women in the workforce

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pages: 320 words: 96,006

The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin

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affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, young professional

Women worldwide dominate colleges and professional schools on every continent except Africa. In the United States, for every two men who will receive a BA this year, for example, three women will do the same. Of the fifteen job categories projected to grow the most in the United States over the next decade, twelve are occupied primarily by women. Indeed, the US economy is becoming a kind of traveling sisterhood: Professional women leave home and enter the workforce, creating domestic jobs for other women to fill. Our vast and struggling middle class, where the disparities between men and women are the greatest, is slowly turning into a matriarchy, with men increasingly absent from the workforce and from home, and women making all the decisions. In the past, men derived their advantage largely from size and strength, but the postindustrial economy is indifferent to brawn.

The 2010 sitcom season was populated by out-of-work husbands, meek boyfriends, stay-at-home dads, killer career wives, and a couple of men who have to dress up like women in order to get a job. For the first time, a slew of new sitcoms were shot with the premise that women go out to work while men stay home to take care of the house, stock the refrigerator with low-fat yogurt, or pretend to be taking care of the baby while watching a hockey game. “Women are taking over the workforce. Soon they’ll have all the money, and the power, and they’ll start getting rid of men,” laments one character in a new show called Work It. “They’ll just keep a few of us around as sex slaves.” For the last few years, romantic comedies, sitcoms, and advertising have been producing endless variations on what Jessica Grose at Slate dubbed the “omega male,” who ranks even below the beta in the wolf pack.

The coveted and lasting professions were the ones that required a boutique skill or a nurturing touch—things a robot could not easily do. Traditionally feminine attributes, like empathy, patience, and communal problem-solving, began to replace the top-down autocratic model of leadership and success. For the first time in history, the global economy is becoming a place where women are finding more success than men. Upper-class women leave home and enter the workforce, filling the ever-growing ranks of the creative class—publicity assistant, wine critic, trail mix creator, sustainability consultant, screenwriter. And that, in turn, creates an industry of jobs based on the things those women used to do for free—child care, food preparation, elder care. The booming health-care industry provides jobs all along that chain, from gastroenterologist to home health aide.

 

pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Meanwhile the average pension covers 90 percent of the retiree’s final salary, compared to an OECD average of 60 percent. Brazil is one of the countries where the growing imbalance between workers and retirees most threatens the shaky edifice of Bismarckian retirement systems. On this front too governments are struggling to keep up with the effects of the depopulation bomb. What Happened to Women in the Workforce? The worldwide movement of women into the workforce that energized much of the postwar era has stagnated in the past twenty years, with the average female labor force participation rate stuck at around 50 percent. Typically women participate in the labor force at a very high rate in poor rural countries, where feeding the family requires all hands to work in the fields. The participation rate then falls as countries industrialize and move into the middle-income class, as some women shift to housework, falling out of the formal labor force.

Womenomics includes improving childcare services and parental leave, cutting the “marriage penalty” that taxes a family’s second earner at a higher rate, and encouraging Japanese corporations to put more women in executive positions. During the first three years of Abe’s term, some eight hundred thousand women entered the workforce, and he claimed his campaign was also pushing more women into corner office jobs. In Canada, an effort to open doors to women produced quick results. Only 68 percent of Canadian women participated in the workforce in 1990; two decades later that figure had increased to 74 percent, largely on the back of reforms including tax cuts for second earners and new childcare services. An even more dramatic boom in the number of working women came in the Netherlands, where the female labor participation rate has doubled since 1980 to 74 percent today, as a result of expanded parental leave policies and the spread of flexible, part-time working arrangements.

In the Indian state of Bihar, out of a population of 100 million, only 2 percent of women work in formal jobs that are counted as part of the labor force. The cultural barriers are real but not insurmountable. Latin America, which has a reputation for harboring some of the world’s most macho cultures, is also making rapid gains in bringing women into the workforce. Between 1990 and 2013 only five countries increased their female labor force participation rate by more than 10 percentage points, and all were Latin countries. In first place was Colombia, where the share of adult women active in the workforce rose by 26 percentage points, followed by Peru, Chile, Brazil, and Mexico. The reasons for this boom are complex, but one is that Latin educational systems have opened up to women; in Colombia, Profamilia, a private group founded in the 1970s by wealthy women, has played a major role.

 

pages: 318 words: 93,502

The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi

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business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

No, the real solution lies elsewhere—in addressing the reasons behind the bidding war and helping all families, both dual- and single-income, to get some relief. The Two-Income Trap is thick with irony. Middle-class mothers went into the workforce in a calculated effort to give their families an economic edge. Instead, millions of them are now in the workplace just so their families can break even. At a time when women are getting college diplomas and entering the workforce in record numbers, their families are in more financial trouble than ever. Partly these women were the victims of bad timing: Despite general economic prosperity, the risks facing their families jumped considerably. Partly they were the victims of optimistic myopia: They saw the rewards a working mother could bring, without seeing the risks associated with that newfound income.

Having Children, Going Broke This book will tell the story of how having children has become the dividing line between the solvent and the insolvent, and how today’s parents are working harder than ever and falling desperately behind even with two incomes. It is also the story of how this state of affairs is not some unavoidable feature of the modern economy, or, for that matter, the inevitable by-product of women’s entry into the workforce. We write this book so that Ruth Ann and all the mothers like Ruth Ann, along with politicians and pundits, child advocates and labor organizers, pro-family conservatives and liberal feminists, will take a serious look at the economic forces that have battered the American family. We want them to see the hard numbers—and to gasp. But most of all, we want them to see that there is a way out.

Similarly, a modern mother with a three-month-old infant is more likely to be working outside the home than was a 1960s woman with a five-year-old child.55 As a claims adjuster with two children told us, “It never even occurred to me not to work, even after Zachary was born. All the women I know have a job.” Even these statistics understate the magnitude of change among middle-class mothers. Before the 1970s, large numbers of older women, lower-income women, and childless women were in the workforce.56 But middle-class mothers were far more likely to stay behind, holding on to the more traditional role of full-time homemaker long after many of their sisters had given it up. Over the past generation, middle-class mothers flooded into offices, shops, and factories, undergoing a greater increase in workforce participation than either their poor or their well-to-do sisters.57 Attitudes changed as well.

 

pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

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23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

The list of factors impacting on work is a long one, and includes: globalization, automation, digitalization, artificial intelligence, workforce aging, skilled labor shortages, job mobility, open collaboration, outsourcing, transparency, business ethics, educational practices, regulatory changes, fluid networks, resource shortages, climate change, shifts in organizational structures and the impact of more women in the workforce. Dying jobs Shorthand secretary Switchboard operator Receptionist Bookbinder Printer Typist Supermarket cashier Photo processor Tollbooth operator Video store owner Call center operator Data entry clerk Record store manager Fighter pilot Newspaper delivery boy Freight handler Butcher Baker Candlestick maker Translator Unskilled agricultural worker Computer operator Elevator operator Errand boy Mail clerk/post boy Order clerk Train driver Bank teller Travel agent Blacksmith Roof thatcher Cinema projectionist Women at work This last factor is especially significant. A generation or two ago women were largely absent from the workforce in many countries or were restricted to relatively menial jobs.

A generation or two ago women were largely absent from the workforce in many countries or were restricted to relatively menial jobs. Furthermore, this revolution has taken place with relatively little friction. A few nations defy the trend, but skills shortages and aging populations will almost certainly result in even more women being brought into the workforce in the future. Why has this happened? One reason is political, but a stronger factor has been the expansion of higher education. What are the implications of more women at work? One consequence could be a slight feminization of organizational structures, leadership styles and even the regulatory environment. Put simply, if more women are in charge of large organizations such as PepsiCo or the International Monetary Fund (IMF), then we might expect more female-friendly policies to come to the fore. This isn’t happening everywhere and progress in some areas is painfully slow.

In the EU, 6 million of the 8 million new jobs that appeared between 2000 and 2009 were filled by women, and in the USA, female-owned businesses employ more workers than the biggest 500 companies put together. Goldman Sachs, the global investment bank, estimates that in Italy and Spain, increasing the number of women in work to a level comparable to men would boost GDP by 21 percent and 19 percent respectively. As a result, expect to see a growth in flexible contracts and conditions and more focus on intuition and empathy. The rising numbers of women in workforces may very well lead to lower pay too: women are often in areas where work is poorly paid and in some instances pay drops to fit the number of women available to do the work. “The underlying source of anguish for many people in work today is an antiquated system of employment and management designed for an industrial age.” Richard Donkin, writer and columnist Closer to home As for the nature of jobs themselves, we will see more part-time and flexible working, more working from home (more working from anywhere at any time, in fact), more job specialization and the rising importance of what some people have termed the right-brain professions.

 

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

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Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Work changed women’s perspectives—offering new careers and lives. Lewis argued that “woman gains freedom from drudgery, is emancipated from the seclusion of the household, and gains at last the chance to be a full human being, exercising her mind and her talents in the same way as men.” But if development opened a new set of options for women, the addition of women to the workforce contributed to shape the path of development. Women brought to the workforce a different set of skills that eased the shift from heavy industry to service-based economies in the rich nations of the West. Of equal importance, as women increased their clout over decisions about household investments and expenditures, they helped usher in vast social and economic changes that profoundly altered Western civilization. The economic historian Claudia Goldin argues that women’s labor supply follows a sort of U-shape as countries develop.

Institutional changes then encouraged more women to work, producing a positive feedback loop. For instance, women’s growing clout contributed to the spread of the no-fault, unilateral divorce in the 1970s. The change, which lowered the cost of ending a marriage, increased women’s incentive to work as a form of economic insurance in case it ended. Women’s labor supply grew sharply throughout the twentieth century. In 1920 less than 10 percent of married women aged thirty-five to forty-four were in the workforce. By 1945 the share was around 20 percent. Women’s educational attainment also grew by leaps and bounds. Outside the American South, high school graduation rates for women jumped fivefold from 1910 to 1938, to 56 percent. This produced a stream of qualified workers prepared for the new clerical jobs opening up across the economy. Still, educated women faced an uphill battle to find better jobs.

In 1960 there were 1.84 men for every woman graduating from a four-year college in the United States. By 2008, the graduation ratio had flipped to 1.34 women for each man. And most of these highly educated women worked. In 2000, women accounted for some 40 percent of first-year graduate students in business, and about half of those in medicine and the law. About 60 percent of American women of working age are in the formal workforce, either holding a job or looking for one. This is still about 11 percentage points below men’s labor participation. But it is 15 percentage points above women’s share forty years ago. Differences remain in men’s and women’s positions in the workplace. In 2009, women’s median income had risen to about 80 percent of that of men. But the pay gap has remained stuck there for years.

 

pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Y2K

All of these innovations in entertainment reflect a trend in real life. A couple of factors have triggered the growth of the Cougars. High divorce rates combined with longer life spans means a greater likelihood of women’s reentering the dating market. In fact, according to a 2004 survey conducted by AARP, 66 percent of “late-life divorces”—those that occur in a couple’s 40s, 50s, or 60s—are initiated by the women, not the men. Women’s success in the workforce means that some women want a man with a less developed career—so that he can move if she needs to, and perhaps be their kids’ primary caretaker. (Of course, men have pursued that arrangement for years.) But according to Valerie Gibson, it’s all about sex. A woman’s sexual peak is more aligned with that of the younger man. And having either rejected marriage or been through an unsuccessful one, the older woman is looking for something lighter and more frivolous.

(For many, the discovery is not so subtle: In another survey, by Hotjobs, a remarkable 44 percent of respondents said they’ve actually caught co-workers “getting amorous” on the job.) But the bottom line is: No one really minds. Fully 75 percent of workers think that romantic and sexual relationships between co-workers—at least if they are peers—are totally okay. Why the surge? In the long term, it’s of course because of the growing equality of men and women in the workforce. The gap has been steadily closing for decades. In the shorter term, it has to do with the rise of working singles. There are more of them than ever in the workforce (up 22 percent since 1995), and singles aged 25–34 are working more hours per week than they used to—up about 8 percent since 1970. (So really, where else could they find romance?) But of course, some married people are in on the action, too.

The Vault surveys found that the number one industries for interoffice hookups are media and entertainment, followed by advertising/marketing and consulting. (Finance and technology, much more dominated by men, are the least likely fields to spawn a fling.) I’m the CEO of a public relations firm and the president of a consulting firm. I am proud to say we have had several interoffice marriages that started as office romances, so a lot of good can come from this—now that men and women are in the workforce with greater equality, and can find people at work with similar skills and interests. We’re not alone in having nurtured office romances into long-term love. In a 2006 study by the Society for Human Resource Management, over 60 percent of the HR professionals interviewed said that romances in their offices had resulted in marriage. I can attest from personal experience that having married couples on staff can be a big win—they share a passion for our work; they back each other up if there’s a crisis at home; and they are productive for the firm even in downtime, since (so they tell me) they wrestle with work challenges even as they give their kids a bath.

 

pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

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Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Also the campaign against violence against women, that has taken off in recent years, has centered on rape and domestic violence, along the lines set by the United Nations.4 It has ignored the violence inherent in the process of capitalist accumulation, the violence of the famines, wars and counterinsurgency programs that, through the ‘80s and ‘90s, have cleared the way to economic globalization. In this context, my first objective is to show that the globalization of the world economy has caused a major crisis in the social reproduction of populations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and that a new international division of labor has been built on this crisis that harnesses the labor of women from these regions for the reproduction of the “metropolitan” workforce. This means that women across the world are being “integrated” in the world economy as producers of workers not only for the local economies, but for the industrialized countries as well, in addition to producing cheap commodities for global export. I argue that this global restructuring of reproductive work opens a crisis in feminist politics, as it introduces new divisions among women that undermine the possibility of international feminist solidarity and threaten to reduce feminism to a vehicle for the rationalization of the world economic order.

Policy toward Africa at the End of the Cold War. New York: Council of Foreign Relations, 1992. Coalition of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). http://www.cosatu.org.za/shop/shop1006-08.html. Cobble, Dorothy Sue, ed. The Sex of Class: Women Transforming American Labor. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007. Cock, Jacklyn. “Trapped Workers: The Case of Domestic Servants in South Africa.” In Patriarchy and Class: African Women in the Home and in the Workforce, edited by Sharon B. Stichter and Jane L. Parpart. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988. Cohen, Roberta. The New Helots: Migrants in the International Division of Labor. Aldershot, UK: Gower Publishing Co., 1987. Cohen, Roberta, and Francis M. Deng. Masses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Colatrella, Steven.

“Warm Hands in Cold Age: On the Need of a New World Order of Care.” In Warm Hands in Cold Age, edited by Nancy Folbre, Lois B. Shaw, and Agneta Stark, 7-36. New York: Routledge, 2007. Steady, Filomina Chioma. Women and Children First: Environment, Poverty, and Sustainable Development. Rochester, VT: Schenkman Books, 1993. Stichter, Sharon B., and Jane L. Parpart, eds. Patriarchy and Class: African Women in the Home and in the Workforce. Boulder & London: Westview Press, 1988. _____. Women, Employment and the Family in the International Division of Labour. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1990. Stienstra, Deborah. Women’s Movements and International Organizations. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. Stone, Martin. The Agony of Algeria. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. Summerfield, Gale, Jean Pyle, and Manisha Desai.

 

pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

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Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

The share of women with paid work skyrocketed in every age group and doubled for women between twenty-five and sixty-four. For women twenty-five-to-fifty-four, the work rate was 34 percent in 1948; in 2015, it topped 70 percent. In arithmetic terms, this enormous influx of new workers completely offset the decline in work rates for prime-age men—and then some (see figure 3.1). Thanks to the progressive entry of ever-greater proportions of women into the workforce, overall work rates for every grouping of Americans between the ages of twenty and sixty-four also increased substantially between the late 1940s and the late 1990s. Around the late 1990s, however, the escalation of work rates for U.S. women stalled and, over the past decade and a half, fell from their all-time highs. Only then did the overall work rate for U.S. adults begin to register a decline.

The labor market is less distorted there than in France and the PIIGS countries, and the Japanese welfare state is, generally speaking, less hypertrophied.8 Still, Japan has famously suffered a generation of anemic growth since its “economic bubble” burst in 1990, with real per capita growth averaging just 0.8 percent per year up to 2014.9 Despite its decidedly unfavorable long-term macroeconomic environment, however, Japan’s prime-age male workforce participation has seen far less deterioration than America’s over those “lost decades.” Between 1990 and 2015, Japan’s prime-age male workforce rates slipped by just two percentage points, next to America’s five-point drop. The share of prime-age American men neither working nor looking for work is now over two and a half times higher than the Japanese figure. Presumed “cultural” factors (e.g., restricted workforce opportunities for Japanese women) cannot explain away this differential. As we shall see later, workforce participation rates for prime-age women are now higher in Japan than the United States. Another point worth exploring about the unusual nature of the modern American male’s flight from work relates to how strikingly these contrast with the work habits (or work ethic) of the great majority of working-age American men and women who hold down paid jobs. In theory, we should expect average hours of paid work per employee to decline over time in an increasingly affluent workforce.

 

pages: 376 words: 109,092

Paper Promises by Philip Coggan

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, fear of failure, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, paradox of thrift, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, too big to fail, trade route, tulip mania, value at risk, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

It may have been no coincidence that the markets started to crumble from 2000, as the baby boomers began to retire. The baby boomers also had a benign effect on economic growth. There were simply more of them than in the preceding (and succeeding) generations. As a result, once they reached adulthood, a higher proportion of the population was economically active. In addition, more baby-boomer women joined the workforce, increasing the pool of potential employees. (The addition of women to the workforce became a classic case of a feedback effect. If one family has two earners, they will be able to afford a better standard of living; for example, buying a bigger house. But that will increase the incentive for women in other families to go out to work, so they can keep up.) Higher asset prices also helped fuel the consumption bubble. As house prices rose, people felt wealthier, and they used the opportunity to borrow against their wealth; a process known as equity withdrawal.

In the developed world, the ability to have a career gives women an economic freedom that they did not have in the nineteenth century, when most were dependent on a husband’s income (in 1911,90 per cent of British wives did not have paying jobs).3 In addition, children are an economic burden, not an asset, in rich countries. They cost money to bring up, are not allowed to work by law and remove women from the workforce during some of their peak earning years. Nor is it now usual for children to support their parents in their old age; state benefits are designed to do that. The fertility rate in Europe, measured by the number of children per woman, has fallen from an average of 2.58 in the period from 1960 to 1965, to 1.41 in 2000 – 05. This is well below the 2.1 ‘replacement rate’ calculated by demographers (the figure is higher than 2 to account for infant and childhood mortality), although it does appear to have stabilized.

From that point, the final link with gold was removed and the ability of governments to run deficits, on both the trade and budget accounts, was vastly increased. Money and debt exploded. The initial result was an inflation problem in the 1970s, but from the 1980s onwards, this extra money seemed to flow into the asset markets. Helping to constrain the rise in consumer prices was the entry into the global economy of China and the former communist states of the old Soviet Union, technological advances, and the greater role of women in the workforce, all of which improved productivity. But the model depended on rising asset prices and rising populations to service the higher debt levels. Like a shark, it had to keep swimming forward to survive. For much of the developed world, the model broke in 2007 – 08. Central banks then faced the problem of reconciling their twin aims of safeguarding the value of the currency and protecting the financial system.

 

pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

The differentiator is about relationships—I choose people with whom I have had a positive working relationship. I have followed that axiom with our company. I will hire someone with whom I worked on a launch at two o’clock in the morning and who has proven themselves to be dependable and reliable—someone who really pulled through and that I could count on. That takes the diversity where it takes it. In my day, there weren’t a lot of women majoring in engineering in college—and not enough women engineers in the workforce. But that’s changing, and it will eventually open doors for more women at the senior management level as well. Ghaffari: What is your succession planning strategy? Ford: For me personally, succession planning is very important. In the early years, I was the chief cook and bottle washer. I got the work and I did the work. Over time, we’ve built a strong leadership team in every sector.

Hart, along with her colleague Professor Marco Iansiti, won the Apgar Award for Innovation in Teaching for their Starting New Ventures course. The Apgar Prize recognizes a faculty member “who motivates students’ interest, curiosity, and love of learning; proposes and applies new teaching concepts and methods; and serves as a mentor to stimulate students’ intellectual development.” Dr. Hart is also responsible for the creation and direction of several entrepreneurial executive programs and HBS alumnae programs for women re-entering the work-force, including Women Leading Business: A New Kind of Conversation; Charting Your Course: Working Options; and A New Path: Setting New Career Directions. She served as chair/director of the Marjorie Alfus/Committee of 200 Case Writing Initiative (1998), which created more than seventy-five Harvard Business School business case studies with women in the protagonist/leadership role. The goal was to increase the availability of quality teaching materials featuring women as key decision-makers.

All of the accounting/consulting firms have figured out that if they are hiring 50 or 60 percent of the college graduates who are female, yet the women leave, then companies are going to have to find leaders from only 40 percent of their recruits. That doesn’t make any sense at all. It’s not smart. So instead, they want to make sure that they actually nurture, recognize, and develop the women in their workforce. And they want to make sure that they don’t have hidden barriers in either expectations or opportunities for the women. So I’m very optimistic. On the other hand, I’m unhappy about how slowly it’s going. Actually, the number of women on corporate boards is still kind of pitiful—about 17 to 18 percent. In large part, women directors are drawn from the C-suite of existing businesses, and that’s an even worse number.

 

I Feel Bad About My Neck by Nora Ephron

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women in the workforce

Your baby was your baby, and if he ran you ragged, he ran you ragged; and if he lay in his crib staring happily at his mobile, that was about what you could expect. All this changed around the time I had children. You can blame the women’s movement for it—one of the bedrock tenets of the women’s movement was that because so many women were entering the workforce, men and women should share in the raising of children; thus the gender-neutral word parenting, and the necessity of elevating child rearing to something more than the endless hours of quantity time it actually consists of. Conversely, you can blame the backlash against the women’s movement—lots of women didn’t feel like entering into the workforce (or even sharing the raising of children with their husbands), but they felt guilty about this, so they were compelled to elevate full-time parenthood to a sacrament. In any event, suddenly, one day, there was this thing called parenting.

 

pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Such complex forms of inequality cannot be explained—or remedied— in simplistic terms that pit women’s economic interests against men’s. As Guy Standing argues, “The era of flexibility is . . . an era of more generalized insecurity and precariousness, in which many more men as well as women have been pushed into precarious forms of labor” (Standing 1999, 583). Rather than illustrating women “catching up” to men in the region’s high-tech workforce, the data suggest that work in the region is being feminized, both in the sense that a larger share of employment is going to women and in the sense that employment itself has shifted to have characteristics associated with women’s labor force participation: lower pay, contingent and temporary work arrangements, and little or no job training (ibid.).20 Generalized imputations of “women’s economic interests” and “men’s economic interests,” which underlie prescriptions to fill the high-tech pipeline with marginalized people or empower women to break into the boys’ club of science and technology, overlook the feminization of work and obscure and marginalize important differences among women by race.

Poverty is a childhood disease. One in six children overall, and one in three African American and Latino children, are growing up poor, even by the (inadequate) official poverty measure. There is a strong link between the percentage of full-time workers being paid low wages and high child poverty rates. The gender wealth gap is wide. The typical minimum-wage earner is an adult woman. While women make up just under half the total workforce, two out of three minimum-wage workers are women. The racial wealth gap is wider. White non-Hispanic families had a median net worth (household assets, including home equity, minus debt) of $94,900 in 1998, while nonwhite or Hispanic families had a net worth of $16,400—one-sixth that of whites. 196 Appendix C Inequality is bad for your health. The United States is the richest nation on earth, but it is the only major industrialized nation not to assure health care for all its citizens, whether through a public, private, or mixed system.

The United States ranks thirty-second in child mortality in children under five years old—we’re tied with Cuba and Cyprus, and behind Canada, Australia, Israel, Singapore, South Korea, and all of Western Europe. Lack of health insurance is generally associated with a 25 percent higher risk of death. Uninsured women are nearly 50 percent more likely to die four to seven years following an initial diagnosis of breast cancer than insured women. The gender wealth gap is wide. The typical minimum-wage earner is an adult woman. While women make up just under half the total workforce, two out of three minimum-wage workers are women. The racial wealth gap is wider. White non-Hispanic families had a median net worth (household assets, including home equity, minus debt) of $94,900 in 1998, while nonwhite or Hispanic families had a net worth of $16,400—one-sixth that of whites. Myth 3: Poor folks in the United States are better off than pretty much everyone else in the world.

 

pages: 476 words: 148,895

Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation by Michael Pollan

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biofilm, bioinformatics, Columbian Exchange, correlation does not imply causation, dematerialisation, Drosophila, energy security, Gary Taubes, Hernando de Soto, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, microbiome, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steven Pinker, women in the workforce

This probably owes to the fact that, historically, the priority of the American labor movement has been to fight for money, whereas the European labor movement has fought harder for time—a shorter workweek, longer vacations. Not surprisingly, in those countries where people still take home cooking seriously, as they do in much of Europe, they also have more time to devote to it. It’s generally thought that the entrance of women into the workforce is responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but the story turns out to be a little more complicated, and fraught. Yes, women with jobs outside the home spend less time cooking—but so do women without jobs. The amount of time spent on food preparation in America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who don’t work outside the home as it has among women who do: In both cases, it has fallen about 40 percent since 1965.* In general, spending on restaurant and take-out food rises with income.

And instead of arguing about who should get dinner on the table, or how that work might be equitably shared, the food industry stepped into the breach with an offer that proved irresistible to everyone, male or female, rich or poor: Why don’t you just let us cook for you? Actually food manufacturers had been working to convince us they should do the cooking since long before large numbers of women entered the workforce. Beginning after World War II, the food industry labored mightily to sell Americans—and American women in particular—on the processed-food wonders it had invented to feed the troops: canned meals, freeze-dried foods, dehydrated potatoes, powdered orange juice and coffee, instant and superconvenient everything. As Laura Shapiro recounts in her social history, Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America, the food industry strove to “persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.”

As Laura Shapiro recounts in her social history, Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America, the food industry strove to “persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.” The same process of peacetime conversion that industrialized our farming, giving us synthetic fertilizers made from munitions and new pesticides developed from nerve gas, also industrialized our eating. Shapiro shows that the shift toward industrial cookery began not in response to a demand from women entering the workforce, or even from feminists eager to escape the drudgery of the kitchen, but was mainly a supply-driven phenomenon. Processing food is extremely profitable—much more so than growing it or selling it whole. So it became the strategy of food corporations to move into our kitchens long before many women had begun to move out. Yet for years, American women, whether they worked or not, strenuously resisted processed foods, regarding them as a dereliction of their “moral obligation to cook,” something they viewed as a parental responsibility on par with, and part of, child care.

 

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

In recent years, global growth has remained significantly lower than during the pre-crisis period.132 Across the political spectrum, economists are warning that fundamental changes to the economy mean growth may have settled into a permanently lower state.133 Moreover, firms that are leading growth sectors – such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram – simply do not create jobs on the scale of classic firms like Ford and GM.134 In fact, new industries currently only employ 0.5 per cent of the American workforce – hardly an inspiring record of job creation.135 And after a steady decline, the average new business creates 40 per cent fewer jobs than it did twenty years ago.136 The old social democratic plan to encourage employment in new industries falters in the face of low labour-intensity firms and sputtering economic growth. Still, it might be imagined that, with the right political pressure and policies, a return to full employment could be an option.137 But, given that the height of the social democratic era required the exclusion of women from the waged workforce, we should in fact wonder whether full employment has ever been possible. If full employment remains operative only as an ideological mystification, its normalisation of work still extends to the unemployed. The transformation of welfare and the rise of workfare – forcing people to work in order to receive benefits – represent an increasingly insidious example of this. Mirroring the changing fortunes of full employment, unemployment has long been governed according to different ideas.138 Initial approaches saw unemployment as an individual accident – something to be mitigated by insurance-like solutions.

The near century-long push for shorter working hours ended abruptly during the Great Depression, when business opinion and government policy decided to use make-work programmes in response to unemployment.66 Soon after World War II, the working week stabilised at forty hours across much of the Western world, and there has since been little serious consideration of changing this.67 Instead there has been a general expansion of work in the ensuing decades. First, there has been an increase in time spent at jobs throughout society.68 As women entered the workforce, the working week remained the same, and the overall amount of time devoted to jobs therefore increased.69 Secondly, there has been a progressive elimination of the work–life distinction, with work coming to permeate every aspect of our waking lives. Many of us are now tied to work all the time, with emails, phone calls, texts and job anxieties impinging upon us constantly.70 Salaried workers are often compelled to work unrecognised overtime, while many workers feel the social pressure to be seen working long hours.

The trend from here on out will be a general decline in the importance of this mechanism for producing surplus populations. 28.We note here that while the first two mechanisms are integral to capitalist accumulation (changes in the productive forces and the expansion of capitalist social relations), the third is a logic distinct from just accumulation. The empirical characteristics of this group also change over time (as with, for instance, the integration of women into the workforce over the past four decades). Lynda Yanz and David Smith, ‘Women as a Reserve Army of Labour: A Critique’, Review of Radical Political Economics 15:1 (1983), p. 104. 29.In other words, these dominations can often be functional for capitalism, even if their function does not explain their genesis. 30.A full 36 million people are considered to be in slavery today: Global Slavery Index 2014 (Dalkeith, Western Australia: Walk Free Foundation, 2014). 31.Edward E.

 

pages: 525 words: 153,356

The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class, 1910-2010 by Selina Todd

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call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, credit crunch, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, full employment, income inequality, manufacturing employment, New Urbanism, Red Clydeside, rent control, rising living standards, strikebreaker, The Spirit Level, unemployed young men, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, young professional

The conflict brought thousands more people – including servants – into industry, and these workers won new economic and political rights. Before the war, those who endured poor pay and long working hours had had two options: find a better job (not always possible) or go on strike (which might lead to the sack). During the war, employers and government needed the workers – not only skilled artisans, but the unskilled labourers and former servants who staffed the munitions factories. At least 1 million women joined the workforce during the conflict. Labour leaders were able to strike new bargains over wages and working hours with employers and the government – and to establish a permanent place at the national negotiating table. In 1914, 437,000 women and 3,708,000 men had belonged to trade unions. By 1920 over 1 million women and 7 million men were union members.4 But if the shared experience of war work was important in the rise of the modern working class, so too was the aftermath of war.

Unemployment and the 1926 General Strike had precipitated a fall in trade union membership. By 1933, 3,661,000 men and 731,000 women were members of trade unions, a decline of over 50 per cent for both sexes since 1920. But from the mid-1930s trade union membership began to increase, as more workers were recruited to light manufacturing plants, and they in turn joined trade unions. In 1939, 1,010,000 women were trade unionists, 16 per cent of the female workforce; 5,288,000 men were trade union members, 39 per cent of the male workforce.13 These new trade unionists were often engaged on unskilled and semi-skilled factory work. In 1929 Llewellyn Smith’s New Survey of London noted that ‘a great proportion of the additional labour which has recently entered the metal-working trades, and the larger part especially of female labour, is engaged on what are virtually new industries, rendered possible on a large scale by the invention of mass-production processes.’14 While many men were facing unemployment, new manufacturing industries were employing growing numbers of younger men and women.

Unions that had jealously guarded the privileges of skilled men began to open their doors to the unskilled and semi-skilled workers who swelled the ranks of the wartime workforce. The Amalgamated Engineering Union (AEU) finally admitted women in 1942. These new factory workers were just as conscious as the craftsmen that the high demand for workers strengthened their bargaining rights. They expanded the trade unions, which had represented 39 per cent of men and 15 per cent of women in the workforce in 1939, but by 1943 were representing 46 per cent and 30 per cent respectively.16 But this workforce remained one stratified by class. In 1941 the government introduced conscription for women, beginning with the young and single, but reaching married women by 1942. In practice, though, conscripts were almost exclusively working class. Few middle- or upper-class women entered the factories.

 

pages: 142 words: 45,733

Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel

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anti-communist, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

Chinese workers, deprived by wage repression and social insecurity (such as lack of health insurance) of the opportunity to consume much of their own output, saw the wealth accumulated through their labor go, in the form of their own savings and the income of their bosses, towards the construction of new productive capacity in their own country and a property boom in the other country. Both the new factories at home, turning out exports for the US, and the deliriously appreciating houses abroad rested on the premise of continuously rising American incomes. But among Americans, wage growth had ceased and household incomes could no longer be supplemented by the mass entry of women into the workforce, something already accomplished. The issuance and securitization of debt alone could substitute for present income. In the end, so much fictitious capital could not be redeemed. Whatever the destination of future Chinese savings gluts, they are unlikely to sponsor American consumption in the same way. In his final book, Adam Smith in Beijing (2007), the late Giovanni Arrighi expanded on Harvey’s concepts of the spatial fix and the switching crisis to survey half a millennium of capitalist development and to peer into a new, perhaps Chinese century.

It would only have enriched Jameson’s work if he had directed his attention to the cultural fallout of other novel features of the latest stage of capitalism: Mandel mentioned not only computerization and the rise of the service industries, themes Jameson has occasionally taken up, but also accelerated turnover time for fixed capital (i.e. a shorter period in which to recoup one’s investment), and the replacement of the gold standard by floating currencies. It’s not hard to imagine these transformations of the base percolating up through the superstructure. The mass introduction of women into the paid workforce, the expansion of advertizable space, the displacement of cash by credit cards and digital transactions: these are a few of the other economic changes in recent decades that come to mind as having suffused the superstructure too. Perhaps the outstanding virtue of David Harvey’s Condition of Postmodernity (1989) was his correlation of sped-up cultural change with a general “space-time compression” operating in contemporary capitalism across such disparate features as a casualized labor market, expanded international trade, shorter-term investment and so on—though it should be added that Harvey’s work along these lines followed Jameson’s and might not have been possible without it.

 

pages: 200 words: 72,182

Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America by Barbara Ehrenreich

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business process, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, McMansion, place-making, telemarketer, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero day

A book that has changed assumptions about American prosperity and hardship, Nickel and Dimed makes an especially compelling selection for reading groups. The questions that follow are designed to enhance your personal understanding or group discussion of this provocative, heartfelt—and funny—account of life in the low-wage trenches. Questions for discussion 1. In the wake of recent welfare reform measures, millions of women entering the workforce can expect to face struggles like the ones Ehrenreich confronted in Nickel and Dimed. Have you ever been homeless, unemployed, without health insurance, or held down two jobs? What is the lowest-paying job you ever held and what kind of help—if any—did you need to improve your situation? 2. Were your perceptions of blue-collar Americans transformed or reinforced by Nickel and Dimed?

Mediamark Research reports a 53 percent increase, between 1995 and 1999, in the number of households using a hired cleaner or service once a month or more, and Maritz Marketing finds that 30 percent of the people who hired help in 1999 had done so for the first time that year. Managers of the new corporate cleaning services, such as the one I worked for, attribute their success not only to the influx of women into the workforce but to the tensions over housework that arose in its wake. When the trend toward hiring out was just beginning to take off, in 1988, the owner of a Merry Maids franchise in Arlington, Massachusetts, told the Christian Science Monitor, “I kid some women. I say, 'We even save marriages. In this new eighties period you expect more from the male partner, but very often you don't get the cooperation you would like to have.

 

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

The February 2015 annual report of the White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) looked at productivity growth in America post–World War II and labeled the years from 1948 to 1973 “The Age of Shared Growth,” because of the way that all three factors—productivity growth, distribution, and participation—aligned to benefit the middle class from 1948 to 1973 … Income inequality fell, with the share of income going to the top 1 percent falling by nearly one-third, while the share of income going to the bottom 90 percent rose slightly. Household income growth was also fueled by the increased participation of women in the workforce … The combination of these three factors increased the average income for the bottom 90 percent of households by 2.8 percent a year over this period … This period illustrates the combined power of productivity, income equality, and participation to benefit the middle class. I came of age exactly during that era. No wonder growing up then left me and so many others with an optimism bias and with an expectation that this kind of broadly shared prosperity should and would continue.

deforestation de la Vega, Ralph Delgo, Lior Dell, Michael Deming, David democracy; computation and Democratic convention (1948) Democratic Party Deng Xiaoping desertification designers, supernova and deterrence Deutsch, Lisa developing world; climate change and; global flows and; industrialization in diabetes Diamond, Jared Diamond, Larry Digital Globalization (McKinsey Global Institute) dining room tables, discussion around Dirkou, Niger Disko Island dislocation disruption; computation and; political; workforce and diversity: in culture; economic growth and; immigration and; in politics DNA sequencing Dodd-Frank Act Doerr, John Donner, Jan Hein Donovan, John Don’t Tell Douglas (Meyer) DOS dot-com bubble, positive effects of DRAM (dynamic random access memory) droughts DTECH-ENGINEERING Dubai Dukakis, Michael Dunne, Jimmy Dust Bowl dynamic stability Earle, Sylvia Earned Income Tax Credit Earth: history of; see also Mother Nature, human impact on East Asia, economics of Eastern Europe eBay Ebola e-books Echo, The (St. Louis Park High newspaper) e-commerce economic disparity Economist economy, U.S.; Cold War growth in; postwar; progressivism and ecosystems; degradation of; resiliency of Edison, Thomas education: Common Core standards for; concentration and; mentors in; population growth and; self-motivation and; self-ownership in; skill sets and; socioeconomic disparity and; of women; workforce and education, innovation in; advances in connectivity and; in age of accelerations; global flows and; intelligent assistants and; online courses in; supernova and; tax deductions for; see also lifelong learning Edwards, Bruce edX Egypt; 2011 revolution in; U.S. military aid to Egyptian Army elections, U.S.: gerrymandering and; ranked-choice voting in Electronics El Salvador e-mail; messaging apps vs.

David Time Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Tipirneni, Ashok Tocqueville, Alexis de topsoil “topsoil of trust” Torvalds, Linus Toynbee, Arnold Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) translation software Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) transparency, in workplace Transparent (TV series) Trestman, Marc tribalism Tropic of Chaos (Parenti) Truman, Harry Trump, Donald trust: community and; financial flows and; as human quality; politics and; sharing economy and; as social capital; social technologies and Trust (Fukuyama) truth, live video and Tunisia TurboTax Turki, Karim Turner, Adair 24/7 Customer Twenty-Fourth Marine Expeditionary Unit Twin Cities Business Twin Cities Metropolitan Council Twitter 2G wireless networks typewriters Uber; surge pricing algorithms of Udacity Uganda, population growth in Ukraine; 2014 uprising in unemployment, political instability and Unesco United Bearing United Nations; Human Development Report Office of; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of; Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of; Population Division of; Refugee Agency (UNHCR) of United Press International (UPI) United States: China’s relations with; global dependence on; illegal immigration into; immigrant entrepreneurs in; Madagascar and; Middle East policy of; population growth in; post–Cold War hegemony of; Russia’s relations with UPS USA Today value sets: of author; community and; cultural identity and; in opinion writing; sustainable vs. situational; see also ethics, innovation in van Agtmael, Antoine Vedantam, Shankar Venezuela Venmo Ventura, Jesse Veritas Genetics Verizon version control systems Vestberg, Hans video, live, empathy and video games Vietnam Vietnam War Visa Vital Signs of the Planet (NASA report) voice prints Volkswagen Beetle Vox.com wage insurance Wakefield Research Walensky, Norm Walker, Robert Wall Street Journal Walmart, online operations of Wanamaker, John Wanstrath, Chris Warburg, Bettina Waryan, Don Washington Post Waters, Colin water scarcity Watson, Thomas Watson (computer) Watson (software): medical applications of weak signals, detection of weak states: in age of accelerations; biodiversity loss in; breakers and; building stability in; civil wars in; climate change and; in Cold War era; contrived borders of; dwindling foreign aid to; global flows and; infrastructure in; Internet and; population growth in; risk to interdependent world of We Are All Khaled Said (Facebook page) Webster University WeChat Weekend Edition (radio show) Weiner, Jeff Weisman, Alan Welby, Justin Wells, Lin Welsh, Tim West Africa; Ebola outbreak in; migration from WhatIs.com WhatsApp “When and Why Nationalism Beats Globalism” (Haidt) White House, 2015 drone crash at White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) Whitman, Meg “Why ‘Keep Your Paddle in the Water’ Is Bad Advice for Beginners” (Levesque) “Why What You Learned in Preschool Is Crucial at Work” (Miller) Wieseltier, Leon Wikipedia Williams, Jake Wilson, Dan wind energy Windows Wired wireless networks wisdom, patience and Wolf, Frank women: education of; empowerment of WomenNewsNetwork.net workforce, innovation in; accelerated pace of; blending of technical and interpersonal skills in; computerization and; connectivity and; disruption in; education and; empowerment in; high-wage, middle-skilled jobs in; intelligent assistance in, see intelligent assistance; intelligent assistants and; lifelong learning and; mentors in; middle class and; new social contracts in; on-demand jobs in; retraining in; self-motivation and; self-reinvention and; skill sets and, see skill sets; technological change and; transparency and; see also job seekers World Bank World Cup (2014) World Is Flat, The (Friedman) World of Disorder World of Order World Parks Congress, Sydney “World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision” (U.N.)

 

pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

By 2005, 81 percent of Americans approved of a woman working outside the home—even if her husband made enough to support the family alone.54 The birth-control pill has certainly played some role in women’s emergence into the professional workforce. Fewer children—and children born at a more predictable pace—have reduced burdens that once compelled many women to stay at home. At the same time, the old burdens haven’t been lifted entirely. As New York Times columnist Gail Collins has argued, the contemporary expectation that women will take a professional role outside the home has not diminished the pressure many feel to fulfill the domestic responsibilities their mothers and grandmothers shouldered.55 That said, new job opportunities do not account entirely for the flood of women in the workforce. Many have been pushed into breadwinning positions purely by a demand for income. Whether it’s to keep up with the Joneses or to make up for the diminishing spending power of middle-class salaries, women who might once have chosen to work at home (or not at all) now feel compelled to earn a second household salary.56 The composite result is clear: adults today spend more hours at work than they once did.

Claude Fischer found in a recent study that, while small, the percentage of Americans who had at least weekly contact with their best friend had actually grown very modestly between the mid-1980s and the mid-2000s.9 And in a study Fischer (in particular) has come to criticize, researchers using data from the General Social Survey, a sociological survey organized by researchers at the University of Chicago, argued that “in general, [American] core discussion networks in 2004 are more closely tied to each other, are more frequently accessed, and are longer-term relationships [than they were in 1985]. Even more than in 1985, the discussion networks we measured in 2004 are the closest of close ties.”10 Evidence coming from inside family portraits reveals much the same picture. Conventional wisdom assumes that children are seeing less of their parents—that our propensity for longer working hours, combined with the stampede of women into the professional workforce, has depleted the time adults have to rear their children. But that supposition has been upended by underreported studies that suggest parents are actually spending more time with their kids than they were in the mid-1970s. The average number of weekly hours that mothers spent caring directly for their children grew from ten in 1965 to thirteen in 2000; among fathers, the number more than doubled from three to seven over the same thirty-five-year span.11 As Fischer once explained to me, our perception is that families are eating at home less, but if the substitute is to go out for dinner, the net outcome may reveal that their time together has not diminished at all.12 By another standard, in fact, the problem isn’t that American children are getting too little parenting—it’s that they’re getting too much.

 

pages: 250 words: 88,762

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce

Husbands and wives love each other (we hope) and enjoy each other’s company; they are a romantic couple. But they are also an economic unit, dividing labor and sharing the costs of bringing up children or putting a roof over everyone’s head. Economic changes—which is to say, rational responses to changing incentives—were behind the rapid rise of divorce in the 1970s; they are also behind the dramatic but as yet unfinished strides women are taking toward equality in the workforce. We’ll see how rational reactions have turned divorce, the contraceptive pill, and women’s achievements in the workplace into a reinforcing loop: These matters are all connected closely to the negotiations between men and women in long-term relationships. First of all, though, it’s time to dispose of an age-old question. Do people spend their lives looking for “the one,” the one person—or less ambitiously, a particular type of person—who is the perfect match for them temperamentally, socially, professionally, financially, and sexually?

Instead, the divorce revolution was driven by a more fundamental economic force: the breakdown of the traditional division of labor identified by Adam Smith. At the beginning of the twentieth century, housework took many hours, and only the poorest and most desperate married women had jobs. As the decades rolled past, technological change made housework less time-consuming. It became easy—and quite common—for older women to enter the workforce after their children were grown and housework was more manageable. Once divorce rates began to climb, it was no surprise that they increased dramatically. There was a rationally self-reinforcing loop at work: The more people divorced, the more divorcées—that is, potential marriage partners—you could meet. That meant that it was easier to get divorced yourself and find a new spouse. Furthermore, once divorce started to become conceivable, women knew they could no longer think of themselves as one part of an economic unit.

They might do well to remember what Adam Smith wrote about the excessive division of labor: The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations…has no occasion to exert his understanding or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He…generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Smith’s argument applies just as well to ironing and baking cookies, his use of the male pronoun notwithstanding. Division of labor creates wealth but can sap our lives of variety. The serious entry of married women into the workforce has meant that they spend a little less time baking cookies, and perhaps also that their husbands spend a little more time with the children. It has empowered women to leave marriages that are not working, making them happier and safer from abuse. It has truly been a revolution, and the price of that revolution is more divorce and less marriage. That price is very real—but it is almost certainly a price worth paying.

 

pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, debt deflation, deskilling, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

A full four decades later, a similar worker earns just $664, a decline of about 13 percent.11 The story is modestly better if we look at median household incomes. Between 1949 and 1973, US median household incomes roughly doubled, from about $25,000 to $50,000. Growth in median incomes during this period tracked nearly perfectly with per capita GDP. Three decades later, median household income had increased to about $61,000, an increase of just 22 percent. That growth, however, was driven largely by the entry of women into the workforce. If incomes had moved in lockstep with economic growth—as was the case prior to 1973—the median household would today be earning well in excess of $90,000, over 50 percent more than the $61,000 they do earn.12 Figure 2.1 shows the relationship between labor productivity* (which measures the value of workers’ hourly output) and compensation (which includes wages and benefits) paid to ordinary private sector workers from 1948 onward.

In the wake of the 2008–9 economic crisis, it was often the case that the unemployment rate fell not because large numbers of new jobs were being created, but because discouraged workers exited the workforce. Unlike the unemployment rate, which counts only those people actively seeking jobs, labor-force participation offers a graphic illustration that captures workers who have given up. As Figure 2.5 shows, the labor force participation rate rose sharply between 1970 and 1990 as women flooded into the workforce. The overall trend disguises the crucial fact that the percentage of men in the labor force has been in consistent decline since 1950, falling from a high of about 86 percent to 70 percent as of 2013. The participation rate for women peaked at 60 percent in 2000; the overall labor force participation rate peaked at about 67 percent that same year.26 Figure 2.5. Labor Force Participation Rate SOURCE: US Bureau of Labor Statistics and Federal Reserve Bank of St.

Beyond that, I’m content to leave it to economic historians to delve into the data and perhaps someday shine a more definitive light on the precise forces involved in getting us to this point. The real question—and the primary subject of this book—is, What will be most important in the future? Many of the forces that heavily impacted the economy and political environment over the past half-century have largely played out. Unions outside the public sector have been decimated. Women who want careers have entered the workforce or enrolled in colleges and professional schools. There is evidence that the drive toward factory offshoring has slowed significantly, and in some cases, manufacturing is returning to the United States. Among the forces poised to shape the future, information technology stands alone in terms of its exponential progress. Even in nations whose political environments are far more responsive to the welfare of average workers, the changes wrought by technology are becoming increasingly evident.

 

pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

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affirmative action, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

While these circumstances do not exonerate their actions in the least, these are signs of how economic bitterness can create high social costs. India will also need policies that address the balance of power for women in the workforce. The economist Abhijit Banerjee, who works at the Poverty Action Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has emphasized that educating women is a very effective means of improving our social indicators, particularly those related to fertility and health. An educated woman, for instance, insists on educating her children, which is why, as Abhijit notes, “when you educate a woman, you typically educate a family.” He points out how education would greatly empower women in participating in the workforce, boosting a group that has long been under-represented in the Indian economy. Participation among women right now still stands at a low 31 percent, and their education would “enable us to tap into our pool of workers much more effectively.”

As Bloom and Williamson wrote, “When you have lots of babies, you also have to take care of them. The resources that are normally put into building up the economy—in infrastructure, capital and savings—are being diverted to raise children . . . you are not building as many bridges, digging as many harbors, or creating as many ports.” Additionally, as the number of children per woman in East Asia fell from six to two, women were able to join the workforce and contribute to GDP growth. This demographically rich generation drove East Asia’s rise as a manufacturing and technology power—including the growth of Singapore in manufacturing and retail, of Hong Kong in finance and of Taiwan in electronics. In all, Bloom and Williamson discovered, this wave of young workers contributed to as much as one third of East Asia’s economic rise between 1965 and 1990.l “We showed,” David tells me, “that particular kinds of population growth could dramatically drive the country’s growth, not impede it as economists used to believe.”

In Ireland it was the legalization of birth control that fueled its demographics—there were few infant deaths, but when this deeply Catholic country finally legalized contraceptives in 1979, Ireland’s high fertility rate began to fall rapidly. David writes, “In 1970, the average Irishwoman had 3.9 children; by the mid-1990s, that number was less than two.” As the number of dependants plunged and Irish women joined the workforce, Ireland’s dividend became a springboard for its economy and its growth rates averaged 5.8 percent—higher than that of any other European country. However, in all these examples, we are clearly talking of demographic bulges that are past—in David’s words, “of the pigs that have already passed through the python.” The populations of the United States, Europe and East Asia are now graying, growing older.

 

pages: 364 words: 102,528

An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen

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agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, cross-subsidies, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

See also fast foods kaiseki, 218 kale, 171 Kaminsky, Peter, 193 Kansas, 21 Kansas City, Missouri, 86 Kashmiri food, 126 Kennedy, Diana, 199, 248 Kentucky, 26, 107, 111 Kenya, 146 King, Brayden, 174 kitchen equipment, 252–57 Klein, Daniel, 247 knödels, 250 Kobe beef, 183–84 Konya, Turkey, 241 Korea and Korean food, 26–27, 50, 75–76, 104–5, 126–27 kosher foods, 200 Kraft, 36, 198–99 Kreuz Market, 95, 259 Kroc, Ray, 82 labeling of foods, 163 labor costs and barbecue, 93–96, 103, 104 and catering, 245 composition-intensive dishes, 59 and ethnic supermarkets, 42 and French food, 225, 228–29 and home cooking, 257 and immigrants, 69, 76, 77–78 and Indian food, 224 and Mexican food, 191, 209 and restaurant workers, 69–72 and rules for finding good food, 59 and women in the workforce, 34–35 lamb, 110, 136, 173–74, 246 language barriers, 41–42, 216, 251 Laos and Laotian food, 212–13 La Paz, Nicaragua, 4 lard, 199–201, 221, 246 Laredo, Texas, 106 Las Delicias, 76–77, 244, 245 Latin America. See also specific countries and Chinese food, 130 and ethnic supermarkets, 50 and food markets, 194 and food trucks, 76 immigrants from, 41–42 Latin-Asian fusion cuisine, 80 restaurants of, 73 La Villette, 226 laws and legal issues, 36.

., 77, 79, 101, 115 water resources, 6, 157, 172, 182 water transportation, 144, 171 wealth, 14, 150, 151–52, 190 The Wealth of Nations (Smith), 15 Weber, Christopher L., 171, 172 weddings, 97 Wegmans, 110, 191–92 Western Europe, 33–34 Western food, 218–19. See also specific cuisines West Hollywood, 75 wheat, 145, 157, 202 whiskey, 23 white cheeses, 5 Whitely, Mike, 86–87 Whole Foods, 3, 46, 191–92 Willard’s, 102 Windows on the World, 66 wines, 23, 63 Wolfgang Puck Pizza, 62–63 women in the workforce, 34–35 work styles, 255–56 World Bank, 159 World Trade Center, 66 World War I, 65 World War II, 18–19, 24–25, 29–30, 146 Yam Khao Pot (recipe), 251 Yelp.com, 47, 54, 134 Yemen, 157 Zagat, 80 Zambia, 163 Zengo, 80–81 Zhong, Chen-Bo, 169 Zimbabwe, 163 Zola, 227 zoning issues, 182 Zurich, Switzerland, 222

 

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

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Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

First, if the economy continues to grow, Gen Y will call the shots simply because there will be far more jobs than people. Employers will therefore have to become more flexible about how and where people work and how they are rewarded. Gen Y is also hyper-connected, so virtual and collaborative networks will grow in importance as a way of getting things done. Workforces will also become more balanced. There will be a greater spread of ages, more ethnic diversity and more women in the workforce, the latter significantly contributing to a shift away from the white middle-aged alpha male culture that has Work and Business 277 been dominant for so long. Decisions will be made using prediction markets and innovation will be run using open or distributed innovation principles. Work/life balance Instead of working less and enjoying a leisure society, we are working more. We are also commuting for longer periods.

Similarly, BMW in Germany has designed a factory to attract older workers, while Mitsubishi in Japan has already started to rehire its own retirees. Ford expected 280 FUTURE FILES the percentage of its employees aged over 50 to have risen by 100% in Europe between 2006 and 2008. A global labor shortage will mean that there will be a push to recruit more immigrants into domestic labor forces and in some cases we may even see the return of paid immigration. There will also be more women in the workforce. In the US 25% of employees already work for a female-owned company; this percentage is certain to increase, not least because women possess skills that will be highly sought after in the future. Women make somewhere in the region of 50–90% of all purchasing decisions, so in theory putting more of them in charge of corporations would seem to make sense. This is something that management writers such as Tom Peters have been pointing out for years.

 

pages: 124 words: 39,011

Beyond Outrage: Expanded Edition: What Has Gone Wrong With Our Economy and Our Democracy, and How to Fix It by Robert B. Reich

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, banking crisis, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, job automation, Mahatma Gandhi, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor

But contrary to popular mythology, trade and technology have not reduced the overall number of American jobs; their more profound effect has been on pay. As I noted, jobs slowly returned from the depths of the Great Recession, but in order to get them, many workers had to accept lower pay than before. Over the last three and a half decades, middle-class families continued to spend, the breakdown of the basic bargain notwithstanding. Their spending was at first enabled by the flow of women into the workforce. In the 1960s, only 12 percent of married women with children under the age of six were working for pay; by the late 1990s, 55 percent were in the paid workforce. When that way of life stopped generating enough income, Americans went deeper into debt. From the late 1990s to 2007, the typical household debt grew by a third. As long as housing values continued to rise, it seemed a painless way to get additional money.

 

pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

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autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

“Women are not expected to grow up to find out who they are, to choose their human identity,” Betty Friedan wrote in her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. “Anatomy is woman’s destiny.” Friedan’s book and the feminist movement that gradually came into being—with a strong assist by the Food and Drug Administration’s 1960 approval of the first birth-control pill—altered that destiny. Although growing percentages of women (even married women) joined the workforce throughout the twentieth century, as recently as 1970 most women still didn’t work; their participation in the civilian labor force was 43 percent. By 1980 that rate had risen to 52 percent, and since 1990 it’s hovered around 60 percent.9 Harvard’s Goldin observed a particularly dramatic change in women’s attitudes toward work around 1970, partly in reaction against the previous generation’s experience.

The black middle class (which starts out less prosperous than its white counterpart) has fallen behind just as the white middle class has. With women, it’s a bit different. Women have not contributed to the Great Divergence, and they have also, by some significant measures, avoided its effects. This is illustrated on the next page by a bar graph by David Autor, an MIT labor economist. During the past three decades, women outperformed men in the workforce at all skill levels. Both men and women (in the aggregate) moved out of moderately skilled jobs (secretary, retail sales representative, steel-worker, etc.)—women more rapidly than men. But women were much more likely than men to shift upward into higher-skilled jobs—from information technology engineer and personnel manager on up through various high-paying professions that require graduate degrees (doctor, lawyer, etc.).12 These findings reflect feminism’s victories in the workplace, but they also reflect something else: diminishing job opportunities for working-class males.

 

pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

., Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, New York, Routledge, 2006 Index Numbers in italics indicate Figures. 2001: A Space Odyssey (film) 271 A Abu Ghraib, Iraq 202 acid deposition 255, 256 advertising 50, 121, 140, 141, 187, 197, 236, 237, 275, 276 Aeschylus 291 Afghanistan 202, 290 Africa and global financial crisis 170 growth 232 indigenous population and property rights 39 labour 107, 108, 174 ‘land grabs’ 39, 58, 77, 252 population growth 230 Agamben, Giorgio 283–4 agglomeration 149, 150 economies 149 aggregate demand 20, 80, 81, 104, 173 aggregate effective demand 235 agribusiness 95, 133, 136, 206, 247, 258 agriculture ix, 39, 61, 104, 113, 117, 148, 229, 239, 257–8, 261 Alabama 148 Algerian War (1954–62) 288, 290 alienation 57, 69, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130, 198, 213, 214, 215, 263, 266–70, 272, 275–6, 279–80, 281, 286, 287 Allende, Salvador 201 Althusser, Louis 286 Amazon 131, 132 Americas colonisation of 229 indigenous populations 283 Amnesty International 202 anti-capitalist movements 11, 14, 65, 110, 111, 162 anti-capitalist struggle 14, 110, 145, 193, 269, 294 anti-globalisation 125 anti-terrorism xiii apartheid 169, 202, 203 Apple 84, 123, 131 apprenticeships 117 Arab Spring movement 280 Arbenz, Jacobo 201 Argentina 59, 107, 152, 160, 232 Aristotelianism 283, 289 Aristotle 1, 4, 200, 215 arms races 93 arms traffickers 54 Arrighi, Giovanni 136 Adam Smith in Beijing 142 Arthur, Brian: The Nature of Technology 89, 95–9, 101–4, 110 artificial intelligence xii, 104, 108, 120, 139, 188, 208, 295 Asia ‘land grabs’ 58 urbanisation 254 assembly lines 119 asset values and the credit system 83 defined 240 devalued 257 housing market 19, 20, 21, 58, 133 and predatory lending 133 property 76 recovery of 234 speculation 83, 101, 179 associationism 281 AT&T 131 austerity xi, 84, 177, 191, 223 Australia 152 autodidacts 183 automation xii, 103, 105, 106, 108, 138, 208, 215, 295 B Babbage, Charles 119 Bangkok riots, Thailand (1968) x Bangladesh dismantlement of old ships 250 factories 129, 174, 292 industrialisation 123 labour 108, 123, 129 protests against unsafe labour conditions 280 textile mill tragedies 249 Bank of England 45, 46 banking bonuses 164 electronic 92, 100, 277 excessive charges 84 interbank lending 233 and monopoly power 143 national banks supplant local banking in Britain and France 158 net transfers between banks 28 power of bankers 75 private banks 233 profits 54 regional banks 158 shell games 54–5 systematic banking malfeasance 54, 61 Baran, Paul and Sweezy, Paul: Monopoly Capitalism 136 Barcelona 141, 160 barrios pobres ix barter 24, 25, 29 Battersea Power Station, London 255 Battle of Algiers, The (film) 288 Bavaria, Germany 143, 150 Becker, Gary 186 Bernanke, Ben 47 Bhutan 171 billionaires xi, 165, 169, 170 biodiversity 246, 254, 255, 260 biofuels 3 biomedical engineering xii Birmingham 149 Bitcoin 36, 109 Black Panthers 291 Blade Runner (film) 271 Blankfein, Lloyd 239–40 Bohr, Niels 70 Bolivia 257, 260, 284 bondholders xii, 32, 51, 152, 158, 223, 240, 244, 245 bonuses 54, 77, 164, 178 Bourdieu, Pierre 186, 187 bourgeois morality 195 bourgeois reformism 167, 211 ‘Brady Bonds’ 240 Braudel, Fernand 193 Braverman, Harry: Labor and Monopoly Capital 119 Brazil a BRIC country 170, 228 coffee growers 257 poverty grants 107 unrest in (2013) 171, 243, 293 Brecht, Bertolt 265, 293 Bretton Woods (1944) 46 brewing trade 138 BRIC countries 10, 170, 174, 228 Britain alliance between state and London merchant capitalists 44–5 banking 158 enclosure movement 58 lends to United States (nineteenth century) 153 suppression of Mau Mau 291 surpluses of capital and labour sent to colonies 152–3 welfare state 165 see also United Kingdom British Empire 115, 174 British Museum Library, London 4 British Petroleum (BP) 61, 128 Buffett, Peter 211–12, 245, 283, 285 Buffett, Warren 211 bureaucracy 121–2, 165, 203, 251 Bush, George, Jr 201, 202 C Cabet, Étienne 183 Cabral, Amilcar 291 cadastral mapping 41 Cadbury 18 Cairo uprising (2011) 99 Calhoun, Craig 178 California 29, 196, 254 Canada 152 Cape Canaveral, Florida 196 capital abolition of monopolisable skills 119–20 aim of 92, 96–7, 232 alternatives to 36, 69, 89, 162 annihilation of space through time 138, 147, 178 capital-labour contradiction 65, 66, 68–9 and capitalism 7, 57, 68, 115, 166, 218 centralisation of 135, 142 circulation of 5, 7, 8, 53, 63, 67, 73, 74, 75, 79, 88, 99, 147, 168, 172, 177, 234, 247, 251, 276 commodity 74, 81 control over labour 102–3, 116–17, 166, 171–2, 274, 291–2 creation of 57 cultural 186 destruction of 154, 196, 233–4 and division of labour 112 economic engine of 8, 10, 97, 168, 172, 200, 253, 265, 268 evolution of 54, 151, 171, 270 exploitation by 156, 195 fictitious 32–3, 34, 76, 101, 110–11, 239–42 fixed 75–8, 155, 234 importance of uneven geographical development to 161 inequality foundational for 171–2 investment in fixed capital 75 innovations 4 legal-illegal duality 72 limitless growth of 37 new form of 4, 14 parasitic forms of 245 power of xii, 36, 47 private capital accumulation 23 privatisation of 61 process-thing duality 70–78 profitability of 184, 191–2 purpose of 92 realisation of 88, 173, 192, 212, 231, 235, 242, 268, 273 relation to nature 246–63 reproduction of 4, 47, 55, 63, 64, 88, 97, 108, 130, 146, 161, 168, 171, 172, 180, 181, 182, 189, 194, 219, 233, 252 spatiality of 99 and surplus value 63 surpluses of 151, 152, 153 temporality of 99 tension between fixed and circulating capital 75–8, 88, 89 turnover time of 73, 99, 147 and wage rates 173 capital accumulation, exponential growth of 229 capital gains 85, 179 capital accumulation 7, 8, 75, 76, 78, 102, 149, 151–5, 159, 172, 173, 179, 192, 209, 223, 228–32, 238, 241, 243, 244, 247, 273, 274, 276 basic architecture for 88 and capital’s aim 92, 96 collapse of 106 compound rate of 228–9 and the credit system 83 and democratisation 43 and demographic growth 231 and household consumerism 192 and lack of aggregate effective demand in the market 81 and the land market 59 and Marx 5 maximising 98 models of 53 in a new territories 152–3 perpetual 92, 110, 146, 162, 233, 265 private 23 promotion of 34 and the property market 50 recent problems of 10 and the state 48 capitalism ailing 58 an alternative to 36 and capital 7, 57, 68, 115, 166, 218 city landscape of 160 consumerist 197 contagious predatory lawlessness within 109 crises essential to its reproduction ix; defined 7 and demand-side management 85 and democracy 43 disaster 254–5, 255 economic engine of xiii, 7–8, 11, 110, 220, 221, 252, 279 evolution of 218 geographical landscape of 146, 159 global xi–xii, 108, 124 history of 7 ‘knowledge-based’ xii, 238 and money power 33 and a moneyless economy 36 neoliberal 266 political economy of xiv; and private property rights 41 and racialisation 8 reproduction of ix; revivified xi; vulture 162 capitalist markets 33, 53 capitalo-centric studies 10 car industry 121, 138, 148, 158, 188 carbon trading 235, 250 Caribbean migrants 115 Cartesian thinking 247 Cato Institute 143 Central America 136 central banks/bankers xi–xii, 37, 45, 46, 48, 51, 109, 142, 156, 161, 173, 233, 245 centralisation 135, 142, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 219 Césaire, Aimé 291 CFCs (chloro-fluorocarbons) 248, 254, 256, 259 chambers of commerce 168 Chandler, Alfred 141 Chaplin, Charlie 103 Charles I, King 199 Chartism 184 Chávez, Hugo 123, 201 cheating 57, 61, 63 Cheney, Dick 289 Chicago riots (1968) x chicanery 60, 72 children 174 exploitation of 195 raising 188, 190 trading of 26 violence and abuse of 193 Chile 136, 194, 280 coup of 1973 165, 201 China air quality 250, 258 becomes dynamic centre of a global capitalism 124 a BRIC country 170, 228 capital in (after 2000) 154 class struggles 233 and competition 150, 161 consumerism 194–5, 236 decentralisation 49 dirigiste governmentality 48 dismantlement of old ships 250 dispossessions in 58 education 184, 187 factories 123, 129, 174, 182 famine in 124–5 ‘great leap forward’ 125 growth of 170, 227, 232 income inequalities 169 industrialisation 232 Keynesian demand-side and debt-financed expansion xi; labour 80, 82, 107, 108, 123, 174, 230 life expectancy 259 personal debt 194 remittances 175 special economic zones 41, 144 speculative booms and bubbles in housing markets 21 suburbanisation 253 and technology 101 toxic batteries 249–50 unstable lurches forward 10 urban and infrastructural projects 151 urbanisation 232 Chinese Communist Party 108, 142 Church, the 185, 189, 199 circular cumulative causation 150 CitiBank 61 citizenship rights 168 civil rights 202, 205 class affluent classes 205 alliances 143, 149 class analysis xiii; conflict 85, 159 domination 91, 110 plutocratic capitalist xiii; power 55, 61, 88, 89, 92, 97, 99, 110, 134, 135, 221, 279 and race 166, 291 rule 91 structure 91 class struggle 34, 54, 67, 68, 85, 99, 103, 110, 116, 120, 135, 159, 172, 175, 183, 214, 233 climate change 4, 253–6, 259 Clinton, President Bill 176 Cloud Atlas (film) 271 CNN 285 coal 3, 255 coercion x, 41–4, 53, 60–63, 79, 95, 201, 286 Cold War 153, 165 collateralised debt obligations (CDOs) 78 Collins, Suzanne: The Hunger Games 264 Colombia 280 colonialism 257 the colonised 289–90 indigenous populations 39, 40 liberation from colonial rule 202 philanthropic 208, 285 colonisation 229, 262 ‘combinatorial evolution’ 96, 102, 104, 146, 147, 248 commercialisation 262, 263, 266 commodification 24, 55, 57, 59–63, 88, 115, 140, 141, 192, 193, 235, 243, 251, 253, 260, 262, 263, 273 commodities advertising 275 asking price 31 and barter 24 commodity exchange 39, 64 compared with products 25–6 defective or dangerous 72 definition 39 devaluation of 234 exchange value 15, 25 falling costs of 117 importance of workers as buyers 80–81 international trade in 256 labour power as a commodity 62 low-value 29 mobility of 147–8 obsolescence 236 single metric of value 24 unique 140–41 use value 15, 26, 35 commodity markets 49 ‘common capital of the class’ 142, 143 common wealth created by social labour 53 private appropriation of 53, 54, 55, 61, 88, 89 reproduction of 61 use values 53 commons collective management of 50 crucial 295 enclosure of 41, 235 natural 250 privatised 250 communications 99, 147, 148, 177 communism 196 collapse of (1989) xii, 165 communist parties 136 during Cold War 165 scientific 269 socialism/communism 91, 269 comparative advantage 122 competition and alienated workers 125 avoiding 31 between capitals 172 between energy and food production 3 decentralised 145 and deflationary crisis (1930s) 136 foreign 148, 155 geopolitical 219 inter-capitalist 110 international 154, 175 interstate 110 interterritorial 219 in labour market 116 and monopoly 131–45, 146, 218 and technology 92–3 and turnover time of capital 73, 99 and wages 135 competitive advantage 73, 93, 96, 112, 161 competitive market 131, 132 competitiveness 184 complementarity principle of 70 compounding growth 37, 49, 222, 227, 228, 233, 234, 235, 243, 244 perpetual 222–45, 296 computerisation 100, 120, 222 computers 92, 100, 105, 119 hardware 92, 101 organisational forms 92, 93, 99, 101 programming 120 software 92, 99, 101, 115, 116 conscience laundering 211, 245, 284, 286 Conscious Capitalism 284 constitutional rights 58 constitutionality 60, 61 constitutions progressive 284 and social bond between human rights and private property 40 US Constitution 284 and usurpation of power 45 consumerism 89, 106, 160, 192–5, 197, 198, 236, 274–7 containerisation 138, 148, 158 contracts 71, 72, 93, 207 contradictions Aristotelian conception of 4 between money and the social labour money represents 83 between reality and appearance 4–6 between use and exchange value 83 of capital and capitalism 68 contagious intensification of 14 creative use of 3 dialectical conception of 4 differing reactions to 2–3 and general crises 14 and innovation 3 moved around rather than resolved 3–4 multiple 33, 42 resolution of 3, 4 two modes of usage 1–2 unstable 89 Controller of the Currency 120 corporations and common wealth 54 corporate management 98–9 power of 57–8, 136 and private property 39–40 ‘visible hand’ 141–2 corruption 53, 197, 266 cosmopolitanism 285 cost of living 164, 175 credit cards 67, 133, 277 credit card companies 54, 84, 278 credit financing 152 credit system 83, 92, 101, 111, 239 crises changes in mental conceptions of the world ix-x; crisis of capital 4 defined 4 essential to the reproduction of capitalism ix; general crisis ensuing from contagions 14 housing markets crisis (2007–9) 18, 20, 22 reconfiguration of physical landscapes ix; slow resolution of x; sovereign debt crisis (after 2012) 37 currency markets, turbulence of (late 1960s) x customary rights 41, 59, 198 D Davos conferences 169 DDT 259 Debord, Guy: The Society of the Spectacle 236 debt creation 236 debt encumbrancy 212 debt peonage 62, 212 decentralisation 49, 142, 143, 144, 146, 148, 219, 281, 295 Declaration of Independence (US) 284 decolonisation 282, 288, 290 decommodification 85 deindustrialisation xii, 77–8, 98, 110, 148, 153, 159, 234 DeLong, Bradford 228 demand management 81, 82, 106, 176 demand-side management 85 democracy 47, 215 bourgeois 43, 49 governance within capitalism 43 social 190 totalitarian 220, 292 democratic governance 220, 266 democratisation 43 Deng Xiaoping x depressions 49, 227 1930s x, 108, 136, 169, 227, 232, 234 Descartes, René 247 Detroit 77, 136, 138, 148, 150, 152, 155, 159, 160 devaluation 153, 155, 162 of capital 233 of commodities 234 crises 150–51, 152, 154 localised 154 regional 154 developing countries 16, 240 Dhaka, Bangladesh 77 dialectics 70 Dickens, Charles 126, 169 Bleak House 226 Dombey and Son 184 digital revolution 144 disabled, the 202 see also handicapped discrimination 7, 8, 68, 116, 297 diseases 10, 211, 246, 254, 260 disempowerment 81, 103, 116, 119, 198, 270 disinvestment 78 Disneyfication 276 dispossession accumulation by 60, 67, 68, 84, 101, 111, 133, 141, 212 and capital 54, 55, 57 economies of 162 of indigenous populations 40, 59, 207 ‘land grabs’ 58 of land rights of the Irish 40 of the marginalised 198 political economy of 58 distributional equality 172 distributional shares 164–5, 166 division of labour 24, 71, 112–30, 154, 184, 268, 270 and Adam Smith 98, 118 defined 112 ‘the detail division of labour’ 118, 121 distinctions and oppositions 113–14 evolution of 112, 120, 121, 126 and gender 114–15 increasing complexity of 124, 125, 126 industrial proletariat 114 and innovation 96 ‘new international division of labour’ 122–3 organisation of 98 proliferating 121 relation between the parts and the whole 112 social 113, 118, 121, 125 technical 113, 295 uneven geographical developments in 130 dot-com bubble (1990s) 222–3, 241 ‘double coincidence of wants and needs’ 24 drugs 32, 193, 248 cartels 54 Durkheim, Emile 122, 125 Dust Bowl (United States, 1930s) 257 dynamism 92, 104, 146, 219 dystopia 229, 232, 264 E Eagleton , Terry: Why Marx Was Right 1, 21, 200, 214–15 East Asia crisis of 1997–98 154 dirigiste governmentality 48 education 184 rise of 170 Eastern Europe 115, 230 ecological offsets 250 economic rationality 211, 250, 252, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279 economies 48 advanced capitalist 228, 236 agglomeration 149 of dispossession 162 domination of industrial cartels and finance capital 135 household 192 informal 175 knowledge-based 188 mature 227–8 regional 149 reoriented to demand-side management 85 of scale 75 solidarity 66, 180 stagnant xii ecosystems 207, 247, 248, 251–6, 258, 261, 263, 296 Ecuador 46, 152, 284 education 23, 58, 60, 67–8, 84, 110, 127–8, 129, 134, 150, 156, 168, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 223, 235, 296 efficiency 71, 92, 93, 98, 103, 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 272, 273, 284 efficient market hypothesis 118 Egypt 107, 280, 293 Ehrlich, Paul 246 electronics 120, 121, 129, 236, 292 emerging markets 170–71, 242 employment 37 capital in command of job creation 172, 174 conditions of 128 full-time 274 opportunities for xii, 108, 168 regional crises of 151 of women 108, 114, 115, 127 see also labour enclosure movement 58 Engels, Friedrich 70 The Condition of the English Working Class in England 292 English Civil War (1642–9) 199 Enlightenment 247 Enron 133, 241 environmental damage 49, 61, 110, 111, 113, 232, 249–50, 255, 257, 258, 259, 265, 286, 293 environmental movement 249, 252 environmentalism 249, 252–3 Epicurus 283 equal rights 64 Erasmus, Desiderius 283 ethnic hatreds and discriminations 8, 165 ethnic minorities 168 ethnicisation 62 ethnicity 7, 68, 116 euro, the 15, 37, 46 Europe deindustrialisation in 234 economic development in 10 fascist parties 280 low population growth rate 230 social democratic era 18 unemployment 108 women in labour force 230 European Central Bank 37, 46, 51 European Commission 51 European Union (EU) 95, 159 exchange values commodities 15, 25, 64 dominance of 266 and housing 14–23, 43 and money 28, 35, 38 uniform and qualitatively identical 15 and use values 15, 35, 42, 44, 50, 60, 65, 88 exclusionary permanent ownership rights 39 experts 122 exploitation 49, 54, 57, 62, 68, 75, 83, 107, 108, 124, 126, 128, 129, 150, 156, 159, 166, 175, 176, 182, 185, 193, 195, 208, 246, 257 exponential growth 224, 240, 254 capacity for 230 of capital 246 of capital accumulation 223, 229 of capitalist activity 253 and capital’s ecosystem 255 in computer power 105 and environmental resources 260 in human affairs 229 and innovations in finance and banking 100 potential dangers of 222, 223 of sophisticated technologies 100 expropriation 207 externality effects 43–4 Exxon 128 F Facebook 236, 278, 279 factories ix, 123, 129, 160, 174, 182, 247, 292 Factory Act (1864) 127, 183 famine 124–5, 229, 246 Fannie Mae 50 Fanon, Frantz 287 The Wretched of the Earth 288–90, 293 fascist parties 280 favelas ix, 16, 84, 175 feminisation 115 feminists 189, 192, 283 fertilisers 255 fetishes, fetishism 4–7, 31, 36–7, 61, 103, 111, 179, 198, 243, 245, 269, 278 feudalism 41 financial markets 60, 133 financialisation 238 FIRE (finance, insurance and real estate) sections 113 fishing 59, 113, 148, 249, 250 fixity and motion 75–8, 88, 89, 146, 155 Food and Drug Administration 120 food production/supply 3, 229, 246, 248, 252 security 253, 294, 296 stamp aid 206, 292 Ford, Martin 104–8, 111, 273 foreclosure 21, 22, 24, 54, 58, 241, 268 forestry 113, 148, 257 fossil fuels 3–4 Foucault, Michel xiii, 204, 209, 280–81 Fourier, François Marie Charles 183 Fourierists 18 Fourteen Points 201 France banking 158 dirigiste governmentality under de Gaulle 48 and European Central Bank 46 fascist parties 280 Francis, Pope 293 Apostolic Exhortation 275–6 Frankfurt School 261 Freddie Mac 50 free trade 138, 157 freedom 47, 48, 142, 143, 218, 219, 220, 265, 267–270, 276, 279–82, 285, 288, 296 and centralised power 142 cultural 168 freedom and domination 199–215, 219, 268, 285 and the good life 215 and money creation 51 popular desire for 43 religious 168 and state finances 48 under the rule of capital 64 see also liberty and freedom freedom of movement 47, 296 freedom of thought 200 freedom of the press 213 French Revolution 203, 213, 284 G G7 159 G20 159 Gallup survey of work 271–2 Gandhi, Mahatma 284, 291 Gaulle, Charles de 48 gay rights 166 GDP 194, 195, 223 Gehry, Frank 141 gender discriminations 7, 8, 68, 165 gene sequences 60 General Motors xii genetic engineering xii, 101, 247 genetic materials 235, 241, 251, 261 genetically modified foods 101 genocide 8 gentrification 19, 84, 141, 276 geocentric model 5 geographical landscape building a new 151, 155 of capitalism 159 evolution of 146–7 instability of 146 soulless, rationalised 157 geopolitical struggles 8, 154 Germany and austerity 223 autobahns built 151 and European Central Bank 46 inflation during 1920s 30 wage repression 158–9 Gesell, Silvio 35 Ghana 291 global economic crisis (2007–9) 22, 23, 47, 118, 124, 132, 151, 170, 228, 232, 234, 235, 241 global financialisation x, 177–8 global warming 260 globalisation 136, 174, 176, 179, 223, 293 gold 27–31, 33, 37, 57, 227, 233, 238, 240 Golden Dawn 280 Goldman Sachs 75, 239 Google 131, 136, 195, 279 Gordon, Robert 222, 223, 230, 239, 304n2 Gore, Al 249 Gorz, André 104–5, 107, 242, 270–77, 279 government 60 democratic 48 planning 48 and social bond between human rights and private property 40 spending power 48 governmentality 43, 48, 157, 209, 280–81, 285 Gramsci, Antonio 286, 293 Greco, Thomas 48–9 Greece 160, 161, 162, 171, 235 austerity 223 degradation of the well-being of the masses xi; fascist parties 280 the power of the bondholders 51, 152 greenwashing 249 Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 202, 284 Guatemala 201 Guevara, Che 291 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao 141 guild system 117 Guinea-Bissau 291 Gulf Oil Spill (2010) 61 H Habermas, Jürgen 192 habitat 246, 249, 252, 253, 255 handicapped, the 218 see also disabled Harvey, David The Enigma of Capital 265 Rebel Cities 282 Hayek, Friedrich 42 Road to Serfdom 206 health care 23, 58, 60, 67–8, 84, 110, 134, 156, 167, 189, 190, 235, 296 hedge funds 101, 162, 239, 241, 249 managers 164, 178 Heidegger, Martin 59, 250 Heritage Foundation 143 heterotopic spaces 219 Hill, Christopher 199 Ho Chi Minh 291 holocausts 8 homelessness 58 Hong Kong 150, 160 housing 156, 296 asset values 19, 20, 21, 58 ‘built to order’ 17 construction 67 controlling externalities 19–20 exchange values 14–23, 43 gated communities ix, 160, 208, 264 high costs 84 home ownership 49–50 investing in improvements 20, 43 mortgages 19, 21, 28, 50, 67, 82 predatory practices 67, 133 production costs 17 rental markets 22 renting or leasing 18–19, 67 self-built 84 self-help 16, 160 slum ix, 16, 175 social 18, 235 speculating in exchange value 20–22 speculative builds 17, 28, 78, 82 tenement 17, 160 terraced 17 tract ix, 17, 82 use values 14–19, 21–2, 23, 67 housing markets 18, 19, 21, 22, 28, 32, 49, 58, 60, 67, 68, 77, 83, 133, 192 crisis (2007–9) 18, 20, 22, 82–3 HSBC 61 Hudson, Michael 222 human capital theory 185, 186 human evolution 229–30 human nature 97, 198, 213, 261, 262, 263 revolt of 263, 264–81 human rights 40, 200, 202 humanism 269 capitalist 212 defined 283 education 128 excesses and dark side 283 and freedom 200, 208, 210 liberal 210, 287, 289 Marxist 284, 286 religious 283 Renaissance 283 revolutionary 212, 221, 282–93 secular 283, 285–6 types of 284 Hungary: fascist parties 280 Husserl, Edmund 192 Huygens, Christiaan 70 I IBM 128 Iceland: banking 55 identity politics xiii illegal aliens (‘sans-papiers’) 156 illegality 61, 72 immigrants, housing 160 imperialism 135, 136, 143, 201, 257, 258 income bourgeois disposable 235 disparities of 164–81 levelling up of 171 redistribution to the lower classes xi; see also wages indebtedness 152, 194, 222 India billionaires in 170 a BRIC country 170, 228 call centres 139 consumerism 236 dismantlement of old ships 250 labour 107, 230 ‘land grabs’ 77 moneylenders 210 social reproduction in 194 software engineers 196 special economic zones 144 unstable lurches forward 10 indigenous populations 193, 202, 257, 283 dispossession of 40, 59, 207 and exclusionary ownership rights 39 individualism 42, 197, 214, 281 Indonesia 129, 160 industrial cartels 135 Industrial Revolution 127 industrialisation 123, 189, 229, 232 inflation 30, 36, 37, 40, 49, 136, 228, 233 inheritance 40 Inner Asia, labour in 108 innovation 132 centres of 96 and the class struggle 103 competitive 219 as a double-edged sword xii; improving the qualities of daily life 4 labour-saving 104, 106, 107, 108 logistical 147 organisational 147 political 219 product 93 technological 94–5, 105, 147, 219 as a way out of a contradiction 3 insurance companies 278 intellectual property rights xii, 41, 123, 133, 139, 187, 207, 235, 241–2, 251 interest compound 5, 222, 224, 225, 226–7 interest-rate manipulations 54 interest rates 54, 186 living off 179, 186 on loans 17 money capital 28, 32 and mortgages 19, 67 on repayment of loans to the state 32 simple 225, 227 usury 49 Internal Revenue Service income tax returns 164 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 49, 51, 100, 143, 161, 169, 186, 234, 240 internet 158, 220, 278 investment: in fixed capital 75 investment pension funds 35–6 IOUs 30 Iran 232, 289 Iranian Revolution 289 Iraq war 201, 290 Ireland dispossession of land rights 40 housing market crash (2007–9) 82–3 Istanbul 141 uprising (2013) 99, 129, 171, 243 Italy 51,161, 223, 235 ITT 136 J Jacobs, Jane 96 James, C.L.R. 291 Japan 1980s economic boom 18 capital in (1980s) 154 economic development in 10 factories 123 growth rate 227 land market crash (1990) 18 low population growth rate 230 and Marshall Plan 153 post-war recovery 161 Jewish Question 213 JPMorgan 61 Judaeo-Christian tradition 283 K Kant, Immanuel 285 Katz, Cindi 189, 195, 197 Kenya 291 Kerala, India 171 Keynes, John Maynard xi, 46, 76, 244, 266 ‘Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren’ 33–4 General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money 35 Keynesianism demand management 82, 105, 176 demand-side and debt-financed expansion xi King, Martin Luther 284, 291 knowledge xii, 26, 41, 95, 96, 100, 105, 113, 122, 123, 127, 144, 184, 188, 196, 238, 242, 295 Koch brothers 292 Kohl, Helmut x L labour agitating and fighting for more 64 alienated workers 125, 126, 128, 129, 130 artisan 117, 182–3 and automation 105 capital/labour contradiction 65, 66, 68–9, 146 collective 117 commodification of 57 contracts 71, 72 control over 74, 102–11, 119, 166, 171–2, 274, 291–2 deskilling 111, 119 discipline 65, 79 disempowering workers 81, 103, 116, 119, 270 division of see division of labour; domestic 196 education 127–8, 129, 183, 187 exploitation of 54, 57, 62, 68, 75, 83, 107, 108, 126, 128, 129, 150, 156, 166, 175, 176, 182, 185, 195 factory 122, 123, 237 fair market value 63, 64 Gallup survey 271–2 house building 17 housework 114–15, 192 huge increase in the global wage labour force 107–8 importance of workers as buyers of commodities 80–81 ‘industrial reserve army’ 79–80, 173–4 migrations of 118 non-unionised xii; power of 61–4, 71, 73, 74, 79, 81, 88, 99, 108, 118–19, 127, 173, 175, 183, 189, 207, 233, 267 privatisation of 61 in service 117 skills 116, 118–19, 123, 149, 182–3, 185, 231 social see social labour; surplus 151, 152, 173–4, 175, 195, 233 symbolic 123 and trade unions 116 trading in labour services 62–3 unalienated 66, 89 unionised xii; unpaid 189 unskilled 114, 185 women in workforce see under women; worked to exhaustion or death 61, 182 see also employment labour markets 47, 62, 64, 66–9, 71, 102, 114, 116, 118, 166 labour-saving devices 104, 106, 107, 173, 174, 277 labour power commodification of 61, 88 exploitation of 62, 175 generation of surplus value 63 mobility of 99 monetisation of 61 private property character of 64 privatisation of 61 reserves of 108 Lagos, Nigeria, social reproduction in 195 laissez-faire 118, 205, 207, 281 land commodification 260–61 concept of 76–7 division of 59 and enclosure movement 58 establishing as private property 41 exhausting its fertility 61 privatisation 59, 61 scarcity 77 urban 251 ‘land grabs’ 39, 58, 77, 252 land market 18, 59 land price 17 land registry 41 land rents 78, 85 land rights 40, 93 land-use zoning 43 landlords 54, 67, 83, 140, 179, 251, 261 Latin America ’1and grabs’ 58, 77 labour 107 reductions in social inequality 171 two ‘lost decades’ of development 234 lawyers 22, 26, 67, 82, 245 leasing 16, 17, 18 Lebed, Jonathan 195 Lee Kuan-Yew 48 Leeds 149 Lefebvre, Henri 157, 192 Critique of Everyday Life 197–8 left, the defence of jobs and skills under threat 110 and the factory worker 68 incapable of mounting opposition to the power of capital xii; remains of the radical left xii–xiii Lehman Brothers investment bank, fall of (2008) x–xi, 47, 241 ‘leisure’ industries 115 Lenin, Vladimir 135 Leninism 91 Lewis, Michael: The Big Short 20–21 LGBT groups 168, 202, 218 liberation struggle 288, 290 liberty, liberties 44, 48–51, 142, 143, 212, 276, 284, 289 and bourgeois democracy 49 and centralised power 142 and money creation 51 non-coercive individual liberty 42 popular desire for 43 and state finances 48 liberty and freedom 199–215 coercion and violence in pursuit of 201 government surveillance and cracking of encrypted codes 201–2 human rights abuses 202 popular desire for 203 rhetoric on 200–201, 202 life expectancy 250, 258, 259 light, corpuscular theory of 70 living standards xii, 63, 64, 84, 89, 134, 175, 230 loans fictitious capital 32 housing 19 interest on 17 Locke, John 40, 201, 204 logos 31 London smog of 1952 255 unrest in (2011) 243 Los Angeles 150, 292 Louis XIV, King of France 245 Lovelace, Richard 199, 200, 203 Luddites 101 M McCarthyite scourge 56 MacKinnon, Catherine: Are Women Human?

 

pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve

(In marriage, the money that was previously paid to the housekeeper as a reportable paycheck is normally enlarged and given voluntarily to the wife, thus escaping the national and tax-accounts.) In the seventies, the great ferment of family transformation, with higher rates of divorce and remarriage and more prolonged singleness, conferred a net upward impetus to income totals. A more important factor is the effect of inflation and taxes on the number of women in the workforce. Inflation lifts incomes into higher brackets without raising purchasing power. In effect, taxes become more progressive, taking increasingly more as incomes rise. As the 1980s began, the marginal tax rate (the rate applying to the next dollar earned above current income) was nearly 50 percent for the average American. 14 That means half the money earned through additional work went to the government, in one way or another, either through giving up welfare and other transfers or through payments of taxes on the federal, state, and local levels.

No one who has children is likely to accept the idea that one’s life is impoverished by their arrival, that one’s standard of living declines when money is spent on them rather than on maintaining a childless person’s schedule of outside entertainments. The chief problem is the anguish inflicted on both the husband and the wife and thus on their relationship when the woman is forced to work despite the intensely increasing need for her in the home. Despite all the celebrations of working women, the earnings statistics show that most women prefer to avoid full commitment to the workforce. Their work effort, measured in annual hours and earnings, declines rapidly as family income increases.17 After age twenty-five, they are eleven times more likely to leave the labor force voluntarily than men.18 Women tend to favor part-time jobs and informal services. The men’s pattern contrasts dramatically. As their earnings capacity increases, so does their exploitation of it; they extend themselves to the limit when their opportunities for income improve.

There is no question that such marginal tax rates, hitting middle- and low-income recipients, have a substantial negative impact on taxable economic activity, work effort, and productivity. But though such effects were everywhere visible to the casual observer, economists often failed to see them because of the large expansion of the workforce during the late seventies. Aggregate analysis seemed to show an increase rather than a decrease of work effort. Indeed, higher marginal rates do tend to bring more women into the workforce, often holding part-time jobs.32 But the quantitative increase in workers conceals a deterioration and fragmentation of work effort, a decline of career commitments, a breakdown of families, and a vast movement into the underground economy.33 Altogether these trends indicate that the U.S. economy is high on the Laffer curve and that cuts in tax rates would cause dramatic shifts from sheltered to taxable activity while also improving productivity and growth.

 

pages: 364 words: 104,697

Were You Born on the Wrong Continent? by Thomas Geoghegan

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Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, dark matter, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Gini coefficient, haute cuisine, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, McJob, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pensions crisis, Plutocrats, plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce

And during that time, we can’t be fired.” So he told me much of what Wigand later said about the firing process, etc. He began to open up when he realized I was not an American coming to bash the German model. Remember, at this time Clinton had just signed a bill ending “welfare as we know it,” even when the only welfare we “knew” was welfare for nursing mothers, or with small little kids, and the idea of kicking these women into the workforce . . . well, it repelled a lot of people in Europe. Of course, one could think up a “politically correct” case for it, namely, that the mothers themselves were so sick, impoverished, drugged-up, physically and sexually abused, that it was better to separate them from the kids. But of course that wasn’t the reason we were doing it. And it was shocking to Europeans, who had welfare—yes, a lot of welfare, even for the men, and my God, certainly for children.

 

pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

The most profound impact of globalization and technology has been the upheaval experienced by workers without college degrees. With so many factories shuttered, typical “men’s work” steadily eroded and lower-paying service jobs took its place. As the economic contribution of these former working-class heroes to our nation dwindled, millions of men became zeroes in many people’s minds. They seemed to be a dusty anachronism in a sparkling new economy. Meanwhile, the ranks of women in the workforce grew steadily during the 1980s and 1990s, and waves of immigration began to change the ethnic and racial composition of the workforce. Seeking refuge from the economic dislocation, millions of Americans earned bachelor’s and advanced degrees, a process that perversely exacerbated already hardened lines of privilege, with whites earning college degrees at a much greater rate than blacks or Latinos.

 

pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Putting race and sex together, we discover that white men, though still the best paid demographic group on average, have been sHpping over the last two decades; white women have been gaining; some black men have been entering high-wage work, while others have been sHpping into 94 After the New Economy low-wage work, chronic unemployment, and prison (though the tight labor markets of the late 1990s helped narrow the racial/ethnic gap in male earnings rather sharply); some black women have been trickling into high-wage employment, though most remain concentrated in low-wage sectors; and Latino men and women have been entering the workforce in large numbers, though mostly at the poorly-paid end, with minimal penetration of higher-wage sectors (Williams 1999). Why race and gender gaps?^ According to classic economic theory—most notably that enunciated by Gary Becker—discrimination is "irrational" under capitalism and it should be competed away That is, if firms paid white men more than nonwhite nonmen for the same work, then those indulging their prejudices would make less money than those who'd transcended prejudice—and since no sane capitalist would ever forego a profit opportunity, over time discrimination should disappear.

 

pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

This statistic may not surprise, since so many of the families we know own more than one car, yet the multivehicle household is a relatively new phenomenon. Over the last several decades, middle-class Americans have come to call it a necessity for each driver in the family to have his or her own car. Teens now often get one soon after their first license, though the steepest growth in the number of cars per family came as women began entering the paid workforce in larger numbers back in the 1960s. At the beginning of that decade, just 20 percent of households owned a second car; now over 65 percent do.2 More and more families also happily buy a third or even fourth vehicle as a recreational or weekend car or as a collectible.3 We don’t just have more cars, of course, but more car. Our vehicles are much bigger and more powerful than ever before.

And I’ve seen that. And I’ve been in it. But you just deal with it.” Why Americans across the country are forced to “just deal with” such terrible traffic is the result of a combination of factors. Sprawl is just one part of the picture. Another is the sheer quantity of cars on the road, a number that has increased drastically over the past few decades. Overall population growth and the entry of women into the workforce are key reasons the number of workers in the United States doubled between 1960 and 2000, from 66 million to 128 million.10 Because the number of licensed drivers, car owners, and owners of multiple vehicles also increased, the number of vehicles more than tripled in that same period.11 132 Carjacked As most commuters no longer take the traditional suburb-to-city commute, according to the Transportation Research Board, the greatest flow of commuters—more than two-thirds—is now from suburb to suburb, and this type of flow has only grown over time.12 Across the nation, so-called reverse commutes are also growing as companies move out of downtown areas but some of their employees continue to live there.13 This traffic-exacerbating sprawl seems out of our control.

 

pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

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Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

It was also suggested that I had a very one-dimensional view of the working class: that what I was actually talking about was a male, white working class. But in fact many of the key examples of demonized figures portrayed as representative of larger groups of people were women-Karen Matthews, Jade Goody and Vicky Pollard, for example. Indeed, class hatred and misogyny often overlap. Ialso wanted to emphasize the explosion of women in the workforce in the last few decades: indeed, they now account for over half of all workers-though of course itmust be pointed out that women have always worked, as well as doing much of the unpaid housework men traditionally refused to do. 'A low-paid, part-time, female shelf-stacker' was one of my suggestions for a symbol of the modern working class. We cannot understand class without gender; but that works the other way, too.

As chan- cellor in the late 1960s, for example, he confronted the devaluation camp head-on by accusing: 'Those who advocate devaluation are calling for a reduction in the wage levels and the real wage standards of every member of the working class.' That is not to deny old Labour's flaws. It was top-down and bureau- cratic, and its celebration of working-class identity did not adapt to the entry of women and ethnic minorities into the workforce. 'Basically, what the London left was doing [in the 1970s and 1980s] was rebelling against that old Labour culture because it was quite sexist and racist,' recalls former London Labour mayor Ken Livingstone. 'It had huge weaknesses, and in a sense so much of what we were doing in the 1970s and 1980s was forcing the labour movement in London to recognize that it had to organize women and ethnic minorities.'

 

pages: 375 words: 105,067

Pound Foolish: Exposing the Dark Side of the Personal Finance Industry by Helaine Olen

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asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Cass Sunstein, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, financial innovation, Flash crash, game design, greed is good, high net worth, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, London Whale, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, éminence grise

While more than a few of these plans went under during the Great Depression, the concept gained renewed support in the post–World War II era, at the same time the combination of medical advances and stricter sanitary standards not only increased the number of elderly among us, but also simultaneously improved their health and left them vulnerable to long, lingering illnesses of old age. Americans’ first impulses to pay for all that extra life were generous. Social Security, which had been a fixed amount for life, would receive numerous boosts from Congress to cover rising prices, before the cost-of-living-adjustment was made automatic in the 1970s. Provisions for early retirement were also added, allowing men and women to leave the workforce at sixty-two in return for permanently reduced benefits. The federal government also sought to buttress the private pension system in the 1970s with the establishment of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and the passage of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. ERISA, as it is known, also allowed for the establishment of the first individual retirement accounts, where those who were not covered by pensions or other workplace retirement plans could deposit $1,500 in pre-tax income annually.

According to historian Nancy Marie Robertson, many fell victim to the economic crisis of the Great Depression and would not be reestablished in the more conservative postwar environment, where women were expected to stay home, raise their children, and polish their kitchen floors to perfection, while men took on the heavy lifting of everything from paid work to investing for the family. It would take the wholesale entry of women into the paid workforce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, combined with the bull market of the 1990s for banks and investment houses to once again set up initiatives to attract women’s business. Citibank’s Woman & Co. is one of the longest lasting of these initiatives, having initially debuted in 2001. Under the founding leadership of Lisa Caputo, the former press secretary for Hillary Rodham Clinton, the program attracted attention by advertising its services in unusual spaces like the New York Times’s wedding pages.

 

pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Most Pakistani women marry in their early twenties and have kids soon after, Maria explains, so “full-time jobs are just not possible for most. The Women’s Digital League is a platform for these women to find a whole new way of working.” Maria hopes this is just the beginning. “The idea is to spread out to the Middle East and to the Arab region,” she says with a wide smile. “The way the women are treated or the challenges they face in the workforce are kind of similar around these areas, and I think that something like this online platform—where women with different skill sets, from the very basic to more advanced, can come together—can really make a difference. It’s an emotional difference rather than just a financial difference.” The 36-year-old entrepreneurial success from Waziristan concludes, “I have seen how huge a difference it has made in my life and I would like it to spread out.”

It does not matter how many men have degrees from MIT if 90 percent of Pakistani women are victims of domestic violence and only 40 percent are literate. The states and societies that do the most for women are those that will be best positioned to compete and succeed in the industries of the future. Treating women well is not just the right thing to do; it makes economic sense. Women are half of every nation’s workforce—or potential workforce. To be a prosperous and competitive country requires access to the best-educated pool of workers. If a country is cutting off half of its potential workforce, it is taking itself out of the game. Countries that are closing the gender gap are competitive; they are the nations of the future, educating boys and girls and ensuring that their entire citizenry is skilled and ready for the global economy.

 

pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, pensions crisis, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

They came to be seen as very distinct social groups, whereas previously the boundary had been more fluid, because working class people in particular worked for as long as they were able, from financial necessity.18 In the 1950s, concern about the ageing population and shrinking workforce declined, as it became apparent that the birth rate had continued to rise since the war. Growing immigration (see Chapter 2) and the increasing participation of women in the labour market (see Chapter 5) expanded the workforce. Government efforts to diminish ageism in employment vanished. The confident projections of the 1930s and 1940s of a future of continuously low birth rates and an ageing population appeared to be wrong, at least in the short term. In the 1950s and early 1960s, research revealed continuing high levels of poverty among older people, especially for women, who were the majority of over 65s.19 Appalling conditions were also exposed in some residential homes.20 In popular discourse, ‘old age pensioner’ was equated with retirement and poverty, although the term ‘elderly’ came increasingly into use to indicate greater respect than ‘old’.

Generally, the movement operated in localized, non-hierarchical groups, rather than as a mass movement holding big demonstrations on the model of the early twentieth-century movement, although some spectacular demonstrations occurred, particularly when a group of feminists disrupted the televised Miss World contest at the Royal Albert Hall. 1968 TO EARLY 1980s The trend towards married women’s greater participation in the workforce continued, as did the growth in part-time employment: part-time work accounted for 39 per cent of women’s employment in 1975 and 42.8 per cent in 1985.15 More women were entering universities, although by the 1970s, when about 7 per cent of all 18-year-olds went to university, the proportion of women was still about 25 per cent and subjects studied were still gender-divided, most science students being male and arts students female.

This may in part explain the falling birth rate, combined with the evidence that fathers in two-parent households took only marginally more responsibility for child rearing than in the 1970s. Mass male unemployment exposed the fragility of the male-breadwinner ideal, the emotional and psychological impact of which was conveyed in the television series Boys from the Black Stuff. Although many women were also unemployed, rates were lower than among men, and women’s participation in the workforce continued to increase, mostly in low-paid, often part-time, employment. Opinion surveys testified to changing public attitudes to women’s careers. In 1984, 43 per cent of people interviewed for the British Social Attitudes survey agreed or strongly agreed with the statement: ‘A husband’s job is to earn the money; a wife’s job is to look after the home and family.’ By 1990, the figure had fallen to 25 per cent.55 The notion that men might play a more active role in the home gained in popularity.

 

pages: 290 words: 98,699

Wealth Without a Job: The Entrepreneur's Guide to Freedom and Security Beyond the 9 to 5 Lifestyle by Phil Laut, Andy Fuehl

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British Empire, business process, declining real wages, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index card, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, women in the workforce

Labor leaders, usually the champions of increased income for all workers, don’t address the decline in income lest their powerlessness to prevent it in the first place becomes evident. Income decline, although experienced by many, is discussed by almost no one. One clear response to the wage decline has been a larger per- ccc_laut_ch02_19-26.qxd 7/8/04 12:23 PM Page 21 The Economy and the Media centage of women with young children entering the workforce. (See Table 2.1.) Clearly, everyone benefits from equal employment opportunities for women. Freedom for women to enter the workforce in greater numbers and earn greater incomes than ever before must be a sign of economic vitality. That many dual-income couples find it necessary for both people to work just to make ends meet can hardly be a sign of economic well-being. The Economy and the Media The economy always has been a prominent topic in the news media.

 

pages: 263 words: 89,368

925 Ideas to Help You Save Money, Get Out of Debt and Retire a Millionaire So You Can Leave Your Mark on the World by Devin D. Thorpe

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asset allocation, call centre, diversification, estate planning, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, knowledge economy, mortgage tax deduction, payday loans, random walk, risk tolerance, Skype, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, women in the workforce

You can make a lot of progress in relationship building here and its generally free! Being laid off is no fun. Let’s not pretend that this is a vacation. Unless you have a lot of money and it really has been a long time since you took a vacation, don’t treat this time like a vacation. You’ve got a new job looking for a job. With a focus on the task at hand, you’ll be back in the game soon. How Do I Go From Homemaker To The Workforce? Many women take time out of the workforce to be at home with their children when they are young and then seek to return to the work force later. Having hired a number of such women, I offer the following tips to help you in your transition (these ideas will generally work as well for men who’ve been playing the role of a stay-at-home father): Take heart. Don’t worry. You haven’t forgotten how to work nor are employers especially anxious about hiring you.

 

pages: 261 words: 16,734

Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams by Tom Demarco, Timothy Lister

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A Pattern Language, cognitive dissonance, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Parkinson's law, performance metric, skunkworks, supply-chain management, women in the workforce

They get job offers quickly, usually from your competitors who think they’re conducting a raid. 3) The new people at Destiny City are better than the ones you left behind and they’re infused with enthusiasm because they’ve been exposed only to your best people.1 1. R. Townsend, Up the Organization (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970), p. 64. What this is, to use a technical term, is the purest crap. One thing Townsend seems to have missed entirely is the presence of women in the workforce. The typical person being moved today is part of a two-career family. The other half of that equation is probably not being moved, so the corporate move comes down hard on the couple’s relationship at a very delicate point. It brings intolerable stress to bear on the accommodation they’re both striving to achieve to allow two full-fledged careers. That’s hitting below the belt. Modern couples won’t put up with it and they won’t forgive it.

 

pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

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3D printing, call centre, clean water, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

This is especially true for African Americans.5 Entry of women into the labor force affects the economic bargaining power of marriage partners, of course, bringing greater instability and anxiety to a previously stable, if patriarchal, institution. For example, the Negative Income Tax—a pilot program of guaranteed income support that was tested in the 1960s and ’70s, and which provided women with an independent basis of economic security—actually raised the divorce rate by ostensibly providing some wives an exit route from an unhappy domestic situation.6 The entry of women into the workforce has also been blamed by some researchers as directly causing higher divorce rates for the simple reason that other attractions, intimacies, and affairs are more likely to happen in gender-integrated workplaces as opposed to the time when women and men occupied very distinct social realms of home and work. And now that work has gone global and “unplugged,” so to speak, thanks to the portable workshop, all hell has broken loose.

 

pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

During the war, the U.S. government produced posters declaring “Waste Not, Want Not.” By late 1917, the government was giving shops across the country signs to display in their windows reading, “Beware of Thrift and Unwise Economy” to help encourage repetitive consumption.17 Advertisers touted mass-disposable goods as more convenient, time-saving, and hygienic than reusable products. They became increasingly attractive in the early fifties as more women entered the workforce, were pressed for time, and had greater disposable income. It is not surprising that it was against this backdrop that entire lines of disposable products flooded the market, including Kleenex tissues, Q-tips, Band-Aids, paper towels, paper straws, disposable shopping bags, and so on. And along with these products came the boxes and cartons they were packaged in and the ads, catalogs, and window displays to promote them; more stuff used and then thrown away.

 

pages: 256 words: 15,765

The New Elite: Inside the Minds of the Truly Wealthy by Dr. Jim Taylor

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British Empire, call centre, dark matter, Donald Trump, estate planning, full employment, glass ceiling, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, passive income, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ronald Reagan, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce

Many of Franklin Roosevelt’s wealth-equalizing New Deal economic policies continued, with the top tax rate peaking at 91 percent throughout the 1950s, and remaining at 70 percent throughout most of the 1970s. In the meantime, The Wealth of the Nation 31 lower- and middle-class workers benefited from a variety of economic changes. With World War II came full employment, abundant overtime, and, at least temporarily, a growing number of women in the workforce. Union membership surged, wages went up, and bluecollar prosperity took hold, but wartime rationing meant that there was relatively little to buy, so savings rates reached historical highs. The middle class swelled while the gap between the rich and poor narrowed, a pattern that economists Claudia Golden and Robert Margo called ‘‘the great compression.’’5 Ironically, it was the growing middle class that laid the groundwork for the new wave of wealth.

 

pages: 214 words: 71,585

Selfish, Shallow, and Self-Absorbed: Sixteen Writers on the Decision Not to Have Kids by Meghan Daum

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delayed gratification, demographic transition, Donald Trump, financial independence, happiness index / gross national happiness, index card, Mason jar, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, risk tolerance, Skype, women in the workforce

We haven’t had kids. Western fertility started to dive in the 1970s—the same era in which, ironically, alarmist population guru Paul Ehrlich was predicting that we would all soon be balancing on our one square foot of earth per person, like angels on the head of a pin. Numerous factors have contributed to the Incredible Shrinking Family: the introduction of reliable contraception, the wholesale entry of women into the workforce, delayed parenthood and thus higher infertility, the fact that children no longer till your fields but expect your help in putting a down payment on a massive mortgage. Yet I believe all of these contributing elements may be subsidiary to a larger transformation in Western culture no less profound than our collective consensus on what life is for. * * * Statistics are never boring if you can see through the numbers to what they mean, so bear with me.

 

pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

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barriers to entry, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

Immigrants “take” jobs, but they often take jobs that natives are unwilling to do (such as fruit picking), and they also create jobs, because they demand services in the economy. Moreover, they need to be managed and supervised, and these positions normally go to natives, who usually have better education and a better grasp of English. In areas in the United States where immigration is higher, more women enter the workforce because childcare is cheaper. Among those who estimate that immigration would have a negative effect on the incomes of natives, the effect is very small. A review by Professors Rachel Friedberg and Jennifer Hunt, for example, found that a 10 percent increase in the fraction of immigrants in the population reduces native wages by about 1 percent, and found no evidence of significant reductions in native employment (“The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, no. 2 [Spring 1995]: 23–44).

 

pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

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autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

In 1985 these activities were taking up 43.6 hours a week; by 2005, 48.6 hours.23 Three-quarters of the Dutch workforce is feeling overburdened by time pressures, a quarter habitually works overtime, and one in eight is suffering the symptoms of burnout.24 We have been working progressively less (up to 1980) The number of annual work hours per capita has taken a nosedive since the 19th century. Yet after 1970, the figures are misleading as an increasing number of women joined the workforce. As a consequence, families have been increasingly pressed for time, even though the numbers of hours worked per employee was still decreasing in some countries. Source: International Labour Organization What’s more, work and leisure are becoming increasingly difficult to disentangle. A study conducted at the Harvard Business School has shown that, thanks to modern technology, managers and professionals in Europe, Asia, and North America now spend 80–90 hours per week “either working, or ‘monitoring’ work and remaining accessible.”25 And according to British research, the smartphone has the average employee working 460 more hours per year – nearly three weeks.26 It’s safe to say the predictions of the great minds didn’t exactly come true.

 

pages: 282 words: 82,107

An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage

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agricultural Revolution, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, carbon footprint, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

The decline in infant mortality means parents in rural areas do not need to have so many children in order to be sure of having enough people to work in the fields, or to look after them in old age. In urban areas, meanwhile, parents may take the view that it makes sense to have a smaller number of children, given the cost of housing, clothing, and educating them. This is sometimes characterized as a switch from emphasizing child “quantity” to child “quality.” In addition, as female literacy improves and women enter the workforce, they may delay marriage and change their attitude toward childbearing. And governments in industrializing countries generally introduce reforms banning child labor and making education compulsory, which means that children are a drain on household resources until they reach working age. The result is that the birth rate falls, and the population stabilizes. This pattern can be clearly seen in Western nations, which were the first to industrialize.

 

The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Boesky agreed to pay $100 million in forfeitures and penalties, and Michael Milken admitted to six felonies and agreed to pay $600 million in fines. The amount of the fines was staggering, but more revealing was the corporate raider lifestyle the investigations uncovered. In the early 1980s Milken was reportedly making $550 million a year.12 Overall, the freeing of the market for corporate control had important benefits for women in the workforce. College-educated women moved into fields like business, engineering, medicine, and law. ‘‘The result was that women as a whole, whose average earnings had been 58 percent of those of men in 1979, earned 68 percent ten years later.’’13 Professional women began moving into managerial positions where they soon faced the problem of how to combine motherhood and career. In the 1980s work itself was changing.

 

pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

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3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, women in the workforce, young professional

When lockstep ends, this mingling of ages will bring greater understanding across the ages and help those who are older to retain more youthful characteristics. Home and work relationships will transform A longer life with more years post the age of raising children has great potential to reduce gender inequality and to transform personal relationships, marriage and child-rearing. Traditionally the home was a place of specialization – men worked and women looked after the home and children. This has changed in recent decades, as women increasingly entered the workforce and dual incomes became the norm rather than the exception. However, while family roles have changed, the narrative of the three-stage life as typical of the male career remains dominant. While women are more likely to have multi-stage lives, this is still seen as unusual and not the norm. Relationships over long lives will transform, in part because the financial and saving requirements are easier when both members of the household work.

The options for fathers will also be broader; they too can decide to work full-time in a traditional role, be a full-time father, or negotiate different roles over a period of years. Work and home An important part of the equation of home and personal lives is work, and particularly the extent to which women work. The twentieth century saw major changes in the role of women in the workplace, and an excellent summary is provided by the Harvard University economist Claudia Goldin.15. She shows that there has been a narrowing between men and women in terms of their participation in the workforce and the hours they spend at work – both at home and in the workplace, the type of jobs and sectors in which they work, as well as in terms of wages. Women and work However, while differences have narrowed, there still remain substantial gaps and blockages that disadvantage women. This context is important, because if these differences remain then the choices and options facing women over the course of a 100-year life will differ from those facing men.

 

pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

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3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

We are not alone. 82 percent of women in the United States now work, a 250 percent increase since the 1950s.11 Fewer than 7 percent of households have only a male breadwinner.12 This is a radical change in our households and lives. As the Industrial Economy gave way to the Information Economy, labor transitioned from a physical to an intellectual endeavor, an important factor in opening doors for women to join the workforce in legions. Despite a persistent glass ceiling at the top of most corporations, women have risen to higher-level roles in steadily increasing numbers, and this has contributed to another core driver of the growth of the Purpose Economy. Economics has historically been a male-dominated profession, and so it is of little surprise that household work was never considered in the calculation of the nation’s economic output.

 

pages: 180 words: 61,340

Boomerang: Travels in the New Third World by Michael Lewis

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Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, fiat currency, full employment, German hyperinflation, Irish property bubble, Kenneth Rogoff, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South Sea Bubble, tulip mania, women in the workforce

But that’s not the problem, exactly. Watching Icelandic men and women together is like watching toddlers. They don’t play together but in parallel; they overlap even less organically than men and women in other developed countries, which is really saying something. It isn’t that the women are oppressed, exactly. On paper, by historical global standards, they have it about as good as women anywhere: good public health care, high participation in the workforce, equal rights. What Icelandic women appear to lack—at least to a tourist who has watched them for all of ten days—is a genuine connection to Icelandic men. The Independence Party is mostly male; the Social Democrats, mostly female. (On February 1, 2009, when the reviled Geir Haarde finally stepped aside, he was replaced by Johanna Sigurdardottir, a Social Democrat, and Iceland got not just a female prime minister but the modern world’s first openly gay head of state—she is married to another woman.)

 

pages: 384 words: 89,250

Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America by Giles Slade

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Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, Douglas Engelbart, global village, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, invention of radio, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the market place, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, women in the workforce

They kept the same name, but (to the dismay of some traditionalists) they lost their pretty ribbons. DISPOSABLE PRODUCTS FOR WOMEN In the early decades of the twentieth century, manufacturers who had embraced disposability as a viable way to achieve repetitive consumption realized that in catering mainly to men, they severely limited their potential market. Urbanization and industrialization had changed American gender roles, and single women were entering the workforce in greater numbers. Brochures published by the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of Boston record the variety of employment opportunities available to women. Many of the suggested positions were previously restricted to men. They included work in publishing, real estate, probation, industrial chemistry, and bacteriology.13 Changes in laws concerning inheritance and the integrity of life insurance policies, and especially improvements in their enforcement, were also putting more money into widowed women’s hands.14 Furthermore, America had shifted from a subsistence agrarian economy to an industrial one, and as a result more and more married women found themselves in cities, shopping for their families’ needs in the hours that their husbands worked and their children went to school.

 

Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink (Politics and Society in Modern America) by Louis Hyman

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asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, card file, central bank independence, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, financial independence, financial innovation, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, p-value, pattern recognition, profit maximization, profit motive, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, technology bubble, the built environment, transaction costs, union organizing, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

As National Organization for Women (NOW) representative Lynne Litwiller testified, “in a country where credit is more important than money . . . women are summarily excluded, at best tenuously eligible conditioned upon remaining forever single. Any woman who is married, has been married, or who may ever get married, 90 percent of all women, will find that credit follows the husband.”93 Even in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as so many middle-class married women entered the workforce, women still depended on their husbands for their economic identity. For feminists, credit dependency on their husbands was a tangible reminder of how institutions defined them as an economic appendage of their husbands. Much more so than single women, married women confronted challenges in acquiring credit if they wanted it independently from their husbands. While married men could easily make credit choices affecting their households, women who tried to do the same met consistent and obdurate obstacles.

 

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

Recessions were merely annoying interruptions, blamed variously on policy-­making incompetence, excessive union power, short-­sighted financial institutions, lazy managers and nasty oil shocks. Our modern era of economic stagnation is a fundamentally different proposition. Many of the factors that led to such scintillating rates of economic expansion in the Western world in earlier decades are no longer working their magic: the forces of globalization are in retreat, the boomers are ageing, women are thankfully better represented in the workforce,3 wages are being squeezed as competition from the emerging superpowers hots up and, as those superpowers demand a bigger share of the world’s scarce resources, Westerners are forced to pay more for food and energy. In the 1990s, it looked for a while as though new technologies might overcome these constraints. We hoped our economies would still be able to expand thanks to the impact of technology on 2 4099.indd 2 29/03/13 2:23 PM Introduction productivity.

Social security systems designed to prevent a repeat of the terrible impoverishment of the 1930s became increasingly widespread, reducing the need for households to stuff cash under the mattress for unforeseen emergencies: they could thus spend more freely. With the reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping at the end of the 1970s and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, countries that had been trapped in the economic equivalent of a deep-­freeze were able to come in from the cold, creating new opportunities for trade and investment: trade between China and the US, for example, expanded massively. Women, sorely underrepresented in the workforce through lack of opportunity and lack of pay, suddenly found themselves in gainful employment thanks to sex discrimination legislation. In the early 1960s, fewer than 40 per cent of US women of working age were either in work or actively looking for work: by the end of the twentieth century, approaching 70 per cent were involved. The quality of education improved, with more and more school leavers going to university before venturing into the real world: in 1950, only 15 per cent of American men and 4 per cent of American women between the ages of 20 and 24 were enrolled in college: at the beginning of the twenty-­first century, the numbers for both sexes had risen to over 30 per cent.

 

pages: 358 words: 106,729

Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

The reduction in the punitive postwar marginal tax on high incomes (from a top rate of 91 percent through much of the 1950s and the 1960s, through a number of ups and downs, to 35 percent at the time of writing) has increased incentives to earn higher incomes and may thus have contributed to the growing entrepreneurship and inequality.17 The weakness of unions may also have reduced moderately educated workers’ bargaining power, though the loss of high-paying unionized jobs probably has more to do with increased competition and entry as a result of deregulation, as well as competition from imports. A relatively stagnant minimum wage has certainly allowed the lowest real wages to fall (thereby also ensuring that some people who would otherwise be unemployed do have a job), though only a small percentage of American workers are paid the minimum wage. Finally, the entry of women into the workforce has also affected inequality. Because the well-connected and the highly educated tend to mate more often with each other, “assortative” mating has also helped increase household income inequality. The reasons for growing income inequality are, undoubtedly, a matter of heated debate. To my mind, the evidence is most persuasive that the growing inequality I think the most worrisome, the increasing 90/10 differential, stems primarily from the gap between the demand for the highly educated and their supply.

 

pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve

Mexico, with long-term growth in the 3 percent range, has been performing far below its potential. These weak growth numbers endure despite demographic conditions that are the most favorable in the region’s history for a great economic leap forward. Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela all have similar population profiles: rapidly growing labor forces that reflect past birthrates and the increasing participation of women in the workforce, sharply declining birthrates, and favorable dependency ratios—few old people, and not too many children. Only 8–9 percent of the population is over sixty years old, compared to 16 percent in the United States, 22 percent in Europe, and over 25 percent in Japan. The favorable “window” for economic growth will last another twenty-five years. The only country that is currently taking advantage of it is Peru, where nominal GDP, with a fairly stable exchange rate, has grown from approximately $55 billion in 2001 to $127 billion in 2009 and approximately $140 billion in 2010.

 

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War

The United Nations Population Fund has found that educated women are likely to marry later and have smaller and healthier families. As female education rises, studies show that infant mortality rates fall and family health improves. Children of educated mothers are themselves more likely to achieve higher levels of education, feeding into a virtuous cycle. An increase in female education also translates into more women in the workforce, which boosts household income and GDP. And none of that even begins to engage broader questions of morality, gender equality and social justice. Consider the situation of a woman in Uganda working as a reporter for the Ugandan Broadcasting Corporation. She may decide, as Deborah did, to hold off on getting married until later in life. Along with being busy with work, she would also have the financial wherewithal to stay single.

 

pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

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Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Families can invest in their children’s education, knowing the investment is worthwhile. As women become better educated, and are more knowledgeable about contraception, they can spend more time working and less time having children. The opportunity cost of childbirth rises, thereby placing downward pressure on the fertility rate. The size of the workforce increases because of both the increased number of infants surviving to adulthood and the higher participation of women in the workforce. With an expanded workforce, the volume of savings increases, allowing funds to be channelled to investment projects, which lift incomes even further. And, with a more educated workforce, human ingenuity can lift productivity, allowing more outputs for given inputs of raw materials. Like a surfer, it’s not always easy to jump onto these demographic waves. Sub-Saharan Africa has by far the greatest struggles.

 

pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn

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agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

In the late 1920s, street thugs would sometimes seize a woman with short hair and pull out all of her hair or even cut off her breasts. If you want to look like a man, they said, this will do it. Communism after the 1949 revolution was brutal in China, leading to tens of millions of deaths by famine or repression, but its single most positive legacy was the emancipation of women. After taking power, Mao brought women into the workforce and the Central Committee of the Communist Party, and he used his political capital to abolish child marriage, prostitution, and concubinage. It was Mao who proclaimed: “Women hold up half the sky.” There were some setbacks for women with the death of ideology and the rise of a market economy in the 1980s, and Chinese women still face challenges. Even college-educated women experience discrimination in finding jobs, and sexual harassment is widespread.

 

Crisis and Dollarization in Ecuador: Stability, Growth, and Social Equity by Paul Ely Beckerman, Andrés Solimano

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banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, currency peg, declining real wages, disintermediation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, land reform, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, open economy, pension reform, price stability, rent-seeking, school vouchers, seigniorage, trade liberalization, women in the workforce

Just under 50 percent of all rural women in the nonwage labor force have either a primary or secondary occupation in the nonagricultural sector; the corresponding figure is 37 percent for men. But women are also significantly less likely to be employed in relatively higher-productivity occupations. According to Lanjouw’s analysis, a man is twice as likely to be in a high-productivity activity than a woman. The Entry of Wives into the Labor Force during Shocks Evidence from Ecuador and other countries suggests that as economic need arises, households respond by sending women into the workforce to compensate for their husbands’ unemployment or to supplement shrinking household income (Moser 1997; Cunningham 2001; World Bank 2001). This assertion is supported by the fact that more than twice as many women vis-à-vis men who have never worked are now seeking work, as shown in table 5.1. Women also make up about half of all workers with no education and, at the other extreme, constitute about half of those with superior and graduate level education.25 Female participation is also lower among all workers with primary or secondary education.26 Among unemployed women, wives or daughters predominate; in contrast, household heads or sons predominate among the male unemployed (see table 5.5).

 

pages: 285 words: 86,174

Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

It’s senseless to pine for a bygone era of Jim Crow, Mad Men–style casual sexual harassment and gender apartheid, police raids of underground gay bars and sodomy prosecutions, and laws against interracial marriage. The second era of equality has dismantled many (though certainly by no means all) of the legal and cultural structures that regulated and enforced these brutal inequalities of race, gender, and sexual orientation. Women entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers, and trends suggest that in the very near future, women will surpass men in all levels of educational attainment. While women still make on average 23 percent less than men, that gap has shrunk markedly since 1980, when women made on average 40 percent less. As for racial equity, the gains are decidedly more mixed, but one unambiguous achievement of the second era of equality is that the elite has undoubtedly become more diverse.

 

pages: 287 words: 99,131

Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Ageism is pervasive, affecting young and old alike, slowing this process of discovery by shaping the way older adults look at others of the same age, making them hesitant to work together to influence the future. Nevertheless, there are significant efforts to ensure that those who live longer can continue to contribute to society, including the work being pioneered by Marc Freedman in the areas of civic engagement and encore careers, and research supported by the Sloan Foundation on how workplaces and jobs need to be structured to optimize the contributions of older adults.9 The movement of women into the workforce created gaps in child care and community life, which are partially being filled by retirees, and many industries are concerned about future shortages of skilled workers. There is already widespread interest in ways of reengaging retirees, either through flexible arrangements for paid work or as volunteers. The possibility of productive work lasting an additional decade will do more than supplement the workforce and can lead us to rethink the values and meaning of work.

 

pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Over the course of their careers, women tended to lose ground compared to men.97 Whereas racially discriminatory legislation had to face the legal test of “strict scrutiny” (no such law could stand without a “compelling state interest”), efforts to achieve gender equality foundered after the failure of the Equal Rights Amendment. While the federal government removed some barriers to women’s participation in the workforce, it did little directly to aid that participation. The possibilities of federal daycare had been illustrated during World War II, when the government facilitated the construction of 24-hour care so that women could work in war industries. After the war these daycare centers closed. Although by the 1970s welfare policy encouraged poor, single mothers to work, no plan for large-scale child care was ever arranged.

 

pages: 586 words: 159,901

Wall Street: How It Works And for Whom by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labor-force participation, late capitalism, law of one price, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, random walk, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Artis (1988) found them roughly comparable, with a decent record if you go no further than one year out, but likely to miss turning points. In other words, if next year is pretty much like this year, the forecast will be accurate. Economists from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (FuUerton 1992, Saunders 1992, Rosenthal 1992) reviewed the Bureau's own employment projections and found similar failings. The 1973 forecast for 1990 greatly underestimated the continuing surge of women into the workforce. Projections of the female labor force participation rate (LFPR) in 1990 made in 1978, 1980, 1983, and 1985 were a lot closer to the mark, but by 1978, women's LFPR had already risen sharply enough to be noticeable. In its macroeconomic projections, the 1978 and 1981 GNP forecasts for 1990 were too optimistic — the 1978 forecast by a margin of 11.5%, a not inconsiderable $386 billion. Though the error got smaller as time went on, there was a persistent tendency to overestimate the growth of labor productivity.

 

pages: 238 words: 68,914

Where Does It Hurt?: An Entrepreneur's Guide to Fixing Health Care by Jonathan Bush, Stephen Baker

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Clayton Christensen, informal economy, inventory management, job automation, knowledge economy, obamacare, personalized medicine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, web application, women in the workforce, working poor

In this case, there are solid arguments for us to pay the money. These women might reasonably point out that they devoted their most fertile years to building athenahealth. Now that we’re a big company with a market capitalization in the billions, we can spend some of that money helping them have babies. Point taken. But imagine if each of us could choose only the health insurance we wanted, à la carte. In such a scenario, maybe only twenty women in our whole workforce would be interested in the expensive in vitro coverage. And a good number of them would no doubt be driven away by the cost, which would presumably skyrocket once the vast majority of customers dropped it. Would that be the end of the story? A service that costs $1 million shrivels and dies for lack of paying customers? I don’t think so. But it would create a crisis for the in vitro providers.

 

pages: 221 words: 68,880

Bikenomics: How Bicycling Can Save the Economy (Bicycle) by Elly Blue

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

At least, that was the dream. The reality was never so rosy, as was so scathingly chronicled in Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique. And even its imperfect incarnation was available only to a relatively-wealthy middle class of mostly white women. This dream also proved unsustainable as a national economic model. By the 1960s, many of these suburban single-family households needed two incomes to function. Women returned to the workforce but typically still did most of the unpaid labor, in effect working double shifts; but this change came with added expenses, including day care for children—and a second car. Nowadays, these double responsibilities add up to complicated transportation needs. Women make more trips than men, with diverse kinds of trips chained together. And twice as many trips are at the service of passengers—the school drop-off, soccer practice, and the play date wedged in there between the grocery run and the commute to work.

 

pages: 364 words: 103,162

The English by Jeremy Paxman

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back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

But they were the last generation to live by that code. Like one quarter of the couples who married in 1947, the royal couple reached their Golden Wedding anniversary in 1997, but by then, the predicament of Celia Johnson and Trevor Howard had become little more than an anthropological curiosity: less than one tenth of the couples who married fifty years on were expected to complete the same marathon. By then, women made up almost half the workforce, an astonishing change in light of the meekness fifty years earlier with which most had surrendered their wartime jobs when demobilized men demanded employment. The best part of 200,000 marriages now ended in divorce every year, with proceedings more often than not initiated by women, unprepared any longer to think ‘we must be sensible’.2 By the time of Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth’s celebrations, their four children had contracted three marriages, every single one of which had failed.

I am grateful, too, to Julian Holloway and Dr Jon Lawrence of Liverpool University, who read the finished manuscript and spotted at least some of the blemishes. Those which remain are all my own work. NOTES CHAPTER ONE The Land of Lost Content 1. Geoffrey Gorer: Exploring English Character, p. 303. 2. In 1995, the most recent figures available, 174,000 marriages in England and Wales ended in divorce (source: Office of National Statistics). In September 1997, women made up 46.3% of the workforce: the comparable figure in 1947 was 30%. 3. London Research Centre: Education in London: Key Facts, 1997, p. 18. 4. George Orwell: ‘The Moon under Water’, in the Evening Standard, 9 February 1946. 5. George Orwell: The Lion and the Unicorn, p. 48. 6. W. C. Sellar and R. J. Yeatman: 1066, And All That, p. 25. 7. Ibid., p. 123. 8. A. S. Byatt: ‘What It Means to Be English’, in The Times, 6 April 1998. 9.

 

pages: 302 words: 83,116

SuperFreakonomics by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

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agricultural Revolution, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, call centre, clean water, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, disintermediation, endowment effect, experimental economics, food miles, indoor plumbing, John Nash: game theory, Joseph Schumpeter, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, market design, microcredit, Milgram experiment, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, presumed consent, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

The economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz found that women who went to Harvard earned less than half as much as the average Harvard man. Even when the analysis included only full-time, full-year employees and controlled for college major, profession, and other variables, Goldin and Katz found that the Harvard women still earned about 30 percent less than their male counterparts. What can possibly account for such a huge wage gap? There are a variety of factors. Women are more likely to leave the workforce or downshift their careers to raise a family. Even within high-paying occupations like medicine and law, women tend to choose specialties that pay less (general practitioner, for instance, or in-house counsel). And there is likely still a good amount of discrimination. This may range from the overt—denying a woman a promotion purely because she is not a man—to the insidious. A considerable body of research has shown that overweight women suffer a greater wage penalty than overweight men.

As of 1940, an astonishing 55 percent of all college-educated female workers in their early thirties were employed as teachers. Soon after, however, opportunities for smart women began to multiply. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were contributing factors, as was the societal shift in the perception of women’s roles. As more girls went off to college, more women emerged ready to join the workforce, especially in the desirable professions that had been largely off-limits: law, medicine, business, finance, and so on. (One of the unsung heroes of this revolution was the widespread use of baby formula, which allowed new mothers to get right back to work.) These demanding, competitive professions offered high wages and attracted the best and brightest women available. No doubt many of these women would have become schoolteachers had they been born a generation earlier.

 

pages: 197 words: 53,292

Isn't That Rich?: Life Among the 1 Percent by Richard Kirshenbaum, Michael Gross

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Downton Abbey, McMansion, New Journalism, rolodex, women in the workforce

“There’s no need to,” she said, twirling her wedding band. “It just is.” “Do your friends have deals?” “Some do and some don’t. The really successful ones tend to. We don’t need a man for anything.” “Then why be married?” I knew I was pushing Lily’s white buttons. “It’s part of the fear that women have about not having ‘Mrs.’ in front of their names. Today, one has a choice. Marriage is a choice but not a mandate. Many women went charging into the workforce in my day and then bailed. If the husband lets them go spinning and lunching and shopping, many women would rather take that option. “For me and my friends, speaking on the phone to our husbands and going off to the South of France or Siena for the summer couldn’t be more wonderful. Brioche, dear?” With Memorial Day fast approaching and the pleasures of seersucker and linen beckoning, I received a call from a Southern Gentleman I know through the squash circuit.

 

pages: 345 words: 92,849

Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

First, it ignores the fact that some important costs have risen substantially in recent decades, such as the costs of health care and education. (As we explain in chapter 5, however, these rising costs are largely the consequence of government intervention.) Second, more middle-class families now have two earners, as many women have chosen to enter the workforce rather than become stay-at-home mothers. On the whole, that’s a good thing. But it does complicate the picture, since it means that some amount of this improvement in our standard of living is owed not to pure economic progress, but to more people working. (That said, women constitute only 9 percent more of the workforce than they did in 1970—nowhere near enough of an increase to account for the gains American households have seen.51) Finally, some of these improvements may be a consequence of Americans taking on irrational levels of debt, which is not a sustainable path to growth.

 

pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

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Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, women in the workforce

However, we are now seeing a significant rise in the appreciation of the “feminine” values of caring, compassion, cooperation, and more right-brain qualities, heralding a harmonious blending of these human values in our work and life. Conscious businesses certainly embody both perspectives, whether they are led by men or women. Women around the world today have greater access to education, employment, and opportunities than they had before. Women already outnumber men in the workforce in the United States. The increase in women’s access to higher education has been dramatic. A century ago, fewer than 20 percent of college students were women. Today, women account for almost 60 percent of college students at the undergraduate level and 70 percent at the graduate level in the United States. The numbers are similar in many other countries. On average, women also perform better academically.

 

pages: 603 words: 186,210

Appetite for America: Fred Harvey and the Business of Civilizing the Wild West--One Meal at a Time by Stephen Fried

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, City Beautiful movement, estate planning, glass ceiling, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, indoor plumbing, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, refrigerator car, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

But Minnie didn’t remain single much longer. She fell for the foreman at the Dorsey ranch, George Washington Gillespie. They married and raised five sons. FRED WAS IMPRESSED with Tom Gable’s experiment, and quickly moved to adopt it for his entire eating house chain. Feminist scholars would come to see this decision in 1883 as a crucial turning point for American women. There had been only one other significant female workforce in the country—the female mill workers in Lowell, Massachusetts, from the 1820s through the 1840s. But those mill laborers were often exploited, and had never enjoyed anything like the kind of freedom and empowerment that came from leaving home and reinventing themselves in a new place. To men working and living in western towns, however, Fred’s decision meant only one thing: a steady supply of single, personable, and often comely young ladies being brought in by rail.

He invoked the family tradition that women not get involved with the business, noting how in 1911 her own father, Ford, had forced his sisters and mother to sell their shares. He demanded that she sell him all the shares she controlled, immediately. According to him, it was the Fred Harvey way. Kitty refused. She didn’t give a damn what her father had said in 1911—it was 1936, and the world had changed. Women were in the workforce, they were even starting their own companies. She was perfectly capable of being on the board of her family’s business. In fact, given her stock holdings, perhaps she should be chairman of the board. Nor was it just a matter of whether she could help influence the company’s future. Kitty also knew that if her uncle bought her out, it would be bad for the business. The amount of cash required to purchase her shares would put Fred Harvey into debt—the first major debt in its sixty-year history—just as the company was finally making some headway after the Depression years in which, for the first time, they had actually lost money.

 

pages: 488 words: 144,145

Inflated: How Money and Debt Built the American Dream by R. Christopher Whalen

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Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, conceptual framework, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, debt deflation, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global reserve currency, housing crisis, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, non-tariff barriers, oil shock, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

Later estimates of the overall cost of the war would be much higher, especially when compared to the cost of WWI and including the cost of debt forgiveness for the allies. The cost also included the reintegration of 12 million people into the American civilian economy via such measures as the GI Bill of Rights, which was passed by Congress in June 1944. While the war mobilization had absorbed a large part of the slack in the predominantly male U.S. work force, and even drew in millions of women into the workforce as well, this was not the same as gainful employment in the private sector. The GI Bill provided cash for returning service personnel, unemployment insurance for up to a year, and loans for housing or to purchase a farm or a business. Most important, the GI Bill provided higher education to veterans, many of whom missed completing their formal education in order to go to war. As with Lincoln at the end of the Civil War, Congress was generous with the returning soldiers.

 

pages: 421 words: 125,417

Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs

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agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

Public Leadership Fertility choices reflect not only individual tradeoffs in the marketplace but also community norms as to the “appropriate” behavior of young men and women. The age of marriage, the spacing of children, the appropriateness of choosing sterilization (for example, vasectomy or tubal ligation) as a long-term fertility-control method after the family size is complete, and public attitudes toward women in the workforce are all culturally conditioned. Public leadership by authority figures in favor of voluntary fertility reduction has played an important role in shifting cultural norms (for example, in accepting modern contraceptive use) and has emboldened women in tradition-bound rural areas to seek family planning services. On the other hand, where authority figures such as religious leaders oppose contraception and family planning, the fertility transition can be delayed.

 

pages: 497 words: 130,817

Pedigree: How Elite Students Get Elite Jobs by Lauren A. Rivera

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affirmative action, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, Donald Trump, fundamental attribution error, glass ceiling, income inequality, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, performance metric, profit maximization, profit motive, school choice, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, The Wisdom of Crowds, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, young professional

—Marina Keegan, Yale College Class of 20121 The first thing you asked me about [when I started as president] wasn’t the curriculum or advising or faculty contact or even student space. In fact, it wasn’t even alcohol policy. Instead, you repeatedly asked me: “Why are so many of us going to Wall Street? Why are we going in such numbers from Harvard to finance, consulting, i-banking?”… 58 percent of men and 43 percent of women entering the workforce made this choice. —Drew Faust, Harvard University commencement address, 20082 Investment banks, consulting firms, and law firms have become ubiquitous features of life on elite undergraduate, business, and law school campuses. Over the past fifty years, students graduating from these institutions have increasingly pursued corporate careers. At Harvard, over 70 percent of each senior class typically applies to investment banks or consulting firms through on-campus recruitment.3 As President Faust noted in her commencement address, roughly half of all graduates in 2008 entered these fields.

 

pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

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Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

While African countries take foreign investment and recycle it right back into the first world, 70 percent of Arab oil revenues are now being heavily reinvested within the Arab world itself.10 Gulf states have committed a trillion dollars to infrastructure projects ranging from water desalination, universities, and hospitals to new ports and export-driven cities rising out of the desert. The Arab business community is pushing a professionalized reform that is reminiscent of other intra–second world collective bootstrapping from Eastern Europe to East Asia, lifting tourism in Tunisia and Egypt, agricultural growth from Morocco to Sudan, and other entrepreneurial ventures that create jobs and even liberate many women into the workforce, changing the pattern by which Gulf countries were “richer than they are developed.”11 Yet just because they are rich (again) today doesn’t mean they won’t blow it. The tribal aspects of monarchic control that made prosperity fleeting very much remain in place today.12 “The medieval social structures are regressive even by Arab standards,” pitied one Gulf monarchy watcher in Dubai. The rentier model of pure familial control in exchange for welfare precludes any notion of a balance of power between state and society.13 In both Qatar and the Emirates, numerous bloodless coups within the royal families have involved sheikhs ousting and sacking one another out of pride or boredom.

 

pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

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Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce

Where workers’ uprisings threatened the Allied plans – as they did in both Warsaw and Turin in 1944 – generals simply halted the military advance until the Wehrmacht had done its job. After that, the communist parties stepped in to limit all action to the restoration of democracy only. There was no repeat of 1917–21. But fears of such a repeat would force a hike in workers’ living standards and a tilt in the balance of wealth distribution towards the working class. In the first phase, the rapid post-war expulsion of women from the industrial workforce – as depicted in the documentary film The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter (1980) – allowed male wages to rise, causing a narrowing of wage differentials between workers and the middle class. The sociologist C. Wright Mills noted that, by 1948, while the income of American white-collar workers had doubled in ten years, that of manual workers had increased threefold.32 Additionally, the Allies actually imposed welfare states, trade union rights and democratic constitutions on Italy, Germany and Japan, as a punishment for their elites and as an obstacle to their re-emergence as fascist powers.

 

pages: 361 words: 83,886

Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt

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carbon-based life, computer age, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

., 34,111-13, 126-28, 130 unions, 151-52,155-56,158-60,167; All Japan Federation of Electric Machine Workers Union, 156; All Nissan Motor Workers Union, 155; Federation of Japan Automobile Workers' Unions, 158 United States President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, 169 United States Robots, 127 universities, research environment, 218-22 "unmanned factories", 45-46,159,188 Unno, Juza, 75 Urata, Kenji, 164 US. robot manufacturers' dependence on Japan, 127-28,145 VAL, 161 Vaucanson, Jacques de, 56, 65 Versatran, 111-12,114 vision, 36, 47-48, 51,119,129,149,177, 216, 222 Wabot, 203, 206. See also Wasubot wages, 95, 101, 118-20, 153, 182 wakon-yosai ("Japanese spirit-Western learning"), 69 Waldron, Kenneth J., 230 WASCOR (WAseda Construction Robot), 191 Wasubot, 13, 203 Weisel, Walt, 43,144, 200 welding robots, 17,116-17,119 Wiener, Norbert, 31, 48, 55, 58,156,183,199, 207 wire bonder robots, 180-81 women: promoting technology, 26; in workforce, 100-101,158 word processors, 41 workforce: feeling of equity, 153-54; high wages of, 119; need for flexibility, 151-52; shortage in, 119-20 Yamabiko, 221, 224 Yamasaki Seisakujo, 20-21,154,166,176 Yamaura, Eiji, 90 Yaskawa Electric, 114,149,175 Yoke, Hideaki, 98,101 Yokoyama, Mitsuteru, 78 Yonemoto, Kanji, 38-39,122, 213, 233 Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki, 229, 233 Yuta, Shinnichi, 43, 224 Credits The following individuals and organizations graciously allowed reproduction of photographs and illustrations in their possession.

 

pages: 1,294 words: 210,361

The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee

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Barry Marshall: ulcers, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, experimental subject, iterative process, life extension, Louis Pasteur, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, New Journalism, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, scientific mainstream, Silicon Valley, social web, statistical model, stem cell, women in the workforce, éminence grise

Mary Lasker’s own instruction in sales began in the early 1920s, when, having graduated from Radcliffe College, she found her first job selling European paintings on commission for a gallery in New York—a cutthroat profession that involved as much social maneuvering as canny business sense. In the mid-1930s, Lasker left the gallery to start an entrepreneurial venture called Hollywood Patterns, which sold simple prefab dress designs to chain stores. Once again, good instincts crisscrossed with good timing. As women joined the workforce in increasing numbers in the 1940s, Lasker’s mass-produced professional clothes found a wide market. Lasker emerged from the Depression and the war financially rejuvenated. By the late 1940s, she had grown into an extraordinarily powerful businesswoman, a permanent fixture in the firmament of New York society, a rising social star. In 1939, Mary Woodard met Albert Lasker, the sixty-year-old president of Lord and Thomas, an advertising firm based in Chicago.

 

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

Alan Budd, Thatcher’s chief economic adviser, later admitted that ‘the 1980s policies of attacking inflation by squeezing the economy and public spending were a cover to bash the workers’, and so create an ‘industrial reserve army’ which would undermine the power of labour and permit capitalists to make easy profits ever after. In the US, unemployment surged, in the name of controlling inflation, to over 10 per cent by 1982. The result: wages stagnated. This was accompanied in the US by a politics of criminalisation and incarceration of the poor that had put more than 2 million behind bars by 2000. Capital also had the option to go to where the surplus labour was. Rural women of the global south were incorporated into the workforce everywhere, from Barbados to Bangladesh, from Ciudad Juarez to Dongguan. The result was an increasing feminisation of the proletariat, the destruction of ‘traditional’ peasant systems of self-sufficient production and the feminization of poverty worldwide. International trafficking of women into domestic slavery and prostitution surged as more than 2 billion people, increasingly crammed into the slums, favelas and ghettos of insalubrious cities, tried to get by on less than $2 a day.

In the last thirty years, for example, some 2 billion wage labourers have been added to the available global workforce, through the opening-up of China and the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe. All around the world the integration of rural and hitherto independent peasant populations into the workforces has occurred. Most dramatic of all has been the mobilisation of women, who now form the backbone of the global workforce. A massive pool of labour power for capitalist expansion is now available. Labour markets are, however, geographically segmented. A daily commuting time of four hours comes close to defining an outer limit for workers to get to their jobs on a daily basis. How far away four hours gets you depends, of course, on the speed and cost of transportation, but the inevitable geographical segmentation of labour markets means that questions of labour supply boil down to a series of local problems embedded in regional and state strategies, mitigated by migratory movements (of both capital and labour).

 

Presentation Zen Design: Simple Design Principles and Techniques to Enhance Your Presentations by Garr Reynolds

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, cloud computing, Hans Rosling, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra

Scatter plots Scatter plots are useful for showing a general relationship between two variables and an overall impression of the relationship. Line graphs Line graphs are good at showing trends over time. Use a line graph if the x-axis is an interval scale such as days, weeks, or months. A vertical bar chart could have been used for this, but the goal was to show the trend and the shape of the data rather than the numbers. Here you can see the “M-curve” in the case of Japan. Many women in Japan drop out of the workforce when they have children (and then reenter the workforce again later). What About Picture Graphs? Picture graphs use visuals to represent the data points. They are very common in popular media because they get your attention—at least that’s the idea. While I am a fan of high-impact visuals, I am not crazy about picture graphs. The downside is that they (1) take longer to create and (2) can obscure the actual data.

 

pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

A key issue here is the relative return on time and effort for roles requiring different technical capabilities, as there is a risk that personal services and other currently female-dominated job categories will remain undervalued. If so, the fourth industrial revolution may lead to further divergence between men’s roles and women’s. This would be a negative outcome of the fourth industrial revolution, as it would increase both inequality overall and the gender gap, making it more difficult for women to leverage their talents in the workforce of the future. It would also put at risk the value created by increased diversity and the gains that we know organizations can make from the enhanced creativity and efficiency of having gender-balanced teams at all levels. Many of the traits and capabilities traditionally associated with women and female professions will be much more needed in the era of the fourth industrial revolution.

 

pages: 251 words: 76,128

Borrow: The American Way of Debt by Louis Hyman

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asset-backed security, barriers to entry, big-box store, cashless society, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, market bubble, McMansion, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, Ronald Reagan, statistical model, technology bubble, transaction costs, women in the workforce

The seemingly unending demand for U.S. dollars in the postwar period, when the whole world wanted to buy U.S. goods, gave way to a dollar that was less in demand. The economic dislocations of the 1970s—inflation and deindustrialization—fundamentally stemmed from this return to normalcy. The stable growth of the postwar period that had rewarded budgeting and borrowing fell apart. With surging inflation and stagnating pay, real wages began to fall. Making up the gap, more married women than ever before entered the workforce, trying to make ends meet. But consumers also began to rely on borrowing to make up the widening gap. Since World War II, the amount borrowed by Americans had been rising, but the amount they could pay back—from good-paying postwar jobs—had kept pace. In the 1970s, that carefully budgeted balance between rising debt and rising income came undone. At the same time, the demise of department stores created a new opportunity for bank credit cards to flourish.

 

pages: 251 words: 76,225

The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, desegregation, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Skype, women in the workforce

Our government, our schools, our media industry built a story about what was acceptable, normal, decent, and we all strove to fit neatly into it, though this story was completely made up. Is it any surprise that the narrative of the “caveman” going out to hunt meat for the tribe while the “cavewoman” stayed home and looked after the children became a staple of American history books during this time—a time when we also put forth the idea it was “normal” for men to go out to work while women stayed at home? (This was a narrative built in part to encourage women to get out of the workforce again so returning male veterans could fill their factory jobs.) I’ve been amused the last twenty years to watch the whole conception about how early hominids lived unraveled from its 1950s frame by more modern archaeologists. Stories are powerfully important to people who are seeking to make sense of their own lives. Stories of what is possible open doors. Folks who snub their noses at the power of story must ask themselves why control over ideas—over books and media and information—is so coveted by governments.

 

pages: 284 words: 85,643

What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce

 

pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

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back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

If you cannot understand how somebody can simultaneously watch TV and tweet about it on their iPad, you are struggling with the concept—but hurry up: 60 per cent of all young people use a ‘second screen’ while watching TV. Social theorists observed the beginnings of ‘networked individualism’ very early in the development of information technology. Sociologist Barry Wellman identified birth control, divorce laws, women’s participation in the workforce, and the zoning of cities into suburbs and business parks as preconditions to the Internet way of life. Long before Facebook came along, Wellman noticed that people preferred to live with multiple networks, flat hierarchies and weak commitments: Rather than relating to one group, [people] cycle through interactions with a variety of others, at work or in the community. Their work and community networks are diffuse, sparsely knit, with vague, overlapping, social and spatial boundaries.4 But the theory of ‘networked individualism’, pioneered primarily within sociology in the 1990s, was at first focused on patterns of interaction within groups.

 

pages: 268 words: 112,708

Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell

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1960s counterculture, AltaVista, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

If we heed this connection that leads from private property to social inequality, in both the spatial organization and the gendered stratifications of public and private realms, then the ethical dilemmas about commercialization multiply. This is the case when we consider the sexual composition of 8 Why Culture Work s the cultural workforce and the unequal wages of men and women. The issues of equality in culture work are clearly raised here, but there is also potential for differential application of justice under the power relations that define and stratify the work of men and women. Further, the uneven geography of justice within the global cultural workforce adds another twist to our ethical probe of commercialization. Gerald Sussman, a political economist of communication, reminds us of this in his analysis of transnational corporations (TNCs) involved in the Malaysian consumer electronics and information technology sector. “The Malaysian government,” he says, “pitched the idea of the ‘dextrous hands of the oriental female’ to attract TNCs and foreign capital.”

 

pages: 602 words: 120,848

Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer-And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class by Paul Pierson, Jacob S. Hacker

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business climate, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, desegregation, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, moral hazard, Nate Silver, new economy, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

On average, the economic pie grew at essentially the same rate in the United States as it did in nations where the poor and middle class have continued to enjoy a much larger piece. Indeed, in one important respect, the pie actually grew more quickly in Europe than it did in the United States. Recall that American households are working more hours than they did in the past. The same is true in Europe, but not nearly to the same extent. Women have entered the workforce to roughly the same degree—in fact, the share of the population in the workforce grew more quickly in Europe than in the United States between 1979 and 2006.9 Yet in Europe average work hours for those in the workforce have declined, so the net effect is only a small increase in overall work hours, compared with a much more substantial rise in the United States.10 As a result, GDP per hour worked—perhaps the best single measure of a country’s economic health—actually rose faster in Europe than in the United States between 1979 and 2006.

 

pages: 542 words: 161,731

Alone Together by Sherry Turkle

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Albert Einstein, Columbine, global village, Hacker Ethic, helicopter parent, Howard Rheingold, industrial robot, information retrieval, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rodney Brooks, Skype, stem cell, technoutopianism, The Great Good Place, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, women in the workforce

Jude says that while he and other kids can easily tell the difference between robots and a real baby, his grandparents might be fooled. “It will cry if it’s bored; when it gets its bottle, it will be happy.” This association to the idea that robots might “double” for family members brings to mind a story I heard when I first visited Japan in the early 1990s. The problems of the elderly loomed large. Unlike in previous generations, children were mobile, and women were in the workforce. Aging and infirm parents were unlikely to live at home. Visiting them was harder; they were often in different cities from their children. In response, some Japanese children were hiring actors to substitute for them and visit aging parents.2 The actors would visit and play their parts. Some of the elderly parents had dementia and might not have known the difference. Most fascinating were reports about the parents who knew that they were being visited by actors.

 

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

 

pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

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banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

. ~ ment of.J.a.hw:-study fuiirut.th.at the average American w.orker.-ispreparedID-give lip 47 peW@Rt oL4~~..or herea~~~J~L~~.!!:Im for ..__ more free tim~ The new interest in trading income for leisure reflects a growing 234 THE D AWN 0 F THE P 0 S T - MAR K E T ERA concern on the part of millions of Americans over family obligations and personal needs. Balancing work and leisure has become a serious parenting issue. With a majority of women now in the workforce, children are becoming increasingly unattended in the home. Upwards of 7 million kids are home alone during parts of the day. Some surveys have found that as many as one third of the nation's youngsters are caring for themselves. Between 1960 and 1986, according to one nationwide study, the amount of time parents were able to spend with their children declined by ten hours a week for white households and twelve hours for black ones. 37 The decline in parental supervision has created an "abandonment" syndrome.

 

pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

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additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

We might look after our planet much as fastidious middle-aged couples look after their homes. But we do need children, too. And there is something wrong with a society that doesn’t want to produce them. There may be nothing wrong with a century or so during which fertility rates fall to 1.6. There would be a great deal wrong with a global fertility rate of 1.4 or below. As countries seek to revive their childbearing resources, they may flirt with draconian measures, cutting women out of the workforce and keeping them at home, banning abortions, and restricting access to family-planning services. But that is unlikely to work. Women won’t stand for it. Instead, Dyson says we need a continuation of the ‘renegotiation’ of gender roles under way across most of the world, and most advanced in northern Europe. Paradoxical as it may seem, the female emancipation that has reduced family size so dramatically in the past fifty years will need to be extended rather than dismantled if family sizes are to rise from the worst-case Italian model.

 

pages: 518 words: 147,036

The Fissured Workplace by David Weil

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business process, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield management

Temporary employment grew in Germany from 10.4% to 14.7%; in France from 12.3% to 15.3%; in Canada from 11.3% to 13.7%; and, most dramatically, in Italy from 7.2% to 13.4%. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2012), Statistical Annex, table E (incidence and composition of part-time employment) and table F (incidence of temporary employment). 10. This can be seen in the following table comparing the percentage increase between 1995 and 2011 in the incidence of the practices among women and the overall workforce among OECD nations. Based on Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2012, tables E and F). 11. A great deal of what we know about workers and workplaces is based on household surveys administered by the Bureau of the Census and analyzed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. But using household surveys to estimate the prevalence of fissured workplaces is problematic because workers may not be able to distinguish their legal employer from their supervisor from the party that determines daily work requirements.

 

pages: 420 words: 121,881

The Birth of the Pill: How Four Crusaders Reinvented Sex and Launched a Revolution by Jonathan Eig

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Albert Einstein, experimental subject, feminist movement, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

Outside the home, a woman was not expected to have a life. Sometimes when Goody returned home from work, Lizzie would tell him in detail which rooms she had vacuumed and cleaned. In later years, her daughter Laura would wonder if Lizzie honestly expected him to care or if she was only saying it so he would appreciate what an ordeal her home life had become. During World War II, when thousands of women were entering the workforce, Lizzie told her husband she was thinking of looking for work as a radio announcer. She never followed up on it. Once again, Goody showed no inclination to pursue a steady job. In fact, at the time when his family seemed to be most pressed for money, he was preparing to take his biggest risk. In 1944, he and Hoagland made a move almost entirely unheard of in the American scientific community: They founded their own laboratory, calling it the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology.

 

pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

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Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

Impatient with Spencerian curlicues, the master penman A. N. Palmer dominated American handwriting instruction with his call for no-nonsense efficiency. Where Spencer had extolled aesthetic contemplation, Palmer taught what we know today as muscular memory: drill and repetition of motions that would make possible rapid and unconscious production of correct letterforms. Perhaps because women were a rapidly growing proportion of the white-collar workforce, Palmer taught writing as a virile, assertive command of the whole forearm rather than the wrist and fingers. In place of meticulous copybook exercises, Palmer’s disciples invoked industrial efficiency. In 1904 one manual described the body as “a machine on which writing is done.”10 The history of script suggests that typewriting was not just the miraculous unfolding of a mechanical marvel but the logical outcome of a social drive to discipline the body.

The governments of northern Europe and North America, especially in the middle and later years of the century, saw increasing economic and military value in extending fluency in reading and writing from the middle class and the cities to the countryside, and later from boys to girls. New industrial processes and military weapons alike made written instructions important throughout the ranks. As we have seen in the history of the typewriter, women were beginning to dominate the clerical workforce. Prussia, the birthplace of the modern eyeglass industry, led the world in establishing a rigorously controlled school network. Matthew Arnold wrote in his 1866 report to the Schools Inquiry Commission that Germany’s educational system “in its completeness and carefulness is such as to excite the foreigner’s imagination,” and the German victory over France in 1871 was widely credited as much to the Prussian schoolmaster as to the drill sergeant.

 

pages: 128 words: 38,187

The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

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3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, performance metric, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor

There will just be leaders.26 But the argument rests on the problematic assumption that women are inherently, or because of cultural training, more decent than men, and that ladies look out for each other. Those who lived through the reign of Margaret Thatcher can attest to the flaws in this argument. Marissa Mayer, Sandberg’s former comrade at Google, is a shining example of a woman who leaned in to power and influence. Mayer became the first pregnant CEO ever when she took the helm at Yahoo! in the summer of 2012. But instead of using her powerful position to help women, Mayer used it to cut 30 percent of Yahoo’s workforce and eliminate flextime, an arrangement that allowed hundreds of Yahoo workers to work from home one or two days a week so they could care for children, elderly parents, etc. Running against the grain of recent productivity research, Mayer argued that face-time trumps flextime: “Speed and quality are often sacrificed when we work from home … Some of the best decisions and insights come from hallway and cafeteria discussions, meeting new people, and impromptu team meetings.”27 Flextime was a long-standing policy at Yahoo.

 

pages: 598 words: 172,137

Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mortgage debt, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

But it’s an amazing thing that an economy that grows in productivity by 80 to 90 percent still leaves so many people actually worse off.” Working women are now the norm, but the toll on young mothers is stunning. In 1960, only 15 percent of American women with children under six worked, but by 2010 that number had shot up to 64 percent—the highest percentage in the world. In fact, the massive movement of women into the workforce, as Kevin Phillips observed, had by the late 1990s already given the United States “the world’s highest ratio of two-income households, with its hidden, de facto tax on time and families.” Paradoxically, the second income stream wound up putting many middle-class families in an even tighter financial bind because of the sharply rising costs of housing from the 1980s through the 2000s.

 

pages: 618 words: 180,430

The Making of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr

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anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business climate, Corn Laws, Etonian, garden city movement, illegal immigration, imperial preference, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Red Clydeside, rent control, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, V2 rocket, wage slave, women in the workforce

It was still a debate at the edges of society, and under its surface. Even most Fabians maintained highly respectable and conventional marriages. The darkest secrets of Edwardian family life, the beating of women by drunken or simply violent husbands, rape, and the unconsummated marriages of homosexual men, were never publicly discussed and only emerge as knowing hints in letters and memoirs. But the arrival of more women in the workforce, and a greater understanding of human biology, were facts which could not be brushed away. The socialism of those days was one which relied wholly on future visions and dreams, not on any established model. Fiction was essential to it. H. G. Wells set his science fiction tales in places like Woking. He wrote fantasies but it was fantasy about the future, with its boots on the dust and pavements of Edwardian England.

 

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

This is most notable in the United States, where the top 1 percent of families took home 9 percent of GDP in 1970 and 23.5 percent in 2007. The fact that so much of the economic growth in this period went to a relatively small number of people at the top of the distribution is the flip side of the phenomenon of the stagnation of middle-class incomes since the 1970s.10 In the United States and other countries, this stagnation was hidden from view by other factors. The same period saw the entry of large numbers of women into the workforce, increasing household income at the same time that many middle-class men found their paychecks getting smaller in real terms. In addition, politicians across the world saw cheap, subsidized credit as an acceptable substitute for outright income redistribution, leading to government-backed housing booms. The financial crisis of 2008–2009 was one consequence of this trend.11 There are a number of sources of this growing inequality, only some of which are subject to control through public policies.

 

pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

On the other hand, Galor contends that poor countries increasingly specialized in goods that required a lot of manual labor to produce. The result was rising income for both rich and poor countries, but a fateful divergence in fertility trends. During the twentieth century, fertility rates basically continued to fall in rich countries as they invested in more human capital, especially in higher levels of education. In addition, as demand for human capital grew in rich countries, schooling expanded to include women, who then entered the paid workforce. This further raised the opportunity costs of having children and encouraged further reductions in fertility. On the other hand, poor countries channeled a larger share of their gains from increased international trade into producing more children. As a consequence, “the demographic transition in these nonindustrial economies has been significantly delayed,” asserts Galor, “increasing further their relative abundance of unskilled labor, enhancing their comparative disadvantage in the production of skill-intensive goods, and delaying their process of development.”

 

What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response by Bernard Lewis

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, lone genius, spice trade, women in the workforce

Even under the traditional dispensation this was relatively good, and certainly far better than that of women in most 71 WHAT WENT WRONG? Christian countries before the adoption of modern legislation. Muslim women, as wives and as daughters, had very definite property rights, which were recognized and enforced by law. In recent changes economic needs were a major factor. As Nam¹k Kemal pointed out, peasant women had from time immemorial been part of the workforce; they had in consequence enjoyed certain social freedoms denied to their sisters in the cities. Economic modernization brought a need for female labor; this need was greatly increased during the years of warfare in which the Ottoman Empire was involved between 1911 and 1922, when much of the male population was in the armed forces, and women were needed to carry on the business of life.

 

pages: 522 words: 144,511

Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott

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agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

See also slavery: early debates on, 33–36 Humboldt, Alexander von, 195 hurricanes, 129, 157 ice cream, 49–50, 351, 354–57 indentured labor: birthrates, 318; British West Indian system, 314–18; Chinese, 340; in Fiji, 329–30; from India, 314, 315–18, 324; Japanese women, 340; living conditions, 318, 325, 329, 334, 337, 344; in Mauritius, 322–24; from Melanesia, 341–45; in Natal, 324–25, 326; and race, 318–19, 322; religious practices, 319; sexual exploitation of women, 318; suicides, 325, 329, 333; treatment of workers, 322–23; wages, 319–21; women and, 314, 315, 318; workforce, 313, 314–15 India: historical references to sugarcane, 12; irrigation, 380; processing techniques, 15; source of indentured labor, 314, 315–18, 324; sugar industry, 377–78, 380 Indian Relief Act, 327 Indian Sugar Committee, 378 Industrial Revolution, 61–70 industrial sabotage, 288–89 Inikori, Joseph E., 185 Inquisition, the, 19 irrigation, 13, 16–17, 87, 336, 380 Isabella, Queen of Spain, 24 Italy, 49 Jackson, Augustus, 50 Jackson, Betty, 50 Jacobson, Michael, 399 Jagan, Cheddi, 322 jaggery, 377 Jamaica: abolition in, 263; and absentee owners, 160–61, 162; and American Revolution, 172, 173; apprenticeship in, 262; Christmas rebellion, 253, 254; colonization of, 37; cultural changes in after emancipation, 268; Deficiency Laws, 195; ethanol production, 404; Haitian Revolution and, 216; labor force, 268, 321; Maroons in, 207–9, 210–11; marronage in, 206; price of sugar, 176; quality of sugar, 47, 167; racism, 190; rum production, 70; slaves, 97, 103, 116, 124, 193; slaves’ resistance, 203, 204; Tacky’s Rebellion, 76, 208, 210–11; value of plantation in, 156; white-black ratio, 40 James, C.L.R., 214 Japa, Antonio, 404 Japan, 305–7, 337, 339–40 Japanese–Mexican Labor Association, 307, 308 Jarvis, Anna, 367 Jawetz, Pincas, 402 Jefferson, Thomas, 50, 280 Jell-O, 351, 371 Jenkins, Edward, 331 Jews, 19 Johnson, Dr.

 

pages: 447 words: 126,219

The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever by Christian Wolmar

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British Empire, full employment, invention of the telephone, profit motive, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, women in the workforce

This prompted enquiries in Parliament about hygiene and disease, but the Home Secretary, Sir George Cave, allayed fears by announcing that the stations were in every case thoroughly cleansed and disinfected by the management before traffic was resumed – a claim that was probably more propaganda than substance considering the task faced by the Underground Company, which had lost many of its staff to the war effort. Indeed, the greatest social impact of the war on the Underground was the employment of women for the first time in the history of the system. They took over the men’s jobs in large numbers and were essential in keeping the network running. At the height of the war, half the 3,000 District’s employees were women, and a third of the 4,000-strong Metropolitan workforce. Whole stations came under the control of women, with the newly opened Maida Vale leading the way, though it shared a male stationmaster with three neighbouring stations. The Railway Gazette grudgingly recognized this as ‘preferable to employing hobbledehoys’ and women continued to take on new tasks, replacing gatemen on trains in 1917, but the roles of guard and driver remained the preserve of men.

 

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

See also Chicago School utilitarianism, 192 van Gogh, Vincent, 92-96, 137 vectors, 186-89, 191, 192-93 "veil of ignorance," 202, 203 Venter, Craig, 81 venture capital, 123, 124, 169-70 Vickrey, William, 102, 360 video cassette recorders (VCRs), 120 compatibility standards, 261 supply and demand, 139-40, 141 virtual markets, 148-50 voting, 100-101,250-51 results market, 156-57 wages, 76-78,297 competitive standards, 304 as market signal, 231-32 theories of, 353 wallet auction, 222-23, 236, 242 Wall Street, 91, 92,300 Wal-Mart, 272, 298, 299, 300, 301 Walras,Leon, 175,178,179,192 Walras's Law, 175 Walton,Robson,298,299,301 Walton, Sam, 127, 128, 298-99 Wang,An, 107-8,110,113-15,118,121,122 Warren, Robin, 273-74 Watson, James, 83,267,269,274 wealth and greed, 11, 12, 16, 17, 315 individual, 298-300, 321 as measure of personal worth, 12, 315 redistribution of, 202,314-15 See also income/wealth distribution weather derivatives, 155, 158 Weber, Max, 56,291 Webvan, 123,244,246 Welch, Jack, 115-16, 117, 124,214,215,291 welfare economics, 11, 192-94, 314 fundamental theorems of, 194, 197, 198-208 and happiness, 211-12 and property rights, 319 self-interest vs., 316 Will, George, 336 Williamson, Oliver, 206, 219 Wilson, Charles, 316 Wilson, E. 0., 217 Winter Olympics (2002), 95-96, 97, 104 Wolfensohn,James, 207,214,336 Wolfowitz, Paul, 157 women as economists, 337 in workforce, 50, 77 work economic lives, 22-30,37, 38, 48,305 French-U.S. comparison, 50 and general equilibrium, 177-78, 179 and happiness, 211 hours of, 47-50 as institution, 76-78 separation from home life, 77 and social insurance, 350 and structural reform, 242 World Bank, 31,206-7,212-14,218,279, 280,282,283,335,336 WorldCom, 11,342 World Trade Organization, 10,274 Wriston, Walter, 282 Xerox, 117-18, 122 Xerox Pare, 118, 119 Yahoo!

 

When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Half the population works in agriculture in the northern coastal region. Unemployment is high (often 20 percent), and many thousands of males have immigrated to France. Industry is, however, significant inasmuch as Algeria is one of the world’s largest producers of liquefied natural gas. Oil production has declined in recent years. GDP per capita is average for Arab countries. There is a growing managerial class, but women are not very active in the workforce. Veils are more common than in neighboring Tunisia or Morocco. Although 99 percent of Algerians are Muslim, they are influenced by the French in certain aspects of social life. Wine is not taboo except among extreme fundamentalists, and the country actually had the fifth highest wine production in the world in the 1960s. Algerian athletes have consistently achieved success at the Olympic Games.

Damascus was adopted as the first capital of the Islamic world in A.D. 661, until Baghdad was built for this role in 762. Although Syrians are consequently conservative in their interpretation of Islam, the influence of the French and the sizeable minority groups in their society have led to the relaxation of certain Muslim rules, especially those regarding the position of women. Education for girls is a long-established right, and veils are worn by almost none of the younger women, who are readily visible in the workforce and in public life. The richness of the Syrian cultural scene is enhanced by the considerable diversity of its population. Minority groups include Christians (10 percent), Kurds (10 percent), Druze, Armenians, Jews and Assyrians. Many languages are heard in public alongside Arabic—Kurdish, Turkish, French, Armenian, English and the ancient Syriac and Aramaic. If in the future Syrian governments show less wariness in their relations with the West, it is foreseeable that the Syrian people, who are traditionally very internationally oriented, will form a fruitful link between Western and Middle Eastern civilizations. 420 WHEN CULTURES COLLIDE Tunisia The republic of Tunisia is the smallest country in North Africa.

 

pages: 1,118 words: 309,029

The Wars of Afghanistan by Peter Tomsen

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

The Khalqis recruited frequently from the middle and lower ranks of the officer corps where eastern Pashtuns, such as Watanjar, Sarwari, and Gulabzoi, were heavily represented. They resented the Durrani glass ceiling Daoud had imposed that blocked their advancement to the top of the military establishment. Daoud had not promoted any officers trained in the Soviet Union to general officer rank. The Parchamis predominated in the civil bureaucracy. Khalqi women and girls stayed at home; Parchami women and girls were often educated and in the workforce. Both factions had one thing in common. They assumed that their powerful Soviet patron would not fail to provide the necessary recurring resources to sustain the gains of their successful Saur Revolution. Puzanov could no more bring Taraki and Karmal together than he could bring the Khalqis and Parchamis together. The enmity between the two men was personal, tribal, and unbridgeable.

King Faisal joined the Arab oil embargo on the United States to protest American support for Israel. It is said that Faisal quietly transferred $4 billion to the American government to cushion the blow. 27 David Pryce-Jones, The Closed Circle: An Interpretation of the Arabs (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002), 275. 28 While over 50 percent of college graduates in Saudi Arabia are women, they comprise only 7 percent of the workforce. See Craig Smith, “Underneath Saudi Women Keep their Secrets,” New York Times, December 3, 2002, 4. 29 David B. Ottaway, “Pressure Builds on the Key Pillar of Saudi Rule,” Washington Post, June 8, 2004. 30 A more liberal interpretation of this hadith limits the forbidden area to the sacred ground of Mecca and Medina, where only Muslims are permitted to go. 31 Pryce-Jones, The Closed Circle, 262. 32 Kechichian, “The Role of the Ulama,” 62. 33 Quoted in ibid., 67. 34 Ibid. 35 Trofimov, Siege of Mecca, 171. 36 This account of the fighting at the Grand Mosque is largely taken from Trofimov’s Siege of Mecca.

 

pages: 268 words: 76,709

Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Destroyed Our Most Alluring Fruit by Barry Estabrook

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Bernie Sanders, biofilm, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, McMansion, medical malpractice, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

 

pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

.), the percentage of women is also 30% [in the category of] “computer programmers.” However, unfortunately, at the managerial level, both within our company, Evalueserve, and the other IT companies mentioned above, the percentage of women managers drops to approximately 10%.74 In terms of the retention of employees, Aggarwal adds, “Among new joinees, 35% are women but within five years, this number comes down to 25% (because some of the women who get married leave Evalueserve India or the work-force altogether—at least on a temporary basis).”75 Cultural narratives about domesticity, children, and the exercise of power outside the home are still very much in place. Still, research in countries as varied as Iran, Hong Kong, Mauritius, Taiwan, and Malaysia has yielded results consistent with those found in studies in India, showing that there is nothing about the field of computing that makes it inherently male.

 

pages: 262 words: 65,959

The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets by Simon Singh

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Benoit Mandelbrot, cognitive dissonance, Erdős number, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, Paul Erdős, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Wolfskehl Prize, women in the workforce

 

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Social conservatives spread their moral portfolio over all five.197 The trend toward social liberalism, then, is a trend away from communal and authoritarian values and toward values based on equality, fairness, autonomy, and legally enforced rights. Though both liberals and conservatives may deny that any such a trend has taken place, consider the fact that no mainstream conservative politician today would invoke tradition, authority, cohesion, or religion to justify racial segregation, keeping women out of the workforce, or criminalizing homosexuality, arguments they made just a few decades ago.198 Why might a disinvestment of moral resources from community, sanctity, and authority militate against violence? One reason is that communality can legitimize tribalism and jingoism, and authority can legitimize government repression. But a more general reason is that a retrenchment of the moral sense to smaller territories leaves fewer transgressions for which people may legitimately be punished.

 

pages: 956 words: 288,981

Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2011 by Steve Coll

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, colonial rule, computer age, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, index card, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

There they harassed women who allowed high-heeled shoes to show beneath their black robes, and used wooden batons to round up Saudi men for daily prayers. New Islamic universities rose in Riyadh and Jedda, and thousands of students were enrolled to study the Koran. At the same time the royal family stoked its massive modernization drive, constructing intercity highways, vast new housing, industrial plants, and hospitals. Saudi women entered the workforce in record numbers, although they often worked in strict segregation from men. Secular princes and princesses summered in London, Cannes, Costa del Sol, and Switzerland. There were at least six thousand self-described princes in the Saudi royal family by 1990, and their numbers grew by the year. Many of these royals paid little heed to the Islamic clergy who governed official Saudi culture.

 

pages: 251 words: 63,630

The End of Cheap China: Economic and Cultural Trends That Will Disrupt the World by Shaun Rein

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business climate, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, income per capita, indoor plumbing, job-hopping, Maui Hawaii, price stability, quantitative easing, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

 

pages: 580 words: 168,476

The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future by Joseph E. Stiglitz

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, declining real wages, deskilling, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, London Interbank Offered Rate, lone genius, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, paper trading, patent troll, payday loans, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, very high income, We are the 99%, women in the workforce

For instance, America’s poor have a life expectancy that is almost 10 percent lower than that of those at the top.56 We noted earlier that the income of a typical full-time male worker has stagnated for a third of a century, and that of those who have not gone to college has declined. To keep incomes from declining even more than they have, work hours per family have increased, mostly because more women are joining the workforce alongside their husbands. Our income statistics do not take into account either the loss of leisure or what this does to the quality of family life. The decline in living standards is also manifested in changing social patterns as well as hard economic facts. An increasing fraction of young adults are living with their parents: some 19 percent of men between twenty-five and thirty-four, up from 14 percent as recently as 2005.

 

pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

The law also empowered parents to file grievances if their child’s needs weren’t being met. After the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, Sullivan focused on demanding services for autistic adults. “There was nothing for adults—zip,” she recalls. “We had to start from scratch.” This was particularly important because the traditional caretakers for autistic adults who were not in institutions were stay-at-home moms, and in the 1960s more and more women were entering the workforce and launching their own careers. Family members that looked to private and public agencies for help were faced with a confusing maze of limited options presided over by underpaid, overworked case managers who often occupied their positions for only a short time. “We cannot allow another generation of our adult children to go without the vital services that any humane society knows is necessary for a life of dignity and worth,” Sullivan wrote.

 

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

 

The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin

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Apple II, collective bargaining, computer age, George Gilder, informal economy, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, open economy, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

 

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

 

pages: 474 words: 136,787

The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley

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affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Bonfire of the Vanities, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, feminist movement, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, phenotype, rent control, theory of mind, University of East Anglia, women in the workforce

Chagnon, interview. 50 Chagnon 1968; Chagnon 1988. 51 I am indebted to Archie Fraser for pointing out this parallel. 52 Chagnon 1968. 53 Smith 1984. 54 D. E. Brown, interview. CHAPTER SEVEN: Monogamy and the Nature of Women 1 Møller 1987; Birkhead and Møller 1992. 2 Murdock and White 1969; Fisher 1992 makes the interesting case that sexism, despotism, polygamy and male ‘ownership’ of wives were all invented along with the plough – which removed from women all their share in food winning; as women have come back into the workforce in recent decades, so their say and status has improved. 3 Hrdy 1981; Hrdy 1986. 4 Bertram 1975; Hrdy 1979; Hausfater and Hrdy 1984. A remarkable experiment by Emlen, Demong and Emlen 1989 greatly strengthened the contention that infanticide was an adaptive strategy. By removing territorial females, Emlen induced female jacanas – a role-reversed species – to kill the eggs of males with nests in their newly acquired territories. 5 Dunbar 1988. 6 Wrangham 1987; R.

 

pages: 564 words: 153,720

Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World by Mark Pendergrast

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business climate, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Honoré de Balzac, land reform, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open economy, out of africa, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, The Great Good Place, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce

Most people previously had worked at home or in rural craft work-shops. They had not divided their time so strictly between work and leisure, and they were largely their own masters. People typically ate five times a day, beginning with soup for breakfast. With the advent of textile and iron mills, workers migrated to the cities, where the working classes lived in appalling conditions. As women and children entered the organized workforce, there was less time to run a household and cook meals. Those still trying to make a living at home were paid less and less for their work. Thus, European lacemakers in the early nineteenth century lived almost exclusively on coffee and bread. Because coffee was stimulating and warm, it provided an illusion of nutrition. “Seated uninterruptedly at their looms, in order to earn the few pennies necessary for their bare survival,” writes one historian, “[workers had] no time for the lengthy preparation of a midday or evening meal.

 

pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

And, finally, in low-wage industries where more workers are paid at bargain-basement rates, the authors calculated, generally even in those situations many workers were paid somewhere in between the old and new minimum wages, meaning relatively small wage increases for the majority of employers, combined with larger increases for a minority, would bring the company into compliance with the new federal minimums.9 Finally, the EITC could be revamped so that it doesn’t penalize dual-income households. At the moment, because families lose access to the credit when their total income goes above a certain level, it has the somewhat perverse effect of encouraging many secondary earners, primarily women, to opt out of the workforce. But if each earner was evaluated individually and able to access the EITC based on his or her income alone rather than the combined income of all household earners, it would encourage several million more people to work, and would, Rothstein estimated, help lift millions more families not just out of immediate poverty but into long-term economic security. All of this sounds technical, and in some ways it is.

 

pages: 538 words: 147,612

All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, corporate governance, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Born into a middle-class family in New Jersey, Stewart learned her homemaking skills from her grandparents, who taught her to can fruits, and her parents, who taught her to sew and garden. After stints as a model and a stockbroker, she opened a catering outfit in Westport, Connecticut, an upscale suburb near New York City. Stewart pitched herself at women who were interested in high-end homemaking—an ever-larger group as more and more middle-class women made their way into the workforce. She wrote a best-selling cookbook, then started a TV show based on her decorating magazine, Martha Stewart Living, and not long after that, a line of houseware items at Kmart. In 1997 she consolidated her publishing, TV, and merchandising ventures into Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia. When it went public in 1999, Stewart climbed onto the Forbes 400 with a fortune estimated in 2000 at $1 billion

 

pages: 401 words: 112,784

Hard Times: The Divisive Toll of the Economic Slump by Tom Clark, Anthony Heath

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, Carmen Reinhart, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, interest rate swap, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unconventional monetary instruments, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor

 

pages: 267 words: 79,905

Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders

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barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

 

pages: 278 words: 82,069

Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Market populism has also abandoned the overt race-baiting of the backlash: Its “Southern strategy” involves shipping plants to Mexico or Guatemala and then describing this as a victory for the downtrodden Others of the planet. Market populists generally fail to get worked up about the persecution of Vietnam vets (they sometimes even equate new-style management theories with the strategy of the Vietcong); they have abandoned the “family values” of Reagan; they give not a damn for the traditional role of women or even of children. The more who enter the workforce the merrier. By the middle of the nineties, this was a populism in the ascendancy. Leftoid rock critics, Wall Street arbitrageurs and just about everyone in between seemed to find what they wanted in the magic of markets. Markets were serving all tastes, markets were humiliating the pretentious, markets were permitting good art to triumph over bad, markets were overthrowing the man, markets were extinguishing discrimination, markets were making everyone rich.

 

pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor; Saul Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

 

pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

 

pages: 326 words: 29,543

The Docks by Bill Sharpsteen

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affirmative action, anti-communist, big-box store, collective bargaining, Google Earth, intermodal, inventory management, jitney, Just-in-time delivery, new economy, Panamax, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, strikebreaker, women in the workforce

[But] I had to be here and now for this thing. And to be threatened at the same time. So by then I was hot.” And yet incredibly, in the end, Williams tells me without a hint of irony, “This has been the most successful affirmative action program in the country. Ever.” As for the Golden Consent Decree, Judge Takasugi ruled in 1999 that his 1983 court order had done its job. Women were now a permanent part of the waterfront workforce. Williams agrees. Now a ship planner, working in an office before a computer for the most part, she says women have been largely accepted at the docks. She tells how once at ╯ The Womenâ•… /â•… 219 the Matson Shipping terminal, a group of men threw a baby shower for a woman coworker. There in the equipment room where they worked, they set up a barbecue, served food, and hung little baby dresses among their stacks of pornographic magazines.

 

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

MacArthur Foundation 14 John Deere 67 John Lewis 195 Johnson & Johnson 100, 111 Johnson, Warren 98 Jones, Don 112 jugaad (frugal ingenuity) 199, 202 Jugaad Innovation (Radjou, Prabhu and Ahuja, 2012) xvii, 17 just-in-time design 33–4 K Kaeser, Joe 217 Kalanick, Travis 163 Kalundborg (Denmark) 160 kanju 201 Karkal, Shamir 124 Kaufman, Ben 50–1, 126 Kawai, Daisuke 29–30 Kelly, John 199–200 Kennedy, President John 138 Kenya 57, 200–1 key performance indicators see KPIs Khan Academy 16–17, 113–14, 164 Khan, Salman (Sal) 16–17, 113–14 Kickstarter 17, 48, 137, 138 KieranTimberlake 196 Kimberly-Clark 25, 145 Kingfisher 86–7, 91, 97, 157, 158–9, 185–6, 192–3, 208 KissKissBankBank 17, 137 Knox, Steve 145 Knudstorp, Jørgen Vig 37, 68, 69 Kobori, Michael 83, 100 KPIs (key performance indicators) 38–9, 67, 91–2, 185–6, 208 Kuhndt, Michael 194 Kurniawan, Arie 151–2 L La Chose 108 La Poste 92–3, 157 La Ruche qui dit Oui 137 “labs on a chip” 52 Lacheret, Yves 173–5 Lada 1 laser cutters 134, 166 Laskey, Alex 119 last-mile challenge 57, 146, 156 L’Atelier 168–9 Latin America 161 lattice organisation 63–4 Laury, Véronique 208 Laville, Elisabeth 91 Lawrence, Jamie 185, 192–3, 208 LCA (life-cycle assessment) 196–7 leaders 179, 203–5, 214, 217 lean manufacturing 192 leanness 33–4, 41, 42, 170, 192 Learnbox 114 learning by doing 173, 179 learning organisations 179 leasing 123 Lee, Deishin 159 Lego 51, 126 Lego Group 37, 68, 69, 144 Legrand 157 Lenovo 56 Leroy, Adolphe 127 Leroy Merlin 127–8 Leslie, Garthen 150–1 Lever, William Hesketh 96 Levi Strauss & Co 60, 82–4, 100, 122–3 Lewis, Dijuana 212 life cycle of buildings 196 see also product life cycle life-cycle assessment (LCA) 196–7 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 Lifebuoy soap 95, 97 lifespan of companies 154 lighting 32, 56, 123, 201 “lightweighting” 47 linear development cycles 21, 23 linear model of production 80–1 Link 131 littleBits 51 Livi, Daniele 88 Livi, Vittorio 88 local communities 52, 57, 146, 206–7 local markets 183–4 Local Motors 52, 129, 152 local solutions 188, 201–2 local sourcing 51–2, 56, 137, 174, 181 localisation 56, 137 Locavesting (Cortese, 2011) 138 Logan car 2–3, 12, 179, 198–9 logistics 46, 57–8, 161, 191, 207 longevity 121, 124 Lopez, Maribel 65–6 Lopez Research 65–6 L’Oréal 174 Los Alamos National Laboratory 170 low-cost airlines 60, 121 low-cost innovation 11 low-income markets 12–13, 161, 203, 207 Lowry, Adam 81–2 M m-health 109, 111–12 M-KOPA 201 M-Pesa 57, 201 M3D 48, 132 McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) 84 McDonough, William 82 McGregor, Douglas 63 MacGyvers 17–18, 130, 134, 167 McKelvey, Jim 135 McKinsey & Company 81, 87, 209 mainstream, frugal products in 216 maintenance 66, 75, 76, 124, 187 costs 48–9, 66 Mainwaring, Simon 8 Maistre, Christophe de 187–8, 216 Maker Faire 18, 133–4 Maker platform 70 makers 18, 133–4, 145 manufacturing 20th-century model 46, 55, 80–1 additive 47–9 continuous 44–5 costs 47, 48, 52 decentralised 9, 44, 51–2 frugal 44–54 integration with logistics 57–8 new approaches 50–4 social 50–1 subtractive method 48 tools for 47, 47–50 Margarine Unie 96 market 15, 28, 38, 64, 186, 189, 192 R&D and 21, 26, 33, 34 market research 25, 61, 139, 141 market share 100 marketing 21–2, 24, 36, 61–3, 91, 116–20, 131, 139 and R&D 34, 37, 37–8 marketing teams 143, 150 markets 12–13, 42, 62, 215 see also emerging markets Marks & Spencer (M&S) 97, 215 Plan A 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Marriott 140 Mars 57, 158–9, 161 Martin Marietta 159 Martin, Tod 154 mass customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 57–8 mass market 189 mass marketing 21–2 mass production 9, 46, 57, 58, 74, 129, 196 Massachusetts Institute of Technology see MIT massive open online courses see MOOCs materials 3, 47, 48, 73, 92, 161 costs 153, 161, 190 recyclable 74, 81, 196 recycled 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 renewable 77, 86 repurposing 93 see also C2C; reuse Mayhew, Stephen 35, 36 Mazoyer, Eric 90 Mazzella, Frédéric 163 MBDC (McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry) 84 MDI 16 measurable goals 185–6 Mechanical Engineer Laboratory (MEL) 52 “MEcosystems” 154–5, 156–8 Medicare 110 medication 111–12 Medicity 211 MedStartr 17 MEL (Mechanical Engineer Laboratory) 52 mental models 2, 193–203, 206, 216 Mercure 173 Merlin, Rose 127 Mestrallet, Gérard 53, 54 method (company) 81–2 Mexico 38, 56 Michelin 160 micro-factories 51–2, 52, 66, 129, 152 micro-robots 52 Microsoft 38 Microsoft Kinect 130 Microsoft Word 24 middle classes 197–8, 216 Migicovsky, Eric 137–8 Mikkiche, Karim 199 millennials 7, 14, 17, 131–2, 137, 141, 142 MindCET 165 miniaturisation 52, 53–4 Mint.com 125 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 44–5, 107, 130, 134, 202 mobile health see m-health mobile phones 24, 32, 61, 129–30, 130, 168, 174 emerging market use 198 infrastructure 56, 198 see also smartphones mobile production units 66–7 mobile technologies 16, 17, 103, 133, 174, 200–1, 207 Mocana 151 Mochon, Daniel 132 modular design 67, 90 modular production units 66–7 Modularer Querbaukasten see MQB “mompreneurs” 145 Mondelez 158–9 Money Dashboard 125 Moneythink 162 monitoring 65–6, 106, 131 Monopoly 144 MOOCs (massive open online courses) 60, 61, 112, 113, 114, 164 Morieux, Yves 64 Morocco 207 Morris, Robert 199–200 motivation, employees 178, 180, 186, 192, 205–8 motivational approaches to shaping consumer behaviour 105–6 Motorola 56 MQB (Modularer Querbaukasten) 44, 45–6 Mulally, Alan 70, 166 Mulcahy, Simon 157 Mulliez family 126–7 Mulliez, Vianney 13, 126 multi-nodal innovation 202–3 Munari, Bruno 93 Murray, Mike 48–9 Musk, Elon 172 N Nano car 119, 156 National Geographic 102 natural capital, loss of 158–9 Natural Capital Leaders Platform 158–9 natural resources 45, 86 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 see also resources NCR 55–6 near-shoring 55 Nelson, Simon 113 Nemo, Sophie-Noëlle 93 Nest Labs 98–100, 103 Nestlé 31, 44, 68, 78, 94, 158–9, 194, 195 NetPositive plan 86, 208 networking 152–3, 153 new materials 47, 92 New Matter 132 new technologies 21, 27 Newtopia 32 next-generation customers 121–2 next-generation manufacturing techniques 44–6, 46–7 see also frugal manufacturing Nigeria 152, 197–8 Nike 84 NineSigma 151 Nissan 4, 4–5, 44, 199 see also Renault-Nissan non-governmental organisations 167 non-profit organisations 161, 162, 202 Nooyi, Indra 217 Norman, Donald 120 Norris, Greg 196 North American companies 216–17 North American market 22 Northrup Grumman 68 Norton, Michael 132 Norway 103 Novartis 44–5, 215 Novotel 173, 174 nudging 100, 108, 111, 117, 162 Nussbaum, Bruce 140 O O2 147 Obama, President Barack 6, 8, 13, 134, 138, 208 obsolescence, planned 24, 121 offshoring 55 Oh, Amy 145 Ohayon, Elie 71–2 Oliver Wyman 22 Olocco, Gregory 206 O’Marah, Kevin 58 on-demand services 39, 124 online communities 31, 50, 61, 134 online marketing 143 online retailing 60, 132 onshoring 55 Opel 4 open innovation 104, 151, 152, 153, 154 open-source approach 48, 129, 134, 135, 172 open-source hardware 51, 52, 89, 130, 135, 139 open-source software 48, 130, 132, 144–5, 167 OpenIDEO 142 operating costs 45, 215 Opower 103, 109, 119 Orange 157 Orbitz 173 organisational change 36–7, 90–1, 176, 177–90, 203–8, 213–14, 216 business models 190–3 mental models 193–203 organisational culture 36–7, 170, 176, 177–9, 213–14, 217 efficacy focus 181–3 entrepreneurial 76, 173 see also organisational change organisational structure 63–5, 69 outsourcing 59, 143, 146 over-engineering 27, 42, 170 Overby, Christine 25 ownership 9 Oxylane Group 127 P P&G (Procter & Gamble) 19, 31, 58, 94, 117, 123, 145, 195 packaging 57, 96, 195 Page, Larry 63 “pain points” 29, 30, 31 Palmer, Michael 212 Palo Alto Junior League 20 ParkatmyHouse 17, 63, 85 Parker, Philip 61 participation, customers 128–9 partner ecosystems 153, 154, 200 partners 65, 72, 148, 153, 156–8 sharing data with 59–60 see also distributors; hyper-collaboration; suppliers Partners in Care Foundation 202 partnerships 41, 42, 152–3, 156–7, 171–2, 174, 191 with SMBs 173, 174, 175 with start-ups 20, 164–5, 175 with suppliers 192–3 see also hyper-collaboration patents 171–2 Payne, Alex 124 PE International 196 Pearson 164–5, 167, 181–3, 186, 215 Pebble 137–8 peer-to-peer economic model 10 peer-to-peer lending 10 peer-to-peer sales 60 peer-to-peer sharing 136–7 Pélisson, Gérard 172–3 PepsiCo 38, 40, 179, 190, 194, 215 performance 47, 73, 77, 80, 95 of employees 69 Pernod Ricard 157 personalisation 9, 45, 46, 48, 62, 129–30, 132, 149 Peters, Tom 21 pharmaceutical industry 13, 22, 23, 33, 58, 171, 181 continuous manufacturing 44–6 see also GSK Philippines 191 Philips 56, 84, 100, 123 Philips Lighting 32 Picaud, Philippe 122 Piggy Mojo 119 piggybacking 57 Piketty, Thomas 6 Plan A (M&S) 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Planet 21 (Accor) 174–5 planned obsolescence 24, 121 Plastyc 17 Plumridge, Rupert 18 point-of-sale data 58 Poland 103 pollution 74, 78, 87, 116, 187, 200 Polman, Paul 11, 72, 77, 94, 203–5, 217 portfolio management tools 27, 33 Portugal 55, 103 postponement 57–8 Potočnik, Janez 8, 79 Prabhu, Arun 25 Prahalad, C.K. 12 predictive analytics 32–3 predictive maintenance 66, 67–8 Priceline 173 pricing 81, 117 processes digitising 65–6 entrenched 14–16 re-engineering 74 simplifying 169, 173 Procter & Gamble see P&G procurement priorities 67–8 product life cycle 21, 75, 92, 186 costs 12, 24, 196 sustainability 73–5 product-sharing initiatives 87 production costs 9, 83 productivity 49, 59, 65, 79–80, 153 staff 14 profit 14, 105 Progressive 100, 116 Project Ara 130 promotion 61–3 Propeller Health 111 prosumers xix–xx, 17–18, 125, 126–33, 136–7, 148, 154 empowering and engaging 139–46 see also horizontal economy Protomax 159 prototypes 31–2, 50, 144, 152 prototyping 42, 52, 65, 152, 167, 192, 206 public 50–1, 215 public sector, working with 161–2 publishers 17, 61 Pullman 173 Puma 194 purchasing power 5–6, 216 pyramidal model of production 51 pyramidal organisations 69 Q Qarnot Computing 89 Qualcomm 84 Qualcomm Life 112 quality 3, 11–12, 15, 24, 45, 49, 82, 206, 216 high 1, 9, 93, 198, 216 measure of 105 versus quantity 8, 23 quality of life 8, 204 Quicken 19–21 Quirky 50–1, 126, 150–1, 152 R R&D 35, 67, 92, 151 big-ticket programmes 35–6 and business development 37–8 China 40, 188, 206 customer focus 27, 39, 43 frugal approach 12, 26–33, 82 global networks 39–40 incentives 38–9 industrial model 2, 21–6, 33, 36, 42 market-focused, agile model 26–33 and marketing 34, 37, 37–8 recommendations for managers 34–41 speed 23, 27, 34, 149 spending 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 technology culture 14–15, 38–9 see also Air Liquide; Ford; GSK; IBM; immersion; Renault; SNCF; Tarkett; Unilever R&D labs 9, 21–6, 70, 149, 218 in emerging markets 40, 188, 200 R&D teams 26, 34, 38–9, 65, 127, 150, 194–5 hackers as 142 innovation brokering 168 shaping customer behaviour 120–2 Raspberry Pi 135–6, 164 Ratti, Carlo 107 raw materials see materials real-time demand signals 58, 59 Rebours, Christophe 157–8 recession 5–6, 6, 46, 131, 180 Reckitt Benckiser 102 recommendations for managers flexing assets 65–71 R&D 34–41 shaping consumer behaviour 116–24 sustainability 90–3 recruiting 70–1 recyclable materials 74, 81, 196 recyclable products 3, 73, 159, 195–6 recycled materials 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 recycling 8, 9, 87, 93, 142, 159 e-waste 87–8 electronic and electrical goods (EU) 8, 79 by Tarkett 73–7 water 83, 175 see also C2C; circular economy Recy’Go 92–3 regional champions 182 regulation 7–8, 13, 78–9, 103, 216 Reich, Joshua 124 RelayRides 17 Renault 1–5, 12, 117, 156–7, 179 Renault-Nissan 4–5, 40, 198–9, 215 renewable energy 8, 53, 74, 86, 91, 136, 142, 196 renewable materials 77, 86 Replicator 132 repurposing 93 Requardt, Hermann 189 reshoring 55–6 resource constraints 4–5, 217 resource efficiency 7–8, 46, 47–9, 79, 190 Resource Revolution (Heck, Rogers and Carroll, 2014) 87–8 resources 40, 42, 73, 86, 197, 199 consumption 9, 26, 73–7, 101–2 costs 78, 203 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 reducing use 45, 52, 65, 73–7, 104, 199, 203 saving 72, 77, 200 scarcity 22, 46, 72, 73, 77–8, 80, 158–9, 190, 203 sharing 56–7, 159–61, 167 substitution 92 wasting 169–70 retailers 56, 129, 214 “big-box” 9, 18, 137 Rethink Robotics 49 return on investment 22, 197 reuse 9, 73, 76–7, 81, 84–5, 92–3, 200 see also C2C revenues, generating 77, 167, 180 reverse innovation 202–3 rewards 37, 178, 208 Riboud, Franck 66, 184, 217 Rifkin, Jeremy 9–10 robots 47, 49–50, 70, 144–5, 150 Rock Health 151 Rogers, Jay 129 Rogers, Matt 87–8 Romania 2–3, 103 rookie mindset 164, 168 Rose, Stuart 179–80, 180 Roulin, Anne 195 Ryan, Eric 81–2 Ryanair 60 S S-Oil 106 SaaS (software as a service) 60 Saatchi & Saatchi 70–1 Saatchi & Saatchi + Duke 71–2, 143 sales function 15, 21, 25–6, 36, 116–18, 146 Salesforce.com 157 Santi, Paolo 108 SAP 59, 186 Saunders, Charles 211 savings 115 Sawa Orchards 29–31 Scandinavian countries 6–7 see also Norway Schmidt, Eric 136 Schneider Electric 150 Schulman, Dan 161–2 Schumacher, E.F. 104–5, 105 Schweitzer, Louis 1, 2, 3, 4, 179 SCM (supply chain management) systems 59 SCOR (supply chain operations reference) model 67 Seattle 107 SEB 157 self-sufficiency 8 selling less 123–4 senior managers 122–4, 199 see also CEOs; organisational change sensors 65–6, 106, 118, 135, 201 services 9, 41–3, 67–8, 124, 149 frugal 60–3, 216 value-added 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 Shapeways 51, 132 shareholders 14, 15, 76, 123–4, 180, 204–5 sharing 9–10, 193 assets 159–61, 167 customers 156–8 ideas 63–4 intellectual assets 171–2 knowledge 153 peer-to-peer 136–9 resources 56–7, 159–61, 167 sharing economy 9–10, 17, 57, 77, 80, 84–7, 108, 124 peer-to-peer sharing 136–9 sharing between companies 159–60 shipping costs 55, 59 shopping experience 121–2 SIEH hotel group 172–3 Siemens 117–18, 150, 187–9, 215, 216 Sigismondi, Pier Luigi 100 Silicon Valley 42, 98, 109, 150, 151, 162, 175 silos, breaking out of 36–7 Simple Bank 124–5 simplicity 8, 41, 64–5, 170, 194 Singapore 175 Six Sigma 11 Skillshare 85 SkyPlus 62 Small is Beautiful (Schumacher, 1973) 104–5 “small is beautiful” values 8 small and medium-sized businesses see SMBs Smart + Connected Communities 29 SMART car 119–20 SMART strategy (Siemens) 188–9 smartphones 17, 100, 106, 118, 130, 131, 135, 198 in health care 110, 111 see also apps SmartScan 29 SMBs (small and medium-sized businesses) 173, 174, 175, 176 SMS-based systems 42–3 SnapShot 116 SNCF 41–3, 156–7, 167 SoapBox 28–9 social business model 206–7 social comparison 109 social development 14 social goals 94 social learning 113 social manufacturing 47, 50–1 social media 16, 71, 85, 106, 108, 168, 174 for marketing 61, 62, 143 mining 29, 58 social pressure of 119 tools 109, 141 and transaction costs 133 see also Facebook; social networks; Twitter social networks 29, 71, 72, 132–3, 145, 146 see also Facebook; Twitter social pressure 119 social problems 82, 101–2, 141, 142, 153, 161–2, 204 social responsibility 7, 10, 14, 141, 142, 197, 204 corporate 77, 82, 94, 161 social sector, working with 161–2 “social tinkerers” 134–5 socialising education 112–14 Sofitel 173 software 72 software as a service (SaaS) 60 solar power 136, 201 sourcing, local 51–2, 56 Southwest Airlines 60 Spain 5, 6, 103 Spark 48 speed dating 175, 176 spending, on R&D 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 spiral economy 77, 87–90 SRI International 49, 52 staff see employees Stampanato, Gary 55 standards 78, 196 Starbucks 7, 140 start-ups 16–17, 40–1, 61, 89, 110, 145, 148, 150, 169, 216 investing in 137–8, 157 as partners 42, 72, 153, 175, 191, 206 see also Nest Labs; Silicon Valley Statoil 160 Steelcase 142 Stem 151 Stepner, Diana 165 Stewart, Emma 196–7 Stewart, Osamuyimen 201–2 Sto Corp 84 Stora Enso 195 storytelling 112, 113 Strategy& see Booz & Company Subramanian, Prabhu 114 substitution of resources 92 subtractive manufacturing 48 Sun Tzu 158 suppliers 67–8, 83, 148, 153, 167, 176, 192–3 collaboration with 76, 155–6 sharing with 59–60, 91 visibility 59–60 supply chain management see SCM supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model 67 supply chains 34, 36, 54, 65, 107, 137, 192–3 carbon footprint 156 costs 58, 84 decentralisation 66–7 frugal 54–60 integrating 161 small-circuit 137 sustainability 137 visibility 34, 59–60 support 135, 152 sustainability xix, 9, 12, 72, 77–80, 82, 97, 186 certification 84 as competitive advantage 80 consumers and 95, 97, 101–4 core design principle 82–4, 93, 195–6 and growth 76, 80, 104–5 perceptions of 15–16, 80, 91 recommendations for managers 90–3 regulatory demand for 78–9, 216 standard bearers of 80, 97, 215 see also Accor; circular economy; Kingfisher; Marks & Spencer; Tarkett; Unilever sustainable design 82–4 see also C2C sustainable distribution 57, 161 sustainable growth 72, 76–7 sustainable lifestyles 107–8 Sustainable Living Plan (Unilever) 94–7, 179, 203–4 sustainable manufacturing 9, 52 T “T-shaped” employees 70–1 take-back programmes 9, 75, 77, 78 Tally 196–7 Tarkett 73–7, 80, 84 TaskRabbit 85 Tata Motors 16, 119 Taylor, Frederick 71 technical design 37–8 technical support, by customers 146 technology 2, 14–15, 21–2, 26, 27 TechShop 9, 70, 134–5, 152, 166–7 telecoms sector 53, 56 Telefónica 147 telematic monitoring 116 Ternois, Laurence 42 Tesco 102 Tesla Motors 92, 172 testing 28, 42, 141, 170, 192 Texas Industries 159 Textoris, Vincent 127 TGV Lab 42–3 thermostats 98–100 thinking, entrenched 14–16 Thompson, Gav 147 Timberland 90 time 4, 7, 11, 41, 72, 129, 170, 200 constraints 36, 42 see also development cycle tinkerers 17–18, 133–5, 144, 150, 152, 153, 165–7, 168 TiVo 62 Tohamy, Noha 59–60 top-down change 177–8 top-down management 69 Total 157 total quality management (TQM) 11 total volatile organic compounds see TVOC Toyota 44, 100 Toyota Sweden 106–7 TQM (total quality management) 11 traffic 108, 116, 201 training 76, 93, 152, 167, 170, 189 transaction costs 133 transparency 178, 185 transport 46, 57, 96, 156–7 Transport for London 195 TrashTrack 107 Travelocity 174 trial and error 173, 179 Trout, Bernhardt 45 trust 7, 37, 143 TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) 74, 77 Twitter 29, 62, 135, 143, 147 U Uber 136, 163 Ubuntu 202 Uchiyama, Shunichi 50 UCLA Health 202–3 Udacity 61, 112 UK 194 budget cuts 6 consumer empowerment 103 industrial symbiosis 160 savings 115 sharing 85, 138 “un-management” 63–4, 64 Unboundary 154 Unilever 11, 31, 57, 97, 100, 142, 203–5, 215 and sustainability 94–7, 104, 179, 203–4 University of Cambridge Engineering Design Centre (EDC) 194–5 Inclusive Design team 31 Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL) 158–9 upcycling 77, 88–9, 93, 159 upselling 189 Upton, Eben 135–6 US 8, 38, 44, 87, 115, 133, 188 access to financial services 13, 17, 161–2 ageing population 194 ageing workforce 13 commuting 131 consumer spending 5, 6, 103 crowdfunding 137–8, 138 economic pressures 5, 6 energy use 103, 119, 196 environmental awareness 7, 102 frugal innovation in 215–16, 218 health care 13, 110, 208–13, 213 intellectual property 171 onshoring 55 regulation 8, 78, 216 sharing 85, 138–9 shifting production from China to 55, 56 tinkering culture 18, 133–4 user communities 62, 89 user interfaces 98, 99 user-friendliness 194 Utopies 91 V validators 144 value 11, 132, 177, 186, 189–90 aspirational 88–9 to customers 6–7, 21, 77, 87, 131, 203 from employees 217 shareholder value 14 value chains 9, 80, 128–9, 143, 159–60, 190, 215 value engineering 192 “value gap” 54–5 value-added services 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 values 6–7, 14, 178, 205 Vandebroek, Sophie 169 Vasanthakumar, Vaithegi 182–3 Vats, Tanmaya 190, 192 vehicle fleets, sharing 57, 161 Verbaken, Joop 118 vertical integration 133, 154 virtual prototyping 65 virtuous cycle 212–13 visibility 34, 59–60 visible learning 112–13 visioning sessions 193–4 visualisation 106–8 Vitality 111 Volac 158–9 Volkswagen 4, 44, 45–6, 129, 144 Volvo 62 W wage costs 48 wages, in emerging markets 55 Waitrose, local suppliers 56 Walker, James 87 walking the walk 122–3 Waller, Sam 195 Walmart 9, 18, 56, 162, 216 Walton, Sam 9 Wan Jia 144 Washington DC 123 waste 24, 87–9, 107, 159–60, 175, 192, 196 beautifying 88–9, 93 e-waste 24, 79, 87–8, 121 of energy 119 post-consumer 9, 75, 77, 78, 83 reducing 47, 74, 85, 96, 180, 209 of resources 169–70 in US health-care system 209 see also C2C; recycling; reuse water 78, 83, 104, 106, 158, 175, 188, 206 water consumption 79, 82–3, 100, 196 reducing 74, 75, 79, 104, 122–3, 174, 183 wealth 105, 218 Wear It Share It (Wishi) 85 Weijmarshausen, Peter 51 well-being 104–5 Wham-O 56 Whirlpool 36 “wicked” problems 153 wireless technologies 65–6 Wiseman, Liz 164 Wishi (Wear It Share It) 85 Witty, Andrew 35, 35–6, 37, 39, 217 W.L. Gore & Associates 63–4 women 87, 103, 122, 140 work environment 70, 80 workforce, ageing 13, 29, 49, 153 “workspaces” 128 World Business Council for Sustainable Development 194 World Economic Forum 9, 81, 194 X Xerox Research Centre India 169 Y Yahoo! 38 Yamazaki, Tomihiro 29–30 Yatango Mobile 146 yerdle.com 85 young people 79–80, 85, 122, 139 as consumers 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 as employees 14, 79–80, 124, 204 YouTube 17, 29, 108, 144, 147 Z Zara 55 Zipcar 10, 63 Zopa 10 Praise for Jugaad Innovation GAPPAA .ORG ‘Innovation is a western word.

 

pages: 798 words: 240,182

The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More

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23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

For instance, Schaub has wondered whether, if people lived for 1,000 years, “How would human relations be affected? How would monogamy fare?… would there be enough psychic energy for ever-renewed love?” First, a pressing current question is: why has monogamy already begun to fall apart in ­developed societies? I suspect that the increase in life expectancy over the last century may have had a bit to do with it, but surely the advent of truly effective contraception and the entrance of women fully into the paid workforce are far more significant factors. One commentator noted that before the twentieth century, marriage was not often based on romantic love, but could well be described as an alliance in which a man and woman stood together, back to back, ­fending off attacks on their family. As the modern world became less economically and socially threatening, marriage partners turned toward each other seeking more emotional support and often found it lacking.

 

pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

Some men thought this was good for them. “The action of stretching her arms up above her head, and to the right and left of her, develops her chest and arms,” said Every Woman’s Encyclopedia, “and turns thin and weedy girls into strong ones. There are no anaemic, unhealthy looking girls in the operating rooms.”♦ Along with another new technology, the typewriter, the telephone switchboard catalyzed the introduction of women into the white-collar workforce, but battalions of human operators could not sustain a network on the scale now arising. Switching would have to be performed automatically. This meant a mechanical linkage to take from callers not just the sound of their voice but also a number—identifying a person, or at least another telephone. The challenge of converting a number into electrical form still required ingenuity: first push buttons were tried, then an awkward-seeming rotary dial, with ten finger positions for the decimal digits, sending pulses down the line.

 

pages: 3,292 words: 537,795

Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, place-making, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional

Iconic political leaders from the early days of the Chinese Communist Party were men and the influential echelons of the party persist as a largely male domain. Only a handful of the great scientists celebrated in a long photographic mural at Shanghai’s Science and Technology Museum are women. The Communist Party after 1949 tried to outlaw old customs and put women on equal footing with men. It abolished arranged marriages and encouraged women to get an education and join the workforce. Women were allowed to keep their maiden name upon marriage and leave their property to their children. In its quest for equality during this period however, the Communist Party seemed to ‘desexualise’ women, fashioning instead a kind of idealised worker/mother/peasant paradigm. David Eimer’s The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China (Bloomsbury, 2014) is a riveting journey through China's periphery, from the deserts of Xinjiang and the mountains of Tibet, to the tropical jungles of Xishuangbanna and the frozen wastes of far northern Heilongjiang.

 

pages: 306 words: 92,704

After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce

 

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

As Ruth Schwartz Cowan, a historian of science at the University of Pennsylvania, shows in her book More Work for Mother, after 1870 homemakers ended up working longer hours even though more and more household activities were mechanized. (Cowan notes that in 1950 the American housewife produced singlehandedly what her counterpart needed a staff of three or four to produce just a century earlier.) Who could have predicted that the development of “labor-saving devices” had the effect of increasing the burden of housework for most women? Similarly, the introduction of computers into the workforce failed to produce expected productivity gains (Tetris was, perhaps, part of some secret Soviet plot to halt the capitalist economy). The Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert Solow quipped that “one can see the computer age everywhere but not in the productivity statistics!” Part of the problem in predicting the exact economic and social effects of a technology lies in the uncertainty associated with the scale on which such a technology would be used.

 

pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost

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Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

 

pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

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affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Work is deemed so fundamental to human existence in many countries around the world that it is regarded as a basic human right. Deprivation of work, particularly among men, is strongly associated with depression and violence. Landing a job after release from prison is no small feat. “I’ve watched the discrimination and experienced it firsthand when you have to check the box,” says Susan Burton, an ex-offender who founded a business aimed at providing formerly incarcerated women the support necessary to re-establish themselves in the workforce. The “box” she refers to is the question on job applications in which applicants are asked to check “yes” or “no” if they have ever been convicted of a crime. “It’s not only [on] job [applications],” Burton explains. “It’s on housing. It’s on a school application. It’s on welfare applications. It’s everywhere you turn.”19 Nearly every state allows private employers to discriminate on the basis of past criminal convictions.

 

pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

 

pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

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23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This latter idea is particularly important, as cleaning, child care, cooking, and many other domestic tasks that are labor-intensive and time-consuming have long been diminished as not “real” work. That, in turn, helps to hollow support for feminist movements, the rights of homemakers, and a strong social safety net which, for example, would provide child-care services that would allow women to put aside their domestic labor and enter the paid workforce. The sharing economy is loaded with shadow work, which you might discover when you learn you’re required to clean out your Zipcar but not the (similarly priced) rental from Hertz or Enterprise. Shadow work also includes many tasks—driving, paying for gas, maintaining equipment, buying office supplies to make up for a budget shortfall—that hit poor people hardest.

 

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

As they rose to power, they temporarily brought relative stability to parts of the country by outlawing the poppy production, looting, general lawlessness, rape and other crimes against women. Yet in a short time, Afghans started resenting the Taliban’s strict, fundamentalist imposition of Islam and its restrictions on the majority of society, including the banning of education for women, exclusion of women from all sectors of the workforce, persecution of academics and professionals, and violence against targeted minority groups, particularly the Hazaras and the Tajiks. However, the Taliban’s increasing military power enabled them to defeat mujahideen forces all over Afghanistan, and as they gained greater control of territory, more refugees fled their homes (Ruiz, 1996). 176 Nations with Large Immigrant Populations The Rise and Fall of the Taliban (1996 to 2001) The increasing political power of the Taliban culminated in September 1996 with their seizure of Kabul from the Northern Alliance (a group of mujahideen forces that had banded together against the Taliban), and between 1996 and 1999 approximately 900,000 refugees fled to Pakistan despite UNHCR and the World Food Program’s (WFP) decision to end food aid in the camps in Pakistan in 1995 (USCR WRS, 2000; Ruiz, 2002).

 

pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader

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agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Hired on two-year contracts for a small basic salary plus 2 per cent commission on all the rubber collected, each agent had a quota to fill; if production fell below the quota, the value of the shortfall was deducted from his commission. With no shortage of applicants, Abir exploited a dubious privilege of being able to hire on condition that agents increased production at their assigned posts by one-half to two tonnes per month. Production could be increased either by bringing more villages under the control of the posts, or by raising quotas, thus forcing women and children to join the workforce. Both methods were used. Abir exported nearly 1,000 tonnes of rubber in 1903, its peak year, and by 1906 had 47,000 rubber-gatherers listed on its register. By then Abir was recording annual profits of a magnitude that prompted its directors to remark that ‘such a result is perhaps without precedent in the annals of our industrial companies’.68 The result of these excesses was nothing if not predictable.

 

pages: 667 words: 186,968

The Great Influenza by John M. Barry

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Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, Chance favours the prepared mind, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, index card, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, means of production, statistical model, the medium is the message, the scientific method, traveling salesman, women in the workforce

Loring Miner, whose father was the largest landowner in southwest Kansas—to chair a woman’s auxiliary. In 1918 the Red Cross counted thirty million Americans—out of a total population of 105 million—as active supporters. Eight million Americans, nearly 8 percent of the entire population, served as production workers in local chapters. (The Red Cross had more volunteers in World War I than in World War II despite a 30 percent increase in the nation’s population.) Women made up nearly all this enormous volunteer workforce, and they might as well have worked in factories. Each chapter received a production quota, and each chapter produced that quota. They produced millions of sweaters, millions of blankets, millions of socks. They made furniture. They did everything requested of them, and they did it well. When the Federal Food Administration said that pits from peaches, prunes, dates, plums, apricots, olives, and cherries were needed to make carbon for gas masks, newspapers reported, “Confectioners and restaurants in various cities have begun to serve nuts and fruit at cost in order to turn in the pits and shells, a patriotic service….

 

pages: 1,509 words: 416,377

Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty by Bradley K. Martin

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anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, four colour theorem, illegal immigration, informal economy, kremlinology, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, stakhanovite, UNCLOS, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

“Our principle is, if it’s easy work we give preference to women because they are not so physically strong,” an official told me. Hothouse gardening was considered light work. 10. Forty-five percent in 1981, according to the Souths National Unification Board. By 1989 (as demographers Nicholas Eberstadt and Judith Banister reported in North Korea: Population Trends and Prospects [Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990]), the far greater participation of women in the North’s workforce was reflected in a total participation rate for both men and women of 78.5 percent. That compares with an official South Korean workforce participation rate for the same year of 58.3 percent (Byoung-Lo Philo Kim, Two Koreas in Development, p. 92). 11. This factory evidently was one of the installations most frequently visited by the Great Leader. A guide at the industrial and agricultural exhibition in Pyongyang told me, “The respected and beloved leader Chairman Kim Il-sung visited 199 units 699 times in the fields of heavy industrial factories,” which averages out to about three and a half visits per factory.

 

pages: 614 words: 176,458

Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce

 

pages: 768 words: 291,079

The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists by Robert Tressell

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, full employment, James Watt: steam engine, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, wage slave, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

machines for trimmin’ wallpaper . . . a paintin’ machine: wallpaper trimming machines (enabling patterns to be matched across joins) had been available since at least the 1870s. The ‘Electric Painting Machine’ was used at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 and was described as enabling three men to do the work of twenty. A photograph shows the machine to have been much as Crass describes: <http:// columbus.gl.iit.edu/dreamcity/00034032.html> ‘Another thing is women’: working-class women made up a significant part of the workforce during the nineteenth century as domestic servants, mill workers, and as wives of farmers and shop owners. Towards the end of the century, middle-class, particularly single, women started to take up employment as clerks, typists, and shop assistants, while others agitated for entry into the professions. In 1898 the Women’s Institute published A Dictionary of Employments Open to Women.

 

pages: 2,020 words: 267,411

Lonely Planet Morocco (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Paul Clammer, Paula Hardy

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air freight, Airbnb, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, illegal immigration, place-making, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

As of 2004, Morocco’s Mudawanna legal code guarantees women crucial rights with regard to custody, divorce, property ownership and child support, among other protections. Positive social pressure has greatly reduced the once-common practice of hiring girls under 14 years of age as domestic workers, and initiatives to eliminate female illiteracy are giving girls a better start in life. Women now represent nearly a third of Morocco’s formal workforce, forming their own industrial unions, agricultural cooperatives and artisans’ collectives. The modern Moroccan woman’s outlook extends far beyond her front door, and women visitors will meet Moroccan women eager to chat, compare life experiences and share perspectives on world events. Male-female interactions are still somewhat stilted by social convention – though you’ll surely notice couples meeting in parks, at cafes and via webcam.

 

Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

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active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

For the new generation, Vietnam is a place to succeed, a place to ignore the staid structures set in stone by the communists, and a place to go out and have some fun. As in other parts of Asia, life revolves around the family; there are often several generations living under one roof. Poverty, and the transition from a largely agricultural society to that of a more industrialised nation, sends many people seeking their fortune to the bigger cities, and is changing the structure of the modern family unit. Women make up 52% of the nation’s workforce but are not well represented in positions of power. Vietnam’s population is 84% ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) and 2% ethnic Chinese; the rest is made up of Khmers, Chams and members of more than 50 minority people, who mainly live in highland areas. * * * THE NORTH–SOUTH DIVIDE The North–South divide lingers. It’s the South that’s benefited most from overseas investment as Viet Kieu (overseas Vietnamese, the vast majority of whom are Southerners) have returned and invested in the region.