women in the workforce

337 results back to index


pages: 241 words: 78,508

Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg

affirmative action, business process, Cass Sunstein, constrained optimization, experimental economics, fear of failure, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, old-boy network, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social graph, women in the workforce, young professional

Although pundits and politicians, usually male, often claim that motherhood is the most important and difficult work of all, women who take time out of the workforce pay a big career penalty. Only 74 percent of professional women will rejoin the workforce in any capacity, and only 40 percent will return to full-time jobs.14 Those who do rejoin will often see their earnings decrease dramatically. Controlling for education and hours worked, women’s average annual earnings decrease by 20 percent if they are out of the workforce for just one year.15 Average annual earnings decline by 30 percent after two to three years,16 which is the average amount of time that professional women off-ramp from the workforce.17 If society truly valued the work of caring for children, companies and institutions would find ways to reduce these steep penalties and help parents combine career and family responsibilities.

My intention is to offer advice that would have been useful to me long before I had heard of Google or Facebook and that will resonate with women in a broad range of circumstances. I have heard these criticisms in the past and I know that I will hear them—and others—in the future. My hope is that my message will be judged on its merits. We can’t avoid this conversation. This issue transcends all of us. The time is long overdue to encourage more women to dream the possible dream and encourage more men to support women in the workforce and in the home. We can reignite the revolution by internalizing the revolution. The shift to a more equal world will happen person by person. We move closer to the larger goal of true equality with each woman who leans in. 1 The Leadership Ambition Gap What Would You Do If You Weren’t Afraid? MY GRANDMOTHER Rosalind Einhorn was born exactly fifty-two years before I was, on August 28, 1917.

But more than twenty years after my college graduation, the world has not evolved nearly as much as I believed it would. Almost all of my male classmates work in professional settings. Some of my female classmates work full-time or part-time outside the home, and just as many are stay-at-home mothers and volunteers like my mom. This mirrors the national trend. In comparison to their male counterparts, highly trained women are scaling back and dropping out of the workforce in high numbers.1 In turn, these diverging percentages teach institutions and mentors to invest more in men, who are statistically more likely to stay. Judith Rodin, president of the Rockefeller Foundation and the first woman to serve as president of an Ivy League university, once remarked to an audience of women my age, “My generation fought so hard to give all of you choices.


pages: 320 words: 96,006

The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin

affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, post-work, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, white picket fence, women in the workforce, young professional

Women worldwide dominate colleges and professional schools on every continent except Africa. In the United States, for every two men who will receive a BA this year, for example, three women will do the same. Of the fifteen job categories projected to grow the most in the United States over the next decade, twelve are occupied primarily by women. Indeed, the US economy is becoming a kind of traveling sisterhood: Professional women leave home and enter the workforce, creating domestic jobs for other women to fill. Our vast and struggling middle class, where the disparities between men and women are the greatest, is slowly turning into a matriarchy, with men increasingly absent from the workforce and from home, and women making all the decisions. In the past, men derived their advantage largely from size and strength, but the postindustrial economy is indifferent to brawn.

The 2010 sitcom season was populated by out-of-work husbands, meek boyfriends, stay-at-home dads, killer career wives, and a couple of men who have to dress up like women in order to get a job. For the first time, a slew of new sitcoms were shot with the premise that women go out to work while men stay home to take care of the house, stock the refrigerator with low-fat yogurt, or pretend to be taking care of the baby while watching a hockey game. “Women are taking over the workforce. Soon they’ll have all the money, and the power, and they’ll start getting rid of men,” laments one character in a new show called Work It. “They’ll just keep a few of us around as sex slaves.” For the last few years, romantic comedies, sitcoms, and advertising have been producing endless variations on what Jessica Grose at Slate dubbed the “omega male,” who ranks even below the beta in the wolf pack.

The coveted and lasting professions were the ones that required a boutique skill or a nurturing touch—things a robot could not easily do. Traditionally feminine attributes, like empathy, patience, and communal problem-solving, began to replace the top-down autocratic model of leadership and success. For the first time in history, the global economy is becoming a place where women are finding more success than men. Upper-class women leave home and enter the workforce, filling the ever-growing ranks of the creative class—publicity assistant, wine critic, trail mix creator, sustainability consultant, screenwriter. And that, in turn, creates an industry of jobs based on the things those women used to do for free—child care, food preparation, elder care. The booming health-care industry provides jobs all along that chain, from gastroenterologist to home health aide.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Meanwhile the average pension covers 90 percent of the retiree’s final salary, compared to an OECD average of 60 percent. Brazil is one of the countries where the growing imbalance between workers and retirees most threatens the shaky edifice of Bismarckian retirement systems. On this front too governments are struggling to keep up with the effects of the depopulation bomb. What Happened to Women in the Workforce? The worldwide movement of women into the workforce that energized much of the postwar era has stagnated in the past twenty years, with the average female labor force participation rate stuck at around 50 percent. Typically women participate in the labor force at a very high rate in poor rural countries, where feeding the family requires all hands to work in the fields. The participation rate then falls as countries industrialize and move into the middle-income class, as some women shift to housework, falling out of the formal labor force.

Womenomics includes improving childcare services and parental leave, cutting the “marriage penalty” that taxes a family’s second earner at a higher rate, and encouraging Japanese corporations to put more women in executive positions. During the first three years of Abe’s term, some eight hundred thousand women entered the workforce, and he claimed his campaign was also pushing more women into corner office jobs. In Canada, an effort to open doors to women produced quick results. Only 68 percent of Canadian women participated in the workforce in 1990; two decades later that figure had increased to 74 percent, largely on the back of reforms including tax cuts for second earners and new childcare services. An even more dramatic boom in the number of working women came in the Netherlands, where the female labor participation rate has doubled since 1980 to 74 percent today, as a result of expanded parental leave policies and the spread of flexible, part-time working arrangements.

In the Indian state of Bihar, out of a population of 100 million, only 2 percent of women work in formal jobs that are counted as part of the labor force. The cultural barriers are real but not insurmountable. Latin America, which has a reputation for harboring some of the world’s most macho cultures, is also making rapid gains in bringing women into the workforce. Between 1990 and 2013 only five countries increased their female labor force participation rate by more than 10 percentage points, and all were Latin countries. In first place was Colombia, where the share of adult women active in the workforce rose by 26 percentage points, followed by Peru, Chile, Brazil, and Mexico. The reasons for this boom are complex, but one is that Latin educational systems have opened up to women; in Colombia, Profamilia, a private group founded in the 1970s by wealthy women, has played a major role.


pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

To Toffler, the nuclear family represents “the second wave” of human existence, which is being replaced by a more flexible “third wave” lifestyle.126 “Just as the nuclear family was promoted by the rise of the factory and office work,” Toffler suggests, “any shift away from the factory or the office would also exert a heavy influence on the family.”127 Family ties have also been undermined by the fierce competition of this highly globalized “third wave” economy. Firms often demand long hours of their workers in order to keep up with their rivals or to meet the demands of clients and customers. Increasingly, many of these workers are women. This has an inevitable effect on birth rates and the nature of families. Women’s growing involvement in the workforce, notes author Stephanie Coontz, has been necessary for decades in order for couples to afford children, but it also makes it more difficult for them to raise them.128 This rise of female participation in the workforce has been widespread not only in the United States but also in Europe and most especially in eastern Asia. In 1970, less than half of women in Japan and Korea and only one-fifth of women in Singapore were working.

See also Suburbs in Britain, 148–149 and changes in US suburbs, 156–158 and class warfare in suburbs, 147–148 as common reality, 6 economics of, 183–185 evolution of, 143–145 globalization of, 153–155 and homeownership, 151–153 human city approach to, 167–168 of jobs, 9 as model for future urban growth, 76–77 and multiracial suburbs in other countries, 158–159 and social stability/cohesion, 160–164 and suburbs as “new slums,” 159–160 and suburbs as place for families, 164–167 trend toward, 14–15 in United States, 149–151 and war against suburbia, 145–147 Duany, Andrés, 10, 161 Dubai, 81, 82, 85, 97, 100 Dubai-Sharjah, 87–88 Durham, 9 Düsseldorf, 196 E Earnshaw, Martin, 139 Easterbrook, Gregg, 2 Eastern Asia birth rates in, 15 fertility rate in, 16 middle class move to periphery, 116 post-familialism in, 119–122, 130, 133 secularism in, 126 women in workforce in, 135 in world economy, 8 Eastern Europe, 35, 138 Ebbsfleet, 197 Eberstadt, Nicholas, 123–124 Eco-cities, 10 Economic growth, 1, 51, 76–77 Economy “connected” cities in, 84–85 employment locations, 8–9 future role of central city in, 185–186 home-based, 187–189 in new consumer cities, 37–38 “third wave,” 135 Ectopia (Callenbach), 194 Ecuador, 53 Education, 165–166 Ehrlich, Paul, 194 Emerging Cities Outlook (A.

Kearney), 55 Employment dispersion of, 184–185 in global cities, 82 and immigration of skilled workers, 99 in innovative firms, 8–9 in Mumbai, 64 in new consumer cities, 36–39 plutonomy structure for, 39–40 shifted to rural areas, 74 STEM jobs, 8–9 in technology, 185 in transactional cities, 32 Enclosure Act of 1801 (Britain), 27 EnergyAustralia, 10–11 Engelen, Theo, 129 Engels, Friedrich, 27–28, 58 England, garden cities in, 29 English language, 83 Entertainment, 38 Environmental issues, 9–11 adjusting to environmental change, 196 air pollution, 66–67 greener suburbs, 189–191 greenhouse gas emissions, 10–11, 190 urban heat island effect, 190–191 Erdoǧan, Recep Tayyip, 13 Estonia, 138 Ethnicity(-ies) in Dutch cities, 26 and homeownership, 160 in suburbs, 156–159 in US cities, 156–157 Europe carbon emissions in, 190 city squares in, 22–23 colonialism by, 60–61 connecting regions in, 185 desire for children in, 180 dispersion in, 154–155 emigration from, 86 glamour zones in, 81 housing affordability in, 133, 160 immigrants to, 98 improved sanitation in, 116 inequality in cities of, 95 infrastructure of, 67 megacities in, 52 middle class move to periphery, 116 migration to, 137–138 millennial living preferences in, 172 post-familialism in, 117–119, 133 renovation of cities in, 59, 60 secularism in, 125–126 Singaporean immigrants from, 99 suburbs as “new slums” in, 159 women in workforce in, 135 workforce in, 138 Everyday life, 2, 19–47 and geography of inequality, 39–42 in the human city, 45–47 in imperial cities, 23–25 in industrial cities, 26–28 and move to suburbs, 28–31, 162 in new consumer cities, 36–38 in producer cities, 25–26 religion and culture in ancient cities, 21–22 sacred space in, 21–23 in socialist cities, 32–36 and sustainability, 20, 43–45 in transactional cities, 31–32, 42–43 Expanding city, 6, 193.


pages: 318 words: 93,502

The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

No, the real solution lies elsewhere—in addressing the reasons behind the bidding war and helping all families, both dual- and single-income, to get some relief. The Two-Income Trap is thick with irony. Middle-class mothers went into the workforce in a calculated effort to give their families an economic edge. Instead, millions of them are now in the workplace just so their families can break even. At a time when women are getting college diplomas and entering the workforce in record numbers, their families are in more financial trouble than ever. Partly these women were the victims of bad timing: Despite general economic prosperity, the risks facing their families jumped considerably. Partly they were the victims of optimistic myopia: They saw the rewards a working mother could bring, without seeing the risks associated with that newfound income.

Having Children, Going Broke This book will tell the story of how having children has become the dividing line between the solvent and the insolvent, and how today’s parents are working harder than ever and falling desperately behind even with two incomes. It is also the story of how this state of affairs is not some unavoidable feature of the modern economy, or, for that matter, the inevitable by-product of women’s entry into the workforce. We write this book so that Ruth Ann and all the mothers like Ruth Ann, along with politicians and pundits, child advocates and labor organizers, pro-family conservatives and liberal feminists, will take a serious look at the economic forces that have battered the American family. We want them to see the hard numbers—and to gasp. But most of all, we want them to see that there is a way out.

Similarly, a modern mother with a three-month-old infant is more likely to be working outside the home than was a 1960s woman with a five-year-old child.55 As a claims adjuster with two children told us, “It never even occurred to me not to work, even after Zachary was born. All the women I know have a job.” Even these statistics understate the magnitude of change among middle-class mothers. Before the 1970s, large numbers of older women, lower-income women, and childless women were in the workforce.56 But middle-class mothers were far more likely to stay behind, holding on to the more traditional role of full-time homemaker long after many of their sisters had given it up. Over the past generation, middle-class mothers flooded into offices, shops, and factories, undergoing a greater increase in workforce participation than either their poor or their well-to-do sisters.57 Attitudes changed as well.


pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

All of these innovations in entertainment reflect a trend in real life. A couple of factors have triggered the growth of the Cougars. High divorce rates combined with longer life spans means a greater likelihood of women’s reentering the dating market. In fact, according to a 2004 survey conducted by AARP, 66 percent of “late-life divorces”—those that occur in a couple’s 40s, 50s, or 60s—are initiated by the women, not the men. Women’s success in the workforce means that some women want a man with a less developed career—so that he can move if she needs to, and perhaps be their kids’ primary caretaker. (Of course, men have pursued that arrangement for years.) But according to Valerie Gibson, it’s all about sex. A woman’s sexual peak is more aligned with that of the younger man. And having either rejected marriage or been through an unsuccessful one, the older woman is looking for something lighter and more frivolous.

(For many, the discovery is not so subtle: In another survey, by Hotjobs, a remarkable 44 percent of respondents said they’ve actually caught co-workers “getting amorous” on the job.) But the bottom line is: No one really minds. Fully 75 percent of workers think that romantic and sexual relationships between co-workers—at least if they are peers—are totally okay. Why the surge? In the long term, it’s of course because of the growing equality of men and women in the workforce. The gap has been steadily closing for decades. In the shorter term, it has to do with the rise of working singles. There are more of them than ever in the workforce (up 22 percent since 1995), and singles aged 25–34 are working more hours per week than they used to—up about 8 percent since 1970. (So really, where else could they find romance?) But of course, some married people are in on the action, too.

The Vault surveys found that the number one industries for interoffice hookups are media and entertainment, followed by advertising/marketing and consulting. (Finance and technology, much more dominated by men, are the least likely fields to spawn a fling.) I’m the CEO of a public relations firm and the president of a consulting firm. I am proud to say we have had several interoffice marriages that started as office romances, so a lot of good can come from this—now that men and women are in the workforce with greater equality, and can find people at work with similar skills and interests. We’re not alone in having nurtured office romances into long-term love. In a 2006 study by the Society for Human Resource Management, over 60 percent of the HR professionals interviewed said that romances in their offices had resulted in marriage. I can attest from personal experience that having married couples on staff can be a big win—they share a passion for our work; they back each other up if there’s a crisis at home; and they are productive for the firm even in downtime, since (so they tell me) they wrestle with work challenges even as they give their kids a bath.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

Starting in 1970, the number of women in schools of law and medicine steadily increased, until eventually men and women began to graduate from both in equal numbers. In 1984, the year the Macintosh was unveiled, women in tech reached a high point, receiving almost 40 percent of computer science degrees. Unfortunately, that’s when women’s progress in tech suddenly stalled. By that time, women were entering the workforce in droves, and the growing tech industry could have drawn on that influx of smart and ambitious women to staff its expansion. Just as computers began to head into the mainstream, however, women’s participation in the field started to plummet. Today women earn just 22 percent of computer science degrees, a number that has remained basically flat for a decade. The tech industry—taking root in the heart of the left-leaning West Coast—might have become a beacon of inclusion and diversity.

To say that it did not is a grand understatement. According to recent data, women hold a mere quarter of computing jobs in the United States, down from 36 percent in 1991. The numbers are actually worse at big companies such as Google and Facebook. In 2017, women at Google accounted for 31 percent of jobs overall and only 20 percent of vital technical roles. At Facebook, women make up 35 percent of the total workforce and 19 percent of technical jobs. The statistics are downright depressing for women of color: black women hold 3 percent of computing jobs, and Latina women hold 1 percent. Additionally, this small percentage of women employed in the field don’t necessarily stick with it; women are leaving jobs in technology and engineering more than twice as fast as their male peers. When it comes to tech start-up entrepreneurs, the minor royalty of Silicon Valley, the disparity is even starker.

A few have chosen to go public with their claims, filing sexual harassment suits with varying outcomes. Then, in 2017, as reports of unwanted advances piled up, women across industries and backgrounds banded together on social media to speak up in a #MeToo campaign. In this moving outpouring, women—including prominent women in technology—shared personal stories of sexual harassment and assault. “I know that so many women in the workforce—and for me, especially in the early years—deal with unwanted advances and harassment the best we can,” Sheryl Sandberg posted on Facebook. “We know that at its core this is about power no one should have over anyone.” While such cases make headlines, there is another type of discrimination in the industry that exists in a subtler, more ambient form, not unlike the attitudes that led to the selection of Lena’s image that turned her into an industry icon.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Work changed women’s perspectives—offering new careers and lives. Lewis argued that “woman gains freedom from drudgery, is emancipated from the seclusion of the household, and gains at last the chance to be a full human being, exercising her mind and her talents in the same way as men.” But if development opened a new set of options for women, the addition of women to the workforce contributed to shape the path of development. Women brought to the workforce a different set of skills that eased the shift from heavy industry to service-based economies in the rich nations of the West. Of equal importance, as women increased their clout over decisions about household investments and expenditures, they helped usher in vast social and economic changes that profoundly altered Western civilization. The economic historian Claudia Goldin argues that women’s labor supply follows a sort of U-shape as countries develop.

Institutional changes then encouraged more women to work, producing a positive feedback loop. For instance, women’s growing clout contributed to the spread of the no-fault, unilateral divorce in the 1970s. The change, which lowered the cost of ending a marriage, increased women’s incentive to work as a form of economic insurance in case it ended. Women’s labor supply grew sharply throughout the twentieth century. In 1920 less than 10 percent of married women aged thirty-five to forty-four were in the workforce. By 1945 the share was around 20 percent. Women’s educational attainment also grew by leaps and bounds. Outside the American South, high school graduation rates for women jumped fivefold from 1910 to 1938, to 56 percent. This produced a stream of qualified workers prepared for the new clerical jobs opening up across the economy. Still, educated women faced an uphill battle to find better jobs.

In 1960 there were 1.84 men for every woman graduating from a four-year college in the United States. By 2008, the graduation ratio had flipped to 1.34 women for each man. And most of these highly educated women worked. In 2000, women accounted for some 40 percent of first-year graduate students in business, and about half of those in medicine and the law. About 60 percent of American women of working age are in the formal workforce, either holding a job or looking for one. This is still about 11 percentage points below men’s labor participation. But it is 15 percentage points above women’s share forty years ago. Differences remain in men’s and women’s positions in the workplace. In 2009, women’s median income had risen to about 80 percent of that of men. But the pay gap has remained stuck there for years.


pages: 615 words: 168,775

Troublemakers: Silicon Valley's Coming of Age by Leslie Berlin

AltaVista, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, discovery of DNA, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, Leonard Kleinrock, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, packet switching, Ralph Nader, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, union organizing, upwardly mobile, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Seventy percent of women worked in teaching, sales, or clerical jobs. A later study (Francine D. Blau, “Trends in the Well-Being of American Women,” Journal of Economic Literature, March 1998: 112–65) estimated that about 45 percent of women comparable to Kurtzig in age, educational level, race, and marriage status (with a working spouse at home) were in the workforce. 5. “Women in the Workforce,” 2009 Census presentation at https://www.census.gov/newsroom/pdf/women_workforce_slides.pdf. Ninety-eight percent of women-owned businesses in 1972 were sole proprietorships. Discussion and Comments on the Major Issues Facing Small Business: A Report of the Select Committee on Small Business, United States Senate to the Delegates of the White House Conference on Small Business, Dec. 4, 1979: 55. 6. U.S. Department of Labor, “National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay,” March 1972. 7.

The first negative was easy to counter, she decided, if she limited her downside risk. Her commission check from GE, due at the end of the year, would be about $2,000. She could stake her new business with that, and if she ran through the money without making any more, she would fold the company and find a new sales job. The second concern was tougher. In the early 1970s, women made up roughly 40 percent of the workforce but only 1 percent of engineers4 and 17 percent of managers5 at any level. Helen Reddy’s song with its smash opening line “I am woman, hear me roar” had been released several months earlier, but in fields like the one Kurtzig was proposing to enter, there were few women to roar. She thought she could do it, nonetheless. Although women owned only 4.6 percent of the businesses in America, Kurtzig’s parents and grandparents had started small businesses (businesses that, in the case of her father, had become successful enough to gain him a house in Beverly Hills and a Rolls-Royce).

., 59, 81, 168, 230 New Yorker, 246, 351 New York Stock Exchange, 4–5, 317 New York Times, 133, 157, 172, 187, 257, 264n, 347, 371 NeXT, 372 Nintendo, 348 Nixon, Richard, 37, 120, 143, 158 NLS (oNLine System), 24 Nobel Prize, 133, 144, 188, 190, 193, 258, 263–64 Noyce, Robert, xi, 51, 54, 126n–27n, 129, 149, 190n, 235, 254n, 285, 302 Nutting Associates, 116 Office of Naval Research, 58 Opalka, Josephine, 138–40, 204 “Open Letter to Hobbyists” (Gates), 212 Oracle, 38, 78, 185, 364, 371 orchards, 4, 43, 46, 49, 149, 180, 370 order-processing systems, 148–49, 247 original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), 186 Ornstein, Severo, 95, 100 Orwell, George, 158 Osborne Computer, 358 Oshman, Ken, 44–46, 165, 319–22, 371 Packard, David, xi, 86, 254n, 255 packet switching, 21 PAC-MAN game, 345 Page, Larry, xii, 351 Pake, George, 94–95, 101, 217–23, 335–39 Palevsky, Max, 93n, 101 Palo Alto, Calif., 74, 80–84, 89, 93, 179, 207, 216–18, 221, 225, 235, 334, 342, 369 Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), xii–xiii Pake as director of, 94–95, 101, 217–21 Scientific Data Systems and, 90, 93, 101–2, 149, 215, 249 Sun technology and, 364 and women in workforce, 99–101 Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), Computer Science Laboratory at, 89–106, 146, 157, 213–14, 215–24, 285, 289 Alto system and, 92, 101–6, 141, 146, 215–17, 221–24, 285–88, 334 “dealer” meetings at, 99–103, 226, 340 personal computers and, 91–92, 101–6 paperless office, 224 Patent and Trademark Office, U.S., 144 patents, 59–62, 112, 132–37, 142–44, 157, 187–89, 257, 263, 349, 374 Peddle, Chuck, 212n People’s Park, 33–35, 55–56, 211, 226 peripheral devices, 209–10, 230, 246 Perkins, Tom, 128, 190–93, 197, 200–201, 254–60, 263 personal computers, xii, xv, 74, 91, 101–6, 141, 148, 213, 231, 239, 246–50, 269, 285, 301–3, 358, 366 pharmaceutical companies, 189, 235, 256–58, 266, 375 Philco-Ford, 58–59 pinball machines, 109, 113–14, 117–18, 273 Pitfall!


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

The list of factors impacting on work is a long one, and includes: globalization, automation, digitalization, artificial intelligence, workforce aging, skilled labor shortages, job mobility, open collaboration, outsourcing, transparency, business ethics, educational practices, regulatory changes, fluid networks, resource shortages, climate change, shifts in organizational structures and the impact of more women in the workforce. Dying jobs Shorthand secretary Switchboard operator Receptionist Bookbinder Printer Typist Supermarket cashier Photo processor Tollbooth operator Video store owner Call center operator Data entry clerk Record store manager Fighter pilot Newspaper delivery boy Freight handler Butcher Baker Candlestick maker Translator Unskilled agricultural worker Computer operator Elevator operator Errand boy Mail clerk/post boy Order clerk Train driver Bank teller Travel agent Blacksmith Roof thatcher Cinema projectionist Women at work This last factor is especially significant. A generation or two ago women were largely absent from the workforce in many countries or were restricted to relatively menial jobs.

A generation or two ago women were largely absent from the workforce in many countries or were restricted to relatively menial jobs. Furthermore, this revolution has taken place with relatively little friction. A few nations defy the trend, but skills shortages and aging populations will almost certainly result in even more women being brought into the workforce in the future. Why has this happened? One reason is political, but a stronger factor has been the expansion of higher education. What are the implications of more women at work? One consequence could be a slight feminization of organizational structures, leadership styles and even the regulatory environment. Put simply, if more women are in charge of large organizations such as PepsiCo or the International Monetary Fund (IMF), then we might expect more female-friendly policies to come to the fore. This isn’t happening everywhere and progress in some areas is painfully slow.

In the EU, 6 million of the 8 million new jobs that appeared between 2000 and 2009 were filled by women, and in the USA, female-owned businesses employ more workers than the biggest 500 companies put together. Goldman Sachs, the global investment bank, estimates that in Italy and Spain, increasing the number of women in work to a level comparable to men would boost GDP by 21 percent and 19 percent respectively. As a result, expect to see a growth in flexible contracts and conditions and more focus on intuition and empathy. The rising numbers of women in workforces may very well lead to lower pay too: women are often in areas where work is poorly paid and in some instances pay drops to fit the number of women available to do the work. “The underlying source of anguish for many people in work today is an antiquated system of employment and management designed for an industrial age.” Richard Donkin, writer and columnist Closer to home As for the nature of jobs themselves, we will see more part-time and flexible working, more working from home (more working from anywhere at any time, in fact), more job specialization and the rising importance of what some people have termed the right-brain professions.


pages: 626 words: 167,836

The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation by Carl Benedikt Frey

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, factory automation, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, game design, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, oil shock, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Turing test, union organizing, universal basic income, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

See also Gordon, 2016, figure 8-1. Clearly, the increase in the numbers of women entering the workforce was not just due to the labor-saving impact of technology. Cultural and social factors also played an enormous role, but they are beyond the scope of this book. What’s evident is that many women entered the workforce despite the continuing pressure on women to stay at home, and technology made it easier for them to do so. Just as the mechanization of in-home production increased the supply of women able and willing to enter the labor market, office machines increased the demand for them. Like the typewriter, which first appeared in 1874, office machines spawned large offices and sparked an early ascent of women in the clerical workforce. Writing in Scientific American, Vincent E. Giuliano explained: With the typewriter came an increase in the size of offices and in their number, in the number of people employed in them and in the variety of their jobs.

The computer revolution, which has also been an underlying facilitator of globalization, has meant diminishing opportunity for the unskilled across the board: routine work is now disappearing in parts of the developing world as well.48 In America, this process has been going on for decades, yet it was hidden by other factors. Though many blue-collar men have seen their incomes decline in real terms, family incomes were still rising for some, as more and more women joined the workforce. Women helped offset the work deficit among men up until 2000, when the growth in female labor force participation was reversed. But there was still another source of relief: the everyday consequences of technological change for the middle class were counterbalanced by subsidized mortgages for low-income households, which meant that consumption was broadly unaffected even as incomes fell.

Yet in 1900, manufacturing still accounted for only about a fifth of total employment, and industrial laborers worked much longer hours than those in other sectors of the economy.93 When government and farm workers are taken into account, Americans in 1900 worked around fifty-three hours per week on average. By 2005, this figure had fallen to roughly thirty-eight hours. However, looking merely at changes in hours per worker misses the fact that a larger share of the population today work than they did a century ago, as a growing percentage of women have entered the workforce (see chapter 6). When they accounted for the growing share of citizens at work, Ramey and Francis found a much less pronounced decline in working hours: average weekly hours worked per person fell by 4.7 hours between 1900 and 2005.94 All of this decline, in turn, occurred among the young and the elderly. Among those ages 25–54, in contrast, the average workweek actually got longer, even though weekly hours among men declined.


pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Also the campaign against violence against women, that has taken off in recent years, has centered on rape and domestic violence, along the lines set by the United Nations.4 It has ignored the violence inherent in the process of capitalist accumulation, the violence of the famines, wars and counterinsurgency programs that, through the ‘80s and ‘90s, have cleared the way to economic globalization. In this context, my first objective is to show that the globalization of the world economy has caused a major crisis in the social reproduction of populations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and that a new international division of labor has been built on this crisis that harnesses the labor of women from these regions for the reproduction of the “metropolitan” workforce. This means that women across the world are being “integrated” in the world economy as producers of workers not only for the local economies, but for the industrialized countries as well, in addition to producing cheap commodities for global export. I argue that this global restructuring of reproductive work opens a crisis in feminist politics, as it introduces new divisions among women that undermine the possibility of international feminist solidarity and threaten to reduce feminism to a vehicle for the rationalization of the world economic order.

Policy toward Africa at the End of the Cold War. New York: Council of Foreign Relations, 1992. Coalition of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). http://www.cosatu.org.za/shop/shop1006-08.html. Cobble, Dorothy Sue, ed. The Sex of Class: Women Transforming American Labor. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007. Cock, Jacklyn. “Trapped Workers: The Case of Domestic Servants in South Africa.” In Patriarchy and Class: African Women in the Home and in the Workforce, edited by Sharon B. Stichter and Jane L. Parpart. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988. Cohen, Roberta. The New Helots: Migrants in the International Division of Labor. Aldershot, UK: Gower Publishing Co., 1987. Cohen, Roberta, and Francis M. Deng. Masses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Colatrella, Steven.

“Warm Hands in Cold Age: On the Need of a New World Order of Care.” In Warm Hands in Cold Age, edited by Nancy Folbre, Lois B. Shaw, and Agneta Stark, 7-36. New York: Routledge, 2007. Steady, Filomina Chioma. Women and Children First: Environment, Poverty, and Sustainable Development. Rochester, VT: Schenkman Books, 1993. Stichter, Sharon B., and Jane L. Parpart, eds. Patriarchy and Class: African Women in the Home and in the Workforce. Boulder & London: Westview Press, 1988. _____. Women, Employment and the Family in the International Division of Labour. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1990. Stienstra, Deborah. Women’s Movements and International Organizations. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. Stone, Martin. The Agony of Algeria. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. Summerfield, Gale, Jean Pyle, and Manisha Desai.


pages: 324 words: 80,217

The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K

This divergence has led some to suggest that “feminism is the new natalism,” which is overstated; again, the more liberal societies’ openness to immigration explains some of the differences here, and the plunging birthrate in gender-egalitarian Finland is a clear counterexample to any feminism-as-natalism claim. But there may be kind of a trap for societies, like Italy and Japan, that maintain certain traditionalist gender norms while welcoming (or hustling) women into the workforce—almost as if when women are expected to play traditional homemaker roles and also work full-time, they go on a kind of reproductive strike. The biggest question of all, meanwhile, is: Why has fertility settled this low? It made sense that it would fall dramatically from its premodern heights, but why has it ended up subreplacement? Projections in the 1960s suggested that developed-world fertility would settle around 2.2 children per woman.

News & World Report, 98 utopianism, 210–13 Vanity Fair, 91–93 Varoufakis, Yanis, 219 Vendée, the, martyrs of, 206–7 Venezuela, 33 venture capital, 19 video games, 88 see also virtual entertainments Vietnam War, 70, 90 Villeneuve, Denis, 94 “Violent Passion Surrogate,” 128, 130, 132, 135 virtual entertainments, 122–26, 128–29, 149 and decline in risky social behaviors, 122–23, 148 in Japan, 88, 125 pornography and, 125 sex and, 128 violence in, 122 worktime participation and, 124 virtual realities, 236 Virtue of Nationalism, The (Hazony), 218 virtuous communities, 215–17 Vollrath, Dietrich, 182 wages: black-white gap in, 99 gender gap in, 99 “Waiting for the Barbarians” (Cavafy), 157–58 Walgreens, 19 Wallace-Wells, David, 195–96 Wall Street, government symbiosis with, 69 warfare, surgical precision in, 150, 151 Waugh, Evelyn, 183 Weglarz, Geoffrey, 137–38, 148 welfare programs, 34 welfare state, 76 birthrates and, 51, 52 West: cultural synthesis of postcolonial world and, 208–9 decadence of, 10 Western frontier, 3–5 WeWork, 21 White, E. B., 109 white supremacists, 153 Why Liberalism Failed (Deneen), 215–17 “Why Women Still Can’t Have It All” (Slaughter), 97 Wikipedia, 106 Wilder, Gary, 208 Wild Wild Country (documentary), 101–2 Wills, Garry, 110 Winemiller, Roger, 62 Wire, The (TV show), 95 Wired, 211 Wolfe, Tom, 96–97, 109–10 women, in workforce, 24 workers, as less likely than before to change jobs, 27 workforce participation: decline in, 23 virtual entertainments and, 124 women and, 24 World Trade Organization, China’s entry into, 29 World War II, 109, 183 Wright, Robin, 134 Wrinkle in Time, A (L’Engle), 240 Xi Jinping, 114, 167 Yemen, 199 Yiannopoulos, Milo, 143 Young, Michael, 170–71, 172 YouTube, 194 AVID READER PRESS An Imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc. 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2020 by Ross Douthat All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever.


pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, post-work, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

The share of women with paid work skyrocketed in every age group and doubled for women between twenty-five and sixty-four. For women twenty-five-to-fifty-four, the work rate was 34 percent in 1948; in 2015, it topped 70 percent. In arithmetic terms, this enormous influx of new workers completely offset the decline in work rates for prime-age men—and then some (see figure 3.1). Thanks to the progressive entry of ever-greater proportions of women into the workforce, overall work rates for every grouping of Americans between the ages of twenty and sixty-four also increased substantially between the late 1940s and the late 1990s. Around the late 1990s, however, the escalation of work rates for U.S. women stalled and, over the past decade and a half, fell from their all-time highs. Only then did the overall work rate for U.S. adults begin to register a decline.

The labor market is less distorted there than in France and the PIIGS countries, and the Japanese welfare state is, generally speaking, less hypertrophied.8 Still, Japan has famously suffered a generation of anemic growth since its “economic bubble” burst in 1990, with real per capita growth averaging just 0.8 percent per year up to 2014.9 Despite its decidedly unfavorable long-term macroeconomic environment, however, Japan’s prime-age male workforce participation has seen far less deterioration than America’s over those “lost decades.” Between 1990 and 2015, Japan’s prime-age male workforce rates slipped by just two percentage points, next to America’s five-point drop. The share of prime-age American men neither working nor looking for work is now over two and a half times higher than the Japanese figure. Presumed “cultural” factors (e.g., restricted workforce opportunities for Japanese women) cannot explain away this differential. As we shall see later, workforce participation rates for prime-age women are now higher in Japan than the United States. Another point worth exploring about the unusual nature of the modern American male’s flight from work relates to how strikingly these contrast with the work habits (or work ethic) of the great majority of working-age American men and women who hold down paid jobs. In theory, we should expect average hours of paid work per employee to decline over time in an increasingly affluent workforce.


pages: 346 words: 97,330

Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

He likes to move to different parts of his house, to break up his work shift, rather than sit anchored to the desktop computer that he set up in the foyer that serves as his home office. Like Zaffar, 85 percent of workers on LeadGenius are between the ages of 18 and 37.27 Slightly more than 70 percent of LeadGenius’s ghost workforce—called researchers—have at least a bachelor’s degree. Globally, women make up 49 percent of the platform’s workforce, although among our surveyed India workers there were 10 percent more men than women. Almost 75 percent of workers on the platform use LeadGenius and at least one other platform to do on-demand work. When Zaffar first applied to LeadGenius, he was still working full-time on MTurk but hadn’t made his daily goal of $20 in more than a month. According to LeadGenius, one out of every three researchers supports a household of three or more people.

Young women could earn twice their week’s earnings of $4.50 and leave the backbreaking work of sewing machines behind if they worked at a UGW union shop. But union strategies did not prioritize or recognize the specific burdens or costs women faced leaving contract labor or home-based piecework behind. Unions quickly abandoned their focus on recruiting young women to the factory floor. And none imagined that advocating for gender equality in the home to reduce women’s household workload might be a necessary strategy for unionizing women in the workforce.15 Instead, they shifted their attention to blocking the uptake of newer technologies that sped up the work pace. Some unions did manage to shut down piecework and press shop owners into creating better-paying, stable employment for skilled and unskilled workers. Invariably, trade unions’ core membership and base of white, able-bodied men were the first—sometimes the only—group to find their way to less precarious work.16 Headlines of faulty machinery mangling children’s limbs in meatpacking plants, textile workers trapped in shop-floor fires behind locked factory doors, and toxic fumes that enveloped workers mining phosphorus for matchsticks filled newspapers across the country for the first two decades of the 20th century.

Workers can make ghost work a navigable path out of challenging circumstances, meeting a basic need for autonomy and independence that is necessary for pursuing other interests, bigger than money.32 GLASS CEILINGS On-demand jobs offer those in the U.S. and India who face workplace discrimination—particularly historically marginalized communities, women, and people with disabilities—digital literacy, a sense of identity, respect among family, and financial independence. Women who dropped out of the workforce to care for young children face barriers when they try to return. Women in the U.S. and India come from different religious and socioeconomic backgrounds, educational levels, and social roles, but women in the two countries share similar challenges in receiving fair pay and recognition for their contributions in the workplace, at the same time that they, paradoxically, go unpaid for their irreplaceable work as caregivers in their households.33 Kumuda, 34, is a Hindu mother of two who lives in Chennai, a coastal city in Tamil Nadu.


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SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

Susanne Craig, “Lehman’s Straight Shooter, Finance Chief Callan Brings Cool Jolt of Confidence to Credit-Rattled Street,” Wall Street Journal, May 17, 2008, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB121098034130400069. 47. Christine Lagarde, “Dare the Difference, Finance & Development,” IMF 50(2) (June 2013), https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2013/06/straight.htm; Renee Montagne and Christine Lagarde, “IMF’s Lagarde: Women in Workforce Key to Healthy Economies,” NPR, March 28, 2014, http://www.npr.org/2014/03/28/294715846/imfs-lagarde-women-in-workforce-key-to-healthy-economies; Christine Lagarde, “Women and the World Economy,” Project Syndicate, September 24, 2013, http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/how-to-increase-women-s-participation-in-the-workforce-by-christine-lagarde. 48. “The 2011 International Best-Dressed List,” Vanity Fair, August 3, 2011, http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2011/08/revealed-vfs-2011-international-best-dressed-list; Diane Johnson, Christine Lagarde, Vogue, August 22, 2011, http://www.vogue.com/865416/christine-lagarde-changing-of-the-guard; Gillian Tett, “Lunch with the FT: Christine Lagarde,” The Financial Times, September 12, 2014, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4c506aec-3938-11e4-9526-00144feabdc0.xhtml; Molly Guinness, “Is This the World’s Sexiest Woman (and the Most Powerful)?”

It does not help that women often hold self-limiting behaviors and beliefs. Since they are treated differently and have a harder time rising through the ranks, they often suffer from poor confidence. When successful, many feel they just got lucky or—worse—like imposters, while men tend to ascribe their successes to their exceptional ability.25 THE FAILURE GAP: DEMOTING PROMOTIONS There is only one area where women are favored: When the financial industry tanks and the workforce must be reduced, it is “ladies first.”26 However, while women are often the first ones to receive the axe in a downturn, the cases in which they are actually promoted are usually a curse in disguise and a setup for failure. Michelle Ryan, an associate professor of psychology at Exeter University, coined the term “glass cliff” to describe the phenomenon of women being promoted in times of crisis.


pages: 371 words: 98,534

Red Flags: Why Xi's China Is in Jeopardy by George Magnus

3D printing, 9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Malacca Straits, means of production, megacity, money market fund, moral hazard, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, old age dependency ratio, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, speech recognition, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade route, urban planning, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

The political climate for immigration, though, has turned markedly more hostile, and coupled with a historical opposition to immigration in many countries, including China, other coping mechanisms have better potential. Second, we can try and compensate for the weakness in the WAP by encouraging people who are generally under-represented at work to go to work, or stay on. Typically, these people tend to be women and older citizens. In China, where, according to Mao Zedong’s dictum, ‘women hold up half the sky’, women used to participate much more in the workforce than they do nowadays. Getting more women into the workforce is a possibility, but it is more problematic than simply providing better maternity and childcare benefits, which in China are already quite generous. The government needs to focus on other barriers to child-bearing such as the high cost of education, healthcare and housing. It ought to be possible for older worker participation to rise too, but here China has to get to grips with a very low retirement age – officially sixty for men and fifty-five for many women – and make rapid strides towards the kind of service-oriented economy in which older workers find more conducive opportunities to work longer.

The World Bank has reported that labour force participation in China fell from about 75 per cent in the 1990s to about 65 per cent.16 About a third of the decline was attributed to the rapid expansion of tertiary education with college enrolments rising sevenfold since 1990. Thus, the largest falls in participation occurred in the 15–24 and 25–34 age groups. In and of itself, this is no bad thing, especially if higher skilled and educated young people enter work later, but with the opportunity to contribute much more. For the rest, the bulk of the fall in participation was due to the earlier withdrawal of women from the workforce, especially in urban areas. Women aged 25–34 in particular have tended to leave the labour force – a trend that may have been attributable to various factors, including the consequences of state-owned enterprise reforms and subsequent restructuring, which were generally more favourable to male employees, a decline in the amount of publicly funded childcare, gender wage differentials, and discrimination.

–China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (i) Hua Guofeng (i) Huangpu district (Shanghai) (i) Huawei (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) hukou (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Human Freedom Index (i) Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of (i) Hunan (i) Hungary (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) ICORs (incremental capital-output ratios) (i), (ii), (iii) n4 IMF Article IV report (i) on broadening and deepening of financial system (i) China urged to devalue (i) China’s integration and (i) concern over smaller banks (i) concern over WMPs (i) credit gaps (i) credit intensity (i) GP research (i) ICOR (i) n4 laissez-faire ideas (i) pensions, healthcare and GDP research (i), (ii), (iii) Renminbi reserves (i) risky corporate loans (i) Special Drawing Rights (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) WAPs (i) immigrants see migrants income inequality (i) India Adam Smith on (i) ASEAN (i) BRI misgivings (i) BRICS (i), (ii) comparative debt in (i) demographic dividend (i) economic freedom level (i) frictions with (i) Nobel Prize (i) pushing back against China (i) regional allies of (i) SCO member (i) Indian Ocean access to ports (i) African rail projects and (i) Chinese warships enter (i) rimland (i) shorelines (i) Indo-Pacific region (i), (ii) Indonesia Asian crisis (i) BRI investment (i) debt and GDP (i) GDP (i) rail transport projects (i) RCEP (i) retirement age (i) trade with China (i) Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (i), (ii) Industrial Revolution (i), (ii) industrialisation (i), (ii) Industry and Information Technology, Minister of (i) infrastructure (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) (i) Inner Mongolia (i), (ii) innovation (i), (ii) Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith) (i) Institute for International Finance (i) institutions (i), (ii) insurance companies (i), (ii), (iii) intellectual property (i) interbank funding (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) investment (i), (ii), (iii) Iran (i) Ireland (i), (ii), (iii) Iron Curtain (i) ‘iron rice bowl’ (i) Israel (i), (ii) Italy (i), (ii), (iii) Jakarta (i), (ii) Japan acts of aggression by (i) aftermath of war (i) ASEAN (i) between the wars (i) bond market (i) Boxer Rebellion and (i) Chiang Kai-shek fights (i) China and (i) China’s insecurity (i) credit gap comparison (i) dispute over Diaoyu islands (i), (ii) export-led growth (i), (ii) financial crisis (i) friction with (i) full-scale war with China (i), (ii) growth (i) high-speed rail (i) India and (i) Liaodong peninsula (i) Manchuria taken (i), (ii), (iii) Mao fights (i) middle- to high-income (i) migrants to (i) Okinawa (i) old-age dependency ratio (i) pensions, healthcare and GDP research (i) pushing back against China (i) RCEP (i) Renminbi block, attitude to (i) research and development (i) rimland (i) robots (i) seas and islands disputes (i) Shinzō Abe (i) TPP (i) trade and investment from (i) yen (i) Jardine Matheson Holdings (i) Jiang Zemin 1990s (i) Deng’s reforms amplified (i), (ii), (iii) influence and allies (i) Xiao Jianhua and (i) Johnson, Lyndon (i) Julius Caesar (i) Kamchatka (i) Kashgar (i) Kashmir (i) Kazakhstan (i), (ii) Ke Jie (i) Kenya (i) Keynes, John Maynard (i) Kharas, Homi (i) Kissinger, Henry (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Korea (i), (ii), (iii) see also North Korea; South Korea Korean War (i), (ii) Kornai, János (i), (ii), (iii) n16 Kowloon (i), (ii) Krugman, Paul (i) Kunming (i) Kuomintang (KMT) (i), (ii) Kyrgyzstan (i) Kyushu (i) labour productivity (i) land reform (i) Laos (i), (ii), (iii) Latin America (i), (ii), (iii) Lattice Semiconductor Corporation (i) leadership (i) Leading Small Groups (LSGs) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Lee Kuan Yew (i) Lee Sodol (i) Legendary Entertainment (i) Lehman Brothers (i) lending (i) Leninism governance tending to (i) late 1940s (i) party purity (i) Xi’s crusade on (i), (ii) Lenovo (i), (ii) Lewis, Arthur (i) Lewis turning point (i) LGFVs (local government financing vehicles) (i) Li Keqiang (i), (ii) Liaodong peninsula (i), (ii) LinkedIn (i) Liu He (i), (ii), (iii) Liu Xiaobo (i) local government (i), (ii), (iii) London (i), (ii), (iii) Luttwak, Edward (i), (ii), (iii) Macartney, Lord George (i), (ii), (iii) Macau (i), (ii) Made in China 2025 (MIC25) ambitious plans (i) importance of (i) mercantilism (i) priority sectors (i) robotics (i) Maddison, Angus (i), (ii), (iii) n3 (C1) Maghreb (i) major banks see individual entries Malacca, Straits of (i) Malay peninsula (i) Malaysia ASEAN member (i) Asian crisis (i) high growth maintenance (i) Nine-Dash Line (i) rail projects (i), (ii) Renminbi reserves (i) TPP member (i) trade with (i) Maldives (i) Malthus, Thomas (i), (ii) Manchuria Communists retake (i) Japanese companies in (i) Japanese puppet state (i), (ii), (iii) key supplier (i) North China Plain and (i) Pacific coast access (i) Russian interests (i) targeted (i) Manhattan (i), (ii) see also New York Mao Zedong arts and sciences (i) China stands up under (i) China under (i) Communist Party’s grip on power (i) consumer sector under (i) Deng rehabilitated (i) Deng, Xi and (i) east wind and west wind (i) Great Leap Forward (i) industrial economy under (i) nature of China under (i) People’s Republic proclaimed (i) positives and negatives (i) property rights (i) women and the workforce (i) Xi and (i) Maoism (i) Mar-a-Lago (i) Mark Antony (i) Market Supervision Administration (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) Marxism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Mauritius (i) May Fourth Movement (i) McCulley, Paul (i) n18 Mediterranean (i) Menon, Shivshankar (i) mergers (i) MES (market economy status (ii)) Mexico completion of education rates (i) debt comparison (i) GDP comparison (i) NAFTA (i) pensions comparison (i) TPP member (i) US border (i) viagra policy (i) Middle East (i), (ii), (iii) middle-income trap (i), definition (i) evidence and argument for (i) governance (i) hostility to (i) hukou system (i) lack of social welfare for (i) low level of (i) migrant factory workers (i) patents and innovation significance (i) significance of technology tech strengths and weaknesses (i) total factor productivity focus (i) vested and conflicted interests (i) ultimate test (i) World Bank statistics (i) migrants (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Ming dynasty (i) Minsky, Hyman (i) mixed ownership (i), (ii) Modi, Narendra (i) Mombasa (i) monetary systems (i) Mongolia (i), (ii) Monogram (i) Moody’s (i) Morocco (i) mortality rates (i) see also population statistics mortgages (i) motor cars (i), (ii) Moutai (i) Mundell, Robert (i) Muslims (i) Mutual Fund Connect (i) Myanmar ASEAN (i) Chinese projects (i) disputes (i) low value manufacturing moves to (i) Qing Empire in (i) ‘string of pearls’ (i) ‘Myth of Asia’s Miracle, The’ (Paul Krugman) (i) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) (i) Nairobi (i) Namibia (i) Nanking (i) Treaty of (i), (ii) National Bureau of Statistics fertility rates (i) GDP figures (i) ICOR estimate (i), (ii), (iii) n4 SOE workers (i) National Cyberspace Work Conference (i) National Development and Reform Commission (i), (ii), (iii) National Financial Work Conferences (i) National Health and Family Planning Commission (i) National Medium and Long-Term Plan for the Development of Science and Technology (i) National Natural Science Foundation (i) National People’s Congress 2007 (i) 2016 (i) 2018 (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) National People’s Party of China (i) National Science Foundation (US) (i) National Security Commission (i) National Security Strategy (US) (i), (ii) National Supervision Commission (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Needham, Joseph (i) Nepal (i), (ii) Netherlands (i) New Development Bank (i), (ii) New Eurasian Land Bridge (i) New Territories (i), (ii) New York (i) see also Manhattan New Zealand (i), (ii), (iii) Next Generation AI Development Plan (i) Nigeria (i) Nine-Dash Line (i) Ningpo (i) Nixon, Richard (i) Nobel Prizes (i), (ii) Nogales, Arizona (i) Nogales, Sonora (i) Nokia (i) non-communicable disease (i) non-performing loans (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) North China Plain (i) North Korea (i) see also Korea Northern Rock (i) Norway (i) Nye, Joseph (i) Obama, Barack Hu Jintao and (i) Pacific shift recognised (i) Renminbi (i) US and China (i), (ii) OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) China’s ranking (i) GDP rates for pension and healthcare (i) GP doctors in (i) tertiary education rates (i) US trade deficit with China (i) Office of the US Trade Representative (i) Official Investment Assistance (Japan) (i) Okinawa (i) old-age dependency ratios (i), (ii), (iii) Olson, Mancur (i) Oman (i) one-child policy (i), (ii) Opium Wars financial cost of (i) First Opium War (i), (ii), (iii) Qing dynasty defeated (i) Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Shanghai (i) Pacific (i), (ii), (iii) Padma Bridge (i) Pakistan Economic Corridor (i) long-standing ally (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) ‘string of pearls’ (i) Paris (i) Party Congresses see numerical list at head of index patents (i) Peking (i), (ii), (iii) see also Beijing pensions (i) People’s Bank of China see also banks cuts interest rates again (i) floating exchange rates (i) lender of last resort (i), (ii) long term governor of (i) new rules issued (i) new State Council committee coordinates (i) places severe restrictions on banks (i) publishing Renminbi values (i) Renminbi/dollar rate altered (i) repo agreements (i) sells dollar assets (i) stepping in (i) Zhou Xiaochuan essay (i) People’s Daily front-page interview (i), (ii) on The Hague tribunal (i) riposte to Soros (i) stock market encouragement (i) People’s Liberation Army (i), (ii) Persia (i) Persian Gulf (i), (ii) Peru (i) Pettis, Michael (i) n12 Pew Research (i) Peyrefitte, Alain (i) Philippines (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Piraeus (i) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) (i) Poland (i), (ii), (iii) ‘Polar Silk Road’ (i) Politburo (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) pollution (i) Polo, Marco (i) Pomeranz, Kenneth (i) population statistics (i) see also ageing trap; WAP (working-age population) consequences of ageing (i) demographic dividends (i), (ii) hukou system and other effects (i) low fertility (i), (ii), (iii) migrants (i), (ii) old-age dependency ratios (i), (ii), (iii) one-child policy (i), (ii) places with the most ageing populations (i) rural population (i) savings trends (i) technology and (i) under Mao (i) women (i) Port Arthur (i) Port City Colombo (i), (ii) Portugal (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) pricing (i), (ii) private ownership (i), (ii) productivity (i), (ii) Propaganda, Department of (i) property (i) property rights (i) Puerto Rico (i) Punta Gorda, Florida (i) Putin, Vladimir (i) Qianlong, Emperor (i) Qing dynasty (i), (ii), (iii) Qingdao (i) Qualcomm (i) Qualified Domestic Institutional Investors (i), (ii) Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (i), (ii) Qiushi, magazine (i) rail network (i), (ii) RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) (i), (ii), (iii) real estate (i), (ii) reform authoritative source warns of need for (i), (ii) different meaning from West (i) of economy via rebalancing (i), (ii) as embraced by Deng Xiaoping (i) fiscal, foreign trade and finance (i), (ii) Hukou (i) of ownership (i) state-owned enterprises (i) third plenum announcements (i) in Xi Jinping’s China (i) ‘Reform and Opening Up’ (Deng Xiaoping) (i), (ii), (iii) regulations and regulatory authorities (financial) (i), (ii) Reinhart, Carmen (i) Renminbi (i) 2015 mini-devaluation and capital outflows (i), (ii) appreciates (i) banking system’s assets in (i) bloc for (i) capital flight risk (i) devaluation (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) dim sum bonds (i) efforts to internationalise (i) end of peg (i) foreign investors and (i) fully convertible currency, a (i) growing importance of (i) IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (i) Qualified Institutional Investors (i) in relation to reserves (i) Renminbi trap (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) share of world reserves (i) significance of (i), (ii) Special Drawing Rights and (i), (ii) US dollar and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) repo markets (i), (ii) research and development (R&D) (i), (ii) Resources Department (i) retirement age (i) Rhodium Group (i) rimland (i) Robinson, James (i) robots (i) Rogoff, Kenneth (i) Roman Empire (i) Rotterdam (i) Rozelle, Scott (i) Rudd, Kevin (i) Rudong County (i) Rumsfeld, Donald (i) Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (i) rural workers (i) Russia see also Soviet Union 19th century acquisitions (i), (ii) ageing population (i) BRI and (i) BRICS (i), (ii), (iii) C929s (i) China’s view of (i) early attempts at trade (i) fertility rates (i) Human Freedom Index (i) middle income trap and (i) Pacific sea ports (i) Polar Silk Road (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) Ryukyu Islands (i) Samsung (i) San Francisco (i) SASAC (i), (ii) Saudi Arabia (i) savings (i), (ii), (iii) Scarborough Shoal (i) Schmidt, Eric (i) Schumpeter, Joseph (i) SCIOs (i) Second Opium War (i) Second World War China and Japan (i), (ii) economic development since (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) US and Japan (i) Senkaku islands see Diaoyu islands separatism (i), (ii) Serbia (i) service sector (i), (ii) Seventh Fleet (US) (i) SEZs (special economic zones) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) shadow banks (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) n18 see also banks Shandong (i), (ii) Shanghai 1st Party Congress (i) arsenal (i) British influence in (i) central bank established (i) Deng’s Southern Tour (i) firms halt trading (i) income per head (i) interbank currency market (i) PISA scores (i) pollution (i) property price rises (i) stock market (i), (ii), (iii) Western skills used (i) Shanghai Composite Index (i), (ii) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai Free Trade Zone (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai–Hong Kong Bond Connect Scheme (i) Shanghai–Hong Kong Stock Connect Scheme (i), (ii) Shanghai World Financial Centre (i) Shenzhen first foreign company in (i) n3 (Intro.)


pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Unemployment fell from 14.6% in 1940 to 1.9% in 1945. And the government’s role expanded enormously from 9% of GDP in 1939 to almost 47% at the peak in 1943.96 As with the First World War, the 1939–45 conflict brought more women into the workforce, largely to cover for males who had been drafted into the military. The emblematic American figure was “Rosie the Riveter”, a cartoon character used in government campaigns. At the end of the war, many women lost their jobs again. Still, by 1950, the proportion of American women who were in paid employment was around 10 percentage points higher than it had been in 1939.97 Women would enter the workforce in much greater numbers in subsequent decades. The good news While the geopolitical environment may have been toxic, the 1914–45 era saw both new technological innovations and the diffusion of previous advances.

If more workers mean lower wages, then how come the rise in the global population from 1 billion to 7 billion hasn’t led to mass poverty? The obvious answer is that each worker is also a source of demand. Each immigrant spends the money they earn on local goods and services. Economists talk about the “lump of labour” fallacy; a belief that there is only a certain amount of work to do. The fallacy has been used to argue that women should stay out of the workforce to leave more jobs for men, and that older workers should retire early to create jobs for the young. Immigration may have an impact on the real wages of unskilled labour. A study by Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, on the effect of US immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries found that a one percentage point increase in the foreign-born share of the population may have reduced wages by 1–1.5%.59 The influx may also have persuaded workers in the eastern US to move to the Midwest and the West Coast.

Inevitably, this led to rapid inflation: prices doubled in France and Britain, trebled in Germany, and rose more than 11-fold in Austria-Hungary.16 Some of the economic damage was limited by government action. The US economy was the biggest beneficiary of the conflict, as it was able to supply its European allies. It was in recession at the start of the war but started a boom that pushed unemployment down from 7.9% in 1914 to 1.4% in 1918. With many able-bodied men in uniform, there was huge demand for labour. The German unemployment rate was down to 0.8% by early 1918, for example. Many women joined the workforce for the first time. In Germany, female employment rose 45%.17 In Britain, the labour force participation rate among women rose from 24% in 1914 to 37% in 1918, meaning that 2 million joined the workforce. In 1917, around 80% of the country’s munitions were made by women, who also worked as conductors on buses and trams, while another 260,000 joined the “land army” to work on farms.18 Their efforts were rewarded in 1918 when those over 30 were granted the vote.19 As if the population of Europe had not suffered enough, an outbreak of influenza, dubbed “Spanish flu”, swept the continent in 1918.


pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

The differentiator is about relationships—I choose people with whom I have had a positive working relationship. I have followed that axiom with our company. I will hire someone with whom I worked on a launch at two o’clock in the morning and who has proven themselves to be dependable and reliable—someone who really pulled through and that I could count on. That takes the diversity where it takes it. In my day, there weren’t a lot of women majoring in engineering in college—and not enough women engineers in the workforce. But that’s changing, and it will eventually open doors for more women at the senior management level as well. Ghaffari: What is your succession planning strategy? Ford: For me personally, succession planning is very important. In the early years, I was the chief cook and bottle washer. I got the work and I did the work. Over time, we’ve built a strong leadership team in every sector.

Hart, along with her colleague Professor Marco Iansiti, won the Apgar Award for Innovation in Teaching for their Starting New Ventures course. The Apgar Prize recognizes a faculty member “who motivates students’ interest, curiosity, and love of learning; proposes and applies new teaching concepts and methods; and serves as a mentor to stimulate students’ intellectual development.” Dr. Hart is also responsible for the creation and direction of several entrepreneurial executive programs and HBS alumnae programs for women re-entering the work-force, including Women Leading Business: A New Kind of Conversation; Charting Your Course: Working Options; and A New Path: Setting New Career Directions. She served as chair/director of the Marjorie Alfus/Committee of 200 Case Writing Initiative (1998), which created more than seventy-five Harvard Business School business case studies with women in the protagonist/leadership role. The goal was to increase the availability of quality teaching materials featuring women as key decision-makers.

All of the accounting/consulting firms have figured out that if they are hiring 50 or 60 percent of the college graduates who are female, yet the women leave, then companies are going to have to find leaders from only 40 percent of their recruits. That doesn’t make any sense at all. It’s not smart. So instead, they want to make sure that they actually nurture, recognize, and develop the women in their workforce. And they want to make sure that they don’t have hidden barriers in either expectations or opportunities for the women. So I’m very optimistic. On the other hand, I’m unhappy about how slowly it’s going. Actually, the number of women on corporate boards is still kind of pitiful—about 17 to 18 percent. In large part, women directors are drawn from the C-suite of existing businesses, and that’s an even worse number.


pages: 376 words: 109,092

Paper Promises by Philip Coggan

accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, fear of failure, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, paradox of thrift, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, too big to fail, trade route, tulip mania, value at risk, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

It may have been no coincidence that the markets started to crumble from 2000, as the baby boomers began to retire. The baby boomers also had a benign effect on economic growth. There were simply more of them than in the preceding (and succeeding) generations. As a result, once they reached adulthood, a higher proportion of the population was economically active. In addition, more baby-boomer women joined the workforce, increasing the pool of potential employees. (The addition of women to the workforce became a classic case of a feedback effect. If one family has two earners, they will be able to afford a better standard of living; for example, buying a bigger house. But that will increase the incentive for women in other families to go out to work, so they can keep up.) Higher asset prices also helped fuel the consumption bubble. As house prices rose, people felt wealthier, and they used the opportunity to borrow against their wealth; a process known as equity withdrawal.

In the developed world, the ability to have a career gives women an economic freedom that they did not have in the nineteenth century, when most were dependent on a husband’s income (in 1911,90 per cent of British wives did not have paying jobs).3 In addition, children are an economic burden, not an asset, in rich countries. They cost money to bring up, are not allowed to work by law and remove women from the workforce during some of their peak earning years. Nor is it now usual for children to support their parents in their old age; state benefits are designed to do that. The fertility rate in Europe, measured by the number of children per woman, has fallen from an average of 2.58 in the period from 1960 to 1965, to 1.41 in 2000 – 05. This is well below the 2.1 ‘replacement rate’ calculated by demographers (the figure is higher than 2 to account for infant and childhood mortality), although it does appear to have stabilized.

From that point, the final link with gold was removed and the ability of governments to run deficits, on both the trade and budget accounts, was vastly increased. Money and debt exploded. The initial result was an inflation problem in the 1970s, but from the 1980s onwards, this extra money seemed to flow into the asset markets. Helping to constrain the rise in consumer prices was the entry into the global economy of China and the former communist states of the old Soviet Union, technological advances, and the greater role of women in the workforce, all of which improved productivity. But the model depended on rising asset prices and rising populations to service the higher debt levels. Like a shark, it had to keep swimming forward to survive. For much of the developed world, the model broke in 2007 – 08. Central banks then faced the problem of reconciling their twin aims of safeguarding the value of the currency and protecting the financial system.


pages: 405 words: 121,999

The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

This was still very high and a major contributor to continuing population growth, but the speed of the fall was the harbinger of what was to prove a very low Russian fertility rate. That fertility rates fell so fast in Russia should not be a surprise; the country was undergoing a forced, rapid, top-down transformation. Many of the goals closest to the heart of the new Soviet regime–general and particularly female literacy, urbanisation and the participation of women in the workforce–are now understood to be closely associated with lower fertility rates. The ideal Soviet woman was politically conscious (and therefore, almost by definition, literate), living in a town or city and probably employed in a factory; she was bound to have fewer children than her illiterate peasant mother. Elsewhere in Europe the pattern was similar. Italian women, who were bearing more than four children before the First World War, were bearing fewer than three by the outbreak of the Second.8 And although the image of the large Italian family lived on long into the second half of the twentieth century, it was by then nothing more than a myth.

Waves of young men–and indeed women–had staved off the invading Fascist hordes in 1941. A large and growing population was also required to ensure the workforce continued to expand and make its economic contribution in fulfilment of the plan. There were, however, countervailing pressures at work which tended to make Party bosses less keen on large families. These included the need to keep Soviet women in the workforce: while encouraging their childbearing would help meet future requirements for the workplace, it detracted from the more immediate requirements of the day. Childcare facilities could be put in place to encourage childbearing and prolong workforce participation, but there were other demands on resources. Particularly in the early days, the Soviets tended to associate large families with backwardness and the habits of peasants.

If you are married, and if both husband and wife work like this, there’s a slim chance to have a baby. No time or no energy left. If you want a baby, you (typically your wife) face a choice–continue to work or quit your job and have a baby. There’s a trade-off here.32 As seen in Europe, in an era of female education and emancipation, cultures in which life is not made conducive for women to enter the workforce, to rise within it and to be able to combine its demands with those of childbearing and child-rearing will be countries with low fertility rates. It is hardly surprising therefore that the World Economic Forum consistently rates Japan one of the worst places in the developed world for economic equality in the workplace. One woman, Tomita, a thirty-two-year-old from Tokyo, describes an experience that may well be typical: [A] boyfriend proposed to me three years ago.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Many employees have dropped out of the labor market as their skills have been devalued by the economy; older workers are choosing, or having imposed on them, early retirement, while younger workers are deferring entry into the workforce, choosing to accumulate more education. The rise in female labor force participation from the 1930s through the 1990s has also run its course; labor force participation is roughly equal by gender.56 The percentage of women in the workforce has plateaued since the turn of the century. The percentage of men has dropped.57 There is no indicator suggesting that this is likely to reverse significantly, and certainly not pass the previous peak. Americans now work fewer hours over their career than their working grandparents, and probably their parents (for annual hours, see Figure 3.3,58 which shows little change over the past 7 decades).

But there are a number of important trends and developments relevant for understanding the changes in participation of different subgroups of the population: • Increased participation by older Americans, which may be attributable to an increase in skills among this population and also to changes in Social Security retirement benefits; • Reduced participation by younger Americans as they stay in school longer; • Continuation of an at least 65-year long trend of declining male labor force participation, which is especially stark for young minority men; and • Tapering of the long-term trend of increasing female labor force participation, which dates back to before World War II." http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/cea_2015_erp.pdf 55 Figure 3.2 Source; US Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015) Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS11300000. 56 Women and the US workforce, see: US Department of Labor - Women's Bureau (n.d.) "Women in the Labor Force in 2010" http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/Qf-laborforce-10.htm 57 Even recent decreases of labor force participation are a consequence of productivity gains among those remaining, as the long-standing connection between productivity and workforce participation has severed. People may be more willing to remain unemployed looking for the right opportunity, than to take any job that happens to be available.


pages: 264 words: 76,643

The Growth Delusion: Wealth, Poverty, and the Well-Being of Nations by David Pilling

Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, call centre, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Hangouts, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, off grid, old-boy network, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, performance metric, pez dispenser, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, science of happiness, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

“In order to calculate the size of the cake which will be left by civilian consumption,” he wrote, the government would have to estimate various things, including the economy’s “maximum current output,” the sustainability of drawing on foreign reserves to pay for imports, and the amount it would need to spend on guns, aircraft, and soldiers. According to his rough-and-ready calculations, output could probably be increased by 15–20 percent by bringing boys and women into the workforce and by lengthening overtime. But, he complained, “the statistics from which to build up these estimates are very inadequate. Every government since the last war has been unscientific and obscurantist, and has regarded the collection of essential facts as a waste of money.” Only the state, he concluded, was in a position to collect and process such statistics. In their absence, the government was stumbling about in the dark.

If a Japanese housewife cooks her aging father-in-law meals, helps him in and out of bed, helps him use the toilet, and washes his clothes and sheets, none of her efforts count toward the economy. If, however, she works in a care home looking after someone else’s father-in-law—and earning a wage while she’s at it—then the exact same activities contribute to national income. In the same way, if I charge to paint someone’s house, I am adding to the economy. But if I volunteer to paint my neighbor’s living room for free, my work is statistically invisible. In Japan women did enter the workforce in record numbers after Prime Minister Abe came to power, although this may well have had more to do with pinched family finances than a direct response to his plan. Many of the women who joined the labor force took on low-paid part-time work. More than half of all paid work done by women in Japan falls into this category. Still, after being well behind, the proportion of female workers in Japan is now higher than in America, where more and more people from both sexes have dropped out of the labor force altogether.11 Few doubt that Japan’s gender relations and its labor market need shaking up.

Chris Conover, “5 Myths in Steven Brill’s Opus on Health Costs,” Forbes, March 4, 2014: www.forbes.com. 7. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, quoted in Steven Brill, “The Bitter Pill.” 8. These numbers are taken from ibid. 9. In fact Japan’s economy had not been performing quite as badly as commonly assumed. Nominal GDP had stalled, but adjusted for prices and a shrinking population, real per-capita growth in Japan was reasonable. 10. Leo Lewis, “Japan, Women in the Workforce,” Financial Times, July 6, 2015: www.ft.com. 11. Sarah O’Connor, “America’s Jobs for the Boys Is Just Half the Employment Story,” Financial Times, February 7, 2017. 12. This example was provided by Angus Deaton during a conversation with the author. 13. Katrine Marçal, Who Cooked Adam Smith’s Dinner?: A Story About Women and Economics, Portobello, 2015. 14. Ibid. 15.


I Feel Bad About My Neck by Nora Ephron

G4S, women in the workforce

Your baby was your baby, and if he ran you ragged, he ran you ragged; and if he lay in his crib staring happily at his mobile, that was about what you could expect. All this changed around the time I had children. You can blame the women’s movement for it—one of the bedrock tenets of the women’s movement was that because so many women were entering the workforce, men and women should share in the raising of children; thus the gender-neutral word parenting, and the necessity of elevating child rearing to something more than the endless hours of quantity time it actually consists of. Conversely, you can blame the backlash against the women’s movement—lots of women didn’t feel like entering into the workforce (or even sharing the raising of children with their husbands), but they felt guilty about this, so they were compelled to elevate full-time parenthood to a sacrament. In any event, suddenly, one day, there was this thing called parenting.


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Such complex forms of inequality cannot be explained—or remedied— in simplistic terms that pit women’s economic interests against men’s. As Guy Standing argues, “The era of flexibility is . . . an era of more generalized insecurity and precariousness, in which many more men as well as women have been pushed into precarious forms of labor” (Standing 1999, 583). Rather than illustrating women “catching up” to men in the region’s high-tech workforce, the data suggest that work in the region is being feminized, both in the sense that a larger share of employment is going to women and in the sense that employment itself has shifted to have characteristics associated with women’s labor force participation: lower pay, contingent and temporary work arrangements, and little or no job training (ibid.).20 Generalized imputations of “women’s economic interests” and “men’s economic interests,” which underlie prescriptions to fill the high-tech pipeline with marginalized people or empower women to break into the boys’ club of science and technology, overlook the feminization of work and obscure and marginalize important differences among women by race.

Poverty is a childhood disease. One in six children overall, and one in three African American and Latino children, are growing up poor, even by the (inadequate) official poverty measure. There is a strong link between the percentage of full-time workers being paid low wages and high child poverty rates. The gender wealth gap is wide. The typical minimum-wage earner is an adult woman. While women make up just under half the total workforce, two out of three minimum-wage workers are women. The racial wealth gap is wider. White non-Hispanic families had a median net worth (household assets, including home equity, minus debt) of $94,900 in 1998, while nonwhite or Hispanic families had a net worth of $16,400—one-sixth that of whites. 196 Appendix C Inequality is bad for your health. The United States is the richest nation on earth, but it is the only major industrialized nation not to assure health care for all its citizens, whether through a public, private, or mixed system.

The United States ranks thirty-second in child mortality in children under five years old—we’re tied with Cuba and Cyprus, and behind Canada, Australia, Israel, Singapore, South Korea, and all of Western Europe. Lack of health insurance is generally associated with a 25 percent higher risk of death. Uninsured women are nearly 50 percent more likely to die four to seven years following an initial diagnosis of breast cancer than insured women. The gender wealth gap is wide. The typical minimum-wage earner is an adult woman. While women make up just under half the total workforce, two out of three minimum-wage workers are women. The racial wealth gap is wider. White non-Hispanic families had a median net worth (household assets, including home equity, minus debt) of $94,900 in 1998, while nonwhite or Hispanic families had a net worth of $16,400—one-sixth that of whites. Myth 3: Poor folks in the United States are better off than pretty much everyone else in the world.


pages: 538 words: 145,243

Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman

anti-communist, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate raider, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, mass immigration, means of production, mittelstand, Naomi Klein, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

But before 1840, the textile companies generally spurned Irish women; in 1845, only 7 percent of the Lowell mill workforce was Irish. Necessity ended the discrimination; by the early 1850s, about half the textile workers in Lowell and other mill towns were Irish. At the Hamilton mill, by 1860 over 60 percent of the employees had been born abroad.66 The increasing number of immigrant workers brought other changes. More children began being hired in Lowell-style mills, especially boys, as whole families needed to work to support themselves, a reversion to the pattern in the early Slater-type mills. The gendered division of labor broke down as male immigrants accepted jobs once reserved for women, paid wages that in the past only women would take. At Hamilton, in 1860, 30 percent of the workforce consisted of adult men. Immigrant family labor contributed to the decline of the boardinghouse system and company paternalism.

In addition, the mills recruited skilled male workers from England and Scotland for specialized jobs for which there was no pool of qualified native workers, including calico printing and producing woolens. A small number of children worked in the mills, too (though the Lowell mills generally did not hire anyone under age fifteen), as did a few older, married women. The Hamilton Manufacturing Company was probably typical in 1836, with women making up 85 percent of its workforce. Over time, the percentage of female workers dropped, at least modestly. In 1857, excluding the all-male Lowell Machine Shop, the Lowell textile workforce as a whole was a bit over 70 percent female.36 The Lowell-style mills rarely had to advertise for workers. Young women—a sample of Hamilton workers found their average age on hiring just under twenty—came on their own after hearing about the mills, often joining or sending for sisters, cousins, or friends.

Lowell firms put up mills at a faster pace than they built housing, and after 1848 they stopped building housing entirely. Institutional arrangements once needed to attract rural young women and reassure their parents became increasingly superfluous, as the companies acknowledged in the 1850s when they dropped requirements for church attendance and boardinghouse residence for single women. A growing proportion of the workforce—including more and more single women—lived in non-company-owned boardinghouses or in rented tenement apartments. The company boardinghouses lingered on—between 1888 and 1891 a quarter of the workers at the Boott mills were still living in company-owned housing—but they declined in importance as the immigrant workforce grew.67 Figure 2.3 Winslow Homer’s 1868 engraving of New England factory life, Bell-Time.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Just under one third were concerned about increasing the number of female politicians.28 A British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey found that nearly half of women chose a kinship role as their primary identity, with 49 per cent of respondents giving priority to mother, wife or partner rather than an occupational or more public role.29 And a more recent BSA survey in 2012 found that younger women were more likely to have more traditional attitudes to the family, prioritising home and children—closer to their grandmothers than the baby boomer generation in between.30 This must all, of course, be seen in the context of a permanent shift away from the conventional male breadwinner model. According to the BSA survey in 1984, 41 per cent of women agreed with the proposition that ‘A man’s job is to earn money, a woman’s job to look after the home and family’, compared with just 12 per cent in 2012 (men had almost identical responses).31 And the big shift of women into the workforce from the 1970s—initially prior to establishing a family and then alongside it—has produced a corresponding support for pro-work values: it is just normal as, in fact, it has been for thousands of years. The number of ‘only housewife’ women with children has fallen sharply from about half in 1970 to about 10 per cent today (and the proportion for men is just 0.6 per cent). But what these surveys seem to show is that attachment to different male/female roles did not disappear, as Anywhere policymakers often assume, but they adapted to an era of greater equality and autonomy and opportunity for women—plus the end of the so-called family wage for men.

As recently as 1980, 63 per cent of those receiving a degree were male, now one third more girls get university places and 60 per cent of those with a degree in Britain are now women.36 Women also dominate apprenticeships. And while great efforts are made to encourage women into science and engineering almost nothing is done to try to address the huge female preponderance in teaching, especially at primary level. Unemployment is persistently higher for men, including among graduates. Public sector employment (about 16 per cent of all jobs) is skewed towards women, with 67 per cent of the workforce female. Women increasingly dominate in the professions, though less so at the top if they take career breaks to raise a family—a central focus of public policy and Anywhere concern. Graduate women are far more likely than non-graduate women to work full-time and though they can suffer a motherhood penalty, if they cut their hours or go part-time, it has fallen fast in recent years.

As Belinda Brown points out, revising the assumption that men and women have the same priorities and that gender equality means encouraging men and women to behave in the same way in the public and private spheres could also, paradoxically, boost real equality. She writes: ‘It is seldom acknowledged that high rates of female employment have a negative effect on equality itself. Pushing women into the workforce leads to increased gender segregation and pay differentials. This is because the women who work are no longer those who prioritise their careers, but all of us. And as work is less important to the majority of women than our home life we choose less demanding jobs, go part-time and do not push for promotion. The result is that gender differences increase in the workforce and attempts to achieve workplace equality are set back.’41 Historians will argue why it is that Britain in recent years has been so unfriendly to the conventional family and that even Conservative politicians have backed ideas that only a few decades ago belonged to the counter-culture.


pages: 270 words: 73,485

Hubris: Why Economists Failed to Predict the Crisis and How to Avoid the Next One by Meghnad Desai

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, women in the workforce

It was the first Great War, with vast armies recruited from civilian populations and mechanized warfare. In its four years, millions died in Europe and economic life was never the same again. The war was expensive. Britain abandoned the Gold Standard for the duration of the war much as it had done in 1797 during the Anglo-French War. To negate the adverse impacts of losing large swathes of the male populace to the war effort, women were, controversially, recruited into the workforce. The principal combatants – Britain, Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, France and Russia – suffered a lot of economic damage and loss of population. Russia witnessed a revolution which rejected capitalism and embarked upon the experiment of building a communist society on principles other than those of the market and private property. Germany was ruined and punished with the payment of a large reparations bill to the victorious allies.

(i), (ii) Rothschilds (i) Roubini, Nouriel (i) Royal Charter, grants of monopoly (i) rules of competition (i) Russia (i), (ii) Russian revolution (i), (ii) saltwater economists (i), (ii) Samuelson, Paul (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) “Analytical Aspects of an Anti–Inflation Policy” (with Robert Solow) (i) Say, Jean-Baptiste (i) Say’s Law (i), (ii) scarcity value (i) Scholes, Myron (i), (ii), (iii) Schumpeter, Joseph (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) The Theory of Economic Development (i) Schwartz, Anna, A Monetary History of the United States (with Milton Friedman) (i) Scottish Enlightenment (i) Second International (i) secular stagnation (i) securitization of mortgages (i) seigniorage privilege (i) self-interest (i) self-organizing society (i) self-sufficiency (i) service sector (i), (ii) servomechanism (i) shadow banking structure (i) shares (i) Sherman Act (i) Shiller, Robert (i), (ii) shocks (i), (ii), (iii) contagion (i) debt crises (i) political (i) see also oil shock short cycles (i) short-run rate of interest (i) Silesian weavers (i) single global currency (i) skills, types needed (i), (ii) slack (i) slavery, abolition of (i) Slutsky, Eugen (i), (ii), (iii) Smith, Adam (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) the founding of the political economy (i) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (i), (ii) The Theory of Moral Sentiments (i), (ii) social science, founding (i) Socialist International (i) society regulation (i) self-organizing (i) Solow, Robert (i), (ii), (iii) “Analytical Aspects of an Anti–Inflation Policy” (with Paul Samuelson) (i) sovereign debt crises (i), (ii) Soviet Union, break up (i), (ii) speculation (i) speculative motive (i), (ii) stag-deflation (i) stagflation (i), (ii), (iii) Stalin, Joseph (i) static vision (i) statistics (i) development of (i) historical research (i) usefulness (i) sterling, as reserve currency (i) stochastic calculus (i) stock market crash, London (i) stock markets bull run (i) competition (i) computer technology (i) stock prices, randomness (i) Stockholm School (i) Stop-Go cycle (i) policy (i) Summers, Larry (i) surplus value (i) sustainable recovery, sources of (i) Sutcliffe, Robert (i), (ii) sweetwater economists (i), (ii) Sweezy, Paul (i) System of Natural Liberty (i) T bills (i), (ii), (iii) tatonnement (i) tax cut, US (i) technical progress, role of (i) technological innovations author’s experiences (i) displacement effect (i), (ii) and manufacturing location (i) see also computer technology technological shocks (i) telecommunications (i) Thailand, Crisis, 1997 (i) Thatcher, Margaret (i) theories, need for validation (i) theory of economic behavior of the household (i) Thornton, Henry (i) time, role of (i) time series data (i) Tinbergen, Jan (i) Tobin, James (i) Tobin tax (i) total money supply, and prices (i) total output, heterogeneity (i) trade doctrine see under Ricardo trade-off, unemployment and inflation (i) trade surpluses, banking (i) trade unions effect on money wage (i) as harmful (i) power (i) rise of (i) strengthening (i) weakening (i) transactions motive (i) transmission mechanism (i) Troubled Assets Recovery Program (TARP) (i) true costs of production (i) Truman, Harry (i) trusts (i) Tugan-Baranowsky, Michael (i) Turkey (i) Turner, Adair, Lord (i) Two Treatises on Government (Locke) (i) uncertainty (i) underemployment equilibrium (i), (ii), (iii) undersaving (i), (ii) unearned income (i) unemployment aggregate level (i) cycles (i) effect of wages (i) explaining (i) and inflation (i) involuntary (i) and money wage (i) natural rate (i) see also Keynesian models unifying principle (i) unique static equilibrium, and moving data (i) unit labor costs (i) United Kingdom budget deficit elimination (i) deindustrialization (i) economic trajectory (i) Great Depression (i) monetarism (i) recovery strategy (i) see also Britain United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (i) United States budget deficit (i) deindustrialization (i) econometric modeling (i) economic trajectory (i) economic weakness, post WWI (i) fiscal boost (i) Gold Standard (i) Great Depression (i) interest rates (i) Keynesianism (i) post-World War I power (i) post-World War II (i) Progressive Movement (i) prosperity (i) recovery strategy (i) seigniorage privilege (i) tax cut (i) trade deficit (i) welfare state expansion (i) westward expansion (i) withdrawal of currency (i) see also America unorthodoxy (i) urbanization (i) US House of Representatives, Greenspan’s testimony (i) usury defining (i) laws (i) prohibition (i), (ii) utopianism (i), (ii) valuation of assets, theory of (i) of capital (i) value vs.price (i) as price (i) relative (i), (ii) value added (i) value of goods, determination (i) variable costs (i) variables (i) Vietnam War (i) visions of economy (i) vocabulary, economic (i), (ii), (iii) volition (i) wage agreements, voluntary (i) demands, post-World War I (i) downward trend (i) effect on unemployment (i) rates, and unemployment (i) restraint (i) rises (i) share: declining (i); developed and developing economies (i); rise in (i), (ii) wage/profit distinction (i) units (i), (ii) see also money wages; real wages Walras, Antoine Auguste (i) Walras, Léon (i), (ii) Walrasian model (i) wars, financing (i) wealth distribution (i) inequality of (i) indicators (i) Smith’s theory (i) weaving, mechanization (i) welfare economics (i) welfare state, levels of support (i) White, Harry (i) Wicksell, Knut (i), (ii) basis of Hayek’s theory (i) later development of ideas (i) Wicksellian boom, developing countries (i) Wicksellian cycle, combined with Kondratieff cycle (i) William III (i) women, in workforce (i) workers dependence on capitalists (i) living standards (i) migration (i) productive/unproductive (i) workforce, recruitment of women (i) World Trade Organization (WTO) (i), (ii) World War I (i) World War II, outbreak (i) yields (i) Zombie firms (i)


pages: 290 words: 86,718

The Estrogen Fix: The Breakthrough Guide to Being Healthy, Energized, and Hormonally Balanced by Mache Seibel

longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), women in the workforce, working poor, Yogi Berra

All other age groups of women have increased in the workplace.91 According to the bureau, one million women aged 45 to 54 have dropped out of the workforce during the last decade despite absolute numbers increasing. While we can’t say with total certainty that this decline is due to not taking estrogen, the fact that this huge group would mysteriously disappear from the workforce at a time of life when they are most productive is at best puzzling. Those dropping out include bank presidents, head nurses, and self-employed business owners. We know from studies of work ability that the symptoms of menopause make it challenging for women in this age group to handle the demands of work. This translates into 3.5 percent of the 45-to-54-year-old women dropping out of the workforce since 2007 (5 years after the findings of the 2002 WHI were reported).

Part of the reason for this decline in women aged 45 to 54 was attributed to the fact that most employers do not offer flexible schedules for workers caring for elderly family members and their own dependent children and young adults living at home. According to the New York Times article, AARP’s Public Policy Institute estimated that women 50 and older who permanently left the workforce to care for a parent lost nearly $325,000 each in wages and benefits. Why isn’t more being done to help women at this time of life, especially in light of all the evidence? Is it just the challenges of work and life that caused one million women to depart the workforce in their prime? Could they have coped better and been better able to continue working if their menopausal symptoms had been treated? A report in the March 2015 issue of the journal Menopause reported on their review of the insurance records of half a million women at Fortune 500 companies for a diagnosis of hot flashes.92 Of the approximately 500,000 women, half (250,000) were treated for their hot flashes and the other 250,000 were not.

Just as some companies are friendly to pregnancy, maternity leave, childcare centers, lactation rooms, and flexible work hours, it’s time to provide the same attention to the other special times in a woman’s life. The benefit would not only be to have happier, healthier, more effective workers, but also to improve productivity for the companies providing this. It’s time to realize a major brain drain of women are leaving the workforce at their peak potential, and this could be addressed with education, awareness, and planning. To find out more about our workshops, lectures, and online programs, visit DrMache.com. My hope is that as women become aware of their estrogen window, they will consider estrogen or other treatments so they can be healthier and more effective in all aspects of their life. As you have read, estrogen plays a major role in your brain.


Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

While the Saudi government2 publicly announced a surplus of some 100 billion barrels of oil as defense against severe economic misfortune, the fact remained that the country’s deficits were pinned to the price of oil on the world market. The country’s demographics and employment data were another source of concern. Unemployment remained above 10 percent nationally and, typically for the twenty-first century, youth unemployment was far higher. Women, although now representing almost 15 percent of the workforce, were three times as likely to be without work as men in 2007.3 Even those with advanced degrees found it difficult to secure any work. Men and women with means and ambition often went abroad to study and then remained in their host countries. Many who stayed home complained the education they received left them uncompetitive in an increasingly technical world. Moreover, these shortcomings were hardly obscured, and the Internet was making it much easier for young Saudis to contrast their circumstances with the rest of the world.

While some of Cairo’s needs are applicable to any urban landscape, the particulars must reflect local conditions and the needs of its people. The ICT master plan would need to address the following: • The creation of innovation clusters, which would promote the development and outreach of the city’s small and medium businesses. • Promote remote worksites to decrease traffic and bring more women into the workforce. • Encourage FDI and the creation of new worksites on the outskirts of Cairo. 6th of October City and New Cairo have not achieved “tipping point” popularity with Cairenes because they are removed from economic centers. Business, digital technology, and teleworking need to be brought into new developments to make them attractive enough to relieve pressure on the downtown. • Provide the surveillance and safety features to protect the tourist economy, and increase safety and security across all parts of the city, wealthy and poor.

A Pew study from 2010 found that 54 percent of Egyptians favored segregation between the sexes in the workplace, a higher percentage than in Nigeria, Jordan, or Indonesia.4 Poor women in agricultural communities often leave school early, although middle and upper-class Egyptian women have more opportunities. Additionally, women from all classes face the threat of sexual harassment in the streets. This is a serious deterrent to women who must travel to work. Digital employment opportunities can play an important role in pulling women into the workforce. Digital remote work centers could be a useful bridge technology between old and new. Close to schools and residential neighborhoods, they would dramatically reduce working women’s commuting needs. A pilot program could consist of a few family-friendly remote work centers—“office space as a service”—with broadband connectivity, IP and video capabilities, and a supervised space for children to play while their mothers work.


pages: 476 words: 148,895

Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation by Michael Pollan

biofilm, bioinformatics, Columbian Exchange, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Drosophila, energy security, Gary Taubes, Hernando de Soto, hygiene hypothesis, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, microbiome, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steven Pinker, women in the workforce

This probably owes to the fact that, historically, the priority of the American labor movement has been to fight for money, whereas the European labor movement has fought harder for time—a shorter workweek, longer vacations. Not surprisingly, in those countries where people still take home cooking seriously, as they do in much of Europe, they also have more time to devote to it. It’s generally thought that the entrance of women into the workforce is responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but the story turns out to be a little more complicated, and fraught. Yes, women with jobs outside the home spend less time cooking—but so do women without jobs. The amount of time spent on food preparation in America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who don’t work outside the home as it has among women who do: In both cases, it has fallen about 40 percent since 1965.* In general, spending on restaurant and take-out food rises with income.

And instead of arguing about who should get dinner on the table, or how that work might be equitably shared, the food industry stepped into the breach with an offer that proved irresistible to everyone, male or female, rich or poor: Why don’t you just let us cook for you? Actually food manufacturers had been working to convince us they should do the cooking since long before large numbers of women entered the workforce. Beginning after World War II, the food industry labored mightily to sell Americans—and American women in particular—on the processed-food wonders it had invented to feed the troops: canned meals, freeze-dried foods, dehydrated potatoes, powdered orange juice and coffee, instant and superconvenient everything. As Laura Shapiro recounts in her social history, Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America, the food industry strove to “persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.”

As Laura Shapiro recounts in her social history, Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America, the food industry strove to “persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.” The same process of peacetime conversion that industrialized our farming, giving us synthetic fertilizers made from munitions and new pesticides developed from nerve gas, also industrialized our eating. Shapiro shows that the shift toward industrial cookery began not in response to a demand from women entering the workforce, or even from feminists eager to escape the drudgery of the kitchen, but was mainly a supply-driven phenomenon. Processing food is extremely profitable—much more so than growing it or selling it whole. So it became the strategy of food corporations to move into our kitchens long before many women had begun to move out. Yet for years, American women, whether they worked or not, strenuously resisted processed foods, regarding them as a dereliction of their “moral obligation to cook,” something they viewed as a parental responsibility on par with, and part of, child care.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

In recent years, global growth has remained significantly lower than during the pre-crisis period.132 Across the political spectrum, economists are warning that fundamental changes to the economy mean growth may have settled into a permanently lower state.133 Moreover, firms that are leading growth sectors – such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram – simply do not create jobs on the scale of classic firms like Ford and GM.134 In fact, new industries currently only employ 0.5 per cent of the American workforce – hardly an inspiring record of job creation.135 And after a steady decline, the average new business creates 40 per cent fewer jobs than it did twenty years ago.136 The old social democratic plan to encourage employment in new industries falters in the face of low labour-intensity firms and sputtering economic growth. Still, it might be imagined that, with the right political pressure and policies, a return to full employment could be an option.137 But, given that the height of the social democratic era required the exclusion of women from the waged workforce, we should in fact wonder whether full employment has ever been possible. If full employment remains operative only as an ideological mystification, its normalisation of work still extends to the unemployed. The transformation of welfare and the rise of workfare – forcing people to work in order to receive benefits – represent an increasingly insidious example of this. Mirroring the changing fortunes of full employment, unemployment has long been governed according to different ideas.138 Initial approaches saw unemployment as an individual accident – something to be mitigated by insurance-like solutions.

The near century-long push for shorter working hours ended abruptly during the Great Depression, when business opinion and government policy decided to use make-work programmes in response to unemployment.66 Soon after World War II, the working week stabilised at forty hours across much of the Western world, and there has since been little serious consideration of changing this.67 Instead there has been a general expansion of work in the ensuing decades. First, there has been an increase in time spent at jobs throughout society.68 As women entered the workforce, the working week remained the same, and the overall amount of time devoted to jobs therefore increased.69 Secondly, there has been a progressive elimination of the work–life distinction, with work coming to permeate every aspect of our waking lives. Many of us are now tied to work all the time, with emails, phone calls, texts and job anxieties impinging upon us constantly.70 Salaried workers are often compelled to work unrecognised overtime, while many workers feel the social pressure to be seen working long hours.

The trend from here on out will be a general decline in the importance of this mechanism for producing surplus populations. 28.We note here that while the first two mechanisms are integral to capitalist accumulation (changes in the productive forces and the expansion of capitalist social relations), the third is a logic distinct from just accumulation. The empirical characteristics of this group also change over time (as with, for instance, the integration of women into the workforce over the past four decades). Lynda Yanz and David Smith, ‘Women as a Reserve Army of Labour: A Critique’, Review of Radical Political Economics 15:1 (1983), p. 104. 29.In other words, these dominations can often be functional for capitalism, even if their function does not explain their genesis. 30.A full 36 million people are considered to be in slavery today: Global Slavery Index 2014 (Dalkeith, Western Australia: Walk Free Foundation, 2014). 31.Edward E.


pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

At the start of World War II, with men by the hundreds of thousands joining the war effort and large and lucrative war contracts waiting to be filled, the United States faced a drastic labor shortage. This void led to the creation of the fictional character “Rosie the Riveter,” a caricature that became part of the propaganda campaign created to entice women out of their homes and into factories, shipyards, and war plants. When the United States entered the war, 12 million women (one-quarter of the workforce) were already working, according to the National Park Service’s exhibit, “Rosie the Riveter: Women Working During World War II.” But, by the end of the war, the number was up to 18 million (one-third of the workforce). All told, between the years 1940 and 1945, female workers in defense industries grew by 462 percent.10 After the war, sexism was re-entrenched in the workplace. Women were either laid off or found themselves (once again) relegated to low-paying jobs.

Women were either laid off or found themselves (once again) relegated to low-paying jobs. Men basically resumed their dominant positions in the workforce. It wasn’t until 1964 and the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, that women gained the opportunity to exert themselves somewhat equally into the workforce. We should note the dramatic drop in poverty between the years 1939 and 1959. Census data collected after 1939 showed that by the end of the Great Depression, 40 percent of all working households under the age of 65 earned poverty wages, which were about $900 per year for a family of four. Katz and Stern described a turnaround by 1959, where 60 percent of American householders earned enough money to lift their families out of poverty.11 The dramatic drop in poverty in that 20-year span, however, wasn’t reflected in Black and Hispanic households.

Harrington’s book was so influential that the Boston Globe and other newspapers wrote that Medicaid, Medicare, food stamps, and the expanded Social Security benefits were all traceable to The Other America.14 The number of families who earned enough to rise out of poverty peaked at 68 percent in 1969. According to Katz and Stern, it dipped again in the 1970s and ’80s and, tragically, by 1989, poverty rates in America were back at 1940-era levels. Due to the rising cost of living, it became harder for one-salary families to stay above the poverty level. In the late 20th century, it was the increased proportion of married women in the workforce and two-income families that helped keep most American families above the poverty line. On the other end of the spectrum, the poverty rate between male- and female-headed households widened. According to the Katz and Stern report, by 1990, the poverty rate for women in male-headed households was 14 percent while households headed by females stood at the higher rate of 17 percent.15 By the late 1970s, the face of poverty had reverted to 19th-century levels, and the poor were once again blamed for their circumstances.


pages: 142 words: 45,733

Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel

anti-communist, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, creative destruction, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Chinese workers, deprived by wage repression and social insecurity (such as lack of health insurance) of the opportunity to consume much of their own output, saw the wealth accumulated through their labor go, in the form of their own savings and the income of their bosses, towards the construction of new productive capacity in their own country and a property boom in the other country. Both the new factories at home, turning out exports for the US, and the deliriously appreciating houses abroad rested on the premise of continuously rising American incomes. But among Americans, wage growth had ceased and household incomes could no longer be supplemented by the mass entry of women into the workforce, something already accomplished. The issuance and securitization of debt alone could substitute for present income. In the end, so much fictitious capital could not be redeemed. Whatever the destination of future Chinese savings gluts, they are unlikely to sponsor American consumption in the same way. In his final book, Adam Smith in Beijing (2007), the late Giovanni Arrighi expanded on Harvey’s concepts of the spatial fix and the switching crisis to survey half a millennium of capitalist development and to peer into a new, perhaps Chinese century.

It would only have enriched Jameson’s work if he had directed his attention to the cultural fallout of other novel features of the latest stage of capitalism: Mandel mentioned not only computerization and the rise of the service industries, themes Jameson has occasionally taken up, but also accelerated turnover time for fixed capital (i.e. a shorter period in which to recoup one’s investment), and the replacement of the gold standard by floating currencies. It’s not hard to imagine these transformations of the base percolating up through the superstructure. The mass introduction of women into the paid workforce, the expansion of advertizable space, the displacement of cash by credit cards and digital transactions: these are a few of the other economic changes in recent decades that come to mind as having suffused the superstructure too. Perhaps the outstanding virtue of David Harvey’s Condition of Postmodernity (1989) was his correlation of sped-up cultural change with a general “space-time compression” operating in contemporary capitalism across such disparate features as a casualized labor market, expanded international trade, shorter-term investment and so on—though it should be added that Harvey’s work along these lines followed Jameson’s and might not have been possible without it.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The February 2015 annual report of the White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) looked at productivity growth in America post–World War II and labeled the years from 1948 to 1973 “The Age of Shared Growth,” because of the way that all three factors—productivity growth, distribution, and participation—aligned to benefit the middle class from 1948 to 1973 … Income inequality fell, with the share of income going to the top 1 percent falling by nearly one-third, while the share of income going to the bottom 90 percent rose slightly. Household income growth was also fueled by the increased participation of women in the workforce … The combination of these three factors increased the average income for the bottom 90 percent of households by 2.8 percent a year over this period … This period illustrates the combined power of productivity, income equality, and participation to benefit the middle class. I came of age exactly during that era. No wonder growing up then left me and so many others with an optimism bias and with an expectation that this kind of broadly shared prosperity should and would continue.

deforestation de la Vega, Ralph Delgo, Lior Dell, Michael Deming, David democracy; computation and Democratic convention (1948) Democratic Party Deng Xiaoping desertification designers, supernova and deterrence Deutsch, Lisa developing world; climate change and; global flows and; industrialization in diabetes Diamond, Jared Diamond, Larry Digital Globalization (McKinsey Global Institute) dining room tables, discussion around Dirkou, Niger Disko Island dislocation disruption; computation and; political; workforce and diversity: in culture; economic growth and; immigration and; in politics DNA sequencing Dodd-Frank Act Doerr, John Donner, Jan Hein Donovan, John Don’t Tell Douglas (Meyer) DOS dot-com bubble, positive effects of DRAM (dynamic random access memory) droughts DTECH-ENGINEERING Dubai Dukakis, Michael Dunne, Jimmy Dust Bowl dynamic stability Earle, Sylvia Earned Income Tax Credit Earth: history of; see also Mother Nature, human impact on East Asia, economics of Eastern Europe eBay Ebola e-books Echo, The (St. Louis Park High newspaper) e-commerce economic disparity Economist economy, U.S.; Cold War growth in; postwar; progressivism and ecosystems; degradation of; resiliency of Edison, Thomas education: Common Core standards for; concentration and; mentors in; population growth and; self-motivation and; self-ownership in; skill sets and; socioeconomic disparity and; of women; workforce and education, innovation in; advances in connectivity and; in age of accelerations; global flows and; intelligent assistants and; online courses in; supernova and; tax deductions for; see also lifelong learning Edwards, Bruce edX Egypt; 2011 revolution in; U.S. military aid to Egyptian Army elections, U.S.: gerrymandering and; ranked-choice voting in Electronics El Salvador e-mail; messaging apps vs.

David Time Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Tipirneni, Ashok Tocqueville, Alexis de topsoil “topsoil of trust” Torvalds, Linus Toynbee, Arnold Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) translation software Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) transparency, in workplace Transparent (TV series) Trestman, Marc tribalism Tropic of Chaos (Parenti) Truman, Harry Trump, Donald trust: community and; financial flows and; as human quality; politics and; sharing economy and; as social capital; social technologies and Trust (Fukuyama) truth, live video and Tunisia TurboTax Turki, Karim Turner, Adair 24/7 Customer Twenty-Fourth Marine Expeditionary Unit Twin Cities Business Twin Cities Metropolitan Council Twitter 2G wireless networks typewriters Uber; surge pricing algorithms of Udacity Uganda, population growth in Ukraine; 2014 uprising in unemployment, political instability and Unesco United Bearing United Nations; Human Development Report Office of; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of; Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of; Population Division of; Refugee Agency (UNHCR) of United Press International (UPI) United States: China’s relations with; global dependence on; illegal immigration into; immigrant entrepreneurs in; Madagascar and; Middle East policy of; population growth in; post–Cold War hegemony of; Russia’s relations with UPS USA Today value sets: of author; community and; cultural identity and; in opinion writing; sustainable vs. situational; see also ethics, innovation in van Agtmael, Antoine Vedantam, Shankar Venezuela Venmo Ventura, Jesse Veritas Genetics Verizon version control systems Vestberg, Hans video, live, empathy and video games Vietnam Vietnam War Visa Vital Signs of the Planet (NASA report) voice prints Volkswagen Beetle Vox.com wage insurance Wakefield Research Walensky, Norm Walker, Robert Wall Street Journal Walmart, online operations of Wanamaker, John Wanstrath, Chris Warburg, Bettina Waryan, Don Washington Post Waters, Colin water scarcity Watson, Thomas Watson (computer) Watson (software): medical applications of weak signals, detection of weak states: in age of accelerations; biodiversity loss in; breakers and; building stability in; civil wars in; climate change and; in Cold War era; contrived borders of; dwindling foreign aid to; global flows and; infrastructure in; Internet and; population growth in; risk to interdependent world of We Are All Khaled Said (Facebook page) Webster University WeChat Weekend Edition (radio show) Weiner, Jeff Weisman, Alan Welby, Justin Wells, Lin Welsh, Tim West Africa; Ebola outbreak in; migration from WhatIs.com WhatsApp “When and Why Nationalism Beats Globalism” (Haidt) White House, 2015 drone crash at White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) Whitman, Meg “Why ‘Keep Your Paddle in the Water’ Is Bad Advice for Beginners” (Levesque) “Why What You Learned in Preschool Is Crucial at Work” (Miller) Wieseltier, Leon Wikipedia Williams, Jake Wilson, Dan wind energy Windows Wired wireless networks wisdom, patience and Wolf, Frank women: education of; empowerment of WomenNewsNetwork.net workforce, innovation in; accelerated pace of; blending of technical and interpersonal skills in; computerization and; connectivity and; disruption in; education and; empowerment in; high-wage, middle-skilled jobs in; intelligent assistance in, see intelligent assistance; intelligent assistants and; lifelong learning and; mentors in; middle class and; new social contracts in; on-demand jobs in; retraining in; self-motivation and; self-reinvention and; skill sets and, see skill sets; technological change and; transparency and; see also job seekers World Bank World Cup (2014) World Is Flat, The (Friedman) World of Disorder World of Order World Parks Congress, Sydney “World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision” (U.N.)


pages: 525 words: 153,356

The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class, 1910-2010 by Selina Todd

call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, credit crunch, deindustrialization, deskilling, different worldview, Downton Abbey, financial independence, full employment, income inequality, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, Red Clydeside, rent control, Right to Buy, rising living standards, sexual politics, strikebreaker, The Spirit Level, unemployed young men, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, young professional

The conflict brought thousands more people – including servants – into industry, and these workers won new economic and political rights. Before the war, those who endured poor pay and long working hours had had two options: find a better job (not always possible) or go on strike (which might lead to the sack). During the war, employers and government needed the workers – not only skilled artisans, but the unskilled labourers and former servants who staffed the munitions factories. At least 1 million women joined the workforce during the conflict. Labour leaders were able to strike new bargains over wages and working hours with employers and the government – and to establish a permanent place at the national negotiating table. In 1914, 437,000 women and 3,708,000 men had belonged to trade unions. By 1920 over 1 million women and 7 million men were union members.4 But if the shared experience of war work was important in the rise of the modern working class, so too was the aftermath of war.

Unemployment and the 1926 General Strike had precipitated a fall in trade union membership. By 1933, 3,661,000 men and 731,000 women were members of trade unions, a decline of over 50 per cent for both sexes since 1920. But from the mid-1930s trade union membership began to increase, as more workers were recruited to light manufacturing plants, and they in turn joined trade unions. In 1939, 1,010,000 women were trade unionists, 16 per cent of the female workforce; 5,288,000 men were trade union members, 39 per cent of the male workforce.13 These new trade unionists were often engaged on unskilled and semi-skilled factory work. In 1929 Llewellyn Smith’s New Survey of London noted that ‘a great proportion of the additional labour which has recently entered the metal-working trades, and the larger part especially of female labour, is engaged on what are virtually new industries, rendered possible on a large scale by the invention of mass-production processes.’14 While many men were facing unemployment, new manufacturing industries were employing growing numbers of younger men and women.

Unions that had jealously guarded the privileges of skilled men began to open their doors to the unskilled and semi-skilled workers who swelled the ranks of the wartime workforce. The Amalgamated Engineering Union (AEU) finally admitted women in 1942. These new factory workers were just as conscious as the craftsmen that the high demand for workers strengthened their bargaining rights. They expanded the trade unions, which had represented 39 per cent of men and 15 per cent of women in the workforce in 1939, but by 1943 were representing 46 per cent and 30 per cent respectively.16 But this workforce remained one stratified by class. In 1941 the government introduced conscription for women, beginning with the young and single, but reaching married women by 1942. In practice, though, conscripts were almost exclusively working class. Few middle- or upper-class women entered the factories.


pages: 480 words: 119,407

Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

When it comes to the tech that ends up in our pockets (I’m ever hopeful), it all comes down to who is making the decisions. And like the world of venture capitalists, the tech industry is dominated by men. Margaret Mitchell calls this the ‘sea of dudes’ problem.35 Over the past five years she’s worked with around ten women and ‘hundreds’ of men. Across ‘professional computing’ as a whole in the US, 26% of jobs are held by women compared to the 57% of jobs women hold across the entire US workforce.36 In the UK, women make up 14% of the STEM workforce.37 As well as a rash of sexy robots, the sea of dudes leads to products like the ‘enormous robot research prototype called PR2’ that computer scientist and co-founder of a robotics company Tessa Lau encountered when she worked for robotics research lab Willow Garage. It weighed ‘hundreds of pounds – it’s much larger than a smaller woman – and it has two big arms.

The entire global population needs the care that, currently, is mainly carried out, unpaid, by women. These are not niche concerns, and if public spaces are truly to be for everyone, we have to start accounting for the lives of the other half of the world. And, as we’ve seen, this isn’t just a matter of justice: it’s also a matter of simple economics. By accounting for women’s care responsibilities in urban planning, we make it easier for women to engage fully in the paid workforce – and as we will see in the next chapter, this is a significant driver of GDP. By accounting for the sexual violence women face and introducing preventative measures – like providing enough single-sex public toilets – we save money in the long run by reducing the significant economic cost of violence against women. When we account for female socialisation in the design of our open spaces and public activities, we again save money in the long run by ensuring women’s long-term mental and physical health.

The non-career-track option is mainly administrative, offers few opportunities for advancement, and is known informally as the ‘mommy’ track – because ‘mommies’ don’t fit into the kind of work-culture that is required for someone on the career-track.122 Combined with the impact having children has on a woman’s chances of promotion (dependent on her ability to demonstrate loyalty through consecutive years worked at a single company), it is unsurprising that 70% of Japanese women stop working for a decade or more after they have their first child, compared to 30% of American women, with many remaining out of the workforce forever.123 It is also unsurprising that Japan has the sixth-largest gender gap in employment and the third-largest gender pay gap in the OECD.124 Long-hours culture is also a problem in academia – and it is exacerbated by career-progression systems designed around typically male life patterns. An EU report on universities in Europe pointed out that age bars on fellowships discriminate against women: women are more likely125 to have had career breaks meaning that their ‘chronological age is older than their “academic” age’.125 In an article for the Atlantic, Nicholas Wolfinger, co-author of Do Babies Matter: Gender & Family in the Ivory Tower, suggested that universities should offer part-time tenure track positions.126 Primary carers can go part-time, while remaining on the tenure track (in effect doubling their probationary period), with the option of going back to full-time when they can.


pages: 423 words: 92,798

No Shortcuts: Organizing for Power in the New Gilded Age by Jane F. McAlevey

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, feminist movement, hiring and firing, immigration reform, informal economy, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, precariat, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, The Chicago School, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

They hint loudly at the strategy described here; the effectiveness of that strategy is made very evident in the case studies described in this book. For the entire climate to change nationally as it changed in Chicago, good unions need to engage the broader community in the fight, so that the community, of which the workers are an organic part, transforms along with the workplace. That is an organizing model with a bottom-up strategy, capable of movement building rather than mere moment actualization. The large numbers of women in today’s workforce—saddled with wage work and endless nonwage work—don’t separate their lives in the way industrial-era, mostly male workers could, entering one life when they arrived at work and punched in, and another when they punched out. The pressing concerns that bear down on most workers today are not divided into two neat piles, only one of which need be of concern to the union, while the other is divided up among a dozen single-issue interest groups, none of which has the union’s collective strength.


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

While these circumstances do not exonerate their actions in the least, these are signs of how economic bitterness can create high social costs. India will also need policies that address the balance of power for women in the workforce. The economist Abhijit Banerjee, who works at the Poverty Action Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has emphasized that educating women is a very effective means of improving our social indicators, particularly those related to fertility and health. An educated woman, for instance, insists on educating her children, which is why, as Abhijit notes, “when you educate a woman, you typically educate a family.” He points out how education would greatly empower women in participating in the workforce, boosting a group that has long been under-represented in the Indian economy. Participation among women right now still stands at a low 31 percent, and their education would “enable us to tap into our pool of workers much more effectively.”

As Bloom and Williamson wrote, “When you have lots of babies, you also have to take care of them. The resources that are normally put into building up the economy—in infrastructure, capital and savings—are being diverted to raise children . . . you are not building as many bridges, digging as many harbors, or creating as many ports.” Additionally, as the number of children per woman in East Asia fell from six to two, women were able to join the workforce and contribute to GDP growth. This demographically rich generation drove East Asia’s rise as a manufacturing and technology power—including the growth of Singapore in manufacturing and retail, of Hong Kong in finance and of Taiwan in electronics. In all, Bloom and Williamson discovered, this wave of young workers contributed to as much as one third of East Asia’s economic rise between 1965 and 1990.l “We showed,” David tells me, “that particular kinds of population growth could dramatically drive the country’s growth, not impede it as economists used to believe.”

In Ireland it was the legalization of birth control that fueled its demographics—there were few infant deaths, but when this deeply Catholic country finally legalized contraceptives in 1979, Ireland’s high fertility rate began to fall rapidly. David writes, “In 1970, the average Irishwoman had 3.9 children; by the mid-1990s, that number was less than two.” As the number of dependants plunged and Irish women joined the workforce, Ireland’s dividend became a springboard for its economy and its growth rates averaged 5.8 percent—higher than that of any other European country. However, in all these examples, we are clearly talking of demographic bulges that are past—in David’s words, “of the pigs that have already passed through the python.” The populations of the United States, Europe and East Asia are now graying, growing older.


Mbs: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman by Ben Hubbard

Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Donald Trump, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

He had effectively been drafted into the judiciary after university and was trying to get out, which was not easy. I wondered what life he would have chosen had he been able to. The mantra in King Abdullah’s Saudi Arabia, repeated ad nauseam by government officials and Saudi academics, was “evolution, not revolution.” The kingdom was politically stable, as far as anyone knew, and the old king was a reformer, in his way. He had lifted regulations to allow women to enter the workforce; appointed a group of women to the Shura Council, a royal advisory body; and vowed to let women vote and run in municipal elections. Most Saudis welcomed those changes but were keenly aware of the chaos that the Arab Spring uprisings had unleashed in neighboring countries. That made them happy to take it slow and leave governance to the royals, as long as they kept paying the bills. But building quietly was a looming challenge to the monarchy.

“Not with cats, not with dogs, not with wolves, not with anything.” The private fatwa sector sometimes got unruly, so the government tried to impose consistency with official fatwa institutions. But their fatwas provoked laughter, too, like the one that deemed spending money on Pokémon products “cooperation in sin and transgression.” Others contradicted government policy. The state, since King Abdullah, had been trying to push more women into the workforce, an effort further advanced by MBS. But the state fatwa organization warned against the “danger of women joining men in their workplace,” calling it “the reason behind the destruction of societies.” While digging around on the organization’s website, I was shocked to find a fatwa in English from the previous Grand Mufti that called for infidels to be killed or taken as slaves until they became Muslims.

Women’s universities planned to open driving schools, and Ford, Nissan, and Jaguar launched ads targeting what they hoped would be a flood of women drivers (and car buyers). According to one estimate, car sales would grow by 9 percent each year through 2025 and 20 percent of Saudi women would be driving by 2020. The ride-hailing company Uber planned to recruit women, and dealerships set aside women-only shopping hours. The lifting of the ban would change Saudi society in myriad ways in the years ahead, facilitating women’s entry into the workforce and giving them greater control over their social, economic, and even romantic lives. But first, most needed to learn to drive. On my last visit to Saudi Arabia in the spring of 2018, I spent a day at a women’s university in Jeddah where the Ford Motor Company Fund was giving a drivers’ safety workshop. For many students, it was their first chance to get behind the wheel. The excitement was tangible.


pages: 291 words: 88,879

Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone by Eric Klinenberg

big-box store, carbon footprint, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Consider, for instance, that in 1950 there were more than two men for every woman on American college campuses, whereas today women make up the majority of undergraduate students as well as of those who earn a bachelor’s degree.24 Or the fact that, between 1950 and 2000, the number of working women counted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics rose from 18 million to 66 million while the proportion of women working jumped from 33 percent to 60 percent.25 Most other advanced nations have experienced similar changes during the past half century, such that today the level of men’s and women’s participation in higher education and the paid workforce is more balanced than ever before. Women’s assertion of control over their own bodies has also changed the terms of modern relationships, resulting in delayed marriage, a longer transition to adulthood, and increased rates of separation and divorce. In the United States, divorce rates have climbed steadily since the mid-nineteenth century, but in the 1960s they began to rise sharply, and by 2000 marriages were twice as likely to end in divorce as they were in 1950.26 Today, neither breaking up with a spouse nor staying single means settling for a life of unwanted abstinence.

These men are struggling to shake off a heavy load of burdens: substance abuse, a criminal record, poverty, unemployment, and disease are common, and often overlapping. The ranks of men in this situation have grown steadily since the 1970s, due not only to the collapse of the industrial labor market and the fact that employers in the service sector are reluctant to hire them, but also to the rise of women in the paid workforce, the vast expansion of the penal system, and the retrenchment of social services for the poor.4 In 2006 the New York Times reported, “About 18 percent of men ages forty to forty-four with less than four years of college have never married, according to census estimates. That is up from about 6 percent a quarter century ago. Among similar men ages thirty-five to thirty-nine, the portion jumped to 22 percent from 8 percent in that time.”


pages: 200 words: 72,182

Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America by Barbara Ehrenreich

business process, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, McMansion, place-making, post-work, sexual politics, telemarketer, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero day

A book that has changed assumptions about American prosperity and hardship, Nickel and Dimed makes an especially compelling selection for reading groups. The questions that follow are designed to enhance your personal understanding or group discussion of this provocative, heartfelt—and funny—account of life in the low-wage trenches. Questions for discussion 1. In the wake of recent welfare reform measures, millions of women entering the workforce can expect to face struggles like the ones Ehrenreich confronted in Nickel and Dimed. Have you ever been homeless, unemployed, without health insurance, or held down two jobs? What is the lowest-paying job you ever held and what kind of help—if any—did you need to improve your situation? 2. Were your perceptions of blue-collar Americans transformed or reinforced by Nickel and Dimed?

Mediamark Research reports a 53 percent increase, between 1995 and 1999, in the number of households using a hired cleaner or service once a month or more, and Maritz Marketing finds that 30 percent of the people who hired help in 1999 had done so for the first time that year. Managers of the new corporate cleaning services, such as the one I worked for, attribute their success not only to the influx of women into the workforce but to the tensions over housework that arose in its wake. When the trend toward hiring out was just beginning to take off, in 1988, the owner of a Merry Maids franchise in Arlington, Massachusetts, told the Christian Science Monitor, “I kid some women. I say, 'We even save marriages. In this new eighties period you expect more from the male partner, but very often you don't get the cooperation you would like to have.


pages: 400 words: 124,678

The Investment Checklist: The Art of In-Depth Research by Michael Shearn

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business cycle, call centre, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, commoditize, compound rate of return, Credit Default Swap, estate planning, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, Network effects, pink-collar, risk tolerance, shareholder value, six sigma, Skype, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, technology bubble, time value of money, transaction costs, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

A growing business is one that expands its customer base or sells more to existing customers. Is the Business Growing Because of Secular Trends? Secular growth trends are sustained trends driven by demographic or social changes. These demographic or social changes can create an extended period of demand for products or services. For example, think of the growth in the number of women entering the workforce: From 1948 to 2000, women grew from 29 percent of the workforce in 1948 to about 50 percent by 2000.6 This was a social change, and it drove the secular trends of women purchasing more workplace clothing, the growth in popularity of frozen foods (because there was limited time to cook a meal), and other social changes caused by women having less available time. Be certain to distinguish between this kind of long-term growth and shorter-term cyclical changes.

To locate these CEO partners, Lister and his team go to industry conferences and use their established network of industry contacts. One business that Lister’s firm invested in because it met the majority of Imperial Capital’s criteria (75 out of 100) was Associated Freezers Corporation, a refrigerated warehousing company. There were several factors that attracted Lister and his team to Associated Freezers, including these: Underlying demand was strong. As women entered the workforce, frozen foods made up a larger part of people’s diets. Supermarkets showed evidence of this increased demand as they increased the number of frozen foods aisles. The quality of frozen foods improved. The old style TV dinner was replaced with more popular choices and higher-quality ingredients. Price was not the primary determinant. The customers (frozen-food manufacturers) chose warehouses based on service, real-time links to inventory, good temperature control, quality, and on-time delivery, not on price.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

By 2005, 81 percent of Americans approved of a woman working outside the home—even if her husband made enough to support the family alone.54 The birth-control pill has certainly played some role in women’s emergence into the professional workforce. Fewer children—and children born at a more predictable pace—have reduced burdens that once compelled many women to stay at home. At the same time, the old burdens haven’t been lifted entirely. As New York Times columnist Gail Collins has argued, the contemporary expectation that women will take a professional role outside the home has not diminished the pressure many feel to fulfill the domestic responsibilities their mothers and grandmothers shouldered.55 That said, new job opportunities do not account entirely for the flood of women in the workforce. Many have been pushed into breadwinning positions purely by a demand for income. Whether it’s to keep up with the Joneses or to make up for the diminishing spending power of middle-class salaries, women who might once have chosen to work at home (or not at all) now feel compelled to earn a second household salary.56 The composite result is clear: adults today spend more hours at work than they once did.

Claude Fischer found in a recent study that, while small, the percentage of Americans who had at least weekly contact with their best friend had actually grown very modestly between the mid-1980s and the mid-2000s.9 And in a study Fischer (in particular) has come to criticize, researchers using data from the General Social Survey, a sociological survey organized by researchers at the University of Chicago, argued that “in general, [American] core discussion networks in 2004 are more closely tied to each other, are more frequently accessed, and are longer-term relationships [than they were in 1985]. Even more than in 1985, the discussion networks we measured in 2004 are the closest of close ties.”10 Evidence coming from inside family portraits reveals much the same picture. Conventional wisdom assumes that children are seeing less of their parents—that our propensity for longer working hours, combined with the stampede of women into the professional workforce, has depleted the time adults have to rear their children. But that supposition has been upended by underreported studies that suggest parents are actually spending more time with their kids than they were in the mid-1970s. The average number of weekly hours that mothers spent caring directly for their children grew from ten in 1965 to thirteen in 2000; among fathers, the number more than doubled from three to seven over the same thirty-five-year span.11 As Fischer once explained to me, our perception is that families are eating at home less, but if the substitute is to go out for dinner, the net outcome may reveal that their time together has not diminished at all.12 By another standard, in fact, the problem isn’t that American children are getting too little parenting—it’s that they’re getting too much.


pages: 436 words: 98,538

The Upside of Inequality by Edward Conard

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

The increased availability of capital, from both the shift from a capital-intensive economy to a knowledge-intensive economy in high-wage economies and the high saving rates in many low-wage economies, like China’s, accelerates investment offshore that reduces manufacturing employment in high-wage economies. Productivity gains from capital investment now hollow out manufacturing employment and drive unskilled workers to the harder-to-manage service sector, where productivity growth has been slower. Meanwhile, the baby boom, the increased participation of women in the workforce, immigration, and international trade greatly increased the supply of labor, especially lower-skilled labor. Displaced workers must depend on entrepreneurial risk-takers, properly trained talent, and investors to find and commercialize new sources of employment with productivity and wages comparable to their prior capital-intensive manufacturing jobs. The ease of finding such work should not be taken for granted.

.* Interestingly, a breakdown of growth by income quintiles into economic cycles shows that virtually all the growth in income inequality occurred in the 1980s and has largely held steady since. No surprise, 1980s-era tax reform shifted the reporting of income for tax purposes from corporate to personal tax returns after it lowered personal income tax rates. The 1980s were also a time when women and baby boomers flooded into the workforce and the economy grew relative to the individuals who composed it.* Visit bit.ly/2c1Yc87 for a larger version of this image. Demagogues similarly manipulate the commonly cited evidence to claim that wages have stagnated while productivity has soared.27 This claim also collapses under closer scrutiny. Harvard economist Robert Lawrence, among others, lays out the truth.28 Four adjustments are needed to compare wages and productivity fairly: Income must include all workers, not just production workers.

See labor unions United Kingdom government investment, 147 incentives and taxes, 74 productivity growth, 23 test scores, 219, 220 upward mobility, myth of decline, 177–86 vocational education, 234, 235 wage growth slowdown, 37–61, 163–64 empirical studies on trade and immigration, 54–59 growth in incomes by level of income, 10, 10–11 income inequality and, 9, 10–11, 13–14 low-skilled immigration straining constrained resources, 47–52 trade deficits straining economy’s capacity and willingness to take risk, 52–54 trade with low-wage economies, 40–47 wages and workforce productivity, 37–39, 210–12 Walmart, 24, 210, 213 wealth inheritance, 90–91 Weinstein, David, 46 welfare, 204–10. See also government benefits “what if” planning scenarios, 18 Whitehurst, Grover, 232 women, marriage value and growing success of, 156, 166–69 workforce participation rate, 11, 79, 204, 206–7 workforce productivity and wages, 37–39, 210–12 work incentives, 204–10 working hours, 197, 206–7 World War II, 41, 127, 188 zero lower bound, 149, 149n 0.1 percent. See top 0.1 percent Zuckerberg, Mark, 12 *I have rounded numbers throughout this book. Time periods were taken from sources available at the time of writing (2015).


pages: 250 words: 88,762

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Husbands and wives love each other (we hope) and enjoy each other’s company; they are a romantic couple. But they are also an economic unit, dividing labor and sharing the costs of bringing up children or putting a roof over everyone’s head. Economic changes—which is to say, rational responses to changing incentives—were behind the rapid rise of divorce in the 1970s; they are also behind the dramatic but as yet unfinished strides women are taking toward equality in the workforce. We’ll see how rational reactions have turned divorce, the contraceptive pill, and women’s achievements in the workplace into a reinforcing loop: These matters are all connected closely to the negotiations between men and women in long-term relationships. First of all, though, it’s time to dispose of an age-old question. Do people spend their lives looking for “the one,” the one person—or less ambitiously, a particular type of person—who is the perfect match for them temperamentally, socially, professionally, financially, and sexually?

Instead, the divorce revolution was driven by a more fundamental economic force: the breakdown of the traditional division of labor identified by Adam Smith. At the beginning of the twentieth century, housework took many hours, and only the poorest and most desperate married women had jobs. As the decades rolled past, technological change made housework less time-consuming. It became easy—and quite common—for older women to enter the workforce after their children were grown and housework was more manageable. Once divorce rates began to climb, it was no surprise that they increased dramatically. There was a rationally self-reinforcing loop at work: The more people divorced, the more divorcées—that is, potential marriage partners—you could meet. That meant that it was easier to get divorced yourself and find a new spouse. Furthermore, once divorce started to become conceivable, women knew they could no longer think of themselves as one part of an economic unit.

They might do well to remember what Adam Smith wrote about the excessive division of labor: The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations…has no occasion to exert his understanding or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He…generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Smith’s argument applies just as well to ironing and baking cookies, his use of the male pronoun notwithstanding. Division of labor creates wealth but can sap our lives of variety. The serious entry of married women into the workforce has meant that they spend a little less time baking cookies, and perhaps also that their husbands spend a little more time with the children. It has empowered women to leave marriages that are not working, making them happier and safer from abuse. It has truly been a revolution, and the price of that revolution is more divorce and less marriage. That price is very real—but it is almost certainly a price worth paying.


pages: 242 words: 71,943

Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

Another example of short-term gains through efficiency came with women entering the workforce in increasing numbers. While there were, and still are, strong gender-equity arguments for making the workplace more welcoming to women, it wasn’t only liberation that most women were seeking by taking on additional labor outside the home. It was a paycheck, and the increased standard of living that extra income provided. And, in another example of long-term consequences, that added income didn’t ultimately result in broader prosperity and financial stability for families. Over time, it merely increased prices for family essentials, like housing, daycare, and education. Instead of the economy having to adjust downward to meet productivity levels – a painful constraint – women entering the American workforce bailed out the economy by adding their capacity.


pages: 124 words: 39,011

Beyond Outrage: Expanded Edition: What Has Gone Wrong With Our Economy and Our Democracy, and How to Fix It by Robert B. Reich

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, banking crisis, business cycle, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, job automation, Mahatma Gandhi, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

But contrary to popular mythology, trade and technology have not reduced the overall number of American jobs; their more profound effect has been on pay. As I noted, jobs slowly returned from the depths of the Great Recession, but in order to get them, many workers had to accept lower pay than before. Over the last three and a half decades, middle-class families continued to spend, the breakdown of the basic bargain notwithstanding. Their spending was at first enabled by the flow of women into the workforce. In the 1960s, only 12 percent of married women with children under the age of six were working for pay; by the late 1990s, 55 percent were in the paid workforce. When that way of life stopped generating enough income, Americans went deeper into debt. From the late 1990s to 2007, the typical household debt grew by a third. As long as housing values continued to rise, it seemed a painless way to get additional money.


Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism by Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Cass Sunstein, centre right, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, declining real wages, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, open borders, open economy, post-industrial society, post-materialism, precariat, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, statistical model, stem cell, War on Poverty, white flight, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

This is America’s heritage: A country that never forgets that we are all, all, every one of us, made by the same God in heaven.’)50 Theoretically, there are several ways groups could react to the profound cultural changes in society which threaten their core values. One strategy could be self-­censorship, the tendency for people to remain silent when they feel that their views are in opposition to the majority, for fear of social isolation or reprisal.51 Another could be adaptation, as groups gradually come to accept the profound cultural shifts which have become mainstream during their lifetimes, such as growing acceptance of women’s equality in the paid workforce and public spheres.52 A third could be a retreat to social bubbles of like-­minded people, the great sorting, now easier than ever in the echo chamber of social media and the partisan press, thereby avoiding potential social conflict and disagreements. We theorize that an alternative strategy, however, is the authoritarian reflex, a defensive reaction strongest among socially conservative groups feeling threatened by the rapid processes of economic, social, and cultural change, rejecting unconventional social mores and moral norms, and finding reassurance from a collective community of like-­minded people, where transgressive strongman leaders express socially incorrect views while defending traditional values and beliefs.

Paralleling these changes is a decline in respect for authority.’25 The European Social Survey illustrates these trends; Figure 4.3 displays some of the substantial shifts in social values by birth cohorts in a wide range of more than 30 European societies, with the younger birth cohorts being substantially more liberal and cosmopolitan than their parents or grandparents, whether monitored by feelings toward European Union unification, the positive impact of immigrants for multiculturalism, tolerance of gay and lesbian lifestyles, more secular identities, and egalitarian attitudes toward the role of women in the paid workforce. The tipping Part II Authoritarian-Populist Values 97 <<<<< Socially-Conservative ----- Socially-Liberal >>>>> .40000 .20000 .00000 Women should not cut down paid work for family –.20000 Men should not have more right to job Gays & lesbians should be free to live life as they wish –.40000 EU unification should go further Cultural life is enriched by immigrants Immigrants make the country a better place to live –.60000 Not at all religious Low 2.00 3.00 4.00 High Education Cases weighted by Design weight Figure 4.4.

Secondly, we tracked the primary drivers of these culture shifts. The evidence confirms that the silent revolution during the second half of the twentieth century was closely associated with processes of intergenerational value change. This was also reinforced by the expansion of university education in knowledge societies that demand more skilled employees, by growing gender equality as women enter the paid workforce and political leadership, and by urbanization as younger professionals Part II Authoritarian-Populist Values 123 leave rural areas to study, work, and live in multicultural metropolitan cities. These findings are in line with many previous studies, which have also found that libertarian and authoritarian values vary substantially by birth cohort. The more libertarian values of younger citizens can be seen as primarily generational, rather than the result of life-­cycle effects linked with getting married and having children, or period-­effects linked with specific events like passage of same-­sex marriage laws.61 The factors predicting support for socially conservative and authoritarian values – particularly generational cohort, education, religiosity, and urbanization– are consistent with the sociology of the voting support for radical right parties documented in many previous studies.62 Thirdly, we argue that the silent revolution has catalyzed a major cultural backlash.


pages: 504 words: 147,722

Doing Harm: The Truth About How Bad Medicine and Lazy Science Leave Women Dismissed, Misdiagnosed, and Sick by Maya Dusenbery

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, gender pay gap, Joan Didion, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, phenotype, pre–internet, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, stem cell, women in the workforce

., “A Census of Actively Licensed Physicians in the United States, 2014,” Journal of Medical Regulation 101, no. 2 (2015), www.fsmb.org/media/default/pdf/census/2014census.pdf. The proportion of practicing ob-gyns who are women . . . Center for Workforce Studies, 2014 Physician Specialty Data Book (Association of American Medical Colleges, November 2014), https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Physician%20Specialty%20Databook%202014.pdf. Currently, 60 percent of pediatricians are women . . . Center for Workforce Studies, 2014 Physician Specialty Data Book. In recent years, women have made up about . . . Lyndra Vassar, “How Medical Specialties Vary by Gender,” AMA Wire, February 18, 2015, https://wire.ama-assn.org/education/how-medical-specialties-vary-gender. There remain large segments of medicine where women are vastly outnumbered . . . Center for Workforce Studies, 2014 Physician Specialty Data Book. Women now make up 38 percent . . .

But post-Freud, pain and other symptoms associated with menstruation, like other unexplained symptoms, came to be considered largely psychological. One textbook in the 1970s declared that dysmenorrhea “is generally a symptom of a personality disorder, even though hormonal imbalance may be present.” Rather quickly, women went from having to resist medicine’s pronouncement that their periods were, as a rule, so disabling they disqualified women from being equal participants in the workforce to having to insist that some women did indeed experience debilitating periods. To some extent there’s been a swing back to seeing women’s reproductive functions and transitions as pathological. With menopause, this shift was especially extreme. In 1966, Robert A. Wilson argued in his book Feminine Forever that menopause was a “curable” state that “no woman need suffer” thanks to treatment with supplemental estrogen.

Of course, Meigs, writing at the height of eugenicist thinking in American medicine, wasn’t concerned about endometriosis in all women. He claimed that the disease wasn’t as common among “less well-to-do patients” and advocated “early marriage and early childbearing among our people”—by which he meant his own “successful” Anglo-Saxon, well-educated upper class. By the sixties, as more and more women began to flagrantly break “nature’s rules” and enter the workforce, endometriosis came to be called “the career women’s disease.” The typical patient was thought to share a particular psychological profile. “The patient is said to be mesomorphic but underweight, overanxious, intelligent, egocentric and a perfectionist. These characteristics represent a personality pattern in which marriage and childbearing are likely to be deferred and therefore predispose to prolonged periods of uninterrupted ovulation.”


pages: 296 words: 86,188

Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong-And the New Research That's Rewriting the Story by Angela Saini

Albert Einstein, demographic transition, Drosophila, feminist movement, gender pay gap, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, out of africa, place-making, scientific mainstream, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, women in the workforce

I am grateful to all my family and friends, as I am to my much-loved son, Aneurin, for making me smile every time I looked up from my reading. I hope he will one day read this book, because I wrote it with his future in mind. REFERENCES Introduction Women’s Engineering Society. “Statistics on Women in Engineering.” Revised March 2016. http://www.wes.org.uk/sites/default/files/Women%20in%20Engineering%20Statistics%20March2016.pdf. WISE. “Woman in the STEM Workforce.” September 7, 2015. https://www.wisecampaign.org.uk/resources/2015/09/women-in-the-stem-workforce. National Science Foundation. “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2015.” http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2015/nsf15311/digest/nsf15311-digest.pdf. Summers, Lawrence H. “Remarks at NBER Conference on Diversifying the Science and Engineering Workforce.” Harvard University website, January 14, 2005. https://www.harvard.edu/president/speeches/summers_2005/nber.php.

Statistics collected by the Women’s Engineering Society in 2016 show that only 9 percent of the engineering workforce in the United Kingdom is female and just over 15 percent of engineering undergraduates are women. Figures from WISE, a campaign in the United Kingdom to promote women in science, engineering, and technology, reveal that in 2015 women made up a little more than 14 percent of their workplaces overall. The picture is similar in the United States: according to the National Science Foundation, although women make up nearly half the scientific workforce, they’re underrepresented in engineering, physics, and mathematics. Standing on that playing field by myself at age sixteen, I couldn’t figure it out. I belonged to a household of three sisters, all brilliant at math. Girls stood among boys as the highest achievers at my school. According to the Women’s Engineering Society, there’s little gender difference in enrollment and achievement in the core science and math subjects at secondary level in UK schools.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

., Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, New York, Routledge, 2006 Index Numbers in italics indicate Figures. 2001: A Space Odyssey (film) 271 A Abu Ghraib, Iraq 202 acid deposition 255, 256 advertising 50, 121, 140, 141, 187, 197, 236, 237, 275, 276 Aeschylus 291 Afghanistan 202, 290 Africa and global financial crisis 170 growth 232 indigenous population and property rights 39 labour 107, 108, 174 ‘land grabs’ 39, 58, 77, 252 population growth 230 Agamben, Giorgio 283–4 agglomeration 149, 150 economies 149 aggregate demand 20, 80, 81, 104, 173 aggregate effective demand 235 agribusiness 95, 133, 136, 206, 247, 258 agriculture ix, 39, 61, 104, 113, 117, 148, 229, 239, 257–8, 261 Alabama 148 Algerian War (1954–62) 288, 290 alienation 57, 69, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130, 198, 213, 214, 215, 263, 266–70, 272, 275–6, 279–80, 281, 286, 287 Allende, Salvador 201 Althusser, Louis 286 Amazon 131, 132 Americas colonisation of 229 indigenous populations 283 Amnesty International 202 anti-capitalist movements 11, 14, 65, 110, 111, 162 anti-capitalist struggle 14, 110, 145, 193, 269, 294 anti-globalisation 125 anti-terrorism xiii apartheid 169, 202, 203 Apple 84, 123, 131 apprenticeships 117 Arab Spring movement 280 Arbenz, Jacobo 201 Argentina 59, 107, 152, 160, 232 Aristotelianism 283, 289 Aristotle 1, 4, 200, 215 arms races 93 arms traffickers 54 Arrighi, Giovanni 136 Adam Smith in Beijing 142 Arthur, Brian: The Nature of Technology 89, 95–9, 101–4, 110 artificial intelligence xii, 104, 108, 120, 139, 188, 208, 295 Asia ‘land grabs’ 58 urbanisation 254 assembly lines 119 asset values and the credit system 83 defined 240 devalued 257 housing market 19, 20, 21, 58, 133 and predatory lending 133 property 76 recovery of 234 speculation 83, 101, 179 associationism 281 AT&T 131 austerity xi, 84, 177, 191, 223 Australia 152 autodidacts 183 automation xii, 103, 105, 106, 108, 138, 208, 215, 295 B Babbage, Charles 119 Bangkok riots, Thailand (1968) x Bangladesh dismantlement of old ships 250 factories 129, 174, 292 industrialisation 123 labour 108, 123, 129 protests against unsafe labour conditions 280 textile mill tragedies 249 Bank of England 45, 46 banking bonuses 164 electronic 92, 100, 277 excessive charges 84 interbank lending 233 and monopoly power 143 national banks supplant local banking in Britain and France 158 net transfers between banks 28 power of bankers 75 private banks 233 profits 54 regional banks 158 shell games 54–5 systematic banking malfeasance 54, 61 Baran, Paul and Sweezy, Paul: Monopoly Capitalism 136 Barcelona 141, 160 barrios pobres ix barter 24, 25, 29 Battersea Power Station, London 255 Battle of Algiers, The (film) 288 Bavaria, Germany 143, 150 Becker, Gary 186 Bernanke, Ben 47 Bhutan 171 billionaires xi, 165, 169, 170 biodiversity 246, 254, 255, 260 biofuels 3 biomedical engineering xii Birmingham 149 Bitcoin 36, 109 Black Panthers 291 Blade Runner (film) 271 Blankfein, Lloyd 239–40 Bohr, Niels 70 Bolivia 257, 260, 284 bondholders xii, 32, 51, 152, 158, 223, 240, 244, 245 bonuses 54, 77, 164, 178 Bourdieu, Pierre 186, 187 bourgeois morality 195 bourgeois reformism 167, 211 ‘Brady Bonds’ 240 Braudel, Fernand 193 Braverman, Harry: Labor and Monopoly Capital 119 Brazil a BRIC country 170, 228 coffee growers 257 poverty grants 107 unrest in (2013) 171, 243, 293 Brecht, Bertolt 265, 293 Bretton Woods (1944) 46 brewing trade 138 BRIC countries 10, 170, 174, 228 Britain alliance between state and London merchant capitalists 44–5 banking 158 enclosure movement 58 lends to United States (nineteenth century) 153 suppression of Mau Mau 291 surpluses of capital and labour sent to colonies 152–3 welfare state 165 see also United Kingdom British Empire 115, 174 British Museum Library, London 4 British Petroleum (BP) 61, 128 Buffett, Peter 211–12, 245, 283, 285 Buffett, Warren 211 bureaucracy 121–2, 165, 203, 251 Bush, George, Jr 201, 202 C Cabet, Étienne 183 Cabral, Amilcar 291 cadastral mapping 41 Cadbury 18 Cairo uprising (2011) 99 Calhoun, Craig 178 California 29, 196, 254 Canada 152 Cape Canaveral, Florida 196 capital abolition of monopolisable skills 119–20 aim of 92, 96–7, 232 alternatives to 36, 69, 89, 162 annihilation of space through time 138, 147, 178 capital-labour contradiction 65, 66, 68–9 and capitalism 7, 57, 68, 115, 166, 218 centralisation of 135, 142 circulation of 5, 7, 8, 53, 63, 67, 73, 74, 75, 79, 88, 99, 147, 168, 172, 177, 234, 247, 251, 276 commodity 74, 81 control over labour 102–3, 116–17, 166, 171–2, 274, 291–2 creation of 57 cultural 186 destruction of 154, 196, 233–4 and division of labour 112 economic engine of 8, 10, 97, 168, 172, 200, 253, 265, 268 evolution of 54, 151, 171, 270 exploitation by 156, 195 fictitious 32–3, 34, 76, 101, 110–11, 239–42 fixed 75–8, 155, 234 importance of uneven geographical development to 161 inequality foundational for 171–2 investment in fixed capital 75 innovations 4 legal-illegal duality 72 limitless growth of 37 new form of 4, 14 parasitic forms of 245 power of xii, 36, 47 private capital accumulation 23 privatisation of 61 process-thing duality 70–78 profitability of 184, 191–2 purpose of 92 realisation of 88, 173, 192, 212, 231, 235, 242, 268, 273 relation to nature 246–63 reproduction of 4, 47, 55, 63, 64, 88, 97, 108, 130, 146, 161, 168, 171, 172, 180, 181, 182, 189, 194, 219, 233, 252 spatiality of 99 and surplus value 63 surpluses of 151, 152, 153 temporality of 99 tension between fixed and circulating capital 75–8, 88, 89 turnover time of 73, 99, 147 and wage rates 173 capital accumulation, exponential growth of 229 capital gains 85, 179 capital accumulation 7, 8, 75, 76, 78, 102, 149, 151–5, 159, 172, 173, 179, 192, 209, 223, 228–32, 238, 241, 243, 244, 247, 273, 274, 276 basic architecture for 88 and capital’s aim 92, 96 collapse of 106 compound rate of 228–9 and the credit system 83 and democratisation 43 and demographic growth 231 and household consumerism 192 and lack of aggregate effective demand in the market 81 and the land market 59 and Marx 5 maximising 98 models of 53 in a new territories 152–3 perpetual 92, 110, 146, 162, 233, 265 private 23 promotion of 34 and the property market 50 recent problems of 10 and the state 48 capitalism ailing 58 an alternative to 36 and capital 7, 57, 68, 115, 166, 218 city landscape of 160 consumerist 197 contagious predatory lawlessness within 109 crises essential to its reproduction ix; defined 7 and demand-side management 85 and democracy 43 disaster 254–5, 255 economic engine of xiii, 7–8, 11, 110, 220, 221, 252, 279 evolution of 218 geographical landscape of 146, 159 global xi–xii, 108, 124 history of 7 ‘knowledge-based’ xii, 238 and money power 33 and a moneyless economy 36 neoliberal 266 political economy of xiv; and private property rights 41 and racialisation 8 reproduction of ix; revivified xi; vulture 162 capitalist markets 33, 53 capitalo-centric studies 10 car industry 121, 138, 148, 158, 188 carbon trading 235, 250 Caribbean migrants 115 Cartesian thinking 247 Cato Institute 143 Central America 136 central banks/bankers xi–xii, 37, 45, 46, 48, 51, 109, 142, 156, 161, 173, 233, 245 centralisation 135, 142, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 219 Césaire, Aimé 291 CFCs (chloro-fluorocarbons) 248, 254, 256, 259 chambers of commerce 168 Chandler, Alfred 141 Chaplin, Charlie 103 Charles I, King 199 Chartism 184 Chávez, Hugo 123, 201 cheating 57, 61, 63 Cheney, Dick 289 Chicago riots (1968) x chicanery 60, 72 children 174 exploitation of 195 raising 188, 190 trading of 26 violence and abuse of 193 Chile 136, 194, 280 coup of 1973 165, 201 China air quality 250, 258 becomes dynamic centre of a global capitalism 124 a BRIC country 170, 228 capital in (after 2000) 154 class struggles 233 and competition 150, 161 consumerism 194–5, 236 decentralisation 49 dirigiste governmentality 48 dismantlement of old ships 250 dispossessions in 58 education 184, 187 factories 123, 129, 174, 182 famine in 124–5 ‘great leap forward’ 125 growth of 170, 227, 232 income inequalities 169 industrialisation 232 Keynesian demand-side and debt-financed expansion xi; labour 80, 82, 107, 108, 123, 174, 230 life expectancy 259 personal debt 194 remittances 175 special economic zones 41, 144 speculative booms and bubbles in housing markets 21 suburbanisation 253 and technology 101 toxic batteries 249–50 unstable lurches forward 10 urban and infrastructural projects 151 urbanisation 232 Chinese Communist Party 108, 142 Church, the 185, 189, 199 circular cumulative causation 150 CitiBank 61 citizenship rights 168 civil rights 202, 205 class affluent classes 205 alliances 143, 149 class analysis xiii; conflict 85, 159 domination 91, 110 plutocratic capitalist xiii; power 55, 61, 88, 89, 92, 97, 99, 110, 134, 135, 221, 279 and race 166, 291 rule 91 structure 91 class struggle 34, 54, 67, 68, 85, 99, 103, 110, 116, 120, 135, 159, 172, 175, 183, 214, 233 climate change 4, 253–6, 259 Clinton, President Bill 176 Cloud Atlas (film) 271 CNN 285 coal 3, 255 coercion x, 41–4, 53, 60–63, 79, 95, 201, 286 Cold War 153, 165 collateralised debt obligations (CDOs) 78 Collins, Suzanne: The Hunger Games 264 Colombia 280 colonialism 257 the colonised 289–90 indigenous populations 39, 40 liberation from colonial rule 202 philanthropic 208, 285 colonisation 229, 262 ‘combinatorial evolution’ 96, 102, 104, 146, 147, 248 commercialisation 262, 263, 266 commodification 24, 55, 57, 59–63, 88, 115, 140, 141, 192, 193, 235, 243, 251, 253, 260, 262, 263, 273 commodities advertising 275 asking price 31 and barter 24 commodity exchange 39, 64 compared with products 25–6 defective or dangerous 72 definition 39 devaluation of 234 exchange value 15, 25 falling costs of 117 importance of workers as buyers 80–81 international trade in 256 labour power as a commodity 62 low-value 29 mobility of 147–8 obsolescence 236 single metric of value 24 unique 140–41 use value 15, 26, 35 commodity markets 49 ‘common capital of the class’ 142, 143 common wealth created by social labour 53 private appropriation of 53, 54, 55, 61, 88, 89 reproduction of 61 use values 53 commons collective management of 50 crucial 295 enclosure of 41, 235 natural 250 privatised 250 communications 99, 147, 148, 177 communism 196 collapse of (1989) xii, 165 communist parties 136 during Cold War 165 scientific 269 socialism/communism 91, 269 comparative advantage 122 competition and alienated workers 125 avoiding 31 between capitals 172 between energy and food production 3 decentralised 145 and deflationary crisis (1930s) 136 foreign 148, 155 geopolitical 219 inter-capitalist 110 international 154, 175 interstate 110 interterritorial 219 in labour market 116 and monopoly 131–45, 146, 218 and technology 92–3 and turnover time of capital 73, 99 and wages 135 competitive advantage 73, 93, 96, 112, 161 competitive market 131, 132 competitiveness 184 complementarity principle of 70 compounding growth 37, 49, 222, 227, 228, 233, 234, 235, 243, 244 perpetual 222–45, 296 computerisation 100, 120, 222 computers 92, 100, 105, 119 hardware 92, 101 organisational forms 92, 93, 99, 101 programming 120 software 92, 99, 101, 115, 116 conscience laundering 211, 245, 284, 286 Conscious Capitalism 284 constitutional rights 58 constitutionality 60, 61 constitutions progressive 284 and social bond between human rights and private property 40 US Constitution 284 and usurpation of power 45 consumerism 89, 106, 160, 192–5, 197, 198, 236, 274–7 containerisation 138, 148, 158 contracts 71, 72, 93, 207 contradictions Aristotelian conception of 4 between money and the social labour money represents 83 between reality and appearance 4–6 between use and exchange value 83 of capital and capitalism 68 contagious intensification of 14 creative use of 3 dialectical conception of 4 differing reactions to 2–3 and general crises 14 and innovation 3 moved around rather than resolved 3–4 multiple 33, 42 resolution of 3, 4 two modes of usage 1–2 unstable 89 Controller of the Currency 120 corporations and common wealth 54 corporate management 98–9 power of 57–8, 136 and private property 39–40 ‘visible hand’ 141–2 corruption 53, 197, 266 cosmopolitanism 285 cost of living 164, 175 credit cards 67, 133, 277 credit card companies 54, 84, 278 credit financing 152 credit system 83, 92, 101, 111, 239 crises changes in mental conceptions of the world ix-x; crisis of capital 4 defined 4 essential to the reproduction of capitalism ix; general crisis ensuing from contagions 14 housing markets crisis (2007–9) 18, 20, 22 reconfiguration of physical landscapes ix; slow resolution of x; sovereign debt crisis (after 2012) 37 currency markets, turbulence of (late 1960s) x customary rights 41, 59, 198 D Davos conferences 169 DDT 259 Debord, Guy: The Society of the Spectacle 236 debt creation 236 debt encumbrancy 212 debt peonage 62, 212 decentralisation 49, 142, 143, 144, 146, 148, 219, 281, 295 Declaration of Independence (US) 284 decolonisation 282, 288, 290 decommodification 85 deindustrialisation xii, 77–8, 98, 110, 148, 153, 159, 234 DeLong, Bradford 228 demand management 81, 82, 106, 176 demand-side management 85 democracy 47, 215 bourgeois 43, 49 governance within capitalism 43 social 190 totalitarian 220, 292 democratic governance 220, 266 democratisation 43 Deng Xiaoping x depressions 49, 227 1930s x, 108, 136, 169, 227, 232, 234 Descartes, René 247 Detroit 77, 136, 138, 148, 150, 152, 155, 159, 160 devaluation 153, 155, 162 of capital 233 of commodities 234 crises 150–51, 152, 154 localised 154 regional 154 developing countries 16, 240 Dhaka, Bangladesh 77 dialectics 70 Dickens, Charles 126, 169 Bleak House 226 Dombey and Son 184 digital revolution 144 disabled, the 202 see also handicapped discrimination 7, 8, 68, 116, 297 diseases 10, 211, 246, 254, 260 disempowerment 81, 103, 116, 119, 198, 270 disinvestment 78 Disneyfication 276 dispossession accumulation by 60, 67, 68, 84, 101, 111, 133, 141, 212 and capital 54, 55, 57 economies of 162 of indigenous populations 40, 59, 207 ‘land grabs’ 58 of land rights of the Irish 40 of the marginalised 198 political economy of 58 distributional equality 172 distributional shares 164–5, 166 division of labour 24, 71, 112–30, 154, 184, 268, 270 and Adam Smith 98, 118 defined 112 ‘the detail division of labour’ 118, 121 distinctions and oppositions 113–14 evolution of 112, 120, 121, 126 and gender 114–15 increasing complexity of 124, 125, 126 industrial proletariat 114 and innovation 96 ‘new international division of labour’ 122–3 organisation of 98 proliferating 121 relation between the parts and the whole 112 social 113, 118, 121, 125 technical 113, 295 uneven geographical developments in 130 dot-com bubble (1990s) 222–3, 241 ‘double coincidence of wants and needs’ 24 drugs 32, 193, 248 cartels 54 Durkheim, Emile 122, 125 Dust Bowl (United States, 1930s) 257 dynamism 92, 104, 146, 219 dystopia 229, 232, 264 E Eagleton , Terry: Why Marx Was Right 1, 21, 200, 214–15 East Asia crisis of 1997–98 154 dirigiste governmentality 48 education 184 rise of 170 Eastern Europe 115, 230 ecological offsets 250 economic rationality 211, 250, 252, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279 economies 48 advanced capitalist 228, 236 agglomeration 149 of dispossession 162 domination of industrial cartels and finance capital 135 household 192 informal 175 knowledge-based 188 mature 227–8 regional 149 reoriented to demand-side management 85 of scale 75 solidarity 66, 180 stagnant xii ecosystems 207, 247, 248, 251–6, 258, 261, 263, 296 Ecuador 46, 152, 284 education 23, 58, 60, 67–8, 84, 110, 127–8, 129, 134, 150, 156, 168, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 223, 235, 296 efficiency 71, 92, 93, 98, 103, 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 272, 273, 284 efficient market hypothesis 118 Egypt 107, 280, 293 Ehrlich, Paul 246 electronics 120, 121, 129, 236, 292 emerging markets 170–71, 242 employment 37 capital in command of job creation 172, 174 conditions of 128 full-time 274 opportunities for xii, 108, 168 regional crises of 151 of women 108, 114, 115, 127 see also labour enclosure movement 58 Engels, Friedrich 70 The Condition of the English Working Class in England 292 English Civil War (1642–9) 199 Enlightenment 247 Enron 133, 241 environmental damage 49, 61, 110, 111, 113, 232, 249–50, 255, 257, 258, 259, 265, 286, 293 environmental movement 249, 252 environmentalism 249, 252–3 Epicurus 283 equal rights 64 Erasmus, Desiderius 283 ethnic hatreds and discriminations 8, 165 ethnic minorities 168 ethnicisation 62 ethnicity 7, 68, 116 euro, the 15, 37, 46 Europe deindustrialisation in 234 economic development in 10 fascist parties 280 low population growth rate 230 social democratic era 18 unemployment 108 women in labour force 230 European Central Bank 37, 46, 51 European Commission 51 European Union (EU) 95, 159 exchange values commodities 15, 25, 64 dominance of 266 and housing 14–23, 43 and money 28, 35, 38 uniform and qualitatively identical 15 and use values 15, 35, 42, 44, 50, 60, 65, 88 exclusionary permanent ownership rights 39 experts 122 exploitation 49, 54, 57, 62, 68, 75, 83, 107, 108, 124, 126, 128, 129, 150, 156, 159, 166, 175, 176, 182, 185, 193, 195, 208, 246, 257 exponential growth 224, 240, 254 capacity for 230 of capital 246 of capital accumulation 223, 229 of capitalist activity 253 and capital’s ecosystem 255 in computer power 105 and environmental resources 260 in human affairs 229 and innovations in finance and banking 100 potential dangers of 222, 223 of sophisticated technologies 100 expropriation 207 externality effects 43–4 Exxon 128 F Facebook 236, 278, 279 factories ix, 123, 129, 160, 174, 182, 247, 292 Factory Act (1864) 127, 183 famine 124–5, 229, 246 Fannie Mae 50 Fanon, Frantz 287 The Wretched of the Earth 288–90, 293 fascist parties 280 favelas ix, 16, 84, 175 feminisation 115 feminists 189, 192, 283 fertilisers 255 fetishes, fetishism 4–7, 31, 36–7, 61, 103, 111, 179, 198, 243, 245, 269, 278 feudalism 41 financial markets 60, 133 financialisation 238 FIRE (finance, insurance and real estate) sections 113 fishing 59, 113, 148, 249, 250 fixity and motion 75–8, 88, 89, 146, 155 Food and Drug Administration 120 food production/supply 3, 229, 246, 248, 252 security 253, 294, 296 stamp aid 206, 292 Ford, Martin 104–8, 111, 273 foreclosure 21, 22, 24, 54, 58, 241, 268 forestry 113, 148, 257 fossil fuels 3–4 Foucault, Michel xiii, 204, 209, 280–81 Fourier, François Marie Charles 183 Fourierists 18 Fourteen Points 201 France banking 158 dirigiste governmentality under de Gaulle 48 and European Central Bank 46 fascist parties 280 Francis, Pope 293 Apostolic Exhortation 275–6 Frankfurt School 261 Freddie Mac 50 free trade 138, 157 freedom 47, 48, 142, 143, 218, 219, 220, 265, 267–270, 276, 279–82, 285, 288, 296 and centralised power 142 cultural 168 freedom and domination 199–215, 219, 268, 285 and the good life 215 and money creation 51 popular desire for 43 religious 168 and state finances 48 under the rule of capital 64 see also liberty and freedom freedom of movement 47, 296 freedom of thought 200 freedom of the press 213 French Revolution 203, 213, 284 G G7 159 G20 159 Gallup survey of work 271–2 Gandhi, Mahatma 284, 291 Gaulle, Charles de 48 gay rights 166 GDP 194, 195, 223 Gehry, Frank 141 gender discriminations 7, 8, 68, 165 gene sequences 60 General Motors xii genetic engineering xii, 101, 247 genetic materials 235, 241, 251, 261 genetically modified foods 101 genocide 8 gentrification 19, 84, 141, 276 geocentric model 5 geographical landscape building a new 151, 155 of capitalism 159 evolution of 146–7 instability of 146 soulless, rationalised 157 geopolitical struggles 8, 154 Germany and austerity 223 autobahns built 151 and European Central Bank 46 inflation during 1920s 30 wage repression 158–9 Gesell, Silvio 35 Ghana 291 global economic crisis (2007–9) 22, 23, 47, 118, 124, 132, 151, 170, 228, 232, 234, 235, 241 global financialisation x, 177–8 global warming 260 globalisation 136, 174, 176, 179, 223, 293 gold 27–31, 33, 37, 57, 227, 233, 238, 240 Golden Dawn 280 Goldman Sachs 75, 239 Google 131, 136, 195, 279 Gordon, Robert 222, 223, 230, 239, 304n2 Gore, Al 249 Gorz, André 104–5, 107, 242, 270–77, 279 government 60 democratic 48 planning 48 and social bond between human rights and private property 40 spending power 48 governmentality 43, 48, 157, 209, 280–81, 285 Gramsci, Antonio 286, 293 Greco, Thomas 48–9 Greece 160, 161, 162, 171, 235 austerity 223 degradation of the well-being of the masses xi; fascist parties 280 the power of the bondholders 51, 152 greenwashing 249 Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 202, 284 Guatemala 201 Guevara, Che 291 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao 141 guild system 117 Guinea-Bissau 291 Gulf Oil Spill (2010) 61 H Habermas, Jürgen 192 habitat 246, 249, 252, 253, 255 handicapped, the 218 see also disabled Harvey, David The Enigma of Capital 265 Rebel Cities 282 Hayek, Friedrich 42 Road to Serfdom 206 health care 23, 58, 60, 67–8, 84, 110, 134, 156, 167, 189, 190, 235, 296 hedge funds 101, 162, 239, 241, 249 managers 164, 178 Heidegger, Martin 59, 250 Heritage Foundation 143 heterotopic spaces 219 Hill, Christopher 199 Ho Chi Minh 291 holocausts 8 homelessness 58 Hong Kong 150, 160 housing 156, 296 asset values 19, 20, 21, 58 ‘built to order’ 17 construction 67 controlling externalities 19–20 exchange values 14–23, 43 gated communities ix, 160, 208, 264 high costs 84 home ownership 49–50 investing in improvements 20, 43 mortgages 19, 21, 28, 50, 67, 82 predatory practices 67, 133 production costs 17 rental markets 22 renting or leasing 18–19, 67 self-built 84 self-help 16, 160 slum ix, 16, 175 social 18, 235 speculating in exchange value 20–22 speculative builds 17, 28, 78, 82 tenement 17, 160 terraced 17 tract ix, 17, 82 use values 14–19, 21–2, 23, 67 housing markets 18, 19, 21, 22, 28, 32, 49, 58, 60, 67, 68, 77, 83, 133, 192 crisis (2007–9) 18, 20, 22, 82–3 HSBC 61 Hudson, Michael 222 human capital theory 185, 186 human evolution 229–30 human nature 97, 198, 213, 261, 262, 263 revolt of 263, 264–81 human rights 40, 200, 202 humanism 269 capitalist 212 defined 283 education 128 excesses and dark side 283 and freedom 200, 208, 210 liberal 210, 287, 289 Marxist 284, 286 religious 283 Renaissance 283 revolutionary 212, 221, 282–93 secular 283, 285–6 types of 284 Hungary: fascist parties 280 Husserl, Edmund 192 Huygens, Christiaan 70 I IBM 128 Iceland: banking 55 identity politics xiii illegal aliens (‘sans-papiers’) 156 illegality 61, 72 immigrants, housing 160 imperialism 135, 136, 143, 201, 257, 258 income bourgeois disposable 235 disparities of 164–81 levelling up of 171 redistribution to the lower classes xi; see also wages indebtedness 152, 194, 222 India billionaires in 170 a BRIC country 170, 228 call centres 139 consumerism 236 dismantlement of old ships 250 labour 107, 230 ‘land grabs’ 77 moneylenders 210 social reproduction in 194 software engineers 196 special economic zones 144 unstable lurches forward 10 indigenous populations 193, 202, 257, 283 dispossession of 40, 59, 207 and exclusionary ownership rights 39 individualism 42, 197, 214, 281 Indonesia 129, 160 industrial cartels 135 Industrial Revolution 127 industrialisation 123, 189, 229, 232 inflation 30, 36, 37, 40, 49, 136, 228, 233 inheritance 40 Inner Asia, labour in 108 innovation 132 centres of 96 and the class struggle 103 competitive 219 as a double-edged sword xii; improving the qualities of daily life 4 labour-saving 104, 106, 107, 108 logistical 147 organisational 147 political 219 product 93 technological 94–5, 105, 147, 219 as a way out of a contradiction 3 insurance companies 278 intellectual property rights xii, 41, 123, 133, 139, 187, 207, 235, 241–2, 251 interest compound 5, 222, 224, 225, 226–7 interest-rate manipulations 54 interest rates 54, 186 living off 179, 186 on loans 17 money capital 28, 32 and mortgages 19, 67 on repayment of loans to the state 32 simple 225, 227 usury 49 Internal Revenue Service income tax returns 164 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 49, 51, 100, 143, 161, 169, 186, 234, 240 internet 158, 220, 278 investment: in fixed capital 75 investment pension funds 35–6 IOUs 30 Iran 232, 289 Iranian Revolution 289 Iraq war 201, 290 Ireland dispossession of land rights 40 housing market crash (2007–9) 82–3 Istanbul 141 uprising (2013) 99, 129, 171, 243 Italy 51,161, 223, 235 ITT 136 J Jacobs, Jane 96 James, C.L.R. 291 Japan 1980s economic boom 18 capital in (1980s) 154 economic development in 10 factories 123 growth rate 227 land market crash (1990) 18 low population growth rate 230 and Marshall Plan 153 post-war recovery 161 Jewish Question 213 JPMorgan 61 Judaeo-Christian tradition 283 K Kant, Immanuel 285 Katz, Cindi 189, 195, 197 Kenya 291 Kerala, India 171 Keynes, John Maynard xi, 46, 76, 244, 266 ‘Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren’ 33–4 General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money 35 Keynesianism demand management 82, 105, 176 demand-side and debt-financed expansion xi King, Martin Luther 284, 291 knowledge xii, 26, 41, 95, 96, 100, 105, 113, 122, 123, 127, 144, 184, 188, 196, 238, 242, 295 Koch brothers 292 Kohl, Helmut x L labour agitating and fighting for more 64 alienated workers 125, 126, 128, 129, 130 artisan 117, 182–3 and automation 105 capital/labour contradiction 65, 66, 68–9, 146 collective 117 commodification of 57 contracts 71, 72 control over 74, 102–11, 119, 166, 171–2, 274, 291–2 deskilling 111, 119 discipline 65, 79 disempowering workers 81, 103, 116, 119, 270 division of see division of labour; domestic 196 education 127–8, 129, 183, 187 exploitation of 54, 57, 62, 68, 75, 83, 107, 108, 126, 128, 129, 150, 156, 166, 175, 176, 182, 185, 195 factory 122, 123, 237 fair market value 63, 64 Gallup survey 271–2 house building 17 housework 114–15, 192 huge increase in the global wage labour force 107–8 importance of workers as buyers of commodities 80–81 ‘industrial reserve army’ 79–80, 173–4 migrations of 118 non-unionised xii; power of 61–4, 71, 73, 74, 79, 81, 88, 99, 108, 118–19, 127, 173, 175, 183, 189, 207, 233, 267 privatisation of 61 in service 117 skills 116, 118–19, 123, 149, 182–3, 185, 231 social see social labour; surplus 151, 152, 173–4, 175, 195, 233 symbolic 123 and trade unions 116 trading in labour services 62–3 unalienated 66, 89 unionised xii; unpaid 189 unskilled 114, 185 women in workforce see under women; worked to exhaustion or death 61, 182 see also employment labour markets 47, 62, 64, 66–9, 71, 102, 114, 116, 118, 166 labour-saving devices 104, 106, 107, 173, 174, 277 labour power commodification of 61, 88 exploitation of 62, 175 generation of surplus value 63 mobility of 99 monetisation of 61 private property character of 64 privatisation of 61 reserves of 108 Lagos, Nigeria, social reproduction in 195 laissez-faire 118, 205, 207, 281 land commodification 260–61 concept of 76–7 division of 59 and enclosure movement 58 establishing as private property 41 exhausting its fertility 61 privatisation 59, 61 scarcity 77 urban 251 ‘land grabs’ 39, 58, 77, 252 land market 18, 59 land price 17 land registry 41 land rents 78, 85 land rights 40, 93 land-use zoning 43 landlords 54, 67, 83, 140, 179, 251, 261 Latin America ’1and grabs’ 58, 77 labour 107 reductions in social inequality 171 two ‘lost decades’ of development 234 lawyers 22, 26, 67, 82, 245 leasing 16, 17, 18 Lebed, Jonathan 195 Lee Kuan-Yew 48 Leeds 149 Lefebvre, Henri 157, 192 Critique of Everyday Life 197–8 left, the defence of jobs and skills under threat 110 and the factory worker 68 incapable of mounting opposition to the power of capital xii; remains of the radical left xii–xiii Lehman Brothers investment bank, fall of (2008) x–xi, 47, 241 ‘leisure’ industries 115 Lenin, Vladimir 135 Leninism 91 Lewis, Michael: The Big Short 20–21 LGBT groups 168, 202, 218 liberation struggle 288, 290 liberty, liberties 44, 48–51, 142, 143, 212, 276, 284, 289 and bourgeois democracy 49 and centralised power 142 and money creation 51 non-coercive individual liberty 42 popular desire for 43 and state finances 48 liberty and freedom 199–215 coercion and violence in pursuit of 201 government surveillance and cracking of encrypted codes 201–2 human rights abuses 202 popular desire for 203 rhetoric on 200–201, 202 life expectancy 250, 258, 259 light, corpuscular theory of 70 living standards xii, 63, 64, 84, 89, 134, 175, 230 loans fictitious capital 32 housing 19 interest on 17 Locke, John 40, 201, 204 logos 31 London smog of 1952 255 unrest in (2011) 243 Los Angeles 150, 292 Louis XIV, King of France 245 Lovelace, Richard 199, 200, 203 Luddites 101 M McCarthyite scourge 56 MacKinnon, Catherine: Are Women Human?


pages: 375 words: 109,675

Railways & the Raj: How the Age of Steam Transformed India by Christian Wolmar

Beeching cuts, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial rule, James Dyson, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, Ponzi scheme, railway mania, strikebreaker, trade route, women in the workforce

Enterprises ref1 Sealdah ref1 Second Afghan War (1878–80) ref1, ref2 second class ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 Second World War (1939–45) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Shastri, Lal Bahadur ref1 shipping ref1, ref2, ref3 Sibi ref1 Sibi–Quetta line ref1 Sikhs ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Siliguri ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Silk Road ref1, ref2 Simla line ref1, ref2 Sind desert ref1, ref2 Sind Pershin State Railway ref1 Sind, Punjab & Delhi Railway ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Sindh (locomotive) ref1 Sindh Province ref1 sleeper-trains ref1, ref2 sleepers, railway ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 SNCF ref1 Soane Bridge ref1, ref2 Solani aqueduct ref1 South-Eastern Railway ref1 South Indian Railway ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Southern Mahratta Railway ref1 Southern Zone ref1 Soviet Union ref1, ref2 standards, disparity in ref1, ref2, ref3 stationmasters ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 stations ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23, ref24, ref25, ref26, ref27, ref28, ref29, ref30, ref31, ref32, ref33, ref34, ref35 steam locomotive see locomotives Stephenson, George ref1, ref2 Stephenson, Macdonald ref1 Stephenson, Robert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Stephenson, Rowland ref1 Stevens, Frederick William ref1 strikes see industrial disputes Strachey, Sir Richard ref1, ref2 Sultan (locomotive) ref1 supply industry, rail ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17 Sutlej River, Ferozepur ref1 Sweeney, Stuart ref1 Tagore, Dwarkanath ref1 Taj Mahal ref1 Tamil Nadu ref1 Taptee valley ref1 tax/taxpayer, Indian ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 tea industry ref1, ref2, ref3 terrorism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 textile manufacturers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Thailand ref1 Thal Ghats ref1, ref2, ref3 Thana ref1, ref2 see also Bombay–Thana line Thana River ref1 Thane ref1 theft ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Theroux, Paul ref1, ref2 Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) ref1 third class ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23, ref24, ref25, ref26, ref27, ref28, ref29, ref30, ref31, ref32, ref33, ref34, ref35 Thomas Cook and Son ref1 Thomas, John ref1, ref2 Thomason (steam locomotive) ref1 timber sources ref1, ref2 Tinkusia ref1 Tirhut ref1 toilets ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Trade Unions Act (1926) ref1 train-wrecking incidents ref1, ref2 Trans-Baluchistan ref1 Trans-Caspian Railway ref1, ref2, ref3 transfer stations ref1 transport network, India ref1 Transsiberian Railway ref1, ref2 Tredwell, Alice ref1, ref2 Tredwell, Solomon ref1, ref2, ref3 Trichinopoly ref1 Tully, Mark ref1, ref2 Tuticorin ref1 Twain, Mark ref1 Umballa ref1, ref2 Unesco World Heritage Site ref1 United States of America (USA) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 Upper Doab famine (1860–1) ref1 Urdu Guide ref1 Uttar Pradesh ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Varady, Professor Paul ref1 Verne, Jules: Around the World in Eighty Days ref1 Victoria Terminus (Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) (‘VT’), Bombay/Mumbai ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Vithoba temple ref1 Vitznau-Rigi line, Switzerland ref1 Vulcan Foundry, Newton-le-Willows ref1 wages ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18 Wales, Prince of (later, King Edward VIII) ref1 Wall Street Crash (October, 1929) ref1, ref2 Wanti, Shrimati Laj ref1 wastage ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 water provision ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Wedgwood Committee (1936–7) ref1, ref2, ref3 Wedgwood, Lady Iris ref1, ref2 Wedgwood, Sir Ralph ref1, ref2 West Pakistan ref1, ref2 Western Ghats ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Western Zone ref1 Westwood, J. N. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Willingdon, Marquess of ref1 Wilson, James ref1, ref2 wodders or wudders (earthworks/stone specialists) ref1 women: railway workforce ref1, ref2, ref3; travel arrangements for ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 workforce, railway ref1; career ladder for white men ref2; caste and racial groups, particular jobs associated with ref3, ref4; construction of railways ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15; Eurasian see Eurasian railway workers; European see European railway workers; Indian Christians ref16; Indian worker efficiency, criticism of ref17; Indian worker variety of functions ref18, ref19; Indianization of workforce, policy of (1870) ref20, ref21; industrial disputes see industrial disputes; local work processes and ref22; Partition and ref23; railway communities, establishment of ref24, ref25, ref26; recruitment ref27, ref28, ref29, ref30, ref31, ref32, ref33, ref34, ref35, ref36, ref37; regulations and ref38; safety-critical tasks, apprehension over employing Indians for ref39, ref40; Second World War and ref41, ref42; security used as reason for not employing Indians ref43; size of workforce ref44; supply industry/workshops ref45, ref46, ref47, ref48, ref49, ref50, ref51, ref52, ref53, ref54, ref55, ref56, ref57, ref58, ref59; wages see wages workshops ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 Zahidan, Persia ref1, ref2, ref3 zamindars (landed gentry) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 A NOTE ABOUT THE AUTHOR Christian Wolmar is an award-winning writer and broadcaster, specializing in transport.


The Rise and Fall of the British Nation: A Twentieth-Century History by David Edgerton

active measures, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, Donald Davies, double helix, endogenous growth, Etonian, European colonialism, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, full employment, imperial preference, James Dyson, knowledge economy, labour mobility, land reform, land value tax, manufacturing employment, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, packet switching, Philip Mirowski, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, trade liberalization, union organizing, very high income, wages for housework, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor

By contrast, adult men were regarded as having families to support and were paid, when they could demand it, a ‘family wage’. The result was that wages for women were systematically lower than wages for men even in comparable work. For example, women weavers, skilled workers, were paid the same wages as unskilled men, labourers, rather than the wages paid to male mule spinners, who, like coal getters and engine drivers, were paid at skilled rates.10 This was an important reason men resisted letting women into the workforce and kept them out of some trade unions (for example, the engineers until the Second World War). Similarly wages for boys and apprentices were systematically lower than for older men. About half the number of women worked for wages as did men. Women nearly always worked indoors, most obviously in the case of domestic service, but also in industry. The single largest quantum of work was done unpaid, by housewives at home.

The housewife performed laborious, skilled tasks, which were central to respectability, which men only did on board ship, or in the armed forces.12 More visible has been the work of women in the home of others: paid ‘domestic service’ was the second major feminine occupation until the Second World War, one dominated by young, unmarried women. In the interwar years about one-quarter of young women and girls were in domestic service: in 1931 1.4 million women worked as ‘indoor servants’. The next most common occupations for women were as textile workers (an industry whose workforce was two-thirds female), makers of clothing, shop assistants, teachers and nurses.13 Female shop assistants often slept above the shop. Then came work in factories and shops and offices, generally also for unmarried women only. Much of this industrial work, though certainly not all, was in industrial kitchens, or working on industrial looms, spindles or sewing machines, industrial variants of domestic machines.

The results of the strike, and the need to comply with EEC regulations, was the Equal Pay Act, 1970 (in force 1975), which stipulated the same wage for the same job. That was a major advance in that a real and longstanding discrimination was removed, but the crucial issue of comparability between different jobs into which men and women were still segregated was not addressed.32 These were just signs of a revolution in the position of women which would take decades. Women entered the workforce in new ways, the public sphere and the professions. One important way in which things changed subtly but importantly was in the breakdown, by earlier standards, of gender segregation at work. This was very evident in the world of graduates. The proportion of female students was increasing from the 1960s but accelerated in the 1970s, reversing the masculinization of the 1930s to the 1950s.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

A full four decades later, a similar worker earns just $664, a decline of about 13 percent.11 The story is modestly better if we look at median household incomes. Between 1949 and 1973, US median household incomes roughly doubled, from about $25,000 to $50,000. Growth in median incomes during this period tracked nearly perfectly with per capita GDP. Three decades later, median household income had increased to about $61,000, an increase of just 22 percent. That growth, however, was driven largely by the entry of women into the workforce. If incomes had moved in lockstep with economic growth—as was the case prior to 1973—the median household would today be earning well in excess of $90,000, over 50 percent more than the $61,000 they do earn.12 Figure 2.1 shows the relationship between labor productivity* (which measures the value of workers’ hourly output) and compensation (which includes wages and benefits) paid to ordinary private sector workers from 1948 onward.

In the wake of the 2008–9 economic crisis, it was often the case that the unemployment rate fell not because large numbers of new jobs were being created, but because discouraged workers exited the workforce. Unlike the unemployment rate, which counts only those people actively seeking jobs, labor-force participation offers a graphic illustration that captures workers who have given up. As Figure 2.5 shows, the labor force participation rate rose sharply between 1970 and 1990 as women flooded into the workforce. The overall trend disguises the crucial fact that the percentage of men in the labor force has been in consistent decline since 1950, falling from a high of about 86 percent to 70 percent as of 2013. The participation rate for women peaked at 60 percent in 2000; the overall labor force participation rate peaked at about 67 percent that same year.26 Figure 2.5. Labor Force Participation Rate SOURCE: US Bureau of Labor Statistics and Federal Reserve Bank of St.

Beyond that, I’m content to leave it to economic historians to delve into the data and perhaps someday shine a more definitive light on the precise forces involved in getting us to this point. The real question—and the primary subject of this book—is, What will be most important in the future? Many of the forces that heavily impacted the economy and political environment over the past half-century have largely played out. Unions outside the public sector have been decimated. Women who want careers have entered the workforce or enrolled in colleges and professional schools. There is evidence that the drive toward factory offshoring has slowed significantly, and in some cases, manufacturing is returning to the United States. Among the forces poised to shape the future, information technology stands alone in terms of its exponential progress. Even in nations whose political environments are far more responsive to the welfare of average workers, the changes wrought by technology are becoming increasingly evident.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

In 1990 five women, arriving at a local food store, told their drivers to get out of their respective cars, and took the wheels themselves and sped off. In response, the grand mufti at that time issued a fatwa denouncing women driving as “a source of undeniable vices.”8 The lifting of the ban in June 2018 removed the onus of being the last country in the world to forbid women driving. It also had major economic purpose—providing the mobility that would enable more women to join the workforce and thus spur higher productivity and economic growth. But a few weeks before the removal of the ban, several women activists, including some who had participated in the original 1990 protest, were summarily arrested. When Canada’s foreign minister criticized the arrests in a tweet, spurred by the fact that one of the arrested women had family in Canada, Saudi Arabia broke diplomatic relations and recalled seven thousand Saudis studying at Canadian universities.

New resorts along the Red Sea are intended to draw a growing number of “non-religious tourists.” Instead of the laborious process of applying for a visa in advance, said MBS, non-religious tourists will be able to “book a room in a hotel or an apartment” and get their visa on arrival at the airport or even online. There are multiple other targets—improve access to housing and health care, create six million new jobs, increase the percentage of women in the workforce (women already outnumber men in universities), and, notably, “cut tedious bureaucracy.”12 A top priority is to generate jobs for Saudis in a private sector that is meant to become less dependent upon government spending. Yet nothing so clearly demonstrates the difficulties than the employment structure itself. For Saudis, there are jobs, but largely in government. Jobs in the private sector are not only generally less well paid but are also considered less appealing.


The Transformation Of Ireland 1900-2000 by Diarmaid Ferriter

anti-communist, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, deliberate practice, edge city, falling living standards, financial independence, ghettoisation, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, immigration reform, income per capita, land reform, manufacturing employment, moral panic, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, sensible shoes, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, women in the workforce

The appointment of a women’s advisory committee by the ICTU in 1959, though hardly making huge waves, did provide a platform for the discussion of women’s issues. There was still only a tiny fraction of married women working: 5.2 per cent, compared to 20.6 per cent in England and Wales and 20 per cent in Finland. Overall, in 1961, women accounted for 29 per cent of the workforce and sex segregation continued to the extent that, in 1962, 77 per cent of women were in occupations where women accounted for 90 per cent of the workforce.83 Politics remained largely a male preserve; in the 1967 local authority elections, women won only 20 seats nationally, only seven more than in 1934, and it was not until 1969 that Ireland’s first elected feminist since Constance Markievicz, Mary Robinson, arrived in the Senate. The Income Tax Act of 1967 regarded a married woman’s income as her husband’s income for income tax purposes, with married women paying higher tax than married men or single people, and this was not challenged constitutionally until 1980.

It may also have been that strong discriminatory language was employed by opponents of women’s advancement precisely because many women (and not just those who emigrated) were loath to be bound by such restrictions. The research of Caitríona Clear makes clear there was precious little idealisation of the household in popular magazines and literature aimed at women.168 Interestingly, much the same gender ideology (taking its lead from the papacy) was also in evidence in Fascist Italy, where modern dress, the participation of women in athletic pursuits and attempts to limit women’s participation in the workforce were also matters of public and political discourse.169 A Catholic teacher-training college for women, Mary Immaculate in Limerick, launched the Mary Immaculate Modest Dress and Deportment Crusade in 1927, in response to Catholic bishops’ appeals for women to cover up. The rules included a ban on the wearing of dresses ‘less than four inches below the knee’ or those ‘cut in a suggestive style, or so loosely or low about the neck as to allow the collar-bone to appear, or cut equally low at the back’.170 Officially, the work of many Irish women remained hidden, a consequence of the pervasiveness of the ‘family economy’ in the Irish Free State.

These were evident in its commitment to use land legislation to empower the Land Commission to expropriate land deemed suitable for redistribution among small farmers. They also introduced measures to improve housing, increase unemployment assistance, and provide for the aged, blind and widowed. These initiatives coincided with a continuance of censorship and laws governing sexual morality, and an overt discrimination against women in the workforce. From the perspective of cynics writing in the 1980s, it was 1930s oppression, and a failure to modernise, which meant that Ireland was simply not an interesting place to live during this era. This, as Brian Fallon has recognised, ignores the degree of cultural vitality that continued to exist in Ireland; and just because much of this culture was imported does not mean it should be ignored.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

“Women are not expected to grow up to find out who they are, to choose their human identity,” Betty Friedan wrote in her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. “Anatomy is woman’s destiny.” Friedan’s book and the feminist movement that gradually came into being—with a strong assist by the Food and Drug Administration’s 1960 approval of the first birth-control pill—altered that destiny. Although growing percentages of women (even married women) joined the workforce throughout the twentieth century, as recently as 1970 most women still didn’t work; their participation in the civilian labor force was 43 percent. By 1980 that rate had risen to 52 percent, and since 1990 it’s hovered around 60 percent.9 Harvard’s Goldin observed a particularly dramatic change in women’s attitudes toward work around 1970, partly in reaction against the previous generation’s experience.

The black middle class (which starts out less prosperous than its white counterpart) has fallen behind just as the white middle class has. With women, it’s a bit different. Women have not contributed to the Great Divergence, and they have also, by some significant measures, avoided its effects. This is illustrated on the next page by a bar graph by David Autor, an MIT labor economist. During the past three decades, women outperformed men in the workforce at all skill levels. Both men and women (in the aggregate) moved out of moderately skilled jobs (secretary, retail sales representative, steel-worker, etc.)—women more rapidly than men. But women were much more likely than men to shift upward into higher-skilled jobs—from information technology engineer and personnel manager on up through various high-paying professions that require graduate degrees (doctor, lawyer, etc.).12 These findings reflect feminism’s victories in the workplace, but they also reflect something else: diminishing job opportunities for working-class males.


pages: 364 words: 102,528

An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen

agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, mass immigration, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

See also fast foods kaiseki, 218 kale, 171 Kaminsky, Peter, 193 Kansas, 21 Kansas City, Missouri, 86 Kashmiri food, 126 Kennedy, Diana, 199, 248 Kentucky, 26, 107, 111 Kenya, 146 King, Brayden, 174 kitchen equipment, 252–57 Klein, Daniel, 247 knödels, 250 Kobe beef, 183–84 Konya, Turkey, 241 Korea and Korean food, 26–27, 50, 75–76, 104–5, 126–27 kosher foods, 200 Kraft, 36, 198–99 Kreuz Market, 95, 259 Kroc, Ray, 82 labeling of foods, 163 labor costs and barbecue, 93–96, 103, 104 and catering, 245 composition-intensive dishes, 59 and ethnic supermarkets, 42 and French food, 225, 228–29 and home cooking, 257 and immigrants, 69, 76, 77–78 and Indian food, 224 and Mexican food, 191, 209 and restaurant workers, 69–72 and rules for finding good food, 59 and women in the workforce, 34–35 lamb, 110, 136, 173–74, 246 language barriers, 41–42, 216, 251 Laos and Laotian food, 212–13 La Paz, Nicaragua, 4 lard, 199–201, 221, 246 Laredo, Texas, 106 Las Delicias, 76–77, 244, 245 Latin America. See also specific countries and Chinese food, 130 and ethnic supermarkets, 50 and food markets, 194 and food trucks, 76 immigrants from, 41–42 Latin-Asian fusion cuisine, 80 restaurants of, 73 La Villette, 226 laws and legal issues, 36.

., 77, 79, 101, 115 water resources, 6, 157, 172, 182 water transportation, 144, 171 wealth, 14, 150, 151–52, 190 The Wealth of Nations (Smith), 15 Weber, Christopher L., 171, 172 weddings, 97 Wegmans, 110, 191–92 Western Europe, 33–34 Western food, 218–19. See also specific cuisines West Hollywood, 75 wheat, 145, 157, 202 whiskey, 23 white cheeses, 5 Whitely, Mike, 86–87 Whole Foods, 3, 46, 191–92 Willard’s, 102 Windows on the World, 66 wines, 23, 63 Wolfgang Puck Pizza, 62–63 women in the workforce, 34–35 work styles, 255–56 World Bank, 159 World Trade Center, 66 World War I, 65 World War II, 18–19, 24–25, 29–30, 146 Yam Khao Pot (recipe), 251 Yelp.com, 47, 54, 134 Yemen, 157 Zagat, 80 Zambia, 163 Zengo, 80–81 Zhong, Chen-Bo, 169 Zimbabwe, 163 Zola, 227 zoning issues, 182 Zurich, Switzerland, 222


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

First, if the economy continues to grow, Gen Y will call the shots simply because there will be far more jobs than people. Employers will therefore have to become more flexible about how and where people work and how they are rewarded. Gen Y is also hyper-connected, so virtual and collaborative networks will grow in importance as a way of getting things done. Workforces will also become more balanced. There will be a greater spread of ages, more ethnic diversity and more women in the workforce, the latter significantly contributing to a shift away from the white middle-aged alpha male culture that has Work and Business 277 been dominant for so long. Decisions will be made using prediction markets and innovation will be run using open or distributed innovation principles. Work/life balance Instead of working less and enjoying a leisure society, we are working more. We are also commuting for longer periods.

Similarly, BMW in Germany has designed a factory to attract older workers, while Mitsubishi in Japan has already started to rehire its own retirees. Ford expected 280 FUTURE FILES the percentage of its employees aged over 50 to have risen by 100% in Europe between 2006 and 2008. A global labor shortage will mean that there will be a push to recruit more immigrants into domestic labor forces and in some cases we may even see the return of paid immigration. There will also be more women in the workforce. In the US 25% of employees already work for a female-owned company; this percentage is certain to increase, not least because women possess skills that will be highly sought after in the future. Women make somewhere in the region of 50–90% of all purchasing decisions, so in theory putting more of them in charge of corporations would seem to make sense. This is something that management writers such as Tom Peters have been pointing out for years.


Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution by Emma Griffin

agricultural Revolution, Corn Laws, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, full employment, informal economy, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, labour mobility, spinning jenny, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor

There is something telling in William Adams’ comment that although there was no shame in his grandmother’s laundry work, some people ‘would perhaps consider that it was a fact to be concealed’.64 So 40 per cent is best regarded as the lowest estimate for mothers who worked. Nonetheless, we have two clearly discernible groups of women – those who did some form of paid employment after marriage and those who did 4017.indd 95 25/01/13 8:21 PM 96 earning a living not – which inevitably prompts us to ask: what determined whether or not women went out to work after they had married? One of the most curious features of married women’s retreat from the workforce is the fact that it was not related to the opportunities that existed in their area. The previous two chapters on men and children revealed that industrialisation substantially increased the amount and variety of work available, resulting in higher wages and fuller employment in the industrial districts. Yet when looking at married women’s work it is difficult to discern any kind of improvement in employment prospects.

It all poses something of a puzzle. It is undeniable that much more work was available in the cities than in the country. This was why the population was migrating towards the towns. This was why many adult men were starting to enjoy full employment and taste all the benefits that came with it. This was why children were being hustled into the workplace at ever younger ages. Yet married women did not move into the workforce en masse to take advantage of these opportunities. As the chance of earning a good wage improved, families clung more tightly to the traditional model of a breadwinning husband and a homemaking mother. We are led, therefore, to an inescapable conclusion. There was something about marriage and motherhood that militated against women making a sustained contribution to the labour force, even in areas where there was clearly a need for nimble hands and strong backs.

As he noted: ‘At such an age she could not be expected to take care of herself; to her I have no grudge, but during that harvest my right leg caught damage, and left me a cripple for life’.92 As a small child, Joseph Townend and a friend had been alone ‘mending the fire’ in the house when Joseph’s apron caught fire and he was seriously burned. His life was despaired of, and although he survived, he lost the use of his left arm.93 Such sad tales illustrate how difficult it was for mothers to undertake full-­time paid work without a trustworthy family member to take over the care of their children. The absence of effective childcare emerges as the most significant obstacle in the way of women returning to the workforce. Small families and employment could be combined, but caring for larger families required considerable time and energy. Unless a woman’s mother or mother-­in-­law was able and willing to do this, paid work was almost impossible. There is one final point that deserves consideration, and that is the casual and intermittent nature of much of the work that women performed. We have seen that about 40 per cent of married women worked, but what was meant by ‘work’ could differ dramatically from one woman to the next.


pages: 165 words: 48,594

Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism by Richard D. Wolff

asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, feminist movement, financial intermediation, Howard Zinn, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, wage slave, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

First were millions of adult women who were changing their self-definition and their lives. Often this happened through participation in the women’s liberation movement, which became socially powerful and influential in the 1970s. No longer satisfied with traditional roles as wives, housekeepers, and providers of childcare and other unpaid household labor, many women sought full-time paid employment. The supply of labor surged as women entered the workforce by the millions. This development coincided with a new wave of immigration into the United States, this time mostly from Latin America, especially Mexico and Central America. Once again, capitalism’s uneven development drove mass worker emigration from these areas—and, for many, the United States was the most attractive destination. Journalist Juan Gonzalez has called this immigration flow “the harvest of empire.”

Correspondingly, they sought individual responses (“solutions,” they hoped) to what they believed were individual problems. If real wages per hour were no longer rising, then they would work more hours per week, take a second or even a third job, and encourage other members of the household to take on regular paid work. Millions of families pursued these strategies to cope with the changes in the economy. Women, who in the wake of the women’s liberation movement had their own reasons to enter the workforce, found themselves under new pressure to seek paid employment. Since the stagnant wages of male workers alone could no longer support the American Dream, married families needed the addition of women’s paid labor to provide needed household income. And over the next thirty years, women, especially in middle- and upper-income groups, moved steadily and massively into the paid labor markets.


pages: 455 words: 133,719

Overwhelmed: Work, Love, and Play When No One Has the Time by Brigid Schulte

8-hour work day, affirmative action, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, Burning Man, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deliberate practice, desegregation, DevOps, East Village, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, fear of failure, feminist movement, financial independence, game design, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, profit maximization, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sensible shoes, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar, éminence grise

So it’s not much of a stretch to see, from both a financial and cultural perspective, why it’s usually the mother who steps back.27 Women are twice as likely as men to work part-time.28 And because part-time pay tends to be crappy, with the average part-time worker in sales, for example, earning 58 cents for every full-time worker’s dollar, the cycle of lower earnings for mothers becomes self-reinforcing.29 The ideal worker is a big reason why some educated mothers simply disappear from the workplace, more so in the United States than in any other industrialized country.30 Jane Leber Herr, an economist at the University of Chicago, analyzed national surveys of college graduates and found that fifteen years after graduating, nearly all the childless men and women were still working. But close to 30 percent of women with MBAs who had become mothers were out of the workforce, as were about one-quarter of the lawyers and those with master’s degrees who had become mothers. Around 15 percent of Ph.D. mothers were gone. The one outlier was mothers with medical degrees. Fully 94 percent were still on the job, largely because doctors have the power to control and predict their own schedules.31 “You would think that, given the rise in education of women, their experience, their presence in high-investment, high-income, high-value fields, the proportion of those who leave the labor force would have gone down,” Herr told me. “What’s shocking is that it hasn’t.” Some have called this disappearance of women “opting out” of the workforce and choosing to stay home, and they worry about the consequences if their marriages end: Divorced older women are more likely to live in poverty.32 But Joan Williams said the ideal worker often gives women no choice.

He offers me a seat on an overstuffed chintz sofa while he settles into a nearby red velvet chair. Directly behind him, a gold-plated pitchfork encased in glass stands against the wall like a grandfather clock. On the wall over his right shoulder, the Irish Catholic who grew up in Chevy Chase, Maryland, has hung a portrait of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. To prepare for our meeting, I’d read up on the Comprehensive Child Development Act of 1971. As more women and mothers entered the workforce in the late 1960s, public opinion polls showed that majorities of both men and women favored setting up “many more day care centers” and felt that the government should provide them. “Maternal employment was regarded as either a social good or a basic reality of modern life,” writes Kimberly Morgan in her fascinating history of the politics of child care.6 President Richard Nixon, influenced by emerging research on the importance of early learning to shape a child’s future, appointed a task force that ultimately recommended “a system of well-run child care centers available to all pre-school children” as well as after-school programs for older children.7 Buoyed by this declaration, a coalition of bipartisan lawmakers, early childhood educators, civil rights activists, feminists, and labor leaders came together to craft federal legislation to create a high-quality, universal child-care system for all Americans run by community organizations, much like federally funded Head Start preschool programs.


pages: 409 words: 118,448

An Extraordinary Time: The End of the Postwar Boom and the Return of the Ordinary Economy by Marc Levinson

affirmative action, airline deregulation, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, falling living standards, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, intermodal, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linear programming, manufacturing employment, new economy, Nixon shock, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, yield curve, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

In the postwar world, however, unions’ clout extended far beyond the ability to negotiate wages with individual employers or even across an industry. They became full partners at the political bargaining table, advocating powerfully for higher minimum wages, protections from dismissal, paid sick leave and holidays, and old-age pensions. In some countries, unions played a role in raising pay for the women who entered the workforce in large numbers, giving an added boost to the incomes of two-earner families. In some cases, national union leaders even bargained with the heads of business organizations and government officials to set the share of national income that would be paid out in workers’ wages and the share that would be paid out in profits, evening out the distribution of income by limiting the amount that could go to corporate shareholders or the owners of small businesses.4 But as the economist Thomas Piketty has shown, one of the most significant causes of greater equality in the postwar world had less to do with economic policy than with tragedy.

As productivity growth declined and business profits took a tumble, the growth of workers’ wages began to slow. The growth of the welfare state did not. On the contrary, millions of workers displaced amid the economic slowdown lined up to collect unemployment benefits. Millions more, convinced that they were too old to find new occupations, drew their pensions early. By 1980, most women in Western Europe were out of the workforce before their sixty-first birthday; most men were out by sixty-three. Spending on benefits that were based on income, such as housing assistance and food aid, rose as well, as more families became eligible. Outlays under the US government’s food stamp program, for example, doubled between 1974 and 1976 as the number of beneficiaries rose almost by half.20 Social insurance bore the burden.

All too often, experience has shown otherwise.20 So far as France and Spain were concerned, privatization and economic liberalization offered no magical elixir to cure economic stagnation. In 1980, the year before Mitterrand took office, twenty-two million French men and women held paid employment. Through strongly socialist policies and strongly antisocialist policies, all pursued by the same Socialist president, that number would remain unchanged for seven years. Although more women joined the workforce, the number of men at work fell by more than half a million over that period, reflecting the distress of France’s manufacturers and their unwillingness to replace retiring workers with new hires. Unemployment, low until the middle of the 1970s, became a permanent feature of the French economic landscape. In Spain, meanwhile, the expected burst of entrepreneurial energy was nowhere to be seen.


pages: 1,213 words: 376,284

Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Wolfgang Schäuble, the former leader of the German Christian Democratic Union (CDU), denounced shopping on a Sunday as a ‘threat to Judeo-Christian civilization’.116 Reform stopped at longer Saturday opening hours. The decisive factor can be found in the changing structure of the economy in combination with the role of women in the workforce. Sunday opening in Britain came on the heels of a shift from industry to services, which gave the retail sector and unions with shop assistants among their members greater weight than in Germany or France. In Britain, the shop workers’ union (USDAW) switched from opposing to supporting partial deregulation in order to defend jobs. Retail was at the vanguard of part-time work and its workforce was disproportionately female. Since it is women who do most of the shopping, the more women entered the workforce, the stronger became the case for flexible shopping. It is difficult to work and shop at the same time. Significantly, the societies which have been at the forefront of Sunday opening (Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom) are also those with the highest female labour participation in Europe.117 What difference did Sunday opening make to the rhythm of the day and to consumption more generally?

For working-class mothers, the opposite was true: the washing machine saved them time, sweat and tears – as one 1950s housewife put it plainly, ‘You could take away my bed, but just don’t leave me without that automatic washing machine.’112 This class divergence had already been noticed by the Lynds in their research for Middletown in 1925. If labour-saving devices did not erase the ‘double burden’, time-use data since then suggests it at least reduced it for women in employment.113 In general, the influence of appliances was probably smaller than often thought. The most extensive recent review of time-use data in twentieth-century America finds little evidence that the arrival of appliances prompted women to join the workforce. Female housework in the 1930s–’60s did shoot up, but this had less to do with hoovers and washing machines and more with the fact that single women were increasingly living in their own apartments rather than in boarding houses or with their families.114 There is no simple cause–effect relationship between what is done at home and what is bought in the marketplace. Yes, ready-made food and microwaves have led people to cook less.

The more affluent Scandinavians and Germans devote less of their free time to television (c.33 per cent) than Hungarians and Eastern Europeans (50+ per cent). Interestingly, the former also socialize more than the latter, the very opposite of what the harried model would predict. Socializing has declined in some countries, such as the Netherlands. Overall, however, visiting and chatting have been remarkably resilient, and this in spite of materialist temptations and more women joining the workforce. Americans today socialize less with neighbours than two generations ago but in exchange spend more time with friends and family. In Britain, socializing has been stable since the 1970s. In Germany, it may even have increased. And families spend more time with their children. Ironically, and notwithstanding the advance of fast food and eating out, the family meal at home is stronger than ever in some affluent societies today.


pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

(In marriage, the money that was previously paid to the housekeeper as a reportable paycheck is normally enlarged and given voluntarily to the wife, thus escaping the national and tax-accounts.) In the seventies, the great ferment of family transformation, with higher rates of divorce and remarriage and more prolonged singleness, conferred a net upward impetus to income totals. A more important factor is the effect of inflation and taxes on the number of women in the workforce. Inflation lifts incomes into higher brackets without raising purchasing power. In effect, taxes become more progressive, taking increasingly more as incomes rise. As the 1980s began, the marginal tax rate (the rate applying to the next dollar earned above current income) was nearly 50 percent for the average American. 14 That means half the money earned through additional work went to the government, in one way or another, either through giving up welfare and other transfers or through payments of taxes on the federal, state, and local levels.

No one who has children is likely to accept the idea that one’s life is impoverished by their arrival, that one’s standard of living declines when money is spent on them rather than on maintaining a childless person’s schedule of outside entertainments. The chief problem is the anguish inflicted on both the husband and the wife and thus on their relationship when the woman is forced to work despite the intensely increasing need for her in the home. Despite all the celebrations of working women, the earnings statistics show that most women prefer to avoid full commitment to the workforce. Their work effort, measured in annual hours and earnings, declines rapidly as family income increases.17 After age twenty-five, they are eleven times more likely to leave the labor force voluntarily than men.18 Women tend to favor part-time jobs and informal services. The men’s pattern contrasts dramatically. As their earnings capacity increases, so does their exploitation of it; they extend themselves to the limit when their opportunities for income improve.

There is no question that such marginal tax rates, hitting middle- and low-income recipients, have a substantial negative impact on taxable economic activity, work effort, and productivity. But though such effects were everywhere visible to the casual observer, economists often failed to see them because of the large expansion of the workforce during the late seventies. Aggregate analysis seemed to show an increase rather than a decrease of work effort. Indeed, higher marginal rates do tend to bring more women into the workforce, often holding part-time jobs.32 But the quantitative increase in workers conceals a deterioration and fragmentation of work effort, a decline of career commitments, a breakdown of families, and a vast movement into the underground economy.33 Altogether these trends indicate that the U.S. economy is high on the Laffer curve and that cuts in tax rates would cause dramatic shifts from sheltered to taxable activity while also improving productivity and growth.


pages: 171 words: 42,590

Menopause Mondays: The Girlfriend's Guide to Surviving and Thriving During Perimenopause and Menopause by Ellen Dolgen, Jack Dolgen

glass ceiling, placebo effect, pre–internet, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), women in the workforce

It wasn’t until their return plane trip that Paul turned to her and said, “You know you’re in perimenopause, right?” Let’s face it, women in the workplace is a fact of life, and therefore so is menopause. Maybe your grandmother could take to her bed for a few years and only her family noticed, but not so anymore. A 2010 report by the U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee says that “the number of women in the workforce has grown by 44.2 percent over the last 25 years, from 46 million in 1984 to 66 million in 2009.” It’s a pretty good bet some of those women are going to be working into middle-age, and therefore going through menopause while they’re at it. The University of Nottingham did a study called Women’s Experience of Working Through Menopause. In it, women were asked which menopause symptoms were affecting their work performance.


pages: 245 words: 83,272

Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World by Meredith Broussard

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Firefox, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, natural language processing, PageRank, payday loans, paypal mafia, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Saturday Night Live, school choice, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, the High Line, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

I’m also a professor. It suits me. The gender balance is better, too. Journalists are taught to be skeptical. We tell each other, “If your mother says she loves you, check it out.” Over the years, I heard people repeat the same promises about the bright technological future, but I saw the digital world replicate the inequalities of the “real” world. For example, the percentage of women and minorities in the tech workforce never increased significantly. The Internet became the new public sphere, but friends and colleagues reported being harassed online more than they ever were before. My women friends who used online dating sites and apps received rape threats and obscene photos. Trolls and bots made Twitter a cacophony. I started to question the promises of tech culture. I started to notice that the way people talk about technology is out of sync with what digital technology actually can do.

It was a reminder that computing doesn’t have to be a male-dominated field. Many of the human computers of the 1940s and 1950s were women, but when the (mostly male) developers made the decision to push forward with digital computers, the women’s jobs disappeared. As computing became a highly paid profession, women were also edged out. It was the result of deliberate choices. People chose to obscure the role of women in early computing and chose to exclude women from the workforce. We can change that starting now. I thought about the distance between the ENIAC and the computers in the Windows PC and Linux PC labs. These machines represent so much human effort, so much ingenuity. I have enormous respect for the history of science and technology. What computers get wrong, though, they get wrong because they’re created by humans in particular social and historical contexts.


pages: 1,034 words: 241,773

Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

See populism authority, deference to, 5 autocracy vs. democracy, 202–3, 202, 470n15 automation, 118–19, 300, 331 Availability heuristic, 41–2 awareness of, 369, 381, 383 critical thinking courses and, 378 doomsday prophecies and, 293, 302 media coverage and, 42–4, 201 superforecasters and awareness of, 369 terrorism and, 42, 195 Axial Age, 23, 264, 411 Azerbaijan, 158 Baby Boomers, 225 and crime boom of the 1960s, 173–4 depression and, 280–81 emancipative values and, 226 happiness underachievement of, 273, 283–9, 288 opioid overdoses and, 184–5 and populism, 341–2, 342 secularization and, 437 suicide and, 279–80 Babylon, 253–4 Bacon, Francis, 383 Bailey, Ronald, 464n45 Ball, Lucille, 186 Balmford, Andrew, 122 Banaji, Mahzarin, xix Bangladesh democratization and, 442 environment of, 130 escape from poverty of, 85, 86 famine and stunting in, 71, 71, 72 fertility as decreasing in, 126 industrialization and women in the workforce, 94 War of Independence (1971), 160, 161 Bannon, Stephen, 430, 448, 449, 455n1 Banting, Frederick, 63 Baron, Jonathan, 369 Barrett, Clark, 17 Basque ETA movement, 195 Batbie, Anselme, 341 Baudelaire, Charles, 30 Bauer, Peter, 79 Bauman, Zygmunt, 397 Baumeister, Roy, 267, 477n20 Bayesian reasoning, 369–70, 380, 381, 393 Bazile, Leon, 376 Beatles, 257, 274 beauty in art, 395, 406, 407 counter-entropic patterns as, 18 evolutionary psychology of, 18, 407, 408, 426 intrinsic value of, 18, 35, 248, 414, 433–4 in religion, 432 from science, 34, 260, 386, 407–8, 433–4 Beccaria, Cesare, 12, 174, 417 BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage), 151 Beckett, Samuel, 456n10 Belarus, 209, 313 Belgium, 169, 170, 259 Bell, Daniel, 390 Benin, 203, 475n30 Benjamin, Walter, 39–40 Benny, Jack, 333 Bentham, Jeremy, 223, 417 Bergman, Ingmar, 280 Berlin, Isaiah, 344 Berlin Wall, 163, 200–201, 203 Berry, Ken, 316 Best, Charles, 63 Better Angels of Our Nature, The (Pinker), 45–6 battle deaths (1946–2016), 159–60, 159 capital punishment, 209, 211 democracy vs. autocracy, 202 genocide deaths, 161 hate crimes, 220 homicide rates, 171 homosexuality, decriminalization of, 223 most recent year of data, 156, 466n1 objections to reliance on data in, 43–7 racist, sexist, and homophobic opinions, 216 rape and domestic violence, 221 terrorism deaths, 194 trends of, generally, 156 victimization of children, 229 war between great powers, 157–8, 157 Betteridge’s Law of Headlines, 282, 404 Bettmann, Otto, 178–9, 185, 186 Bible antihumanistic content of, 440 crucifixion in, 208 despotism in, 199 in fabric of human knowledge, 433 famine in, 68 life expectancy in, 58 literal truth of, belief in, 489n53, 490n84 maternal pain and suffering in, 57 morality as relative in, 429 on the poor, 89 prophets in, 49, 293 suicide in, 278 See also God Bierce, Ambrose, 428 Big Bang, 17, 385, 424 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 66 bin Laden, Osama, 443 biochar, 150 bioethics, research and committees for, 402 bioterrorism, 300–302, 305, 306–7 Birdzell, L.

See under commerce Georgia (country), 86, 203, 335 Georgia (state), capital punishment in, 211 Germany and authoritarian charismatic regimes, 343 Berlin Wall, 163, 200–201, 203 East and West, 91, 202 and escape from poverty, 85 literacy in, 236 nuclear power and, 147 populism and, 341 romantic militarism/nationalism of, 165–6, 398 secularization and, 489n68 social spending in, 108, 115 Trump and, 336 woman as leader of, 214 Get Smart (TV), 300 Ghitza, Yair, 342 Gide, André, 446 GI Generation, 225 depression and, 280–81 secularization and, 437 suicide and, 280 Glazer, Nathan, 274 Gleditsch, Nils Petter, 455n19, 466n6, 470n4, 490n91 Global Burden of Disease project, 59, 467n13 Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism, 435, 489n65 globalization, 120 consumption and, 117 and economic inequality, 103–4, 111 and Great Escape from poverty, 92 and income distribution, global, 111–13, 111 lower middle classes of the rich world as losing out in, 112, 113, 118–19, 339, 340 Trump’s power limited via realities of, 337–8 women in workforce and, 93–4 and working conditions, 92–3, 94 Global Terrorism Database, 192, 193 Global Zero, 315–17, 320–21 goal-directed behaviors, 21–2. See also purpose, absence of in nature Gobineau, Arthur de, 398 God anthropomorphic, reason and rejection of, 8 arguments for the existence of, refuted, 421 deism, 8, 18, 22, 422, 430 pantheism, 8, 422 as testable hypothesis, 422, 423, 428 See also religion; theism and theistic morality Golden Rule, 412 Goldman, Emma, 400 Goldstein, Joshua, 160, 429 Goldstein, Rebecca Newberger, xix, 421, 429, 455nn4,7, 456n17, 474n7, 485n104, 487nn3,5, 488nnn32,42,45, 489n54 Goodman, Paul, 456n1 Google searches, prejudice revealed through, 217–19, 218, 339–40, 471n13 Gopnik, Adam, 408 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 316 Gordon, Robert, 329 Gore, Al, 122, 145–6, 255, 382, 465n76 Goths, 398 Gottschall, Jonathan, 408 Gould, Stephen Jay, 394, 486n32 government climate change response, role in, 141, 145–6, 148, 149–50, 152 economic inequality amelioration by, 119 Enlightenment ideal of, 12 environmental protection, role in, 133–4, 136 evidence-based policy (behavioral insights), 381 famine exacerbated by, 78, 459nn35–36 nurturing role of, 108 regulations, 90, 335 regulations compatible with markets, 364, 365 terrorism, overreactions to, 197 theocracy, 201 utilitarian principles for, 416–17, 418 vehicle safety regulations, 177–8 violent crime rates and legitimacy of, 174 voice in, and emancipative values, 224 workplace safety regulations, 186, 187 See also authoritarian governments; colonial governments; communism; democracy; fascism; freedom; human rights; imperialism; postcolonial governments Graduated Reciprocation in Tension-Reduction (GRIT), 318, 320, 383 Grass, Günter, 447 gravitas market, 49, 293, 452 Gray, John, 191 Grayling, A.

See food and food security; poverty hunter-gatherer peoples child mortality in, 55 diet of, 23 and egalitarianism vs. inequality, 102–3 life expectancy of, 53–4, 58, 457n4 persistence hunting, 353–4 reason and, 353–4 scientific skepticism among, 354 violence among, 199, 470n1 See also Hadza people; San people Huntington, Samuel, 200 Hussein, Leyla, 442–3 Hussein, Saddam, 199, 291, 366, 447 Hutu people, 161 Huxley, Aldous, 418 Ibsen, Henrik, 284 Iceland, 171, 475n30 ideas democracy as, 206 as historical forces, 347, 349–50, 405, 443, 448 and infectious disease improvement, 67 language and communication of, 27 as patterns in matter, 22 identity politics, 31, 342, 375 identity-protective cognition blue lies and, 358–9 cognitive dissonance and, 377 institutions of reason as mitigating, 27–8, 376–7 media and intellectuals and, 366–7 and politics as predicting scientific belief, 356–8 rationalization vs. reason and, 359 scientific literacy as no cure for, 403 and Tragedy of the Belief Commons, 358 unappreciated, 379, 383 See also cognitive biases Illusion of Explanatory Depth, 379–80 immigrants and immigration cuisines introduced by, 259–60 literature written by, 284 social spending and, 110 Trump and, 335, 336 immortality, 60–61 imperialism blamed on science, 34, 388, 399 Muslim countries and, 439 See also colonial governments income, 85–7, 86, 95–6 and class distribution, 114–15 disposable (after taxes and transfers) vs. market, 115–16, 116, 118, 254–5, 254 global distribution of, 111 after Great Recession, 115 happiness as increasing with, 268–71, 269 universal basic income, 119 India agriculture in, 76 Axial Age and, 23 calories available per person in, 70, 70 carbon emissions of, 143, 143–4 civil wars in, 160 colonial government of, 78 democratization and, 200, 203 education in, 238 equal rights, moderate support for, 222 escape from poverty of, 85, 86, 90 famine in, 69, 72, 78 GDP of, 85 globalization and, 111 industrialization and women in the workforce, 94 liberalization of economy, 90 liberal Muslim rule of 16th century, 442 nuclear power and, 150 nuclear weapons and, 307–8, 317, 318 partition of, 49, 160 per capita income of, 86 as permit bureaucracy (“license raj”), 90 population-control program of, 74 poverty in, 89 refugees and displaced persons, 160 secularization and, 436 social spending in, 109 and Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 419 women’s rights and, 222 indigenous peoples, 123, 199.


pages: 235 words: 74,200

We're Going to Need More Wine: Stories That Are Funny, Complicated, and True by Gabrielle Union

double helix, equal pay for equal work, jitney, old-boy network, period drama, pre–internet, Snapchat, women in the workforce

Younger women are literally dangled in front of their older peers as a you-better-act-right stick to keep older, more experienced women in line. Because we’ve all seen a pal replaced for a younger, cheaper model with lower expectations and more free time for overtime or courting clients. Modern business is set up to squeeze out women who “want it all”—which is mostly just code for demanding equal pay for equal work. But the more empowered women in the workforce, the better. The more that women mentor women, the stronger our answer is to the old-boys’ network that we’ve been left out of. We can’t afford to leave any woman behind. We need every woman on the front lines lifting each other up . . . for the good of all of us and the women who come behind us. It’s tough to get past my own fears, so I have to remind myself that this is an experiment, to boldly go where no grown-ass woman has gone before.


pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, American ideology, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

The most profound impact of globalization and technology has been the upheaval experienced by workers without college degrees. With so many factories shuttered, typical “men’s work” steadily eroded and lower-paying service jobs took its place. As the economic contribution of these former working-class heroes to our nation dwindled, millions of men became zeroes in many people’s minds. They seemed to be a dusty anachronism in a sparkling new economy. Meanwhile, the ranks of women in the workforce grew steadily during the 1980s and 1990s, and waves of immigration began to change the ethnic and racial composition of the workforce. Seeking refuge from the economic dislocation, millions of Americans earned bachelor’s and advanced degrees, a process that perversely exacerbated already hardened lines of privilege, with whites earning college degrees at a much greater rate than blacks or Latinos.


pages: 364 words: 104,697

Were You Born on the Wrong Continent? by Thomas Geoghegan

Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, collective bargaining, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, dark matter, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Gini coefficient, haute cuisine, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, McJob, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, pensions crisis, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce

And during that time, we can’t be fired.” So he told me much of what Wigand later said about the firing process, etc. He began to open up when he realized I was not an American coming to bash the German model. Remember, at this time Clinton had just signed a bill ending “welfare as we know it,” even when the only welfare we “knew” was welfare for nursing mothers, or with small little kids, and the idea of kicking these women into the workforce . . . well, it repelled a lot of people in Europe. Of course, one could think up a “politically correct” case for it, namely, that the mothers themselves were so sick, impoverished, drugged-up, physically and sexually abused, that it was better to separate them from the kids. But of course that wasn’t the reason we were doing it. And it was shocking to Europeans, who had welfare—yes, a lot of welfare, even for the men, and my God, certainly for children.


pages: 339 words: 103,546

Blood and Oil: Mohammed Bin Salman's Ruthless Quest for Global Power by Bradley Hope, Justin Scheck

augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, coronavirus, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional, zero day

By the end of April, he’d be on the cover of an issue of Bloomberg Businessweek magazine detailing the transformation plan for Saudi Arabia that the consultants had prepared. Vision 2030 had taken hundreds of Saudi and foreign consultants months to finish, and it laid out broad goals the United States and World Bank had been suggesting for years. An economy with incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation and freedoms for women to join the workforce would certainly create a stronger nation, the foreigners argued. Mohammed’s plan set an almost ludicrously ambitious timeline for reaching those goals, considering Saudi Arabia was a country with roughly the same economic structure as when oil money started flowing about a half century earlier. “All success stories start with a vision, and successful visions are based on strong pillars,” the Vision 2030 statement said.

The sheikh had risen up under King Abdullah, gaining attention by making strident but measured statements against Wahhabist orthodoxy. It was his ideas about the role of the 1979 events in pushing Saudi Arabia into deep conservatism that Mohammed learned and began repeating in private and public forums. The change was welcome for many inside and outside the kingdom. But missing from Mohammed’s promises of reform was any mention of civil or political freedom. While he talked about music and movie theaters and women in the workforce, free speech was never brought up. Criticizing the monarchy—or even publicly questioning Mohammed’s policies—could be a crime. Royal Court officials would label critics as traitors, accusing them of taking money from hostile foreign regimes. This was by design. Mohammed felt there was no room for public dissent as he moved ahead with big economic and social changes all at once. Rather, he wanted to show his subjects that they had a simple choice: Get on board and enjoy the music and restaurants where men and women could mix in normal fashion, like in Dubai or Bahrain, or keep complaining and get thrown in jail.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Putting race and sex together, we discover that white men, though still the best paid demographic group on average, have been sHpping over the last two decades; white women have been gaining; some black men have been entering high-wage work, while others have been sHpping into 94 After the New Economy low-wage work, chronic unemployment, and prison (though the tight labor markets of the late 1990s helped narrow the racial/ethnic gap in male earnings rather sharply); some black women have been trickling into high-wage employment, though most remain concentrated in low-wage sectors; and Latino men and women have been entering the workforce in large numbers, though mostly at the poorly-paid end, with minimal penetration of higher-wage sectors (Williams 1999). Why race and gender gaps?^ According to classic economic theory—most notably that enunciated by Gary Becker—discrimination is "irrational" under capitalism and it should be competed away That is, if firms paid white men more than nonwhite nonmen for the same work, then those indulging their prejudices would make less money than those who'd transcended prejudice—and since no sane capitalist would ever forego a profit opportunity, over time discrimination should disappear.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Mitchell would have been a familiar figure to the great entrepreneurs of the late nineteenth century: a man obsessed with using mechanical innovations to wrestle resources out of the unforgiving soil. But this era also saw two momentous developments that would have shocked Rockefeller and company far more than using water to extract oil out of rock: the replacement of blue-collar workers with knowledge workers at the heart of the economy and the advance of women in the workforce. Reagan, Bush, and Clinton didn’t just preside over a technological revolution. They also presided over a social revolution that reached into almost every American home. THE NEW WORKFORCE The America of the golden age had been dominated by men and machines. It was overwhelmingly a manufacturing economy: in 1950, 36 percent of nonfarm private-sector workers were employed in manufacturing.

In 2014, women ran some of America’s best companies, such as PepsiCo, Archer Daniels Midland, and W. L. Gore; made up some 51 percent of professional workers; earned almost 60 percent of university degrees; and started about 40 percent of new firms. The feminist revolution has been so successful that it is easy to forget how recent this change was. Women made early advances in some professions: by 1920, women comprised 50 percent of the clerical workforce, up from 2.5 percent in 1870, and about 90 percent of typists and stenographers. But those professions were isolated, specialized, and frequently low status. America also harnessed female labor power during the Second World War, when “Rosie the Riveter” redefined women’s expectations and 5.2 million women entered the labor force. But during the baby boom, women returned to domesticity as the fertility rate rose from 2.4 in 1945 to 3.8 in 1956 and the age of first marriage for women fell from 21.5 in 1950 to 20.4 in 1970.


pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

This statistic may not surprise, since so many of the families we know own more than one car, yet the multivehicle household is a relatively new phenomenon. Over the last several decades, middle-class Americans have come to call it a necessity for each driver in the family to have his or her own car. Teens now often get one soon after their first license, though the steepest growth in the number of cars per family came as women began entering the paid workforce in larger numbers back in the 1960s. At the beginning of that decade, just 20 percent of households owned a second car; now over 65 percent do.2 More and more families also happily buy a third or even fourth vehicle as a recreational or weekend car or as a collectible.3 We don’t just have more cars, of course, but more car. Our vehicles are much bigger and more powerful than ever before.

And I’ve seen that. And I’ve been in it. But you just deal with it.” Why Americans across the country are forced to “just deal with” such terrible traffic is the result of a combination of factors. Sprawl is just one part of the picture. Another is the sheer quantity of cars on the road, a number that has increased drastically over the past few decades. Overall population growth and the entry of women into the workforce are key reasons the number of workers in the United States doubled between 1960 and 2000, from 66 million to 128 million.10 Because the number of licensed drivers, car owners, and owners of multiple vehicles also increased, the number of vehicles more than tripled in that same period.11 132 Carjacked As most commuters no longer take the traditional suburb-to-city commute, according to the Transportation Research Board, the greatest flow of commuters—more than two-thirds—is now from suburb to suburb, and this type of flow has only grown over time.12 Across the nation, so-called reverse commutes are also growing as companies move out of downtown areas but some of their employees continue to live there.13 This traffic-exacerbating sprawl seems out of our control.


pages: 312 words: 91,835

Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, mittelstand, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, stakhanovite, trade route, transfer pricing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

See also Great Leveling; S curves labor: globalization and, 18, 87, 106, 143, 192, 207–208, 215, 223–226, 230–232; more-educated, 53; scarcity of, 63; transfers from agriculture, 70, 93, 99; Kuznets cycles and, 72–73; classical explanation and, 80; supply of skilled, 84; short twentieth century and, 86; China and, 87, 106, 180; substitution by capital, 93, 109–110, 181–182; twentieth-century politics and, 94; power versus capital, 106, 182; capital goods cost and, 109–110; rich peoples’ effort and, 140; right of movement and, 147; rich peoples’ income from (1979 and after) and, 156, 184–188, 216, 260n22; rich people’s labor income (1979–2013), 184–188; women in workforce (US 1960s and after), 188; unfree, 192; one hundred years ago compared, 241n2; hours per person per year (2013), 255n20, 256n21. See also migration; security services; service sector; skill-biased technological progress; unions; wages labor/land ratios, 84, 124 Lakner, Christoph, 16, 18, 121, 122, 184, 185 Landes, David, 251n40 land/labor ratios, 124 land ownership, 167, 218 land rent/wages ratios, 59–61, 63, 64 law, rule of, 137–138 laws and legal equality, 227, 229–230 Lenin, Vladimir I., 96 Lewis, Arthur, 178 Limits to Growth (Club of Rome), 257n3 Lindert, Peter, 52, 71, 74, 207, 254n7 Lithuania, 33 localism, 192 location-based inequality (citizenship premium), 5, 125–137, 143, 237–238, 254n10.


pages: 295 words: 90,821

Fully Grown: Why a Stagnant Economy Is a Sign of Success by Dietrich Vollrath

"Robert Solow", active measures, additive manufacturing, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, falling living standards, hiring and firing, income inequality, intangible asset, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, old age dependency ratio, patent troll, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, women in the workforce, working-age population

Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, and Guillaume Vandenbroucke have reviewed a large literature on how the spread of labor-saving household appliances changed the opportunities available to women. Leaving aside the question of why it was that women were expected to handle the vast majority of household chores in the first place, by reducing the time they spent on chores, these technologies enabled women to more easily enter the workforce. Once in the workforce, this raised the opportunity cost of having kids, similar to Becker’s original argument, and fertility fell. Furthermore, these technologies made remaining single a more attractive situation—for both men and women—and contributed to the delay in the age of marriage and a reduction in the marriage rate overall. Beyond the economic rationales, a major factor behind the fertility decline was the increase in women’s control over their own fertility decisions.

., intrauterine devices) allowed women, to a degree unprecedented in history, to make decisions regarding their own fertility. Research by Martha Bailey, along with other work by the same Goldin and Katz I previously cited, has shown the significant effects of the introduction of the pill on a variety of labor market outcomes. For women, access to the pill led to a later age of marriage, increased women’s representation in professional occupations (e.g., medicine, law), increased the number of women in the workforce, raised the annual number of hours they worked when in the labor force, and reduced the likelihood of having a first birth before age 22. For the purposes of thinking about the growth slowdown, what is material here is that the availability of the pill, combined with the continued rise in wages over time, led to a significant and sustained drop in fertility during the twentieth century.


pages: 350 words: 110,764

The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries by Kathi Weeks

basic income, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deskilling, feminist movement, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, late capitalism, low-wage service sector, means of production, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, pink-collar, post-work, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Shoshana Zuboff, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, universal basic income, wages for housework, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

In this context, then, calling domestic labor “work” was not meant to elevate it but was imagined rather as “the first step towards refusing to do it” (Federici 1995, 191). Seeking paid work was not a viable way to refuse domestic work: “Slavery to an assembly line is not a liberation from slavery to a kitchen sink” (Dalla Costa and James 1973, 33). Given that capitalist economies have responded to the feminist rejection of prescribed domesticity by continually increasing the number of women in the workforce, and that women often do not escape the primary responsibility for unwaged reproductive labor even when they work for wages, a broader critique of work is required. We must, Dalla Costa urges, “refuse the myth of liberation through work”—after all, “we have worked enough” (47). If the demand for wages was not meant to celebrate domestic work, neither was it intended to sanctify it. These feminists’ insistence on the productivity of unwaged domestic work was not a moral claim: “It is only from the capitalist viewpoint that being productive is a moral virtue, not to say a moral imperative” (Cox and Federici 1976, 6).


pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

It was also suggested that I had a very one-dimensional view of the working class: that what I was actually talking about was a male, white working class. But in fact many of the key examples of demonized figures portrayed as representative of larger groups of people were women-Karen Matthews, Jade Goody and Vicky Pollard, for example. Indeed, class hatred and misogyny often overlap. Ialso wanted to emphasize the explosion of women in the workforce in the last few decades: indeed, they now account for over half of all workers-though of course itmust be pointed out that women have always worked, as well as doing much of the unpaid housework men traditionally refused to do. 'A low-paid, part-time, female shelf-stacker' was one of my suggestions for a symbol of the modern working class. We cannot understand class without gender; but that works the other way, too.

As chan- cellor in the late 1960s, for example, he confronted the devaluation camp head-on by accusing: 'Those who advocate devaluation are calling for a reduction in the wage levels and the real wage standards of every member of the working class.' That is not to deny old Labour's flaws. It was top-down and bureau- cratic, and its celebration of working-class identity did not adapt to the entry of women and ethnic minorities into the workforce. 'Basically, what the London left was doing [in the 1970s and 1980s] was rebelling against that old Labour culture because it was quite sexist and racist,' recalls former London Labour mayor Ken Livingstone. 'It had huge weaknesses, and in a sense so much of what we were doing in the 1970s and 1980s was forcing the labour movement in London to recognize that it had to organize women and ethnic minorities.'


pages: 294 words: 96,661

The Fourth Age: Smart Robots, Conscious Computers, and the Future of Humanity by Byron Reese

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cognitive bias, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, estate planning, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, full employment, Hans Rosling, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mary Lou Jepsen, Moravec's paradox, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

All we can say with certainty right now is that presently there are jobs that machines cannot do. But what about the future? Since this question is the focus of parts three and four, we will save the discussion for then. ASSUMPTION 2: There are, in effect, an infinite number of jobs. In 1940, only about 25 percent of women in the United States participated in the workforce. Just forty years later, that percentage was up to 50 percent. In that span of time, 33 million women entered the workforce. Where did those jobs come from? Of course, at the beginning of that period, many of these positions were wartime jobs, but women continued to pour into the labor force even after peace broke out. If you had been an economist in 1940 and you were told that 33 million women would be out looking for jobs by 1980, wouldn’t you have predicted much higher unemployment and much lower wages, as many more people would be competing for the “same pool of jobs”?


pages: 375 words: 105,067

Pound Foolish: Exposing the Dark Side of the Personal Finance Industry by Helaine Olen

American ideology, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, buy and hold, Cass Sunstein, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, financial innovation, Flash crash, game design, greed is good, high net worth, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, London Whale, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, mortgage debt, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, post-work, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stocks for the long run, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, éminence grise

While more than a few of these plans went under during the Great Depression, the concept gained renewed support in the post–World War II era, at the same time the combination of medical advances and stricter sanitary standards not only increased the number of elderly among us, but also simultaneously improved their health and left them vulnerable to long, lingering illnesses of old age. Americans’ first impulses to pay for all that extra life were generous. Social Security, which had been a fixed amount for life, would receive numerous boosts from Congress to cover rising prices, before the cost-of-living-adjustment was made automatic in the 1970s. Provisions for early retirement were also added, allowing men and women to leave the workforce at sixty-two in return for permanently reduced benefits. The federal government also sought to buttress the private pension system in the 1970s with the establishment of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and the passage of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. ERISA, as it is known, also allowed for the establishment of the first individual retirement accounts, where those who were not covered by pensions or other workplace retirement plans could deposit $1,500 in pre-tax income annually.

According to historian Nancy Marie Robertson, many fell victim to the economic crisis of the Great Depression and would not be reestablished in the more conservative postwar environment, where women were expected to stay home, raise their children, and polish their kitchen floors to perfection, while men took on the heavy lifting of everything from paid work to investing for the family. It would take the wholesale entry of women into the paid workforce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, combined with the bull market of the 1990s for banks and investment houses to once again set up initiatives to attract women’s business. Citibank’s Woman & Co. is one of the longest lasting of these initiatives, having initially debuted in 2001. Under the founding leadership of Lisa Caputo, the former press secretary for Hillary Rodham Clinton, the program attracted attention by advertising its services in unusual spaces like the New York Times’s wedding pages.


pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, longitudinal study, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

They came to be seen as very distinct social groups, whereas previously the boundary had been more fluid, because working class people in particular worked for as long as they were able, from financial necessity.18 In the 1950s, concern about the ageing population and shrinking workforce declined, as it became apparent that the birth rate had continued to rise since the war. Growing immigration (see Chapter 2) and the increasing participation of women in the labour market (see Chapter 5) expanded the workforce. Government efforts to diminish ageism in employment vanished. The confident projections of the 1930s and 1940s of a future of continuously low birth rates and an ageing population appeared to be wrong, at least in the short term. In the 1950s and early 1960s, research revealed continuing high levels of poverty among older people, especially for women, who were the majority of over 65s.19 Appalling conditions were also exposed in some residential homes.20 In popular discourse, ‘old age pensioner’ was equated with retirement and poverty, although the term ‘elderly’ came increasingly into use to indicate greater respect than ‘old’.

Generally, the movement operated in localized, non-hierarchical groups, rather than as a mass movement holding big demonstrations on the model of the early twentieth-century movement, although some spectacular demonstrations occurred, particularly when a group of feminists disrupted the televised Miss World contest at the Royal Albert Hall. 1968 TO EARLY 1980s The trend towards married women’s greater participation in the workforce continued, as did the growth in part-time employment: part-time work accounted for 39 per cent of women’s employment in 1975 and 42.8 per cent in 1985.15 More women were entering universities, although by the 1970s, when about 7 per cent of all 18-year-olds went to university, the proportion of women was still about 25 per cent and subjects studied were still gender-divided, most science students being male and arts students female.

This may in part explain the falling birth rate, combined with the evidence that fathers in two-parent households took only marginally more responsibility for child rearing than in the 1970s. Mass male unemployment exposed the fragility of the male-breadwinner ideal, the emotional and psychological impact of which was conveyed in the television series Boys from the Black Stuff. Although many women were also unemployed, rates were lower than among men, and women’s participation in the workforce continued to increase, mostly in low-paid, often part-time, employment. Opinion surveys testified to changing public attitudes to women’s careers. In 1984, 43 per cent of people interviewed for the British Social Attitudes survey agreed or strongly agreed with the statement: ‘A husband’s job is to earn the money; a wife’s job is to look after the home and family.’ By 1990, the figure had fallen to 25 per cent.55 The notion that men might play a more active role in the home gained in popularity.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Most Pakistani women marry in their early twenties and have kids soon after, Maria explains, so “full-time jobs are just not possible for most. The Women’s Digital League is a platform for these women to find a whole new way of working.” Maria hopes this is just the beginning. “The idea is to spread out to the Middle East and to the Arab region,” she says with a wide smile. “The way the women are treated or the challenges they face in the workforce are kind of similar around these areas, and I think that something like this online platform—where women with different skill sets, from the very basic to more advanced, can come together—can really make a difference. It’s an emotional difference rather than just a financial difference.” The 36-year-old entrepreneurial success from Waziristan concludes, “I have seen how huge a difference it has made in my life and I would like it to spread out.”

It does not matter how many men have degrees from MIT if 90 percent of Pakistani women are victims of domestic violence and only 40 percent are literate. The states and societies that do the most for women are those that will be best positioned to compete and succeed in the industries of the future. Treating women well is not just the right thing to do; it makes economic sense. Women are half of every nation’s workforce—or potential workforce. To be a prosperous and competitive country requires access to the best-educated pool of workers. If a country is cutting off half of its potential workforce, it is taking itself out of the game. Countries that are closing the gender gap are competitive; they are the nations of the future, educating boys and girls and ensuring that their entire citizenry is skilled and ready for the global economy.


pages: 257 words: 76,785

Shorter by Alex Soojung-Kim Pang

8-hour work day, airport security, Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, centre right, cloud computing, colonial rule, disruptive innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, game design, gig economy, Henri Poincaré, IKEA effect, iterative process, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, means of production, neurotypical, performance metric, race to the bottom, remote working, Second Machine Age, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, women in the workforce, young professional, zero-sum game

For the last twenty years, though, those participation rates have stalled, suggesting that family-friendly policies have not had as large an impact as their designers, and many users, would have liked. Labor force participation of mothers, by age of youngest child, 1975–2015. Participation rates rose steadily through the 1990s, but in the last twenty years have barely improved—and sometimes have dropped. To different degrees, in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan, women’s full-time participation rates in the workforce decline when they have young children and take years to recover; even after they return to work full-time, they often earn less than men (including fathers with dependent children) and have lower lifetime earnings. Managing part-time or flexible work while raising children even has a measurable impact on women’s health: a recent study of stress-related biomarkers (which provide a more objective measure of stress than surveys) found that women with children who worked part-time or in flexible schedules actually had higher stress levels than women working full-time.

After a year visiting and studying companies, I’ve seen that the four-day week, six-hour or five-hour day, or other shorter workweeks—you’ll meet a variety of them in this book—help make them more focused and productive. It boosts recruitment and lowers turnover. It helps service workers be more engaged, creative workers more imaginative, chefs and servers more energetic, and salespeople more focused. It distributes productivity gains, using the one commodity even the richest of us can’t buy—time. It helps level the hidden obstacles that drive women out of the workforce, that burn out hard-charging professionals, and that undermine valuable employees. It helps people give equal attention to work and family life and to derive satisfaction from being good workers and great parents. I became convinced of the need for this sort of systemic change when I was promoting my last book, Rest: Why You Get More Done When You Work Less. In that book, I argued that many of history’s most creative and prolific people—Nobel Prize–winning scientists, and authors, painters, and composers—worked far fewer hours than you would imagine necessary for producing world-class work.


pages: 219 words: 62,816

"They Take Our Jobs!": And 20 Other Myths About Immigration by Aviva Chomsky

affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, call centre, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, full employment, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mass incarceration, new economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

And the connection of rights to citizenship was reinforced. Growing numbers of Latin American and Asian immigrants created a new pool of noncitizens who could be treated as workers without rights. The unraveling of the social safety network, combined with deindustrialization, severely undermined the primary sector of the labor market. But as the primary labor force was contracting the secondary labor force was expanding. As women entered the workforce in larger numbers and people had to work longer hours to support a middle-class lifestyle, many of the services connected to the reproduction of the labor force moved out of the home and into the private sector. Fast food, child care, elder care, and home health care became rapid-growth sectors. These were jobs that could not be moved abroad. But if workers without social and economic rights might be recruited, they could provide a low-wage labor force.


pages: 348 words: 83,490

More Than You Know: Finding Financial Wisdom in Unconventional Places (Updated and Expanded) by Michael J. Mauboussin

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Brownian motion, butter production in bangladesh, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, complexity theory, corporate governance, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, demographic transition, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, dogs of the Dow, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, framing effect, functional fixedness, hindsight bias, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Arrow, Laplace demon, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, Murray Gell-Mann, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, statistical model, Steven Pinker, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, traveling salesman, value at risk, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Census Bureau data, which were not available until early 2001, based on 5.5 million firms and more than 100 million employees. Axtell notes that the distribution of firm sizes is insensitive to changes in political and regulatory environments, waves of mergers and acquisitions, new firm and bankruptcy trends, and even large-scale demographic transitions within the workforce (e.g., women entering the U.S. workforce).6 The implication is that there are important underlying mechanisms that create the order we see. EXHIBIT 35.1 Rank and Size of U.S. Cities, 1790-1990 Source: Batten, Discovering Artificial Economics, 165. Reproduced by permission of Westview Press, a member of Perseus Books, L.L.C. No one completely understands the mechanisms that yield power laws, but there are a number of models or processes that generate them.7 Perhaps the best known is “self-organized criticality”—a model popularized by theoretical physicist Per Bak.


Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink (Politics and Society in Modern America) by Louis Hyman

asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, card file, central bank independence, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, p-value, pattern recognition, profit maximization, profit motive, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, technology bubble, the built environment, transaction costs, union organizing, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

As National Organization for Women (NOW) representative Lynne Litwiller testified, “in a country where credit is more important than money . . . women are summarily excluded, at best tenuously eligible conditioned upon remaining forever single. Any woman who is married, has been married, or who may ever get married, 90 percent of all women, will find that credit follows the husband.”93 Even in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as so many middle-class married women entered the workforce, women still depended on their husbands for their economic identity. For feminists, credit dependency on their husbands was a tangible reminder of how institutions defined them as an economic appendage of their husbands. Much more so than single women, married women confronted challenges in acquiring credit if they wanted it independently from their husbands. While married men could easily make credit choices affecting their households, women who tried to do the same met consistent and obdurate obstacles.


pages: 320 words: 90,526

Squeezed: Why Our Families Can't Afford America by Alissa Quart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business intelligence, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, East Village, Elon Musk, full employment, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute couture, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, job automation, late capitalism, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, new economy, nuclear winter, obamacare, Ponzi scheme, post-work, precariat, price mechanism, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, school choice, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, surplus humans, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor

Acquaintances asked, “Are you planning on another?” I knew my daughter was destined to be an only. With just a scrap of maternity or paternity leave, many parents choose to have just one child, as my husband and I did, because it’s all they can manage economically. Our family was far from alone. Only 14 percent of American workers have paid family leave. And that’s part of the reason why many American women can’t afford simply to exit stage left from the workforce for a few months when we start to breed, then return to our jobs. There is always the threat that the precarious, biology-denying market might annihilate us. One needn’t travel far to see a different kind of workplace. Women in France, Britain, Chile, the Netherlands, and South Africa all pay less for vaginal deliveries in hospitals, and much or all of that cost is covered by insurance or the state.

She thought she’d lose friendships over such differences if she let them show. So she’d grit her teeth and say nothing about the “La La Land” of upper-class New Yorkers, with their gifted-and-talented test tutors for three- and four-year-olds. It depressed her, she said. How would she and her husband pay off six years of student loan debt on top of everything else? In 2015, only an estimated 16 percent of women in the workforce, across all professions and the whole of the country, made $75,000 or more, so Professor Bellamy was privileged. (The percent of black women who make $75,000 or above is even lower today than the percent of white women: the former earn roughly 65 cents to white men’s dollar, according to the Economic Policy Institute, which is roughly 16 cents less than white women, who make 81 cents to the dollar.)


pages: 263 words: 89,368

925 Ideas to Help You Save Money, Get Out of Debt and Retire a Millionaire So You Can Leave Your Mark on the World by Devin D. Thorpe

asset allocation, buy and hold, call centre, diversification, estate planning, fixed income, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, knowledge economy, money market fund, mortgage tax deduction, payday loans, random walk, risk tolerance, Skype, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

You can make a lot of progress in relationship building here and its generally free! Being laid off is no fun. Let’s not pretend that this is a vacation. Unless you have a lot of money and it really has been a long time since you took a vacation, don’t treat this time like a vacation. You’ve got a new job looking for a job. With a focus on the task at hand, you’ll be back in the game soon. How Do I Go From Homemaker To The Workforce? Many women take time out of the workforce to be at home with their children when they are young and then seek to return to the work force later. Having hired a number of such women, I offer the following tips to help you in your transition (these ideas will generally work as well for men who’ve been playing the role of a stay-at-home father): Take heart. Don’t worry. You haven’t forgotten how to work nor are employers especially anxious about hiring you.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

This is especially true for African Americans.5 Entry of women into the labor force affects the economic bargaining power of marriage partners, of course, bringing greater instability and anxiety to a previously stable, if patriarchal, institution. For example, the Negative Income Tax—a pilot program of guaranteed income support that was tested in the 1960s and ’70s, and which provided women with an independent basis of economic security—actually raised the divorce rate by ostensibly providing some wives an exit route from an unhappy domestic situation.6 The entry of women into the workforce has also been blamed by some researchers as directly causing higher divorce rates for the simple reason that other attractions, intimacies, and affairs are more likely to happen in gender-integrated workplaces as opposed to the time when women and men occupied very distinct social realms of home and work. And now that work has gone global and “unplugged,” so to speak, thanks to the portable workshop, all hell has broken loose.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

Critically, it would enable the ‘core’ economy to flourish by making more and better use of unmodified human resources in defining and meeting individual and shared needs. It would free up time for people to act as equal partners, with professionals and other public service workers, in co-producing well-being. A robust and prosperous economy. Shorter working hours could help to adapt the economy to the needs of society and the environment, rather than subjugating society and environment to the needs of the economy. Business would benefit from more women entering the workforce; from men leading more rounded, balanced lives; and from reductions in work-place stress associated with juggling paid employment and home-based responsibilities. It could also help to end credit-fueled growth, to develop a more resilient and adaptable economy, and to safeguard public resources for investment in a low-carbon industrial strategy and other measures to support a sustainable economy.”


pages: 214 words: 71,585

Selfish, Shallow, and Self-Absorbed: Sixteen Writers on the Decision Not to Have Kids by Meghan Daum

delayed gratification, demographic transition, Donald Trump, financial independence, happiness index / gross national happiness, index card, Joan Didion, Mason jar, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, risk tolerance, Skype, women in the workforce

We haven’t had kids. Western fertility started to dive in the 1970s—the same era in which, ironically, alarmist population guru Paul Ehrlich was predicting that we would all soon be balancing on our one square foot of earth per person, like angels on the head of a pin. Numerous factors have contributed to the Incredible Shrinking Family: the introduction of reliable contraception, the wholesale entry of women into the workforce, delayed parenthood and thus higher infertility, the fact that children no longer till your fields but expect your help in putting a down payment on a massive mortgage. Yet I believe all of these contributing elements may be subsidiary to a larger transformation in Western culture no less profound than our collective consensus on what life is for. * * * Statistics are never boring if you can see through the numbers to what they mean, so bear with me.


Working the Phones: Control and Resistance in Call Centres by Jamie Woodcock

always be closing, anti-work, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, David Graeber, invention of the telephone, job satisfaction, late capitalism, means of production, millennium bug, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, profit motive, social intelligence, stakhanovite, women in the workforce

The position of different precarious workers is uneven. Migrant workers, and in particular those without legal immigration status and therefore employment rights, are particularly at risk. There are also additional pressures on workers who attempt to balance paid work and unpaid work, for example workers carrying out home and family responsibilities as well as employment. This remains primarily a demand on women in the workforce and increases the likelihood of employment in non-standard jobs that are temporary or casualised. It is therefore possible to say that the most precarious and vulnerable are those in low-paid, ‘non-standard’ jobs, without trade union organisation as they are not covered by either of the ‘three regulatory regimes – collective bargaining, employment protection rights and the national insurance system’.38 Much academic literature is concerned with ‘the unionized workforce’, yet ‘the non-unionized themselves, who comprise the majority of employees, have been marginalized’, something that Pollert and Charlwood argue demands renewed attention.39 138 Precarious Organisation the limitations of trade unions The problems of casualisation are compounded by the falling levels of trade union membership in the UK.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

In 1985 these activities were taking up 43.6 hours a week; by 2005, 48.6 hours.23 Three-quarters of the Dutch workforce is feeling overburdened by time pressures, a quarter habitually works overtime, and one in eight is suffering the symptoms of burnout.24 We have been working progressively less (up to 1980) The number of annual work hours per capita has taken a nosedive since the 19th century. Yet after 1970, the figures are misleading as an increasing number of women joined the workforce. As a consequence, families have been increasingly pressed for time, even though the numbers of hours worked per employee was still decreasing in some countries. Source: International Labour Organization What’s more, work and leisure are becoming increasingly difficult to disentangle. A study conducted at the Harvard Business School has shown that, thanks to modern technology, managers and professionals in Europe, Asia, and North America now spend 80–90 hours per week “either working, or ‘monitoring’ work and remaining accessible.”25 And according to British research, the smartphone has the average employee working 460 more hours per year – nearly three weeks.26 It’s safe to say the predictions of the great minds didn’t exactly come true.


pages: 351 words: 101,051

Also Human: The Inner Lives of Doctors by Caroline Elton

Alvin Roth, fear of failure, feminist movement, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Rubik’s Cube, women in the workforce

By the end of the Second World War, 25 percent of medical students were female, although their student numbers decreased after the war as ex-servicemen returned to claim university places. One step forward, one step back. In 1962 just over 20 percent of UK medical students were women, but twenty years later the proportion had risen to 45.3 percent. By 1992 female students outnumbered their male colleagues, and that is the way it has stayed ever since. Latest figures for the UK show that 55 percent of medical students are women. The feminization of the US medical workforce has consistently lagged behind. While women were admitted to Oxford Medical School from 1916, they were denied this option at Harvard and Yale until after the Second World War. In fact, it was only after a significant change in legislation in 1972 (Title IX of the Education Amendments) that discriminatory admissions policies were outlawed in institutions receiving federal funds.


The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, colonial rule, Columbine, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Boesky agreed to pay $100 million in forfeitures and penalties, and Michael Milken admitted to six felonies and agreed to pay $600 million in fines. The amount of the fines was staggering, but more revealing was the corporate raider lifestyle the investigations uncovered. In the early 1980s Milken was reportedly making $550 million a year.12 Overall, the freeing of the market for corporate control had important benefits for women in the workforce. College-educated women moved into fields like business, engineering, medicine, and law. ‘‘The result was that women as a whole, whose average earnings had been 58 percent of those of men in 1979, earned 68 percent ten years later.’’13 Professional women began moving into managerial positions where they soon faced the problem of how to combine motherhood and career. In the 1980s work itself was changing.


Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy by Daron Acemoğlu, James A. Robinson

Andrei Shleifer, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Corn Laws, declining real wages, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, minimum wage unemployment, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, open economy, Pareto efficiency, rent-seeking, strikebreaker, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, William of Occam, women in the workforce

However, electoral corruption was eliminated and secret voting was introduced in 1872. In this case, we see 1867 as representing an important step toward political equality in Britain. We have less to say on the extension of suffrage to women. In almost all European countries, voting rights were first given to adult men and subsequently extended to women. This reflected the then-accepted gender roles; when the roles began to change as women entered the workforce, women also obtained voting rights. It is likely, therefore, that the mechanisms that we propose better describe the creation of male suffrage than the extension of voting rights to women. Our dichotomous distinction between democracy and nondemocracy makes sense and is useful only to the extent that there are some important elements central to our theory and common to all democracies but generally not shared by nondemocracies.


pages: 371 words: 93,570

Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans

"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K

They were “workers, desk laborers, who were earning their way in this world with their skill at numbers.” The First and Second World Wars, too, ushered thousands of women into the workplace as typists, clerks, and telephone operators, to say nothing of riveters. But it was the telephone companies that were the first mass employers of a female workforce. In 1891, eight thousand women worked as telephone operators; by 1946, nearly a quarter million. Women were a nimble workforce. capable of working collaboratively in networks and fluid groups—we still speak of secretarial “pools”—adaptable to the needs of the enterprise. They staffed switchboards, kept records, took dictation, and filed documents. These rote office tasks are now increasingly performed electronically by digital assistants and automated telephonic systems, many of which still speak, in the default, with female voices.


pages: 290 words: 98,699

Wealth Without a Job: The Entrepreneur's Guide to Freedom and Security Beyond the 9 to 5 Lifestyle by Phil Laut, Andy Fuehl

British Empire, business process, buy and hold, declining real wages, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index card, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, women in the workforce

Labor leaders, usually the champions of increased income for all workers, don’t address the decline in income lest their powerlessness to prevent it in the first place becomes evident. Income decline, although experienced by many, is discussed by almost no one. One clear response to the wage decline has been a larger per- ccc_laut_ch02_19-26.qxd 7/8/04 12:23 PM Page 21 The Economy and the Media centage of women with young children entering the workforce. (See Table 2.1.) Clearly, everyone benefits from equal employment opportunities for women. Freedom for women to enter the workforce in greater numbers and earn greater incomes than ever before must be a sign of economic vitality. That many dual-income couples find it necessary for both people to work just to make ends meet can hardly be a sign of economic well-being. The Economy and the Media The economy always has been a prominent topic in the news media.


Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City by Mike Davis

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, invisible hand, job automation, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mass immigration, new economy, occupational segregation, postnationalism / post nation state, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor

to scrape livelihoods together on selling their labor There is symbol- is casus de suenos (dream who work in Meanwhile, their younger and poorer neighbors experience diminishing returns by eroded for migrants in the recession have on smallholdings street corners in as in they attempt Michoacan or North Hollywood. also evidence that transnational social frequently subsidized by the superexploitation of ^"^"^ networks are women. ^"^^ The increasing shift in the social reproductive function of the house- hold from the local family farm to the provision of labor for export generates new disadvantages for women. With the male workforce in California, for example, the remain behind in the Aguililla or so much of women who San Miguel must shoulder even and wage larger burdens of child care, domestic toil labor. Like- wise, female immigrants are often shunted into sweatshop apparel or servile house-cleaning jobs that offer the least opportunity for or vertical immigration to big US to young women girls even cities horizontal may Although mobility.


pages: 261 words: 16,734

Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams by Tom Demarco, Timothy Lister

A Pattern Language, cognitive dissonance, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, Parkinson's law, performance metric, skunkworks, supply-chain management, women in the workforce

They get job offers quickly, usually from your competitors who think they’re conducting a raid. 3) The new people at Destiny City are better than the ones you left behind and they’re infused with enthusiasm because they’ve been exposed only to your best people.1 1. R. Townsend, Up the Organization (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970), p. 64. What this is, to use a technical term, is the purest crap. One thing Townsend seems to have missed entirely is the presence of women in the workforce. The typical person being moved today is part of a two-career family. The other half of that equation is probably not being moved, so the corporate move comes down hard on the couple’s relationship at a very delicate point. It brings intolerable stress to bear on the accommodation they’re both striving to achieve to allow two full-fledged careers. That’s hitting below the belt. Modern couples won’t put up with it and they won’t forgive it.


pages: 256 words: 15,765

The New Elite: Inside the Minds of the Truly Wealthy by Dr. Jim Taylor

British Empire, business cycle, call centre, dark matter, Donald Trump, estate planning, full employment, glass ceiling, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, passive income, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ronald Reagan, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Many of Franklin Roosevelt’s wealth-equalizing New Deal economic policies continued, with the top tax rate peaking at 91 percent throughout the 1950s, and remaining at 70 percent throughout most of the 1970s. In the meantime, The Wealth of the Nation 31 lower- and middle-class workers benefited from a variety of economic changes. With World War II came full employment, abundant overtime, and, at least temporarily, a growing number of women in the workforce. Union membership surged, wages went up, and bluecollar prosperity took hold, but wartime rationing meant that there was relatively little to buy, so savings rates reached historical highs. The middle class swelled while the gap between the rich and poor narrowed, a pattern that economists Claudia Golden and Robert Margo called ‘‘the great compression.’’5 Ironically, it was the growing middle class that laid the groundwork for the new wave of wealth.


pages: 237 words: 74,109

Uncanny Valley: A Memoir by Anna Wiener

autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Extropian, future of work, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, means of production, medical residency, new economy, New Urbanism, passive income, pull request, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, union organizing, universal basic income, unpaid internship, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Temporary stalls draped in cheap dark fabric had been erected along the sidelines, inside of which corporate recruiters conducted job interviews. I found it reassuring to see companies focused on biotech, robotics, health care, renewable energy—staid and serious organizations that did not reflect the startup giddiness of consumer tech to which I had grown accustomed in San Francisco. Among the computer science majors, I felt vaguely out of place, then embarrassed to have impostor syndrome at a conference designed to empower women in the workforce. I made sure to keep my identification badge, which prominently displayed the logo of the open-source startup, over my T-shirt, which prominently displayed the logo of the open-source startup. I stood behind the booth and handed out stickers of the octopus-cat costumed as Rosie the Riveter, the Statue of Liberty, a Día de los Muertos skeleton, and a female engineer—swooshy bangs, ponytail, cartoon hoodie decorated with the octopus-cat.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

When lockstep ends, this mingling of ages will bring greater understanding across the ages and help those who are older to retain more youthful characteristics. Home and work relationships will transform A longer life with more years post the age of raising children has great potential to reduce gender inequality and to transform personal relationships, marriage and child-rearing. Traditionally the home was a place of specialization – men worked and women looked after the home and children. This has changed in recent decades, as women increasingly entered the workforce and dual incomes became the norm rather than the exception. However, while family roles have changed, the narrative of the three-stage life as typical of the male career remains dominant. While women are more likely to have multi-stage lives, this is still seen as unusual and not the norm. Relationships over long lives will transform, in part because the financial and saving requirements are easier when both members of the household work.

The options for fathers will also be broader; they too can decide to work full-time in a traditional role, be a full-time father, or negotiate different roles over a period of years. Work and home An important part of the equation of home and personal lives is work, and particularly the extent to which women work. The twentieth century saw major changes in the role of women in the workplace, and an excellent summary is provided by the Harvard University economist Claudia Goldin.15. She shows that there has been a narrowing between men and women in terms of their participation in the workforce and the hours they spend at work – both at home and in the workplace, the type of jobs and sectors in which they work, as well as in terms of wages. Women and work However, while differences have narrowed, there still remain substantial gaps and blockages that disadvantage women. This context is important, because if these differences remain then the choices and options facing women over the course of a 100-year life will differ from those facing men.


pages: 425 words: 116,409

Hidden Figures by Margot Lee Shetterly

affirmative action, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, New Journalism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, éminence grise

I can put names to almost fifty black women who worked as computers, mathematicians, engineers, or scientists at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory from 1943 through 1980, and my intuition is that twenty more names can be shaken loose from the archives with more research. And while the black women are the most hidden of the mathematicians who worked at the NACA, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and later at NASA, they were not sitting alone in the shadows: the white women who made up the majority of Langley’s computing workforce over the years have hardly been recognized for their contributions to the agency’s long-term success. Virginia Biggins worked the Langley beat for the Daily Press newspaper, covering the space program starting in 1958. “Everyone said, ‘This is a scientist, this is an engineer,’ and it was always a man,” she said in a 1990 panel on Langley’s human computers. She never got to meet any of the women.

See also supersonic flight See also wind tunnels National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) black employees, xiv, 217–219, 227–228, 241–242 charter of, 171 cost of space program, 240–241, 251–252 deputy assistant administrator Ruth Bates Harris, xiii Federal Women’s Program Manager, 256–257 Langley Research Center as epicenter, 183 “math aides” for human computers, 190, 210 NACA into, 170–171, 183, 304 NASA Group Achievement Awards, 249 open house on first anniversary, 184 quickest route into space, 164, 187 Space Task Group, 183–184. See also Space Task Group Technical Assistant to Division Chief of Space Systems, 258 transparency of, 170–171, 217, 222 West Computing dissolved, 171–173, 204, 218–219 women engineer increase, 255 workforce reduction, 253 National Defense Education Act (1958), 158 National Technical Association, 197 “Negro” use in book, ix. See also black Americans Newport News (VA) East End segregation, 29–30, 61–63 John Glenn hero’s welcome, 225 racial tensions, 31 shipyard, 38, 120 V-J Day, 64–65 as war town, 27–29, 79–80 Newsome Park (Newport News, VA), 29, 61–63, 64, 66–67, 131–132, 241, 252 newspapers.


pages: 460 words: 131,579

Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse by Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Black Swan, blood diamonds, borderless world, business climate, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, George Gilder, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intangible asset, job satisfaction, job-hopping, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Macrae, patent troll, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

And, whether fancy or basic, they often arouse passionate emotions in their users, who refer to them as “hubs of interaction” and “fraternities of mutual interest.”4 Woman Power Only a generation ago, working women performed menial jobs and were routinely subjected to casual sexism, as Mad Men, a program about advertising executives in the early 1960s, brilliantly demonstrates. Today, women make up almost half of the American workforce and 60 percent of university students. They constitute the majority of professional workers in many countries (51 percent in the United States, for example) and run some of the world’s most successful companies, such as PepsiCo, Archer Daniels Midland, and W. R. Grace. In the European Union, women have filled six of the eight million new jobs created since 2000. In the United States, women make up more than two-thirds of the employees in ten out of the fifteen job categories that the U.S.

Companies expect future bosses to have worked in several departments and countries. Professional service firms reward lucrative partnerships only to the most dedicated. The reason for the income gap is arguably the very opposite of prejudice. It is precisely because women are judged by exactly the same standards as men that they have to choose between having children or staying on the treadmill. The rise of women is part of a bigger process: the diversification of the workforce. Today’s workers come in all sorts of shapes and sizes. They may include sixty-year-olds who grew up listening to vinyl LPs (and thinking they were very cool doing so) and twenty-year-olds who live in a virtual world. They may include hardcore company types and associates who have only just walked in through the virtual door. These diverse workers are often part of a global supply chain that keeps going twenty-four hours a day.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

He demands to be part of this world, but his requests are denied. He realizes he never had options after all, but that choice itself was an illusion produced by the powerful. If only his mother would realize the same. On August 7, The New York Times ran an article called “The Opt Out Generation Wants Back In”—a follow-up to a 2003 story about highly accomplished, well-educated American women who left the workforce to stay at home with their children. Ten years later, the mothers are seeking work that befits their abilities but most are unable to find it, causing them to question their original decision. The New York Times piece frames the mothers’ misgivings as a result of questionable planning and poor marriage partners, paying mere lip service to the tremendous change in the economy over the past ten years.


pages: 395 words: 115,753

The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America by Jon C. Teaford

anti-communist, big-box store, conceptual framework, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, East Village, edge city, estate planning, Golden Gate Park, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, rent control, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, young professional

A leading student of burgeoning suburban commerce contended that “developers viewed it as a truism that office buildings had an indisputable advantage if they were located near the best-educated, most conscientious, most stable workers—underemployed females living in middle-class communities on the fringes of the old urban areas.”81 In the 1960s, corporations had moved out of New York to take advantage of this suburban asset, and the preference of suburban women for suburban jobs seemed to be of increasing significance to office location in the 1970s and 1980s as the number of women entering the workforce soared. Between 1957 and 1990, the share of married women in the age category twenty-seven to fifty-four who were employed outside the home rose from 33 to 68 percent.82 And a large proportion of these women were finding jobs in suburbia, a relatively short commute from their homes. During the 1980s, the growth in suburban office space and commercial development in general attracted increasing attention among journalists and scholars who attempted to understand this new world that defied traditional notions of a business core and residential fringe.


pages: 113 words: 36,039

The Shipwrecked Mind: On Political Reaction by Mark Lilla

Berlin Wall, coherent worldview, creative destruction, George Santayana, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, liberation theology, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, urban planning, women in the workforce

But over the next months François starts to notice small things, beginning with how women dress. Though the government has established no dress code, he sees fewer skirts and dresses on the street, and more baggy pants and shirts that hide the body’s contours. It seems that non-Muslim women have spontaneously adopted the style to escape the sexual marketplace that Houellebecq describes so chillingly in his other novels. Youth crime declines, as does unemployment when women begin to leave the workforce, taking advantage of new family subsidies to care for their children. François thinks he sees a new social model developing before his eyes, inspired by a religion he knows little about, and which he imagines has the polygamous family at its center. Men have different wives for sex, childbearing, and affection; the wives pass through all these stages as they age, but never have to worry about being abandoned.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

During the war, the U.S. government produced posters declaring “Waste Not, Want Not.” By late 1917, the government was giving shops across the country signs to display in their windows reading, “Beware of Thrift and Unwise Economy” to help encourage repetitive consumption.17 Advertisers touted mass-disposable goods as more convenient, time-saving, and hygienic than reusable products. They became increasingly attractive in the early fifties as more women entered the workforce, were pressed for time, and had greater disposable income. It is not surprising that it was against this backdrop that entire lines of disposable products flooded the market, including Kleenex tissues, Q-tips, Band-Aids, paper towels, paper straws, disposable shopping bags, and so on. And along with these products came the boxes and cartons they were packaged in and the ads, catalogs, and window displays to promote them; more stuff used and then thrown away.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The United Nations Population Fund has found that educated women are likely to marry later and have smaller and healthier families. As female education rises, studies show that infant mortality rates fall and family health improves. Children of educated mothers are themselves more likely to achieve higher levels of education, feeding into a virtuous cycle. An increase in female education also translates into more women in the workforce, which boosts household income and GDP. And none of that even begins to engage broader questions of morality, gender equality and social justice. Consider the situation of a woman in Uganda working as a reporter for the Ugandan Broadcasting Corporation. She may decide, as Deborah did, to hold off on getting married until later in life. Along with being busy with work, she would also have the financial wherewithal to stay single.


Crisis and Dollarization in Ecuador: Stability, Growth, and Social Equity by Paul Ely Beckerman, Andrés Solimano

banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, currency peg, declining real wages, disintermediation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, land reform, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open economy, pension reform, price stability, rent-seeking, school vouchers, seigniorage, trade liberalization, women in the workforce

Just under 50 percent of all rural women in the nonwage labor force have either a primary or secondary occupation in the nonagricultural sector; the corresponding figure is 37 percent for men. But women are also significantly less likely to be employed in relatively higher-productivity occupations. According to Lanjouw’s analysis, a man is twice as likely to be in a high-productivity activity than a woman. The Entry of Wives into the Labor Force during Shocks Evidence from Ecuador and other countries suggests that as economic need arises, households respond by sending women into the workforce to compensate for their husbands’ unemployment or to supplement shrinking household income (Moser 1997; Cunningham 2001; World Bank 2001). This assertion is supported by the fact that more than twice as many women vis-à-vis men who have never worked are now seeking work, as shown in table 5.1. Women also make up about half of all workers with no education and, at the other extreme, constitute about half of those with superior and graduate level education.25 Female participation is also lower among all workers with primary or secondary education.26 Among unemployed women, wives or daughters predominate; in contrast, household heads or sons predominate among the male unemployed (see table 5.5).


pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Those who drove Britain’s “Age of Ambition” in the sixteenth century were particularly concerned with “family feeling” and the advancement of their heirs and relations.46 Much the same can be said of Britain’s offspring in the early United States, where, as Tocqueville noted, sentiment about family was one of the primary restraints on excessive individualism, and where the lack of aristocratic privilege and set class positions granted to family relations “an energy and sweetness” unseen in European nations.47 The notion that things will improve for the next generation—and that parents would work to assure that result—has been intrinsic to the American experience.48 This ethos survived the disruptions of the Industrial Age, the Depression, and the Second World War, as well as the entrance, en masse, of women into the workforce. After dropping in the 1950s, starting in the 1960s more families began to depend on women’s earning. In 1967, for example, barely a third worked outside the home but by 2000 barely one-third of children under six in married households had a stay-at-home mother.49 The Decline of Marriage and the Failure to Launch Although the entrance of women into the workplace made it possible for families to support their children’s education, the institution of marriage has also begun to weaken.


pages: 307 words: 82,680

A Pelican Introduction: Basic Income by Guy Standing

bank run, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, intangible asset, job automation, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, labour market flexibility, land value tax, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, universal basic income, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Dodge (2016), ‘Universal basic income wouldn’t make people lazy – it would change the nature of work’, Quartz, 25 August. 30. M. Whitlock (2016), ‘How Britain’s Olympic success makes the case for a basic income’, Huffpost Sport UK, 31 August. 31. J. O’Farrell (2016), ‘A no-strings basic income? If it works for the royal family, it can work for us all’, Guardian, 7 January. 32. E. Green (2016), ‘What America lost as women entered the workforce’, Atlantic, 19 September. 33. K. W. Knight, E. A. Rosa and J. B. Schor (2013), ‘Could working less reduce pressures on the environment? A cross-national panel analysis of OECD countries, 1970–2007’, Global Environmental Change, 23(4), pp. 691–700. 34. D. Graeber (2016), ‘Why capitalism creates pointless jobs’, Evonomics, 27 September. 35. J. Burke Murphy (2016), ‘Basic income, sustainable consumption and the “DeGrowth” movement’, Basic Income News, 13 August. 36.


pages: 332 words: 81,289

Smarter Investing by Tim Hale

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, implied volatility, index fund, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, Long Term Capital Management, Northern Rock, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, South Sea Bubble, technology bubble, the rule of 72, time value of money, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

You may well be familiar with psychometric tests and may have even undertaken some yourself; in fact, over 95% of the FTSE 100 companies use psychometric testing to select their staff, as do the police, the civil service, airlines and even football clubs such as AC Milan (Guardian, 2002). Basic psychometric testing was developed during the Second World War to try to identify the jobs that would best suit different women entering the workforce in support of the war effort and the resulting Myers-Briggs test is still widely in use today. The construction of a risk profile test – let’s call it a questionnaire, as it sounds less intimidating – therefore requires far more than just putting together a list of ten questions to score. In the same way you would not ask an adviser to service your car, don’t ask them to create a psychometric test themselves!


pages: 316 words: 87,486

Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

They themselves still make a decent living, I was told—they are some of the last unionized blue-collar workers who do—but they can see the inferno coming their way now, as their colleagues in other parts of the country get their contracts voided and their pensions reduced. After I spoke, a firefighter from the Seattle area picked up the microphone. Workers had been watching their standard of living get whittled away for decades, he said, and up till now they had always been able to come up with ways to get by. The first adjustment they made, he recalled, was when women entered the workforce. Families “added that income, you got to keep your boat, or your second car, or your vacation, and everything was OK.” Next, people ran up debt on their credit cards. Then, in the last decade, people began “pulling home equity out,” borrowing against their houses. “All three of those things have kept the middle class from having to sink down into abject poverty,” he said. But now all three coping mechanisms were at an end.


pages: 282 words: 82,107

An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, carbon footprint, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

The decline in infant mortality means parents in rural areas do not need to have so many children in order to be sure of having enough people to work in the fields, or to look after them in old age. In urban areas, meanwhile, parents may take the view that it makes sense to have a smaller number of children, given the cost of housing, clothing, and educating them. This is sometimes characterized as a switch from emphasizing child “quantity” to child “quality.” In addition, as female literacy improves and women enter the workforce, they may delay marriage and change their attitude toward childbearing. And governments in industrializing countries generally introduce reforms banning child labor and making education compulsory, which means that children are a drain on household resources until they reach working age. The result is that the birth rate falls, and the population stabilizes. This pattern can be clearly seen in Western nations, which were the first to industrialize.


pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

Immigrants “take” jobs, but they often take jobs that natives are unwilling to do (such as fruit picking), and they also create jobs, because they demand services in the economy. Moreover, they need to be managed and supervised, and these positions normally go to natives, who usually have better education and a better grasp of English. In areas in the United States where immigration is higher, more women enter the workforce because childcare is cheaper. Among those who estimate that immigration would have a negative effect on the incomes of natives, the effect is very small. A review by Professors Rachel Friedberg and Jennifer Hunt, for example, found that a 10 percent increase in the fraction of immigrants in the population reduces native wages by about 1 percent, and found no evidence of significant reductions in native employment (“The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, no. 2 [Spring 1995]: 23–44).


pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Families can invest in their children’s education, knowing the investment is worthwhile. As women become better educated, and are more knowledgeable about contraception, they can spend more time working and less time having children. The opportunity cost of childbirth rises, thereby placing downward pressure on the fertility rate. The size of the workforce increases because of both the increased number of infants surviving to adulthood and the higher participation of women in the workforce. With an expanded workforce, the volume of savings increases, allowing funds to be channelled to investment projects, which lift incomes even further. And, with a more educated workforce, human ingenuity can lift productivity, allowing more outputs for given inputs of raw materials. Like a surfer, it’s not always easy to jump onto these demographic waves. Sub-Saharan Africa has by far the greatest struggles.


pages: 285 words: 86,174

Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, circulation of elites, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kenneth Arrow, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, mass incarceration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

It’s senseless to pine for a bygone era of Jim Crow, Mad Men–style casual sexual harassment and gender apartheid, police raids of underground gay bars and sodomy prosecutions, and laws against interracial marriage. The second era of equality has dismantled many (though certainly by no means all) of the legal and cultural structures that regulated and enforced these brutal inequalities of race, gender, and sexual orientation. Women entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers, and trends suggest that in the very near future, women will surpass men in all levels of educational attainment. While women still make on average 23 percent less than men, that gap has shrunk markedly since 1980, when women made on average 40 percent less. As for racial equity, the gains are decidedly more mixed, but one unambiguous achievement of the second era of equality is that the elite has undoubtedly become more diverse.


pages: 384 words: 89,250

Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America by Giles Slade

Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, global village, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, invention of radio, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the market place, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, white picket fence, women in the workforce

They kept the same name, but (to the dismay of some traditionalists) they lost their pretty ribbons. DISPOSABLE PRODUCTS FOR WOMEN In the early decades of the twentieth century, manufacturers who had embraced disposability as a viable way to achieve repetitive consumption realized that in catering mainly to men, they severely limited their potential market. Urbanization and industrialization had changed American gender roles, and single women were entering the workforce in greater numbers. Brochures published by the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of Boston record the variety of employment opportunities available to women. Many of the suggested positions were previously restricted to men. They included work in publishing, real estate, probation, industrial chemistry, and bacteriology.13 Changes in laws concerning inheritance and the integrity of life insurance policies, and especially improvements in their enforcement, were also putting more money into widowed women’s hands.14 Furthermore, America had shifted from a subsistence agrarian economy to an industrial one, and as a result more and more married women found themselves in cities, shopping for their families’ needs in the hours that their husbands worked and their children went to school.


When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

Recessions were merely annoying interruptions, blamed variously on policy-­making incompetence, excessive union power, short-­sighted financial institutions, lazy managers and nasty oil shocks. Our modern era of economic stagnation is a fundamentally different proposition. Many of the factors that led to such scintillating rates of economic expansion in the Western world in earlier decades are no longer working their magic: the forces of globalization are in retreat, the boomers are ageing, women are thankfully better represented in the workforce,3 wages are being squeezed as competition from the emerging superpowers hots up and, as those superpowers demand a bigger share of the world’s scarce resources, Westerners are forced to pay more for food and energy. In the 1990s, it looked for a while as though new technologies might overcome these constraints. We hoped our economies would still be able to expand thanks to the impact of technology on 2 4099.indd 2 29/03/13 2:23 PM Introduction productivity.

Social security systems designed to prevent a repeat of the terrible impoverishment of the 1930s became increasingly widespread, reducing the need for households to stuff cash under the mattress for unforeseen emergencies: they could thus spend more freely. With the reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping at the end of the 1970s and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, countries that had been trapped in the economic equivalent of a deep-­freeze were able to come in from the cold, creating new opportunities for trade and investment: trade between China and the US, for example, expanded massively. Women, sorely underrepresented in the workforce through lack of opportunity and lack of pay, suddenly found themselves in gainful employment thanks to sex discrimination legislation. In the early 1960s, fewer than 40 per cent of US women of working age were either in work or actively looking for work: by the end of the twentieth century, approaching 70 per cent were involved. The quality of education improved, with more and more school leavers going to university before venturing into the real world: in 1950, only 15 per cent of American men and 4 per cent of American women between the ages of 20 and 24 were enrolled in college: at the beginning of the twenty-­first century, the numbers for both sexes had risen to over 30 per cent.


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pages: 288 words: 92,175

Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, From Missiles to the Moon to Mars by Nathalia Holt

Bill Gates: Altair 8800, British Empire, computer age, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, financial independence, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, labor-force participation, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, music of the spheres, new economy, operation paperclip, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Steve Jobs, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra

Like Depression-era babies everywhere, Marie above all wanted to find a good, steady job. But she was crushed when she learned there were no positions in chemistry available at JPL. The department already had three women, which the manager, a man, had determined was the ideal number. Unlike Macie, he saw the fairer sex as unstable employees, liable to leave as soon as they were enticed by marriage or children. Perhaps he was letting his personal life color his view of women in the workforce—both his mother and wife had stayed home to raise children—despite the fact that the women in his department had been there for years and had no plans to leave. Although Marie couldn’t work in chemistry, there was an available computer position, and she decided to apply. She was nervous as Macie interviewed her. Macie was a small woman, and to Marie she looked like a mother-in-law, not a boss.


pages: 326 words: 91,559

Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

One can visit a showroom of sophisticated dental chairs at a massive worker-owned factory or buy bonds from a dairy co-op backed by wheels of its Parmesan cheese. Cooperative networks enable small- and medium-size enterprises to remain dominant in a region that exports world-renowned food, automobiles, and packaging equipment. In part because of its culture of cooperatives, Emilia-Romagna has the highest median family income in Italy, with the lowest unemployment rate and the highest participation of women in the workforce.32 This is the outcome of a curious convergence. A showroom of dental chairs at a factory for Cefla, a manufacturing cooperative near Bologna. Emilia-Romagna was, starting in the late nineteenth century, a leftist stronghold. Communists and socialists dominated the first national cooperative association, Legacoop, founded in 1886. Catholics formed another association, Confcooperative, in 1919.


pages: 279 words: 90,278

Heartland: A Memoir of Working Hard and Being Broke in the Richest Country on Earth by Sarah Smarsh

call centre, financial independence, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, late fees, Mason jar, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, offshore financial centre, Pepto Bismol, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor

But as a child, for all the strains of conservatism in my state, I almost never saw a woman’s capability—to work, to think, to drive a wheat truck or run a business—called into question. Class and its implications for literacy and access decide what feminism looks like in action. For those of us who would have been holding rifles at the mine entrance rather than lobbying lawmakers in Topeka, one result of that legacy was that we were often the “breadwinners” of our households well before middle-class women flooded the workforce in the 1960s, ’70s, ’80s. There was in our family, therefore, no semblance of the notion that a woman should or might be “taken care of.” There never had been, back to my great-great-grandmother Irene on the Boeing factory line and beyond. For the women I knew, work wasn’t a liberation from the home or a revelation of self. It was a way of life—familiar, essential, and unsung for generations.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

He physically attacks me at random to keep me on my toes and keep me laughing. He helps out with survival training at Draper University, and he regularly creates situations that become legendary. He came up with the idea that teams should be tied together for most of their first day of school to get to know each other better, and he made two of the male students paint themselves pink because they missed a class on women in the workforce. I remember a time when I was very nervous going up an elevator to meet with Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Frank wrapped his arms around me from behind and lifted me off the ground. I didn’t appreciate it at the time because I was going over what I was going to discuss with Arnold and I lost my concentration, but I appreciate it now. He cut the tension and made for a more fun connection with Arnold that lasted for years.


pages: 357 words: 88,412

Hijacking the Runway: How Celebrities Are Stealing the Spotlight From Fashion Designers by Teri Agins

Donald Trump, East Village, haute couture, new economy, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, women in the workforce

Nine West set a new fashion standard for working women’s shoes by introducing real variety: trendy pumps, sandals, and boots in many shades and novelty styles, priced affordably, from $20 to about $100. Nine West designers traveled to Italy and France scouting for unusual boutique styles they could reinterpret for American customers. Fashion footwear was in huge demand after millions of American women entered the workforce in the 1980s and started buying wardrobes of shoes for their pantsuits, dresses, and casual clothes. By the late 1980s, footwear experts believed that every woman in America owned at least a couple of pairs of Nine West shoes. Camuto became chief executive officer of Nine West in 1993 when the company went public on the New York Stock Exchange, with annual sales of $552 million, and Brazilian factories turning out 130,000 pairs of shoes a day.


pages: 302 words: 83,116

SuperFreakonomics by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, call centre, clean water, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Did the Death of Australian Inheritance Taxes Affect Deaths, disintermediation, endowment effect, experimental economics, food miles, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Nash: game theory, Joseph Schumpeter, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, market design, microcredit, Milgram experiment, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, presumed consent, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, selection bias, South China Sea, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, urban planning, William Langewiesche, women in the workforce, young professional

The economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz found that women who went to Harvard earned less than half as much as the average Harvard man. Even when the analysis included only full-time, full-year employees and controlled for college major, profession, and other variables, Goldin and Katz found that the Harvard women still earned about 30 percent less than their male counterparts. What can possibly account for such a huge wage gap? There are a variety of factors. Women are more likely to leave the workforce or downshift their careers to raise a family. Even within high-paying occupations like medicine and law, women tend to choose specialties that pay less (general practitioner, for instance, or in-house counsel). And there is likely still a good amount of discrimination. This may range from the overt—denying a woman a promotion purely because she is not a man—to the insidious. A considerable body of research has shown that overweight women suffer a greater wage penalty than overweight men.

As of 1940, an astonishing 55 percent of all college-educated female workers in their early thirties were employed as teachers. Soon after, however, opportunities for smart women began to multiply. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were contributing factors, as was the societal shift in the perception of women’s roles. As more girls went off to college, more women emerged ready to join the workforce, especially in the desirable professions that had been largely off-limits: law, medicine, business, finance, and so on. (One of the unsung heroes of this revolution was the widespread use of baby formula, which allowed new mothers to get right back to work.) These demanding, competitive professions offered high wages and attracted the best and brightest women available. No doubt many of these women would have become schoolteachers had they been born a generation earlier.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Over the course of their careers, women tended to lose ground compared to men.97 Whereas racially discriminatory legislation had to face the legal test of “strict scrutiny” (no such law could stand without a “compelling state interest”), efforts to achieve gender equality foundered after the failure of the Equal Rights Amendment. While the federal government removed some barriers to women’s participation in the workforce, it did little directly to aid that participation. The possibilities of federal daycare had been illustrated during World War II, when the government facilitated the construction of 24-hour care so that women could work in war industries. After the war these daycare centers closed. Although by the 1970s welfare policy encouraged poor, single mothers to work, no plan for large-scale child care was ever arranged.


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Ch