financial thriller

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pages: 274 words: 93,758

Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller, Stanley B Resor Professor Of Economics Robert J Shiller

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Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equity premium, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, loss aversion, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, publication bias, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave

Accessed November 14, 2014. http://www.creditinfocenter.com/ cards/crcd_buy.shtml#Question6. Malamud, Bernard. “Nevada Gaming Tax: Estimating Resident Burden and Incidence.” University of Nevada, Las Vegas, April 2006. Last accessed May 5, 2015. https://faculty.unlv.edu/bmalamud/estimating.gaming.burden .incidence.doc. Mankiw, N. Gregory. Principles of Economics. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1998. Markopolos, Harry. No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010. Kindle. Mateyka, Peter, and Matthew Marlay. “Residential Duration by Race and Ethnicity: 2009.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Las Vegas, 2011. Maynard, Micheline. “United Air Wins Right to Default on Its Employee Pension Plans.” New York Times, May 11, 2005. McCubbins, Mathew D., and Arthur Lupia. The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Really Need to Know?

Edward Wyatt, “Judge Blocks Citigroup Settlement With S.E.C.,” New York Times, November 28, 2011, accessed June 10, 2015, http://www .nytimes.com/2011/11/29/business/judge-rejects-sec-accord-with-citi.html ?pagewanted=all. 21. Jed S. Rakoff, “The Financial Crisis: Why Have No High-Level Executives Been Prosecuted?” New York Review of Books, January 9, 2014. 22. Harry Markopolos, No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010), Kindle location 587. 23. That involved cutting off losses by the purchase of (put) options (which allowed him to sell stocks when their price fell below the “strike price”); paying for those puts with the sale of (call) options (which allowed their purchasers to buy stocks from him when the price went above the “strike price”). 24. Markopolos, No One Would Listen, Kindle locations 850–52. 25.


pages: 478 words: 126,416

Other People's Money: Masters of the Universe or Servants of the People? by John Kay

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War

., 1992, Truman, New York, Simon & Schuster, p. 988. Clement Attlee died in 1967, leaving an estate of £7,295. 14. Corporate Europe Observatory, April 2014. 15. Bureau of Investigative Journalism, 2012, 9 July, http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/. 16. ProPublica, 2013, 10 October, http://www.propublica.org/article/ny-fed-fired-examiner-who-took-on-goldman. 17. Markopolos, H., 2010, No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller, Hoboken, NJ, Wiley. 18. Ferguson, C. (prod. and dir.), and Marrs, A. (prod.), 2010, Inside Job, United States, Sony Pictures Classics. 19. Stigler, G.J., 1971, ‘The Theory of Economic Regulation’, The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 2 (1), Spring, pp. 3–21. 20. Dekker, S., 2012, Just Culture, Aldershot, Ashgate. 9: Economic policy 1. Woodward, R.U., 2001, Maestro: Greenspan’s Fed and the American Boom, New York and London, Simon & Schuster. 2.

., 2003, ‘Macroeconomic Priorities’, The American Economic Review, 93 (1), March, pp. 1–14. Macmillan, H., 1957, ‘Leader’s Speech’, remarks at Conservative Party rally, Bedford, 20 July. Malkiel, B.G., 2012, A Random Walk down Wall Street, 10th edn, New York and London, W.W. Norton. Manne, H.G., 1965, ‘Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control’, The Journal of Political Economy, 73 (2), April, pp. 110–20. Markopolos, H., 2010, No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller, Hoboken, NJ, Wiley. Martin, F., 2013, Money: The Unauthorised Biography, London, Bodley Head. McArdle, M., 2009, ‘Why Goldman Always Wins’, The Atlantic, 1 October. McCardie, J., 1917, Armstrong v. Jackson, 2KB 822. McCullough, D., 1992, Truman, New York, Simon & Schuster. McLean, B., and Elkind, P., 2003, The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron, New York, Penguin.


pages: 180 words: 61,340

Boomerang: Travels in the New Third World by Michael Lewis

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Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, fiat currency, financial thriller, full employment, German hyperinflation, Irish property bubble, Kenneth Rogoff, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South Sea Bubble, the new new thing, tulip mania, women in the workforce

But former city workers were, blessedly, living longer than ever. This wasn’t a hypothetical scary situation, said Reed. “It’s a mathematical inevitability.” In spirit it reminded me of Bernard Madoff’s investment business. Anyone who looked at Madoff’s returns and understood them could see he was running a Ponzi scheme; only one person who had understood them bothered to blow the whistle, and no one listened to him. (See No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller, by Harry Markopolos.) In his negotiations with the unions, the mayor has gotten nowhere. “I understand the police and firefighters,” he says. “They think, We’re the most important, and everyone else goes [gets fired] first.” The police union recently suggested to the mayor that he close the libraries for the other four days. “We looked into that,” Reed says. “If you close the libraries an extra day you pay for twenty or thirty cops.”


pages: 431 words: 132,416

No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller by Harry Markopolos

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backtesting, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation coefficient, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, family office, financial thriller, fixed income, forensic accounting, high net worth, index card, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, rolodex, Sharpe ratio, statistical arbitrage, too big to fail, transaction costs, your tax dollars at work

For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Markopolos, Harry. No one would listen : a true financial thriller / Harry Markopolos. p. cm. Includes index. eISBN : 978-0-470-62576-7 1. Madoff, Bernard L. 2. Ponzi schemes—United States. 3. Investment advisors—Corrupt practices—United States. 4. Hedge funds—United States. 5. Securities fraud—United States—Prevention. 6. United States. Securities and Exchange Commission—Rules and practice. I. Title. HV6697.M37 2010 364.16’3092—dc22 2009049433 To all the victims—you above all others deserve to know the truth.


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

,” Rolling Stone, August 17, 2011, http://www.rollingstone.com /politics/news/is-the-sec -covering-up-wall-street-crimes-20110817?print=true. 129. For example, agency critics like Harry Markopolos have berated it for years for failing to catch Bernie Madoff earlier; the (now-deleted) MUI file about him might have led to some accountability for the individuals who failed to follow up on complaints about Madoff. Harry Markopolos, No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010). Past bad behavior can contextualize current accusations. But such a process would also prove embarrassing to the agency itself. Undoubtedly, in some of those cases, materials related to an MUI could raise questions about why personnel involved failed to launch a full-fledged enforcement action. 130. Finance journalists chronicle a superclass shuttling from beltway to bourse and back.


pages: 288 words: 16,556

Finance and the Good Society by Robert J. Shiller

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Alvin Roth, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market design, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Occupy movement, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, profit maximization, quantitative easing, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

American Economic Review 90(1):46–72. Malmendier, Ulrike. 2005. “Roman Shares.” In William Goetzmann and K. Geert Rouwenhorst, eds., The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations That Created Modern Capital Markets, 31–42. New York: Oxford University Press. Marcus, Alan J. 1984. “Deregulation and Bank Financial Policy.” Journal of Banking and Finance 8(4):557–65. Markopolos, Harry. 2011. No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller. New York: Wiley. Martel, Gordon. 2008. Origins of the First World War. New York: Pearson Longman. Martin, Sarah B., D. Je Covell, Jane E. Joseph, Himachandra Chebrolu, Charles D. Smith, Thomas H. Kelly, Yang Jiang, and Brian T. Gold. 2007. “Human Experience Seeking Correlates with Hippocampus Volume: Convergent Evidence from Manual Tracing and Voxel-Based Morphometry.” Neuropsychologia 45:2874–81.


pages: 428 words: 121,717

Warnings by Richard A. Clarke

active measures, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bernie Madoff, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Elon Musk, failed state, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forensic accounting, friendly AI, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge worker, Maui Hawaii, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, mouse model, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y2K

David Nakamura and Chico Harlan, “Japanese Nuclear Plant’s Evaluators Cast Aside Threat of Tsunami,” Washington Post, Mar. 23, 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/world/japanese-nuclear-plants-evaluators-cast-aside-threat-of-tsunami/2011/03/22/AB7Rf2KB_story.html (accessed Oct. 4, 2016). CHAPTER 6: THE ACCOUNTANT: MADOFF’S PONZI SCHEME 1. Enormous amounts have been written about the Madoff case, but we benefited particularly from Harry Markopolos’s own book, No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010); Erin Arvedlund, Too Good To Be True: The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff (New York: Portfolio, 2009); U.S. Security and Exchange Commission Office of Inspector General, Investigation of Failure of the SEC to Uncover Bernard Madoff’s Ponzi Scheme (Public Version) (2009); and a series of articles by Mark Seal that appeared in Vanity Fair magazine as “The Madoff Chronicles,” in April, June, and September 2009. 2.


pages: 741 words: 179,454

Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Satyajit Das, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Donald MacKenzie (2008) An Engine, Not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. George Magnus (2009) The Age of Aging: How Demographics Are Changing the Global Economy and Our World, John Wiley, New Jersey. Sebastian Mallaby (2010) More Money Than God: Hedge Funds and the Making of the New Elite, Bloombsbury, London. Benoit Mandlebrot (2004) The (Mis)behavior of Markets, Basic Books, New York. Harry Markapolos (2010) No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller, John Wiley, New Jersey. Paul Mason (2009) Meltdown: The End of the Age of Greed, Verso, London. Mark McCormack (1984) What They Don’t Teach You At Harvard Business School: Notes From A Street-Smart Executive, Bantam, New York. Larry McDonald (2009) A Colossal Failure of Common Sense, Ebury Press, London. Bethany Mclean and Peter Elkind (2003) The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron, Penguin Books, New York.


pages: 598 words: 169,194

Bernie Madoff, the Wizard of Lies: Inside the Infamous $65 Billion Swindle by Diana B. Henriques

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, break the buck, British Empire, centralized clearinghouse, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computerized trading, corporate raider, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Thorp, financial deregulation, financial thriller, fixed income, forensic accounting, Gordon Gekko, index fund, locking in a profit, mail merge, merger arbitrage, money market fund, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, riskless arbitrage, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Small Order Execution System, source of truth, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, transaction costs, traveling salesman

Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, p. 15. 73 subsequent lawsuits would claim that the firm’s compliance officer was Peter Madoff’s daughter, Shana: Ibid., p. 14. 73 several hundred clients with traditional brokerage accounts: It cleared those customer trades through Bear Stearns until that firm was taken over in early 2008. 75 Some options traders called his new strategy a “bull spread”: Harry Markopolos, No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2010), p. 27. 75 the right (the “option”) to buy or sell that stock at a specific price: The right to buy a stock was called a “call option.” The seller of a call option is promising to let the buyer purchase the shares at a specified price for the term of the option. The right to sell a stock is called a “put option.” The seller of a put option is promising to let the buyer sell him a stock at a specified price for the term of the option.


pages: 932 words: 307,785

State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook

anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional

The City of London: the last bastion of an institutional conservatism that was otherwise dying out; the last bastion of a stiff-upper-lip Englishness that was on the wane everywhere else; the last bastion, indeed, of the bowler hat. The City: ‘overgrown village, rumour mill, with an atmosphere of a regimental mess and the sense of humour of an Edwardian boys’ paper, full of private language, secret rituals and enough games to last a working lifetime,’ as the narrator puts it in David Jordan’s financial thriller Nile Green (1973). Nowhere better captured its values than Sweetings, the famous restaurant where ‘the City man goes for lunch when he’s nostalgic for his schooldays … Bread and butter, brown and thin and damp, a memory of cricket on the lawn before Evensong. Ginger beer and lemonade. Sherbert. Rice pudding, apple pudding, jam roly-poly and treacle tart.’ The tastes and values of the English public school, preserved into the age of the IBM punch card.18 And yet despite the sartorial conservatism and the spotted dick, the City of London was on the brink of some of the most tumultuous changes in its history.