3D printing

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pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

3-D Printers Could Recycle Old Bottles,” Tech News Daily, January 18, 2012, http://www.technewsdaily.com/5446-filabot-3d-printing-material-recycled-plastic.html (accessed February 2, 2013); “Filabot Wee Kit Order Form,” Filabot: the Personal Filament Maker, http://www.filabot.com/collections/filabot-systems/products/filabot-wee-kit-welded (accessed February 2, 2013). 19. David J. Hill, “3-D Printing Robot Produces Chairs and Tables from Recycled Waste,” Singularity Hub, April 23, 2012, http://singularityhub.com/2012/04/23/3d-printing-robot-produces -chairs-and-tables-from-recycled-waste/ (accessed April 4, 2013). 20. Jason Dorrier, “3-D Printed Homes? Here’s the Scoop,” Singularity Hub, August 22, 2012, http://singularityhub.com/2012/08/22/3d-printers-may-someday-construct-homes-in-less-than -a-day/ (accessed April 30, 2013). 21. Jordan Cook, “The World’s First 3-D-Printed Building Will Arrive in 2014 (and It Looks Awesome),” TechCrunch, January 20, 2013, http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/20/the-worlds-first-3d -printed-building-will-arrive-in-2014-and-it-looks-awesome/ (accessed January 26, 2013). 22.

Claire Barrett, “One Day It Will be Possible to 3-D-Print Human Heart,” Dezeen, May 19, 2013, http://www.dezeen.com/2013/05/19/3d-printing-organs-medicine-print-shift/ (accessed July 12, 2013). 69. Scott Smith, “Coming Soon to a 3-D Printer near You: Human Tissue and Organs,” Quartz, April 30, 2013, http://qz.com/78877/how-soon-will-we-be-able-to-3-d-print-entire-human-organs -sooner-than-you-think/ (accessed July 11, 2013). 70. Stuart Gray, “3-D Printing Creates Synthetic ‘Tissue,’” ABC Science, April 5, 2013, http://www .abc.net.au/science/articles/2013/04/05/3729985.htm (July 12, 2013). 71. Laura Ungar, “Researchers Closing in on Printing 3-D Hearts,” USA Today, May 29, 2013, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/05/29/health-3d-printing-organ-transplant/2370079/ (accessed July 11, 2013). 72.

“Dutch Architect to Build ‘Endless’ House With 3-D Printer,” 3ders, January 15, 2013, http://www.3ders.org/articles/20130115-dutch-architect-to-build-endless-house-with-3d-printer.html (accessed January 26, 2013). 23. “Foster + Partners Works with European Space Agency to 3-D Print Structures on the Moon,” Foster and Partners press release, January 31, 2013, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/news /foster-+-partners-works-with-european-space-agency-to-3d-print-structures-on-the-moon/ (accessed February 18, 2013). 24. Ibid.; “Building a Lunar Base with 3-D Printing,” European Space Agency, January 31, 2013, http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Technology/Building_a_lunar_base_with_3-D_printing (accessed February 18, 2013). 25. Edwin Kee, “Urbee 2 to Cross Country on Just 10 Gallons of Ethanol,” Ubergizmo, March 1 2013, http://www.ubergizmo.com/2013/03/urbee-2-to-cross-country-on-just-10-gallons-of -ethanol/ (accessed September 4, 2013). 26.

 

pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

http://www.technologyreview.com/news/429248/this-robotcould-transform-manufacturing/ 94 See http://www.stratasys.com/. 95 Dan Worth, “Business use of 3D printing is years ahead of consumer uptake”, V3.co.uk, 19 August 2014. http://www.v3.co.uk/v3-uk/news/2361036/business-use-of-3d-printing-is-years-ahead-of-consumer-uptake 96 “The 3D Printing Startup Ecosystem”, SlideShare.net, 31 July 2014. http://de.slideshare.net/SpontaneousOrder/3d-printing-startup-ecosystem 97 Alban Leandri, “A Look at Metal 3D Printing and the Medical Implants Industry”, 3DPrint.com, 20 March 2015. http://3dprint.com/52354/3d-print-medical-implants/ 98 “The Need is Real: Data”, US Department of Health and Human Services, organdonor.gov. http://www.organdonor.gov/about/data.html 99 “An image of the future”, The Economist, 19 May 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/18710080 100 Jessica Hedstrom, “The State of 3D Printing”, 23 May 2015. http://jesshedstrom.quora.com/The-State-of-3D-Printing 101 Maurizio Bellemo, “The Third Industrial Revolution: From Bits Back to Atoms”, CrazyMBA.Club, 25 January 2015.

– Impact on agriculture from printing food The shift in action The first use of a 3D-printed spine implant was reported by Popular Science: “[In 2014], doctors at Peking University Third Hospital successfully implanted the first ever 3-D-printed section of vertebra into [a] young patient to replace a cancerous vertebra in his neck. The replacement vertebra was modelled from the boy’s existing vertebra, which made it easier for them to integrate. Source: “Boy Given a 3-D Printed Spine Implant, Loren Grush, Popular Science, 26 August 2014, http://www.popsci.com/article/science/boy-given-3-d-printed-spine-implant Shift 21: 3D Printing and Consumer Products The tipping point: 5% of consumer products printed in 3D By 2025: 81% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred Because 3D printing can be done by anyone with a 3D printer, it creates opportunities for typical consumer products to be printed locally and on demand, instead of having to be bought at shops.

This further reduces the cost of accessing consumer goods and increases the availability of 3D printed objects. Current usage areas for 3D printing (Figure VII) indicate several sectors related to developing and producing consumer products (proof of concept, prototype and production). Figure VII: Use of 3D Printing in Various Areas (% of respondents*) * Percentages are of respondents from the Sculpteo survey. Source: Sculpteo, The State of 3D Printing (survey of 1,000 people), as published in Hedstrom, J., “The State of 3D Printing…”, Quora100 Positive impacts – More personalized products and personal fabrication – Creating niche products, and making money selling them – Fastest growth of 3D printing where each customer has slightly different needs from a product – e.g. a particular shaped foot requires a specially sized shoe – Reduced logistics costs, with the possibility of huge energy savings101 – Contributing to abundant local activities; crafting own goods that benefit from the removal of logistics costs (circular economy) Negative impacts – Global and regional supply and logistics chain: lower demand resulting in job losses – Gun control: opening opportunities for printing objects with high levels of abuse, such as guns – Growth in waste for disposal, and further burden on the environment – Major disruption of production controls, consumer regulations, trade barriers, patents, taxes and other government restrictions; and, the struggle to adapt The shift in action Almost 133,000 3D printers were shipped worldwide in 2014, a 68% increase from 2013.

 

pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, web application

The idea of retail has changed so much that when it’s physical, it’s not even about what we buy from the store, but the experience provided during the process. Online we can get anything from anywhere at the best price possible. So what happens when the stuff we want can be made on demand at home? It’s hard to believe, but 3D printing will make this an everyday reality. What is fragmenting Retail is no longer just the end of the supply chain; it’s something every business and person can do now. What it means for business If you make, you must sell. The power lies with those who have a direct connection with their buyers or audience. CHAPTER 10 Bigger than the internet: 3D printing I’ve been mildly obsessed with 3D printing since I first learned about it. Also referred to as ‘additive manufacturing’ or ‘digital fabrication’, it’s a process where a three-dimensional, solid object is created by placing down successive layers of material fused together by laser (digital light processing) and a multitude of other methods that are evolving rapidly, almost daily.

Human performances can’t be replaced — yet. Importantly, we need to think of 3D printing beyond widgets, tools and mechanical devices. We need to understand that a multi-material, one-process-to-print-everything is rapidly approaching. It’s quite a human process to lament the missed and seemingly obvious opportunities in hindsight. I sometimes think to myself that I should have continued coding on my 16KB RAM-only TRS-80 home computer in the 1980s and that I should have implemented some of my internet startup ideas in 1995, when I first got on the web (I finally did it 10 years later). The era for 3D printing is now. It’s early days and there’s enough time for any company or entrepreneur to get involved. It’s the burgeoning period of possibility. 3D printing is going to impact every business. Observing its development is not enough; it requires participation.

Fuller’s vision was that ephermalization would result in ever-increasing standards of living for an ever-growing population despite finite resources. His oft-cited example was Henry Ford’s assembly line, which to this day has led to better products at a lower cost, in perpetuity. With 3D printing still largely on the tech-hacker fringes in terms of actual usage, the level of innovation is astounding. This non-exhaustive list provides a perspective of the potential impact of this technology and demonstrates how widely it is being embraced. Cars. Entire car bodies have been printed, both replicas and new models. The Urbee 2 is a vehicle for which more than 50 per cent was 3D printed and it can reach speeds of about one-hundred and ten kilometres per hour. Tools. Tools of every type, shape and mechanical movement have been made, all of which were printed in metals and even carbon composites stronger than most metals.

 

pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator

The third revolution comes from the democratization of manufacturing, wherein a new car design does not require a new plant to be built.”14 This third revolution is also impacting the aerospace industry. SpaceX recently announced it will 3-D print much of the rocket engine used in the Dragon 2 capsule,15 Boeing currently 3-D prints over two hundred parts for ten different aircraft platforms,16 and my own company, Planetary Resources (more on Planetary later), is 3-D printing much of the spacecraft that will travel to and prospect near-Earth asteroids. And the financial impact of 3-D printing in the transportation industry cannot be overstated. CFM International’s next generation superefficient LEAP airplane engine (expected commercially by 2016) uses 3-D printing to manufacture a radically new kind of fuel nozzle—impossible to manufacture with conventional machining processes—that reduces fuel use by 15 percent, a figure that, across the lifetime of a plane, translates into hundreds of billions of dollars of future savings.17 Medical devices are even further along.

Taylor is married to the science fiction writer Cory Doctorow, who knew a little about 3-D printing. (Doctorow, in a sad bit of prophecy, wrote a 2009 book, Makers, about how 3-D printers were being used by criminals and terrorists to make AK-47s.)22 She decided to see if 3-D printing offered an alternative to the traditional—that is, expensive and mass produced—making of dolls. In essence, Taylor set out to see if Roger’s third industrial revolution could be applied to toys, as well as cars and rockets. “The problem,” explains Taylor, “was I didn’t know much of anything about 3-D printing. So I went to the forum section of Shapeways.com (a 3-D printing marketplace) and found a guy who had posted: ‘I can 3-D model for 3-D printing. Hire me.’ So I did.” Taylor emailed her doll sketches and got a 3-D model back, then printed a real doll from the file.

Case in point, the company now provides the manufacturing infrastructure for every hearing aid device around the world, and over 95 percent of those are completely 3-D printed. Another example of large-scale medically related 3-D printing can be found in the fully automated factories of Align Technology, the makers of Invisalign—the clear plastic teeth-straightening alternative to metal braces. This factory 3-D prints 65,000 distinct aligners every day. “Last year alone,” says Reichental, “they printed seventeen million pairs of fully customized one-offs in a factory of the future not much bigger than a large college lecture hall.” Of course, the impact made by 3-D printing is going to stretch far further than just consumer goods and transportation and medical devices. Every aspect of the $10 trillion manufacturing sector has the potential to be transformed.

 

pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

Osborn: Can you tell me a little bit about the 3D printing landscape and some of the interesting things you’ve seen people doing with 3D printers? What are people using these for now? What are some unusual examples of how people are using 3D printers? Linder: So people have been using 3D printing from the point they were available to do product design and rapid prototyping. That’s the key use case. You also see companies like Invisalign that have a whole process of creating a dental solution based on 3D printing. You see companies like Nervous Systems6 that have jewelry lines. You see service bureaus like Shapeways making 3D printing available and different types of processes to basically print whatever. Then there’s the long tail. A lot of people have little uses for 3D printing, but there’s this big bright future where people talk about 3D printing as a replacement for manufacturing.

It opens the door for all sorts of other ways of thinking about how 3D printing can change any industry. Osborn: There are definitely some interesting medical use cases for 3D printing. I saw where they printed a woman’s entire lower jawbone. One thing you guys did recently that I thought was pretty interesting was open a retail space for 3D printers in New York. I was wondering what led you to do that, and how’s the response been? Pettis: My goal with that was to have a space where people could see, and touch, and feel, and hear, and smell 3D printing. In some ways, it’s sort of a community center. People who come to New York and are into 3D printing, it’s on their tourist list. We see people come from all around the world to just really experience 3D printing. A lot of them walk out with MakerBots as well. We sell 3D printers there, and we sell projects designed to be printed on the MakerBot.

A CNC mill can turn a moderately creative person into an artisan wood carver in a matter of hours. Technologies that were reserved for extremely well-funded projects are now widely used. The wide availability of digital manufacturing tools is allowing us to explore, for the first time, the world of 3D printing as a global community and share our experiences and designs with the rest of the world. 3D printing is Introduction being used in almost every job field imaginable, from culinary masterpieces 3D-printed in chocolate to 3D-printed prosthetics and custom-fitted transplants for medical patients, these tools are changing the way the world itself is prototyped and designed. For individuals without the capital to buy these tools, maker spaces are popping up in droves all over the world to provide makers with the tools they need, as well as provide an environment of collaboration and information sharing.

 

pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

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3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

Likewise for the prototypes of practically every gadget you’ve ever bought, and the architectural models for the newer buildings around you. Custom prosthetics are 3-D printed. If you’re lucky enough to have a dentist who can replace a crown in a single sitting, that’s probably 3-D printed (then sprayed with enamel) in the office. Doctors have printed and replaced an entire human jaw from titanium. Today, you can buy a custom 3-D printed action figure of your World of Warcraft character or your Xbox Live avatar. And if you go to Tokyo, you can have your head scanned and you can buy a photorealistic action figure of yourself (try not to get too creeped out). Commercial 3-D printing works with only a few dozen types of materials, mostly metals and plastics of various sorts, but more are in the works. Researchers are experimenting with more exotic materials, from wood pulp to carbon nanotubes, that give a sense of the scope of this technology.

Meanwhile, researchers are working just as hard at moving in the other direction: 3-D printing at the molecular scale. Today there are “bio printers” that print a layer of a patient’s own cells onto a 3-D printed “scaffold” of inert material. Once the cells are in place, they can grow into an organ, with bladders and kidneys already demonstrated in the lab. Print with stem cells, and the tissue will form its own blood vessels and internal structure. Today’s vision for 3-D printing is grand in ambition. Carl Bass, the CEO of Autodesk, one of the leading companies making 3-D authoring CAD software, sees the rise of computer-controlled fabrication as a transformative change on the order of the original mass production. Not only can it change the way traditional consumer goods are made, but 3-D printing can also work on scales as small as biology and as large as houses and bridges.

A common first experiment is to scan your head, then exaggerate your features and 3-D print a bobble-head of yourself. Zscanner 3-D scanner You may think of 3-D printing as bleeding-edge technology today, the stuff of high-end design workshops and geeks. But you may have encountered a 3-D printer already, in ways so prosaic you didn’t even notice. Take custom dental fittings, such as those that change the alignment of the teeth over months with a series of slightly different mouth guards, each of which shifts the teeth imperceptibly into a new position. In that case, a dental technician scans the current position of your teeth; then software mathematically models all the intermediate positions to the desired endpoint. Finally, those positions are 3-D printed in plastic as a series of mouth guards that you wear, each for two or three weeks, until your teeth are in the new position.

 

pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, debt deflation, deskilling, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

There would also be a multitude of free or open source designs—probably for nearly any conceivable product—available for download. The bottom line is that personal 3D printing would come to look much like the Internet: lots of free or inexpensive stuff for consumers, but far fewer opportunities for the vast majority of people to generate a significant income. This is not to say that 3D printing won’t be a transformative technology. The real action is likely to happen at industrial scale. Rather than displacing traditional manufacturing, 3D printing will be integrated with it. In fact, that’s already happening. The technology has made significant inroads in the aerospace industry, where it is often used to create lighter-weight components. General Electric’s aviation division plans to use 3D printing to produce at least 100,000 parts by 2020, resulting in a potential weight reduction of 1,000 pounds for a single aircraft engine.1 To get a sense of how much fuel lopping half a ton off every engine could save, consider that in 2013, American Airlines replaced the paper flight manuals carried in its cockpits with digital versions loaded onto Apple iPads.

The technology will be used where it is most cost-effective: for example, in creating those parts that need to be customized, or perhaps in printing complex components that would otherwise require extensive assembly. Where 3D printing can’t be used to directly fabricate high-volume parts, it will often find a role in rapidly creating the molds and tools required in traditional manufacturing techniques. In other words, 3D printing is likely to end up being another form of factory automation. Manufacturing robots and industrial printers will work in unison—and increasingly without the involvement of workers. Three-dimensional printers can be used with virtually any type of material, and the technology is finding many important uses outside of manufacturing. Perhaps the most exotic application is in printing human organs. San Diego–based Organovo, a company that specializes in bio-printing, has already fabricated experimental human liver and bone tissue by 3D-printing material containing human cells.

Organs suitable for transplant likely remain at least a decade in the future, but if the technology arrives, the implications would be staggering for the roughly 120,000 people awaiting organ transplants in the United States alone.4 Aside from addressing the shortage, 3D printing would also allow organs to be fabricated from a patient’s own stem cells, essentially eliminating the danger of rejection after a transplant. Food printing is another popular application. Hod Lipson suggests in his 2013 book Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing that digital cuisine may turn out to be 3D printing’s “killer app”—in other words, the application that motivates huge numbers of people to go out and buy a home printer.5 Food printers are currently used to produce designer cookies, pastries, and chocolates, but they also have the potential to combine ingredients in unique ways, synthesizing unprecedented tastes and textures.

 

pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

Financial advisers, business magazines, and online investment sites such as the Motley Fool believe 3D printing companies will clean up big-time, because their overhead will be so much lower, and they’ll sell only the clever designs or raw materials. Not right away. Most people will probably still find it more convenient to buy ready-made things. But soon enough, in the next fifteen years, 3D printing will revolutionize life from manufacturing to art, and practical visionaries like Lipson feel certain it will usher in the next great cultural and psychological revolution. For some, that future is the obvious sequel to the digital revolution. For others, it’s as magical as a picture painted on water. “Just like the Industrial Revolution, the assembly line, the advent of the internet and the Social Media phenomenon,” Forbes magazine forecasts, “3D Printing will be a game changer.”

In China’s Forbidden City, researchers use a 3D printer to inexpensively restore damaged buildings and artworks. NASA used 3D printing to build a prototype of a two-man Space Exploration Vehicle (an oversized SUV astronauts can live in while they explore Mars). A USC professor, Behrokh Khoshnevis, has devised a method known as Contour Crafting for printing out an entire house, layer by layer—including the plumbing, wiring, and other infrastructure—in twenty hours. When 3D printers are linked to geological maps, houses can be made to fit their terrain perfectly. Khoshnevis is designing both single houses and colonies for urban planning, or for use after hurricanes, tornadoes, and other natural disasters when fully functional emergency houses will be 3D-printed from the ground up. Boeing is 3D-printing seven hundred parts for its fleet of 747s; it’s already installed twenty thousand such parts on military aircraft.

It’s still a wildly useful method, if sloppy; it creates heaps of waste and leftovers, which means extracting even more raw materials from the earth. Also, mass-produced items, whether clothing or electronics, require a predicament of cheap labor to add the final touches. In contrast, there’s “additive manufacturing,” also known as 3D printing, a new way of making objects in which a special printer, given the digital blueprint for a physical item, can produce it in three dimensions. Solidly, in precise detail, many times, and with minimal overhead. The stuff of Star Trek “replicators” or wish-granting genies. 3D printing doesn’t cut or remove anything. Following an electronic blueprint as if it were a musical score, a nozzle glides back and forth over a platform, depositing one microscopic drop after another in a molten fugue, layer upon layer until the desired object rises like a sphinx from the sands of disbelief.

 

Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K

Metal sheets are then trimmed and cut by CNC milling machines to form the required shape. The applications in industry are vast as 3D printing lends itself to all sorts of rapid prototyping, architecting, and construction. 3D printing enables not just rapid modeling but one lot sized production of customized objects as only the base software template file needs changed. This is very attractive in manufacturing where previously to change a products design required weeks of work refitting production lines and reconfiguring machines. With 3D printing, lot sizes of one can be entertained profitably and cost effectively. It is important to differentiate between the media-hyped consumer market for 3D printing and the industrial reality. Components created using 3D printing in industry are not models or gimmicks as they are used by NASA, and in the aviation industry in jet engines.

In short, only the boundaries of imagination and innovation of the developers and industry adopters of the technology limit the use-cases for AR when coupled with the Industrial Internet. 3D Printing Additive printing or what is more commonly known as 3D printing is a major technology that enables the financial reality of the IIoT across many industrial use-cases. 3D printing works by creating an image as a computer file of either an existing product or through a CAD design one thin layer at a time. It builds on each subsequent layer until a full copy of the subject or CAD image has been completed. Once that computer file has been generated, it can then be fed to a 3D printer, which can interpret the coordinates to recreate the design using several techniques and substrates to create a physical representation of the subject. Industry 4.0 3D printing enables a product to be created from a source file, which is not much different from how a programmable lathe machine creates a 2D product; however, it is the way that it does it in 3D that is different. 3D printing is therefore perfect for proof of concept, and modeling of theoretical designs as it is cheap and relatively quick.

Components created using 3D printing in industry are not models or gimmicks as they are used by NASA, and in the aviation industry in jet engines. Similarly, they are commonly utilized in cars, with at least one manufacturer making their entire vehicle via 3D printing. 3D printing goes beyond just manipulating polymers, ceramics, paper, and metal—it also can be used in health care. Additive manufacturing is used in prosthetics and medical components such as medical sensors and actuators implanted within the body, such as heart pace-makers for example. However, the latest research is being driven by bio-medical requirements such as creating 3D printed skin, and other body tissue, and perhaps soon even complete organs. The goal here is to reproduce a patient’s failing organs using 3D printing to create a replacement without the requirement of a donor transplant. 61 62 Chapter 3 |TheTechnical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet The way this works is that layers of living cells harvested from the patient are deposited via the 3D printer onto a culture plate to build up each layer of the three-dimensional organic structure.

 

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

The falling cost of 3D printers and personalisation platforms has made this easier and cheaper. For instance, the entry-level 3D printer from Replicator (“the Apple of 3D printing”) sells for $1,375, but several crowdfunded start-ups such as New Matter and M3D intend to mass-market 3D printers that sell for as little as $149. Autodesk, a leader in computer-aided design software, has launched a consumer-friendly open-source 3D printer and 3D printing software in an effort to democratise manufacturing. Shapeways, a global network of large-scale 3D printing factories, allows people who do not want to print objects at home to upload their designs to a website and have 3D-printed versions delivered. Lastly, consumers can now not only design and build industrial-quality products themselves, but also sell these online. This is possible through online platforms such as Etsy, a leading e-commerce site that specialises in hand-made items and now boasts more than 1 million sellers and $1 billion in sales.

A large number of open-source initiatives and crowdfunded projects are drastically bringing down the cost of 3D printers, making personalised manufacturing more affordable and accessible to more people. For instance, in May 2014, in an effort to make 3D printing accessible “to billions”, Autodesk, a design software provider, released Spark, an open-software platform that aims to make 3D printing simpler and more reliable. The same month, M3D, a start-up, raised a whopping $3.4 million on Kickstarter to produce a $300 super-easy-to-use 3D printer. One particularly impressive product of 3D printers is spare parts for fighter aircraft. In December 2013, BAE Systems, a British multinational defence and aerospace company, tested Tornado jets that had several 3D printed metal components in them. The company is now developing ready-made parts for four squadrons of Tornado GR4 aircraft. BAE Systems engineers believe that some components will now cost less than £100 ($158).

GE is also organising open innovation challenges, hosted on crowdsourcing platform NineSigma, inviting inventive minds worldwide to create affordable and sustainable solutions in its core health-care, energy and aviation businesses. Its Healthymagination programme, for example, is seeking new ways to fight breast cancer. The challenge received 500 proposals from 40 countries, from which 5 winners were each given $100,000 seed money, mentoring and access to GE’s R&D resources. GE also launched the 3D Printing Design Quest to design lighter, next-generation aircraft engine brackets that can be 3D-printed. The winner, Arie Kurniawan, an engineer from Salatiga, Indonesia, beat 699 other entries from 56 countries. Kurniawan’s bracket weighs 84% less than the original, but can withstand loads of 9,5001b or 4,310kg. Amazingly, Kurniawan had no aviation engineering experience, and it took him just a few weeks to create his ingenious solution. Recognising the value of amateurs and tinkerers, GE has teamed up with TechShop to set up GE Garages, mobile units with advanced manufacturing labs fully equipped with 3D printers, CNC mills, laser cutters and injection moulders.

 

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Online, It Might Cost You,” New York Times, September 22, 2013. 55 Charles Arthur, “How Low-Paid Workers at ‘Click Farms’ Create Appearance of Online Popularity,” Guardian, August 2, 2014. 56 Tim Wu, “Little Lies the Internet Told Me,” New Yorker, April 17, 2014. 57 Pippa Stephens, “Trust Your Doctor, Not Wikipedia, Say Scientists,” BBC Health News, May 27, 2014. 58 Tom Simonite, “The Decline of Wikipedia,” MIT Technology Review, October 22, 2013. 59 Ibid. 60 Anne Perkins, “Whose Truth Is Wikipedia Guarding?,” Guardian, August 7, 2014. 61 James R. Hagerty and Kate Linebaugh, “Next 3-D Frontier: Printed Plane Parts,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2012. 62 Stuart Dredge, “30 Things Being 3D Printed Right Now (and None of Them Are Guns),” Guardian, January 29, 2014. 63 Chris Anderson, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution (New York: Crown, 2012), p. 12. 64 Eliza Brooke, “Why 3D Printing Will Work in Fashion,” TechCrunch, July 20, 2013. 65 Alice Fisher, “3D-Printed Fashion: Off the Printer, Rather Than Off the Peg,” Guardian, October 12, 2013. 66 Rebecca Hiscott, “Will 3D Printing Upend Fashion Like Napster Crippled the Music Industry?,” Mashable, March 3, 2014. 67 Katrina Dodd, “Monetize Me: Selfies, Social and Selling,” Contagious, May 19, 2014. 68 Alex Hudson, “Is Digital Piracy Possible on Any Object?

Yes, Dougherty has once again seen the future before everyone else. But is this a future that any of us—especially Dale Dougherty—really wants? Take, for example, the impact of the maker’s 3-D printing revolution on the fashion industry. Back in the early twentieth century, my great-grandfather, Victor Falber, bought fabric from the woolen mills that he then sold in Berwick Street market to people who made their own clothes. This Maker 1.0 economy was replaced in the mid-twentieth century by the Maker 2.0 model of mass-produced, off-the-rack clothing—the Oxford Street of retailers like the Gap, American Apparel, Esprit, and Next. And over the next quarter of a century, as the Maker 3.0 revolution of 3-D printing begins to popularize the manufacturing of personalized clothing, these stores may—like Oxford Street’s 60,000-square-foot HMV music emporium—become redundant.

And over the next quarter of a century, as the Maker 3.0 revolution of 3-D printing begins to popularize the manufacturing of personalized clothing, these stores may—like Oxford Street’s 60,000-square-foot HMV music emporium—become redundant. The Silicon Valley hype machine is beginning to identify the world’s fashion industry as the source of the next great disruption. “Why 3D printing will work in fashion,” one TechCrunch writer glibly reveals.64 “3D-printed fashion: off the printer, rather than off the peg,” is how the Guardian’s Alice Fisher describes the so-called democratization of fashion in which we can all design our own personalized clothing. “It could revolutionize garment sizing and product development in mass production,” Fisher promises. “It could also allow startup labels to produce small orders to avoid unsold stock, and allow easy customization.”65 But weren’t we promised this same customized, personalized, democratized cornucopia in the nineties about the music industry? And didn’t this dream degenerate into the sour reality of a blockbuster-dominated, advertising-saturated industry that has been cut in half by the free and pirated content of Internet startups like Napster?

 

pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Autonomous Killer Robots Are Already Here,” NBC News, May 14, 2014. 79 Goldman Sachs has noted: Goldman Sachs, 2013 Annual Report, http://​www.​goldmansachs.​com/; Matt Clinch, “3-D Printing Market to Grow 500% in 5 Years,” CNBC, April 1, 2014. 314 Digital fabrication: Jessica Leber, “This Man Thinks He Can 3-D Print an Entire House,” Co.Exist, Nov. 12, 2013. 80 Bio-fabricating printers: Lyndsey Gilpin, “New 3D Bioprinter to Reproduce Human Organs, Change the Face of Healthcare,” Tech-Republic, Aug. 1, 2014; Melissa Davey, “3D Printed Organs Come a Step Closer,” Guardian, July 4, 2014; Kate Lyons, “Humans Could Be Fitted with Kidneys Made on 3D Printers,” Mail Online, May 23, 2014. 81 Today most 3-D printers: Ben Rooney, “The 3D Printer That Prints Itself,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2011; Brad Hart, “Will 3D Printing Change the World?,” Forbes, March 6, 2012. 82 The Gartner group: Gartner, “Gartner Says Uses of 3D Printing Will Ignite Major Debate on Ethics and Regulation,” Gartner.​com, Jan. 29, 2014. 83 Digital manufacturing will also be a boon: Drew Prindle, “KeyMe Joins Forces with Shapeways to Bring You Custom 3D-Printed Key Copies,” Digital Trends, Dec. 17, 2013. 84 There are apps too: Ann Givens and Chris Glorioso, “New Technology Could Let Thieves Copy Keys,” NBC New York, May 21, 2014. 85 In 2012, cops uncovered: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Opens High Security Handcuffs with 3D-Printed and Laser-Cut Keys,” Forbes, July 16, 2012. 86 While the potential humanitarian benefits: Tim Adams, “The ‘Chemputer’ That Could Print Out Any Drug,” Guardian, July 21, 2012. 87 Wilson created the Wiki Weapon Project: Carole Cadwalladr, “Meet Cody Wilson, Creator of the 3D-Gun, Anarchist, Libertarian,” Guardian, Feb. 8, 2014. 88 The lower receiver: Andy Greenberg, “Here’s What It Looks Like to Fire a (Partly) 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, Dec. 3, 2012. 89 In May 2013: Andy Greenberg, “Meet the ‘Liberator’: Test-Firing the World’s First Fully 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, May 5, 2013. 90 Wilson’s efforts have left: Andy Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year,” Wired, May 15, 2014. 316 These plastic firearms: Cheryl K.

,” Forbes, March 6, 2012. 82 The Gartner group: Gartner, “Gartner Says Uses of 3D Printing Will Ignite Major Debate on Ethics and Regulation,” Gartner.​com, Jan. 29, 2014. 83 Digital manufacturing will also be a boon: Drew Prindle, “KeyMe Joins Forces with Shapeways to Bring You Custom 3D-Printed Key Copies,” Digital Trends, Dec. 17, 2013. 84 There are apps too: Ann Givens and Chris Glorioso, “New Technology Could Let Thieves Copy Keys,” NBC New York, May 21, 2014. 85 In 2012, cops uncovered: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Opens High Security Handcuffs with 3D-Printed and Laser-Cut Keys,” Forbes, July 16, 2012. 86 While the potential humanitarian benefits: Tim Adams, “The ‘Chemputer’ That Could Print Out Any Drug,” Guardian, July 21, 2012. 87 Wilson created the Wiki Weapon Project: Carole Cadwalladr, “Meet Cody Wilson, Creator of the 3D-Gun, Anarchist, Libertarian,” Guardian, Feb. 8, 2014. 88 The lower receiver: Andy Greenberg, “Here’s What It Looks Like to Fire a (Partly) 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, Dec. 3, 2012. 89 In May 2013: Andy Greenberg, “Meet the ‘Liberator’: Test-Firing the World’s First Fully 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, May 5, 2013. 90 Wilson’s efforts have left: Andy Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year,” Wired, May 15, 2014. 316 These plastic firearms: Cheryl K.

,” Forbes, March 6, 2012. 82 The Gartner group: Gartner, “Gartner Says Uses of 3D Printing Will Ignite Major Debate on Ethics and Regulation,” Gartner.​com, Jan. 29, 2014. 83 Digital manufacturing will also be a boon: Drew Prindle, “KeyMe Joins Forces with Shapeways to Bring You Custom 3D-Printed Key Copies,” Digital Trends, Dec. 17, 2013. 84 There are apps too: Ann Givens and Chris Glorioso, “New Technology Could Let Thieves Copy Keys,” NBC New York, May 21, 2014. 85 In 2012, cops uncovered: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Opens High Security Handcuffs with 3D-Printed and Laser-Cut Keys,” Forbes, July 16, 2012. 86 While the potential humanitarian benefits: Tim Adams, “The ‘Chemputer’ That Could Print Out Any Drug,” Guardian, July 21, 2012. 87 Wilson created the Wiki Weapon Project: Carole Cadwalladr, “Meet Cody Wilson, Creator of the 3D-Gun, Anarchist, Libertarian,” Guardian, Feb. 8, 2014. 88 The lower receiver: Andy Greenberg, “Here’s What It Looks Like to Fire a (Partly) 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, Dec. 3, 2012. 89 In May 2013: Andy Greenberg, “Meet the ‘Liberator’: Test-Firing the World’s First Fully 3D-Printed Gun,” Forbes, May 5, 2013. 90 Wilson’s efforts have left: Andy Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year,” Wired, May 15, 2014. 316 These plastic firearms: Cheryl K. Chumley, “Israeli TV Crew Sneaks Printed 3-D Gun into Knesset—Twice,” Washington Times, July 4, 2013. 91 Other repositories: Greenberg, “How 3-D Printed Guns Evolved into Serious Weapons in Just One Year.” 92 The FBI’s Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center: Aliya Sternstein, “The FBI Is Getting Its Own, Personal 3D Printer for Studying Bombs,” Next gov, June 13, 2014. Chapter 16: Next-Generation Security Threats: Why Cyber Was Only the Beginning 1 “had become so fragmented”: Nina Golgowski, “ ‘Syrian Hackers’ Tweet FALSE Report of Explosions at White House and Send Panicked DOW Jones Plunging 100 Points,” Mail Online, April 23, 2013; Jim McTague, “Why High-Frequency Trading Doesn’t Compute,” Barron’s, Aug. 11, 2012; Shan Carter and Amanda Cox, “One 9/11 Tally,” New York Times, Sept. 8, 2011; Doug Stanglin and David Jackson, “Timeline of AP Hacking, Reaction,” USA Today, April 23, 2013; Will Oremus, “Would You Click the Link in This Email That Apparently Tricked the AP,” Slate, April 23, 2013; Tom Lauricella, Kara Scanell, and Jenny Strasburg, “How a Trading Algorithm Went Awry,” Wall Street Journal, Oct. 2, 2010; Bernard Condon, “Stocks Stumble After a Fake Tweet Announced White House Attack,” Associated Press, April 25, 2013; Nick Baumann, “Too Fast to Fail: Is High-Speed Trading the Next Wall Street Disaster?

 

pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator

Virtual worlds Implications: Philip Rosedale notes that Hollywood special effects migrate to the desktop after five years. Avatar is now three years old and will soon be available on the Oculus Rift. Almost perfect VR is around the corner, and will deliver experiential reality and transform retail, travel, and living and working environments. 3D printing Implications: 3D printing (and soon 4D) will not radically change big manufacturing, but it will enable an entirely new class of products that will displace traditional manufacturing. A Kinko’s model of local 3D printing of virtually anything will appear shortly and the technology will have a major impact on warehousing and transportation. U.S. manufacturing will be revitalized as recent offshoring trends reverse. Disruption of payment systems Implications: In 2012, Visa and MasterCard credit card purchases totaled more than $1.5 trillion in the U.S. alone.

First, these three billion people represent a new population of consumers who have never bought anything before. Consequentially, they represent a long tail of tens-of-trillions of dollars of emerging buying power. If they are not your direct customers, fear not; they are likely your customer’s customers. Second, this group—the “rising billion”—is a new entrepreneurial class powered with the latest generation of Internet-delivered technologies—everything from Google and Artificial Intelligence, to 3D printing and synthetic biology. As such, we will see an explosion in the rate of innovation, as millions of new innovators begin to experiment and upload their products and services and launch new businesses. If you think the rate of innovation has been fast in recent years, let me be among the first to tell you: you haven’t seen anything yet. Today the only constant is change, and the rate of change is increasing.

Third, once that doubling pattern starts, it doesn’t stop. We use current computers to design faster computers, which then build faster computers, and so on. Finally, several key technologies today are now information-enabled and following the same trajectory. Those technologies include artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, biotech and bioinformatics, medicine, neuroscience, data science, 3D printing, nanotechnology and even aspects of energy. Never in human history have we seen so many technologies moving at such a pace. And now that we are information-enabling everything around us, the effects of the Kurzweil’s Law of Accelerating Returns are sure to be profound. What’s more, as these technologies intersect (e.g., using deep-learning AI algorithms to analyze cancer trials), the pace of innovation accelerates even further.

 

pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

These tools are so easy to learn and master that most people still don’t think of themselves as “creating” or “making” when using them—but that’s exactly what they’re doing. By the end of the first decade of the aughts, these 2-D digital tools were joined by a whole series of equally inexpensive (if not yet quite as easy to use) 3-D printing tools that can print out different kinds of objects—from hinges and doorknobs to jewelry and toys—in a variety of metals and plastics. You can pay about a hundred bucks for a monthly membership to TechShop in a number of cities, and spend your evenings and weekends taking classes in anything from sewing and woodcutting to machining and 3-D printing. The new “maker movement” is manifesting itself in so many different ways that it’s easy to miss the overall trend. Many of us learned about the DIY movement from home shows that taught us that we, too, could build our own furniture, restore our own homes, sew our own fashionable clothing.

Led by Christine Furstoss, Technical Director for Manufacturing and Materials Technologies at the GE Global Research Center, who runs a group of 450 engineers and scientists working on materials, energy storage, and processing technologies, the company found that with more and more parts made of titanium, ceramics, and carbon fibers, there was a huge amount of craftsmanship that went into engines. In fact, in many ways, making these engines had more in common with handmade jewelry than with mass-produced widgets. GE is embracing 3-D printing technology in the manufacturing of its most profitable products, such as jet engines and ultrasound transducers or probes, often used for medical diagnosis. Typically these devices are made by micro-machining a tiny block of ceramic material—it’s hugely expensive because ceramic is harder to drill and cut than metals and a precision shape is necessary to generate sound waves. Printing them is much easier—and potentially cheaper.

The first Glif prototype was created using 3-D modeling software for Mac called Rhinoceros that was free because the program was still in beta. They sent their 3-D file to the Dutch website Shapeways to create an actual three-dimensional prototype. Anyone can build a rough, cheap prototype out of masking tape, cut foam, and odds and ends, but the detailed prototype really illustrated the proof of concept in a way a crude model couldn’t. And because 3-D printing is so cheap and so fast, you can use it not only for prototyping fast but for actual production of hundreds of products. Once it has the digital file, the 3-D printer can print out the same thing over and over again. It’s a brilliant new take on the assembly line. If this still seems daunting, you can just walk over to a growing number of places that will train you to use the tools of prototyping.

 

The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

Teenagers delight in “bot-tipping”, but with all the cameras and other sensory equipment protecting the bots, it is a risky pastime. 2. Manufacturing. Many large factories and warehouses are dark: no light is required because no humans work there. People are becoming a rarity in smaller sites too. 3D printing has advanced less quickly than many expected, as it remained more expensive than mass production. But it is common in niche applications, like urgently required motor parts. 3. Agriculture. Farmers are moving heavily into leisure services, as their families and staff are losing their roles to robots. 4. Retail. Online shopping reaches 75% of all retail purchases, with a small but growing number of items being 3D printed domestically or in neighbourhood facilities, often with an element of customisation by the consumer. Human shop assistants are starting to be replaced by robots, except in high-margin sectors where they help create an experience rather than simply facilitating straightforward transactions. 5.

The population of cars has declined dramatically as they are used far more efficiently, and the automotive industry has contracted. Large numbers of dependent businesses (and jobs) are disappearing too, including repair shops and insurance brokers. 2. Manufacturing. Almost all factories and warehouses are dark. 3D printing is beginning to look competitive with some forms of mass production. 3. Agriculture. Robots do most farm work. Some countries have large communally-owned agricultural processing concerns which send out meal ingredients on drones in a service described as Netflix for food. 4. Retail. Most items are now bought online, and around half of all products sold at retail are 3D printed. Retail outlets on High Streets and city centres are mostly experiential rather than transactional, and mostly staffed by AIs and robots. 5. Construction. Robots now carry out most of the work on construction sites. 6.

None of the robots completed all the tasks, and there was a great deal of hesitation and falling over. Many jobs involving manual dexterity or the ability to traverse un-mapped territory are currently hard to automate. But as we will see in the next section, that is changing fast. Tipping points and exponentials New technologies sometimes lurk for years or even decades before they are widely adopted. 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing[cxxxi]) has been around since the early 1980s but is only now coming to general attention. Fax machines, surprisingly, were first patented in 1843, some 33 years before the invention of the telephone.[cxxxii] Sometimes the delay happens because there is at first no obvious application for the inventions or discoveries. Sometimes it is because they are initially too expensive, and engineers have to work on reducing their cost before they can become popular.

 

pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

At CrowdMed, people post their symptoms and crowdsource diagnoses from an online community of 2,000 doctors—so-called ‘Medical Detectives’.42 At InnoCentive, medical institutions crowdsource ideas by offering large online rewards for those who solve their medical ‘challenges’.43 At Watsi, people in need of medical care, but unable to afford it themselves, can use their online crowdfunding platform to raise finance from donors.44 3-D printing techniques enable many medical objects, from casts to prosthetics to dentist’s caps and crowns, to be personalized and then printed on demand. Surgeons scan patient parts and print models of them, to practice on before operating in earnest.45 Nor is the output necessarily inorganic. At the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, progress has been made in constructing a machine to ‘print’ human cells directly onto burn victims.

This makes outsourcing of particular tasks even easier—it is alleged that in India, for example, on average one new engineering college is founded every day.299 Many of the machines and tools used to construct buildings are now computerized. Rather than being operated by hand, they are directed by a computer system that follows a digital design—known as ‘digital fabrication’, or ‘computer numerical control’ (CNC). Traditionally, these machines were subtractive—the final object was milled out of a larger object, or cut from a large sheet of material. New 3-D printing techniques, a widely discussed technology, instead are additive—they print multiple thin layers of material on top of one another, gradually building up final objects (hence its other name, ‘additive manufacturing’). Their significance is that they can, as a result, create more sophisticated or more one-off objects on demand (sometimes referred to as ‘mass customization’). 3-D printers were first used to create small models and ‘rapidly prototype’ initial concepts.

The United Kingdom’s ‘Seed Cathedral’, for instance, the top pavilion at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai (a fair at which every country in the world has a stand) and the most visited UK tourist attraction that year (beating the traditional victor, the British Museum), could not have been built without robotics—the building, 15 metres wide and 10 metres tall, was covered with 60,000 acrylic spikes, each 7.5 metres long, and each requiring its own precision-drilled hole, looking, in the end, like a sort of giant iridescent hedgehog.306 There are other robots that transport materials, and put them together. For example, ROB Technologies’ BrickDesign software directs a robotic arm to stack brickwork, based on digital designs, in patterns and shapes that even the most skilled human beings would struggle to replicate.307 Gramazio & Kohler’s Mesh-Mould uses a robotic arm, equipped with a small 3-D printing nozzle, to print ‘formwork’ for concrete buildings—the traditionally handcrafted moulds into which concrete is poured, that take up 60 per cent of the cost of building with concrete.308 There are other robots adapted to paint, pour, polish, weld, and so on. In more radical illustrations, individual robots are replaced by a swarm of multiple robots. In 2012, Gramazio & Kohler used a group of autonomous flying robots to build a structure out of 1,500 bricks and, in a separate test, to weave, and knot ropes in mid-air309 (called ‘flight assembled architecture’, or ‘collective construction’310).

 

pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush

It is telling that semiconductor fabrication facilities are huge, housing arrays of machines that can cost billions of dollars, while molecular fabrication today—with full atomic precision, beyond the reach of even high-resolution photolithography—is often done by university students using tools like pipettes and glass beakers. A Special Manufacturing Method: 3D Printing Another emerging method for manufacturing also breaks the pattern of making and then assembling parts: 3D printing, sometimes known as additive manufacturing. 3D printing differs from the traditional ways of shaping materials. Some traditional methods make a shape all at once using a costly, specialized tool, like a mold to shape plastic, a die to stamp steel, or an optical mask in semiconductor lithography. Other traditional methods carve shapes by removing small bits of material using general-purpose equipment like lathes, drills, and milling machines. 3D printing, by contrast, makes shapes by adding small bits of material using general-purpose machines guided by digital data files. 3D printing can make shapes beyond the reach of casting or carving.

Other traditional methods carve shapes by removing small bits of material using general-purpose equipment like lathes, drills, and milling machines. 3D printing, by contrast, makes shapes by adding small bits of material using general-purpose machines guided by digital data files. 3D printing can make shapes beyond the reach of casting or carving. Today, the most common 3D printers produce structures by moving a nozzle as it lays down patterns of melted plastic in much the same way that ink-jet printers make 2D images by moving a print head as it lays down patterns of ink. 3D printing technologies can do more than this, however, and are advancing rapidly, with falling costs and an expanding range of materials and products. Although costs remain high by mass-production standards, 3D printers offer matchless flexibility for making unique or intricate objects. At the high-cost end of the market, some machines make metal objects with unprecedented freedom of form, for example, customized titanium jaw implants for reconstructive surgery. Meanwhile, in industry, aerospace companies see potential applications for engine components with optimized forms and organically sculpted titanium manifolds.

Consumers can choose, not just from what is in stock, but from a potentially unlimited library. Because of design costs and licensing fees (copyrights, patents), digital products are sometimes expensive to buy, and for the same reasons, per-unit purchase costs for APM products could likewise be much more than their cost of production. Nonetheless, artists, photographers, and software developers sometimes release products for free, and this trend continues in the emerging 3D printing community. The open-source model can apply equally well to APM. PERFORMANCE, COSTS, AND PRESSURES FOR CHANGE This chapter marks a threshold in a journey of ideas that leads from physical principles to prospects with human consequences on a global scale. The path has led from the concept of a timeless landscape of technological potential, through physics, engineering, and the methodology of exploratory engineering, to a partial view of the realm of atomically precise manufacturing and its potential products.

 

pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

GE has launched over 400 new products: Steve Lohr, “The Invention Mob, Brought to You by Quirky,” New York Times, February 14, 2015. Netflix announced an award: Preethi Dumpala, “Netflix Reveals Million-Dollar Contest Winner,” Business Insider, September 21, 2009. Forty thousand groups submitted: “Leaderboard,” Netflix Prize, 2009. 150,000 car fanatics: Gary Gastelu, “Local Motors 3-D-Printed Car Could Lead an American Manufacturing Revolution,” Fox News, July 3, 2014. 3-D-printed electric car: Paul A. Eisenstein, “Startup Plans to Begin Selling First 3-D-Printed Cars Next Year,” NBC News, July 8, 2015. 7: FILTERING 8 million new songs: Private correspondence with Richard Gooch, CTO, International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, April 15, 2015. This is a low estimate, with a higher estimate being 12 million, according to Paul Jessop and David Hughes, “In the Matter of: Technological Upgrades to Registration and Recordation Functions,” Docket No. 2013-2, U.S.

Local Motors, based in Phoenix, employs an open source method to design and manufacture low-volume customized performance (fast) cars. A community of 150,000 car fanatics submitted plans for each of the thousands of parts needed for a rally car. Some were new off-the-shelf parts hijacked from other existing cars, some were custom-designed parts made in several microfactories around the U.S., and some were parts designed to be 3-D printed in any shop. The newest car from Local Motors is a fully 3-D-printed electric car, also designed and manufactured by the community. Of course, there are many things that are too complex, too unfamiliar, too long term, or too risky to be financed or created by the potential customers. For example, a passenger rocket to Mars, a bridge spanning Alaska and Russia, or a Twitter-based novel are probably out of reach of crowdfunding in the foreseeable future.

It is likely to be dismissed as a hobbyist toy, missing key features like sub-millimeter precision. But as with the PC and unlike the ancient mainframe, the user can interact with it directly, immediately, without waiting for experts to mediate—and use it for nonserious, even frivolous things. It’s cheap enough that small-time manufacturers can afford one to package up their wares or custom paint their product or run their 3-D printing machine. Or you could staff up a factory that makes iPhones. Baxter was invented in a century-old brick building near the Charles River in Boston. In 1895 the building was a manufacturing marvel in the very center of the new manufacturing world. It even generated its own electricity. For a hundred years the factories inside its walls changed the world around us. Now the capabilities of Baxter and the approaching cascade of superior robot workers spur inventor Brooks to speculate on how these robots will shift manufacturing in a disruption greater than the last revolution.

 

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

All this feels like old news when set against the headlines since the turn of the new millennium: 9/11; devastating tsunamis and hurricanes; a global financial crisis that struck dumb the world’s highest-paid brains; a nuclear meltdown in hyper-safe Japan; suicide bombings in the heart of Paris, City of Love; riots over inequality—and happier events like the explosion of mobile and social media, cracking the human genome, the advent of 3D printing, the breaking of long-standing taboos such as gay marriage, the detection of gravitational waves and the discovery of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars. It seems every day we wake up to a new shock. And shock itself is the most compelling evidence that this age is very different, because it’s data that comes from within. Shock is our own personal proof of historic change—a psychic collision of reality and expectations—and it has been the relentless theme of all our lives.

Print gave rise to the novel, the essay and the pamphlet; digitization has given rise to blogs, video channels, mashups, tweets and Pinterest boards, and an endless variety of virtual goods like apps and eBooks. In its first decade the Internet’s usefulness consisted chiefly of disseminating information quickly and cheaply. Now (enabled by the spread of broadband and mobile) it invites users into content collaborations (like Quora for facts, GitHub for software coding or Thingiverse for 3D print designs), curated opinion portals (such as The Huffington Post or Project Syndicate), or science projects like the Open Tree of Life. All these new forms share one common characteristic: they involve a switch from audience to participant—from consumer to producer and distributor of content. Finally, we are building a new layer of group intelligence. We can convene, sense, speak and act as groups with greater ease, power and speed.

Finally, as with the rise of new trade intermediaries in the Renaissance, global flows today are being enabled by a variety of new pay-for-service platforms—in advertising, payment processing, warehousing, data crunching, professional services, capital-raising—that make big business infrastructure available to small firms in small increments, and help many more merchants pile into global markets. These platforms have made viable: global niche markets for everything from bacon-flavored soap to Japanese Zen garden designers; micro-scale transaction models like micro-lending, micro-payments and micro-work; high-frequency trading on Wall Street; and global vacancy searches for job seekers. The arrival of 3D printing means that even manufacturing is becoming a pay-per-use service. Across a growing range of products, the expensive, customized molds and dies needed to form plastics and shape steel can be replaced by cheap digital blueprints. A robot can then assemble the physical version, one layer at a time, when and where it is wanted. Engineers can take advantage of this technology to craft objects too complex for traditional manufacturing, like parts for a SpaceX rocket engine, but so can millions of designers who lack the funds or scale to prototype their ideas in a factory.

 

pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

The number of self-employed people who are essentially one-person consulting shops has skyrocketed since 2001;13 by some estimates, more than 42 million people work part-time or on their own—more than the total number of autoworkers, teachers, and doctors combined.14 This seismic change in the economy is not without its pressures. Gone are the days of cradle-to-grave employment. How much of your time do you want to spend worrying about where your next project—and paycheck—will come from? Dawn of the Replicator If cloud computing has brought the End of Big to service businesses like law firms, 3-D printing and on-demand fabrication will do the same thing to companies in manufacturing-based industries. In my office, I have an inking book I found at a garage sale for $1. It’s from 1942, and it contains page after page of different typefaces. The idea was that you would trace a typeface from the book, and then ink it to make a poster or headline. Hand-drawing fonts seems like a quaint throwback these days.

No sooner had its path-breaking design (the user shakes the sifter, causing the cereal to plunge to the bottom but keeping the marshmallows) been uploaded onto Thingiverse than another entrepreneur saw fit to offer a fully assembled version on another site for $30.16 The implications of the MakerBot and similar technology are hard to fathom. “My grandfather saw the advent of radio,” says Pettis. “My dad witnessed the advent of the TV. Then, in my lifetime, we’ve had the computer, the Internet, and more and more and more. … Technology is taking off. Who knows what’s possible?”17 As Steve Denning has written in a recent issue of Forbes, 3-D printing will revolutionize manufacturing, rendering it far more local and smaller scale: “Now the economics of large-scale production runs carried out overseas are being undermined by the possibility of making, selling and delivering millions of manufactured items one unit at a time, right next to the customer. Digital manufacturing is beginning to do to manufacturing what the Internet has done to information-based goods and services. … [A] massive transition from centralized production to a ‘maker culture’ of dispersed manufacturing innovation is under way today.”18 Today you have to spend about $2,000 and some time and you’ve got your own 3-D printer.

Straw and mud, perhaps. Or chopped grass, cellulose, recycled plastic and newspaper, even sand. … You need buckets. The mobject-maker spits out these general issue buckets. Khaki-colored maybe, the color of mixed dirt. Ugliest buckets in the world, but they work. They carry water. Now you need latrines, so out come a few hundred of them. Sewer pipes. Shower stalls. Faucets.”20 Yet the implications of 3-D printing aren’t all positive. While the last decade has opened all forms of media to piracy, the next decade will open up everything else—all property. See something at a friend’s house you covet? Take a photo of it with your phone. Go home, feed it into your computer, and send it to the 3-D printer. A little while later—voilà! You’ve got your own copy! “You know the machine on Star Trek? The replicator?

 

pages: 163 words: 46,523

The Kickstarter Handbook: Real-Life Success Stories of Artists, Inventors, and Entrepreneurs by Steinberg, Don

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3D printing, crowdsourcing, Kickstarter, Skype, Y Combinator

But what about people who wanted to give a small amount, just to help the campaign but without buying the big-ticket item? Your friends at work, though eager to chip in, might not all need 3-D printers at five hundred bucks a pop. What if someone wanted to give a more modest amount? Well, Drumm took care of that possibility, too. For $10, a backer was entitled to receive a 3-D printed Curvy Coin-Op Bottle opener, and, for $25, the backer would get not only the opener but also a 3-D-printed Printrbot logo keychain. The opposite problem was encountered by the folks who created the Freaker. This knitted beer coozy, a one-size-fits-all “sock” that slips over bottles and cans, does the usual coozy job of soaking up condensation on the outside of a container. The Freaker team offered the product in a variety of awesome designs, from a red, white, and blue American-flag theme to a Charlie Brown shirt zigzag design.

You can bring out these products that would never be able to come out if left up to, say, Sony.” Because Kickstarter has become so popular, it can bring attention to artists and entrepreneurs that goes beyond the art or the products they offer on the site. “I had no idea the response would be so big,” says Joshua Harker, a sculptor in Chicago who raised $77,271 to create cool-looking plastic skulls using 3-D printing technology. “Not only have hundreds of thousands of people been exposed to my work, but I have a thousand new collectors who didn’t exist for me previously. That is huge. I have had job, project, collaboration, movie, exhibition, and lecture offers. This is the type of game changer I had been working for, and something the gallery/exhibition circuit has not been able to provide. Kickstarter put me in front of everyone that matters to me in forty-five days.”

The American Revolution raised $114,419 in 30 days Bill Lichtenstein, who created this campaign to raise funds to make a documentary about pioneering Boston rock-radio station WBCN, explains: “If you look at almost any account of anybody who’s done one of these things, usually they’ll say, Don’t do more than thirty days. It will kill you. Or plan to take a two-week vacation afterward. It’s exhausting. I thought: How exhausting can it be? It’s like eBay! But it’s not.” Crania Anatomica Filigre raised $77,271 in 45 days Joshua Harker, the sculptor behind this project to produce ornate, 3D-printed skulls, explains his campaign’s duration: “I ran my campaign for forty-five days. I think a project can lose steam if overextended, but in my opinion it seems that advice is more for time-sensitive event-type projects or fund-raising. My project happened to be more of an experiment/exploration of the viability of using crowdfunding to introduce and share art, as well as to sell it. I think I could’ve easily hit the $100,000 mark had I gone another couple weeks.

 

pages: 233 words: 58,561

Sprint: How to Solve Big Problems and Test New Ideas in Just Five Days by Jake Knapp, John Zeratsky, Braden Kowitz

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Anne Wojcicki, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Wall-E

“An industrial pump sounds too complicated to prototype and test in a week.” But the team wouldn’t give up so easily. If limited to just five days, they could prototype a brochure for the pump’s new features and try it in sales visits. That kind of test could answer questions about marketability. But what about the pump itself? The engineers had ideas for that, too. To test ease-of-use, they could 3D print new nozzles and attach them to existing pumps. To test installation, they could bring cables and hoses to nearby manufacturing plants and get reactions from assembly line workers. These tests wouldn’t be perfect. But they would answer big questions, before the pump even existed. Jake was wrong. The industrial pump wasn’t too complicated for a sprint. The team of engineers accepted the five-day constraint and used their domain expertise to think creatively.

to string the screens together and load them in a web browser or on a mobile phone. But it’s not all software. You read on page 176 about Foundation Medicine, a cancer diagnostics company whose product is a paper medical report. We designed their report in Keynote, then printed it out and showed it to oncologists. (Again, this kind of paper prototype actually makes sense.) For physical products, Keynote will be less useful. You may need to use 3D printing or make modifications to your existing product. But then again, many hardware devices have a software interface. Recall the story of Savioke, where part of our prototype involved attaching an iPad to their robot. And what, you may ask, was on that iPad? Keynote. The hits continue. Plus, for many physical-product sprints, you may not need to prototype the product at all. One of our favorite shortcuts is the Brochure Façade: Instead of prototyping the device, prototype the website, video, brochure, or slide deck that will be used to sell the device.

• If it’s on paper (report, brochure, flyer, etc.)—use Keynote, PowerPoint, or word processing software like Microsoft Word. • If it’s a service (customer support, client service, medical care, etc.)—write a script and use your sprint team as actors. • If it’s a physical space (store, office lobby, etc.)—modify an existing space. • If it’s an object (physical product, machinery, etc.)—modify an existing object, 3D print a prototype, or prototype the marketing using Keynote or PowerPoint and photos or renderings of the object. Building a prototype in one day sounds daunting, but when you put together a diverse sprint team you’ll have all the right expertise in the room. Chances are, a few people in your sprint will do most of the work, but we’ve found time and again that there’s a role for everyone. Once you’ve selected your tools, it’ll be time to assign some jobs.

 

pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

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3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

The European Space Agency is developing a 3-D printer that can create wall blocks at three meters per hour, fast enough to build a whole habitat in a week.4 The cost of a Moon base shrinks dramatically if air, water, and building materials can be generated locally. All of the technologies needed to do it have been demonstrated in the lab. There’s no projection or wishful thinking of the kind invoked for space elevators, for example. Figure 37. Cutaway view of a lunar base, based on an inflatable dome and a 3-D printing concept. After assembly, the inflated dome is covered with a layer of 3-D–printed lunar regolith to protect the occupants from radiation and meteorites. Location, location, location. It’s as crucial when buying a home as when planning a Moon base. The best spots are high mountains on the rims of large craters near the poles. They would be close to abundant water ice but high enough to be peaks of eternal light, always illuminated by the Sun so with access to solar energy all the time.

For a fleet, the price tag climbs to $100 billion. That’s steep, but doable.20 Figure 51. NASA is collaborating with Tethers Unlimited on a space fabrication system. In this mockup, a space robot 3-D–prints the backbone for a mile-wide solar array. Creating structures in orbit is far cheaper than sending them there by rocket. Miniaturizing a spacecraft is a logical strategy, but it’s unimaginative. Nanotechnology suggests other possibilities: self-assembly and self-replication. In 2012, a company named Tethers Unlimited won a NASA contract to develop a system called SpiderFab.21 Spiderfab aims to use 3-D printing and robotic assembly to fabricate components in orbit—solar arrays, trusses, and shrouds that are ten times bigger than those that can currently be put in orbit (Figure 51). In the lab, self-assembling machines are showing great promise.

Science, vol. 330, p. 434, and a subsequent set of research articles in the special issue of Science. 4. “Mining and Manufacturing on the Moon,” from the Aerospace Scholars program, online at http://web.archive.org/web/20061206083416/http://aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov/HAS/cirr/em/6/6.cfm; and “Building a Lunar Base with 3D Printing,” a research program at the European Space Agency, online at http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Technology/Building_a_lunar_base_with_3D_printing. 5. “The Peaks of Eternal Light on the Lunar South Pole: How They Were Found and What They Look Like” by M. Kruijff 2000. 4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM4), ESA/ESTEC, SP-462. Also: “A Search for Lava Tubes on the Moon: Possible Lunar Base Habitats” by C. R. Coombs and B. R.

 

pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

The US Department of Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office noted, “Additive manufacturing has the potential to vastly accelerate innovation, compress supply chains, minimize materials and energy usage, and reduce waste.” Additive manufacturing is also known as 3-D printing; machines build up new items one layer at a time. The Advanced Manufacturing Office suggested that additive manufacturing can reduce material needs and costs by up to 90 percent. And instead of the replacement of worn-out items, their material can simply be recycled through a printer to return it to good-as-new condition using only 2 to 25 percent of the energy required to make new parts. In addition, 3-D printing on demand will eliminate storage and inventory costs, and significantly cut transportation costs. Sustainable Development “The current global development model is unsustainable.” That was the conclusion of the High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability, appointed in 2012 by UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon to outline the economic and social changes needed to achieve global sustainability.

But is it plausible that much of Africa and many of the other least developed countries will remain high-fertility basket cases for the next several decades while the rest of the world modernizes, with concomitant improvements in the life prospects of women? Surely it is reasonable to expect that new medicines, vastly more productive crops and farming techniques, high quality education delivered via low-cost computerized tablets, cheap decentralized energy, and 3-D printing of tools and goods will spill over from the labs and factories of rich countries. These modern tools will go a long way toward ameliorating the chaos and poverty currently afflicting the least developed nations. In addition, the continuing global abatement of violent conflict is already taking hold in Africa and in other poor countries. For example, in October 2014, U.S. Naval War College researcher David Burbach and Tulane University political scientist Christopher Fettweis pointed out that “after the year 2000, conflict in Africa declined, probably to the lowest levels ever.”

The commission concluded that with respect to the benefits and harms of synthetic biology, the current regulatory system is robust enough to protect people and the environment. Nanotechnology is also being targeted by proponents of the precautionary principle. Nanotechnology basically encompasses a suite of new technologies involving the use of materials at scales measuring in billionths of an inch, including tools like 3-D printing and carbon nanotubes. When it comes to regulating nanotechnology, Georgia Miller from Friends of the Earth asks, “Who is afraid of the precautionary principle?” She argues for “a more comprehensive application of the precautionary principle [that] would see nanotechnology’s broader socio-economic and political implications considered and assessed alongside its toxicity risks.” The proponents of the precautionary principle ultimately hope that blocking the development of new technologies will force the rest of us to submit to the more radically communitarian and egalitarian forms of society and economics that they prefer.

 

pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

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3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

In spite of our dehumanized approach (or maybe because of it), we have managed to produce enough stuff to give out a livable share to everyone as a matter of course, and for free. A whole lot of what used to be scarce is now plentiful, and between 3-D printing and other forms of distributed production, the rest of everything could turn out to be plentiful as well. We may be approaching what economic futurist Jeremy Rifkin calls “the zero marginal cost society,” in which new technologies reduce the cost of everything to nearly nothing at all.60 In all honesty, I’m skeptical about digital technology’s ability to deliver on this potential anytime soon. Technologies such as 3-D printing may make it appear as if former consumers are now manufacturing goods from scratch, but this is an illusion. Most of these printers fabricate items with plastic and resin that still has to be sourced from somewhere.

By then, digital tagging technology may have advanced to the point where people just leave stores with the items they want and get billed automatically. For the moment, we’ll need more of those specialists than we’ll be able to find: mechanics to fit our current cars with robot drivers, and engineers to replace medical staff with sensors and to write software for postal drones. There will be an increase in specialized jobs before a precipitous drop. Already in China, the implementation of 3-D printing and other automated solutions is threatening hundreds of thousands of high-tech manufacturing jobs, many of which have existed for less than a decade.43 American factories would be winning back this business but for a shortage of workers with the training necessary to run an automated factory. Still, this wealth of opportunity will likely be only temporary. Once the robots are in place, their continued upkeep and a large part of their improvement will be automated as well.

Most of these printers fabricate items with plastic and resin that still has to be sourced from somewhere. Future models will allow people to make things out of metal or other materials, which will still have to be dug out of the ground and refined by someone, somewhere. If the environmental and labor footprint of a single smartphone is any indication, the true cost of 3-D printing will be anything but zero. Additionally, someone will still be manufacturing the 3-D printers themselves, and if they’re at all like the printer manufacturers of today, they will be upgrading often. Just as street curbs today are littered with old monitors and ink-jet printers, tomorrow’s will likely be strewn with first- and second-generation 3-D manufacturing technology. Another growth industry. That said, I’d much rather we bump up against the limits of our technology and resourcefulness than the limits of our economic model.

 

pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Lego, Hasbro (My Little Pony), Disney Princess, and Crockpot have all developed a more future-oriented and productive way to deal with their brand and copyright through Open Brand APIs that let peers print and exploit the brand and share revenue from the result. Here is an example from Christophe Vidal of his 3-D-printed 70-millimeter-tall interpretation of Spitfire, a “sandstone” My Little Pony, as permitted in a licensing agreement between Hasbro and Shapeways, a 3-D printing company.17 Christophe is a peer producer on Shapeways’ online store platform, which is much like Etsy for the broader maker community. As an industry, 3-D printing is still in its infancy, but it is clear that Peers Inc will necessarily be the organizational paradigm. Companies will provide the 3-D printers, basic materials, and patterns. Peers will deliver on the variation—the source of innovation in printer customization, improvement on materials, new uses, tweaks on standard patterns, and likely new business models.

MAGNETIC INEVITABILITY Any institution unencumbered by legacy assets—factories, buildings, vehicles, workforce—will choose to take the Peers Inc path. Companies that are organized as Peers Inc will grow bigger, learn faster, and be smarter than their closed, we-do-it-all-ourselves counterparts. Let’s go forward one generation—twenty years. Manufacturing will be trending toward Peers Inc. The promise of 3-D printing will be a reality for many of the physical goods we consume. Very small-scale manufacturers will be producing and repairing based on the algorithms established by the brand platforms. Transportation of both people and goods will be Peers Inc. The complex algorithms that move vehicles safely through space will be done by the Inc; the vehicles will be owned and maintained by smaller peers around the world.

Her strategy for Castorama, announced from the stage, had six important elements: • Create a wiki of home improvement solutions. • Work closely with start-ups and learn from their processes. • Create a system of skills bartering among and between the public and employees. • Hold “bar camps,” conferences whose topics are user-generated on the fly. • Create MOOCs—video instruction courses. • Move toward 3-D printing for tool repair rather than discarding repairable items. A compelling vision statement is one thing, but had she executed? Four months after hearing Laury speak in May 2014, I Googled “castorama.fr,” and the leading search recommendation after the store name was “castorama.fr/votreavis,” with the last element translating as “your opinion.” The skills bartering site (Les Troc Heures) seems like it is living and breathing: 2,400 people signed up to trade skills in the greater Paris area, 650 in Lille.

 

pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

We believe a lot of innovation is going to happen in the M2M hardware space in the next few years. If we project into the future, we see very promising technologies that can do to hardware what cloud services did to software. One is 3-D printing, which would allow quick building of prototypes in real time that could then be quickly field-tested. As 3-D printing evolves, we see even quick manufacturing of small batches of custom devices. While 3-D printing is an attractive concept for mechanical parts, interesting things are happening with electronic parts as well. A lot of innovation is happening with inorganic printed electronics. According to Sanjay Sarma, we are probably seven to ten years from being able to 3-D print electronics that will be used commercially in M2M devices. The problem here is not just the complexity of electronic components like modems, processors, and memory chips; it’s also scale: how to quickly move from on-demand printing of a small batch to commercial printing of millions of devices.

 

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

For an explanation of Latour's construction (and an idiosyncratic rejoinder), see Bruno Latour, Graham Harman, and Peter Erdélyi, The Prince and the Wolf: Latour and Harman at the LSE (Winchester, UK: ZERO Books, 2011). 17.  For such strangeness, see Mark Wilson, “The DRM Chair Self-Destructs after 8 Sittings,” Fast Company, March 7, 2013, http://www.fastcodesign.com/1672050/the-drm-chair-self-destructs-after-8-sittings. 18.  Consider the following regarding potential interfaces between viral systems of various scales. John Baichtal, “3D Printed Model of a Virus Self Assembles When Shaken,” MAKE, August 16, 2011, http://makezine.com/2011/08/16/3d-printed-model-of-a-virus-self-assembles-when-shaken/. 19.  Not just in Charles Stross's Rule 34, malware for 3D printers is live and at play. Kerry Stevenson, “The 3D Printer Virus, Really?” Fabbaloo, April 7, 2010, http://www.fabbaloo.com/blog/2010/4/7/the-3d-printer-virus-really.html. 20.  Cory Doctorow, “Metacrap: Putting the Torch to Seven Straw-men of the Meta-Utopia,” Well, August 26, 2011. 21. 

., “a non-profit working to create a contextual markup language around identity.” See “Austin Nonprofit Trying to Help the World Get Back Its Online Identity,” Statesman, July 24, 2011, http://www.statesman.com/news/technology/austin-nonprofit-trying-to-help-the-world-get-back/nRcwY/. Or, Kyle Vanhemert, “For $300, You Can Buy a Stunning 3-D Printed Version of Yourself,” Wired, August 2, 2013, http://www.wired.com/2013/08/this-company-will-transform-you-into-an-incredibly-detailed-3-d-printed-figurine/. 70.  Andy Greenberg and Ryan Mac, “How a ‘Deviant’ Philosopher Built Palantir, a CIA-Funded Data-Mining Juggernaut,” Forbes, August 14, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/agent-of-intelligence-how-a-deviant-philosopher-built-palantir-a-cia-funded-data-mining-juggernaut/. 71.  Hugo De Garis, The Artilect War: Cosmists vs.

We see it in a politics of radial transparency aligned with another politics of radical privacy, in journalists’ self-congratulation at the use of social media in the Arab Spring as supposedly outlining an anterior stratum of crowds and power (absent in their coverage of the shock economies of Haiti, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Louisiana, for example), in how Wikipedia formalizes taxonomic consensus from a heteroglossia of interests and how WikiLeaks inverted the ocular and occult body of the state, or in how Google cloud services both circumvent and circumscribe state authority in China and in how much of China's direct perception of computational supply chains is invisible to Californian search engines. Both events and pseudoevents are plentiful and it's hard to know what signals a new situation and what is trivial: the Google Earth stand-off between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, Prism and Data.Gov, hyperbolic packet-routing topologies, Dot-P2P and OpenDNS, net neutrality and the golden shield, downloadable guns 3D printed out of synthetic biopolymers paid for with Bitcoins, the National Security Agency (NSA) versus Unit 6139, NSA versus Anonymous, Anonymous versus Syrian Electronic Army, NSA versus Syrian Electronic Army versus ISIL versus FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) versus North Korea versus Samsung versus Apple versus European Parliament, and on and on. Which of these situations scales well into a general lesson and which actually obscures the critical junctures?

 

pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

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3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

There are fledgling experiments with printers that realize physical products including working electronic components. A chip is just a pattern deposited by something like a printing process to begin with. So is a flat display. In theory, it ought to be possible, in the not-so-distant future, to print out a working phone or tablet. It is still unknown how good 3D printing will become, or how soon. The little gotchas and annoyances of technology are not predictable and can add decades of uncertainty to the timing of technological change. But it seems likely that 3D printing can close the various loops and become a fairly complete technology in this century. But notice that once a 3D printer can be deployed in a factory, it might just as well be placed close to where the product will be used. Being able to make things on the spot could remove a huge part of humanity’s carbon footprint: the transportation of goods.

Detail work (like fitting touchscreens into the frame of a tablet) is still mostly done by hand, but that might change soon. At first manufacturing robots will be expensive, and there will be plenty of well-paying jobs created to operate them, but eventually they will become cheap and the data to operate them might then be crowdsourced, sending manufacturing down the same road traveled by the recorded music industry. A current academic and hobbyist craze is known as “3D printing.” A 3D printer looks a little like a microwave oven. Through the glass door, you can watch roaming robotic nozzles deposit various materials under software control in an incremental way to form a product as if by magic. You download a design from the ’net, as if you were downloading a movie file, send it to your 3D printer, and come back after a while. There, before you, is a physical object, downloaded from afar.

Instead of melting it down, little nozzles with specialized solvents and cutting tools will separate each striation that originated from a different antecedent goop. The process will not be perfect, since the laws of thermodynamics cannot be revoked, but it will be hugely more efficient than what we do today. Between the obsolescence of shipping and an extreme increase in recycling precision, 3D printing could create a massive explosion of convenience and fun, and at the same time vastly reduce humanity’s carbon footprint and reliance on nonrenewable resources. All this modulo the gotchas we don’t know about yet, of course. But supposing that some portions of the benefits appear, it certainly would be foolish to oppose this stream of progress. How could a liberal not like the reduced carbon footprint?

 

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

At the San Francisco headquarters of Autodesk, a leading design software company, we handled a working adjustable wrench that was printed as a single part, no assembly required.40 This wrench was a demonstration product made out of plastic, but 3D printing has expanded into metals as well. Autodesk CEO Carl Bass is part of the large and growing community of additive manufacturing hobbyists and tinkerers. During our tour of his company’s gallery, a showcase of all the products and projects enabled by Autodesk software, he showed us a beautiful metal bowl he designed on a computer and had printed out. The bowl had an elaborate lattice pattern on its sides. Bass said that he’d asked friends of his who were experienced in working with metal—sculptors, ironworkers, welders, and so on—how the bowl was made. None of them could figure out how the lattice was produced. The answer was that a laser had built up each layer by fusing powdered metal. 3D printing today is not just for art projects like Bass’s bowl.

Analysts project revenue to fall 0.3 percent year-over-year to $2.84 billion for the quarter, after being $2.85 billion a year ago. For the year, revenue is projected to roll in at $11.82 billion.39 Even computer peripherals like printers are getting in on the act, demonstrating useful capabilities that seem straight out of science fiction. Instead of just putting ink on paper, they are making complicated three-dimensional parts out of plastic, metal, and other materials. 3D printing, also sometimes called “additive manufacturing,” takes advantage of the way computer printers work: they deposit a very thin layer of material (ink, traditionally) on a base (paper) in a pattern determined by the computer. Innovators reasoned that there is nothing stopping printers from depositing layers one on top of the other. And instead of ink, printers can also deposit materials like liquid plastic that gets cured into a solid by ultraviolet light.

At the intersection where our general interests met the specifics of writing a book is a set of colleagues, family, and friends who we simply can’t thank enough. To give us up-close encounters with the technologies we were writing about, Dave Ferrucci and his colleagues at IBM brought Watson to campus, Rod Brooks introduced us to Baxter the humanoid robot, Carl Bass at Autodesk headquarters let us handle a range of objects made by 3D printing, and Betsy Masiello and Hal Varian worked their magic at Google to get us a ride in one of their driverless cars. We’re grateful for the students in our classes who served as sounding boards for many of the ideas that made it into this book, and even more that didn’t make the cut. We are particularly grateful to our Digital Frontier team, a self-selecting group of people who are interested in the same things we are, and who get together periodically to generate, share, and refine ideas, a lot of which made their way into this book.

 

pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

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3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, WikiLeaks

This is equally important because two additional future trends are intrinsically linked with the hacking culture: 1. 3D printing. Imagine being able to “print up” a three-dimensional product in much the same way you hit the print button for your word processing software. The hacker culture has given rise to many startups and centers of innovation within major corporations that are tinkering with the printer of the future. This printer doesn’t put images and words on paper, but actually creates physical objects. The current limitations of the technology (both hardware and software) make it as crude as the early days of dot matrix printing, but groups like MakerBot are running Hackathons to demonstrate the power and potential of 3D printing. Business is going to change dramatically when making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital file is as simple as hitting “command P” on your keyboard.

A business’s ability to produce rapid prototypes and to sell individualized products to consumers will create the next generation of upheaval. This is a profound change and can be witnessed in how the medical field is currently prototyping body parts and more using 3D printing. Imagine a world—in the not too distant future—when a failing kidney can simply be replaced by a healthy one that was just printed up on one of these printers. This type of innovation is already in development. 2. Maker Movement. In 2006, an event called Maker Faire was born. What can only be described as a contemporary subculture, this annual event showcases “makers”—people who create robotics, electronics, woodworking, 3D printing, and more. These hobbyists embody the next generation of the same philosophical ideologies that brought together people interested in computers and computing back in the 1970s at computer clubs and meetups (the places that people like Bill Gates and Steve Wozniak used to hang out).

 

pages: 94 words: 26,453

The End of Nice: How to Be Human in a World Run by Robots (Kindle Single) by Richard Newton

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3D printing, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Paul Erdős, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Y Combinator

Let computers compute Computers, and robots can do a lot of things but they can’t break the rules. The Machine can only do what is logical based on a set of rules. But it can’t do what is inexplicable. …And that inexplicable thing is something uniquely human, something that no other animal does, that no machine can do, that provides joy and fulfillment and cannot be routinised, replicated and 3D-printed – it is simply to be creative. Being futureproof is about creativity in the broadest sense. The sense that recognises the daring, the flights of imagination realised by chemists, builders, business owners, chefs, growth hackers and teachers can be creative. It’s what comes from wanting to make a difference, to make a connection, to innovate and add value by bringing the best of yourself to bear upon the world.

In contrast the clunky incentive plans of the Nice Age – hold on for a pension plan and a bonus – will attract only the calibre of people they deserve. And as jobs and companies get accelerated into the history books by permanent acceleration, this sort of motivation will bring forth only more shallow results. In contrast, start-up companies are bursting with a sense of mission and a satchel full of doubt. The very creation of a business that dreams to do something new and better – whether it’s 3D printing jewellery, sorting out online storage (like Dropbox), or disrupting the taxi business (Uber)the important thing they do is acknowledge that yes, they have doubts and then they press on and start to make, solve, fix, do, create. That first step gets them on the path to working things out en route. P.G. Wodehouse, the prolific author of the Jeeves and Bertie Wooster stories, would start writing before he felt he even had a book ready to write.

 

pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

Just as the TIR economy allows millions of people to produce their own energy, a new digital manufacturing revolution now opens up the possibility of following suit in the production of durable goods. In the new era, everyone can potentially be their own manufacturer as well as their own power company. Welcome to the world of distributed manufacturing. The process is called 3-D printing; and although it sounds like science fiction, it is already coming online, and promises to change the entire way we think of industrial production. The process is amazing. Think about pushing the print button on your computer and sending a digital file to an inkjet printer, except, with 3-D printing, the machine runs off a three-dimensional product. Using computer aided design, software directs the 3-D printer to build successive layers of the product using powder, molten plastic, or metals to create the material scaffolding. The 3-D printer can produce multiple copies just like a photocopy machine.

All sorts of goods, from jewelry to mobile phones, auto and aircraft parts, medical implants, and batteries, are being “printed out” in what is being termed “additive manufacturing,” distinguishing it from the “subtractive manufacturing,” which involves cutting down and pairing off materials and then attaching them together.20 Industry analysts forecast that millions of customers will routinely download digitally manufactured, customized products and “print them out” at their business or residence. 3-D entrepreneurs are particularly bullish about additive manufacturing, because the process requires as little as 10 percent of the raw material expended in traditional manufacturing and uses less energy than conventional factory production, thus greatly reducing the cost. As the new technology becomes more widespread, on site, just in time, 3-D printing of customized manufactured products will increasingly reduce logistics costs, with the possibility of huge energy savings. The energy saved at every step of the digital manufacturing process, from reduction in materials used, to less energy expended in making the product, and the elimination of energy in transporting it, when applied across the global economy, adds up to a qualitative increase in energy efficiency beyond anything imaginable in the First and Second Industrial Revolutions.

In the same way that the Internet radically reduced entry costs in generating and disseminating information, giving rise to new businesses like Google and Facebook, additive manufacturing has the potential to greatly reduce the cost of producing hard goods, making entry costs sufficiently low to encourage hundreds of thousands of mini manufacturers—Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)—to challenge and potentially out-compete the giant manufacturing companies that were at the center of the First and Second Industrial Revolution economies. Already, a spate of new start-up companies are entering the 3-D printing market with names like Within Technologies, Digital Forming, Shape Ways, Rapid Quality Manufacturing, and Stratasys, and are determined to reinvent the very idea of manufacturing in the Third Industrial era. Manufacturing is going lateral, with immeasureable consequences for society.21 To get a feel for how radically different distributed and collaborative business models are from the conventional centralized business models of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, consider Etsy, a brash, web start-up company that has taken off in less than four years.

 

pages: 210 words: 56,667

The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips

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3D printing, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

MacDonald told us that science fiction writers are sometimes invited to speak at NASA conferences. Science fiction author and blogger Cory Doctorow, for example, published a novella for Project Hieroglyph, a platform for science fiction stories. Doctorow wrote about maker-space hardware hackers and Burning Man devotees who build 3-D printing robots to send to the moon. Accompanying the story, Hieroglyph hosts on their website a discussion with scientists around the feasibility of 3-D printing on the moon. Hieroglyph is a matchmaker of sorts, encouraging the conversion of science fiction stories into reality. The name comes from the recognition that certain stories serve as “hieroglyphs” or symbols—like Isaac Asimov’s robot—that activate the minds of engineers, entrepreneurs, and scientists around how an innovation can come to be.

., 63 Song, Stephen, 99 South America, 127 Southwest Airlines, 84–85 space, 144–50 space flight, 148–49 space tourism, 31 Spain, recession in, 64–65 Spotify, 96, 97, 124 Sprigman, Christopher, 85 Stark, Kio, 22–23, 142 Steam, 215 steam engine technology, 88 steel industry, 88–89 Stein, Gertrude, 213 Stephens, Dale, 22–23, 139–42, 143 Stonyfield, 201 Stop Online Piracy Act, 113 streaming technology, 96 Structural Genomics Consortium, 101 Stuckert, Taylor, 67–70 Student (magazine), 31 Sullivan, Tim, 184 Swartz, Aaron, 113–14, 115 Sweden, 145, 156 Teach, Edward (“Blackbeard”), 121 TED, 201 telecom industry, 78 ten-thousand-year clock, 150–51 terrorists, 124 Texas, 58–59, 150 Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 59 Thai Flood Hacks, 34–35 Thailand, 34 Thessaloniki, Greece, 162 Thoreau, Henry, 185 3-D printing robots, 149 Tornabell, Robert, 65 Torvalds, Linus, 37 Toyota, 78, 85 trade: cost of, piracy and, 17 of counterfeit goods, 81 pirates’ disruption of, 121 Trade Secrets (Ben-Atar), 79 Trevithick, Richard, 89–90 Troyer, Marlin, 6, 8 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin, 148 tuberculosis, 128 Tumblr, 34, 186 Twain, Mark, 80 Tweakers, 98 Twitter, 83 UAW Local, 40, 600 Ulysses (Joyce), 213 UnCollege, 22, 140 United Auto Worker, 40 United Kingdom, 66, 107, 163 United Nations, 17 United States: adoption industry in, 21 automobile consumption in, 41–42 camel farmers in, 3, 4, 6, 9, 74 camel milk industry in, 5–7, 8, 72, 74–75 community building in, 67–72 history of camels in, 72–73 hustling in, 67 industrial period copying of, 79 raw milk in, 6, 7 “Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall, The” (Poe), 147 unschooling movement, 139–42 Urban eXperiment (The UX), 19, 125–27, 214 Valve, 215, 217 Venturing Out, 62, 64 Verdin, Zach, 185–86 Vergne, Jean-Phillippe, 94 Vermeulen, Angelo, 144–47, 149, 216–17 Verne, Jules, 143, 148, 149 Vietnam, 165 Village Telco, 99 Villains of All Nations (Rediker), 121 violence, 129–36 as health issue, 130, 131, 133–34, 136 punishment as solution for, 129, 130 understanding and perception of, 130–31, 133–34 violence interruptors, 131–32, 135 Virgin (record store), 31 Virgin Records, 31, 64 Visa, 85 Walden Pond, 185 Wallace, Alfred Russel, 87 Wall Street Journal, 36 Wang Chuanfu, 79 Water Margin (Shuihu Zhuan), 77 Watson, James, 86 Watt, James, 89 Weiler, Lance, 32–34 Weinreich, Andrew, 103–5 Wells, H.

 

pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

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3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

Even Amazon is now getting in that game by enabling authors to remove the intermediary publisher and go directly to their audience. Human-centered technology has enabled us to reconnect with our heritage and culture, making the production of our own products possible on an entirely new scale. One of the most potentially transformative technologies is 3-D printing, which makes it possible to produce low-volume, highly customized goods on demand, making customization at scale possible for the first time. It’s already enabled exponentially more people to become designers and sellers of products that meet their vision of a community’s needs. 3-D Printing In 1907, there were 9,260 books published. In 2010, just over one hundred years later, there were 316,480 books published annually, in addition to nearly 3 million ebooks.3 At the core of this change has been the rise of personal computing and printing.

More than 17 percent of the fourteen million self-employed workers in the United States consider themselves independent contractors or freelancers.1 Fractional Labor, as it sometimes called, is concentrated heavily in sales, IT, creative services, marketing, and operations. As Generation X and Millennials have entered the workforce, more professionals of their generations (and even older) have been seeking alternative ways to do work that is meaningful, powered by Internet 3.0. The technology pipeline, from better 3-D printing to robotics to big data, will likely only further accelerate these changes. 2. The Maslow Millennial Effect While many generations have sought out purpose, Millennials make it a greater priority than ever before, in everything from their consumption to their work to their communities to their relationships. Arthur Woods, a 2010 graduate of Georgetown University, was excited when he landed a job at Google, the most desired employer of graduating college students, according to Forbes.2 He had heard the stories and loved what he learned, particularly the fact that every employee was able to dedicate 20 percent of their time to passion projects.

 

pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

On-demand services of all kinds become more viable, more efficient, and more ubiquitous with the Internet of Things. 3-D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Until recently, if you wanted to get into the business of making and selling physical objects, you had to acquire the capabilities of manufacturing and find some way of distributing and selling objects (by connecting, for example, with a wholesaling or retailing network). We are now entering a world where you no longer need a factory or warehouse or distribution network to be engaged in the sale of physical objects. You no longer need a distribution network to get spare parts to machines in remote locations. All you need is a design. The game-changing technology at work here is 3-D printing. Industrial era–manufacturing is typically “subtractive”; it starts with physical material—wood, metal, heated resin—and removes portions of it to create the components of the eventual product, using tools, machines, or a mold.

It has also made it possible for a far greater range of niche musicians, authors, bloggers, and YouTube stars to emerge.9 As the University of Rochester professor Ravi Mantena forecasted in his 2004 doctoral dissertation at New York University, the coming of age of additive manufacturing could similarly radically alter the economics of many physical industries. Imagine, for example, you are looking for a new phone case. Right now, most of us are constrained in our choices to the selection at the Apple Store, at BestBuy, on the street vendor’s cart, or what’s in Amazon’s warehouse. With access to 3-D printing, you can now buy a design rather than a phone case. In other words, what once entailed the purchase of a physical object now simply entails the purchase of a design that can in turn be manufactured, in a sense, by the buyer, either on a 3-D printer at home or on one owned by a local print shop. If neither you nor your local print shop owns a 3-D printer, you can simply have your purchased design printed by a peer who owns a 3-D printer through a marketplace like 3DHubs, or browse the alternatives at Shapeways, an online retailer for 3-D printable designs.

See Self-regulatory organizations (SROs) Stancil, Benn, 156 Stangler, Dane, 108 Stein, Joel, 3–4 Stephany, Alex, 28, 29–30, 35 Stern, Andy, 187 “Stranger sharing Street, Satsuma, 106 Strickler, Yancey, 41 Stucke, Maurice, 120 StyleLend, 15–16, 44 Suicide (Durkheim), 45 Sunkist, 197 SupplyDemanded.com, 49 Surowecki, James, 19 Sustainable Economies Law Center (SELC), 196 Swallow, Erica, 3 Swalwell, Eric, 137 Swan, Melanie, 93 Swarm, 199 Swift, 197 Taaki, Amir, 85–86 Tadelis, Steve, 61 “Tales from the Sharing Economy” (Stein), 3 Tambe, Prasanna, 75, 113 Tanz, Jason, 60 TaskRabbit, 3, 11, 77, 114, 157, 183, 197. background screening, 50–51 contractor classification and, 160, 161 new social safety net and, 191 platform, 43–44 platform independence, 194 pricing, supply, and merchandizing, 194 TechCrunch, 11 Telang, Rahul, 112 Teran, Dan, 160 “There’s an Uber for Everything” (Fowler), 11 Thierer, Adam, 146 Thin sharing economies, 34 Threadless, 76 ThreeBirdNest, 107, 125, 177 3-D printing, 57–58 Thumbtack, 3, 6, 77, 164 Tiger Global Management, 25 TimeRepublik, 35 TimesFree, 43 Timms, Henry, 23, 136 Tincq, Benjamin, 23–25, 199 Tool libraries, 15 Total factor productivity (TFP), 116–117 Trade School, 43, 82 Traity, 64–65, 98 Transparency, mandated, 157 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), 153 Trust, 4, 6, 12, 28, 35, 39, 47–50 brand-based, 144–146 history of (in world trade), 142–143 digitization of, 60–65 reputation and, 97–98 Tujia, 6, 121 Tumblr, 85 Turkle, Sherry, 45 Turo, 3, 80, 107, 177, 190 Tusk, Bradley, 136 Tuzhilin, Alexander, 112 Twitter, 29, 85 Uber, 2, 3, 6, 10, 19, 48, 154, 161, 186, 197, 203 class-action lawsuit and, 160 consumer behavior changed by “data Darwinism” and, 200–201 data science and, 157, 200–201 driver classifications, 159, 160, 176, 182, 183 driver protests, 200 entrepreneurial nature of, 192, 194 financing of, 25 gift economy aspects, 35 impact on traditional taxis, 122–123 local network effects, 119–120 as microbusiness, 77, 113 new social safety net and, 191 platform, 84 platform independence, 194 pricing, supply, and merchandizing, 194, 195 regulatory challenges, 135 social capital and, 62, 64 trust and, 145 UberPool, 66 “Uber Alles” (Surowecki), 19 Ulbricht, Ross, 86 Union Square Ventures (USV), 17, 23, 25, 85–86, 90, 157, 189 United States Conference of Mayors, 131, 147 Universal Avenue, 77 UnSYSTEM, 85–86 Upwork, 77, 162, 163.

 

pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial robot, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

A fascinating special report by The Economist in 2012 extrapolates these trends even further.2 It notes that manufacturing may be going through a new industrial revolution due to the advent of “3D printing” (also called additive manufacturing), which bundles virtually all stages of manufacturing into a single machine. Combined with the virtual designing made possible by computer-aided design systems, 3D printing would take manufacturing very close to the Star Trek replicators. While it seems more than a few years away, we are clearly moving toward a reality where “if I can imagine it, the computer can make it for me.” Supply chain unbundling would be seriously undermined by radical advances in the direction of mass customization and 3D printing by sophisticated machines. Whether these machines end up in high-wage, high-skill nations or are distributed to be near every large customer base, the impact would be a very substantial reduction in supply chain trade.

Other aspects of ICT, by contrast, make it easier for individual workers to master more tasks—call them information technologies (IT). Since IT basically means automation, better IT disfavors specialization by reducing the cost of grouping many tasks into a single occupation. This happens in several ways. Today, many factories can be thought of as computer systems where the peripherals are industrial robots, computerized machine tools, and guided vehicles. Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is the extreme where IT allows a single worker to perform all tasks simply by operating one machine. Perhaps this type of advanced manufacturing should be called “compufacturing” since rather than machines helping workers make things, the workers are helping machines make things. To sum up, coordination technologies and information technologies cut in opposite directions when it comes to fractionalization.

 

pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

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3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Europe also needs to adapt to three big changes in the economic landscape. One: the rapid development of China and other emerging economies, which now account for more than half of the world economy for the first time since the Industrial Revolution as well as for the bulk of global growth. Two: the speedy deployment of new technologies, notably digital ones such as the internet, new manufacturing processes such as 3-D printing, and new energy sources such as shale gas and solar power. Three: the rapid onset of demographic challenges as European societies age and local workforces begin to shrink. Often, policymakers and pundits focus on one at the expense of the other. Paul Krugman, a brilliant Nobel-winning economist who blogs for the New York Times, focuses almost exclusively on short-term demand issues and seems dismissive of longer-term structural challenges.

Amazon has revolutionised shopping. Big boxy televisions have been junked for cheaper flat-screens with pin-sharp images. Thanks to imports from China and elsewhere, the cost of clothing, toys and much else has plummeted. Supermarkets provide a wider range of better food. Flying around Europe is no longer a luxury. High-speed rail has proliferated; even Britain has one short link. Cars are starting to drive themselves. 3D printing shops are opening on high streets. Fears that we would run short of fossil fuels have proved false: shale oil and gas (and coal) are plentiful. AIDS has become a chronic disease, not a quickly fatal one. Viagra has given many men a new lease of life. Starting with the Netherlands in 2001, ten European countries have allowed gays to marry; England and Wales are due to do so in 2014. Britain introduced a minimum wage in 1997.

Industrial policy often subsidises sunset industries, rather than rising ones. Even when it is more future-oriented, its priorities tend to be distorted by fashion and favour. Antonio Tajani, the buffoon appointed by Silvio Berlusconi to the European Commission, wants to craft a European industrial policy which – surprise, surprise – favours his chums in Italian industry. His six priorities are: new manufacturing technologies in areas such as robotics and 3D printing; basic “enabling technology” such as optical electronics and new materials linked to novel products; biotech-based production techniques; low-carbon and other low-pollution manufacturing techniques; “clean” vehicles, such as cars using new forms of hybrid engines; and equipment needed for new “smart grids” to facilitate more efficient energy use. Tajani wants the EU’s manufacturing output to rise from 15.5 per cent of GDP in 2011 to 20 per cent in 2020.645 That is an absurd target, given that manufacturing is shrinking as a share of the economy even in China.

 

pages: 537 words: 149,628

Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War by P. W. Singer, August Cole

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3D printing, Admiral Zheng, augmented reality, British Empire, energy security, Firefox, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Google Glasses, IFF: identification friend or foe, Just-in-time delivery, Maui Hawaii, new economy, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, trade route, Wall-E, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, zero day

.,” Digital Journal, June 4, 2011, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.digitaljournal.com/image/88949. 163 graphene was light and strong: “The Story of Graphene,” University of Manchester, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.graphene.manchester.ac.uk/explore/the-story-of-graphene/. 163 also known as a 3-D printer: Bob Tita, “How 3-D Printing Works,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2013, accessed August 20, 2014, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323716304578483062211388072. 164 a manufacturing revolution: “3D printing: Second Industrial Revolution Is Under Way,” New Scientist, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.newscientist.com/special/3D-printing. 165 just spoken Klingon: Klingon Pocket Dictionary, Klingonska Akademien, accessed August 20, 2014, http://klingonska.org/dict/. 166 “Russian Foundation for Advanced Research Projects”: “Putin Seeks to Create Russian DARPA Equivalent,” Global Security Newswire, June 21, 2012, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.nti.org/gsn/article/putin-seeks-create-darpa-equivalent/. 167 the electronic ink used: Jason Koebler, “This E-Tattoo Uses Conventional Chips, No Nanotech Required,” Motherboard, April 4, 2014, accessed August 20, 2014, http://motherboard.vice.com/read/this-e-tattoo-uses-conventional-chips-no-nanotech-required. 167 Dmitri Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony: “Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5,” Keeping Score, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.pbs.org/keepingscore/shostakovich-symphony-5.html. 169 Iliahi Elementary School: “About Iliahi,” Iliahi Elementary School, accessed August 20, 2014, https://sites.google.com/a/dragons.k12.hi.us/iliahiel/. 173 community development units: “Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs),” Department of State, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.state.gov/p/nea/ci/iz/c21830.htm; fictional unit. 174 Directorate Z-8K assault helicopters: “Product Information — Z8 Helicopter,” Changhe Aircraft Industries Group, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.changhe.com/english/ecpxx/ecpxx.htm. 174 “It was always a risk”: Charles J.

., “Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies,” RAND Corporation, 2013, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR291z2.html. 261 civilian-style Great Wall pickups: “Wingle 5,” Great Wall Motors, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.gwm-global.com/wingle5.html. 265 the two metallic hands: Francie Diep, “A Mind-Controlled Robotic Hand with a Sense of Touch,” Popular Science, February 5, 2014, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.popsci.com/article/science/mind-controlled-robotic-hand-sense-touch. 266 “lenses of the wrong prescription”: Emily Gold Boutilier, “Thinking the World into Motion,” Brown Alumni Magazine, January 2005, accessed August 23, 2014, http://archive.today/hf0P9. 266 “William Gibson’s 1984 novel Neuromancer”: Ed Cumming, “The Man Who Saw Tomorrow,” Guardian, July 27, 2014, accessed August 23, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jul/28/william-gibson-neuromancer-cyberpunk-books. Also see http://williamgibsonbooks.com/books/neuromancer.asp. 267 the five-foot-tall spider-bot: Lance Ulanoff, “3D-Printed Spiderbot Is Stuff of Dreams and Nightmares,” Mashable.com, July 5, 2013, accessed August 24, 2014, http://mashable.com/2013/07/05/3d-printed-spider-robot/. 267 sifting through rubble: Dan Nosowitz, “Meet Japan’s Earthquake Search-and-Rescue Robots,” Popular Science, March 11, 2011, accessed August 24, 2014, http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2011-03/six-robots-could-shape-future-earthquake-search-and-rescue. 269 “What we observe”: Werner Heisenberg, as quoted in Robert Pine, Science and the Human Prospect (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1999), online edition, accessed July 15, 2014, http://home.honolulu.hawaii.edu/~pine/book1qts/chapter8qts.html. 276 a Type 98 bayonet knife: Fan Zhibin, “Regiment in Bayonet Training,” People’s Daily Online, accessed August 24, 2014, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90786/7689290.html. 276 QSZ-92: “NORINCO QSZ-92 (Type 92) Semi-Automatic Pistol (1998),” MilitaryFactory.com, September 2, 2011, accessed August 24, 2014, http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/detail.asp?

 

pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management

Hence, they prefer to stick with the old, proven therapies and are highly reluctant to participate in something new. Only terminally ill people see some benefit.”82 In spite of these formidable barriers and the generally stagnant trends of the past several decades—from unchanging cancer treatments to static new drug approvals—medical optimists continue to extol inventions such as diagnostic robots83 or 3D printing of internal organs. Even if robots and 3D printing can improve the efficacy of surgery, however, the gains will likely be minor compared to the achievements of the decades between 1940 and 1970, including antibiotics and the development of the basic tools to fight CVD and cancer. Furthermore, as we will see in the following section, the problems of the U.S. medical system lie not in the scarcity of advanced modern technology, but rather, at least to some extent, in its overuse.

The difference between picking up a lace nightgown versus unraveling a pair of crumpled jeans knotted with other clothes is a calculation that requires massive computing power and a soft touch.55 3D printing is another revolution described by the techno-optimists. Its most important advantage is the potential to speed up the design process of new products. New prototypes can be designed in days or even hours rather than months and can be created at relatively low cost, lowering one major barrier to entry for entrepreneurs trying to attract financing for their startups. New design models can be simultaneously produced at multiple locations around the world. 3D printing also excels at one-off customized operations, such as the ability to create a crown in a dentist office instead of having to send out a mold, reducing the process of creating and installing a dental crown from two office visits to one.

New design models can be simultaneously produced at multiple locations around the world. 3D printing also excels at one-off customized operations, such as the ability to create a crown in a dentist office instead of having to send out a mold, reducing the process of creating and installing a dental crown from two office visits to one. Thus it may contribute to productivity growth by reducing certain inefficiencies and lowering barriers to entrepreneurship, but these are unlikely to be huge effects felt throughout the economy. 3D printing is not expected to have much effect on mass production and thus on how most U.S. consumer goods are produced. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence. The core of the optimists’ case lies not with physical robots or 3D printing but with the growing sophistication and humanlike abilities of computers that are often described as “artificial intelligence.” Brynjolfsson and McAfee provide many examples to demonstrate that computers are becoming sufficiently intelligent to supplant a growing share of human jobs. “They wonder if automation technology is near a tipping point, when machines finally master traits that have kept human workers irreplaceable.“56 Thus far, it appears that the vast majority of big data is being analyzed within large corporations for marketing purposes.

 

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

So in 2013 GE took one bracket, described the conditions under which it worked and the particular function it performed, and posted online the GE engine-bracket challenge. GE offered a reward to anyone in the world who could design that component with less weight, using 3-D printing. They advertised it in June 2013. As I wrote in a column, within weeks they had received 697 entries from all over the world—from companies, individuals, graduate students, and designers. According to the GE website: In September [2013], the partners picked 10 finalists who received $1,000 each. Aviation 3D printed the 10 shortlisted designs at its additive manufacturing plant in Cincinnati, Ohio. GE workers made the brackets from a titanium alloy on a direct metal laser melting (DMLM) machine, which uses a laser beam to fuse layers of metal powder into the final shape.

The best design, GE told me, actually came from Ármin Fendrik, a third-year university student from Hungary. This entry was among his first 3-D printing designs. But it turned out that he had been interning at GE’s office in Budapest and therefore could not take the prize. So the first-prize money, seven thousand dollars, went to M. Arie Kurniawan, a twenty-one-year-old engineer from Salatiga in Central Java, Indonesia. Kurniawan’s bracket, said GE, “had the best combination of stiffness and light weight. The original bracket weighed 2,033 grams (4.48 pounds), but Kurniawan was able to slash its weight by nearly 84 percent to just 327 grams (0.72 pounds).” GE officials noted to me that the manager who ran the challenge had worked at GE longer than that kid had been alive. Kurniawan was quoted by GE as saying, “3D printing will be available for everyone in the very near future.”

Many major media websites are shifting from building national audiences to global ones; a range of publications, including The Guardian, Vogue, BBC, and BuzzFeed, attract more than half of their online traffic from foreign countries. By expanding its business model from mailing DVDs to selling subscriptions for online streaming, Netflix has dramatically broadened its international reach to more than 190 countries. While media, music, books, and games represent the first wave of digital trade, 3-D printing could eventually expand digital commerce to many more product categories. And forget the fact that so many “friends” are connecting on Facebook. How about all the “things” getting to know one another? You want to see flows—wait until the “Internet of Things” gets to scale and machines start talking to machines everywhere and always! “Only 0.6 percent of things are connected today,” Plamen Nedeltchev, distinguished IT engineer at Cisco, wrote on Cisco.com in an essay entitled “It is inevitable.

 

pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Even if the prices for sophisticated smart phones and robots to perform household tasks like vacuuming remain high, illicit markets like China’s expansive “shanzhai” network for knock-off consumer electronics will produce and distribute imitations that bridge the gap. And technologies that emerged in first-world contexts will find renewed purpose in developing countries. In “additive manufacturing,” or 3-D printing, machines can actually “print” physical objects by taking three-dimensional data about an object and tracing the contours of its shape, ultra-thin layer by ultra-thin layer, with liquid plastic or other material, until the whole object materializes. Such printers have produced a huge range of objects, including customized mobile phones, machine parts and a full-sized replica motorcycle. These machines will definitely have an impact on the developing world.

These machines will definitely have an impact on the developing world. Communal 3-D printers in poor countries would allow people to make whatever tool or item they require from open-source templates—digital information that is freely available in its edited source—rather than waiting on laborious or iffy delivery routes for higher-priced premade goods. In wealthier countries 3-D printing will be the perfect partner for advanced manufacturing. New materials and products will all be built uniquely to a specification from the Internet and on demand by a machine run by a sophisticated, trained operator. This will not replace the acres of high-volume, lowest-cost manufacturing present in many industries, but it will bring an unprecedented variety to the products used in the developed world. As for life’s small daily tasks, information systems will streamline many of them for people living in those countries, such as integrated clothing machines (washing, drying, folding, pressing and sorting) that keep an inventory of clean clothes and algorithmically suggest outfits based on the user’s daily schedule.

A Taliban-like government would still be able to destroy monuments like the Bamiyan Buddhas, but in the future those monuments will have been scanned with sophisticated technology that preserves every nook and cranny in virtual memory, allowing them to be rebuilt later by men or 3-D printers, or even projected as a hologram. Perhaps the UNESCO World Heritage Centre will add these practices to its restoration efforts. The structure of Syria’s oldest synagogue, for example, currently in a museum in Damascus, could be projected as a hologram or reconstructed using 3-D printing at its original site in Dura-Europos. What’s true now in most developed countries—the presence of an active civil society keen to fact-check and investigate its government—will be true almost everywhere, aided significantly by the prevalence of cheap and powerful handsets. And on a more basic level, citizens anywhere will be able to compare themselves and their way of life with the rest of the world.

 

pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, performance metric, platform as a service, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, web application

Self-driving cars, computer-based personal assistants that can predict and anticipate our needs or manage our calendar without needing to ask us any questions; holographic telepresence when we’re away from our loved ones; computers built into everything, from the paint we put on our walls, the clothes to jewellery we wear, to sensors in our bathrooms that can monitor our health based on our morning’s ablutions . . . However, one of the most significant developments Kurzweil predicts centres around the development of 3D printing and replication technologies. “Ten years ago, if I wanted to send you a movie, I would have sent you a FedEx package. I can now send you an email attachment. The same goes for a music file or a book. What used to be physical products can now be sent as files of information.” —Ray Kurzweil, Vice Magazine interview, 20098 Ubiquitous 3D printing technology means I might soon be able to email you a toaster, toast, a blouse, a solar panel or a module to build housing or transportation. What we now consider physical products will eventually become information files—email attachments.

What we now consider physical products will eventually become information files—email attachments. In the past, manufacturing something made out of a plastic was generally done through a technique called injection moulding. For metal forms, components were either cut from a block of raw material, cast via a mould, or cut from steel plate. Often these methods required a very expensive mould or die that was used for that one single component. 3D printing allows new techniques such as additive manufacturing, where raw materials are used to build up the form gradually, printing one layer at a time. Figure 9.3: 3D printers are a reality today 3D printers are advancing in capability rapidly. Already 3D printers today can print wearable fabrics, integrated circuits, blood vessels, cells and organs (a kidney, a bladder and an ear have recently been printed, for example9), engine components, model aircraft, etc.

Technology is no longer exceptional, nor is it an alternative choice for consumers—it is the way we do our banking in the Bank 3.0 world. It is the primary, day-to-day relationship channel for your customers now. The branch cannot compete in any meaningful way. What will such a future bring? How does it impact service providers in the finance space? How can they prepare? Keywords: Disruptive, Moore’s Law, 3D Printing, Screens, Image Recognition, Exponential Growth, Haptic Touch, Artificial Intelligence, The Singularity Endnotes 1 Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore’s Law (Intel Corporation, 2005), p.1 2 IBM: History of Transistors, IBM 1401 3 http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/Ferranti/Ferranti.Sirius.1961.102646236.pdf 4 mKomo.org, “A history of storage costs” (http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte) 5 See http://www.netlingo.com/word/gilders-law.php 6 See Wikipedia.org articles on WiMax, 4G, UMTS, and Spectra Efficiency of long-range networks utilizing 802.11, 802.16, and 802.20 standards 7 CNET News, 19 Nov 2008,Q&A: Kurzweil on tech as a double-edged sword, Natasha Lomas, http://news.cnet.com/cutting-edge/?

 

pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

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3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Amir Taaki: Dark Wallet co-creator and lead developer of Darkmarket, later forked to Open Bazaar. Peter Todd: Bitcoin core developer. Ross Ulbricht: Was accused and convicted of being Dread Pirate Roberts; his case is under appeal. Roger Ver: Angel investor and Bitcoin evangelist; CEO of Memorydealers.com, one of the first sites to accept Bitcoin, and founder of the company Blockchain. Cody Wilson: Dark Wallet co-creator and 3D-printed gun designer. Craig Wright: A recent addition to the search for Satoshi Nakamoto. Wired magazine recently reported he was “probably” the creator of Bitcoin (or wanted the world to think he was). In May 2016, he attempted to prove that he had created Bitcoin by signing a message using an account associated with Satoshi Nakamoto. Many were convinced at that point, including Gavin Andresen. However, much of the community remained skeptical.

Although regulators and fearmongers have attempted to paint Bitcoin as a tool that destroys the status quo, the truth is that it is only reestablishing the status quo that has existed for thousands of years before electronic transactions ever took place. One of the most promising technologies in this specific niche of the Bitcoin ecosystem was Darkwallet, but it seems development has halted on the project as the developers ran out of money, despite having raised a lot of it. It is not currently in a usable state. Co-invented by Cody Wilson, the creator of the 3D-printed gun, and Amir Taaki, the creator of Darkmarket, Darkwallet is a decentralized mixing service. Both of its inventors have anti-authoritarian, pro-individual freedom histories and politics. Nevertheless, their projects shouldn’t be considered as radical as they are often painted by the mainstream media. Darkwallet has been portrayed as something designed to fund terrorism, buy drugs, and launder money.4 The truth is, Darkwallet is simply a tool, albeit one that can be used by criminals and innocent people alike.

Open-source software is proving to be a powerful tool in their quest. The documentary Deep Web, directed by Alex Winter, opens with a quote from OpenBazaar developer Amir Taaki: “The fascists, they have resources, but we have imagination. We are making the tools to take back our sovereignty.”7 The same sort of philosophy was behind the Silk Road. It also continues to motivate Brian Hoffman’s OpenBazaar, Cody Wilson’s 3D-printed gun, Darkwallet, and a dozen other tools that scare the shit out of people who have devoted their whole lives to upholding the status quo. The Silk Road was an unregulated marketplace and a gathering place for like-minded individuals, many of whom were true believers in the philosophy described by Amir Taaki in the Deep Web documentary. On October 2, 2013, FBI agents arrested Ross William Ulbricht and accused him of being the infamous Dread Pirate Roberts, the elusive administrator of the Internet’s largest underground marketplace, the Silk Road.

 

pages: 346 words: 92,984

The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus

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3D printing, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

Or it could analyze your urine in a toilet and tell you how well hydrated you are. The possibilities are endless, and this kind of data may prove to be more useful for real-time medicine than what’s in your medical record. Even the medicine itself will become easier to swallow. If you’ve ever choked on a pill that was too big, help is on the way, thanks to three-dimensional printing technologies that are revolutionizing the manufacturing of drugs. In the future, 3-D printing that helps create everything from toys and mechanical parts to new organs, biological tissues, and prosthetics will also be employed to make smaller drugs that dissolve quickly, no matter their dosage. A pharmacy of the future may just be a printer and a drawer of chemicals, where the pharmacist is able to print, on demand, any medication, just by having its chemical structure. What gets me especially enthusiastic about the Lucky Years is that we’re encountering innovations and revelations, when we least expect them, that put past headlines to shame.

., 111, 112 loan sharking, 233 London, 92 Black Death in, 97–101, 98, 99, 100 longevity, exercise and, 197–98 Lorenz, Edward, 236 Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS), 119–20 Louisiana, 47, 192 lung cancer, 10, 50, 50, 51, 53–54, 65, 118, 176, 190 statin use and, 219 Lung Cancer Master Protocol for Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Lung-MAP), 118 Lunsford, Wanda Ruth, 1–2, 3, 4, 21, 27 lymphoma, 55 lymph system, 209 Lyon, 180 McCarthy, Matt, 202 McCay, Clive, 2 McGill University, Osler Library of Medicine at, 73 Maimonides, 163 Maine, 68 Major League Baseball, 202, 204–5 malaria, 77 malnutrition, 234–35 Malthus, Thomas Robert, 27, 160 Malthusian catastrophe, 27 Massachusetts, 47 Massagué Solé, Joan, 58–62 Massai people, 163 mastectomies, 21–22 MasterCard, 89 Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, 41 Mayo Clinic, 145 measles, 160 media, medical misinformation in, 15, 153–54 medical education: context and, 75 Osler’s revolutionizing of, 71–75 medical journals, misinformation in, 154, 179 medical research, 177–84 newborn genetic screening and, 11–12 rigorously controlled studies in, 155 Medicare, 92, 192 medications, 144–46 antiaging, 201 antidepressant, 145 consistent schedules for, 140 counterfeit, 10–11, 66 off-label use of, 55 over-the-counter, 145 in preventative medicine, 76–78 pricing of, 56–57, 115–17 quicker access to, 56 3-D printing and, 66–67 medicine: coarse graining in, 229–32, 230 personalized, see precision medicine science vs. art in, 26, 112, 118 Mediterranean diet, 141–42, 163 melatonin, 205 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 28, 60, 62, 116–17 Cancer Biology and Genetics Program at, 58 memory, 214 Mencken, H. L., 159 mental health, 145 portable electronic devices and, 90–91 metabolic syndrome, 121, 122 metabolomics, 188 metastasis, 60–62 Metchnikoff, Élie, 33–35, 33, 35, 48 Miami, University of, Miller School of Medicine at, 214 mice and rats: aging experiments with, 1–3, 3, 4 cancer treatment experiments with, 60–62 digestive tract experiments with, 120, 121–22 microbiome, 48, 85, 119–25 beneficial bacteria and, 33–34 diabetes and, 120–21 emulsifiers and, 121–22 gastric surgery and, 123 sleep and, 122–23 microfinance, 232–33 Middle East, 77 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 203–4 Minnesota, 103 misinformation, medical, 153–84 anecdotal evidence in, 156 cognitive dissonance and, 159 media and, 153–54 in medical studies, 177–84 motivated reasoning and, 157–61 in peer-reviewed journals, 154 post hoc reasoning in, 156 sweeping statements in, 165, 166–69, 184 Wikipedia and, 154 Mississippi, 47 Missouri, 205 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 23, 24, 236 Mitalipov, Shoukhrat, 109 mitochondria, 106–8, 106, 119 mitochondrial diseases, 106, 106, 108–12 mitochondrial DNA, 106, 106, 107–8 mutations in, 107–8 replacement of, 109–12, 110 mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC), 139–40 “Mitochondrial Eve,” 107 MMR vaccine, 156 moderation, in diet, 144 Monash University, 164 Montana, 3 mood, monitoring of, 149 morbidity, sleep habits and, 146–47 Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 138 mortality rates: aging and, 42–43 decline in, 6–7 exercise and, 148 sleep habits and, 146, 147 motivated reasoning, medical misinformation and, 157–61 motivation, 149 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), 230 multimorbidity, 129 multiple sclerosis, 59 muscle mass, 194–96, 199 muscle strength, 45 mutation, see genetic mutations MyBabyFace (app), 87 Napoli, Mike, 202–3 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 53, 114, 196 National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, 189 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 47, 141 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 114, 117–18, 205 National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 206 natural immunity, 33–34 Nature, 41, 95, 121, 123 NCI-MATCH (Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice), 117 near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 66 Nedergaard, Maiken, 208–10 Neogest (app), 87 Neurology, 203 newborns: genetic screening of, 11–12 premature, 87 Newcastle University, 108 New England Journal of Medicine, 8, 9, 24, 32, 178, 183, 218 New Jersey, 111 New Mexico, 68 Newtown shooting, 91 New York, N.Y., 28, 116 New York Academy of Medicine, 2 New York Cancer Hospital, 28 see also Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York University, 204 New Zealand, 45, 46 Nexium (esomeprazole), 86 night blindness, 235 NIH Human Microbiome Project, 120 Nike, 199 Nobel Peace Prize, 232 Nobel Prize, 33, 34, 102 “nocebo” effect, 165 noncommunicable diseases, premature deaths from, 130, 131, 132 Northeastern University, 68 Northwestern University, 41 Norton, Larry, 60–61, 62 Nottingham, University of, 87 Nurses’ Health Study, 142–43, 216–17 nursing college, 235 nutritional studies, 161–69 honesty and, 162 lack of reliable data from, 162–63, 164 Nyhan, Brendan, 157, 158, 160 Obama, Barack, 11, 114, 115, 117 obesity and overweight, 22, 47, 121, 122, 123, 147, 188, 194, 215 breast cancer and, 133 chronic disease and, 141 honesty about, 132–34 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 122 Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132–33 Olser Library of Medicine (McGill University), 73 omega-3 fatty acids, 182–83 omeprazole (Prilosec), 86 “On Lines and Planes of Closest Fit to Systems of Points in Space” (Pearson), 95 Only the Paranoid Survive (Grove), 7 open-access model, 179 opioids, 145 optimism, health and, 65–69 Oregon, University of, 199 Oregon Health & Science University, 109 Ornish, Dean, 166–68 Osler, William, 15, 37, 71–73, 72, 73, 75, 126, 145, 153, 223 Othello (Shakespeare), 202 Ottawa, University of, 183 overweight, see obesity and overweight Oxford University, 216 oxidative stress, 175 oxytocin, 211 p53 gene, 57–58 pain relievers, risks of, 145–46 Paleo diet, 142, 163 parabiosis, 1–4, 3, 21 parasites, spread of, 103 Parkinson’s disease, 59, 108, 163 pattern recognition, 227 PD-L1, 29–30 Pearson, Karl, 95 Pediatric MATCH, 117 Pediatrics, 133 pelvic bone cancer, 176 Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 192 Pennsylvania, University of, 73, 75 Perelman School of Medicine at, 208 perceptual intuition, 228–29 personalized medicine, see precision medicine Peto, Richard, 57 Peto’s paradox, 57 PET (positron-emission tomography) scan, 230 pharmaceutical industry, 166 drug prices and, 56–57, 115–17 public distrust of, 18, 19, 69, 157 pharmacogenomics, precision medicine and, 115 phenylalanine, 12 phenylketonuria (PKU), 12 Philosophical magazine, 95 physical activity, 140 physicians: house calls by, 80 public distrust of, 17–19, 157 pit latrines, 234 Pittsburgh, University of, 196, 214 placebos, 53 plaques, 183 plasma transfusions, 4–5 plate discipline, 204 Plato, 185 PLOS Medicine, 178 pneumonia, 161 polio virus, in immunotherapy, 30, 31 Pope, Frank, 2 population growth, technology and, 27 portable electronic devices, health care and, 79, 90–91 Post hoc, ergo propter hoc fallacy, 156 precision medicine, 8, 20, 36, 102–25 art vs. science in, 112, 118 cancer treatment and, 115 context and, 114–15, 117 cost of, 56–57 historical roots of, 113 pharmacogenomics and, 115 technology and, 37–70 Precision Medicine Initiative, 114, 117 “Predictability: Does the Flap of a Butterfly’s Wings in Brazil Set Off a Tornado in Texas?”

., 166 San Francisco Giants, 205 sanitation, 234 Sanofi, 117 sarcopenia, 195–96 satiety, 122 saw palmetto, 154–55, 168 Science, 14, 37, 84, 95, 102, 123–24, 138, 169 Scripps Translational Science Institute, 114–15 security, of medical databases, 88–89 selenium, 169 Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), 169 senility, aging and, 44 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of, 103 sex, 210–12 Shakespeare, William, 1, 202 shingles, 161 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 113–14 sitting, 186–87, 190, 192–93 “16 Decisions,” 234, 235 sleep, 146–48, 202–10 apps for tracking, 147–48 hormone balance and, 207 microbiome and, 122–23 sleep apnea, 202–4, 203 sleep deprivation, 202–10 chronic disease and, 205 and sports performance, 204–5 sleep disorders, 202–6 “sleeping beauties,” research papers as, 94–95 sleep ranges, 206–7 sleep-wake cycle, 140 Sloan Kettering Institute, 58, 62 smallpox, 160 Smallpox and Inoculation Hospital, 161 smartphones, health care and, 79, 90 smoking, 22, 47, 57, 171, 176–77, 186, 188, 237 snoring, 203, 207 social deprivation, 213 Southern Denmark, University of, 41 Soviet Union, 94 soy, 168 Spain, 58 Sports Illustrated, 202 squamous cell lung cancer, 118 Stanford University, 3, 23, 44, 63, 86, 178 State of the Union address (2015), 114 statins, 76, 77–78, 93, 136, 217–22 Stein, Fred, 28 stem cells, 170, 171, 176, 201 differentiation in, 63 male vs. female, 64 reactivation of, 4, 5 in research, 63–64 strength training, 194 stress, 22, 137–38, 211 honesty about, 133–34 among Romanian children, 213 strokes, 76, 128, 182, 217, 218 sub-Saharan Africa, 77 sugar consumption, honesty about, 134 supplement industry, lack of regulation in, 19 supplements, 145, 153, 154–55, 182 Surgeon General, US, 137 surrogate markers, 127–28 SWOG cancer research cooperative group, 169 symptoms, unexplained, 146 tamoxifen, 53 Tanzania, 163 T cells, 29–30, 56 engineered, 57 TCP-1 ring complex chaperonin, 139–40 technology: ethics and, 25–26 health and, 37–70 inflection points in, 7–8, 7 lack of oversight of, 9 population growth and, 27 teixobactin, 68–69 telemedicine, 80–81 telomeres, 64–65 Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 1 Tennessee, University of, 23 testosterone, 200–201 Texas, 103 TGF-beta (transforming growth factor beta), 58–59 “thin-slicing,” 227 3-D printing, medications and, 66–67 thyroid cancer, 93 tobacco, 177, 237 Tomasetti, Cristian, 169–70, 171–72 Topol, Eric, 114–15 touch, 212–15 Touch: The Science of Hand, Heart, and Mind (Linden), 215 Touch Research Institute (University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine), 214 trastuzumab (Herceptin), 55 triglyceride level, 150, 195 True, Marion, 226–27 tumors, sequencing of, 49–52, 50, 51, 54, 61, 113, 114 Turnbull, Douglass, 108–9 Turner’s syndrome, 112 turquoise killifish, 44–45, 44 two-week challenge, 126–52 chronological age and, 135–36 energy levels in, 149 exercise in, 148 habits and routines in, 137–41 heritage and family history in, 136–37 medications and management of conditions in, 144–46 mood and motivation in, 149 sleep needs in, 146–48 weight and diet in, 141–44 Ukraine, 33 “Underappreciated Role of Muscle in Health and Disease, The” (Wolfe), 194 United Kingdom, 134, 219, 220 see also Great Britain United States, leading causes of death in, 129 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Center for Translational Research in Aging and Longevity at, 194 Utah, 47 vaccines: autism spectrum disorders and, 18, 153, 155–56 public distrust of, 160–61 universal innoculation and, 160–61 vagus nerve, 122 Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 204 Veasey, Sigrid, 208, 210 vincristine, 115 Virginia, 204 Virginia, University of, 37, 214 Virginia Tech shooting, 91 VirScan, 84–85 viruses, 84–85, 119 data mining and, 85 human genome and, 119–20 vitamin A deficiency, 235 vitamin D, 179–81 vitamin E, 168–69 vitamins, 145, 153, 182 Vogelstein, Bert, 169–70, 171, 172 Wakefield, Andrew, 155 Walker, Jay, 98–99 Walker Library of the History of Human Imagination, 98–99 Walmart, 221 Washington Post, 88 Watson (IBM supercomputer), cancer treatment and, 88–89 weight, diet and, 141–42 Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, 108 wellness checkups, 78–80 Western Africa, 222 West Nile virus, 25 West Virginia, 47 whooping cough, 160 “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False” (Ioannidis), 178 Wikipedia, medical misinformation on, 154 Winter, Christopher, 204–5 Wolfe, Robert, 194 women, microfinancing and, 233–34 World Economic Forum, 161–62, 166 World Health Organization (WHO), 67, 170, 187, 188 World Series (2014), 205 X chromosome, 63–64 Yale Law School, 159 Y chromosome, 63–64 yogurt, 34 Yunus, Muhammad, 232–35 Zaltrap (aflibercept), 117 Zeri, Federico, 226 Zykadia (ceritinib), 53 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2016 by Dr.

 

pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

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3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

Much to their credit, they have realised the opportunity to benefit from the fan works and have on many occasions chosen to permit the use of their trademarks rather than use them heavy-handedly to ban fan works. A company called “We Love Fine” produces and sells a wide range of T-shirts with My Little Pony fan art that requires both copyright permission from the fan creators of the art and trademark permission from Hasbro. Hasbro have also begun licensing the creators of 3D models based on their characters to sell 3D prints of those models, starting with My Little Pony and planning to expand to their other toy franchises such as Transformers. This is very forward looking because 3D printing may soon come to have a significant impact on the toy market. These kinds of interconnections between cultural works, and between the creators and the fans, are great examples of the increasingly prominent intertwingularity of the modern world. I hope that Ted’s Xanadu ideas will continue to inspire the tools we all use to navigate this ever more interwingled Internet world and will enable people to more easily create interconnected works and discover and communicate the connections between them.

 

pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

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23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

So if you want a new set of eight blue plates for a dinner party, they could be assembled in your own PMU. Thus, transport, logistics, inventory, waste disposal and retail all disappear right in front of your eyes. This ushers in a whole new economic system that is less reliant on physical resources and human labor. In other words, we no longer experience physical constraints. 3D printing In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Industrial Revolution created mass production, which in turn allowed economies of scale and turned both business and society upside down. So too, 3D printing (also known as fabbing)—is in one sense a very early and very crude version of atomically precise manufacturing, and it could turn everything upside down once again by making it as cheap to produce one of something as it is to produce many. How does it work? Think of it like a computer printer, but instead of printing pages or flat images using ink, you “print” 3D objects, ranging from a pair of shoes or a new chair to tables or aircraft parts, by adding consecutive layers of liquid, which then hardens.

 

pages: 238 words: 46

When Things Start to Think by Neil A. Gershenfeld

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Bretton Woods, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Dynabook, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, invention of movable type, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, means of production, new economy, Nick Leeson, packet switching, RFID, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush

These techniques can all go from a computer model to something that you can hold, without requiring any special operator training or setup. This convenience is significantly decreasing the time it takes companies to make product prototypes. The machines are currently expensive and slow, but like any promising machinist they are steadily becoming more efficient. As interesting as 3D printing is, it's still like using a PC to execute a mainframe program. The end result is not very different from what can be made with conventional machine tools, it's just the path to get there that is simpler. The real question posed by our Any Thing design review was whether 3D printing could be extended as Lego had been to incorporate sensors and actuators, computing and communications. If we could do this, then instead of forcing people to use their infinitely flexible and personal computers to browse through catalogs reflecting someone else's guesses at what they want, they could directly output it.

 

pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning

Around the time the philosophy became popular in the seventies, some conservative Christian theologians were actually thinking along very similar lines: seeing electronic money as a kind of extension for God’s creative power, which is then transformed into material reality through the minds of inspired entrepreneurs. It’s easy to see how this could lead to the creation of a world where financial abstractions feel like the very bedrock of reality, and so many of our lived environments look like they were 3-D-printed from somebody’s computer screen. In fact, the sense of a digitally generated world I’ve been describing could be taken as a perfect illustration of another social law—at least, it seems to me that it should be recognized as a law—that, if one gives sufficient social power to a class of people holding even the most outlandish ideas, they will, consciously or not, eventually contrive to produce a world organized in such a way that living in it will, in a thousand subtle ways, reinforce the impression that those ideas are self-evidently true.

Other, less bureaucratized parts of the world—or at least, parts of the world with bureaucracies that are not quite so hostile to creative thinking—will, slowly, inevitably, attain the resources required to pick up where the United States and its allies have left off. The Internet does provide opportunities for collaboration and dissemination that may eventually help break us through the wall, as well. Where will the breakthrough come? We can’t know. Over the last couple years, since the first version of this essay saw print, there has been a whole spate of new possibilities: 3-D printing, advances in materials technologies, self-driving cars, a new generation of robots, and as a result, a new spate of discussion of robot factories and the end of work. There are hints, too, of impending conceptual breakthroughs in physics, biology, and other sciences, made all the more difficult because of the absolute institutional lock of existing orthodoxies, but which might well have profound technological implications as well.

 

pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

He tells me it’s an exciting time at CIC because the residents are currently in negotiations to buy the entire factory complex, with each person paying 25,000 euros for a flat. For now, it’s all rented. Just over 100 euros will get you a room and working space for a month. Throw in the communal cooking system, and you can get by on very little, and be free to develop your own projects (when you’re not putting in some free labour for the community). Dark Wallet is one of dozens of projects at Calafou, Pablo says. Just before I arrived there had been a session on 3D printing. In the room next door, there is a scientific experiment to grow a strand of amoeba that can store energy. The long-term plan is to create organic computers. Other residents are creating compost toilets, manufacturing solar panels, selling clay ovens and building open-source telecommunications. All the apartments are now full, but there are always extra people couch surfing, especially if there is a public event on, which is often.

He started working on a number of Bitcoin-related projects, and even founded and ran the UK’s first Bitcoin exchange called ‘Britcoin’, which allowed people to exchange Bitcoins directly into pounds sterling, rather than via dollars. Digging around the Bitcoin protocols, he noticed it wasn’t quite as secure and anonymous as everyone thought. It was a brilliant invention, of course, but with a few additions could be made even more subversive. That’s when he came up with the idea of Dark Wallet. He moved to Calafou, brought in Pablo alongside Cody Wilson – the American crypto-anarchist who created the first 3D printed gun – and together they raised $50,000 in a month via the crowdfunding site Indiegogo. Although Amir’s technical know-how and experience are admired, his ideals and motivations have put him on the fringes of what has become an increasingly respectable Bitcoin community. Dark Wallet has pitted itself directly against organisations seeking to capitalise and control Bitcoin and its market. ‘Many prominent Bitcoin developers are actively in collusion with members of law enforcement and seeking approval from government legislators,’ reads the Dark Wallet blurb.

 

pages: 268 words: 75,850

The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems-And Create More by Luke Dormehl

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

.: MIT Press, 2002). 13 For anyone interested, the formula he came up with was S(pi + Pii + Piii . . . P) Y = T, where S equals the sum of the principles (P), Y equals intuition, and T equals artistic creation. 14 Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (London: Penguin, 2008). 15 Clark, Liat. “2D Photos Translated into 3D-Printed Translucent Artworks.” Wired, May 23, 2013. wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-05/23/3d-printed-touch-photos. 16 Kim, Seung-Chan, Ali Israr, and Ivan Poupyrev. “Tactile Rendering of 3D Features on Touch Surfaces.” Proceedings of the 26th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology—UIST 2013 (2013): 531–38. disneyresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/uist-2013-final.pdf. 17 Poupyrev, Ivan. “Researchers Develop Algorithm for Rendering 3-D Tactile Features on Touch Surfaces.”

 

pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Wave and Pay

Nest, unlike every other physical thermostat, aggregates data about energy consumption across all thermostats in an area and provides consolidated analytics and insights to utilities. Today’s products and services benefit from platform-powered communities. A traditional camera, gymnasium, or thermostat would never have employed such business models, but in a constantly connected world, they provide enormous value to all connected parties. f. 3D printing – The distributed factory With the rise of the Internet, manufacturing firms have increasingly relied on external innovators for sourcing industrial design. However, there has never been a concerted shift toward distributed manufacturing because the costs of manufacturing at these individual distributed locations would be too high compared to manufacturing centrally. With the rise of the 3D printer, there are an increasing number of indicators that some forms of manufacturing will move from pipes to platforms, leading to the creation of entirely new markets.

Who can create value units, how they are created, and what differentiates a high-quality unit from a low-quality one are all critical design decisions when building a platform. As we progress through this section, we will increasingly note that all platform design decisions are built around the core value unit. PLATFORM SCALE IMPERATIVE The age of the industrial economy accorded inordinate power to those who held the means of production. In the age of platforms, production is decentralized. Whether it is the decentralization of manufacturing through 3D printing, the decentralization of marketing and journalism through social media, or the decentralization of service providers in the collaborative economy, the means of production are no longer limited to large companies or entities. With decentralized production, the platforms that enable and aggregate this production are the new winners. In a platformed world, the people and processes that determine quality and quantity of value units determine success.

 

pages: 103 words: 24,033

The Immigrant Exodus: Why America Is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent by Vivek Wadhwa

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3D printing, card file, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, immigration reform, labour mobility, open economy, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, Y2K

In his roles at Duke, Stanford, and Emory Universities, Wadhwa lectures on subjects such as entrepreneurship and public policy, helps prepare students for the real world, and leads groundbreaking research projects. At Singularity University, he helps educate select groups of leaders about the exponentially growing technologies that are soon going to change our world. These advances—in fields such as robotics, artificial intelligence, computing, synthetic biology, 3-D printing, medicine, and nanomaterials—are making it possible for small teams to do what was once possible for only governments and large corporations to do: solve the grand challenges in education, water, food, shelter, health, and security. Wadhwa is an adviser to several governments; mentors entrepreneurs; and is a regular columnist for the Washington Post, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Forbes.com, and the American Society of Engineering Education’s Prism magazine.

 

pages: 83 words: 26,097

Payoff: The Hidden Logic That Shapes Our Motivations (TED Books) by Dan Ariely

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, science of happiness, Snapchat, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

Initially, this desire to customize seems to be about preferences—we choose red over purple because we like red more. But the reality is that customization has additional benefits. By choosing red, we make the product a little more our own. And every time we choose a new color for our shoes, we personalize them even more. The more effort we put into the design, the more likely we are to enjoy the end product. So just think: 3-D printing is developing so quickly that one day, as consumers, we will soon not just design but also manufacture all kinds of products, from picture frames to clothing to furniture and beyond. Regardless of what these objects might end up looking like, they will be much more meaningful to us than anything someone else has made because they will have the stamp of our own effort, design, care, and unique identity.

 

pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

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23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Lovejoy, “Stanford University Develops $90 iPhone Accessory to Replace Ophthalmology Kit Costing Tens of Thousands,” 9 to 5 Mac, March 17, 2014, http://9to5mac.com/2014/03/17/stanford-university-develops-90-iphone-accessory-to-replace-ophthalmology-kit-costing-tens-of-thousands/. 58. D. Myung et al., “Simple, Low-Cost Smartphone Adapter for Rapid, High Quality Ocular Anterior Segment Imaging: A Photo Diary,” Journal MTM 3, no. 1 (2014): 2–8. 59a. M. Aderholt, “Researchers 3D Print Smartphone Compatible Microscope Lenses for 1 Penny,” 3D Print, April 27, 2014, http://3dprint.com/2721/3d-print-smartphone-microscope-lenses/. 59b. A. Nemiroskia et al., “Universal Mobile Electrochemical Detector Designed for Use in Resource-Limited Applications,” PNAS Early Edition, August 4, 2014, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1405679111. 59c. A. Simmonds, “Handheld Device Could Enable Low-Cost Chemical Tests,” Nature, August 4, 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/handheld-device-could-enable-low-cost-chemical-tests-1.15662. 60.

 

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To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Chapter 2: The Nonsense of “the Internet”—and How to Stop It 17 “The internet is not territory to be conquered”: Nicholas Mendoza, “Metal, Code, Flesh: Why we Need a ‘Rights of the Internet’ Declaration,” February 15, 2012, AlJazeera .com, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/02/201228715322807.html. 17 “What made Blockbuster close?”: Eric Snider, “Cranky Chicagoan: ‘The Internet Is Ruining Film Criticism!,’” Moviefone, April 15, 2010, http://blog.moviefone.com/2010/04/15/cranky-chicagoan-the-internet-is-ruining-film-criticism. 17 “The Next Battle for Internet Freedom”: Rick Kelly, “The Next Battle for Internet Freedom Could Be over 3D Printing,” TechCrunch, August 26, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/08/26/the-next-battle-for-internet-freedom-could-be-over-3d-printing. 18 “All too many U.S. lawmakers are barely”: Bill Snyder, “Facial Recognition Abuse Is Bad, Government Regulation Even Worse,” CIO, July 23, 2012, http://blogs.cio.com/privacy/17254/facial-recognition-abuse-bad-government-regulation-even-worse. 18 That facial-recognition technology developed: see Kelly A. Gates, Our Biometric Future: Facial Recognition Technology and the Culture of Surveillance (New York: New York University Press, 2011). 19 a common modern dissonance: see Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). 19 “to be fed the way the Net fed it”: Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: W.

CHAPTER TWO The Nonsense of “the Internet”—and How to Stop It “The internet is not territory to be conquered, but life to be preserved and allowed to evolve freely.” —NICOLAS MENDOZA, ALJAZEERA.COM “What made Blockbuster close? The Internet. What made At the Movies get canceled? The Internet. Who went tromping across my lawn and ruined my petunias? The Internet.” —ERIC SNIDER, CINEMATICAL BLOG These days, “the Internet” can mean just about anything. “The Next Battle for Internet Freedom Could Be over 3D Printing,” proclaimed the headline on TechCrunch, a popular technology blog, in August 2012. Given how fuzzy the very idea of “the Internet” is, derivative concepts like “Internet freedom” have become so all-encompassing and devoid of any actual meaning that they can easily cover the regulation of 3D printers, the thorny issues of net neutrality, and the rights of dissident bloggers in Azerbaijan. Instead of debating the merits of individual technologies and crafting appropriate policies and regulations, we have all but surrendered to catchall terms like “the Internet,” which try to bypass any serious and empirical debate altogether.

 

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Indeed, it is precisely the Chinese companies most aggressively expanding internationally that most seek a level commercial field. In 2014, Ericsson managed to block a popular Xiaomi model from sale in India due to a patent infringement. That same year, Huawei sued fellow Shenzhen-based ZTE in a German court for the same reason! PRINTING, SHARING—AND TRADING The biggest threat to current patterns of global trade comes from the combination of 3-D printing (which allows more products to be manufactured locally at “home”) and the sharing economy (by which fewer goods are purchased but existing goods are consumed as services). Local prototyping and mass production together could bring about a severe long-term contraction in global shipping, inventories, and warehousing. If DHL’s largest clients—the U.S. military and hardware companies such as HP—suddenly printed all their components on-site at bases or client facilities, the courier business could go bust.

Instead, airlines, appliance vendors, computer hardware retailers, and many other sectors want access to the full life cycle of production, with replacement parts proximately located through local joint ventures. But technology doesn’t eliminate supply chains; it morphs them. Remember that to “print” objects at a large scale requires major inputs of raw materials—whether organic matter or plastics—most of which might still need to be imported to “feed” 3-D printing devices, which also may be made in and made from components from around the world. Some supply chains may compress, but others will expand. It is not likely that shipping will decline; rather, what is shipped will change. An object may be designed in one place, but the design is then zapped to factories near its customer across the world where it is printed using materials that are harvested in one place and loaded into cartridges in another place.

Enrico Moretti, The New Geography of Jobs (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012). 3. Josh Tyrangiel, “Tim Cook’s Freshman Year: The Apple CEO Speaks,” Bloomberg Businessweek, Dec. 6, 2012. 4. However, additive manufacturing and the sharing economy together do cause tremendous domestic dislocation. The construction sector is not tradable, but it can increasingly be automated as entire homes are designed, printed, and assembled out of 3-D printing kits, displacing contractors and builders across America and Europe. 5. “Bits, Bytes, and Diplomacy,” Foreign Affairs, Sept./Oct. 1997. 6. Allison Schrager, “The US Needs to Retire Daylight Savings and Just Have Two Time Zones—One Hour Apart,” Quartz, Nov. 1, 2013. 7. Adams Nager, “Why Is America’s Manufacturing Job Loss Greater Than Other Industrialized Countries?,” Industry Week, Aug. 21, 2014. 8.

 

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

The technological infrastructure of the twenty-first century is producing the resources by which a very different political and economic system could be achieved. Machines are accomplishing tasks that were unimaginable a decade ago. The internet and social media are giving a voice to billions who previously went unheard, bringing global participative democracy closer than ever to existence. Open-source designs, copyleft creativity, and 3D printing all portend a world where the scarcity of many products might be overcome. New forms of computer simulation could rejuvenate economic planning and give us the ability to direct economies rationally in unprecedented ways. The newest wave of automation is creating the possibility for huge swathes of boring and demeaning work to be permanently eliminated. Clean energy technologies make possible virtually limitless and environmentally sustainable forms of power production.

Siu, The Micro and Macro of Disappearing Routine Jobs: A Flows Approach, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2014, at nber.org. 24.David Autor, Polanyi’s Paradox and the Shape of Employment Growth, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, September 2014, at nber.org; Maarten Goos, Alan Manning and Anna Salomons, ‘Job Polarization in Europe’, American Economic Review 99: 2 (2009). 25.Morris-Suzuki, ‘Robots and Capitalism’, p. 17. 26.The significance of 3D printing (or additive manufacturing) lies first in its generic capacity to create complexity with a simple technology – anything from houses to jet engines to living organs can be created in this way. Second, its ability to drastically reduce the costs of construction (in terms of both material and labour) portend a new era in the building of basic infrastructure and housing. Finally, its flexibility is a significant advance, overcoming the traditional costs associated with revamping fixed investment for new production lines. 27.Businesses will easily be the quickest adopters of this technology, since it can achieve significant cost savings.

 

pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar

Platforms like Dribbble, Threadless, and 99designs have built large ecosystems of designers, largely owing to the democratization of the tools of design and printing over the last several years—yet another case of barriers to entry being lowered, in part through the help of platform tools. The proliferation of new production technologies further enables the emergence of new groups of producers. Just as the smartphone camera expanded the volume of content on platforms like Instagram and Vine, the spread of 3D printing is likely to lead to a new range of platforms for industry design. However, technology often needs the support of innovative business design to produce massive reconfiguration of value creation. Software for word processing, typography, and graphic design has existed for decades, but not until Amazon’s Kindle Publishing platform offered quick and easy access to a large readership did a whole new ecosystem of authors emerge.

., 259 SurveyMonkey, 101–2, 103 sustainable advantage, viii, 209–10, 224–27 Swiss Post, 94–95 switching, 213, 224, 225–26, 228, 297, 299, 300 SXSW Festival Web Award, 97 system development kits (SDKs), 152, 153 Taobao, 2–3, 215 Target, 61, 123–24, 146 task allocation, 56 TaskRabbit, 116, 233–34, 249 taxation, 92–93, 165, 230, 248–49, 260 taxi industry, 2, 12, 16–18, 49, 60–62, 231, 236, 250, 253, 258–59, 287 technology: access to, 141, 209–10, 213 creators of, 32, 33 digital, 60, 283–86 high-, 80 information, 3, 11, 36, 38, 77, 199 innovation in, 52–54, 199–200, 203, 216–17, 228, 241, 256, 258–59, 260, 283–89, 296 standards of, 138–39, 141 startups in, ix valuation of, ix, x telecommunications industry, 77, 89, 262 telephone networks, 20, 21, 29, 91 television, 9, 10, 85, 138, 144–45, 178, 204, 259, 264 Tencent, 198, 217 Tesla, 273 text messaging, 56, 91, 132, 145 Thiel, Peter, 79–82 Thomson Reuters, vii, x, 55, 200 “Thoughts on Flash” (Jobs), 214 Threadless, 25, 32, 66 “3 A’s test” (actionable, accessible, auditable metrics), 202 3D printing, 66, 284 ticket sales, 112–13 time between interactions, 193 Time Warner, 178 Tinder, 97–98 Tirole, Jean, 110, 235, 237, 242 TopCoder, 267 Toshiba, 75, 139 Toys”R”Us, 22, 207 traffic congestion, 62, 233 transaction fees, 38, 115–18, 122, 125, 127, 142 transportation industry, 60–62, 73, 77, 95, 209, 233, 237–38, 278 travel industry, 13, 37, 71, 72, 111, 137, 142, 232, 245, 287 Travelocity, 137 TripAdvisor, 13, 37, 72 trolls, 166–67 trust (participant curation), 67–68, 189–95, 202, 296, 299 turbines, 247, 273 Twitter, 3, 13, 30, 37, 40, 46, 55, 58, 66, 85, 97, 98, 103, 120, 159, 173, 197 two-sided network effects, 21, 23–24, 29, 34, 119, 219, 242, 296 Uber, vii, viii, 2, 3, 12, 16–18, 17, 20–26, 30–32, 36–38, 41, 49–51, 60–69, 115, 116, 126–27, 135, 151–52, 175, 190, 211–13, 227, 230–32, 236, 249–54, 259, 262, 264, 269, 278, 279, 295, 297 UberPool, 49 Uber Safe Rides, 126–27 Udemy, 77, 96, 265 Under Armour, 75–76 UnitedHealthcare, 33 United States, 178, 206, 225, 229–60, 283, 289 Universal City Services Card, 282–83 universal serial bus (USB), 58, 178–81 University of Pennsylvania, 266, 267 University of Southern California, 97–98 Upwork, 3, 8, 21, 24, 32, 36, 37, 64, 65, 73, 116, 117, 164, 193–94, 196, 200, 201, 230, 233–34, 248–49, 299 users: acquisition of, 66, 81–85, 97–98, 112–13, 184–95, 201–2, 299 content generated by, 87, 167–70, 218–19 curation by, 151–52, 155 feedback of, 151–52, 155 growth rate of, 191, 192, 202 identities of, 166–67 incentives of, 66, 82, 87, 101, 102, 166, 173–74, 182, 227 loyalty of, 135, 149–52, 156, 166–67, 190–91, 192, 193–94, 197–98, 219–21, 297 manipulation of, 161, 168–69 network access for, 86, 108–9, 112, 117–18, 126, 127, 146–56, 166–67, 213–14 profiles of, 48, 119, 127, 145–46, 163, 190, 195–96, 247 types of, 122–25 utilities, 272–74 value: of apps, 147, 216–17 creation of, 4, 5, 6–18, 23, 34, 36, 45–51, 58–59, 64–74, 78, 88, 90, 98, 134, 142, 147, 149, 157, 165–67, 181, 185–88, 193–94, 197, 203, 212, 216–28, 262–65, 275, 285, 289, 295–98 de-linking assets from, 68–71 lifetime (LTV), 197, 203 units of, 37, 38–39, 40, 41, 42–44, 51, 59, 90, 92, 93, 100, 101, 102–3, 105, 295, 299 Van Alstyne, Marshall W., ix, 23–24, 69, 106–7, 110, 130, 180, 241, 242 vanity metrics, 201–2 VCRs, 138–39 venture capital, ix, 16–18, 23, 106 vertical integration, 33, 74, 200, 208, 221 video-sharing sites, 37, 39–40, 49, 63, 67, 77, 84, 87–88, 92, 104, 111, 134, 147, 223–24, 299 video streaming, 63, 139, 211, 222 videotape recording, 138–39, 259 Viki, 9, 66 Vimeo, 49, 87, 88, 223–24 virality, 11, 23, 84–85, 92, 99–104, 105, 299 virtuous cycle, 17, 21, 23, 46, 65 Visa, 30, 137, 139–40, 226 visual effects, 252–53 Vodafone, 277–78 Voices, 169–70 Wales, Jimmy, 129–30 Wall Street Journal, 62 Walmart, 4, 32, 55–56, 56, 86, 145, 249 washing machines, 183–84 Washio, 233–34 Waterfind, 70–71 water rights, 70–71 Wattpad, 4–5 wealth distribution, 33, 61, 158, 160, 179, 180–81, 279–80, 300 wearable devices, 222, 245, 269–70, 277 web sites, 24–25, 95–96, 110, 112–13, 167, 244 Webvan, 22, 23 WeChat, 198 Wells Fargo Bank, 83 Wernerfelt, Birger, 208 Westinghouse, 284 Westlaw, 204 WhatsApp, 32, 46, 204 Whirlpool, 110, 204, 208, 225 Wii, 94, 211 Wikipedia, 3, 10–11, 66, 67, 129–30, 133, 135, 149–51 “Wikipedia: five pillars,” 150–51 Wintel standard, 140, 152–53 Wolfe, Jerry, 76 Wood, Graeme, 268 Woodard, C.

 

pages: 386 words: 91,913

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age by David S. Abraham

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3D printing, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, Y2K

People will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box,” Darryl Zanuck, founder of Twentieth Century Pictures (1946).18 • “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home,” Ken Olsen, founder of Digital Equipment Corporation (1977).19 • “I predict the Internet … will soon go spectacularly supernova and in 1996 catastrophically collapse,” Robert Metcalfe, founder of 3Com and the Ethernet (1995).20 Since we don’t know which invention will take off, we can’t estimate which rare metal will either. Thirty years ago, dysprosium had little use. Now, in part because of its use in magnets, it is essential for our new high-tech lives. Gallium, because of its low melting point, could find itself in high demand in 3D printing, a type of home-based manufacturing. Or gadolinium, a sister element to dysprosium, has long shown promise in a magnet to produce energy-efficient cooling. This future technology could revolutionize the refrigerator market, putting that appliance within reach of the billions who do not now have one. Or it may always be a technology of the future.21 Rather than predicting the future, we should prepare for it.

See Rare metals Teck Resources, 184 Teddy Ruxpin (talking teddy bear), 119 Telemarketing, indium sales via, 251n7 Tellurium, xiii, 78–79, 80, 148–50, 167, 190, 207, 209, 246n40 Tenent, Robert, 217 Teng Biao, 200 Teran, Alex, 147 Terbium, 2, 4, 151, 167, 174, 206, 229 Territorial disputes, China-Japan, 22–24 Tesla, 145–47 Texas Instruments, 117, 118 Thatcher, Margaret, 30 Thermal-imaging systems, 163–65 Thin film technologies, 148–49 Thorium, 3, 57, 176 Thor Lake mine (Avalon Rare Metal), 54–56 3D printing, 221 Tin, 48, 105–7, 108 Tiomin Resources, 46–48, 54 Titanium: in aerospace industry, 162, 263n30 in airplanes, 96, 128, 156–60, 168, 274n6 commoditization of, 221 market for, 44 in mobile phones, 121 nonmilitary use of, 121, 124, 146, 162–63, 221 shape memory, 221 sources of, 46, 93, 113 U.S. research on, 206 in weaponry, 163, 168, 169 “Titanium Goose” (A-12 spy plane, “Oxcart”), 155–57, 158–59 Titanium Metal Corporation, 156 Toothbrushes, 115–17, 258n3 Toothpaste, ancient use of, 257–58n1 Toronto Stock Exchange, 50 Toshiba, 112–13, 256n42 Touch screens, 261n19 Toyota Tsusho, 108 Toys, electronic, 119–20 Trade secrets, xi Trading networks, 89–114 China, rare metal exchanges in, 96–98 China, regulatory environment in, 98–101 conflict funding, 108–12 evading export controls, 104 export quotas/ban set by China, x, 24, 240n34 Indonesia, illegal trade in, 105–8 Lehrman family, 91–96 limited suppliers, problem of, 112–13 London Metal Exchange, 101–2 overview, 89–91 precariousness of, x price bubbles, 113–14 secrecy in, 16 smuggling, 102–5 Truman, Harry S., 30 Tungsten: Allied actions on, in WWII, 239n28 China, production in, 32, 205, 240n33, 289n16 conflict tungsten, 108, 109 Congo production, 108 export quota, 240n34 in glass, 217 importance, xi, 11 in lighting, 151 patents, 211 production locations, 48 shortage fears, 207, 219 sources of, 32, 48, 93, 108, 205, 240n24, 240n33, 289n16 wartime use of, 29, 30, 239n28 in weaponry, 29, 161–62, 167 Tunna, Nigel, 96 Twitter, 126 Uganda, cassiterites from, 111 Umicore, 191 UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 135 United States: aluminum can recycling, 285n34 Bureau of Mines closure, 222 China, trade case against, 36 on China’s materials exports, 203 cobalt supplies, 19 commodity stockpiles, 291n36 conflict materials, actions on, 110–11 Japan, embargo against, 30 rare metal security strategy, 206, 208–12 reshoring, 212 tungsten, wartime actions on, 162, 239n28.

 

pages: 128 words: 38,187

The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

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3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, performance metric, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor

But the pinnacle isn’t about money, status, or applause. “It’s about giving back.”35 The Freelancers Union is part of an emerging social movement called “new mutualism” that’s grounded in the concept of a sharing economy. Jeremy Rifkin sees the sharing economy as the next big thing. He argues that hundreds of millions of people are already on board, sharing “information, entertainment, green energy, and 3D printed products at near-zero marginal cost.” People are also sharing more personal things like clothes, homes, and household items.36 “Flexible,” “diversified” freelancers are the archetypal sharers: They mentor. They give without asking what they get. They see an opportunity and bring people together to seize it. But, most important, they’re seeing beyond today. They know that the future will look very different than the present—and they’re getting ready for it.

 

pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

“We were just trying to run a good accelerator program,” he said. They took space in the basement of another accelerator, Hero City, a program that is part of Draper University—a business school that Adam’s father started in 2012—on a tree-lined commercial street in prosperous San Mateo. From one batch of companies to the next, Draper was looking for a real breakthrough technology to get behind. He considered 3-D printing, and drones. Bitcoin kept popping up, and soon enough he became convinced of its potential, from both a technological standpoint and a business standpoint. “We ended up really diving deep on bitcoin,” he said. “We see a lot of opportunity in the space.” At the time, there were only a handful of bitcoin businesses. Draper thought he could double that. He put word out that Boost would be taking between 5 and 7 bitcoin-related start-ups and quickly received 150 applications.

.’ … People who three years ago were pretty radical are now putting on a suit and tie and just throwing in the towel and saying, ‘Even if bitcoin can’t be a thing that will change the world, I can make a lot of money. I can enter the kingdom.’” Dark Wallet was a response to that. Elsewhere, Wilson was quoted describing it as a way to “mock every attempt to sprinkle [bitcoin] with regulation,” and to say to government, “‘You’ve set yourself up to regulate bitcoin. Regulate this.’” Wilson, who’d previously made a name for himself by designing the first 3-D-printed gun, had no qualms, he said, about his project becoming a vehicle for money laundering, drug dealing, kiddie porn, or terrorism. His response: “Liberty is a dangerous thing.” This was hardly a way to take bitcoin into the mainstream, but that wasn’t his objective. If Dark Wallet achieved freedom for only those at the fringes of society, so be it. The response in the bitcoin community to Dark Wallet was divided.

 

pages: 481 words: 125,946

What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

One of many notable deficiencies in human thinking is dichotomous reasoning—believing something is black or white rather than considering its particular shade of gray. But we’re rigid and modular creatures; our branching set of bones houses fixed organs and supports fixed appendages with specific functions. What about machines that aren’t so black and white? Thanks to advances in materials science and 3-D printing, soft robots are starting to appear. Such robots can change their shape in extreme ways; they may in the future be composed of 20 percent battery and 80 percent motor at one place on their surface, 30 percent sensor and 70 percent support structure at another, and 40 percent artificial material and 60 percent biological matter someplace else. Such machines may be much better able to appreciate gradations than we can.

Third, a system must be able to design and implement new computing mechanisms and new algorithms. These mechanisms and algorithms will exploit the scientific discoveries produced in the second step. Indeed, one could argue that this is essentially the same as steps 1 and 2 but focused on computation. Autonomous design and implementation of computing hardware is clearly feasible with silicon-based technologies, and new technologies for synthetic biology, combinatorial chemistry, and 3-D printing will make this even more feasible in the near future. Automated algorithm design has been demonstrated many times, so it’s also feasible. Fourth, a system must be able to grant autonomy and resources to these new computing mechanisms so they can recursively perform experiments, discover new structures, develop new computing methods, and produce even more powerful “offspring.” I know of no system that has done this.

 

pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Predictions for the next twenty to one hundred years cannot possibly be fulfilled when new economic competitors can arise within five years, as China did in the early 1980s, as eastern Europe did in the 1990s, and as much of Africa did in the 2000s. In any five-year period, a new technology can spring seemingly from nowhere, as the Internet did in the 1990s and as new digital manufacturing techniques like 3-D printing are doing now. In the postwar period, even the twenty-eight longest periods of “super-rapid” growth—in which per capita GDP was rising faster than 6 percent a year—have lasted less than a decade on average.5 So the longer a streak lasts, the less likely it is to continue. When a country like Japan, China, or India puts together a decade of strong growth, analysts should be looking not for reasons the streak will continue but for the moment when the cycle will turn.

., 124 Rodrik, Dani, 207 Romania, 87, 162, 238, 348, 391–92 Rothschild, Baron de, 349 Rousseff, Dilma, 80, 152–53, 155, 366, 368 Roy, Nilanjana, 236 Rubin, Robert, 341 Russia, 193, 326, 344 aging population in, 72 authoritarianism in, 3, 60 author’s speech in, 58–59 banking crisis (1990s), 61 billionaires in, 103, 107, 114–15, 116, 119, 120, 364, 393 birth rate in, 26 brain drain from, 52 capital flight from, 52, 281, 282, 367 commodities economy in, 4, 205, 225, 341, 367, 376, 393, 397 currency of, 263, 265, 268, 281, 282, 289, 291, 393, 394 debt in, 59, 291, 327, 394 economic growth in, 17, 60, 63, 66, 69, 159, 340, 358 economic slowdown in, 346, 392 education in, 17 financial deepening in, 327 GDP of, 4, 175, 394 government spending in, 139, 149, 394 hype about, 4, 338, 347, 348, 350 inflation in, 241, 242, 246 international business in, 18, 394 international sanctions against, 282 investment in, 205, 208, 232, 394–95, 397 leadership in, 349, 392–94; see also Putin, Vladimir oil in, 29, 60, 62, 72, 114, 155, 159, 265, 282, 341, 342, 393, 394 oligarchs in, 107, 114–15, 160, 268 per capita income in, 61, 68 political cronyism in, 4, 159, 160 reforms in, 58, 59, 60, 61, 66, 67, 68, 78 social unrest in, 4, 73–74 state banks in, 151–52, 159, 282 stock exchange in, 161 tech companies in, 17, 159–60 workforce in, 30, 42, 155, 393 Rwanda, 181, 182, 199 Rybolovlev, Dmitry, 107 Sakurauchi, Yoshio, 329–30 Samuelson, Paul, 13 Santos, Manuel, 188, 189 Sassen, Saskia, 197 Saudi Arabia, 29, 42, 170, 190 currency of, 396 energy subsidies in, 156, 157 GDP in, 87 government spending in, 139, 396 leadership in, 87, 396 and oil prices, 227–28, 279, 333, 394 roller-coaster economy of, 227–28 savings, 16, 277–79 Scandinavia, 35, 42 Schlumpeter, Joseph, 360 Schularick, Moritz, 259 service businesses, 204, 210–13 service cities, 197–200 Sharif, Nawaz, 94, 372 Sharma, Rahul, 170–71 Shinawatra, Thaksin, 79, 97 Shinawatra, Yingluck, 78–79, 217 Sierra Leone, 225 Silk Road, 8, 187–88, 399 Singapore, 32, 33, 175, 182, 238, 346, 348 Singh, Manmohan, 62, 73, 74–75, 133, 187, 234–37, 250 Sirisena, Maithripala, 181 Sisi, Abdel Fattah el-, 76, 157 social upheavals: Arab Spring, 4, 31, 76, 91–92, 167, 242 “middle-class rage,” 72–73 as revolts against stale leadership, 21, 61, 70, 72, 73–74, 77, 92 spread of, 3, 91–92 South Africa: commodities economy in, 223, 225, 263, 376, 397 corruption in, 164 currency in, 397 debt of, 291 decline in development of, 3, 6, 205, 346, 397 economic growth in, 10, 38, 90, 340 HDI ranking, 10 immigration to, 48 investment in, 232, 397 leadership in, 76, 90, 352–53, 397 life expectancy in, 10 social unrest in, 4, 73, 74 South Asia, 370–75, 400 commodities economies in, 371 political instability in, 180, 373 regional alliances, 179, 180 restrictions on women in, 42 Southeast Asia, 375–80 economic cycle in, 310, 324, 326, 327, 349, 375–76, 400 and global trade, 176, 178, 179–80 and hype, 330, 331 South Korea, 190, 197–98 and China, 382 debt in, 216, 321 economic growth in, 10, 66–67, 87, 175, 216, 238, 308 government spending in, 140, 146 HDI ranking, 10 homogeneity in, 46–47 hype about, 333, 334, 339 inflation in, 237, 246 and international business, 179, 382–83 investment in, 205, 206, 218, 221, 225, 238, 253 leadership in, 66–67, 82, 85, 93, 349 literacy in, 17 manufacturing in, 205, 212–13, 214–15, 216, 225, 382–83 per capita income in, 215, 316 productivity in, 20 robots in, 56 technology in, 218, 221, 295, 382 wealth in, 107–8, 109, 116, 117–18, 120, 121–22, 383 workforce in, 40, 43, 44, 47, 56, 140, 383 Soviet Union: after 1991, see Russia central plan of, 81, 85 fall of, 29, 67, 107, 109, 151, 198, 208, 242 Spain, 29, 32, 192 current account in, 288 debt in, 327–28, 389–90 internal devaluation in, 287 manufacturing in, 387 Spence, Michael, 341 Spence Commission, 341–42 Sri Lanka, 180–81, 187, 212, 365, 370–71, 373 stagflation, 64, 65, 240, 395 stagnation, 6, 83, 88, 91, 105, 172, 192 state banks, 134, 151–54 state capitalism, 133–35, 155 stock markets: best time to buy in, 349 and crisis of 2008, 146–47 mania/crash, 258–61, 313–14, 318 signals from, 13, 74–75, 133, 134, 258, 313 state-run companies in, 135 “structural reform,” 62–63, 163 Studwell, Joe, 17, 143–44 Sudan, 142, 185 Suharto, 59–60, 82, 93, 293, 320–21, 330 Summers, Lawrence, 104, 336, 347 supply and demand, 256–57 supply networks, 235, 238, 239–40, 243, 253, 292, 365 supply side, 24 Surowiecki, James, 13 Sweden, 42, 50, 136, 138 billionaires in, 108, 116, 121, 123 debt in, 300 economic cycle in, 17, 90, 256 financial crisis (1990s), 317 and inflation, 245 Switzerland, 41, 50, 121, 138–39, 198, 294 Syria: and Arab Spring, 92, 167 civil war in, 4, 92, 168, 224 economic cycle in, 87, 88 leadership in, 89 refugees from, 2, 44, 48 Taiwan, 144, 151, 190 banking crises in (1995, 1997), 316, 317 and China, 382–83 debt in, 291, 307, 317–18 economic growth in, 87, 175, 238, 308, 348 government spending in, 140, 146 hype about, 333, 334, 345, 346, 348 and international business, 382–83 investment in, 205, 218 leadership in, 82, 86, 93 literacy in, 17 per capita income in, 316 and regional alliances, 179, 383 and technology, 221, 295 wealth in, 107–8, 118, 120, 122 working-age population in, 383 Tanzania, 96, 181–82 taxes: corporate, 63, 138 cutting, 67 evading, 128, 137, 142, 164 failure to collect, 141–43 and government spending, 136–37 import tariffs, 172 inheritance, 124 and public services, 140 Taylor, Alan M., 259, 304, 310 technology: automation, 214 cycle of, 8, 124, 218–21 driverless cars, 54 and immigration, 51–52 investment in, 218–21, 229, 233, 255 and jobs, 101, 211, 212 and leisure time, 199 and productivity, 20, 51, 119, 220–21 robot workers, 27, 36, 54–57, 214 and service businesses, 210, 211–13 3-D printing, 8, 214 Tetlock, Philip, 400 Thailand, 47–48, 189–90 capital flight from, 272, 292 commodities economy in, 342, 379 credit binge in, 199, 297, 298–302, 306, 315, 328, 380 currency of, 217, 267, 271–73, 273, 285–86, 292 economic contraction in, 286, 349, 379 economic growth in, 79, 217, 256, 348, 380 economic recovery of, 288, 302, 325, 327 and hype, 330, 349 infrastructure in, 207–8, 230 and international trade, 174, 178, 179–80, 216 investment in, 206, 217, 225, 230–31 leadership in, 78–79, 97, 379–80 manufacturing in, 216–17, 225, 227, 379 military coup in (2014), 379–80 population growth rates in, 30, 47 social unrest in, 78–79, 189, 190, 217 state banks in, 151, 321, 323–24 Thatcher, Margaret, 64–65, 68, 94 Thiel, Peter, 104, 119, 125 thrift, 16, 277–79 Time, 331, 334–35, 347, 349, 350, 352 tourism, 2, 37, 199, 211, 288, 384–85 trade balance, 269 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, 173, 179 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 173, 178, 361, 377, 378, 383, 384, 386 Trudeau, Justin, 386 Trump, Donald, 53, 364 Tsai Ing-wen, 383 Tunisia, 91–92, 224 Turkey, 190, 326 currency of, 273–74, 280, 283, 291, 292, 293, 396 debt of, 291, 306, 327, 328 economic growth in, 66, 69, 72 financial deepening in, 327 government spending in, 139, 247–48 hype about, 345, 348 immigration to, 48 inflation in, 241, 242, 246, 247–50, 326 leadership in, 60, 66, 71–72, 74, 349, 395 and location, 395–96 per capita income in, 68, 331, 348 population growth in, 31 populist nationalism in, 60, 72, 247 reforms in, 67–68, 72, 248, 249, 331 social unrest in, 4, 61, 72, 73, 74 wealth in, 114, 116, 120 Tusk, Donald, 74–75 Uganda, 87, 181, 354–55 United Arab Emirates, 167, 170 United Kingdom, see Britain United Nations (UN), 10, 47 on population growth, 19, 25, 27, 33, 44–45 United States, 194–95, 360–64 billionaires in, 107, 108, 114, 116, 118–19, 121, 123–25, 364 birth rate in, 26 checks and balances in, 364 credit markets in, 13, 298, 303–4, 305–6, 316 currency of, 266, 271, 272, 362–63 current account deficit in, 278, 362–63 debt in, 363 economic growth in, 3, 288, 337–38, 340 economic recovery in, 24, 64–65, 102, 360 economic strength of, 266, 400 financial speculation in, 102 and geopolitics, 172–73 and global trade, 184, 185, 402–3 government spending in, 138, 139 and hype, 361–62 and immigration, 45, 49–50, 52, 53, 360 industrialization in, 144, 215 inflation in, 240–41, 258 infrastructure in, 207, 208 life expectancy in, 39, 40 and location, 176–77, 200 long boom of, 255–56 manufacturing in, 204, 213, 214, 215, 361 oil and gas in, 228–29, 362 per capita income in, 32, 66, 339, 346 polarization in, 62–63, 132, 363–64 productivity in, 20, 51–52, 220–21, 257, 303 recessions originating in, 2, 132, 303–4, 305–6, 308–9, 327–28, 362 and regional alliances, 173–75, 178, 183, 188, 199, 361, 383, 384, 386 “second term curse” in, 70–71 technology in, 20, 218, 221, 294, 303, 361–62 Treasury bonds, 280 Washington Consensus, 132–33 and wealth gap, 101, 102, 364 workforce in, 19, 32, 37, 41–42, 43–44, 360 Uribe, Álvaro, 77, 183, 350 Uruguay, 300 Velasco, Juan, 98 Venezuela, 4, 158 economic cycle in, 87, 346, 365 leadership in, 64, 69, 76, 77, 98, 365 oil in, 333, 334 and regional alliances, 182, 366 Vietnam, 42, 202 billionaires in, 118 Communist Party in, 377–78 currency in, 295 fiscal deficit in, 377 and global trade, 174, 176–78, 180, 295 hype about, 345 inflation in, 378 investment in, 378 leadership in, 90–91 location of, 168, 177–78, 185, 378 manufacturing in, 213, 378 per capita income in, 178, 378 population centers in, 190, 191, 199 Viravaidya, Mechai, 47 Volcker, Paul, 241, 245, 335 wage-price spiral, 240 Walton family, 119 Wang Jianlin, 114 wealth: balance in, 103 billionaire lists, 100, 103, 104, 116, 117, 120–21 and capital flight, 52–53, 107, 279–81, 292 creation of, 99, 103, 115 crony capitalism, 105–6, 112, 130, 332 of entrepreneurs, 118–19, 122 in family empires/inherited, 104, 116–21 measures of, 101 redistribution of, 95, 96–98, 99, 101, 126 of robber barons, 124 scale of, 107–10 and state meddling, 127–29 wealth gap, 95–96, 99–102, 364 and corruption, 127–29 and easy money, 101–2, 108 and economic declines, 125–27 rise of, 129–31 welfare states, 64, 65, 93, 97, 126, 138, 140–41 Wen Jiabao, 307, 308, 311–12 Widodo, Joko, 143, 157, 163, 376–77 Wiesel, Elie, 331–32 wildebeest, survival of, viii, ix, xi women: and birth rates, 18, 25–26, 28, 33–36, 43, 44, 47, 392 economic restrictions on, 42 education of, 26, 41 working, 28, 34, 35, 36, 40–44, 47 workforce: aging, 392 and available jobs, 32, 37, 55 and baby bonuses, 33–36 and economic growth, 24, 26, 52 global, 55–56 growth rate in, 28–32 highly skilled, 48–54 hours worked by, 18 and immigration, 28, 44–54 manual labor, 213 new people in, 28, 36, 57 participation rate in, 36–37 and pension funds, 279 and population declines, 24–32, 35, 38, 43, 44, 56 and productivity data, 18–19, 39 replaced by machines, 16, 24 and retirement, 36–40 robots in, 54–57 skilled, 48–54 wages, 101, 184, 185, 204, 214, 243, 257 women in, 28, 34, 35, 36, 40–44, 47 World Bank: on convergence, 339, 341 data set of, 407 on economic growth factors, 12, 18, 342, 346 forecasting record of, 336, 338 on inflation, 242 on infrastructure, 186, 187 on middle-income trap, 345 on new business, 48 on service sector, 210–11 Spence Commission, 341–42 on wealth gap, 100 on workforce, 42, 51 world economy, 358–401 absence of optimism in, 359 combined scores of, 358–59 crisis (2008), see global financial crisis disruptions of, 358–59 potential growth rate of, 359 world maps, 356–57, 402–3 see also specific nations World Trade Organization, 177 Wu Jinglian, 314 Xiao Gang, 311 Xi Jinping, 120, 156, 187, 208 Yellen, Janet, 101 Yeltsin, Boris, 67, 242 Yemen, 92 Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang (SBY), 93, 157 Zambia, 96, 354 Zambrano, Lorenzo, 219–20 Zeihan, Peer, 184 Zielinski, Robert, The Kiss of Debt, 297–98, 299, 323 Zimbabwe, 86, 88–89, 96–97, 373 Zoellick, Robert, 242 “zombie companies,” 318–19 Zong Qinghou, 113 Zuckerberg, Mark, 104, 119, 124 Zuma, Jacob, 352, 397 ALSO BY RUCHIR SHARMA Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ruchir Sharma is head of emerging markets and chief global strategist at Morgan Stanley Investment Management, with more than $20 billion of assets under management.

 

pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

“It’s basically the same material they make Lego bricks out of, so it’s pretty tough,” he noted. Kids swarmed around to design their own objects. It’s these kids, who have free time and no preconceptions, who will likely be the ones to domesticate 3-D printing, just as they were the first to domesticate computers, printers, Photoshop, and video-editing software. Over at sites like Shapeways or Ponoko or Thingiverse, creators post designs for everything from iPad racks to Rubik’s Cube–like puzzles. Many are “open,” which means anyone can download them, customize them, and print a copy themselves—learning gradually by remixing existing works, much as we learn to write by copying or imitating others. What literacy will 3-D printing offer? How will it help us think in new ways? By making the physical world plastic, it could usher in a new phase in design thinking. 3-D printers allow us to meditate on physical solutions to physical questions.

 

pages: 222 words: 53,317

Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

We see something similar in applied mathematicians, who use quantitative tools to cut across disciplines and find commonalities, acting as generalists. Generalists can be found in such areas as consulting and book editing, and you can even find them in the world of venture capital, where there are many people who are knowledgeable in multiple different areas and can use this expertise widely. If someone wants to invest in outer space, 3-D printing, agricultural technology, tools for scientific discovery, and more, one had better be at least somewhat of a generalist. These individuals embody both expertise and the polymath tendency to explore many different domains. But cultivating such T-shaped individuals, who combine specialization with some measure of generalism—people who can at least begin to handle some of the growing complexity around us—is not that simple.

 

pages: 167 words: 50,652

Alternatives to Capitalism by Robin Hahnel, Erik Olin Wright

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3D printing, affirmative action, crowdsourcing, inventory management, iterative process, Kickstarter, loose coupling, means of production, profit maximization, race to the bottom, transaction costs

Some of these can take place with little or no state involvement; others would be greatly enhanced by various kinds of state support. Here are a few additional examples:14 •Peer-to-peer collaborative production: Wikipedia, open-source software •Urban agriculture with community land trusts •Community-owned fab labs for advanced customized small-batch cooperative manufacturing •Open-access intellectual property: creative commons, copy-left, open source pharmaceuticals, free downloadable blueprints for 3-D printing •Free publicly provided goods/services: libraries, public transport •Unconditional basic income •Policy juries and “randomocracy” •Eco-villages and transition towns Such a combination of symbiotic and interstitial strategies does not imply that the process of transformation could ever follow a smooth path of enlightened cooperation between conflicting class forces. What is ultimately at stake here is a transformation of the core power relations of capitalism, and this does ultimately threaten the interests of capitalists.

 

pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E

There is a huge wave of investment in businesses exploiting AI, and it is enabling new business models that are disrupting established industries at an exhilarating rate – or a terrifying rate, depending where you stand. Pretty much all media industries are being turned upside down, and so are hotels and taxi services. Transportation services generally and healthcare are ripe for disruption, and who knows what 3D printing will do to global manufacturing? These changes are going to be painful for many, but taken in the aggregate they will improve the quality of products and services and drive down their prices. We will all benefit from that. But it looks very likely that a more extreme disruption will follow within a decade or two. 9.2 – Economic singularity Automation is the replacement of human work by machines, and it has been going on since the beginnings of the industrial revolution.

 

pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

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3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, John Gruber, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

If Barack Obama proposes a new bill and it’s picked up in the news, the lamp glows blue; if there’s news in my neighborhood in Brooklyn, the lamp will glow orange. It’s not a very practical application, but it’s a product I wanted, so I decided to build it. In the future you will be able to build your own personalized products too. Two other cofounders of NYC Resistor might be able to help. Zach Hoeken and Bre Pettis, whom I would characterize as nerds times ten, started a company called MakerBot where they build and sell “open-source 3D printing robots.” Imagine a printer sitting on your desk at home that can actually “print” objects in plastic. MakerBot is a kit that can be purchased and assembled for around $500. Once it’s together, you can download schematics from the Internet of anything from a mousetrap to a cup and actually print them out in plastic. By contrast, a low-end 3-D printer today costs about $20,000. There are other companies being built out of this personalized hardware concept too.

 

pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

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3D printing, call centre, clean water, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

A huge schedule board was propped up against one wall, where some Scifoo campers were busy annotating new sessions they wanted to host while others scanned the current offerings. Almost the entire two-and-a-half-day event was unscripted. The sessions, demos, discussions, and so on were meant to emerge organically in an open-source fashion from the couple hundred participants. The casual scribbles on the schedule grid (“3-d printing;” “the future history of biology;” “the tricorder is here;” “just when you thought it was safe to teach evolution”) belied the polished professional presentations to which they pertained. As I hurried to the one I wanted to hear, I passed a piano, a pinball machine, a video arcade game, posters advertising talks to come (the Amazing Randi, the magician, would speak on Monday), refrigerators with cold drinks, snack stands, and the Building 40 cafeteria—known as Charlie’s, the name of the first chef at Google who had previously been chef to The Grateful Dead.

 

pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman

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3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Martin Wolf, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

They are: the list of factors causing Stuffocation today, the reasons why experiences make us happier than material goods, and the pioneering businesses, brands, and even cities, that are successful today because of the experiences they provide. The new and improved experience economy will, as it responds to Stuffocation, be a world of goods – products, services, experiences – that are far less bad, or even actually positive, for the environment. They will require fewer material resources. Rather than cluttering our homes with yet more monotonous, commoditized stuff, companies will sell us goods that are customized and 3D printed, so that they give each of us more engaging, relevant experiences. They will provide goods that take up less room, or no physical space at all. Instead of focusing on tangible objects we can have and hold, companies will sell us solutions we need or, better still, activities we can do. More of the goods we buy will be temporary, and easy to update – with new apps or software, for instance, or with re-use in mind – so that we avoid the waste of hedonic adaptation.

 

pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

He got Converse and Under Armour and Adidas and other big names in the industry to sponsor entry contests and pay the tuition for deserving students from around the world. He built diverse classrooms, and he recruited students and mentors from another underrepresented group in footwear: women. PENSOLE’s m.o. was to mimic the real-world shoe design process. In Edwards’s studio in Portland—and on-site at partner schools around the United States—he gave students design briefs like, “Create a shoe using 3D printing,” and taught them to do market research and build consumer profiles, sketch and design, then actually create physical shoe models out of masking tape and eventually real materials. “I learned on the job. I teach that way,” Edwards says. “I put them in the exact same position than when they’re at a company.” PENSOLE students work 12 to 14 hours a day, for four to six weeks. They draw a dozen shoe sketches one day, get critical feedback, then draw ten more, whittling down and iterating until they produce real, professional-grade shoes.

 

pages: 219 words: 61,720

American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

Google didn’t decide to build the wearable computer because of any subsidies the federal or state government may be offering. There are none. Google, like other companies, is coming home because they can better control their intellectual property, and because the revolution in energy is improving America’s comparative advantage. It’s pretty basic economics. A new wave of technological innovation—3-D printing is another example of this—is making it easier, cheaper, and faster for American companies to design and build in the United States rather than halfway around the globe. Every day, there’s something new. But companies are also coming back because of a growing disenchantment with China. Some of these companies say the cost of shipping is starting to cut into their savings on labor. There’s more to it than a simple cost-saving calculation.

 

pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

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3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

When I first wrote this chapter I could find 17 different so-called ‘dark sites’, where you can buy drugs with bitcoins on the Tor network: Silk Road 2.0, Black Market Reloaded, Pandora Market, Agora Market, TorMarket, The Marketplace (the M of ‘Market’ is the McDonald’s M), the Three Hares Bazaar, the RoadSilk, White Rabbit Marketplace, Outlaw Market, Bungee Discreet Global Mailorder, Blue Sky, Modern Culture, Budster, Dutchy and Utopia. At Utopia I noticed you could also buy a guide to hacking ATMs, $100 of counterfeit dollars for $35 together with instructions on how to spend them, and ‘untraceable, 3D-printed guns’. At the point of final edit, there now seem to be 25 different sites. Meanwhile, of the above, Black Market Reloaded has shut down, TorMarket disappeared in a scam, as did Budster, Three Hares doesn’t seem to have ever actually operated, RoadSilk has renamed itself Pirate Market, White Rabbit I’m advised is currently a scam, and Utopia has been busted by Dutch police. These are just the ones a cursory search has revealed to me.

 

Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

See also Fraud Sewerage, 21 Shari’a, 112–113 Shortage, 39 Short-termism, 44– 46, 217; mandatory growth and, 2, 52– 53; sustainable money and, 85– 86, 192; Terra and, 138–139 Slum, 141 Small and medium-sized enterprise (SME), 120–124 Smith, Adam, 29 Social capital, 2, 46– 49 Social construct, 57– 58 Social decay, 34– 35, 159 Social media, 82 Social Security, 12 Social Trade Organization (STRO), 121, 127, 170, 194 Social values, 194, 210–211 Solidus, 24, 65, 227n2, 230n9 Sovereign debt, 42– 43, 70, 145–147, 227n21 Speculation, 33 Spender-signed currency, 196–198 Spice, 160 Square, 115–116 Stamp scrip, 180–181 Sterile reserve, 40 Sternthaler, 88– 89 Stimulus, 23–24, 145–146 INDEX Store of value, 58; conflicting with medium of exchange, 66; Fisher equation and, 64; money defined as, 28; professionals describing, 1–2 Street children, 143 Strike, 96– 98 Stripe, 115–116 Student loan: debt, 17–18, 226–227n13; GI Bill and, 153; JAK and, 110 Subak, 187 Subprime crisis, 70 Subsidiarity, 69, 231n14 Success, 222 Sufficiency, 80, 222 Superstition, 3 Sustainability, 14, 32, 52– 53; decentralization and, 219; demurrage and, 67, 206; leadership and, 222; MHBA and, 128–129; in monetary ecosystem, 199; regio and, 191; self-sustaining system, 208; sustainable abundance, 5– 6, 55, 224; sustainable money, 85– 86, 192; Terra and, 134, 206; threat to, 216 Sweat equity, 165 Swedish Central Bank, 25–26, 35– 36 Taboo: academic, 35– 36; money as, 4 Talents, 155 Tally stick, 65 Tax, 26–27, 57– 58; changing behavior through, 157; Creative Currencies Project and, 155; exemption, 85; Hub and, 131; paid in C3, 123, 128; paid in civic, 147–148; paid in commodities, 27; paid in Terra, 139; paid in uang kepeng, 189; paid in Wörgl, 177–178 Taxi, 126–128 Technology, 115–117, 120, 192, 218 Tenth Amendment, 231n14 Terra Alliance, 137 Terra initiative, 67 Terra Trade Reference Currency (TRC), 5, 134–135; cash-in, 136, 139–140; circulation of, 136, 138; creation of, 136, 137; as reference currency, 140 Terra Unit Value, 137 Thank-you (T), 132–133, 183–184 Therapy, 17 259 Third Industrial Revolution, 218 3D printing, 218–219 Three-body problem, 31 TimeBank, 75, 80– 85, 81; in Blaengarw, 159–161, 161; Hub, 131; Patch Adams Free Clinic and, 165; Rotating Loan Club, 172 Time currency, 5, 74–75, 78– 85; fureai kippu as, 168; Ithaca HOURS, 162–165, 163; in Nyanza, 208 Time Dollar. See TimeBank Time Dollar Youth Court, 83 Time horizon, 44 Time-slot exchange, 195–197 Titus, 197–198 Token Exchange System, 193 Too big to fail, 96 Torekes, 74–75, 151, 151–153 Total system throughput (TST), 33 Totnes, 75 Trade reference currency.

 

pages: 728 words: 182,850

Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method

In this section, we’ll take a look at a few techniques that are common in commercial restaurants and examine ways that they can be useful to the home chef. This isn’t by any means a complete list. Rather, this should be enough to get you started thinking outside the box (or, harking back to the functional fixedness concept discussed in the opening chapter, getting to see the box in a different way). 3D Printing and Mold Making Many aspects of "playing with your food" are beyond the reach of most commercial restaurants, either because they’re not worth the time or require a geek to do it. For a few high-end restaurants, spending the time involved in making custom molds allows them to create innovative and unusual experiences. Working with fabricators, they’ll create custom silicone molds ranging in shapes of everything from vegetables to eggs, using them to mold asparagus puree set with gelling agents or for signature desserts.

, Seasonal Method Teflon, Pots and pans temperature controllers, Water heaters temperature gradients, Heat Transfer and Doneness temperature(s), Key Temperatures in Cooking (see also ) cooking at extreme, Fun with Hardware FAT TOM acronym, Foodborne Illness and Staying Safe food additives and, E Numbers: The Dewey Decimal System of Food Additives for baking reactions, Time and Temperature: Cooking’s Primary Variables for caramelization, Reading Between the Lines, Time and Temperature: Cooking’s Primary Variables, Cooked = Time * Temperature, 356°F / 180°C: Sugar Begins to Caramelize Visibly for Maillard reaction, Reading Between the Lines, Pots and pans, Cooked = Time * Temperature, 310°F / 154°C: Maillard Reactions Become Noticeable for protein denaturation, Time and Temperature: Cooking’s Primary Variables, Cooked = Time * Temperature, Key Temperatures in Cooking of common reactions, Cooked = Time * Temperature Potter’s kitchen tips, Breakfast smell and, Smell (Olfactory Sense) sous vide cooking and, Foodborne Illness and Sous Vide Cooking taste and, Smell (Olfactory Sense), Salty, Combinations of Tastes and Smells wet heat methods, Convection tempering chocolate, Chocolate testing for doneness, Time and Temperature: Cooking’s Primary Variables homemade pectin, 158°F / 70°C: Vegetable Starches Break Down positive for drugs, Cooking for Others Savage on, Cooking for Others steak tenderness, Cooking for Others Texas A&M University, Foodborne Illness and Staying Safe texture, food, Mozzarella spheres, Foodborne Illness and Sous Vide Cooking Thai cooking, Others thermal conductivity of metals, Pots and pans, Methods of Heat Transfer thermal hydrolysis, 154°F / 68°C: Collagen (Type I) Denatures thermal radiation, Approaching the Kitchen, Thermometers and timers thermal response time, Pots and pans thermocouples, Water heaters thermometers, Spoons & co. thickeners about, E Numbers: The Dewey Decimal System of Food Additives maltodextrin as, "Melts" in your mouth: Maltodextrin transglutaminase as, Meat Glue: Transglutaminase 30-Second Chocolate Cake, Cream Whippers (a.k.a. "iSi Whippers") This, Hervé, Sugar 3D printing, Commercial Hardware and Techniques time (FAT TOM acronym), Foodborne Illness and Staying Safe time and temperature, Time and Temperature: Cooking’s Primary Variables (see also ) about, Cooked = Time * Temperature as key variables in cooking, Fun with Hardware duck confit and, 154°F / 68°C: Collagen (Type I) Denatures Potter’s kitchen tips, Breakfast sous vide cooking and, Sous Vide Cooking Wiechmann on, Seasonal Method timers, Spoons & co., Time and Temperature: Cooking’s Primary Variables Tiramisu, Whipped Cream Tomato Basil Mozzarella Salad, Rice, Wheat, Grains ≅ Congee, Cream of Wheat, Porridge tomatoes peeling, Seasonal Method Tomato Basil Mozzarella Salad, Rice, Wheat, Grains ≅ Congee, Cream of Wheat, Porridge tongs, Spoons & co.

 

pages: 372 words: 107,587

The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, working poor

And, despite widespread belief of the opposite, we cannot be certain that there are enough new products or technologies left to be developed for companies to be able to make use of the resources that are going to be freed from existing industries.35 For the skeptical reader such sweeping statements bring to mind the reputed pronouncement by IBM former president Tom Watson in 1943, “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” Fortunes continue to be made from new products and business ideas like the iPad, Facebook, 3D television, BluRay DVD, cloud computing, biotech, and nanotech; soon we’ll have computer-controlled 3D printing. However, Larsson would argue that these are in most cases essentially extensions of existing products and processes. He explicitly cautions that he is not saying that further improvements in technology and business are no longer possible — rather that, taken together, they will tend to yield diminishing returns for the economy as a whole as compared to innovations and improvements years or decades ago.

 

pages: 278 words: 83,468

The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses by Eric Ries

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3D printing, barriers to entry, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, continuous integration, corporate governance, experimental subject, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Network effects, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, pull request, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, transaction costs

Historically, this has been used to offer the customer many choices of product, but in the future, this capability will allow the designers of products to get much faster feedback about new versions. When the design changes, there is no excess inventory of the old version to slow things down. Since machines are designed for rapid changeovers, as soon as the new design is ready, new versions can be produced quickly. 3. 3D printing and rapid prototyping tools. As just one example, most products and parts that are made out of plastic today are mass produced using a technique called injection molding. This process is extremely expensive and time-consuming to set up, but once it is up and running, it can reproduce hundreds of thousands of identical individual items at an extremely low cost. It is a classic large-batch production process.

 

pages: 294 words: 81,292

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat

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3D printing, AI winter, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

Because of the lag time taken by development, prototyping, and manufacture of the iPhone’s components, including its processor, camera, memory, storage, screen, and so on, followed by the marketing and sale of the iPhone itself. Will the lag time from marketing to sales ever go away? Perhaps someday hardware, like software, will upgrade itself automatically. But that probably won’t happen until science has mastered nanotechnology or 3-D printing becomes ubiquitous. And when we’re upgrading components of our own brains, instead of updating Microsoft Office or buying a few chips of RAM, it’ll be a much more delicate procedure than anything we’ve experienced before, at least at first. Yet Kurzweil claims that in this century we’ll experience 200,000 years of technological progress in a hundred calendar years. Could we tolerate so much progress coming so fast?

 

pages: 311 words: 94,732

The Rapture of the Nerds by Cory Doctorow, Charles Stross

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3D printing, Ayatollah Khomeini, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, Drosophila, epigenetics, Extropian, gravity well, greed is good, haute couture, hive mind, margin call, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, union organizing

He's a technology journalist and columnist for such publications as The Guardian, Publishers Weekly and Locus, and is co-owner/co-editor of the popular website Boing Boing. He's a fellow of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a World Economic Forum Young Global Leader, and co-founded the UK-based Open Rights Group. In 2012, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in computer science from the Open University. Born in Canada, he now lives in London, England with his wife Alice, who runs a 3D printed toy company called MakieLab; and his daughter Poesy, who is learning to pick locks. Charles Stross, 47, is a full-time science fiction writer and resident of Edinburgh, Scotland. The author of six Hugo-nominated novels and winner of the 2005 and 2010 Hugo awards for best novella ("The Concrete Jungle" and "Palimpsest"), Stross's works have been translated into over twelve languages. Like many writers, Stross has had a variety of careers, occupations, and job-shaped-catastrophes in the past, from pharmacist (he quit after the second police stake-out) to first code monkey on the team of a successful dot-com startup (with brilliant timing he tried to change employer just as the bubble burst).

 

pages: 347 words: 94,701

Don't Trust, Don't Fear, Don't Beg: The Extraordinary Story of the Arctic 30 by Ben Stewart

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3D printing, Desert Island Discs, Edward Snowden, new economy, oil rush, Skype, WikiLeaks

He was a chef on the outside, he makes beautiful salads, prepares them on a chopping board fashioned from an unfolded Tetra Pak and uses spices to season them with beautiful, rich flavour. Anthony is thirty-two years old, a tree surgeon and director of a renewable energy company. Back home in Newport, he would tell people he was attacking climate change ‘in the same way Wile E. Coyote tries to catch The Road Runner’. Before sailing for the Arctic he was working on developing a wood gasifier to run his forestry truck off a charcoal kiln, and a 3D-printed river turbine to generate remote electricity. He’s also a talented artist and loses hours sketching the view through the window. Oleg asks Anthony to draw something for him. He wants a giant bumblebee carrying a message. And Anthony says, ‘Yeah, sure, okay.’ He sits down and makes the sketch, and when Oleg sees it his face lights up. He adds a message, and that night he sends it to his girlfriend on the road.

 

pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

Online movie companies such as Netflix now release an entire season of a new TV show on a single day so that viewers can enjoy marathon sessions, or “binges.” Car companies make financing so easy that even consumers defaulting on their home mortgages can afford a brand-new pickup.‡ Smartphone apps let you scan desirable objects anywhere you find them (on the train, in a friend’s apartment, in a picture in a magazine) and have one delivered to your home.13 And to judge by the accelerating advances in consumer technologies (3D printing machines that can transmit products in real time; wearable smartphones; robots so lifelike they can serve as sex workers) the future will be only more challenging for a brain programmed to look through the wrong end of the telescope. We are fast approaching a tipping point in the already problematic relationship between the self and the marketplace—between an economy programmed to issue ever-larger increments of consumer capability and a consumer who is, to some degree, neurologically predisposed to abuse those capabilities.

 

pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

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3D printing, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

Producing for the top of the range with the most advanced and safest technology possible and with high niche market profits is a better strategy under the new conditions. This could then lead to a very active rental sector for organising second-, third- and Nth-hand markets in each country and across the world, along with the growth of disassembly, remanufacturing, recycling, reusing and other materials-saving processes. Information for 3-D printing replacement parts and the provision of regular upgrades for the maintenance of products could become standard practice. This would create a business model in which repair and reuse would take the place of planned obsolescence. With the ‘internet of things’, chips can be put on each product to provide usage histories, enabling a thriving rental and maintenance industry to assign adequate prices.

 

pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

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3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, women in the workforce, young professional

There are those who view these types of firm as the dinosaurs of the organizational age and predict that they will succumb to the nimble-footed, smaller companies emerging around them. There are some signals that this could be true. Technology is making it easy for workers to coordinate among themselves and small-scale organizations have a flexibility that large firms find hard to achieve. With further developments of technology, such as the rise of 3D printing, the argument is that many of the scale advantages of large firms will disappear. At the time of writing, we see no evidence of this. Large companies such as Unilever or PepsiCo have scaling and mobilizing capabilities that enable them to deliver their products into almost every corner of the world and we believe this will remain the case. Others, like Google or Roche pharmaceuticals, have billion-dollar research budgets and the capacity to attract some of the brightest people in the world to work on developing the next generation technologies or medicines.

 

pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

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3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, very high income, working-age population

The future of the work is either one in which employment grows while pay stagnates, or in which the work becomes more productive – because much more solar energy is generated at solar-energy plants where the energy output per person is much higher – and employment stagnates. There could be other, similar opportunities in different fields. Michael Mandel, chief economic strategist at the Progressive Policy Institute, invites those sceptical of the job-creating power of new technology to imagine a world in which doctors can 3D-print new organs. In that future, humans would spend lots of time swapping out worn out livers, say, for new ones, and would need basic nursing care at every operation. Mandel might be right, but that vision of future work relies on a very specific version of biomedical advance; innovations that grow the organ on the inside of the body or repair existing organs non-surgically might, alternatively, dramatically reduce the need for medical care.6 Indeed, while fields such as education and healthcare have long been held out as the great hope for future employment growth, that hope is built on an assumption that productivity in those industries will remain low.

 

Pandora's Brain by Calum Chace

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3D printing, AI winter, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, brain emulation, Extropian, friendly AI, hive mind, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, theory of mind, Turing test, Wall-E

In fact you may be interested to know that there is a nascent branch of philosophy – a sub-branch of the Theory of Mind, you might say – called the Theory of Fun, which addresses these concerns.’ ‘As for over-population,’ Montaubon chipped in, ‘there is a very big universe to explore out there, and we now know that planets are positively commonplace. It won’t be explored by flesh-and-blood humans as shown in Star Trek and Star Wars: that idea is absurd. It will be explored by intelligence spreading out in light beams, building material environments on distant planets using advanced 3-D printing techniques. But actually, I suspect that the future for intelligence is extreme miniaturisation, so there is definitely no need to worry about running out of space.’ ‘Well, that’s a relief, then,’ said Ross, teasing slightly. He turned to address his audience. ‘We’ve travelled a long way in this consideration of the prospects opened up by the search for artificial intelligence, and we’ve heard some outlandish ideas.

 

pages: 374 words: 89,725

A More Beautiful Question: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas by Warren Berger

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3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, clean water, fear of failure, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Some programs now can turn anyone into a sketch artist or website designer; more advanced software also allows users now to create highly sophisticated models that can be tested in all kinds of what-if scenarios (so that, for example, a digital prototype of a building can be subjected to simulated earthquake-level stress, to see how the building would hold up). The possibilities for prototyping will be greatly expanded as 3-D printing becomes widely available and affordable over the next few years. The technology, which makes it easy to sketch an idea for an object on a computer screen and then manufacture a physical version (usually made of plastic or steel), is “enabling a class of ordinary people61 to take their ideas and turn those into physical, real products,” according to J. Paul Grayson, chief executive of the design-software company Alibre.

 

pages: 345 words: 92,849

Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

If you are motivated in Silicon Valley, [then] you can make it, period.”35 What matters in the Valley is not where you were born or where (or even whether) you went to college. What matters is your ability. Talent is the currency of Silicon Valley, and individuals there use their talent to move us forward, pioneering revolutionary achievements in social media, big data, personalized health care, biotechnology, smartphones, mobile commerce, cloud technology, and 3D printing, to name just a few. Silicon Valley is the place creators like Elon Musk, Steve Jobs, and Peter Thiel go to make a fortune by inventing the future. What made it all possible? No doubt there are many forces at work, but one enormous factor is the extent to which the government has kept its hands off the Valley. Perry Piscione points out the benefits of “the lack of heavy government regulation that would typically favor the interests of established banks, companies, and labor unions” over young upstarts.36 People are free to act on their ideas and compete on ability, without having to wade through a minefield of government permissions before launching their ventures.

 

pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Beyond aiding in existing procedures, robots will even be able to reach places that human surgeons cannot. Ken Goldberg’s research team is working on treating cancer with robots that could be temporarily inserted into the human body to release radiation. Instead of radiation from an external source, which damages healthy living tissues along with cancer, these robots release a radio beam inside the body that emits radiation into cancer cells with pinpoint accuracy. Using 3D printing, a medical engineer can even create a customized implant that can travel through a patient’s body to fit perfectly where it’s needed. Despite the promise of robot-assisted surgery, it is important not to jump to techno-utopianism. Allegations of unreported injuries from robotic surgery are troublingly common. The Journal for Healthcare Quality has reported 174 injuries and 71 deaths related to da Vinci surgeries.

 

pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

Transformative change happens when industries democratize, when they’re ripped from the sole domain of companies, governments, and other institutions and handed over to regular folks. The Internet democratized publishing, broadcasting, and communications, and the consequence was a massive increase in the range of both participation and participants in everything digital—the long tail of bits. Now the same is happening to manufacturing … The tools of factory production, from electronics assembly to 3-D printing, are now available to individuals, in batches as small as a single unit. Anybody with an idea and a little expertise can set assembly lines in China into motion with nothing more than some keystrokes on their laptop. A few days later, a prototype will be at their door, and once it all checks out, they can push a few more buttons and be in full production, making hundreds, thousands, or more.

 

pages: 380 words: 118,675

The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone

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3D printing, airport security, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, game design, housing crisis, invention of movable type, inventory management, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, late fees, loose coupling, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Rodney Brooks, search inside the book, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Skype, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Tony Hsieh, Whole Earth Catalog, why are manhole covers round?

As Russia, for example, develops a stronger shipping infrastructure and a more reliable credit card processing system, Amazon will introduce its e-commerce store and digital services there, perhaps by acquiring local companies or by seeding the market with the Kindle and Kindle Fire, as it did in Brazil in 2012 and in India in 2013. Will Amazon always buy its products from manufacturers? No; at some point it might print them right in its fulfillment centers. The evolving technology known as 3-D printing, in which microwave-size machines extrude plastic material to create objects based on digital models, is just the kind of disruptive revolution that fascinates Bezos and could allow him to eliminate more costs from the supply chain. In 2013, Amazon took the first step into this world, opening a site for 3-D printers and supplies. Will antitrust authorities eventually come to scrutinize Amazon and its market power?

 

pages: 396 words: 117,149

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World by Pedro Domingos

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3D printing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight

One looks like a slithering tower of rubber bricks, another like a helicopter with dragonfly wings, yet another like a shape-shifting Tinkertoy. These robots were not designed by any human engineer but created by evolution, the same process that gave rise to the diversity of life on Earth. Although the robots initially evolve inside a computer simulation, once they look proficient enough to make it in the real world, solid versions are automatically fabricated by 3-D printing. These are not yet ready to take over the world, but they’ve come a long way from the primordial soup of simulated parts they started with. The algorithm that evolved these robots was invented by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century. He didn’t think of it as an algorithm at the time, partly because a key subroutine was still missing. Once James Watson and Francis Crick provided it in 1953, the stage was set for the second coming of evolution: in silico instead of in vivo, and a billion times faster.

 

pages: 515 words: 132,295

Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business by Rana Foroohar

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3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund

GE is also partnering with a number of high-tech start-ups to jump-start new ideas. And it’s using more local small and midsize suppliers, thanks to new technologies that let start-ups achieve more speed and scale. The once-disparate steps of designing a product, making or buying the parts, and putting everything together are beginning to blend, because of such technologies as additive manufacturing and 3-D printing. As a result, manufacturing operations now want to be physically closer to engineering and design. This dynamic will likely benefit the United States, which still rules those high-end job categories, and allow small and midsize American firms to get back into manufacturing. Add in the ability to include sensors in every part and process and you’ve got a whole new manufacturing ecosystem that allows companies to accelerate product development and deliver more variety and value more quickly to consumers.

 

pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, millennium bug, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

Interestingly, fax machines may be considered society’s initial – and last – resistance to creating digital simulacra. Although the document was created digitally using a word processor it was transformed into an analogue original that was then digitised anew, transmitted digitally, and reproduced analogously at the other end. The resistance failed because it attempted to retain an old mindset into the new technology of digital communications. Fax was replaced by the email. The advent of 3D printing renders physical objects copies without an original, just like email. Our world is increasingly populated by Baudrillardian simulacra. However, ‘simulacra’ are not only ‘things’ but ideas as well; for example, the idea of ‘democracy’. 11To further understand the difference let me introduce two philosophical terms. The first term is ‘ontology’ and it means knowledge about the essence, or nature of things.

 

pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

While venture capital still barely exists in big emerging markets, according to a 2011 research report by the brokerage firm CLSA, in the United States venture capital–backed companies accounted for 11 percent of U.S. private-sector jobs in 2010, up from less than 8 percent before the crisis of 2008. The larger point here is that technological innovation follows its own muse, at least partly impervious to recession. The ebb and flow of funding matters, but the busts of 2001 and 2008 have not stopped U.S. firms from continuing to push the innovation frontier in fields ranging from 3D printing to genomics. To a degree that is unmatched outside small nations such as Finland, the U.S. economy is built to innovate: there are whole industries dedicated to refining the next wrinkle in innovation—the latest are open innovation (basically using open-source software systems on the Linux model) and light innovation (optimizing the use of cheap new software sources like the Amazon cloud for business).

 

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

Here’s the story behind its latest version, the chumby one, as told by the company’s one and only hardware engineer, Bunnie Huang, on his blog: The idea sort of slow-rolled through the first few months of 2009, and after chinese new years, I taped out the first prototype board in late March. Around May we contracted an industrial designer to do some sketches, and by June we had a near-final [design]; our first 3D printed prototypes were made around then … In July, we inked a PO for steel tooling and by August we had first-shot plastics. September was spent refining and de-bugging the design, and October was spent doing more testing, refining, and ramping up mass production. And, here we are now, in November. When I wrote this, the first shipment of chumby Ones were somewhere 35,000 feet above the Pacific Ocean en route to LAX.