7 Vanua Levu, Fiji 176 VCRs 313–14 vegetables 26, 61, 65, 97, 272 see also legumes Venice 168 vetifer 129 Victoria, Queen 27 Vientiane, Laos 91 Vietnam 90, 92, 100–1 floating markets 101 Villa Hermosa, Colombia 341, 342–3, 344, 346, 347, 352 villages 338–9, 378 Vio, Francisco 82 Vishwanath (‘Zen Rainman’) 116–17 vitamin A deficiency 140 VoIP phones 31 volcanoes/volcanic eruptions 2, 5, 36, 65, 66, 68, 73, 79, 85, 299, 333 Vong, Mr (restaurateur) 96–7 Wageningen, Carlo van 210 Walker, Barry 279, 280–81 warthogs 229 waste 310–11, 312–13, 361 electronic 311–12, 313 food 144, 147 plastic 5, 187–8, 326 recycling 319–20, 322, 323, 324, 351 waste-pickers 350, 351–2 water 11, 46–7, 72–3, 215 fetching 202–3 recycling 115, 323, 362–3 ‘virtual water’ trade 102–3 see also aquifers; boreholes; dams; desalination; fossil water; glaciers; groundwater; irrigation; rain; reservoirs; rivers; wells water shortages 72–3, 103–4, 215–16 Africa 118, 121, 122–3, 215 India 49–51, 57, 110, 111–13, 114–15 see also droughts wattieza (plants) 263 wells, hand-dug 121, 122, 132 Westpoint Island, Belize 188–9 wetlands 53, 71, 78, 85 artificial 104–5 whale sharks 170–71 whales 73, 164, 180 wheat 7, 23, 38, 43, 51, 88, 109, 136, 138, 193, 250, 251 Wiens, Kyle 313, 314–15 Wi-Fi 24, 30–31, 32, 356 Wikipedia 12 wildebeest 228, 229, 231, 258 wildlife see animals and specific animals Wilson, E.


pages: 87 words: 25,823

The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing Extremism by David Golumbia

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, currency peg, distributed ledger, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, jimmy wales, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart contracts, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

Some closely involved with Bitcoin have suggested that it is an entirely new kind of phenomenon, a “Money-Like Informational Commodity,” but base this definition on profoundly tendentious definitions of economic terms; see Swanson (2014). The Future of Bitcoin and the Blockchain 1. For thoughtful and critical overviews of blockchain technology viewed separately from Bitcoin, see DuPont and Maurer (2015) and Grimmelmann and Narayanan (2016). Typically hype-filled presentations include Naughton (2016), Swan (2015), and Tapscott and Tapscott (2016). 2. For background on Cody Wilson and his promotion of 3D-printed guns, see Silverman (2013). 3. Some of the few exceptions to this rule in scholarship—political analysis that acknowledges the parallels or connections between Bitcoin discourse and far-right political beliefs—include Maurer, Nelms, and Swartz (2013), Payne (2013), and Scott (2014). Robinson (2014) is the best introduction to the general system of beliefs found among Bitcoin promoters. Bibliography Abel, Andrew B., Ben S.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

The technological infrastructure of the twenty-first century is producing the resources by which a very different political and economic system could be achieved. Machines are accomplishing tasks that were unimaginable a decade ago. The internet and social media are giving a voice to billions who previously went unheard, bringing global participative democracy closer than ever to existence. Open-source designs, copyleft creativity, and 3D printing all portend a world where the scarcity of many products might be overcome. New forms of computer simulation could rejuvenate economic planning and give us the ability to direct economies rationally in unprecedented ways. The newest wave of automation is creating the possibility for huge swathes of boring and demeaning work to be permanently eliminated. Clean energy technologies make possible virtually limitless and environmentally sustainable forms of power production.

Siu, The Micro and Macro of Disappearing Routine Jobs: A Flows Approach, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2014, at nber.org. 24.David Autor, Polanyi’s Paradox and the Shape of Employment Growth, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2014, at nber.org; Maarten Goos, Alan Manning and Anna Salomons, ‘Job Polarization in Europe’, American Economic Review 99: 2 (2009). 25.Morris-Suzuki, ‘Robots and Capitalism’, p. 17. 26.The significance of 3D printing (or additive manufacturing) lies first in its generic capacity to create complexity with a simple technology – anything from houses to jet engines to living organs can be created in this way. Second, its ability to drastically reduce the costs of construction (in terms of both material and labour) portend a new era in the building of basic infrastructure and housing. Finally, its flexibility is a significant advance, overcoming the traditional costs associated with revamping fixed investment for new production lines. 27.Businesses will easily be the quickest adopters of this technology, since it can achieve significant cost savings.


pages: 407 words: 90,238

Stealing Fire: How Silicon Valley, the Navy SEALs, and Maverick Scientists Are Revolutionizing the Way We Live and Work by Steven Kotler, Jamie Wheal

3D printing, Alexander Shulgin, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, high batting average, hive mind, Hyperloop, impulse control, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, music of the spheres, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, urban planning

One or two data points like a Moses or a Joseph Smith can’t ever make a trend, but what about a thousand data points? A hundred thousand? A picture is starting to emerge of the worlds inside us. And while it’s no less strange, it is arguably a good deal more accurate than the singular epiphanies that have come before. The Molecules of Desire In 2010, chemist Lee Cronin31 saw a demonstration of 3D printing while attending a conference in London. The technology caught his attention. At his own lab, he was always having to fabricate equipment. So, he wondered, could 3D printers solve this problem? Cronin returned to the University of Glasgow, where he was a professor, and organized a feasibility workshop. It didn’t take long to discover that bathroom sealant—the kind available in any hardware store—could be used as raw material, letting him print test tubes and beakers in any size or shape.

See also kitesurfing switch control of Master, 185–87, 189, 192, 200 of Navy SEALs, 11–12, 14–17, 20, 25–27, 105, 138, 210 Sydney Opera House (Australia): Jones art at, 143 synergy Strike Force, MIT, 166 synthetic drugs, 132–34 Tai, Bill, 171–72, 173 tai chi, 175 talk therapy, 89 Task Force Delta, 190 Tate-LaBianca murders, 67 Teafaerie, 123, 203 technology and acoustics, 139–40, 147, 149, 150, 152 art and, 142–45, 149, 150, 157 benefits of, 74–75 and categories of ecstasis, 23–24 cognition and, 152 consciousness-hacking, 146–48, 149 distrust of, 59 and enlightenment engineering, 146–48 in everyday lives, 177 and flow, 136, 149 and Flow Dojo, 148–53 as force of ecstasis, 74–75, 135–53 and immersive experience design and training, 148–53 importance of, 153, 178, 179, 222 music and, 139–42, 149 and Pale of the Body, 56–60 patents for neuro-, 177 risk and, 136–38, 152, 153 and solving wicked problems, 50 and sports, 135–39, 149 and training, 150–52 and visual arts, 142–45, 149, 150, 151, 152 wearable, 23–24 See also type of technology television, 30–31 temporary autonomous zone, 161 terminal patients, 76, 88 Tesla, 161, 184. See also Musk, Elon testing/experimenting, self, 120, 121, 123, 184, 207 testosterone, 98, 112 THC (drug), 133 therapeutic programs, 29–30. See also specific program Thiel, Peter, 163 Think and Grow Rich (Hill), 80 thinking lateral, 45, 117–18 See also cognition; precognition Thompson, Hunter S., 189, 209 3D experiences and Jones art, 145 and Siegel-Page technology, 152 3D printing, 132, 133, 222 TiHKAL (Shulgin), 122, 128 Tillotson, John, 73 time and altered states to altered traits, 91–93 and brain, 40 and flow, 4–5 importance of, 39–40 lack of, 39–41 See also Ecstasis Equation; timelessness Time magazine, 33, 82 The Time Paradox (Zimbardo), 40 timelessness benefits of, 42 “known issues”/downsides of, 203–5 and learning, 220 and misuse/dangers of ecstasis, 193 and open-sourcing ecstasis, 200 as STER category, 39–41, 45 and Tolle, 76 and training for nonordinary states, 203–5 See also STER tobacco, 29, 62.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Chapter 2: The Nonsense of “the Internet”—and How to Stop It 17 “The internet is not territory to be conquered”: Nicholas Mendoza, “Metal, Code, Flesh: Why we Need a ‘Rights of the Internet’ Declaration,” February 15, 2012, AlJazeera .com, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/02/201228715322807.html. 17 “What made Blockbuster close?”: Eric Snider, “Cranky Chicagoan: ‘The Internet Is Ruining Film Criticism!,’” Moviefone, April 15, 2010, http://blog.moviefone.com/2010/04/15/cranky-chicagoan-the-internet-is-ruining-film-criticism. 17 “The Next Battle for Internet Freedom”: Rick Kelly, “The Next Battle for Internet Freedom Could Be over 3D Printing,” TechCrunch, August 26, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/08/26/the-next-battle-for-internet-freedom-could-be-over-3d-printing. 18 “All too many U.S. lawmakers are barely”: Bill Snyder, “Facial Recognition Abuse Is Bad, Government Regulation Even Worse,” CIO, July 23, 2012, http://blogs.cio.com/privacy/17254/facial-recognition-abuse-bad-government-regulation-even-worse. 18 That facial-recognition technology developed: see Kelly A. Gates, Our Biometric Future: Facial Recognition Technology and the Culture of Surveillance (New York: New York University Press, 2011). 19 a common modern dissonance: see Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). 19 “to be fed the way the Net fed it”: Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: W.

CHAPTER TWO The Nonsense of “the Internet”—and How to Stop It “The internet is not territory to be conquered, but life to be preserved and allowed to evolve freely.” —NICOLAS MENDOZA, ALJAZEERA.COM “What made Blockbuster close? The Internet. What made At the Movies get canceled? The Internet. Who went tromping across my lawn and ruined my petunias? The Internet.” —ERIC SNIDER, CINEMATICAL BLOG These days, “the Internet” can mean just about anything. “The Next Battle for Internet Freedom Could Be over 3D Printing,” proclaimed the headline on TechCrunch, a popular technology blog, in August 2012. Given how fuzzy the very idea of “the Internet” is, derivative concepts like “Internet freedom” have become so all-encompassing and devoid of any actual meaning that they can easily cover the regulation of 3D printers, the thorny issues of net neutrality, and the rights of dissident bloggers in Azerbaijan. Instead of debating the merits of individual technologies and crafting appropriate policies and regulations, we have all but surrendered to catchall terms like “the Internet,” which try to bypass any serious and empirical debate altogether.


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The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation by Carl Benedikt Frey

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, factory automation, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, game design, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, oil shock, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Turing test, union organizing, universal basic income, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Other approaches to the automation of such tasks center on 3-D printing. Roboticists at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore imagine that a robotic swarm of 3-D printers could be used in construction. While this might seem like a distant prospect, engineers have actually managed to create a single-piece concrete structure, using two mobile robots operating concurrently. See X. Zhang et al., 2018, “Large-Scale 3D Printing by a Team of Mobile Robots,” Automation in Construction 95 (November): 98–106. 35. C. B. Frey and Osborne, 2017, “The Future of Employment,” 261. 36. M. Mandel and B. Swanson, 2017, “The Coming Productivity Boom—Transforming the Physical Economy with Information” (Washington, DC: Technology CEO Council), 14. 37. H. Shaban, 2018, “Amazon Is Issued Patent for Delivery Drones That Can React to Screaming Voices, Flailing Arms,” Washington Post, March 22. 38.

Droppo, X. Huang, and A. Stolcke. 2017. “The Microsoft 2017 Conversational Speech Recognition System.” Microsoft AI and Research Technical Report MSR-TR-2017-39, August 2017. Young, A. 1772. Political Essays Concerning the Present State of the British Empire. London: printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell. Zhang, X., M. Li, J. H. Lim, Y. Weng, Y.W.D. Tay, H. Pham, and Q. C. Pham. 2018. “Large-Scale 3D Printing by a Team of Mobile Robots.” Automation in Construction 95 (November): 98–106. INDEX Acemoglu, Daron, 15, 19, 80, 86, 144, 225 age of discovery, 67–71, 76 agglomeration economies, 257 Agrawal, Ajay, 308 agriculture, 34, 54, 62; labor-replacing inventions in, 38; mechanization of, 189; three-field system of, 42 Aguiar, Mark, 338 airline reservation systems, 215 airship technology, 110 Alison, William, 115 Allen, Robert, 65, 75, 121, 132, 223 AlphaGo, 302–3 Amara, Roy, 323 Amara’s Law, 323–25 Amazon Go, 312 American capitalism, perceived threat to, 210 American dream, 251, 280 American Federation of Labor (AFL), 279 American system.

., 152 steam engine: development of, 73; economic virtuosity of, 107; impact of on aggregate growth, 136; universal application of, 249 steel production, changed nature of, 13 Stephenson, George, 109 Stevenson, Betsey, 336 stocking-frame knitting machine, 10, 54, 76 strikes, protection of car companies from, 276 “stylized facts of growth,” 205 subjective well-being, 255 Summers, Lawrence, 261, 349 supercomputers, 290 supply of technology, obstacles to, 77 “symbolic analysts,” 235 task simplification, example of, 311 tax credits, 355–58 taxing and spending, redistributive, 271 tax revenue, 133 technological gap (1500–1700), 51 technology companies, location decisions of, 260 telephone operator, vanishing of, 201 telescope, 59 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Act of 1933, 363 Tesla, Nikola, 152 textile industry, 38, 55, 95 Thirty Years’ War, 58 Thompson, E. P., 90 3D printing, 22 three-field system, 42 Tiberius, Roman Emperor, 40 Tilly, Charles, 58 Tinbergen, Jan, 14, 213, 225 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 147, 207, 270 Toffler, Alvin, 257 Torricelli, Evangelista, 52, 76 tractor use, expansion of, 196 trade, expansion of, 68 trade unions, emergence of, 190 treaty ports, 88 Trevithick, Richard, 109 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (1911), 194 truck driver, 340–41 trucker culture, ending of the heyday of, 171 Trump, Donald, 278, 280, 286, 331 Tugwell, Rexford G., 179 Tull, Jethro, 54 Turing test, 317 Turnpike Trusts, 108 Twain, Mark, 21, 165, 208 typewriter, 161–62 typographers, computer’s effect on jobs and wages of, 247 unemployment, 246, 254; AI-driven, 356; American social expenditure on, 274; average duration of, 177; blame for, 141; fear of, 113; mass, fears of, 366; technological, 12, 117 union security agreements, 257 United Auto Workers (UAW) union, 276 United Nations, 305 universal basic income (UBI), 355 universal white male suffrage, 270 unskilled work, 350 urban-rural wage gap, 209 Ure, Andrew, 97, 104, 119 U.S.


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Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

By adding in graphics and replacing Unix with Windows—the operating system that was then running nearly 80 percent of the computers in the world—Andreessen mainstreamed a technology developed for scientists, engineers, and the military. As a result, a worldwide grand total of twenty-six websites in early 1993 mushroomed into more than 10,000 sites by August 1995, then exploded into several million by the end of 1998.6 Industries Being Disrupted by 3-D Printing Sources: Deloitte analysis; CSC, 3D printing and the future of manufacturing, 2012 Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.com This is the power of an elegant and robust user interface. It’s also a sign that it’s time for an exponential entrepreneur to get in the game. Certainly, deciding when a technology is ripe for entrepreneurial development is not too different from a venture capitalist deciding a technology is ripe for investment.

See http://www.kurzweilai.net/memorandum-for-members-and-affiliates-of-the-intergalactic-computer-network. 5 Chris Anderson, “The Man Who Makes the Future: Wired Icon Marc Andreessen,” Wired, April 24, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/04/ff_andreessen/all/. 6 Ian Peter, “History of the World Wide Web,” Net History, http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/web.html. 7 McKinsey Global Institute, “Manufacturing the future: The next era of global growth and innovation,” McKinsey & Company, November 2012, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/manufacturing/the_future_of_manufacturing. 8 Institute of Human Origins, “Earliest Stone Tool Evidence Revealed,” Becoming Human, August 11, 2010, http://www.becominghuman.org/node/news/earliest-stone-tool-evidence-revealed. 9 Pagan Kennedy, “Who Made That 3-D Printer,” New York Times Magazine, November 22, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/24/magazine/who-made-that-3-d-printer.html. 10 In full disclosure, Peter Diamandis is a member of the 3D Systems Board of Directors. 11 All Avi Reichenthal quotes come from a series of AIs conducted between 2012 and 2014. 12 Based on approximate average share price for 2014. 13 AI, June 2014. 14 AI with Jay Rogers, 2014. 15 David Szondy, “SpaceX completes qualification test of 3D-printed SuperDraco thruster,” Gizmag, May 28, 2014, http://www.gizmag.com/superdraco-test/32292/. 16 James Hagerty and Kate Linebaugh, “Next 3-D Frontier: Printed Plane Parts,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303933404577505080296858896. 17 Tim Catts, “GE Turns to 3D Printers for Plane Parts,” Bloomberg Businessweek, November 27, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-11-27/general-electric-turns-to-3d-printers-for-plane-parts. 18 All quotes about Made In Space come from an AI with Michael Chen conducted 2013. 19 Brian Dodson, “Launch your own satellite for US $8000,” Gizmag, April 22, 2012, http://www.gizmag.com/tubesat-personal-satellite/22211/. 20 Statista, “Statistics and facts on the Toy Industry,” Statista.com, 2012, http://www.statista.com/topics/1108/toy-industry/. 21 Unless otherwise noted, all Alice Taylor quotes and facts come from an AI conducted in 2013. 22 Cory Doctorow, Makers (New York: Tor Books, 2009).


pages: 386 words: 91,913

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age by David S. Abraham

3D printing, Airbus A320, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, commoditize, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Y2K

People will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box,” Darryl Zanuck, founder of Twentieth Century Pictures (1946).18 • “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home,” Ken Olsen, founder of Digital Equipment Corporation (1977).19 • “I predict the Internet … will soon go spectacularly supernova and in 1996 catastrophically collapse,” Robert Metcalfe, founder of 3Com and the Ethernet (1995).20 Since we don’t know which invention will take off, we can’t estimate which rare metal will either. Thirty years ago, dysprosium had little use. Now, in part because of its use in magnets, it is essential for our new high-tech lives. Gallium, because of its low melting point, could find itself in high demand in 3D printing, a type of home-based manufacturing. Or gadolinium, a sister element to dysprosium, has long shown promise in a magnet to produce energy-efficient cooling. This future technology could revolutionize the refrigerator market, putting that appliance within reach of the billions who do not now have one. Or it may always be a technology of the future.21 Rather than predicting the future, we should prepare for it.

See Rare metals Teck Resources, 184 Teddy Ruxpin (talking teddy bear), 119 Telemarketing, indium sales via, 251n7 Tellurium, xiii, 78–79, 80, 148–50, 167, 190, 207, 209, 246n40 Tenent, Robert, 217 Teng Biao, 200 Teran, Alex, 147 Terbium, 2, 4, 151, 167, 174, 206, 229 Territorial disputes, China-Japan, 22–24 Tesla, 145–47 Texas Instruments, 117, 118 Thatcher, Margaret, 30 Thermal-imaging systems, 163–65 Thin film technologies, 148–49 Thorium, 3, 57, 176 Thor Lake mine (Avalon Rare Metal), 54–56 3D printing, 221 Tin, 48, 105–7, 108 Tiomin Resources, 46–48, 54 Titanium: in aerospace industry, 162, 263n30 in airplanes, 96, 128, 156–60, 168, 274n6 commoditization of, 221 market for, 44 in mobile phones, 121 nonmilitary use of, 121, 124, 146, 162–63, 221 shape memory, 221 sources of, 46, 93, 113 U.S. research on, 206 in weaponry, 163, 168, 169 “Titanium Goose” (A-12 spy plane, “Oxcart”), 155–57, 158–59 Titanium Metal Corporation, 156 Toothbrushes, 115–17, 258n3 Toothpaste, ancient use of, 257–58n1 Toronto Stock Exchange, 50 Toshiba, 112–13, 256n42 Touch screens, 261n19 Toyota Tsusho, 108 Toys, electronic, 119–20 Trade secrets, xi Trading networks, 89–114 China, rare metal exchanges in, 96–98 China, regulatory environment in, 98–101 conflict funding, 108–12 evading export controls, 104 export quotas/ban set by China, x, 24, 240n34 Indonesia, illegal trade in, 105–8 Lehrman family, 91–96 limited suppliers, problem of, 112–13 London Metal Exchange, 101–2 overview, 89–91 precariousness of, x price bubbles, 113–14 secrecy in, 16 smuggling, 102–5 Truman, Harry S., 30 Tungsten: Allied actions on, in WWII, 239n28 China, production in, 32, 205, 240n33, 289n16 conflict tungsten, 108, 109 Congo production, 108 export quota, 240n34 in glass, 217 importance, xi, 11 in lighting, 151 patents, 211 production locations, 48 shortage fears, 207, 219 sources of, 32, 48, 93, 108, 205, 240n24, 240n33, 289n16 wartime use of, 29, 30, 239n28 in weaponry, 29, 161–62, 167 Tunna, Nigel, 96 Twitter, 126 Uganda, cassiterites from, 111 Umicore, 191 UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 135 United States: aluminum can recycling, 285n34 Bureau of Mines closure, 222 China, trade case against, 36 on China’s materials exports, 203 cobalt supplies, 19 commodity stockpiles, 291n36 conflict materials, actions on, 110–11 Japan, embargo against, 30 rare metal security strategy, 206, 208–12 reshoring, 212 tungsten, wartime actions on, 162, 239n28.


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Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Science, vol. 330, p. 434, and a subsequent set of research articles in the special issue of Science. 4. “Mining and Manufacturing on the Moon,” from the Aerospace Scholars program, online at http://web.archive.org/web/20061206083416/http://aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov/HAS/cirr/em/6/6.cfm; and “Building a Lunar Base with 3D Printing,” a research program at the European Space Agency, online at http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Technology/Building_a_lunar_base_with_3D_printing. 5. “The Peaks of Eternal Light on the Lunar South Pole: How They Were Found and What They Look Like” by M. Kruijff 2000. 4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM4), ESA/ESTEC, SP-462. Also: “A Search for Lava Tubes on the Moon: Possible Lunar Base Habitats” by C. R. Coombs and B. R.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

Over the past 40 years the jet engine industry has been characterised by very few new companies, and no companies leaving the industry.54 Instead the three major firms have competed intensely among themselves by introducing incremental technological improvements, in an effort to gain an edge. This technological competition continues today, when the jet engine industry pioneers the use of additive manufacturing. (For instance, GE’s most popular jet engine has a number of parts that are now 3D printed rather than welded together out of different components.55) But margins on the engines themselves remain small, and competition tight. By contrast, the maintenance of these engines involves much higher profit margins – seven times higher, according to estimates.56 The challenge with maintenance is that it is quite easy for outside competitors to come in to the market and take the profits away.


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The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, basic income, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, means of production, performance metric, post-work, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

But the pinnacle isn’t about money, status, or applause. “It’s about giving back.”35 The Freelancers Union is part of an emerging social movement called “new mutualism” that’s grounded in the concept of a sharing economy. Jeremy Rifkin sees the sharing economy as the next big thing. He argues that hundreds of millions of people are already on board, sharing “information, entertainment, green energy, and 3D printed products at near-zero marginal cost.” People are also sharing more personal things like clothes, homes, and household items.36 “Flexible,” “diversified” freelancers are the archetypal sharers: They mentor. They give without asking what they get. They see an opportunity and bring people together to seize it. But, most important, they’re seeing beyond today. They know that the future will look very different than the present—and they’re getting ready for it.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Platforms like Dribbble, Threadless, and 99designs have built large ecosystems of designers, largely owing to the democratization of the tools of design and printing over the last several years—yet another case of barriers to entry being lowered, in part through the help of platform tools. The proliferation of new production technologies further enables the emergence of new groups of producers. Just as the smartphone camera expanded the volume of content on platforms like Instagram and Vine, the spread of 3D printing is likely to lead to a new range of platforms for industry design. However, technology often needs the support of innovative business design to produce massive reconfiguration of value creation. Software for word processing, typography, and graphic design has existed for decades, but not until Amazon’s Kindle Publishing platform offered quick and easy access to a large readership did a whole new ecosystem of authors emerge.

., 259 SurveyMonkey, 101–2, 103 sustainable advantage, viii, 209–10, 224–27 Swiss Post, 94–95 switching, 213, 224, 225–26, 228, 297, 299, 300 SXSW Festival Web Award, 97 system development kits (SDKs), 152, 153 Taobao, 2–3, 215 Target, 61, 123–24, 146 task allocation, 56 TaskRabbit, 116, 233–34, 249 taxation, 92–93, 165, 230, 248–49, 260 taxi industry, 2, 12, 16–18, 49, 60–62, 231, 236, 250, 253, 258–59, 287 technology: access to, 141, 209–10, 213 creators of, 32, 33 digital, 60, 283–86 high-, 80 information, 3, 11, 36, 38, 77, 199 innovation in, 52–54, 199–200, 203, 216–17, 228, 241, 256, 258–59, 260, 283–89, 296 standards of, 138–39, 141 startups in, ix valuation of, ix, x telecommunications industry, 77, 89, 262 telephone networks, 20, 21, 29, 91 television, 9, 10, 85, 138, 144–45, 178, 204, 259, 264 Tencent, 198, 217 Tesla, 273 text messaging, 56, 91, 132, 145 Thiel, Peter, 79–82 Thomson Reuters, vii, x, 55, 200 “Thoughts on Flash” (Jobs), 214 Threadless, 25, 32, 66 “3 A’s test” (actionable, accessible, auditable metrics), 202 3D printing, 66, 284 ticket sales, 112–13 time between interactions, 193 Time Warner, 178 Tinder, 97–98 Tirole, Jean, 110, 235, 237, 242 TopCoder, 267 Toshiba, 75, 139 Toys”R”Us, 22, 207 traffic congestion, 62, 233 transaction fees, 38, 115–18, 122, 125, 127, 142 transportation industry, 60–62, 73, 77, 95, 209, 233, 237–38, 278 travel industry, 13, 37, 71, 72, 111, 137, 142, 232, 245, 287 Travelocity, 137 TripAdvisor, 13, 37, 72 trolls, 166–67 trust (participant curation), 67–68, 189–95, 202, 296, 299 turbines, 247, 273 Twitter, 3, 13, 30, 37, 40, 46, 55, 58, 66, 85, 97, 98, 103, 120, 159, 173, 197 two-sided network effects, 21, 23–24, 29, 34, 119, 219, 242, 296 Uber, vii, viii, 2, 3, 12, 16–18, 17, 20–26, 30–32, 36–38, 41, 49–51, 60–69, 115, 116, 126–27, 135, 151–52, 175, 190, 211–13, 227, 230–32, 236, 249–54, 259, 262, 264, 269, 278, 279, 295, 297 UberPool, 49 Uber Safe Rides, 126–27 Udemy, 77, 96, 265 Under Armour, 75–76 UnitedHealthcare, 33 United States, 178, 206, 225, 229–60, 283, 289 Universal City Services Card, 282–83 universal serial bus (USB), 58, 178–81 University of Pennsylvania, 266, 267 University of Southern California, 97–98 Upwork, 3, 8, 21, 24, 32, 36, 37, 64, 65, 73, 116, 117, 164, 193–94, 196, 200, 201, 230, 233–34, 248–49, 299 users: acquisition of, 66, 81–85, 97–98, 112–13, 184–95, 201–2, 299 content generated by, 87, 167–70, 218–19 curation by, 151–52, 155 feedback of, 151–52, 155 growth rate of, 191, 192, 202 identities of, 166–67 incentives of, 66, 82, 87, 101, 102, 166, 173–74, 182, 227 loyalty of, 135, 149–52, 156, 166–67, 190–91, 192, 193–94, 197–98, 219–21, 297 manipulation of, 161, 168–69 network access for, 86, 108–9, 112, 117–18, 126, 127, 146–56, 166–67, 213–14 profiles of, 48, 119, 127, 145–46, 163, 190, 195–96, 247 types of, 122–25 utilities, 272–74 value: of apps, 147, 216–17 creation of, 4, 5, 6–18, 23, 34, 36, 45–51, 58–59, 64–74, 78, 88, 90, 98, 134, 142, 147, 149, 157, 165–67, 181, 185–88, 193–94, 197, 203, 212, 216–28, 262–65, 275, 285, 289, 295–98 de-linking assets from, 68–71 lifetime (LTV), 197, 203 units of, 37, 38–39, 40, 41, 42–44, 51, 59, 90, 92, 93, 100, 101, 102–3, 105, 295, 299 Van Alstyne, Marshall W., ix, 23–24, 69, 106–7, 110, 130, 180, 241, 242 vanity metrics, 201–2 VCRs, 138–39 venture capital, ix, 16–18, 23, 106 vertical integration, 33, 74, 200, 208, 221 video-sharing sites, 37, 39–40, 49, 63, 67, 77, 84, 87–88, 92, 104, 111, 134, 147, 223–24, 299 video streaming, 63, 139, 211, 222 videotape recording, 138–39, 259 Viki, 9, 66 Vimeo, 49, 87, 88, 223–24 virality, 11, 23, 84–85, 92, 99–104, 105, 299 virtuous cycle, 17, 21, 23, 46, 65 Visa, 30, 137, 139–40, 226 visual effects, 252–53 Vodafone, 277–78 Voices, 169–70 Wales, Jimmy, 129–30 Wall Street Journal, 62 Walmart, 4, 32, 55–56, 56, 86, 145, 249 washing machines, 183–84 Washio, 233–34 Waterfind, 70–71 water rights, 70–71 Wattpad, 4–5 wealth distribution, 33, 61, 158, 160, 179, 180–81, 279–80, 300 wearable devices, 222, 245, 269–70, 277 web sites, 24–25, 95–96, 110, 112–13, 167, 244 Webvan, 22, 23 WeChat, 198 Wells Fargo Bank, 83 Wernerfelt, Birger, 208 Westinghouse, 284 Westlaw, 204 WhatsApp, 32, 46, 204 Whirlpool, 110, 204, 208, 225 Wii, 94, 211 Wikipedia, 3, 10–11, 66, 67, 129–30, 133, 135, 149–51 “Wikipedia: five pillars,” 150–51 Wintel standard, 140, 152–53 Wolfe, Jerry, 76 Wood, Graeme, 268 Woodard, C.


pages: 453 words: 117,893

What Would the Great Economists Do?: How Twelve Brilliant Minds Would Solve Today's Biggest Problems by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

Plus, the US has maintained its position as the technology leader, so productivity is high. As for Tennessee, there is a long history of innovation in the state. Eastern Tennessee is where the atomic bomb was developed. Federal funding now fosters advanced industries, so those with a high proportion of R&D spending, and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) workers. For instance, the funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory supports the development of 3D printing (also known as ‘additive manufacturing’). This automated process requires only human programming for just one robotic arm to produce the husk of a car, secreting layer upon layer of plastic. The associated manufacturers who supply the parts and distribute the products also benefit. The company working with Oak Ridge to create the plastics that make the car body strong enough to withstand road stress is a reminder that manufacturing is still based in factories, as is clear from the smell of melting plastic and the loud whirling of machines that accompany this high-tech process.

joint-stock companies Jones, Homer Journal of Economic Perspectives Journal of Political Economy JPMorgan Juncker Plan Kahn, Richard Kant, Immanuel Keynes, John Maynard and the backlash against globalization and the Bloomsbury Group and Bretton Woods System and budget deficits counter-cyclical policies and crowding out on depression/recession The Economic Consequences of the Peace fiscal activism and Friedman The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money and government spending on government’s role in economy and Hayek and investors Keynesian revolution legacy life and times of and Marshall and Niemeyer and paradox of thrift at Paris Peace Conference Prices and Production and public investment and Robbins Robinson and Keynes/Keynesian economics and Schumpeter and ‘socializing investment’ A Tract on Monetary Reform and the Treasury A Treatise on Money wealth Keynes, John Neville Khrushchev, Nikita Knight, Frank Kodak Korea North South Krugman, Paul Krupp Kuznets, Simon labour force growth labour productivity and work incentive laissez-faire landowners Lassalle, Ferdinand Latin America currency crisis (1981–82) see also specific countries League of Nations Lehman Brothers Lenin, Vladimir Leontief, Wassily Lewis, Arthur Lewis, Barbara (‘Bobby’) Life Extension Institute Linda for Congress BBC documentary London London School of Economics and Political Science London Stock Exchange Long Depression (1880s) Lopokova, Lydia Louis XIV LSE see London School of Economics and Political Science Lucas, Jr, Robert Ma, Jack (Ma Yun) Maastricht Treaty macroprudential policy see also central banks; financial stability Malaysia Malthus, Thomas Manchester Mandela, Nelson manufacturing additive (3D printing) automation in China and deindustrialization GDP contribution in UK German high-tech and industrialization see also industrialization Japan ‘manu-services’ ‘March of the Makers’ mass-manufactured goods and national statistics reshoring rolling back deindustrialization process and Smith trade patterns changed by advanced manufacturing US Mao Zedong Maoism ‘March of the Makers’ marginal utility analysis marginalism market forces/economy ‘Big Bang’ (1986) competition see competition and economic equilibrium see economic equilibrium emerging economies see emerging economies Hayek and the supremacy of market forces ‘invisible hand’ and laissez-faire and Marx 4 self-righting markets supply and demand see supply and demand Marshall, Alfred on approach to economics and the backlash against globalization and the Cambridge School and decentralization Economics of Industry and education’s role in reducing inequality and inequality and Keynes and laissez-faire legacy life and times of marginal utility analysis and Marx and poverty Principles of Economics and utility theory Marshall, Mary, née Paley Marx, Heinrich Marx, Henriette, née Pressburg Marx, Jenny, née von Westphalen Marx, Karl and agriculture and the backlash against globalization Capital and capitalism and China and class Communist Manifesto (with Engels) communist theories A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy doctoral thesis The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte and Engels journalism life and times of and Marshall and rate of profit and Ricardo and Russia on service sector workers surplus value theory and the Young Hegelians Marx, Laura Marx, Louise Marxism and the Austrian School and unemployment see also Marx, Karl Mason, Edward mathematical economics Mauritius May, Theresa Meade, James median income Menger, Carl mercantilist policies see also Corn Laws Merkel, Angela Mexico middle class China and economic growth and economic inequality and European revolutionaries income and industrialization and Keynes and Heinrich Marx as proportion of world population and Schumpeter social resentment US Mill, James Mill, John Stuart On Liberty Principles of Political Economy Minsky, Hyman Mises, Ludwig von Mitchell, Wesley mobile phones/smartphones monetarism see also Friedman, Milton monetary policy and Friedman tools see also quantitative easing (QE) see also central banks monopolies and Marx natural and Robinson and Schumpeter and Smith and Sraffa monopsony Mont Pelerin Society Morgenthau, Henry mortgage-backed securities (MBS) mortgage lending and the 2008 financial crisis sub-prime Myanmar Myrdal, Gunnar Napoleon I Napoleon III Napoleonic Wars national/official statistics China UK US national debt Austria and central banks China and creditors and debt forgiveness and deficits euro area and foreign exchange reserves and investment Japan major economies owed to foreigners and quantitative easing and Ricardian equivalent UK US Vietnam National Health Service (UK) National Infrastructure Commission (UK) Navigation Acts neoclassical economics convergence hypothesis ‘neoclassical synthesis’ New Neoclassical Synthesis see also Fisher, Irving; Marshall, Alfred; Solow, Robert Neoclassical Synthesis see also Samuelson, Paul New Classicists see also Lucas, Jr, Robert New Deal New Institutional Economics see also North, Douglass New Keynesians see also Stiglitz, Joseph New Neoclassical Synthesis New Rhineland News (Cologne) New Rhineland News: Review of Political Economy (London) new trade theory New York Herald New York Times New York Tribune Newcomb, Simon Newsweek Niemeyer, Sir Otto Nissan Nixon, Richard Nokia non-tariff barriers (NTBs) Nordhaus, William North, Douglass and the backlash against globalization and development challenges doctoral thesis The Economic Growth of the United States from 1790 to 1860 and institutions Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance life and times of Nobel Prize path dependence theory and Smith North, Elizabeth, née Case North Korea Northern Rock Oak Ridge National Laboratory Obama, Barack Occupy movement oil industry Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Osborne, George Overseas Development Institute (ODI) Oxford University Balliol College Paine, Thomas Paley, Mary Paris Peace Conference path dependence theory see also North, Douglass Peel Banking Act Philips, Lion Philips (electronics company) physical capital Physiocrats Pigou, Arthur Cecil Piketty, Thomas pin-making Pinochet, Augusto Ponzi finance populism Portugal poverty aid and development see economic development challenges eradication/reduction frictional and Marshall and Marx and median income people lifted from in South Africa productivity and agriculture ‘benign neglect’ of Britain’s productivity puzzle and computers and economic growth and education and factor reallocation and Germany and Hayek incentives and industry/industrial revolution and innovation and investment Japan and jobs labour see labour productivity and land low and Marshall moving into higher sectors of and pricing raising and Schumpeter and secular stagnation slow economic and productivity growth and the future and specialization and technology total factor productivity and trade and wages Prohibition protectionism agricultural see also Corn Laws Navigation Acts public-private partnerships public investment and Keynes public spending general government spending see government spending public investment see public investment squeeze see also austerity Puerto Rico quantitative easing (QE) Quantity Theory of Money see also Friedman, Milton; monetarism; Equation of Exchange Rand, Ayn RAND Corporation rate of profit rational expectations theory Reagan, Ronald recession/depression debt-deflation theory of depression Great Depression see Great Depression (1930s) Great Recession (2009) Greece ‘hangover theory’ of Hayek on and Keynes Long Depression (1880s) second recession (1937–38: recession within the Depression) in UK 1970s redistribution Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Reich, Robert reindustrialization Reisinger, Anna Josefina Remington Rand rent-seeking research and development (R&D) investment China Research in Motion (RIM) retail trade Rhineland News Ricardian equivalence Ricardo, David and the backlash against globalization and class comparative advantage theory and the Corn Laws Essay on the Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock The High Price of Bullion international trade theory as a landlord life and times of as a loan contractor and Marx On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation and Schumpeter and Smith wealth Ricardo, Priscilla Robbins, Lionel Robinson, Austin Robinson, James Robinson, Joan The Accumulation of Capital and the AEA and the backlash against globalization and communism Economic Philosophy The Economics of Imperfect Competition Essays in the Theory of Employment and imperfect competition Introduction to the Theory of Employment and Keynes and Keynesian economics life and times of and monopolies monopsony theory and Schumpeter and unemployment wage determination theory robotics Rodrik, Dani Rolls-Royce Roosevelt, Franklin D New Deal Russia 1905 Revolution and Lenin and Marx Samsung Samuelson, Paul and the backlash against globalization Economics factor-price equalization theorem Nobel Prize savings for capital investment and inflation and Keynes and the ‘paradox of thrift’ Say, Jean-Baptiste Schmoller, Gustav von Schumpeter, Anna, née Reisinger Schumpeter, Gladys, née Seaver Schumpeter, Joseph and the backlash against globalization as banker/investor Business Cycles and capitalism Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy ‘creative destruction’, innovation and ‘The Crisis of the Tax State’ and the Econometric Society economics and entrepreneurs on Fisher and Hayek History of Economic Analysis and Keynes legacy life and times of The Nature and Content of Theoretical Economics and perfect competition and Ricardo and Robinson Theory of Economic Development wealth Schumpeter, Romaine Elizabeth, née Boody Schumpeter Group of Seven Wise Men Schwartz, Anna Jacobson Schwarzenegger, Arnold Scottish Enlightenment Seaver, Gladys Ricarde see Schumpeter, Gladys secular stagnation self-interest services sector China and deindustrialization financial services see financial services global trade in services human capital investment invisibility of liberalization ‘manu-services’ and Marx move away from and national statistics output measurement productivity and innovation and Smith Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) UK US shadow banking Shiller, Robert silver Singapore Skidelsky, Robert skill-biased technical change skills shortage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) smartphones/mobile phones Smith, Adam and the backlash against globalization as Commissioner of Customs for Scotland economic freedom on ‘invisible hand’ of market forces and laissez-faire economics legacy life and times of and manufacturing and Marx and North and Physiocracy on rate of profit and rebalancing the economy and Ricardo and the services sector and state intervention The Theory of Moral Sentiments The Wealth of Nations social capital social networks social services socialism communist see communism vs welfare state capitalism Solow, Barbara (‘Bobby’), née Lewis Solow, Robert and the backlash against globalization with Council of Economic Advisers doctoral thesis economic growth model ‘How Economic Ideas Turn to Mush’ John Bates Clark Medal and Keynesian economics life and times of Nobel Prize Presidential Medal of Freedom and technological progress Sony Sorrell, Sir Martin South Africa South Korea Soviet Union and China Cold War collapse of see also Russia Spain specialization spontaneous order Sraffa, Piero stagflation Stanley Black & Decker state government regulation intervention in the economy laissez-faire STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) workers sterling Stigler, George Stiglitz, Joseph stocks and Fisher and interest rates US railroad Strachey, Lytton Strahan, William Strong, Benjamin Sturzenegger, Federico Summers, Lawrence supply and demand see also market forces/economy: ‘invisible hand’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Taiwan Tanzania tariffs taxation and austerity devolved powers of flat for government deficit spending before Great Depression and inequality and investment Japan and Marshall negative income tax to pay off national debt Pigouvian tax progressive and Reagan redistribution through Schumpeter on Smith on Taylor, John Taylor, Overton H.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hedonic treadmill, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

There is a huge wave of investment in businesses exploiting AI, and it is enabling new business models that are disrupting established industries at an exhilarating rate – or a terrifying rate, depending where you stand. Pretty much all media industries are being turned upside down, and so are hotels and taxi services. Transportation services generally and healthcare are ripe for disruption, and who knows what 3D printing will do to global manufacturing? These changes are going to be painful for many, but taken in the aggregate they will improve the quality of products and services and drive down their prices. We will all benefit from that. But it looks very likely that a more extreme disruption will follow within a decade or two. 9.2 – Economic singularity Automation is the replacement of human work by machines, and it has been going on since the beginnings of the industrial revolution.


Lonely Planet Amsterdam by Lonely Planet

3D printing, Airbnb, haute couture, haute cuisine, post-work, QR code, Silicon Valley, trade route, tulip mania, young professional

Some 60 Dutch and contemporary artists set up on the square every week. 3-D Hologrammen/Printed in SpaceGIFTS & SOUVENIRS ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.printedinspace.nl; Grimburgwal 2; h1-5.30pm Sun & Mon, noon-6pm Tue-Fri, noon-5.30pm Sat; j4/9/14/16 Spui/Rokin) This fascinating (and trippy) collection of holographic pictures, jewellery and stickers will delight all ages. You can even get a hologram of yourself custom-made. The shop also offers 3D printed bracelets, vases, lamps and other items. American Book CenterBOOKS (ABC; MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.abc.nl; Spui 12; hnoon-8pm Mon, 10am-8pm Tue-Sat, 11am-6.30pm Sun; j1/2/5 Spui) Rambling over three storeys, this excellent bookshop is the biggest source of English-language books in Amsterdam. Its greatest strengths are in the artsy ground-floor department, but on the upper floors there's fiction and oodles of special-interest titles, plus a good travel section.

Renowned second-wave makers include Wieki Somers, awarded for designs such as her Merry-go-round Coat Rack and rowboat-shaped Bathboat tub, and Marloes Hoedeman, who designed the interiors of retailer Scotch & Soda and who has more recently dipped into fashion design, with her lingerie brand Love Stories. The Future of Dutch Design Dutch designers to watch out for include: Lex Pott, working with raw materials including wood, stone and metal; Mae Engelgeer, a designer who incorporates tufts of colour and texture into towels, rugs and other textiles at her studio in the Eastern Islands; and Dirk Vander Kooij, who uses 3D printing to create furniture and lighting. The waves of intrepid designers have also triggered an explosion of new design stores stocking innovative pieces by established and emerging artists, which continues to feed the industry. Not simply places to view the artistic designs, gain inspiration, or even pick up products for your own home or workplace (although they are all that), these accessible galleries frequently incorporate cafes where you can browse design magazines amid the wares (and where, often, even the chair you're sitting on is for sale).


pages: 163 words: 46,523

The Kickstarter Handbook: Real-Life Success Stories of Artists, Inventors, and Entrepreneurs by Steinberg, Don

3D printing, crowdsourcing, Kickstarter, Skype, Y Combinator

The American Revolution raised $114,419 in 30 days Bill Lichtenstein, who created this campaign to raise funds to make a documentary about pioneering Boston rock-radio station WBCN, explains: “If you look at almost any account of anybody who’s done one of these things, usually they’ll say, Don’t do more than thirty days. It will kill you. Or plan to take a two-week vacation afterward. It’s exhausting. I thought: How exhausting can it be? It’s like eBay! But it’s not.” Crania Anatomica Filigre raised $77,271 in 45 days Joshua Harker, the sculptor behind this project to produce ornate, 3D-printed skulls, explains his campaign’s duration: “I ran my campaign for forty-five days. I think a project can lose steam if overextended, but in my opinion it seems that advice is more for time-sensitive event-type projects or fund-raising. My project happened to be more of an experiment/exploration of the viability of using crowdfunding to introduce and share art, as well as to sell it. I think I could’ve easily hit the $100,000 mark had I gone another couple weeks.


pages: 165 words: 45,397

Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming by Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby

3D printing, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate governance, David Attenborough, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, life extension, Mark Zuckerberg, mouse model, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social software, technoutopianism, Wall-E

This kind of speculation experiments with the aesthetics of physical fiction as much as the fiction itself-degrees of abstraction, levels of detail, material, form, scale, typology. In some ways it probably relates more to fine art and literary speculation. They go beyond scenarios intended to communicate fictional realities by bringing a bit of unreality into the everyday. As an interesting aside, they also suggest that distributing conceptual objects might be a more plausible use for 3D printing than the replacement of product components so often cited as an ideal use for this technology. Noam Toran, Onkar Kular, and Keith R.Jones, Goebbels's Teapot, from the series The MacGuffin Library, 2008, ongoing. Photograph by Sylvain Deleu. © Noam Toran. One of the most beautiful recent examples of model aesthetics is El Ultimo Grito's Imaginary Architectures (2011). The project consists of glass models of imaginary architectural schemes, semiformed physical "propositions for the social, material and spiritual elements of cities."


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

Toward a New World Order 215 Technological and macroeconomic developments of the past decade, as suggested above, have dramatically changed this equation. Since 2005, digital freight documents have begun replacing the classical paper versions, beginning with the air-cargo supply chain, thus radically improving technical prospects for streamlining customs clearance.22 Recent trends in Internet of Things, big data, B2B e-commerce, and 3D printing have all helped shorten delivery times as well, enabling just-in-time sourcing that is also helping to rationalize trans-Eurasian production chains in the electronics, machinery, and auto industries, among others.23 Chongqing, for example, produced no personal computer laptops at all for foreign manufacturers as recently as 2009. Yet since then it has become a global center of PC manufacture, attracting investment in local manufacturing capacity by Hewlett Packard, Fujitsu, Dell, Acer, and other major international brands.

See also Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 209, 300n11 Index Soviet Union: collapse of, 4, 12, 22, 36, 54 – 61, 142, 170, 234, 235; oil production in, 82; relationship of to People’s Republic of China, 142 Spaak, Paul-Henri, 16 Special drawing rights (SDR), 221 Special Economic Zones (SEZs), 53, 58, 59, 134, 138, 139 Spence, Jonathan, 161–162, 163 Spratly Islands, 128 Sri Lanka: “debt trap,” 20, 99, 106 –107, 112, 187, 199, 249; ethno-religious conflicts, 60, 192, 193 Srivijaya kingdom, 123 Stalin, Joseph, 51, 54, 141, 142 Standard Chartered: and BRI finance, 107 Stanford, Leland, xiv State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 103 –104, 105, 109, 112 –113, 187 Steel industry, in China, 108 –109, 109f, 120, 178 Strait of Malacca, 74, 122, 127, 128, 133, 246 Suez Canal, 145 Sunni Muslims, 192 Sunnylands Summit, 239 –240 Super Continent, the emergence of Eurasian: the American precedent and, xiii-xvi; critical junctures and, 12 –15, 50 – 68; defined, 49 –50; geo-economics and, 1–2, 9, 15, 49; infrastructure and, 213 –218; US response to, 240 –251 Superhighways, 44, 153, 216, 229 Supply chains: ambivalence, 177; examples, 183, 215, 217; and Logistics Revolution, 44, 85 – 88, 119, 217; and collapse of the Soviet Union, 56, 92, 173, 234 –235; and the United States, 241–242, 250 Surabaya, 123, 124 Suzhou, 126, 138 Sweden, 113, 164, 167, 244 SWIFT (payment system), 223 Syndrome, concept of, 23 Syriza (Greece), 201, 202 Systems transformation, alternative routes to, 210 –211 Tajikistan, 197, 199, 283n14 Tang dynasty, 28, 29, 47 323 Tencent, 104 TEN-T Orient/East Mediterranean Corridor project, 175, 176m Thailand, 118, 124 –125, 127, 129, 131–133, 134, 135 Thatcher, Margaret, 62 “Third-wave” democratic uprisings, 238 3D printing, 215 Tianjin, 53, 92, 115, 126, 138, 248 Tianxia (all under heaven). See China: approach of to global order (tianxia) Train OSE (Greek railway company), 88 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP), 212, 242 Transcontinental Railroad, xiii, xiv–xv, xvi Transit trade, as catalyst for deeper integration, 77, 84 –93, 98 Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 203, 212, 224, 234 Transportation networks, China–Southeast Asia, 130 Transport technology, 182.


pages: 183 words: 54,731

Asteroid Mining 101: Wealth for the New Space Economy by John Lewis

3D printing, cosmic abundance, Elon Musk, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, Kuiper Belt, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, zero-sum game

Their high abundance, occurrence as native metals, and ease of fabrication recommend them in preference to aluminum, magnesium, or titanium, which are far harder to extract and purify. The gaseous carbonyl process not only affords a means of extracting and purifying the ferrous metals, but also offers a highly desirable material for either chemical vapor deposition or laser chemical vapor deposition of iron, nickel, and cobalt. The gaseous carbonyls would be of high utility in 3D printing of specialty parts. Matching Sources and Demand Sites We can see ways to provide a wide variety of products, starting with volatiles and ferrous metals, in space. But where are these products needed? Ideally, we should establish not only where these materials are needed, but the quantities in which they are needed and the present cost of meeting those demands from Earth. Propellants are in demand in LEO for launching into geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO), to the Moon, the planets, and the asteroids.


pages: 181 words: 52,147

The Driver in the Driverless Car: How Our Technology Choices Will Create the Future by Vivek Wadhwa, Alex Salkever

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Google bus, Hyperloop, income inequality, Internet of things, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, life extension, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Menlo Park, microbiome, mobile money, new economy, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Thomas Davenport, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

“Equipment Authorization Approval Guide,” Federal Communications Commission 21 October 2015, https://www.fcc.gov/engineering-technology/laboratory-division/general/equipment-authorization (accessed 21 October 2016). CHAPTER FOURTEEN 1. Rob Stein, “Baby thrives once 3-D-printed windpipe helps him breathe,” NPR 23 December 2014, http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/12/23/370381866/baby-thrives-once-3D-printed-windpipe-helps-him-breathe (accessed 21 October 2016). 2. NPR 17 March 2014,http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/03/17/289042381/doctors-use-3-d-printing-to-help-a-baby-breathe. 3. Elizabeth Svoboda, “ ‘Watch me walk,’ ” Saturday Evening Post March– April 2012;284(2):20– 25, http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2012/03/14/in-the-magazine/health-in-the-magazine/watch-walk.html (accessed 21 October 2016). 4.


pages: 470 words: 148,730

Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems by Abhijit V. Banerjee, Esther Duflo

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, charter city, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, fear of failure, financial innovation, George Akerlof, high net worth, immigration reform, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, land reform, loss aversion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart meter, social graph, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K

Robots cannot fold laundry. Three dimensional (3D) printing won’t affect large-scale manufacturing. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are “nothing new.”14 They have been around at least since 2004 and have done nothing for growth. And so on. It is clear of course that nothing Gordon says precludes the possibility that something entirely unexpected, perhaps some hitherto unimagined combination of familiar ingredients, will prove to be transformative. It is just his hunch that it won’t. Mokyr, on the other hand, sees a bright future for economic growth, spurred by nations competing to be the leader in science and technology, and the resulting rapid spread of innovation worldwide. He sees the potential for progress in laser technology, medical science, genetic engineering, and 3D printing. To Gordon’s claim that nothing much changed in fundamental ways in how we produced in the last few decades, he counters: “The tools we have today make anything that we had even in 1950 look like clumsy toys by comparison.”15 But mostly, Mokyr thinks that the way the world economy has changed and globalized produces the right environment for innovations to bloom and change the world, in ways we cannot even begin to envision.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

Scale will require advances in technology and cost reduction—and spending on infrastructure.2 Hydrogen could end up a 10 percent or more player in the energy mix in the future. Indeed, some see hydrogen today as where renewables were two or three decades ago in terms of development. It is striking, too, that hydrogen does not seem to involve geopolitical issues. It is either a tool for countries to meet ambitious decarbonization goals or an opportunity for export, becoming a globally-traded commodity. Advanced manufacturing, including 3D printing, could have a major impact on energy use by reducing transportation costs. New technologies for buildings could make them much more energy efficient. Electric grid modernization and smart cities could apply digital technologies, increase resilience, and create two-way flows between energy suppliers and customers. Of critical importance will be large-scale management of carbon itself. Some dismiss carbon capture because they want a world in which there are no carbon emissions from human activity.

See ride-hailing services and taxis Taxonomy (EU report), 389 TC Energy (Trans Canada), 47 technological advances and Arctic gas reserves, 111 and automobile industry, xviii, 366–73, 415, 427 and autonomous vehicles, 347–57, 368–69, 373 China, 174–75 and container shipping, 161–64 and current geopolitical challenges, 425 and electric vehicles, xviii, 327–46, 368–71, 415, 427, 430 and hydraulic fracturing techniques, 7 and “low-carbon energy,” 418 and oil sands production, 46 and pace of innovation, 429 and sanctions against Russia, 97–98 and U.S. oil production levels, 64 Tengiz field, 122 terrorism, 216, 221–22, 228, 230–31, 241, 249, 253, 261–65, 270, 286–88, 296 Tesla, 330–34, 338–40, 344 Texas, 3–6, 7, 9–10, 20, 23, 24, 29–30, 399 Thatcher, Margaret, 214 3D printing, 404, 425 Three Forks stratum, 19 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, 349 Thrun, Sebastian, 349–51, 352–53, 357 Thucydides Trap, 131, 154, 425 Thunberg, Greta, 384 Tibet, 150 Time, 18, 20 TNK-BP, 76 Tokayev, Kassym-Jomart, 123 Total, 112 Toyoda, Akio, 369 Toyota, 338, 369 trade wars, 26, 130, 171, 174–75, 286 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 134 Treaty of Lausanne, 201 Treaty of Nanking, 139 Truman, Harry, 60, 211 Trump, Donald impeachment, xvi, 110 and influence of U.S., 188 and Iranian nuclear ambitions, 227 and Nord Stream 2 pipeline project, 105–7, 108 and pipeline battles in U.S., 51 and price war among petroleum producers, 317–20 relationship with Russia, 103 and Russian election interference, 78 and Saudi relations, 306 and Syrian civil war, 247 and U.S.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Most recent advances are in the treatment of physical ailments, thus prolonging life for those who can afford them. There have been no comparable breakthroughs in curing mental illness, such as Alzheimer’s. Longer lives at the same rates of mental incapacity will be bad for productivity. Technology may continue to surprise in dazzling ways. But if the iPhone did not lift productivity rates, what could? Perhaps 3D printing? Or a cryonic leap into immortality? Initially, I feared Gordon’s pessimism was correct. Silicon Valley’s wilder futurologists make it easy to dismiss the future as bunk. Now my fear is that Gordon is wrong. We should be careful what we wish for. It looks increasingly likely we are going to get it. Again, to grasp this, think about the world as a whole. What has befallen the West’s blue-collar workforce in the last generation is the shift of routine physical tasks to the factory floors of the developing world.


Demystifying Smart Cities by Anders Lisdorf

3D printing, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital twin, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Google Glasses, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Masdar, microservices, Minecraft, platform as a service, ransomware, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, self-driving car, smart cities, smart meter, software as a service, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

This is a good case to show how simple tracking of vehicles can give insight and transparency to a concern for city residents, but also why privacy concerns can impact a solution. Exteros This New York startup has developed a device that can count and categorize people, for example, in a shopping mall. It uses computer vision and artificial intelligence to categorize and count people as they move through the field of vision. The device is based on a Raspberry Pi, a camera, and a 3D printed case. This is a great example of the flexibility and availability of components to make innovative IoT solutions today. Earlier a vendor would have had to find an adequate camera and microcontroller. Then the logic would have had to be developed. In this case, machine learning models need to be trained and implemented on the chip. Then a case manufacturer would have to be found, and finally an assembly line would need to be set up to assemble and test each device.


pages: 204 words: 66,619

Think Like an Engineer: Use Systematic Thinking to Solve Everyday Challenges & Unlock the Inherent Values in Them by Mushtak Al-Atabi

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Black Swan, business climate, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cognitive bias, corporate social responsibility, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, follow your passion, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, invention of the wheel, iterative process, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, Lean Startup, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, remote working, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker

So instead of shipping atoms and physical objects, the trend is heading gradually to shipping bits through the Internet. When searching for ideas for improving products and services, ask yourself this question: Can I make the product or the service digital? Currently, researchers are working on 3D printers that can print variety of materials from metals to plastics and even electronics and food. Imagine being able to download pizza or your own car over the Internet one day! 3D Printing Technology. Enabling the Transformation from Shipping Atoms to Shipping Bits 4.2.5.3 Space Segmentation The next time you iron your shirt, think of the journey of the iron as a product! It started as a solid block of metal that is heated externally using coal. The improved version was a hollow iron with burning coal inside, this resulted in less material used and longer heating time, since the heating element is carried within the iron itself.


pages: 244 words: 66,977

Subscribed: Why the Subscription Model Will Be Your Company's Future - and What to Do About It by Tien Tzuo, Gabe Weisert

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, connected car, death of newspapers, digital twin, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Lean Startup, Lyft, manufacturing employment, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pets.com, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart meter, social graph, software as a service, spice trade, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, transport as a service, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Y2K, Zipcar

As analyst Horace Dediu notes, “Without control over the platform, PC hardware is nothing more than a commodity, with negligible margins, intense competition and an inability to control one’s destiny.” IBM lost the war by giving the user experience over to Microsoft, and the same thing is going to happen to the legacy car companies when they inevitably hand over their dashboard intelligence to Apple, Google, and Facebook. And with all the dramatic improvements we’re seeing in manufacturing and 3D printing, maybe a whole new crop of automobile start-ups will be able to batch-print their own vehicles in Chinese factories (just like cell phones!), right? Wrong. As it turns out, it is really hard to build a safe, great car at scale. Just ask Elon Musk. Or Apple. Or Google. SILICON VALLEY VERSUS DETROIT? BET ON DETROIT As it turns out, the Big Three have some distinct institutional advantages over Silicon Valley when it comes to building the future of the automobile industry.


pages: 281 words: 72,885

Stuff Matters: Exploring the Marvelous Materials That Shape Our Man-Made World by Mark Miodownik

3D printing, active measures, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, liquidity trap, New Urbanism, stem cell, trade route

In the case of livers and kidneys, they need not only to develop a blood supply but also to be connected to the main arteries of the body. The heart is a particularly acute problem because we have only one, and without one that functions, we die. Types of artificial heart have been developed, but the longest anyone has survived with one is a year. Artificial jawbone created using a 3D printer. It is likely that 3D printing will play a central role in any technology that involves engineering new organs. These 3D printers are already used widely for making dental implants, and in 2012 this same technology was used to create an artificial jawbone for an eighty-three-year-old woman. This jaw was made from titanium, but the printing of a scaffold material to accommodate the cells that will turn it into a patient’s own bone is rapidly becoming possible.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

When I first wrote this chapter I could find 17 different so-called ‘dark sites’, where you can buy drugs with bitcoins on the Tor network: Silk Road 2.0, Black Market Reloaded, Pandora Market, Agora Market, TorMarket, The Marketplace (the M of ‘Market’ is the McDonald’s M), the Three Hares Bazaar, the RoadSilk, White Rabbit Marketplace, Outlaw Market, Bungee Discreet Global Mailorder, Blue Sky, Modern Culture, Budster, Dutchy and Utopia. At Utopia I noticed you could also buy a guide to hacking ATMs, $100 of counterfeit dollars for $35 together with instructions on how to spend them, and ‘untraceable, 3D-printed guns’. At the point of final edit, there now seem to be 25 different sites. Meanwhile, of the above, Black Market Reloaded has shut down, TorMarket disappeared in a scam, as did Budster, Three Hares doesn’t seem to have ever actually operated, RoadSilk has renamed itself Pirate Market, White Rabbit I’m advised is currently a scam, and Utopia has been busted by Dutch police. These are just the ones a cursory search has revealed to me.


pages: 229 words: 67,752

The Quantum Curators and the Fabergé Egg: A Fast Paced Portal Adventure by Eva St. John

3D printing, Berlin Wall, clean water, double helix, Fall of the Berlin Wall, off grid, performance metric

I’d have rather had her here by my side, but at least I could stand proud knowing that I had been her partner. This evening’s event was to launch the new acquisition; an undiscovered Fabergé egg. I had promised Julius that it would be going to the world’s greatest museum, and here it was in the Mouseion of Alexandria. Julius and I were given pride of place as the egg was revealed. Of course, the actual egg was stored in a hermetic vault, but in front of us was a perfect 3D printed replica. ‘So, someone sitting in New York can dial this up and hold a copy for themselves?’ ‘Yes,’ I said, and smiled. It seemed funny explaining something that a seven-year-old knew inside out. ‘And they wouldn’t be able to tell the difference? Everything moves and feels the same?’ ‘Identical. E