Financial Instability Hypothesis

18 results back to index


pages: 823 words: 220,581

Debunking Economics - Revised, Expanded and Integrated Edition: The Naked Emperor Dethroned? by Steve Keen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, central bank independence, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, collective bargaining, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, invisible hand, iterative process, John von Neumann, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market microstructure, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, open economy, place-making, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific mainstream, seigniorage, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, stochastic process, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, total factor productivity, tulip mania, wage slave

Keen, S. (1993a) ‘Use-value, exchange-value, and the demise of Marx’s labor theory of value,’ Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 15: 107–21. Keen, S. (1993b) ‘The misinterpretation of Marx’s theory of value,’ Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 15: 282–300. Keen, S. (1995) ‘Finance and economic breakdown: modeling Minsky’s “Financial Instability Hypothesis,”’ Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 17(4): 607–35. Keen, S. (1996) ‘The chaos of finance: the chaotic and Marxian foundations of Minsky’s “Financial Instability Hypothesis,”’ Economies et Sociétés, 30(2/3): 55–82. Keen, S. (1998) ‘Answers (and questions) for Sraffians (and Kaleckians),’ Review of Political Economy, 10: 73–87. Keen, S. (2000) ‘The nonlinear dynamics of debt-deflation,’ in W. A. Barnett, C. Chiarella, S. Keen, R. Marks and H. Schnabl (eds), Commerce, Complexity and Evolution, New York: Cambridge University Press.

DotCom bubble double-entry bookkeeping Dow, Sheila Dow Jones Industrial Average, movements of dynamic analysis Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model (DGSE); uselessness of earthquakes, theory of Econlit online service econometric models, large-scale economics: as pre-science; as science; different from true sciences; dumbing-down of textbooks; future of; loss of interest in; methodology of; need for revolution in; neoclassical see neoclassical economics; paradigm shifts in; teaching of economies of scale econophysics efficiency of markets efficient markets hypothesis; contradicted; failure of Ehrenberg, Andrew Einstein, Albert; Theory of Relativity emergent behavior emergent properties, concept of employment, theory of Engel curves entrepreneur, role of; as key actor entropy equilibrium; conflated with economic utopia; dismissed by Keynes; general (unreal assumptions of); in exchange rate of commodities; in Marx; in neoclassical theory; instability of; irrelevance of; partial equilibrium method; self-equilibrating economy; value of shares; Walrasian model of Escher drawings euphoric economy European Union (EU), and economic growth evolutionary school of economics exchange, in primitive societies exchange-value expectation; formation of; rational expected value, concept of experiments, importance of externalities ‘F-twist’ factories, built with excess capacity factors of production; fixed; flows of; variable failure to see crisis coming false equalities Fama, Eugene Federal Reserve Board; mismanagement of money supply feudalism finance sector; reform of financial assets: analysis of; pricing of Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission Financial Crisis Observatory Financial Instability Hypothesis see Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis firm, theory of (neoclassical) Fisher, Irving; bankruptcy of; debt deflation paper; The Theory of Interest flat world analogy Fokker-Planck model fractal geometry Fractal Markets Hypothesis Fractional Reserve Banking Freakonomics freedom, and labor French, Kenneth freshwater v. saltwater macroeconomics Friedman, Milton; ‘assumptions don’t matter’; helicopter image; paper on methodology full employment Fullbrook, Edward Fullwiler, Scott Galbraith, J.

And so to battle. 1 | PREDICTING THE ‘UNPREDICTABLE’ A major motivation for writing the first edition of this book was my feeling in 2000 that a serious economic crisis was imminent, and that it was therefore an apt time to explain to the wider, non-academic community how economic theory was not merely inherently flawed, but had helped cause the calamity I expected. At the time, I thought that the bursting of the DotCom Bubble would mark the beginning of the crisis – though I was cautious in saying so, because my work in modeling Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis (Keen 1995) had confirmed one aspect of his theory, the capacity of government spending to prevent a debt crisis that would have occurred in a pure credit economy. Statements that a crisis may occur were edited out of this edition, because the crisis has occurred – after the Subprime Bubble, which was in the background during the DotCom Bubble, finally burst as well.1 But these pre-crisis statements remain important, because they indicate that, without the blinkers that neoclassical economic theory puts over the eyes of economists, the crisis now known as the Great Recession was not an unpredictable ‘Black Swan’ event, but an almost blindingly obvious certainty.

 

pages: 363 words: 107,817

Modernising Money: Why Our Monetary System Is Broken and How It Can Be Fixed by Andrew Jackson (economist), Ben Dyson (economist)

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, credit crunch, David Graeber, debt deflation, double entry bookkeeping, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, informal economy, land reform, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, unorthodox policies

Chiefly, the long-run dynamic implications of credit creation were ignored, such as the self-reinforcing nature of asset price bubbles, the long run implications of increasing debt, the speculative behaviour of individuals and businesses, and the potential for recessions, depressions, financial crises and debt deflations. This section corrects that omission by outlining Hyman Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis. Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis Hyman Minsky developed the ‘financial instability hypothesis’ as an explanation of how financial crises are endogenously created by a modern capitalist economy. Minsky’s fundamental insight was that periods of stability led to greater risk taking and debt – that is, that stability was itself destabilising. Furthermore this instability tended to be upwards – capitalism tended towards booms.

In effect profits are privatised and losses are socialised.9 Consequently, while the government may offset the worst of a financial crisis, its actions may have unintended consequences, namely increasing inflation and making a future crisis more likely: “the economic relations that make a debt deflation and a long-lasting deep depression like that of the 1930s unlikely in a Big Government economy can lead to chronic and, at times, accelerating inflation. In effect, inflation may be the price we pay for depression proofing our economy.” (Minsky, 1986, p. 165) The Financial Instability Hypothesis To sum up, the essence of the Financial Instability Hypothesis is that booms and busts, asset price bubbles, financial crises, depressions, and even debt deflations all occur in the normal functioning of a capitalist economy. What is more, periods of relative stability increase the likelihood of instability and crisis by increasing returns and thus the desirability of leverage. The banking sector, with its ability to create credit, facilitates this desire for leverage, which sets in train a series of events that culminate in recession and in some cases a financial crisis and depression.

3.1 The demand for credit Borrowing due to insufficient wealth Borrowing for speculative reasons Borrowing due to legal incentives 3.2 The demand for money Conclusion: the demand for money & credit 3.3 Factors affecting banks’ lending decisions The drive to maximise profit Government guarantees & ‘too big to fail’ Externalities and competition 3.4 Factors limiting the creation of money Capital requirements (the Basel Accords) Reserve ratios & limiting the supply of central bank reserves Controlling money creation through interest rates Unused regulations 3.5 So what determines the money supply? Credit rationing So how much money has been created by banks? ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM 4.1 Economic effects of credit creation Werner’s Quantity Theory of Credit How asset price inflation fuels consumer price inflation 4.2 Financial instability and ‘boom & bust’ Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis The bursting of the bubble 4.3 Evidence Financial crises Normal recessions 4.4 Other economic distortions due to the current banking system Problems with deposit insurance & underwriting banks Subsidising banks Distortions caused by the Basel Capital Accords SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE CURRENT MONETARY SYSTEM 5.1 Inequality 5.2 Private debt 5.3 Public debt, higher taxes & fewer public services 5.4 Environmental impacts Government responses to the boom bust cycle Funding businesses Forced growth 5.5 The monetary system and democracy Use of ‘our’ money The misconceptions around banking The power to shape the economy Dependency Confusing the benefits and costs of banking PREVENTING BANKS FROM CREATING MONEY 6.1 An overview 6.2 Current/Transaction Accounts and the payments system 6.3 Investment Accounts 6.4 Accounts at the Bank of England The relationship between Transaction Accounts and a bank’s Customer Funds Account 6.5 Post Reform Balance Sheets for Banks and the Bank of England Commercial banks Central bank Measuring the money supply 6.6 Making payments 1.

 

pages: 545 words: 137,789

How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities by John Cassidy

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, asset allocation, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, diversification, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, incomplete markets, index fund, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Network effects, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, paradox of thrift, Ponzi scheme, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Vanguard fund

In what was perhaps a poke at the efficient market hypothesis, Minsky described his thesis that capitalist economies inevitably progress from conservative finance to reckless speculation as the “financial instability hypothesis.” Minsky described it as an interpretation of Keynes’s General Theory, and he also credited the Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter for influencing his views. “The first theorem of the financial instability hypothesis is that the economy has financing regimes under which it is stable, and financing regimes in which it is unstable,” he explained in 1992. “The second theorem of the financial instability hypothesis is that over periods of prolonged prosperity, the economy transits from financial relations that make for a stable system to financial relations that make for an unstable system.” Although Minsky didn’t state it as such, the financial instability hypothesis is a theory of rational irrationality, with the individually rational actions of banks and other financial firms serving to destabilize the entire system.

.”: Hyman Minsky, Stabilizing an Unstable Economy (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 4. 208 “leads to an expansion . . .”: Ibid., 199. 209 “Such loans impart . . .”: Ibid., 261. 209 “a spiral of declining investment . . .”: Ibid., 239. 209 “The first theorem . . .”: Hyman Minsky, “The Financial Instability Hypothesis,” Working Paper no. 74, Jerome Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, May 1992, 7–8. 210 “In a world with capitalist . . .”: Minsky, Stabilizing an Unstable Economy, 280. 212 “was part of the process that . . .”: Ibid., 265. 212 “Like all entrepreneurs . . .”: Minsky, “Financial Instability Hypothesis,” 6. 214 “The downside aspect . . .”: Paul Davidson, Financial Markets, Money and the Real World (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2002), 115–16. 215 “For a new era . . .”: Minsky, Stabilizing an Unstable Economy, 6. 216 Sweezy’s introduction to Marxist economics: Paul M.

The latter part of Greenspan’s tenure was disastrous. Between 1998 and 2006, he presided over two of the biggest speculative bubbles in American history, one of which he bequeathed to his successor, along with a negative personal savings rate and a dangerously overextended financial system. In its entirety, Greenspan’s eighteen-and-a-half-year tenure at the Fed provides a classic confirmation of Minsky’s financial instability hypothesis: the forces of leverage and financial innovation gradually built up until they were on the verge of overwhelming the system. If Washington insiders had viewed Greenspan as a free market ideologue, he wouldn’t have survived for half as long as he did. His political career began in 1968, when he advised Richard Nixon on his successful presidential bid, and it didn’t end until January 31, 2006, when he retired from the Fed.

 

pages: 267 words: 71,123

End This Depression Now! by Paul Krugman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gordon Gekko, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, mortgage debt, paradox of thrift, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, working poor, Works Progress Administration

His books are not, to say the least, user-friendly; nuggets of brilliant insight are strewn thinly across acres of turgid prose and unnecessary algebra. And he also cried wolf too often; to paraphrase an old joke by Paul Samuelson, he predicted around nine of the last three major financial crises. Yet these days many economists, yours truly very much included, recognize the importance of Minsky’s “financial instability hypothesis.” And those of us, again like yours truly, who were relative latecomers to Minsky’s work wish that we had read it much earlier. Minsky’s big idea was to focus on leverage—on the buildup of debt relative to assets or income. Periods of economic stability, he argued, lead to rising leverage, because everyone becomes complacent about the risk that borrowers might not be able to repay.

.: economic growth and, 225–26 of 2012, 226 emergency aid, 119–20, 120, 144, 216 environmental regulation, 221 Essays in Positive Economics (Friedman), 170 euro, 166 benefits of, 168–69, 170–71 creation of, 174 economic flexibility constrained by, 18, 169–73, 179, 184 fixing problems of, 184–87 investor confidence and, 174 liquidity and, 182–84, 185 trade imbalances and, 175, 175 as vulnerable to panics, 182–84, 186 wages and, 174–75 Europe: capital flow in, 169, 174, 180 common currency of, see euro creditor nations of, 46 debtor nations of, 4, 45, 46, 139 democracy and unity in, 184–85 fiscal integration lacking in, 171, 172–73, 176, 179 GDP in, 17 health care in, 18 inflation and, 185, 186 labor mobility lacking in, 171–72, 173, 179 1930s arms race in, 236 social safety nets in, 18 unemployment in, 4, 17, 18, 176, 229, 236 Europe, debt crisis in, x, 4, 40, 45, 46, 138, 140–41, 166–87 austerity programs in, 46, 144, 185, 186, 188, 190 budget deficits and, 177 fiscal irresponsibility as supposed cause of (Big Delusion), 177–79, 187 housing bubbles and, 65, 169, 172, 174, 176 interest rates in, 174, 176, 182–84, 190 liquidity fears and, 182–84 recovery from, 184–87 unequal impact of, 17–18 wages in, 164–65, 169–70, 174–75 European Central Bank, 46, 183 Big Delusion and, 179 inflation and, 161, 180 interest rates and, 190, 202–3 monetary policy of, 180, 185, 186 European Coal and Steel Community, 167 European Economic Community (EEC), 167–68 European Union, 172 exchange rates, fixed vs. flexible, 169–73 executive compensation, 78–79 “outrage constraint” on, 81–82, 83 expansionary austerity, 144, 196–99 expenditure cascades, 84 Fama, Eugene, 69–70, 73, 97, 100, 106 Fannie Mae, 64, 65–66, 100, 172, 220–21 Farrell, Henry, 100, 192 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), 59, 172 Federal Housing Finance Agency, 221 Federal Reserve, 42, 103 aggressive action needed from, 216–19 creation of, 59 foreign exchange intervention and, 217 inflation and, 161, 217, 219, 227 interest rates and, 33–34, 93, 105, 117, 134, 135, 143, 151, 189–90, 193, 215, 216–17 as lender of last resort, 59 LTCM crisis and, 69 money supply controlled by, 31, 32, 33, 105, 151, 153, 155, 157, 183 recessions and, 105 recovery and, 216–19 in 2008 financial crisis, 104, 106, 116 unconventional asset purchases by, 217 Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 47–48 Feinberg, Larry, 72 Ferguson, Niall, 135–36, 139, 160 Fianna Fáil, 88 filibusters, 123 financial crisis of 2008–09, ix, x, 40, 41, 69, 72, 99, 104, 111–16 Bernanke on, 3–4 Big Lie of, 64–66, 100, 177 capital ratios and, 59 credit crunch in, 41, 110, 113, 117 deleveraging in, 147 Federal Reserve and, 104, 106 income inequality and, 82, 83 leverage in, 44–46, 63 panics in, 4, 63, 111, 155 real GDP in, 13 see also depression of 2008–; Europe, debt crisis in financial elite: political influence of, 63, 77–78, 85–90 Republican ideology and, 88–89 top 0.01 percent in, 75, 76 top 0.1 percent in, 75, 76, 77, 96 top 1 percent in, 74–75, 74, 76–77, 96 see also income inequality financial industry, see banks, banking industry financial instability hypothesis, 43–44 Financial Times, 95, 100, 203–4 Finland, 184 fiscal integration, 171, 172–73, 176 Fisher, Irving, 22, 42, 44–46, 48, 49, 52, 163 flexibility: currency and, 18, 169–73 paradox of, 52–53 Flip This House (TV show), 112 Florida, 111 food stamps, 120, 144 Ford, John, 56 foreclosures, 45, 127–28 foreign exchange markets, 217 foreign trade, 221 Fox News, 134 Frank, Robert, 84 Freddie Mac, 64, 65–66, 100, 172, 220–21 free trade, 167 Friedman, Milton, 96, 101, 181, 205 on causes of Great Depression, 105–6 Gabriel, Peter, 20 Gagnon, Joseph, 219, 221 Gardiner, Chance (char.), 3 Garn–St.

Gregory, 227 manufacturing capacity, 16 marginal product, 78 markets: “efficient” hypothesis of, 97–99, 100, 101, 103–4 inflation and, 202 investor rationality and, 97, 101, 103–4 Keynes on, 97, 98 1987 crash in, 98 panic in, 4 speculative excess in, 97, 98 in 2008 financial crisis, 117 McCain, John, 113 McConnell, Mitch, 109 McCulley, Paul, 48 McDonald’s, 6, 7 Medicaid, 120, 120, 121 Medicare, 18, 172 Meltzer, Allan, 151–52 Mencken, H. L., 87 Miami, Fla., 112 Mian, Atif, 47 Minsky, Hyman: financial instability hypothesis of, 43–44, 47 renewed appreciation of, 41, 42–43 Minsky moments, 48, 111, 146 bank runs as, 58 MIT, Billion Prices Project of, 161 monetarism, 101, 135 monetary base, 31, 32, 188 Monetary Control Act (1980), 61 monetary policy, 39, 105, 207 deficit spending and, 135 expansionary, xi, 151, 185, 188 short-term interest rates in, 216–17 “Monetary Theory and the Great Capitol Hill Baby Sitting Co-op Crisis” (Sweeney and Sweeney), 26–27 money market funds, 62 money supply: in babysitting co-op example, 27, 29, 32–33 Federal Reserve and, 31, 32, 33, 105, 151, 153, 155, 157, 183 liquidity traps and, 152, 155 Montgomery Ward, 148–49 Moody’s, 113, 194 moral hazard, 60, 68 Morgan, J.

 

pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve

“Rational bubble riding” became acceptable, and the incentive to do so was turbocharged by an industry that has become more short-term focused in assessing both absolute and relative performance, and in which capital can move quite quickly given that few end investors are willing to revise down their return expectations. To some, the behavior of financial markets once again showed insufficient heed paid to the important insights of Hyman Minsky, the American economist. Known for his “financial instability hypothesis,”7 Minsky argued that, in capitalist economies, periods of financial stability give rise to subsequent periods of great financial instability. The extent of underlying moral hazard became more and more notable. I remember being bemused in October 2014 by the extent to which the return of some modest market volatility caused some respected market participants to call for the Fed to come up with “QE4”—that is, yet another program of large-scale asset purchases in order to repress market volatility and artificially boost asset prices again.

There are already quite a few reasons that contribute to the repeated emergence of asset bubbles. The impact of information failures and market imperfections is accentuated by behavioral patterns that result in recurrent errors as well as principal-agent misalignments. Asset managers’ approach to business risk has also been shown to be a “strong motivator for institutional herding and rational bubble riding.”3 The Minsky financial instability hypothesis is also relevant here, reminding us that long periods of stability tend to encourage behaviors that then fuel instability. All these shifts have been turbocharged by the low interest rate environment. As Jaime Caruana, the general manager of the BIS, put it in a December 2014 speech in Abu Dhabi when commenting on the migration of risks to the nonbank sector: “It is likely, though not undisputed, that the search for yield in a low interest rate environment can contribute to the build-up of financial imbalances.

See also Mohamed A. El-Erian, “The ECB Can Only Buy Time for Europe’s Politicians,” Financial Times, January 22, 2015, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/957b9ddc-a241-11e4-bbb8-00144feab7de.html. 6. Tracy Alloway, “Markets’ Misplaced Faith in Central Banks,” Financial Times, January 23, 2015, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/2ad516fa-a2d4-11e4-ac1c-00144feab7de.html. 7. Hyman Minsky, “The Financial Instability Hypothesis,” Working Paper No. 74, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, 1992. 8. Mohamed A. El-Erian, “Beware of Calls for QE4,” Financial Times, October 17, 2014, http://blogs.ft.com/the-a-list/2014/10/17/beware-of-calls-for-qe4/. 9. Chris Giles, “Carney Warns on Low Interest Rates,” Financial Times, January 24, 2015, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/c20266fe-a3fb-11e4-b90d-00144feab7de.html. 10.

 

pages: 484 words: 136,735

Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, peak oil, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Washington Consensus

Louis, argued in the 1960s that long periods of economic stability would lead to conditions of financial overconfidence that would, in turn, promote leverage and exaggerate risk-taking and increase debt burdens throughout society. Minsky’s theories were ignored by the academic establishment from the 1980s onward but came back into prominence during the 2007 crisis and received widespread attention not only in the media but also in central banks and finance ministries around the world. A key feature of what Minsky called his Financial Instability Hypothesis was that economic stability would encourage banks to innovate. When economic conditions prove surprisingly benign, banks start accepting low-quality assets as collateral and find new ways of lending to ever-riskier borrowers. These processes eventually become unsustainable. But crucially, the unwinding of leverage does not occur in a gradual way that would bring the system back into equilibrium, as assumed by mainstream academic economics.

The point of inflection in this cycle, when lenders suddenly realize that they were dangerously overoptimistic in their lending decisions and their original assumptions about asset values, is often described as a Minsky Moment. A classic such moment occurred during the Russian government default and hedge fund crisis of 1998.5 According to many analysts, the 2007-09 credit crunch was a Minsky Moment writ large. George Soros’s Theory of Reflexivity can be seen as a generalization of Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis and Keynes’s theory of animal spirits. Soros puts both on a different philosophical basis by emphasising the two-way interaction between people’s perceptions and the events perceived. Soros argues that miscalculations made by both lenders and borrowers result from the gap that inevitably exists between reality and human understanding. Human thinking consists of two potentially discordant elements—a cognitive function, which tries to understand reality, and a manipulative function, which tries to change reality.6 These functions can interfere with one another.

Right on “moral righteousness” and panic/loss of confidence predictions of global collapse preventing scenarios regulation and trend/cycle relationship Financial crisis of 2007-09 causes conservatives on deregulation financial institutions debt-chains lack of government guarantees and lack of government intervention mark-to-market accounting/effects market fundamentalism new classical school on political ideology political mismanagement standard view/flaws See also Lehman Brothers collapse; Paulson, Henry/financial crisis (2007-09) Financial Instability Hypothesis (boom-bust cycle theory) Fitoussi, Paul Fooled by Randomness (Taleb) Fool’s Gold (Tett) Ford, Henry Frank, Barney Free to Choose (Friedman) Friedman, Milton Capitalism and economics transformation and on Great Depression inflation monetarism “natural-rate hypothesis,” Frydman, Roman Future scenario of American breakdown See also Capitalism 4.0; Economy of future G20 economies Galbraith, J.

 

pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Wave and Pay, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

To grasp the significance of this difference for money, I want to turn to the arguments of Hyman Minsky and Susan Strange. MINSKY’S HALF-CENTURY Hyman Minsky was a doctoral student of Joseph Schumpeter and Wassily Leontief at Harvard during the 1940s. Whereas Schumpeter had drawn attention to banks’ importance in the business cycle, Minsky’s main focus was on the effect of financial markets on the wider economy (Minsky 1993a, 1993b). During the 1970s, Minsky developed the financial instability hypothesis, in which he argued that speculative bubbles and spells of financial market instability are part of the normal life cycle of the economy (Minsky 1992). It is a fundamental characteristic of capitalism, he said, that the economy swings between episodes of robustness and fragility. It befalls to governments to try to alleviate the worst effects of such swings, but it would be naive and mistaken to believe that they can be eradicated.

“On the Origin of Money.” The Economic Journal 2: 239–477. Messori, M. (1997). “The Trials and Misadventures of Schumpeter’s Treatise on Money.” History of Political Economy 29: 639–73. Minsky, H. P. (1975). John Maynard Keynes, New York, Columbia University Press. Minsky, H. P. (1986). Stabilizing an Unstable Economy, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press. Minsky, H. P. (1992). “The Financial Instability Hypothesis.” Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Working Paper No. 74, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/wp74.pdf. Minsky, H. P. (1993a). “Finance and Stability: The Limits of Capitalism.” Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Working Paper No. 93, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/wp93.pdf.

See state fiat money fiction, and economic expectations, 16; and language, 36; and the free market, 338; and money, 6, 235, 317; and monetary policy, 110; in Simmel, 317; and truth, 36 fictitious capital, 55, 56, 58, 62, 65, 68–69, 70, 83, 194, 243; Marx’s definition of, 57n16; in Ricardo, 59n finance, etymology, 201; versus money, 61–62, 66, 125; social study of, 295 finance capital, 60, 64, 68, 74, 232, 249 financial engineering, 124 financial expropriation, 79 financial innovation, 121 financial instability hypothesis, 117, 124 financial repression, 69 financial system, 3; and crisis formation, 69; expansion of, 114; relationship to GDP, 114. See also capitalism; Wall Street system financialization, 10, 36, 61n22, 66–67, 391; and banking, 114; and the Eurozone crisis, 79; of money, 245, 298; as privatized Keynesianism, 76 First World War, 50, 59, 103, 225, 245, 256, 356, 362 fiscal cliff, 90, 386 fiscus, 261–62 Fisher, Irving, 120n41, 314; on the paradox of thrift, 347; on stamp scrip, 314, 349 Fisher, Mark, 193 floating money, 191, 244 flow, 227, 232, 233–34, 244; and financial markets, 233n Fond-des-Nègres marketplace, 302 Foster, William, 347 Foucault, Michel, 25, 238, 239, 391; death of “man,” 389–90; desire, 229; on homo economicus, 390; on Nietzsche, 389–90, 391; The Order of Things, 228 Fourcade, Marion, 91 Fourier, Charles, 324 fractional reserve lending, 95, 111, 113, 116, 199n26 Frank, Thomas, 315 Frankfurt School, 322, 326–27 Franklin, Benjamin, 176 fraud, 113, 117n, 120, 132, 137, 199, 313, 368 Freddie Mac, 123 free credit, 352 free labor, 98 free market money, 360, 362 free money, 348 free trade 281 Freicoin, 348n, 349n, 370–71 French Revolution, 84, 355 Freud, Sigmund, 150, 228, 332, 334; Civilization and Its Discontents, 152; on money and saving, 151, 336 Friedman, Milton, 131, 330–31 Frisby, David, on Nietzsche, 136–37, 141–42; on Simmel, 137 Fromm, Erich, 14, 85n45, 345, 356, 372, 382; on economic democracy, 338–39; Escape from Freedom, 331; on having versus being, 315, 331–38; on hoarding, 336, 340–41, 350–51; on the humanistic utopia, 315, 333–34, 338–39, 374; on language, 332; Man for Himself, 331, 341; on Marx, 339; “Medicine and the Ethical Problem of Modern Man,” 340; on Messianic time, 335, 338; on money, 334, 339–40, 341, 346; on the Shabbat, 334–35, 338; on spiritual poverty, 334; To Have or To Be?

 

pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

The black line in Figure 2 shows the private sector’s financial balance, defined as the difference between private income and private spending, or equivalently between saving and investment (S-I). As the data show, the private sector’s financial balance deteriorated over much of the 1990s, and by 1997 it had forsaken its habitual state of surplus as it began spending in excess of its income (i.e. running deficits) for the first time in generations. The pattern that led to the crisis was strikingly similar to that theorised by Minsky’s ‘financial instability hypothesis’.12 During the boom, private actors—especially households and banks, in this case—started piling up debt at an increasing rate. Then, suddenly, after a fall in house prices, the speculative fever was reversed, generating systemic financial distress and pushing most private actors to try to reduce their indebtedness simultaneously. In other words, when the housing bubble burst, the private sector looked to deleverage by spending less, saving more and paying down debt.

During a boom, tax revenues automatically rise, while unemployment benefits decrease, thus decreasing the government deficit and moderating the boom. 10 P. Krugman, ‘Deficits saved the world’, New York Times, 15 July 2009, http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/15/deficits-saved-the-world/ (accessed 4 May 2016). 11 See W. Godley, Money, Finance and National Income Determination: An Integrated Approach, Levy Economic Institute Working Paper No. 167, June 1996. 12 See for example H. Minsky, The Financial Instability Hypothesis, Levy Economics Institute Working Paper No. 74. 13 Richard Koo of Nomura Research has popularised this dynamic as a ‘balance sheet recession’. See R. Koo, ‘The world in balance sheet recession: causes, cure, and politics’, Economic Review, issue 58, http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue58/Koo58.pdf (accessed 4 May 2016). 14 J. M. Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, London, Macmillan, 1965 [1936]. 15 Krugman, ‘Deficits saved the world’. 16 State and local government budgets also moved sharply into deficit, accounting for the additional rise seen in Figure 2.

 

pages: 278 words: 82,069

Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Minsky’s writings, and the post-Keynesian tradition more generally, are highly critical of free-market capitalism and its defenders in the economics profession—among them Milton Friedman and other Nobel Prize–winning economists who for a generation have claimed to “prove,” usually through elaborate mathematical models, that unregulated markets are inherently rational, stable and fair. For Friedmanites, regulations are harmful most of the time. Minsky, by contrast, explained throughout his voluminous writings that unregulated markets will always produce instability and crises. He alternately termed his approach “the financial instability hypothesis” and “the Wall Street paradigm.” For Minsky, the key to understanding financial instability is to trace the shifts that occur in investors’ psychology as the economy moves out of a period of crisis and recession (or depression) and into a phase of rising profits and growth. Coming out of a crisis, investors will tend to be cautious, since many of them will have been clobbered during the just-ended recession.

 

pages: 330 words: 77,729

Big Three in Economics: Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes by Mark Skousen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, experimental economics, financial independence, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, open economy, paradox of thrift, price stability, pushing on a string, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, unorthodox policies

According to Keynes's model, the classical model only applies when the economy reaches full employment (Qj), while the Keynesian general theory applies at any point along the AS curve where it intersects with the AD curve. Who's to Blame? Irrational Investors! Keynes blamed the instability of capitalism on the bad behavior of investors. The General Theory creates a macroeconomic model based essentially on a financial instability hypothesis. As Keynesian economist Hyman P. Minsky declares, "The essential aspect of Keynes's General Theory is a deep analysis of how financial Figure 5.1 Aggregate Supply (AS) and Aggregate Demand (AD) Model from a Keynesian Perspective p Source: Byrns and Stone (1987: 311). Reprinted by permission of Scott, Foresman and Co. forces—which we can characterize as Wall Street—interact with production and consumption to determine output, employment, and prices" (1986,100).

 

pages: 223 words: 10,010

The Cost of Inequality: Why Economic Equality Is Essential for Recovery by Stewart Lansley

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, call centre, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population

The chiefs were more ‘knaves than fools’.389 Two decades earlier, long before the tsunami of new financial instruments, the American economist, Hyman Minsky—who died in 1996—had warned that deregulated financial markets would intensify the tendency of market economies to speculation and instability. Minsky was a post-Keynesian economist and critic of the free-market school who developed what he called the ‘financial instability hypothesis’ that integrated the role of finance into the Keynesian framework. In Stabilizing an Unstable Economy, published in 1986, he argued that Wall Street and other financial centres would generate destabilizing forces, making the behaviour of the economy incoherent and subjecting economies to serious threats of financial and economic instability. Because success would breed excess, financiers—sitting on the prospect of ever higher profits—would find ways of gearing their performance to generate even higher returns, irrespective of the risks being played with the economy.

 

pages: 523 words: 111,615

The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey

Milanovic, Branko. 2005. Worlds Apart: Measuring International and Global Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Miles, Nicholas, Charu Wilkinson, Jakob Edler, Mercedes Bleda, Paul Simmonds, and John Clark. 2009. “Wider Conditions for Innovation.” Pamphlet. London: National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts. Mill, J. S. 1863. Utilitarianism. Minsky, Hyman P. 1992. “The Financial Instability Hypothesis.” Working Paper No. 74 (May). Annandale on Hudson, NY: Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Bard College. Musgrave, Richard A., and Peggy B. Musgrave. 1973. Public Finance in Theory and Practice. New York: McGraw Hill. Nannicini, Tommaso, Andrea Stella, Guido Tabellini, and Ugo Troiano. 2010. “Social Capital and Political Accountability.” Discussion Paper No. 7782. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

 

pages: 382 words: 92,138

The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

‘Corporate Taxpayers & Corporate Tax Dodgers 2008–10’. Citizens for Tax Justice and the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy. Available online at http://www.ctj.org/corporatetaxdodgers/CorporateTaxDodgersReport.pdf (accessed 25 July 2012). Mia, H. et al. 2010. ‘A Survey of China’s Renewable Energy Economy’. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14: 438–45. Minsky, H. P. 1992. ‘The Financial Instability Hypothesis’. Jerome Levy Economics Institute Working Paper no. 74, May. Mirowski, P. 2011. Science-Mart. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 2013. A preview of the MIT production in the ‘Innovation Economy Report’, edited by Richard M. Locke and Rachel Wellhausen, mit.edu, 22 February. Available from http://web.mit.edu/press/images/documents/pie-report.pdf (accessed 25 February 2013).

 

pages: 357 words: 110,017

Money: The Unauthorized Biography by Felix Martin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invention of writing, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail

The idea of central-bank independence, unlike inflation targeting, is not associated specifically with New Keynesian theory—its origins lie in an earlier literature, notably Rogoff, 1985—though it was only once the New Keynesian approach had become the most widely used framework for policy-making that it achieved a concrete institutional impact. 27. Turner, 2012. 28. Minsky, H., “The Financial Instability Hypothesis: Capitalist Processes and the Behaviour of the Economy,” in Kindleberger and Laffargue, 1982. 29. King, M., 2002, pp. 162 and 173. 30. Ibid. 14 How to Turn the Locusts into Bees 1. See http://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Locust_​(finance). The term became widely used in political debate in the run-up to the September 2005 federal elections in Germany. 2. See chapter 8. 3. The title of Novi, E., 2012, La dittatura dei banchieri: l’economia usuraia, l’eclissi della democrazia, la ribellione populista. 4.

 

pages: 309 words: 95,495

Foolproof: Why Safety Can Be Dangerous and How Danger Makes Us Safe by Greg Ip

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Air France Flight 447, air freight, airport security, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, central bank independence, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, double helix, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, value at risk

Nobody dismissed the potential for further crises. The fact was, however, that crises had come and gone while leaving surprisingly little mark on the economy. Markets had not been so turbulent since the 1930s, noted Paul Krugman, yet the economy had chugged along for seven years “without either turning into a runaway boom or stalling into a recession.” Minsky’s message was that the good times would not last. “The financial instability hypothesis is pessimistic,” he warned. “Capitalism is flawed in that thrusts to financial and economic crises are endogenous phenomena.” Despite his inclusion in the program, Minsky was still a relative outsider among these academic celebrities, and he drew little attention. Volcker was a different matter. Though out of office he still commanded huge respect. He was an inveterate worrier, with reason: he had already dealt with more crises than anyone else in the room.

 

pages: 586 words: 159,901

Wall Street: How It Works And for Whom by Doug Henwood

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labor-force participation, late capitalism, law of one price, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, random walk, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

"Central Banking and Money Market Changes," Quarterly Journal of Economics 1\ (May), reprinted in Minsky (1982a), pp. 162-178. — (1964). "Longer Waves in Financial Relations: Financial Factors in the More Severe Depres- sions," reprinted in Thomas Mayer, ed., International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 7 (1990) (Aldershot, U.K. and Brookfield, Vt.: Edward Elgar, pp. 352-363. — {1975). John Alaynard Keynes (Ne-w York: Columbia University Press). — (1978). "The Financial Instability Hypothesis: A Restatement," Thames Papers in Politi- cal Economy, reprinted in Minsky (1982a), pp. 90-116. — (1982a). Can "It" Happen Again? (Kmionk, NY.: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.). — (1982b). "Debt Deflation Processes in Today's Institutional Environment," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Review 143 (December), pp. 375-393. — (1986). Stabilizing an Unstable Economy (New Haven: Yale University Press).

 

pages: 461 words: 128,421

The Myth of the Rational Market: A History of Risk, Reward, and Delusion on Wall Street by Justin Fox

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of the americas, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, impulse control, index arbitrage, index card, index fund, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, libertarian paternalism, linear programming, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market design, New Journalism, Nikolai Kondratiev, Paul Lévy, pension reform, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pushing on a string, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, tulip mania, value at risk, Vanguard fund, volatility smile, Yogi Berra

He suggests on the next page that Jevons be the one to do the educating: “[T]he Cobden chair of Political Economy at Owens College, at present so ably filled, might become a centre from which should radiate the remedial influences which I venture to suggest.” 7. A notable exception was MIT economist Charles Kindleberger. But Kindleberger’s 1978 history, Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises (New York: Basic Books, 1978), which drew heavily on Minsky’s theories, also seemed to draw far more readers from trading floors than economics seminar rooms. 8. Hyman P. Minsky, “The Financial Instability Hypothesis: A Restatement,” Thames Papers in Political Economy (Autumn 1978). Reprinted in Can “It” Happen Again: Essays on Instability and Finance (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1982), 106. 9. Mark Zandi, “Where are the Regulators?” Moody’s Economy.com, Nov. 1, 2005, www.economy.com/home/article.asp?cid=18664. 10. Peter Thal Larsen, “Goldman pays the price of being big,” Financial Times, Aug. 13, 2007. 11.

 

pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond

See also Barry Eichengreen, The European Economy since 1945: Coordinated Capitalism and Beyond, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, Chapter 8. 53 Quoted in Robert Flanagan, David Soskice, and Lloyd Ulman, Unionism, Economic Stabilization and Incomes Policies, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1983, pp. 141–2. 54 Eichengreen, Globalizing Capital, p. 128. 55 Giovanni Arrighi, “The Social and Political Economy of Global Turbulence,” New Left Review I/20 (March–April 2003), pp. 35–6. 56 Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, Table 3.1. Available at bea.gov. 57 Edwin Dickens, “A Political-Economic Critique of Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis: The Case of the 1966 Financial Crisis,” Review of Political Economy 11: 4 (1999), pp. 392–3. 58 “In addition to limiting the buildup of dollar assets in foreign official hands, these goals included easing Treasury financing operations, limiting financial disintermediation, promoting the growth of bank credit, especially mortgage loans, discouraging inflation, and clearly the top priority, encouraging a more complete utilization of the nation’s [resources].”