Occupy movement

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pages: 75 words: 22,220

Occupy by Noam Chomsky

corporate governance, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Martin Wolf, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, union organizing

After Thirty Years of Class War Interview with Edward Radzivilovskiy, Student, New York University, Paris Interview conducted at MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 6, 2012 I want to start off with something you said at Occupy Boston: “The most exciting aspect of the Occupy movement is the construction of the linkages that are taking place all over. If they can be sustained and expanded, Occupy can lead to dedicated efforts to set society on a more humane course.”§§ Some have said that the Occupy movement does not have a cohesive message of its demands. If you do believe that the Occupy movement does have specific demands, how many of these demands do you actually think can be realized? There is quite a range of people from many walks of life and many concerns involved in the Occupy movement. There are some general things that bring them together, but of course they all have specific concerns as well. Primarily, I think this should be regarded as a response, the first major public response, in fact, to about thirty years of a really quite bitter class war that has led to social, economic and political arrangements in which the system of democracy has been shredded.

A Howard Zinn memorial lecture could not have been better timed. It’s taking place in the midst of “countless small actions of unknown people” who are rising. The Occupy movement is an extremely exciting development. In fact, it’s kind of spectacular. It’s unprecedented. There’s never been anything like it that I can think of. If the bonds and associations that are being established in these remarkable events can be sustained through a long, hard period ahead—because victory won’t come quickly—it could turn out to be a really historic, and very significant, moment in American history. The fact that the Occupy movement is unprecedented is quite appropriate. It’s an unprecedented era. Not just this moment, but since the 1970s. On the History of the U.S. Economy The 1970s began a major turning point in American history.

We can kick ’em out if we don’t need ’em. And that’s what’s called a “healthy” economy, technically. And he was very highly praised for this, greatly admired. Well, now the world is indeed splitting into a plutonomy and a precariat—again, in the imagery of the Occupy movement, the 1 percent and the 99 percent. Not literal numbers, but the right picture. Now, the plutonomy is where the action is. Well, it could continue like this. If it does continue like this, the historic reversal that began in the 1970s could become irreversible. That’s where we’re heading. And the Occupy movement is the first real, major popular reaction that could avert this. But, as I said, it’s going to be necessary to face the fact that it’s a long, hard struggle. You don’t win victories tomorrow. You have to go on, have to form the structures that will be sustained, that will go on through hard times and can win major victories.


pages: 173 words: 54,729

Occupying Wall Street: The Inside Story of an Action That Changed America by Writers For The 99%

Bay Area Rapid Transit, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, income inequality, McMansion, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, We are the 99%, young professional

It remains to be seen what the balance of physical and political force will mean for the future of OWS and the #occupy movement. Police departments, armed with an array of crowd control technologies, have the capacity to disperse unarmed encampments and crowds. And big-city, mostly-liberal mayors have shown their willingness to work together to try to take on protesters. But harsh tactics have backfired, causing public relations problems for police and politicians. So far the #occupy movement has responded to police brutality, above all, by growing. Will police and politicians continue cracking down, change tactics, or return to the old days of “negotiated settlement?” Will #occupy remain defiant and grow? There are many signs that it can. For one thing, the Occupy movement appeals to constituencies far beyond the stereotypical image of “protesters.”

On October 5, the mass convergence of students and workers at Foley Square, combined with the October 1 arrest of more than 700 OWS protesters on the Brooklyn Bridge, played a pivotal role in raising public awareness of the Occupy movement. The event also shows how Occupy Wall Street facilitated interconnections and coalition building. Indeed, the OWS-enabled solidarity between student and labor movements was by no means inevitable. Conflicting motivations, needs, and goals had in recent years fostered divisions–not only between workers and students, but between students of public and private universities and between workers from different unions. With its amorphous goals, but ardent opposition to budget cuts and corporate takeover of public services, the Occupy movement offered a sufficiently large umbrella to mobilize groups with seemingly disparate priorities toward a common cause. The story of how the October 5 rally and march came to be, and the events it subsequently enabled, highlights Occupy’s power as an engine of solidarity.

The Occupation also facilitated connections among unions. Members of Teamsters Local 802 were introduced to members from Local 814 through the Labor Working group, and the two locals quickly decided to support one another’s respective struggles with management. Julian Tysh, an organizer with Local 814, credited the Occupy movement with encouraging workers on picket lines, while universalizing their struggles by pitting them against a common enemy—the 1 percent. “The Occupy movement has changed unions,” said Stuart Appelbaum, president of the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU). “You’re seeing a lot more unions wanting to be aggressive in their messaging and their activity.” Indeed, in response to Occupy Wall Street, many unions were quick to seize upon the “99 percent” slogan, affixing it to buttons and signs for the October 5 march.


pages: 537 words: 99,778

Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky

activist lawyer, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, different worldview, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor

p204 photo: Julie Abraham p214 via puppetunderground.blogspot.com p219 Emma Rosenthal p252 via puppetunderground.blogspot.com p325 photo: urban infidel Other photographs within pieces appear as they did in the online originals. We were unable to contact some photographers and imagemakers, especially those responsible for Occupy Lulz graphics – if you are one of them, please contact us at occupy. anthology@gmail.com; we want to be able to credit you properly. DREAMING IN PUBLIC Building the Occupy Movement Edited by Amy Schrager Lang & Daniel Lang/Levitsky Dreaming In Public: Building the Occupy Movement First published in 2012 by New Internationalist Publications Ltd 55 Rectory Road Oxford OX4 1BW, UK newint.org This book has been compiled by Amy Schrager Lang and Daniel Lang/Levitsky. Copyright over the contributions to the book is held by the individual authors. Their work appears here under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

. ♦ Yours, as always, in solidarity, Comrades from Cairo infrontandcenter.wordpress.com/2011/11/14/comrades-from-cairo-respond-to-ows-egypt-delegation/ 1 http://nin.tl/HerBod Library Bound together by their impressionistic, casual tone, these accounts of Occupy sites report on conversations taking place around the country, on what people thought about their local Occupy movements – on the ‘sonic structure of belonging’. As Barbara Kingsolver’s ‘Another American Way’ makes clear, in Johnson City, Tennessee, as in many small cities across the US, local political traditions and regional culture shape and strengthen the Occupy movement, and give ‘the 99%’ a particular resonance. While media accounts of the early days of OWS puzzled endlessly over the relationship between movement participants and ‘the public’, Angus Johnston’s account of conversations at a deli near the Liberty Plaza encampment suggests that, as much as anything else, Occupy provides a vocabulary for already existing views.

In Flagstaff, Arizona, a city where activists have worked alongside Native communities for years, the local Occupy website features calls to resist a fake-snow-making scheme on a mountain sacred to Native tribes, as well as a plan by Senator John McCain and Representative Paul Gosar to reinstate uranium mining around the Grand Canyon. At Colorlines.com, which has covered the role of race in the Occupy movement, one commenter offered the example of Occupy Los Angeles – a city with a long history of collaborative economic justice campaigns with a clear race angle – as a model to emulate. ‘The LA folks seem to be able to reconcile how to fold race, monetary and social issues all into their messages,’ she wrote. The Occupy movement is clearly unifying. Centralizing racial equity will help to sustain that unity. This won’t happen accidentally or automatically. It will require deliberate, smart, structured organizing that challenges segregation, not only that of the 1% from everyone else, but also that which divides the 99% from within. ♦ colorlines.com/archives/2011/11/forget_the_diversity_debate_its_about_occupying_racial_inequity.html THE ONLY WAY TO EXPERIENCE THE AMERICAN DREAM IS WHILE SLEEPING An Indigenous Platform Proposal for ‘Occupy Denver’ The American Indian Movement of Colorado 9 October 2011 ‘Occupy Denver’ Adopts Colorado AIM initiative on indigenous peoples’ rights!


pages: 291 words: 90,200

Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells

access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

Then, in Los Angeles, my research collaborator Lana Swartz, an outstanding doctoral student at the Annenberg School of Communication at USC, was also involved in Occupy Los Angeles, and also accepted with incredible generosity, intelligence, and rigor to help me in the data collection and analysis of the Occupy movement in the United States. Joan Donovan, an active participant in Occupy Los Angeles and Inter-Occupy, a veteran of many battles for social justice, and a doctoral student at UC San Diego, gave me some key ideas that helped my understanding. Dorian Bon, a student at Columbia University, conveyed to me his experience in the student movement connected to Occupy Wall Street. My friend and colleague Sasha Costanza-Chock, a professor at MIT, shared with me his unpublished survey data on the Occupy movement in the US. Maytha Alhassen, an Arab-American journalist and doctoral student in American Studies and Ethnicity at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, who had traveled in the Arab countries during the time of the uprisings, worked closely with me, reporting on key events that she witnessed first-hand, allowing me access to Arabic sources, and most importantly educating me about what had really happened everywhere.

Elliott, J. (2011) The origins of Occupy Wall Street explained.Salon. Available at: <http://www.salon.com/2011/10/04/adbusters_occupy_wall_st/>. Kaste, M. (2011) Exploring Occupy Wall Street’s “AdBuster” origin. NPR Morning Edition. Available at: <http://www.npr.org/2011/10/20/141526467/exploring-occupy-wall-streets-adbuster-origins>. Kennedy, M. (2011) Global solidarity and the Occupy Movement. Possible Futures. Available at: <http://www.possible-futures.org/2011/12/05/global-solidarity-occupy-movement/>. Kroll, A. (2011) How Occupy Wall Street really got started. Mother Jones. Available at: <http://motherjones.com/politics/2011/10/occupy-wall-street-international-origins>. Schwartz. M. (2011) Pre-occupied: the origins and future of Occupy Wall Street. The New Yorker. Available at: <http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/28/111128fa_fact_schwartz>.

Goodale, G. (2011) Bank Transfer Day: How much impact did it have? Christian Science Monitor. Available at: <http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2011/1107/Bank-Transfer-Day-How-much-impact-did-it-have>. Hamilton, W., Reckard, S., and Willon, P. (2011) Occupy Movement moves into neighborhoods. Los Angeles Times. Available at: <http://articles.latimes.com/2011/dec/06/business/la-fi-occupy-home-20111206>. “Occupy Wall Street goes home.” (2011) Occupy Wall Street. Available at: <http://occupywallst.org/article/occupy-wall-street-goes-home/>. Riquier, A., Gopal, P., and Brandt, N. (2011) Occupy Movement targets home evictions in US Day of Action. Bloomberg. Available at: <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-12-06/occupy-protest-movement-targets-home-evictions-in-u-s-day-of-action-.html>. Swartz, L. (2010) Ghoulish ATMs, It’s a Wonderful Bank, and Bloody Valentines: Personal finance as civic communication.


pages: 326 words: 88,905

Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt by Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban decay, wage slave, white flight, women in the workforce

The model for organization would have to be consensus. “What happened in Immokalee is similar to what is happening in the rest of the country with the Occupy movements,” he says: We began because we were desperate. We didn’t see a solution through the system itself. We knew we had to change the balance of power between the workers and the corporations. And this is happening all over the world. Many people are desperate. They work hard and have nothing to show for it. You see in these Occupy movements young people who burned their eyelashes off studying and have no job and huge debts. There are differences. We are poor. We are isolated. But like the Occupy movements we are organic, we are responding to corporate power. We, too, are nonhierarchical. Everyone has a voice. There are no designated leaders. Lucas Benitez.

The lack of specific demands and goals was not initially deliberate, but was ultimately inevitable. The Occupy movement understood that it could not work within the system. All energy directed toward reforming political and state structures was wasted. They were not pleading with Congress for electoral reform. They were not looking for a viable candidate. They knew that electoral politics was a farce. They had no faith in the political system or the two major political parties. Anyone who trusts in the reformation of our corporate state fails to recognize that those who govern, including Barack Obama, are as deaf to public demands and suffering as the old communist regimes. The Occupy movement knew the media would not amplify their voices. So they created media of their own. They knew the economy serves the oligarchs, so they formed their own communal system.

That’s translated into communities throughout the country that don’t want anything to do with each other, that are so foreign to each other that there is hardly a drop of empathy between them. The Occupy movements fused the elements vital for revolt. They attracted small groups of veteran revolutionists whose isolated struggles, whether in the form of squatter communities or acts of defiance such as the tree-sit protest in Berkeley that ran from December 1, 2006, to September 9, 2008, to save an oak grove on the University of California campus,31 are often unheeded by the wider culture. The Occupy movements, like the movements in Eastern Europe, were nurtured in numerous small, dissident enclaves. Bands of revolutionists in cities such as New York, Oakland, Chicago, Denver, Boston, San Francisco, Eugene, Portland, Los Angeles, and Atlanta severed themselves from the mainstream, joined with other marginalized communities, and mastered the physical techniques of surviving on the streets and in jails.


Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, American ideology, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

And if anyone questions that, it leads to near hysteria and often to charges of anti-Americanism or “hating America”—interesting concepts that don’t exist in democratic societies, only in totalitarian societies and here, where they’re just taken for granted. 4 Domestic Disturbances CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS (JANUARY 17, 2012) As someone who is interested in the political deployment of language, you must appreciate the irony of “occupy” and “occupation,” which are extremely negative terms, being used in a very positive way by the Occupy movement. It’s an interesting usage, and it took off. Occupy now means taking something over for popular goals. Occupying public space has been a very successful tactic. I would have never guessed it would have worked, frankly. There is an incipient movement called Occupy the Dream. It was formed by representatives of the Occupy movements and surviving leaders of the original civil rights movement, including Benjamin Chavis.1 The dream that they’re talking about is not the one that people refer to on Martin Luther King Day, the civil rights dream. It’s King’s real dream: end war, end poverty, deal with the real suffering of people, not just civil rights, which is hard enough.

There has been an increase in the use of terms such as “income inequality,” “concentrations of wealth,” “CEO pay,” “poverty,” “unemployment” since the Occupy Wall Street movement began in September 2011. The idea of the 1 percent and 99 percent has become common. The Occupy movement has succeeded in tapping feelings, attitudes, and understandings that have been latent, hidden right below the surface. They brought it out. All of a sudden it exploded. It’s interesting, if you take a look at the business press, the Financial Times, which is the most important business daily in the world, has been surprisingly sympathetic to the Occupy movements. Not to their longer-term goals—they don’t talk about those—but the short-term ones. They use a lot of this imagery now quite freely, and in quite a sympathetic way. There are enormous propaganda efforts to try to denigrate it and undermine the movement, to say it’s the politics of envy.

Another respect in which the revolts are similar—almost identical, in fact—is that the destructive effects of neoliberalism are very highly praised by what’s sometimes called the International Monetary Fund (IMF)–World Bank–U.S. Treasury troika. In fact, in the case of Egypt, international financial elites highly praised the Mubarak dictatorship for its amazing economic performance and reforms up to just weeks before the regime crashed. Similar things are happening in Africa, here, and in Europe. The indignados in southern Europe and the Occupy movements here are in a sense similar, even if they are from different worlds. The protests are not against dictatorships but against the shredding of democratic systems and the consequences of the Western version of the neoliberal system, which has had structurally consistent effects for the past thirty years: a very narrow concentration of wealth in a fraction of 1 percent of the population, stagnation for a large part of the rest, deregulation, and repeated financial crises, each one harsher than the last.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

In what follows, we examine two of the strongest cases for horizontalism: the Occupy movement emerging after the 2008 financial crisis and the Argentinean experience in the wake of the country’s 2001 default. In each case, we can see both the real successes and the palpable limits of these approaches. Occupy The most significant recent embodiment of horizontalist principles occurred in the ‘movement of the squares’. While occupations do not require horizontalist governance (indeed, the precursors to the tactic originally came from the military),20 the vast majority of post-2008 occupations have been organised along such lines. This wave of occupations of public spaces spread rapidly to over 950 cities worldwide in 2011, each inflected with local political, economic, cultural and class concerns. Here we want to examine the failure of the Occupy movement in the Western world, in particular because it highlights the deficiencies of folk-political thinking in the core capitalist countries.21 Notably, this failure occurred despite the vast range of approaches subsumed under the name of Occupy.

The strategic imperatives to expand, extend and universalise are left unfulfilled. If Occupy was unsuccessful in expanding prefigurative spaces beyond the margins of society, these protest camps could still be useful as launching pads for direct action. Indeed, one of the most notable achievements of the Occupy movement was to establish a social and physical infrastructure that could act as a foundation for direct actions. In countries like Greece and Spain, debt strikes have been organised and picket lines formed for workers without the right to strike. Other Occupy movements supported squatters, provided food for the homeless, set up pirate media, mobilised to prevent evictions, protested against government cuts and provided humanitarian relief after natural disasters. But the influence of Occupy should not be overstated. For instance, many of the successful eviction and foreclosure movements have been extensions of pre-existing work done by movements such as the black activist–led Take Back the Land.57 More broadly, the problem is that direct actions generally act on surface effects, patching the wounds of capitalism but leaving the underlying problems and structures intact.

Repeated student protests, occupations and riots struggle against rises in tuition fees, but they continue their inexorable advance. Around the world, people set up protest camps and mobilise against economic inequality, but the gap between the rich and the poor keeps growing. From the alter-globalisation struggles of the late 1990s, through the antiwar and ecological coalitions of the early 2000s, and into the new student uprisings and Occupy movements since 2008, a common pattern emerges: resistance struggles rise rapidly, mobilise increasingly large numbers of people, and yet fade away only to be replaced by a renewed sense of apathy, melancholy and defeat. Despite the desires of millions for a better world, the effects of these movements prove minimal. A FUNNY THING HAPPENED ON THE WAY TO THE PROTEST Failure permeates this cycle of struggles, and as a result, many of the tactics on the contemporary left have taken on a ritualistic nature, laden with a heavy dose of fatalism.


pages: 88 words: 22,980

One Way Forward: The Outsider's Guide to Fixing the Republic by Lawrence Lessig

collapse of Lehman Brothers, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, jimmy wales, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan

Eight months after my weekend in Phoenix, I was in New York. My book Republic, Lost had been released, and I had just returned to the States from an overseas trip. More than slightly jet-lagged, I climbed on a subway to Zuccotti Park to watch and listen and then participate as the people in that park, with the movement it represented—Occupy Wall Street—mobilized fifteen thousand people to march to City Hall. The Occupy movement had begun two and a half weeks before, on September 17, 2011 (a.k.a. Constitution Day). Initially proposed in July by the Canadian group Adbusters, the movement was reported on two days later in a YouTube video on a Facebook page. Three days after that, the protest reached critical mass. Wikipedia reports that “by mid-October, Facebook listed 125 Occupy-related pages” and that “roughly one in every 500 hashtags used on Twitter, all around the world, was the movement’s own #OWS.”12 On October 15, “tens of thousands of demonstrators staged rallies in 900 cities around the world, including Auckland, Sydney, Hong Kong, Taipei, Tokyo, São Paulo, Paris, Madrid, Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, and many more.”

Patterson was among the first to show up to the Occupy K Street protests in early October 2011. After work each day, he goes to the camp and stays until 9 or 10 P.M. Sometimes he sleeps at the camp. When I interviewed him in December 2011, he still had a camp set up. Patterson became an Occupier as a disillusioned Obama supporter. As he told me, “The mechanisms that we have in place to resolve the problems of society are not functioning.” And as he became part of the Occupy movement, he began to recognize the many “around the country [who were] feeling the same sort of frustration.” Occupy K Street is different from Occupy Wall Street.15 As Patterson described, we “adopted what they did in some ways, but we also built upon [it] and did things differently.” For example, like Occupy Wall Street, Occupy K Street uses no technical sound amplification when speakers speak, although no D.C. regulation forbids it.

It is a pattern that is common to every important social “surprise” in the last generation. No one (outside of MIT) imagined the Internet; this kind of movement created it. No one (outside of MIT) predicted GNU/Linux, the free software operating system that took on Windows; this kind of movement built it. No one anywhere conceived of Wikipedia as even possible; this kind of movement wrote it. No one predicted the energy of the Tea Party or the Occupy movement or the other parallel movements around the world, but all of them fit this same form. Indeed, as I’ve gathered the material for this short book, I’ve been most struck by the universal invocation of the ideals of “open-source culture” to explain these movements. And not just on the Left. Mark Meckler and Jenny Beth Martin, of the Tea Party Patriots, open their book by defining the Tea Party as an “open-source community.”18 In the world of computer software, open-source communities develop and improve ideas organically, based on concepts and practices that work.


pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

It builds relationships and has strategic value. The most serious weakness of these methods, especially those that prioritize—or even fetishize—consensus above all, is that they are often unable to resolve even minor disagreements, even when most agree on a course of action. Consider what happened in Atlanta, Georgia, on October 6, 2011, less than two weeks after the Occupy movement started in Zuccotti Park, New York. Hundreds began to gather in Woodrow Park in Atlanta and launched the Occupy movement in their hometown. It was a pleasant day, with a high temperature of eighty-one and little humidity. Like Zuccotti Park and elsewhere, the protesters chose to meet in an “assembly” in a park. Assemblies and “human microphones” (or “mic checks”) have become the dominant methods of meeting in Occupy protests. Assemblies are gatherings that use horizontalist meeting techniques and consensus to conduct business.

Such new experiments, fusing both existing strengths and impulses of these movements but attempting to incorporate different tools and strategic visions, are discussed around the world in conversations between activists who consider next steps. Digital tools continue to evolve, too. Many movements seek decision-making structures that align with their participatory impulses. In New Zealand, technically inclined veterans of its Occupy movement launched a platform called Loomio, a tool designed for horizontalist movements that want to keep the participatory structures of the assembly model to facilitate decision making. I met with one of its cofounders Benjamin Knight in New York. He was only in his twenties, but he was already a veteran of the Occupy movement and frustrated by its lack of tactical and strategic decision-making capacities. Teaming up with other people, he created Loomio, an online platform that blends practical considerations with a movement ethos. A wide range of actors, from activists planning movements to the government in New Zealand organizing a census, use the tool.

Their trajectories do not match those of past movements, and neither should our benchmarks or timelines for success or impact. In the networked era, a large, organized march or protest should not be seen as the chief outcome of previous capacity building by a movement; rather, it should be looked at as the initial moment of the movement’s bursting onto the scene, but only the first stage in a potentially long journey. The civil rights movement may have reached a peak in the March on Washington in 1963, but the Occupy movement arguably began with the occupation of Zuccotti Park in 2011. The future trajectory or potential impacts of networked movements cannot be fully understood by using only the conceptual models, indicators and benchmarks that we have gathered from the histories of earlier movements. Similar-looking moments and activities—large marches, big protests, occupations—do not represent the same points in the trajectories of the networked movements as they did in movements organized along traditional models and without digital tools.


pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

I can’t help but regret that he’s not here to take part in and invigorate a movement that would have been the dream of his life, and for which he laid a lot of the groundwork. The Occupy movements are exciting, inspiring. If the bonds and associations being established in these remarkable events can be sustained and carried forward through a long, hard period ahead—victories don’t come quickly—the Occupy protests could mark a truly significant moment in American history. I’ve never seen anything quite like the Occupy movement in scale and character, here and worldwide. The Occupy outposts are trying to create cooperative communities that just might be the basis for the kinds of lasting organizations necessary to overcome the barriers ahead and the backlash that’s already coming. The Occupy movement is in many ways unprecedented. That is natural enough, because this is an unprecedented era, not just at this moment but since the 1970s.

We’re history’s actors . . . and you, all of you, will be left to just study what we do.” “History’s actors” should be so unlucky that an observer as knowledgeable, indefatigable, writerly and unflinching as Noam Chomsky is on hand to “study what we do.” Events belie the senior adviser as this book goes to press. The Occupy movement is on fire worldwide, ignited by outrages that Chomsky explores here: inequality, disenfranchisement, official arrogance and deceit. “I’ve never seen anything quite like the Occupy movement in scale and character, here and worldwide,” Chomsky said at Occupy Boston on October 22, 2011, a talk adapted for this book’s final entry. “The Occupy outposts are trying to create cooperative communities that just might be the basis for the kinds of lasting organizations necessary to overcome the barriers ahead and the backlash that’s already coming.”

Taken together, the columns in this edition present a narrative of the events that have made the future since 2007: the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq; the U.S. presidential race; the ascendancy of China; Latin America’s leftward turn; the threat of nuclear proliferation in Iran and North Korea; Israel’s invasion of Gaza and expansion of settlements in Jerusalem and the West Bank; developments in climate change; the world financial crisis; the Arab Spring; the death of Osama bin Laden; and the Occupy protests. As often happens, Chomsky’s columns anticipate events. His August 2011 column, “America in Decline,” foreshadows a premise of the Occupy movement: “The resulting concentration of wealth [since the 1970s] yielded greater political power, accelerating a vicious cycle that has led to extraordinary wealth for a fraction of 1 percent of the population, mainly, while for the large majority real incomes have virtually stagnated.” In every sense Chomsky lives up to the title of “public intellectual.” He is constantly on the road, giving talks.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

anti-globalists, back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, do-ocracy, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

They resent the banks for evicting them and the politicians for bailing out the banks. Around the edges of the project move people from a completely different demographic: the so-called indignados of the 15M movement—anti-globalist youth with trade-mark tattoos and piercings. The indignados made world headlines after massive occupation protests in public squares in May 2011, in turn sparking the global Occupy movement. When you see the Utopia flats, draped with banners announcing ‘no homes without people, no people without homes’, you see what happens when official politics abandons people. Very ordinary, indeed anti-political people have begun to turn to Spain’s radical youth for help. They in turn have found a purpose, here and elsewhere, outside mainstream politics, which they despise. For at the heart of Spain’s economic problem is its political system.

‘Sometimes,’ says Juanjo, ‘it seems like we’ve created a collective intelligence that can move very quickly—we can solve big problems in minutes because the situation we found ourselves in demanded it. But we need victories, we need hope, we need to do things that make people think there is a solution. That’s what made people from different ideologies, movements, strategies work together in a project like this. Before this we never had such objectives—it’s new—but it’s because the situation is really critical.’ * * * * Since the original version of this book was published the Occupy movement took centre stage in the USA, the Russian protests went through the entire cycle of flowering and repression, and important movements such as those in Chile and Canada took place. I’ve spent the past twelve months trying to cover these events firsthand, mainly as part of my day job as a TV reporter. In the next four chapters I revisit Greece and Spain, survey the impact of the Russian movement up to the jailing of Pussy Riot, and offer a critical re-reading of my original blogpost ‘Twenty Reasons Why It’s Kicking Off Everywhere’. 12 Developments in Greece: Love or Nothing Of all the operas written during Germany’s Weimar Republic (1919–33), probably the most haunting is the last.

In the Internet clips and live performances of Citizen Poet, a duo of comedians dedicated to ripping Putin’s reputation to shreds with satire, speech by speech; in the fake tickets for the police arrest bus handed out on every demo. And sometimes just through bitterly earnest songs, in journalism, in 140-character tweets going viral to an online community of millions—actions Putin could never understand, and the FSB could never totally repress. Two months before his election, Vladimir Putin had crowed to the West about its problem with the Occupy movement, who were ‘not just a bunch of outcasts but hundreds of thousands’. Now he had that problem too. Russia is a lucky country. Since the fall of communism it has been blessed with not just one kleptocratic elite, but two. Under Boris Yeltsin, the so-called oligarchy was created when a small group of businessmen, initially emerging from the Gorbachevera elite, seized the country’s privatized resources with all the subtlety of a lion enclosure at feeding time.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

On the left, disaffection with American inequality crystallized into the 2011 Occupy Wall Street movement, whose rhetoric pitted the top 1 percent of income-earners or wealth holders (the distinction seemed ambiguous) against the 99 percent with whom the movement’s followers identified. Protesters occupied Zuccotti Park in Manhattan’s Wall Street district and set up a campground and a “people’s assembly.” Later, Occupy movements sprouted up around the world. Rhetorically, the Occupy movement had much in common with the egalitarian forebears described in previous chapters. As social critics had in the eighteenth century, Occupy protesters formulated a list of grievances, the “Declaration of the Occupation of New York City.” Like their nineteenth-century progenitors, the protesters focused on the corporations: “corporations do not seek consent to extract wealth from the people and the Earth, and … no true democracy is attainable when the process is determined by economic power.”33 They proposed an opposition between the rich and the poor: The Occupy Wall Street movement is not just demanding change.

The ninety and nine in their hovel bare, The one in luxury with riches rare.35 Substantively, the Occupy movement pointed out that even though many Americans thought economic redistribution was un-American, tax policies since the 1970s had been redistributing money to the top 1 percent.36 Economist William K. Tabb noted that from 1973 to 2006, real wages grew by less than 1 percent, even while productivity increased by more than 80 percent.37 Occupy protesters also resented changes in the banking system. Not only had banks grown so large that they were considered worthy of government bailouts, but also the suspension of the Glass-Steagall Act enabled banks to invest in ways that were in direct conflict with the interests of their depositors.38 The Occupy movement never gained much traction, for several reasons. First, it was impossible for Occupy protesters to pose a real alternative to capitalism without alienating the mainstream media and many Americans.39 The impossibility, today, of really describing alternate economic arrangements without having them written off as “socialistic” testifies to the power of capital to silence other voices and to make change impossible by constricting the notion of alternatives.40 Second, while the language and the tactics of the Occupy movement were promising, the movement was hindered by its lack of larger strategy.

Others issued a vague call for tax restructuring, or job growth through the formation of local cooperative movements using environmentally sustainable practices.41 English professor and Occupy participant Stephen Collis advocated expansion of public transit and free education and health care.42 Some form of reviving collective bargaining, although perhaps not through a traditional union movement, was also suggested.43 A slow movement overly focused on democratic process at the best of times, Occupy was open to being portrayed by the press as increasingly dirty, dangerous, unfocused, or even Marxist and laughable.44 The Occupiers were so enamored of direct democracy that they celebrated divisions within the movement rather than making progress toward some common goal.45 Nonetheless, the Occupy movement brought sustained public attention to the issue of inequality and the degree to which American politics had been captured by the wealthiest 1 percent. Awareness of the issue among young people arguably fueled Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders’s popularity during the 2016 Democratic presidential primary. DISSATISFACTION WITH THE STATUS QUO: THE TEA PARTY A right-wing protest movement emerged a year before the Occupy movement. It was, in its own way, also a protest movement against inequality, but it defined the major issues differently. In 2009, Consumer News and Business Channel commentator Rick Santelli called for a “Tea Party” to resist the Obama administration’s continuation of the Bush administration bank bailout.


pages: 74 words: 19,580

The 99.998271% by Simon Wood

banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, equal pay for equal work, Julian Assange, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks

People, however, are cottoning on. The Occupy Wall Street protests have spread rapidly around the country and now all over the world, and may continue to do so. The reason for the popularity of these protests is simple: the protesters want to live by truly democratic principles and are tired of bought and corrupt politicians. They know who pulls the strings and want no more of it. It is remarkable in itself that the Occupy movement is supported according to polls by a majority of Americans. Historically, such movements take much longer to garner such support. The fact that this has happened so quickly serves as testament to the frustration huge numbers of Americans feel. Yet another worrying domestic issue for Americans is the massive database being created by the National Security Agency (NSA) through warrantless wiretapping.

The Occupy Wall Street movement, at first ignored completely by the establishment media, is now feeling the full force of the propaganda mill, with protestors smeared as ‘hippies’ and ‘pot smokers’ with ‘no direction in their lives’ and so on. 41 The author of this book is not a professional journalist, so I hereby request that professional journalists in the media point out to me the part of the course in journalism they studied at college which says that journalists are supposed to criticize, insult, judge and demean the subjects of the stories they cover. It may be old fashioned to say it, but are journalists not simply supposed to report facts in a neutral fashion, and provide honest, unbiased background or analysis (without omissions of important, relevant information) in order to inform the public? The Occupy movement, while an important expression of discontent, is in danger of stagnating unless it evolves and/or grows significantly. With winter already here, only the hardiest will remain steadfast in the face of wall-to-wall media condemnation, ridicule and propaganda. And many are. When spring comes, the elites know that most of the country will be engrossed in the biggest reality show in town – the presidential election.

In the next election, as the current Republican candidates are one and all almost unelectable, even such a true 42 Democrat could win. This could never happen, because both parties are controlled by their financial benefactors, but it would be an interesting experiment, as the media and all other instruments of the corporate elites which ensure the status quo is maintained would be forced to fire at such a person with all guns blazing, just as they are doing with the Occupy movement. The world would witness a campaign of character assassination the like of which has never been seen before. An alternative is for someone to run as an independent candidate. Step forward Matt Damon! There is only one other option, one thing that can save the sane majority who do not want violence, war, torture, hatred or greed, but simply want to live a productive life in peace with all the tools of freedom guaranteed for them and their children in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - and that is to endow the people with executive power in a legal fashion as described later in this book.


pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, Laplace demon, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

Extreme wealth inequality is generally considered a problem, because it means there are many people barely surviving while others are fabulously rich. The Occupy Movement Wealth inequality has partly fueled a modern social movement known as the Occupy movement. The first significant Occupy protest was on Wall Street in New York City, where thousands of protesters gathered to express their dismay with the distribution of wealth, among other things. The movement’s motto is “We are the 99%,” reminding politicians to serve the majority, not the 1% who control more than a third of the nation’s wealth. A major goal of the movement is to achieve a more equal distribution of income, which protesters hope to accomplish by implementing a more progressive tax policy. One of the effects of taxation is to redistribute wealth from the rich to the poor. But opponents of the Occupy movement (and many fiscal conservatives) claim that high tax rates for the rich actually hurt the population as a whole.

Game of Life Implementing Life Life Patterns Conway’s Conjecture Realism Instrumentalism Turmites 8. Fractals Fractal CAs Percolation 9. Self-Organized Criticality Sand Piles Spectral Density Fast Fourier Transform Pink Noise Reductionism and Holism SOC, Causation, and Prediction 10. Agent-Based Models Thomas Schelling Agent-Based Models Traffic Jams Boids Prisoner’s Dilemma Emergence Free Will 11. Case Study: Sugarscape The Original Sugarscape The Occupy Movement A New Take on Sugarscape Pygame Taxation and the Leave Behind The Gini Coefficient Results with Taxation Conclusion 12. Case Study: Ant Trails Introduction Model Overview API Design Sparse Matrices wx Applications 13. Case Study: Directed Graphs and Knots Directed Graphs Implementation Detecting Knots Knots in Wikipedia 14. Case Study: The Volunteer’s Dilemma The Prairie Dog’s Dilemma Analysis The Norms Game Results Improving the Chances A.

Taxation and the Leave Behind Taxation in our implementation of Sugarscape is handled with a Government object. Every 10 time steps, the Government object collects a fraction of each agent’s sugar reserve, then distributes the collected sugar to each agent equally. This transfer represents services provided by the government as well as explicit redistribution of wealth. If opponents of the Occupy movement are correct, transferring wealth from the rich to the poor makes society as a whole less productive. According to this theory, the rich create more wealth than the poor because they can open factories, fund research, and generally make investments into the economy. In order to simulate this effect, we need to augment the model with a mechanism of wealth creation. We implement a simple “leave behind” feature, where agents leave some sugar behind as they leave a location: In this formula, N is the total number of agents, wealth is the amount of sugar each agent has, and is the total sugar owned by all the agents.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Therefore, even though the government had taken down all official lines of communication, unofficial technology channels sprang up rapidly to provide alternative cover, and many of these unofficial channels were being launched by individual supports in Holland, France, America and around the rest of the world. Is this a time when societies worldwide change their world or will media, finance and government, continue to control and direct? Not necessarily, as demonstrated by another major protest movement: the Occupy Movement. The Occupy Movement and the 99% Facebook have a vision “to accomplish a social mission - to make the world more open and connected”. As demonstrated by the Arab Spring, that vision is well on the way to being achieved, and there are other examples of how this vision is being delivered. In fact, the real change that Facebook, Twitter and other social pressure organisations such as Change.org have brought about is the ability for one person to create a major social movement.

We saw this social change begin when services such as MySpace allowed individuals to launch their musical careers. Many stars of today, such as Lily Allen, Kate Nash and Sean Kingston, started on a MySpace page. The social network allowed artistes to attract interest without having to find major music moguls or clubs to perform. Then we saw the Arab Spring and, more recently, the Occupy Movement. The Occupy Movement began as a civil protest in New York in September 2011, with the aim of airing the frustration of the masses over job losses, house foreclosures and general disillusionment with those in power: the financial system, rather than the political system. After all, Occupy would have started in Washington if it were aimed at the political system. The movement gathered most of its communication activity through Twitter using the hashtag, a means of tracking specific themes, #OccupyWallStreet which later was shortened to #OWS.

Chris immediately forgot about the page and got on with other things but, four days later, came back and found hundreds of photos had been submitted. One was from Priscilla Grim who noticed that, after a fortnight, the website was not being updated so she offered to help Chris edit it. Soon, the service became a cohesive force for change behind the Occupy Movement. The photos being posted proved to have a major emotional impact, and the blog went viral with protestors adopting the phrase “We Are The 99 Per Cent” as a slogan, writing it on signs and banners. It is quite clear from the emergence of the Arab Spring, the Occupy Movement and the 99% that these and many other social movements would just not exist in the same way without Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Change and the power of today’s social internet. Equally, the real revolution of these networks is that they allow critical mass of new movements to be linked globally within days, as demonstrated by the We are the 99% story.


pages: 269 words: 83,307

Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits by Kevin Roose

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Basel III, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, East Village, eurozone crisis, fixed income, forward guidance, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hedonic treadmill, jitney, knowledge worker, new economy, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, selection bias, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Predators' Ball, too big to fail, urban planning, We are the 99%, young professional

Another young bank employee I met just outside the Occupy protests laughed when I asked him if he was doing a lot of deep thinking as a result of what was happening in Zuccotti Park. “I work for UBS,” he said, referring to the beleaguered Swiss bank that had just announced a $2 billion loss stemming from the actions of a rogue trader. “We have bigger problems right now.” One dissenting note several young financiers brought up with respect to the Occupy movement was that it made no distinction between the executives whose decisions had brought about the financial crisis and the tens of thousands of back-office, middle-office, and junior front-office employees who made much less money than C-suite executives and had no decision-making capabilities at all. “There’s sixty thousand–odd employees at my bank,” a different J.P. Morgan analyst told me. “It doesn’t make sense to brand us all with the same stroke.

(The cutoff for the top 1 percent of American tax filers in 2010 was about $370,000 in adjusted gross income—well above what any first-year analyst makes.) In that way, blaming Wall Street underlings for the crisis seemed like blaming George W. Bush’s personal chef for the war in Iraq. Still, by virtue of taking part in a financial system that Occupy found oppressive, young analysts had opened themselves up for criticism. Jeremy Miller-Reed had always been discreet about telling people that he worked at Goldman Sachs. But now that the Occupy movement was increasing the heat on banks, with Goldman often bearing the brunt of the criticism, he found himself cloaking it even more often. “I lie whenever I go out now,” he told me. “I tell people I’m a consultant, a lawyer, whatever—anything but a Wall Street guy.” Jeremy’s paranoia had been boosted during the third week of the protests, during a routine doctor’s visit. While getting his checkup, he mentioned to the nurse that he’d recently visited a physician on staff at his office.

“It’s weird that we’re not allowed to call someone out on the fact that they’re brilliant and passionate, that they love working with preschool children or whatever, and that they’re going to a bank instead.” “I’ve been saying to people who are planning to go into finance, ‘I’m disappointed in you,’” Marina said. In the two months since Marina’s original essay ran, students at many other top-flight colleges had begun raising questions about the dominance of financial recruiting on their campuses. Offshoots of the Occupy movement had organized several student protests, including one at Princeton, in which a group of students interrupted a J.P. Morgan information session. The protesters rose from their seats midsession and shouted in unison: “Your predatory lending practices helped crash our economy, we’ve bailed out your executives’ bonuses, you’ve evicted struggling homeowners while taking their tax money.…In light of these actions, we protest the campus culture that whitewashes the crooked dealings of Wall Street as a prestigious career path.”


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Gradually, one particular imagination—a brittle, superficial pretense of tolerance and multiculturalism (that morphs into racism, rabid nationalism, ethnic chauvinism, or warmongering Islamophobia at a moment’s notice) under the roof of a single overarching, very unplural economic ideology—began to dominate the discourse. It did so to such an extent that it ceased to be perceived as an ideology at all. It became the default position, the natural way to be. It infiltrated normality, colonized ordinariness, and challenging it began to seem as absurd or as esoteric as challenging reality itself. From here it was a quick, easy step to “There Is No Alternative.” It is only now, thanks to the Occupy movement, that another language has appeared on US streets and campuses. To see students with banners that say “Class War” or “We don’t mind you being rich, but we mind you buying our government” is, given the odds, almost a revolution in itself. One century after it began, corporate philanthropy is as much part of our lives as Coca-Cola. There are now millions of nonprofit organizations, many of them connected through a byzantine financial maze to the larger foundations.

Afterword Afterword Speech to the People’s University Yesterday morning the police cleared Zuccotti Park, but today the people are back. The police should know that this protest is not a battle for territory. We’re not fighting for the right to occupy a park here or there. We are fighting for Justice. Justice, not just for the people of the United States, but for everybody. What you have achieved since September 17, when the Occupy Movement began in the United States, is to introduce a new imagination, a new political language, into the heart of Empire. You have reintroduced the right to dream into a system that tried to turn everybody into zombies mesmerized into equating mindless consumerism with happiness and fulfillment. As a writer, let me tell you, this is an immense achievement. I cannot thank you enough. We were talking about justice.

As a result of twenty years of the Free Market economy, today one hundred of India’s richest people own assets worth one-fourth of the country’s GDP while more than 80 percent of the people live on less than fifty cents a day.3 Two hundred fifty thousand farmers driven into a spiral of death have committed suicide.4 We call this progress and now think of ourselves as a superpower. Like you, we are well qualified, we have nuclear bombs and obscene inequality. The good news is that people have had enough and are not going to take it anymore. The Occupy Movement has joined thousands of other resistance movements all over the world in which the poorest of people are standing up and stopping the richest corporations in their tracks. Few of us dreamed that we would see you, the people of the United States, on our side, trying to do this in the heart of Empire. I don’t know how to communicate the enormity of what this means. They (the 1%) say that we don’t have demands . . . they don’t know, perhaps, that our anger alone would be enough to destroy them.


pages: 405 words: 103,723

The Government of No One: The Theory and Practice of Anarchism by Ruth Kinna

Berlin Wall, British Empire, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Kickstarter, late capitalism, means of production, moral panic, New Journalism, Occupy movement, post scarcity, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, union organizing, wage slave

While this re-casting of democracy is consistent with the anti-democratic critique, it provides a more solid defence of democratic principles. Anarchists emerge from it as prodemocracy critics of liberal-democratic regimes rather than averse to democracy as opponents of their constitutional arrangements. Murray Bookchin’s ‘communalism’ is one of the best known pro-democracy anarchist models. More recently, not least because it was widely practised in the Occupy movement, the idea of consensus decision-making has taken centre stage in anarchist thinking about democracy. Bookchin understood democracy as a principle of both self-management and collective decision-making, integral to anarchist decentralized federation, and, ethically, as a process for social freedom. For advocates of consensus decision-making, democracy is principally an anti-elitist action that directly challenges hierarchy and privilege in order to construct new social relationships.

There is no set process for consensus but it typically involves the working and reworking of proposals until everyone directly affected by the proposal is able to accept the result. The point is not to ‘convert others’ to a single point of view or exert power by mobilizing support for preferred options. In this sense, it breaks with standard electoral models. Some anarchists reject consensus decision-making, considering it a deeply flawed organizational process. Bookchin died before the Occupy movement ‘enacted the impossible’ and introduced processes of consensus decision-making in mass public assemblies.86 But familiar with its adoption in activist movements in the 1970s, he rejected it as unanarchist. His practical objection was that consensus decision-making ‘permits an insidious authoritarianism and gross manipulations’. Consensual processes took root where organizational structurelessness reigned.

Anarchist feminists involved in grass-roots anti-authoritarian politics in Quebec value consensus as part of a toolkit that constructively tackles intersectional oppressions and unrecognized privilege by fostering ‘freedom, solidarity, collective autonomy, social justice, respect, spontaneity, and mutual aid’. Practised with ‘skill sharing, resource sharing, horizontal organizing without leaders, mutual emotional caretaking, no official membership lists or fees, joining by doing’, consensus contributes to the construction of the non-hegemonic social relationships that enable self-government.88 These ideas also infused the politics of the Occupy movement of 2011, where consensus decision-making was practised by large numbers of people. For David Graeber, one of the leading lights in Occupy, consensus not only described a participatory decision-making practice but an alternative system of self-government. As it was enacted in Occupy camps, consensus emerged as a political practice that enabled participants to take decisions at General Assemblies transparently and directly.


pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

She and her friends had supported his campaign and responded to his explicitly postnarrative refrain, borrowed from Alice Walker’s book title: “We are the ones we have been waiting for. We are the change we seek.” What a call to presentism this was! Young people took Obama at his word, rising to the challenge to become change rather than wait for it. Of course, it turned out to be more of a campaign slogan than an invitation to civic participation—just more rhetoric for a quite-storybook, ends-justify-the-means push to power. It would be left to the Occupy movement to attempt a genuinely presentist approach to social and political change. But Obama’s speechwriters had at least identified the shift under way, the failure of stories to create a greater sense of continuity, and the growing sense that something much more immediate and relevant needed to take their place. BIG STORIES Traditional stories, with traditional, linear arcs, have been around for a long time because they work.

For the one thing the Tea Party appears to want more than the destruction of government is to elect Tea Party members to positions within it. The impatient rush to judgment of the Tea Party movement is only as unnerving as the perpetually patient deliberation of its counterpart present shock movement, Occupy Wall Street. Opposite reactions to collapse of political narrative, the Tea Party yearns for finality while the Occupy movement attempts to sustain indeterminacy. Inspired by the social-media-influenced revolutions of the Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street began as a one-day campaign to call attention to the inequities inherent in a bank-run, quarterly-focused, debt-driven economy. It morphed into something of a permanent revolution, however, dedicated to producing new models of political and economic activity by its very example.

See intuition/instinct Institute for Creative Technologies, USC, 65–66 intelligence, 125 interactivity. See connectivity Internet: as always-on, 73–74; culture of, 96–97, 99; decontextualized, 27; development of, 224; digiphrenia and, 67, 93, 124, 125; discontinuity of age of, 29; ethics and, 70; fractalnoia and, 199, 224; games and, 64; location of computers and, 179–80; narrative collapse and, 16, 27, 29, 47, 48, 50–51, 56, 64; as never sleeping, 69; Occupy Movement and, 56; overwinding and, 179–80; public confidence about news on, 51; real-time news and, 47, 48; reporting and opining and the, 50–51 interruptions, 74, 123 intuition/instinct, 5, 219–20, 222, 233, 234–35 investments. See financial markets Iraq War, 232 Ito, Joichi, 191–92 James, LeBron, 41 Japan, 148, 191, 198, 225 Jarvis, Jeff, 52 Jay-Z, 154 jet lag, 89–90 Jezebel, 97 jobs/employees, 156, 170, 187–88, 217–18 Jobs, Steve, 108, 203 Johnson, Lyndon B., 45 Johnson, Steve, 118, 203 Jordan, Michael, 41 journalism, 50–52, 56, 66.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

the FBI’s COINTELPRO: US Senate (26 Apr 1976), “Final report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, Book II: Intelligence activities and the rights of Americans,” US Government Printing Office, p. 213, https://archive.org/details/finalreportofsel02unit. US has spied on the Occupy: Michael S. Schmidt and Colin Moynihan (24 Dec 2012), “FBI counterterrorism agents monitored Occupy movement, records show,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/25/nyregion/occupy-movement-was-investigated-by-fbi-counterterrorism-agents-records-show.html. Beau Hodai (9 Jun 2013), “Government surveillance of Occupy movement,” Sourcewatch, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Government_Surveillance_of_Occupy_Movement. pro- and anti-abortion activists: Charlie Savage and Scott Shane (16 Dec 2009), “Intelligence improperly collected on U.S. citizens,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/us/17disclose.html. peace activists: American Civil Liberties Union (25 Oct 2006), “ACLU uncovers FBI surveillance of Maine peace activists,” https://www.aclu.org/national-security/aclu-uncovers-fbi-surveillance-maine-peace-activists.

But COINTELPRO was more than simply violating the law or the Constitution. In COINTELPRO the Bureau secretly took the law into its own hands, going beyond the collection of intelligence and beyond its law enforcement function to act outside the legal process altogether and to covertly disrupt, discredit and harass groups and individuals.” Nothing has changed. Since 9/11, the US has spied on the Occupy movement, pro- and anti-abortion activists, peace activists, and other political protesters. • The NSA and FBI spied on many prominent Muslim Americans who had nothing to do with terrorism, including Faisal Gill, a longtime Republican Party operative and onetime candidate for public office who held a top-secret security clearance and served in the Department of Homeland Security under President George W.

It monitored mosques, infiltrated student and political groups, and spied on entire communities. Again, people were targeted because of their ethnicity, not because of any accusations of crimes or evidence of wrongdoing. Many of these operations were conducted with the help of the CIA, which is prohibited by law from spying on Americans. There’s plenty more. Boston’s fusion center spied on Veterans for Peace, the women’s antiwar organization Code Pink, and the Occupy movement. In 2013, the city teamed with IBM to deploy a video surveillance system at a music festival. During the same time period, the Pentagon’s Counterintelligence Field Activity spied on all sorts of innocent American civilians—something the Department of Defense is prohibited by law from doing. Echoing Hoover’s attempt to intimidate King, the NSA has been collecting data on the porn-viewing habits of Muslim “radicalizers”—not terrorists, but those who through political speech might radicalize others—with the idea of blackmailing them.


pages: 324 words: 86,056

The Socialist Manifesto: The Case for Radical Politics in an Era of Extreme Inequality by Bhaskar Sunkara

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, inventory management, labor-force participation, land reform, land value tax, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Occupy movement, postindustrial economy, precariat, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, We are the 99%

In 2015, he succeeded in doing what he had failed to do in 2011: among the devastating reforms passed that year was a $300 million cut to public education and the introduction of “right to work” laws that gutted Wisconsin unions. The battles in Wisconsin were of real interest to citizens of the state and to those who sought a revival of the labor movement, but they had limited national resonance. By contrast, the Occupy Movement, a rebellion against inequality and financial power, captured the media spotlight. It was an idea that by all rights should have failed. Occupy sprung out of the same tradition of the antiglobalization movement of the late 1990s and 2000s—more specifically, out of North America’s tiny anarchist movement. While socialists waited for another Wisconsin, fronted small single-issue organizations, or simply argued among themselves, anarchists took action.

See Britain, history of socialism in; China, history of socialism in; Germany, history of socialism in; Russia, history of socialism in; Sweden, history of socialism in; Third World; United States, history of socialism in Hitler, Adolf, 57, 177, 179 Hobsbawm, Eric, 207–208 Homestead Strike, 162 Howe, Irving, 180 Hundred Flower Campaigns, 148 identity politics, 235–236 ideology differences in, 67–68, 168, 175, 230 ideological kulaks, 102 influence on policy, 98–99, 112–113, 115, 120, 122–123, 152–153 in lieu of incentives, 145, 150 as motivation for socialism, 27–28, 233, 240 See also Marxism immigration, 217 imperialism, 74, 129–131, 147, 156 income inequality in China, 190 and Occupy Movement, 196–198 in Sweden, 119–120 in US, 160, 196–198, 200 incrementalism, 59 Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), Germany, 78 India, 152, 190–191 industrialization in Britain, 38–41, 44 in China, 141–142 in Germany, 52 in Russia, 101–102 in Sweden, 112 in Third World, 156 Industrial Revolution, 38–41, 44 industrial unionism, 169, 177, 182 Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), 165, 169–170, 171 inflation in Britain, 108, 206–207 in China, 141 and Keynesianism, 109 in Russia, 88 and social democracy, 127, 190 in Sweden, 123 Ingrao, Pietro, 242–243 internationalism of capitalism, 222 foreign aid, 156 influence of Maoism worldwide, 150 international revolution, 87, 96–97, 100, 103 and peace, 72, 241–242 and revolution, 87, 96–97, 100, 103 Russia-China relations, 134–136, 142, 147–148 See also Communist International (Comintern) International Workers Congresses of Paris, 56 International Workingmen’s Association (IWA), 43 intersectionality, 202 Ireland, 38 iron law of wages, 53, 54, 162 IWW (Industrial Workers of the World), 165, 169–170, 171 Jacobin (magazine), 231 Japan, 133–134, 139 Jaurès, Jean, 75–76, 106 Jena Congress, 68, 70 Jiang Qing, 148 Jiangxi Soviet, 137 Jim Crow, 118, 183 Jospin, Lionel, 126 JPMorgan, 193, 204–205 Judaism, 110, 211 Junkers, 52, 57, 72 Kamenev, Lev, 89–90, 92 Kautsky, Karl on class, 225 criticism of Bernstein, 63–64 and Debs, 167 establishment of Erfurt Program, 58–59 on governance, 106, 107 and Lenin, 83 and SPD, 59–60, 74, 75 Trotsky on, 84–85 and war vote, 78, 84–85 Keller, Helen, 170 Kennedy, Ted, 185 Kerensky, Alexander, 89, 92 Keynes, John Maynard, 109 Keynesianism, 109, 194, 207 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 183, 235 Kissinger, Henry, 151 KMT (Kuomintang).

See Maoism mass mobilization, 133–134, 219, 223–224 mass strike, 65–68, 134, 135, 181 Mass Strike, the Political Party and the Trade Unions, The (Luxemburg), 66 Matignon Accords, 111 May 30 Incident, 133–134 McCarthyism, 182 Medicare for All, 200, 218, 221 Meidner, Rudolf, 114–116, 119, 120, 123–124 Meidner Plan, 119, 123–124 Mensheviks growth of, 86–87 in Russian Revolution (1905), 84 in Russian Revolution (1917), 88–89, 91, 92–94, 103 and White movement, 97 Miliband, Ed, 210 Miliband, Ralph, 206 military strategy, 137–138 militias, 72, 137, 163 Mitterrand, François, 124, 219 mixed economy, 95, 99–100, 125 Möller, Gustav, 114 Morgan Stanley, 204–205 Morris, William, 225 mortgages, 192–193 motivations for socialism, 27–28, 239–243 Movement for Black Lives (MBL), 198–199 My Life (Trotsky), 2 Myrdal, Gunnar, 114 National Health Service (England), 206 nationalism in China, 134, 147, 151, 153 in Germany, 72–74 self-determination, 129–130 See also internationalism nationalization calls for, 95, 107, 164, 212, 220 in China, 141–142 in France, 107, 124–125 in Germany, 55 resistance in Sweden, 113, 114–116 in Russia, 99, 142 weaknesses of, 116–117 national liberation, 129–130, 234 National Negro Congress, 178 Nazism, 79, 102, 180 neoliberalism, 2–3, 123, 191, 205, 213, 218 Neue Zeit, Die (journal), 60, 62 New Deal, 178–180 New Economic Policy (NEP), 99–100, 101, 140 New Harmony, 160 New Jewel Movement, 154 New Left, 183–184 New Marriage Law, 140 New Masses (magazine), 181 New New Deal, 194 new social movements, 208 New York Call (newspaper), 170 New York Times, 112 Nicaragua, 154 Nicholas II, 88 1905 Revolution (Russia), 65–66, 84, 85–86 Nixon, Richard, 151 Noske, Gustav, 51, 73, 79 Nyerere, Julius, 154 Obama, Barack, 193–195 Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria, 206 Occupy Movement, 196–198 October Revolution, 92–94, 103. See also Russian Revolution (1917) Olbermann, Keith, 205–206 “110 Propositions for France,” 124–125 OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), 207–208 oppression, 199, 201–202, 208, 226, 234–236. See also race; women’s rights Order Number One, 89 organizing, 228–229 Owen, Robert, 46, 160 Palme, Olof, 105, 117–122, 156 Panic of 1873, 162 Paris Commune, 47–48, 85 Paris Congress (1889), 56 Parliamentary Socialism (Miliband), 206 Parsons, Albert, 162–163 peasants cooperation with proletariat, 88–89, 99, 112–113, 133, 139 and economic policy, 99, 141–143, 145–146 under feudalism, 36–37 and revolution, 87, 89, 133, 137, 139 Peng Dehuai, 146 Peng Shuzi, 133 People’s Liberation Army, 149 Pepper, John (József Pogány), 176–177 permanent revolution, 87, 90, 133, 148 philanthropy, 191 Pieck, Wilhelm, 51 Pivert, Marceau, 111 planned economy, 17, 99, 103–104, 119, 140–143, 145–146 Pogány, József (John Pepper), 176–177 political rights, 52, 58, 85.


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

The smart, stupid, or surreptitious use of digital media by political actors consistently has the biggest impact on who gets what they want. Such new world orders have been given the label of pax—an epoch of predictable stability based on known rules and expectations. The internet of things is establishing a new pax. Popular uprisings against long-standing dictators have rocked the Arab world. Antiestablishment movements in the West—the Tea Party in the United States, the Pirate Party in the European Union, the Occupy movement globally—have organized protests and captivated voters in unexpected ways. Around the world some regimes are more precarious, yet others seem as stable as ever. The Western internet, constituted by billions of mobile phones, computers, and other networked devices, has formed the largest information infrastructure ever. But this great device network has rivals and attackers. Battles between rival network infrastructure from China and competing norms of internet use from Russia, Saudi Arabia, and other authoritarian political cultures will dominate political life in the years ahead.

Even though most people around the world were connecting to the internet with their mobile phones, the main Western equipment makers gave up producing mobile phones.32 But then people started doing politics with their digital devices. Opposition movements started catching ruling elites off guard by using new communications technologies to organize huge numbers of people quickly. The very policy reforms that seemed to make some governments popular and some economies boom were allowing new political actors to act in powerful and decisive ways. After the Occupy Movement and the Arab Spring, and after a host of politicians from around the world were disgraced by the quick judgment of the internet, governments that hadn’t relaxed the rules became less interested in doing so. Lots of governments try to control the internet, and they are likely to keep on trying. They try to build surveillance systems. They try to build kill switches. They try to set the rules and regulations for developing new parts of their information infrastructures.

With newfound skills in organizing, educating, and lobbying governments, these public-interest groups have been able to expand to other issue domains. People sometimes say that the internet doesn’t “cause” democracy. Or “it’s the people, not the mobile phones.” But people and their technology are often impossible to separate. Try to imagine your life without your mobile phone or your internet connection. Or try to tell the story of the Arab Spring, the Occupy movement, or any recent international social movement without mentioning digital media. You’ll find yourself with an incomplete story. Many of the people involved with these movements are eager to talk about the devices and media that are their tools of resistance. Their technology and their story go together. Political scientists have found similar causal narratives when they compare many different kinds of political changes over time: media use, as a causal factor conjoined with others, often provides the best explanation for political outcomes.


pages: 124 words: 39,011

Beyond Outrage: Expanded Edition: What Has Gone Wrong With Our Economy and Our Democracy, and How to Fix It by Robert B. Reich

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, banking crisis, business cycle, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, job automation, Mahatma Gandhi, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office has issued a major report on the widening disparities. The issue has become front-page news. For the first time since the 1930s, a broad cross section of the American public is talking about the concentration of income, wealth, and political power at the top. Score a big one for the Occupiers. Regardless of whether you sympathize with the so-called Occupier movement that began spreading across America in the fall of 2011, or whether you believe it will become a growing political force in America, it has had a profound effect on the national conversation. Even more startling is the change in public opinion. Not since the 1930s has a majority of Americans called for redistribution of income or wealth. But according to a New York Times/CBS News poll, an astounding 66 percent of Americans say the nation’s wealth should be more evenly distributed.

With hefty campaign contributions and platoons of lobbyists and public relations spinners, America’s executive class has secured lower tax rates while resisting reforms that would spread the gains from growth to more Americans. But it’s unlikely that the plutocrats can retain their political clout forever. So many people have been hit by job losses, sagging incomes, and declining home values that Americans will eventually become mobilized. The question is not whether but when. Perhaps the Occupier movement marks the beginning. Americans have summoned the political will to take back our economy before, in even bleaker times. As the historian James Truslow Adams defined the American dream when he coined the term at the depths of the Great Depression, what we seek is “a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man.” WHY BIG CORPORATIONS WON’T LEAD THE WAY Republicans want to rely on big American corporations to solve our economic problems and to reduce the size and scope of government.

But I soon realized the question was larger than that. It was: What can I do about what’s happening to America—an economic game increasingly rigged in favor of those at the top and against ordinary Americans, and a government that no longer seems to work for average people but is increasingly responsive to big money? In this part of the book I want to try to answer that question. HOW TO MAKE A MOVEMENT I don’t know where the Occupier movement is heading, but I do know there’s great energy at America’s grass roots for progressive change—more energy now than I’ve seen in decades. The question is how to harness that energy and turn it into a sustainable and powerful progressive movement to take back our economy and our democracy from the regressive forces that have been gaining ground. People who voted for Barack Obama in 2008 tended to fall into one of two camps once he became president: trusters, who believed he was a good man with the right values and that as president did everything he could to put those values into effect; and cynics, who became disillusioned with his bailout of Wall Street, his flimsy plan to tame the Street, his willingness to jettison the “public option” in his health-care plan, and his negotiating strategy that always seems to begin by giving away the store.


pages: 414 words: 101,285

The Butterfly Defect: How Globalization Creates Systemic Risks, and What to Do About It by Ian Goldin, Mike Mariathasan

"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, butterfly effect, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, connected car, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, John Snow's cholera map, Kenneth Rogoff, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, moral hazard, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open economy, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reshoring, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, transaction costs, uranium enrichment

Dominic Wilson and Raluca Dragusanu, 2008, “The Expanding Middle: The Exploding World Middle Class and Falling Global Inequality,” Global Economic Papers 170, Goldman Sachs, New York, 17, accessed 3 February 2013, http://www.ryanallis.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/expandingmiddle.pdf. Used with permission. There may no longer be an alliance of the global working class, but there are new global challenges to globalization as articulated, for example, through Attac, Anonymous, the Indignados, or the Occupy movement.50 Instead of protesting against the terms and conditions of work, protesters are concerned by the opacity of global institutions and the negative consequences of what many see as the systemic failure of globalization to deliver jobs and a sustainable environment. By making the world more complex and risks harder to trace back to their origins, globalization has divided global society into groups that are prepared and able to embrace the corresponding benefits on the one hand and, on the other, people who are overwhelmed with the complex causalities, the often incomprehensible influences on their lives, and their inability to identify political or institutional responsibilities.

By making the world more complex and risks harder to trace back to their origins, globalization has divided global society into groups that are prepared and able to embrace the corresponding benefits on the one hand and, on the other, people who are overwhelmed with the complex causalities, the often incomprehensible influences on their lives, and their inability to identify political or institutional responsibilities. New levels of connectivity expose global differences in living standards and opportunities and, for individuals around the world, present stark evidence of a global system that many have no desire to engage with and in which many feel they have little chance of succeeding. As the example of the Occupy movement shows, such concerns are particularly prominent among younger people, who feel increasingly disenfranchised. In many countries and cities around the world, “they have now been joined by protesters who believe that they are bearing the brunt of a crisis for which they have no responsibility, while people on high incomes appear to have been spared.”51 Part of the problem is that for many the globalized system seems to stifle social mobility and prevent talented, hardworking people from achieving the rewards they deserve.

For further evidence of the relevance of the country of employment, see also table 7.1 and figure 7.3. 49. For example, with reference to the late twentieth century he observes, “Globally, the issue [of a conflict between capital and labour] has receded in importance as the objective conditions that gave rise to it have changed.” Milanović, 2011, 16. 50. EUI (European University Institute), 2011, “Indignados / Occupy Movement: A Global Phenomenon—A Round Table,” European University Institute, 22 November, accessed 1 June 2012, http://www.eui.eu/SeminarsAndEvents/Live.aspx. 51. OECD, 2011a, 17. 52. Ibid., 40. 53. This view, however, is not undisputed. American journalist Christian Cadwell, for instance, argues that the current generation of 15- to 30-year-olds is “tiny” and therefore unable to “make trouble.” See CSIS (Center for Strategic and International Studies), 2012, “Europe Economic Crisis and the Rise of Populism, Nationalism, and Extremism,” CSIS Global Security Forum 2012, Washington, DC, Federal News Service transcript, 21, accessed 3 February 2013, http://csis.org/files/attachments/120413_EuropeEconomicCrisis_GSF_Transcript_0.pdf. 54.


Affluence Without Abundance: The Disappearing World of the Bushmen by James Suzman

access to a mobile phone, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, clean water, discovery of the americas, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, full employment, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, means of production, Occupy movement, open borders, out of africa, post-work, quantitative easing, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, We are the 99%

And as much as we sometimes find pleasure in others’ success, we often find just as much pleasure when we see the successful stumble. The extent to which relative inequality still gets under our skin was well illustrated recently by the various “Occupy” movements that sprung up in global capitals after the economic upheavals that marked the end of the first decade of the new millennium and still rumble on in various diffuse forms. These movements were initially dismissed by their detractors for lacking a unified ideological platform. Interviews with “occupiers” yielded contradictory, speculative, and sometimes bewildering responses expressing a general dissatisfaction with the world and the urge to “eat the rich.” But this was because the Occupy movement defined itself by standing against many things while standing for nothing in particular. In the end, this ensemble of discordant voices found episodic moments of harmony around the rallying call of “We are the 99 percent!”

In the end, this ensemble of discordant voices found episodic moments of harmony around the rallying call of “We are the 99 percent!”—a slogan that captured one thing they could all agree on: they were all angry about what they saw to be rampant material and social inequality. What was particularly striking about the Occupy movement’s focus on inequality was that few of the occupiers were particularly preoccupied with poverty in any absolute sense. Their beef was with relative poverty. In basic material terms, the countries where Occupy movements flourished are among the world’s richest. Being among the poorest in any first world country now does not bear easy comparison with being among the poorest in the same country one hundred or even fifty years ago or with being among the poorest in a “developing” economy.2 Egalitarianism is often assumed to imply an absence of private property.


pages: 453 words: 117,893

What Would the Great Economists Do?: How Twelve Brilliant Minds Would Solve Today's Biggest Problems by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

Hayek opposed the use of monetary policy, which is when the cost and quantity of money in the economy is adjusted to influence growth, as well as Keynes’s fiscal activism, setting him at odds with much of the economics profession. Although Hayek found an intellectual home at the London School of Economics and Political Science, his theories are still not widely accepted in academia. With capitalism itself now under attack in the aftermath of the Great Recession by the Occupy movement and others, Hayek’s ideas have come back into fashion as the search continues for arguments to defend the market system against growing scepticism. Those ideas can help us discern whether there are any lessons to be learned from the financial crisis. Joan Robinson, another of the twentieth-century’s leading lights, is the sole woman among the Greats in this book, which reflects the chronic dearth of women in economics.

He placed himself, with his penchant for reinvention during a varied career, among the ranks of those innovators, many of whom have changed the way that we live. Schumpeter believed that the innovator-entrepreneur had a ‘will to conquer … Our type seeks out difficulties, changes in order to change, delights in ventures.’43 8 Friedrich Hayek: What Can We Learn from Financial Crises? On 15 October 2011 members of the Occupy movement attempted to set up a protest camp in Paternoster Square, outside the London Stock Exchange. They were foiled, as the area was privately owned, so any protesters would have been trespassing and the police were able to seal off the entrance before any could enter. However, the group of around 3,000 people simply gathered instead outside nearby St Paul’s Cathedral, where an indefinite camp was established.

A month earlier a similar encampment had been set up in New York’s Wall Street, and soon protests of different sizes emerged in cities around the world. Occupy’s slogan, ‘We are the 99 per cent’, referred to the high proportion of global wealth accounted for by the top 1 per cent of the distribution. They reflected the widespread public anger in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. The protesters called for financial reform, a fairer distribution of income and wealth and a rejection of austerity. The Occupy movement reflected the modern version of a struggle that had been ongoing since the previous century. The twentieth century had witnessed an ideological battle between socialism and welfare state capitalism, culminating in the triumph of the latter with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the lifting of the Iron Curtain in 1989, which led to the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. Economics Nobel laureate Milton Friedman had observed: There is no figure who had more of an influence on the intellectuals behind the Iron Curtain than Friedrich Hayek.


pages: 662 words: 180,546

Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown by Philip Mirowski

"Robert Solow", Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, constrained optimization, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deindustrialization, do-ocracy, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, loose coupling, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, sealed-bid auction, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, working poor

Economists are still invited to talk shows, profiled in The New Yorker and PBS Newshour and BBC Newsnight and the Wall Street Journal, respectfully solicited for their opinions without being ridiculed openly (even on the recurrent occasions when any pair of them sequentially asserts A and not-A with a straight face). Orthodox economists propound a neoclassical orthodoxy awash in waves of willingly submissive students, are paid salaries frequently second only to the research MDs at their universities, and allowed to preach the self-congratulatory proposition that they remain in firm possession of a self-confident science. Under the influence of the brief uprising known as the Occupy movement in 2011, when a group of students noisily walked out of Gregory Mankiw’s introductory economics lecture at Harvard, it was treated as some passing undergrad hijinks by the press: Who were they kidding? Economists have been treated with relative impunity even on The Colbert Report. They are continually importuned to prophesy: Is the crisis over yet? Will things get better? Where should I park my pitiful 401(k) account?

Not only does the left lack a clear agenda for their own political objectives, but they have repeatedly mistaken or misunderstood the nature of the neoliberal political project, and consequently found themselves co-opted into it, or worse. This book preaches a simple message: Know Your Enemy before you start daydreaming of a better world. In this one particular respect, Carl Schmitt was right. The Privatization of Protest and the Occupy Movement The current problem of left political movements, whatever that benighted term might encompass nowadays, is that they have fallen into the trap where discussions of the crisis end up being hopelessly backward-looking: perhaps preaching “restoration” of proper “regulation,” reenergizing mid-twentieth-century configurations of state power, or returning to a more “fair and equal” income distribution, or redeeming and making debtors whole through debt forgiveness, refurbishing an economy less beholden to and less composed of financialized corporate entities, resembling that which reigned during the immediate postwar period.

To take but one telling example, if the hundreds of lobbyists and millions of dollars of campaign contributions were not sufficient to neuter all attempts at financial reform in the United States, such as the so-called Volcker Rule, then the banksters were not subtle in summoning their second line of defense, insisting that any such rule would violate NAFTA and other international “free trade agreements” instituted under prior transnational neoliberal regimes.4 Although it seems impolite to mention it, the collapse of the “Occupy” movement over 2011–12 was largely due to the long-discredited notion that political action could be sustained and effective in the absence of any sort of theoretical guidance and hierarchical organization of short- to longer-term goals. The Tea Party had Ayn Rand; the closest thing to an Occupy inspiration seemed to be John Stewart. People seem to have forgotten that the initial Occupy Wall Street encampment on September 17, 2011, was sparked by a call from Adbusters, a “global network of culture jammers” based in Vancouver, built around a media collective and a glossy magazine.


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The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips

Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, creative destruction, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, megacity, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer rental, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

Graffiti artists try to impress one another by tagging risky locations. Hackers are constantly showing off their skills and commitment, posting their victories online for others to see. An Occupy Wall Street protestor may be just as interested in branding himself as an agitator and seeking out recognition from the community of protestors as he is in societal transformation. In fact, even within the Occupy movement, there was a certain status hierarchy at play. Those who had been with the movement since the beginning were known as “Day 1 occupiers.” Protestors earned kudos from their peers based on how long they had been associated with the movement, whether they had slept in the park, and whether they had been arrested. While it may not be an MBA from Harvard Business School, misfit innovation runs on the social currency that one can receive only from peers.

That means if we want to tap the power of misfits, then our formal institutions have to start becoming better hosts. Popular exposure to festivals like Burning Man, movements like Occupy, hacker collectives, and co-working spaces built around egalitarian principles mean that workplace expectations are changing. At the sight of command and control systems, misfits bolt. One of the interesting side effects from the Occupy movement observed by journalist Nathan Schneider: “When people from Occupy went back to work they realized how their workplaces were run on so little democracy. Occupy gave people a glimpse into a different way of being part of an organization—one where participation and self-determination were everything.” This discontent is something that business thinker and author Dov Seidman has observed, too: Like most protest movements, Occupy Wall Street demonstrators are demanding freedom from the current system.

To Laura Gamse, our talented filmmaker, who traveled with us to India and China and whose father diligently emailed us misfit material throughout the journey. To the community of staff and fellows at Ashoka with whom we connected around the world. And to members of the One/Thousand network, who supported us throughout this entire journey. Thanks to Nathan Schneider for sharing his reflections on the Occupy movement and to Peter Leeson and Marcus Rediker, who spoke to us about the history of pirates. Thank you to David Kyuman Kim and Ken Knisely, early philosophical influences. Thanks to Marvin Gaye Chetwynd for opening our eyes to the world of performance art, to Will Bueche for his guidance and feedback on Dr. John Mack’s study of alien abduction, and to Gary Slutkin for the incredible work he is doing to cure the world of violence.


pages: 284 words: 92,387

The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement by David Graeber

Bretton Woods, British Empire, corporate personhood, David Graeber, deindustrialization, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, financial innovation, George Gilder, John Markoff, Lao Tzu, late fees, Occupy movement, payday loans, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, working poor

The manager of one website that specializes in matching sugar daddies with those seeking help with student loans or school fees estimates he already has 280,000 college students registered. And very few of these are aspiring professors. Most aspire to little more than a modest career in health, education, or social services.§ It was stories like that I had in the back of my mind when I wrote a piece for The Guardian about why the Occupy movement had spread so quickly. The piece was meant to be part descriptive, part predictive: We are watching the beginnings of the defiant self-assertion of a new generation of Americans, a generation who are looking forward to finishing their education with no jobs, no future, but still saddled with enormous and unforgiveable debt. Most, I found, were of working class or otherwise modest backgrounds, kids who did exactly what they were told they should, studied, got into college, and are now not just being punished for it, but humiliated—faced with a life of being treated as deadbeats, moral reprobates.

The occupiers are the very sort of people, brimming with ideas, whose energies a healthy society would be marshalling to improve life for everyone. Instead they are using it to envision ways to bring the whole system down.4 The movement has diversified far beyond students and recent graduates, but I think for many in the movement the concern with debt and a stolen future remains a core motivation for their involvement. It’s telling to contrast the Occupy movement in this way with the Tea Party, with which it is so often compared. Demographically, the Tea Party is at its core a movement of the middle-aged and well-established. According to one poll in 2010, 78 percent of the Tea Partiers were over the age of thirty-five, and about half of those, over fifty-five.5 This helps explain why Tea Partiers and occupiers generally take a diametrically opposite view of debt.

Yet somehow the news story on Occupy was not that activists had managed to create an environment in the middle of the most dangerous American cities where the rate of assault against women had clearly precipitously declined, but a scandal that they had not eliminated such incidents altogether. What’s more, as she goes on to report of Oakland, California: Now here’s something astonishing. While the camp was in existence, crime went down 19% in Oakland, a statistic the city was careful to conceal. “It may be counter to our statement that the Occupy movement is negatively impacting crime in Oakland,” the police chief wrote to the mayor in an email that local news station KTVU later obtained and released to little fanfare. Pay attention: Occupy was so powerful a force for nonviolence that it was already solving Oakland’s chronic crime and violence problems just by giving people hope and meals and solidarity and conversation.19 Needless to say, no newspaper headlines loudly proclaiming “Violent Crime Drops Sharply During Occupation” ever appeared, and police continued to insist, despite the evidence of their own statistics, that exactly the opposite was the case.


Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean

4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

We are Legion.”8 Most recently (since 17 September 2011), the Occupy Wall 70 Chapter 3 Street movement, with its rapid spread to other parts of the world, also seems apposite in its reappropriation of common space in places where financial power is centered (squatting its symbolic sites, to express indignation about the handling of the financial crisis since 2008).9 Adopting the “#Occupy” hashtag,10 the wider Occupy movement is described in terms that embody publicness in a wayward culture of financial calculation and social inequality: “We are the 99%.”11 Perhaps it can be claimed that the concept of publicness has itself been occupied in these recent events. Both examples serve to underscore Arendt’s view that the political realm necessarily arises out of acting together, as a plurality of unique individuals, in “the sharing of words and deeds.”12 It is collective activity that relies on the infinite capacity to speak freely and act in public, and this is what constitutes publicness in her terms.

The understanding of action is rather different from in Aristotle’s time, when to act outside of the commons was considered “idiotic” (derived from the term idion, indicating life spent in the privacy of one’s own).13 The public realm, a realm of equals, was distinguished from the inequality of the private household (although those not considered equal, such as women and slaves, were not able to enter public life). Notwithstanding the clear inequalities of the public sphere today, the fundamental contradiction is revealed in the idea of public interaction from the privacy of an online platform or home computer as an attack on networked intelligence. F.A.T.’s parody of the Occupy movement, Occupy the Internet! (2011), resonates with this problem, suggesting revolution from the comfort of your home computer.14 By pasting the following JavaScript into an HTML file, an “animated GIF army” appears on the webpage: <script src="http://occupyinter.net/embed.js"></script> It may be possible to “force-occupy” the global investment banking and securities firm website Goldmansachs.com in this way, and even contribute animations and “pithy words,” though this is surely not significant in terms of political effect.15 Yet even with the apparent triviality of this project, other possibilities are registered that might encourage wider interpretations of what constitutes public action, and prompt the writing of alternative scripts.

For instance, the social web mediates social relations in this manner, offering the freedom to communicate but through the exception that relates to both state and market principles, in parallel to what has already been said about the conditional aspects of freedom of expression more generally. Facebook regularly shares information with government agencies and purges activist’s accounts, such as those of campaigners trying to organize antiausterity protests in 2011, including the UK Uncut and Occupy movements.89 A closer look at the terms of service of these platforms confirms ways that ownership is carefully managed, parodied by a consumer advocacy blog with the suggestion for new terms: “We can do anything we want with your content. Forever.”90 Users are happily granted access to the means of production but not ownership. The underlying contradiction is clear: “The social web facilitates an unprecedented level of social sharing, but it does so mostly through the vehicle of proprietary platforms.”91 In such ways, freedom is extracted by a service to serve the free market, not free expression.


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Dirty Secrets How Tax Havens Destroy the Economy by Richard Murphy

banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, centre right, corporate governance, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, high net worth, income inequality, intangible asset, light touch regulation, moral hazard, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, race to the bottom, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, Washington Consensus

As a result, the layering of tier upon tier of secrecy in the way I have described has become ever more commonplace in the tax haven (or secrecy jurisdiction) world, which is precisely what the Panama Papers revealed: the vast majority of those introducing work to Mossack Fonseca (the firm whose files were leaked) were themselves located in other tax havens or secrecy jurisdictions. The focus on secrecy changed the official, if not the political, attitude to tax havens. After 2012, tackling secrecy became the key issue, and pure tax initiatives such as the TIEA scheme faded. Other events also influenced this change. In particular, from 2010 onwards, the Occupy movement in the United States and the UK Uncut movement in Britain attracted attention, using remarkably limited resources, to the role of multinational corporations in international tax abuse. This phenomenon was particularly notable in the UK, where the campaign used data produced by the Tax Justice Network, the UK’s Trade Union Congress, the Public and Commercial Services Union, and Private Eye magazine.22 What these public protests did was make clear that concern about the use of tax havens was not limited to tax evaders, or to banking, but also embraced their use by large multinational corporations.

See also trusts France 18, 24–5 free markets market conditions 29–30 tax havens effect on 30–2 and trust 37 free riders 11, 12, 164 Friedman, Milton 41, 42 FTSE 100 companies 25–6 G8 summit, 2013 26, 46–7 G20 summit, London, April 2009 9–10, 19–20 gambling 3, 77–8 GDP 172 General Electric 74, 76 Germany 68, 69, 97–8 Gibraltar 77–8 Glass–Steagall Act (US) 45 global financial architecture 10–11 global financial crisis, 2008 9, 74–5, 90, 125 Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information (OECD) 19–20 globalisation 71–2, 84, 137–8, 161 Google 26, 46, 57, 78 governance 36 government post–tax haven 166–9 role of 42–3 greed 84 Green, Lady Christina 141 Greenland 18 growth 3 Guernsey 14–15, 53, 77, 90, 93–4 harmful tax competition 11–14 Harrington, Brooke 5, 90–1 headline tax rates 75–6 Henry, James 40, 109–11 Heritage Foundation 20–1 Hidden Wealth of Nations, The (Zucman) 112–14, 113 history and development 5, 54–6, 84–5 holding structures 34–8 Hong Kong 77, 100 hot money 74–6, 172 House of Commons Public Accounts Committee (UK) 26, 73, 78 House of Commons Treasury Select Committee (UK) 22 HSBC 60, 103 human rights 144 Iceland 46 India 18 inequality 2, 177 information exchange 12, 15, 17, 32–3, 125–6, 152, 157, 175, 177 inheritance and inheritance tax 3, 64–5 Institute of Economic Affairs 41–2 intent 56 International Consortium of Investigative Journalists 101 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2, 4, 44, 114, 115, 116–17 investment markets 165–6 Ireland 56, 57, 71, 75 Isle of Man 15, 53, 102, 175–6 Israel 158 Japan 68, 97 Jersey 14–15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 53–4, 54, 57, 58–9, 62–3, 69, 71, 83, 86–7, 92, 93–4, 102, 126, 134, 135, 170, 173 Jersey Finance 86 Juncker, Jean-Claude 16 Keen, Michael 114 knock-on effects 116–17 KPMG 25–6, 73, 75, 87, 152 Labour Party (UK) 46 land-value taxation 177 lawyers 89, 154–5 Le Pen, Marine 45 Levin, Carl 22 Liberia 87 Liberian shipping register 77 limited companies 35, 38, 39–40 limited liability 145 abuse of 36–40 literature 21 locations 8, 68–9, 78, 87–8 London 171 Anti-Corruption Summit, 2016 7, 11, 28, 48, 87 G20 summit, April 2009 9–10, 19–20 Lord Mayor of London 52 Luxembourg 15–16, 57, 94, 97, 124, 134, 135 Macau 101 McLaughlin, Alden 86 macro-economic control 167 Malta 56–7, 77, 93–4 Maples and Calder 89 market efficiency 30–1, 118, 120, 165–6 markets 162–3 conditions 29–30 success criteria 3 supremacy 84 tax havens effect on 30–2 trends 137 and trust 37 Marshall Islands 77 Marshall Plan 51–2 Mauritius 57 Meacher, Michael 145 Meluah, Katy 66 Microsoft 74 Mitchell, Dan 40–1 mixed economies 2–3, 162, 164–5 Monaco 8 money laundering 60 money transfers 58–9 Monte Carlo casino 8 Montserrat 87 Mooij, Ruud De 114 Mossack Fonseca 25, 66, 89, 101–2 motivations 60 Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (MCMAA) 158 multinational corporations 147, 150 Mutual Assistance Agreement (OECD) 49 neoliberalism 43–4, 84, 161 Netherlands, the 45, 57, 156, 171 New Jersey 55 New York 171 New Zealand 171 Niue 94 non-dom rule (UK) 54–5 non-residents, tax benefits 13 non-trading companies 143 Obama, Barack 17, 89, 125 Occupy movement 25 offshore 8 definition 21, 51 emergence 51–4 offshore bank accounts 59 offshore companies 79–81 numbers 7, 101–2 offshore economy, size 105–15, 113 O’Neil, Paul 13 onshore companies 81 onshore trusts 81–2 opacity 3, 27, 28, 31, 48 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2, 4, 47, 71, 95, 114 Base Erosion and Profits Shifting programme 73, 126–7, 146–7, 148 blacklisting scheme 17–18, 157–8 country-by-country reporting 129, 129–32, 133, 134–8 Double Tax Agreements 18 Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information 19–20, 157 Mutual Assistance Agreement 49 report on Harmful Tax Competition 9, 11–13, 14 revenue loss estimates 107–8 tax haven initiatives 17–21, 23, 24, 26, 27–8, 48, 123–4, 125–6, 126–8, 157–8 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) 18–19, 20 unitary taxation formula 149 Osborne, George 60 ownership disclosure 140–2 Oxfam 111–12 ‘Tax Havens: Releasing the Hidden Billions for Poverty Eradication’ 105–6, 107 Oxford Centre for Business Taxation 108 Pak, Simon 108 Palan, Ronen 5, 10, 21, 23, 51–2, 59 Panama 77, 93–4, 99 Panama Papers 5, 7, 8, 25, 28, 35, 46, 66, 89, 101, 102, 162 Parmalat 39 patent box schemes 76 peer reviews 20 penalty regimes 154–5 Pfizer 74 Picciotto, Sol 21, 106 political stability, threat to 2 political stereotype 8 political will 155–9, 175–6 politicians and politics, role of 84–6 practices 12–13 Price of Offshore, The (Tax Justice Network) 107 ‘Price of Offshore Revisited, The’ (Tax Justice Network) 109–11 PricewaterhouseCoopers 25–6, 73, 87, 152 privacy 32–5, 66–7, 144, 162 Private Eye (magazine) 25 products 79–84 profit determination 13 profit shifting 70–1, 148 property 3, 59–60 prices 174 rights 179 prosecutions 103 Public and Commercial Services Union 25 public and private partnerships 165 public opinion 103, 145, 175 purposes 1 Reagan, Ronald 44 reforms 4, 145–51, 176–8 regulation 3, 29 revenue loss 2, 105–15, 113 implications 115–21 scale 40 risk 10, 36–7, 38, 135–7, 164 rule of law 3, 161, 178–9 sales patterns 136–7 Sanders, Bernie 45, 117 San Marino–Andorra TIEA 18 Savings Tax Directive (EU) 9, 15–17, 48, 94 secrecy 10, 12, 49, 58, 70–1, 161 assessment 93–103 banking 24, 55–6 becomes key issue 25, 27 British challenge to 46–8 collective denial of 28 comparison with privacy 32–5 definition 34 effects on free markets 30–2 financial costs 40 implications 117–21, 138 importance of 22, 23 and risk 36–7, 38 secrecy jurisdictions 29, 44, 87, 178–9 definition 22–3, 57 layering 23–5 pernicious role 23 post–tax haven 171 secrecy laws 36–7 secrecy space 23–4 separateness, supposed 10–11 service industry 84–93 Sharman, Jason 142 Shaxson, Nicholas 5, 52 shipping registrations 77 side letters 82 Sikka, Prem 21, 87 silence, conspiracy of 43 Singapore 77, 100 Smith, Adam 38–9 social impacts, post–tax haven 176–80 social media 65 Society of Trusts and Estate Practitioners 83, 91–2 South Africa 94 Spain 18 special purpose vehicles 80–1 specific jurisdictions 23 Starbucks 26, 46, 163 STAR trust legislation, Cayman Islands 83, 91–2 states, sovereign rights 151 status 10 Suez Crisis, 1956 51–2 Sweden 32, 156 Switzerland 55–6, 57, 68, 100, 112 tax abuse 2 tax administrations 156–7 tax advisers 63 tax avoidance 41–2, 69, 120 definition 61–2 developing countries 28 personal liability 154–5 schemes 62–7, 76 United Kingdom 26 tax benefits, non-residents 13 tax competition 11–14, 43–9, 74–6, 85, 92, 93, 123, 167, 179 tax compliance 61, 63, 119–20, 144–5, 167 tax evasion 61–2, 103, 109, 113 tax gaps 2, 113, 155–6 tax haven companies 67 tax haven investments 59 tax havens activities 58–60 definition 54, 123 ‘Tax Havens: Releasing the Hidden Billions for Poverty Eradication’ (Oxfam) 105–6, 107 tax incentives 13 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) (OECD) 18–19, 20 tax justice activists 7 Tax Justice Network 21–2, 25, 40, 92, 105, 106, 142, 158, 171 Financial Secrecy Index 22–4, 57, 87, 93–6, 96–103, 184–9, 191–2, 193–7 The Price of Offshore 107 ‘The Price of Offshore Revisited’ 109–11 tax law 3, 154–5 tax-neutral regimes 86 tax obligations 34, 41 tax rates corporate 71, 75, 94 headline 75–6 reform 176–8 tax reform 176–7 tax risk 135–7 tax transparency 19 tax war 179 tax withholding, European Union 16 terrorist financing 14 Thatcher, Margaret 44 threat 1–2, 4, 7, 9 Tonga 94 Trade Union Congress 25, 25–6 transfer pricing 71–4 transparency 12, 13, 39, 48, 127, 161–2, 163, 166 Trump, Donald 45, 46, 117 trust 37, 119, 164–5 trust laws 83 trusts 35, 81–4, 139–40, 176 Turkey 158 Turks and Caicos Islands 93, 96 Uncut movement 25 unitary taxation 147–9 United Kingdom 24–5, 68 100 largest companies 69 Barclays data 134, 135 Brexit vote 117 challenge to tax haven secrecy 46–8 companies documentation 38 company growth 102 corporate tax 75 Crown Dependencies 14–15, 48, 53, 96, 124 Department for International Development 108–9 disclosure regime 153 domicile rule 54 draft legislation, 2013 145 hot money 75 House of Commons Public Accounts Committee 26, 73, 78 House of Commons Treasury Select Committee 22 Labour Party 46 non-trading companies 143 Overseas Territories 15, 48, 56, 96 penalty regime 154–5 prosecutions 103 revenue loss 115, 120 secrecy score 96–7, 193, 196 tax administration 157 tax avoidance 26 tax gap 113, 156 tax haven activity cost 113 tax havens 14–15, 16, 48, 53–4, 54, 56, 84, 86–7, 96, 170, 171 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) 19 tax resident people 55 Uncut movement 25 and unitary taxation 149 United States of America 9, 24–5, 60, 68, 69 corporate tax rates 71 corporate tax system 74 corporation tax 40 disclosure regimes 142, 167 failure 13 Federal Trade Commission 29–30 Foreign Accounts Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) 17, 99, 126, 158 Glass–Steagall Act 45 headline tax rates 75–6 hot money 74–5 hypocrisy 158 Internal Revenue Service 156 Occupy movement 25 secrecy score 97, 98–9, 193, 196 tax gap estimates 156 tax havens 8, 17, 55, 142, 171 Vanuatu 87 Verizon 76 virtual world, the 21–2 VISTA trust 24 Vodafone 26 voter participation, decline in 3 Washington Consensus, the 43–5, 46 Watson, Emma 66 wealth concentration of ownership 3, 111, 117, 161, 167–9, 176 under-taxation of 178 wealth-management professionals 84, 90–2, 155 wealth taxes 177 World Bank 2, 44, 108–9, 109 Zucman, Gabriel 40, 102 The Hidden Wealth of Nations 112–14, 113

See also trusts France 18, 24–5 free markets market conditions 29–30 tax havens effect on 30–2 and trust 37 free riders 11, 12, 164 Friedman, Milton 41, 42 FTSE 100 companies 25–6 G8 summit, 2013 26, 46–7 G20 summit, London, April 2009 9–10, 19–20 gambling 3, 77–8 GDP 172 General Electric 74, 76 Germany 68, 69, 97–8 Gibraltar 77–8 Glass–Steagall Act (US) 45 global financial architecture 10–11 global financial crisis, 2008 9, 74–5, 90, 125 Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information (OECD) 19–20 globalisation 71–2, 84, 137–8, 161 Google 26, 46, 57, 78 governance 36 government post–tax haven 166–9 role of 42–3 greed 84 Green, Lady Christina 141 Greenland 18 growth 3 Guernsey 14–15, 53, 77, 90, 93–4 harmful tax competition 11–14 Harrington, Brooke 5, 90–1 headline tax rates 75–6 Henry, James 40, 109–11 Heritage Foundation 20–1 Hidden Wealth of Nations, The (Zucman) 112–14, 113 history and development 5, 54–6, 84–5 holding structures 34–8 Hong Kong 77, 100 hot money 74–6, 172 House of Commons Public Accounts Committee (UK) 26, 73, 78 House of Commons Treasury Select Committee (UK) 22 HSBC 60, 103 human rights 144 Iceland 46 India 18 inequality 2, 177 information exchange 12, 15, 17, 32–3, 125–6, 152, 157, 175, 177 inheritance and inheritance tax 3, 64–5 Institute of Economic Affairs 41–2 intent 56 International Consortium of Investigative Journalists 101 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2, 4, 44, 114, 115, 116–17 investment markets 165–6 Ireland 56, 57, 71, 75 Isle of Man 15, 53, 102, 175–6 Israel 158 Japan 68, 97 Jersey 14–15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 53–4, 54, 57, 58–9, 62–3, 69, 71, 83, 86–7, 92, 93–4, 102, 126, 134, 135, 170, 173 Jersey Finance 86 Juncker, Jean-Claude 16 Keen, Michael 114 knock-on effects 116–17 KPMG 25–6, 73, 75, 87, 152 Labour Party (UK) 46 land-value taxation 177 lawyers 89, 154–5 Le Pen, Marine 45 Levin, Carl 22 Liberia 87 Liberian shipping register 77 limited companies 35, 38, 39–40 limited liability 145 abuse of 36–40 literature 21 locations 8, 68–9, 78, 87–8 London 171 Anti-Corruption Summit, 2016 7, 11, 28, 48, 87 G20 summit, April 2009 9–10, 19–20 Lord Mayor of London 52 Luxembourg 15–16, 57, 94, 97, 124, 134, 135 Macau 101 McLaughlin, Alden 86 macro-economic control 167 Malta 56–7, 77, 93–4 Maples and Calder 89 market efficiency 30–1, 118, 120, 165–6 markets 162–3 conditions 29–30 success criteria 3 supremacy 84 tax havens effect on 30–2 trends 137 and trust 37 Marshall Islands 77 Marshall Plan 51–2 Mauritius 57 Meacher, Michael 145 Meluah, Katy 66 Microsoft 74 Mitchell, Dan 40–1 mixed economies 2–3, 162, 164–5 Monaco 8 money laundering 60 money transfers 58–9 Monte Carlo casino 8 Montserrat 87 Mooij, Ruud De 114 Mossack Fonseca 25, 66, 89, 101–2 motivations 60 Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (MCMAA) 158 multinational corporations 147, 150 Mutual Assistance Agreement (OECD) 49 neoliberalism 43–4, 84, 161 Netherlands, the 45, 57, 156, 171 New Jersey 55 New York 171 New Zealand 171 Niue 94 non-dom rule (UK) 54–5 non-residents, tax benefits 13 non-trading companies 143 Obama, Barack 17, 89, 125 Occupy movement 25 offshore 8 definition 21, 51 emergence 51–4 offshore bank accounts 59 offshore companies 79–81 numbers 7, 101–2 offshore economy, size 105–15, 113 O’Neil, Paul 13 onshore companies 81 onshore trusts 81–2 opacity 3, 27, 28, 31, 48 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2, 4, 47, 71, 95, 114 Base Erosion and Profits Shifting programme 73, 126–7, 146–7, 148 blacklisting scheme 17–18, 157–8 country-by-country reporting 129, 129–32, 133, 134–8 Double Tax Agreements 18 Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information 19–20, 157 Mutual Assistance Agreement 49 report on Harmful Tax Competition 9, 11–13, 14 revenue loss estimates 107–8 tax haven initiatives 17–21, 23, 24, 26, 27–8, 48, 123–4, 125–6, 126–8, 157–8 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) 18–19, 20 unitary taxation formula 149 Osborne, George 60 ownership disclosure 140–2 Oxfam 111–12 ‘Tax Havens: Releasing the Hidden Billions for Poverty Eradication’ 105–6, 107 Oxford Centre for Business Taxation 108 Pak, Simon 108 Palan, Ronen 5, 10, 21, 23, 51–2, 59 Panama 77, 93–4, 99 Panama Papers 5, 7, 8, 25, 28, 35, 46, 66, 89, 101, 102, 162 Parmalat 39 patent box schemes 76 peer reviews 20 penalty regimes 154–5 Pfizer 74 Picciotto, Sol 21, 106 political stability, threat to 2 political stereotype 8 political will 155–9, 175–6 politicians and politics, role of 84–6 practices 12–13 Price of Offshore, The (Tax Justice Network) 107 ‘Price of Offshore Revisited, The’ (Tax Justice Network) 109–11 PricewaterhouseCoopers 25–6, 73, 87, 152 privacy 32–5, 66–7, 144, 162 Private Eye (magazine) 25 products 79–84 profit determination 13 profit shifting 70–1, 148 property 3, 59–60 prices 174 rights 179 prosecutions 103 Public and Commercial Services Union 25 public and private partnerships 165 public opinion 103, 145, 175 purposes 1 Reagan, Ronald 44 reforms 4, 145–51, 176–8 regulation 3, 29 revenue loss 2, 105–15, 113 implications 115–21 scale 40 risk 10, 36–7, 38, 135–7, 164 rule of law 3, 161, 178–9 sales patterns 136–7 Sanders, Bernie 45, 117 San Marino–Andorra TIEA 18 Savings Tax Directive (EU) 9, 15–17, 48, 94 secrecy 10, 12, 49, 58, 70–1, 161 assessment 93–103 banking 24, 55–6 becomes key issue 25, 27 British challenge to 46–8 collective denial of 28 comparison with privacy 32–5 definition 34 effects on free markets 30–2 financial costs 40 implications 117–21, 138 importance of 22, 23 and risk 36–7, 38 secrecy jurisdictions 29, 44, 87, 178–9 definition 22–3, 57 layering 23–5 pernicious role 23 post–tax haven 171 secrecy laws 36–7 secrecy space 23–4 separateness, supposed 10–11 service industry 84–93 Sharman, Jason 142 Shaxson, Nicholas 5, 52 shipping registrations 77 side letters 82 Sikka, Prem 21, 87 silence, conspiracy of 43 Singapore 77, 100 Smith, Adam 38–9 social impacts, post–tax haven 176–80 social media 65 Society of Trusts and Estate Practitioners 83, 91–2 South Africa 94 Spain 18 special purpose vehicles 80–1 specific jurisdictions 23 Starbucks 26, 46, 163 STAR trust legislation, Cayman Islands 83, 91–2 states, sovereign rights 151 status 10 Suez Crisis, 1956 51–2 Sweden 32, 156 Switzerland 55–6, 57, 68, 100, 112 tax abuse 2 tax administrations 156–7 tax advisers 63 tax avoidance 41–2, 69, 120 definition 61–2 developing countries 28 personal liability 154–5 schemes 62–7, 76 United Kingdom 26 tax benefits, non-residents 13 tax competition 11–14, 43–9, 74–6, 85, 92, 93, 123, 167, 179 tax compliance 61, 63, 119–20, 144–5, 167 tax evasion 61–2, 103, 109, 113 tax gaps 2, 113, 155–6 tax haven companies 67 tax haven investments 59 tax havens activities 58–60 definition 54, 123 ‘Tax Havens: Releasing the Hidden Billions for Poverty Eradication’ (Oxfam) 105–6, 107 tax incentives 13 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) (OECD) 18–19, 20 tax justice activists 7 Tax Justice Network 21–2, 25, 40, 92, 105, 106, 142, 158, 171 Financial Secrecy Index 22–4, 57, 87, 93–6, 96–103, 184–9, 191–2, 193–7 The Price of Offshore 107 ‘The Price of Offshore Revisited’ 109–11 tax law 3, 154–5 tax-neutral regimes 86 tax obligations 34, 41 tax rates corporate 71, 75, 94 headline 75–6 reform 176–8 tax reform 176–7 tax risk 135–7 tax transparency 19 tax war 179 tax withholding, European Union 16 terrorist financing 14 Thatcher, Margaret 44 threat 1–2, 4, 7, 9 Tonga 94 Trade Union Congress 25, 25–6 transfer pricing 71–4 transparency 12, 13, 39, 48, 127, 161–2, 163, 166 Trump, Donald 45, 46, 117 trust 37, 119, 164–5 trust laws 83 trusts 35, 81–4, 139–40, 176 Turkey 158 Turks and Caicos Islands 93, 96 Uncut movement 25 unitary taxation 147–9 United Kingdom 24–5, 68 100 largest companies 69 Barclays data 134, 135 Brexit vote 117 challenge to tax haven secrecy 46–8 companies documentation 38 company growth 102 corporate tax 75 Crown Dependencies 14–15, 48, 53, 96, 124 Department for International Development 108–9 disclosure regime 153 domicile rule 54 draft legislation, 2013 145 hot money 75 House of Commons Public Accounts Committee 26, 73, 78 House of Commons Treasury Select Committee 22 Labour Party 46 non-trading companies 143 Overseas Territories 15, 48, 56, 96 penalty regime 154–5 prosecutions 103 revenue loss 115, 120 secrecy score 96–7, 193, 196 tax administration 157 tax avoidance 26 tax gap 113, 156 tax haven activity cost 113 tax havens 14–15, 16, 48, 53–4, 54, 56, 84, 86–7, 96, 170, 171 Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) 19 tax resident people 55 Uncut movement 25 and unitary taxation 149 United States of America 9, 24–5, 60, 68, 69 corporate tax rates 71 corporate tax system 74 corporation tax 40 disclosure regimes 142, 167 failure 13 Federal Trade Commission 29–30 Foreign Accounts Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) 17, 99, 126, 158 Glass–Steagall Act 45 headline tax rates 75–6 hot money 74–5 hypocrisy 158 Internal Revenue Service 156 Occupy movement 25 secrecy score 97, 98–9, 193, 196 tax gap estimates 156 tax havens 8, 17, 55, 142, 171 Vanuatu 87 Verizon 76 virtual world, the 21–2 VISTA trust 24 Vodafone 26 voter participation, decline in 3 Washington Consensus, the 43–5, 46 Watson, Emma 66 wealth concentration of ownership 3, 111, 117, 161, 167–9, 176 under-taxation of 178 wealth-management professionals 84, 90–2, 155 wealth taxes 177 World Bank 2, 44, 108–9, 109 Zucman, Gabriel 40, 102 The Hidden Wealth of Nations 112–14, 113


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The Corruption of Capitalism: Why Rentiers Thrive and Work Does Not Pay by Guy Standing

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, first-past-the-post, future of work, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, information retrieval, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mini-job, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Neil Kinnock, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, nudge unit, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, openstreetmap, patent troll, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, quantitative easing, remote working, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, structural adjustment programs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

But the system is economically unjustifiable, morally unjust and inherently unstable. Suddenly, political lethargy seems reprehensible. The inequality has become obscene; too many people are suffering from chronic insecurity. Revolt is coming, in many forms. The first round was proudly ‘leaderless’, as figures in the Occupy movement kept on saying. They were primitive rebels, mould-breaking in intent, but ultimately breaking nothing. The energy fizzled and eventually died. Or did it? What started with the Arab Spring went on into the Occupy movement and its tented occupations of squares and parks in cities and towns in many countries. Those occupations brought together diverse groups. They were not in vain. Gradually, the defiant activists drifted away. But the indignation fed into more coherent, more sustainable movements, epitomised by the indignados and others in Italy, Greece, Spain and Portugal.

Its members had not reached the crucial stage in the development of a class-for-itself, that of ‘recognition’, associated with mass awareness of class consciousness. That was to come after the financial crash of 2008, when governments rescued the banks, whose opportunistic profiteering had been the main cause, and when ‘austerity’ turned out to be a front for giving more to rentiers at the expense of everyone else. The Arab Spring and Occupy movement triggered a global realisation that ‘we’ were a subject, a class in the making. This is a necessary step in the reinvention of progressive politics. It is understandable that, at such a moment, old parties are rejected as unfit for purpose. But detachment may allow the neoliberal state to recover its poise and confidence. The difference between twentieth-century social democracy and today’s emerging politics is that, whereas the proletariat’s primary antagonist was the employer, the precariat’s is the state, representing the interests of global finance and rentiers.

Scott 1 ‘follow-on’ patenting 1 Ford, Henry 1, 2 Ford Motor Company 1 foreign direct investment 1, 2 ‘forum shopping’ 1 fossil fuel industry 1 Foucault, Michel 1 Foxconn 1, 2 fracking 1, 2 Freelancer.com 1 Freelancers Union 1 ‘freelancing’ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Friedman, Milton 1, 2, 3, 4 Gates, Bill 1, 2 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 1, 2 General Electric 1, 2 General Motors 1, 2 Getaround 1 Giddens, Anthony 1 Gigwalk 1 Gilded Age 1, 2 Gilead 1, 2 GiveDirectly 1 Global Transformation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Goldman Sachs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Goodwin, Fred 1 Google 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 GPFG (Government Pension Fund Global, Norway) 1, 2 Gramsci, Antonio 1 Great Convergence 1, 2 ‘Great Gatsby Curve’ 1 Great Transformation 1, 2, 3 Greenspan, Alan 1 Griffin Schools Trust 1 Grillo, Beppe 1 Guardian, The 1, 2 guilds 1, 2, 3 Gunster, Gerry 1 Guy, Gillian 1 Haldane, Andrew 1 Hamilton, Alexander 1 Hammurabi, King 1 Handy 1 Harberger, Arnold 1 Hardin, Garrett 1 Harris, John 1 Hartwick, John 1 Hartwick’s Rule of Inter-Generational Equity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Hartz IV welfare reform 1 Hassle.com 1 Hawking, Stephen 1 Hayek, Friedrich 1, 2, 3, 4 Health and Social Care Act (2012) 1 ‘helicopter money’ 1 ‘help-to-buy’ scheme 1 Henry III, King 1 heteromation 1 Hilferding, Rudolf 1 Hitler, Adolf 1 HITs (Human Intelligence Tasks) 1 Hobson, John 1 Hollande, François 1 Homejoy 1 homelessness 1, 2, 3 hoovering (of patents) 1 household debt 1, 2, 3, 4 housing debt 1 Hurd, Nick 1 Husson, Michel 1 Hutton, Will 1 ICSID (International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes) 1, 2 ‘idea-intensive’ firms 1 Illich, Ivan 1 ILO (International Labour Organization) 1 IMF (International Monetary Fund) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Independent, The 1 individualisation 1 ‘industrial time’ regime 1 Inequality 1 inheritance tax 1 Institute for Fiscal Studies 1, 2, 3 Institute of Economic Affairs 1, 2 intellectual commons 1, 2 intellectual property branding 1 and commons 1 copyright 1 and lies of rentier capitalism 1 and lobbying 1 and revolt of precariat 1, 2, 3 trade and investment treaties 1 see also patents International Association of Political Consultants 1 International Energy Agency 1 ‘inversion deals’ 1 Investment Court System 1 ‘investment plan for Europe’ 1 IOM (International Organization for Migration) 1 IPSE (Association of Independent Professionals and the Self Employed) 1 ISA (individual savings allowance) 1 ISDS (Investor–State Dispute Settlement) 1, 2, 3, 4 ITN (Independent Television News) 1 Jackson, Michael 1 James I, King 1 Jefferson, Thomas 1, 2 Jobs (Jumpstart Our Businesses) Act (2012) 1 John, King 1 Johnson, Boris 1, 2 Jospin, Lionel 1 JP Morgan 1, 2 Juncker, Jean-Claude 1 Kalanick, Travis 1 Kay, John 1 Kennedy, John F. 1 Kent Reliance 1 Keynes, John Maynard 1, 2, 3, 4 Kids Company 1 King, Martin Luther 1 King, Matt 1 Kingfisher 1 Kinnock, Neil 1 Kinnock, Stephen 1 Klaus, Václav 1 Koch, Charles 1, 2 Koch, David 1 Kondratieff ‘long waves’ theory 1 Kraft 1 Krytyka Polityczna (Political Critique) network 1 Kwarteng, Kwasi 1 labourism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Lady Gaga 1 Lancers 1 landlord debt 1 Lansley, Andrew 1, 2 Laplanche, Renaud 1 Lauderdale, Earl of 1 Lauderdale Paradox 1, 2 Lawson, Nigel 1 Lazzarato, Maurizio 1 Leader’s Group 1 Lebedev, Evgeny 1 Lee, John 1 Legal and General Property 1 Legal Services Act (2007) 1 Lehman Brothers 1, 2 Lending Club 1, 2 Lenin, Vladimir 1 library services 1 Lidl 1 lies of rentier capitalism 1, 2, 3 LinkedIn 1, 2 living wage 1, 2, 3, 4 Lloyds Banking Group 1, 2 lobbying 1, 2 Lobbying Act (2014) 1 London Debt Agreement (1953) 1 London Economic Conference (1933) 1 Long-Term Capital Management 1 ‘Luddites’ 1 Lyft 1, 2, 3 McKinsey Global Institute 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Macmillan, Harold 1 McNamara, Robert 1 Magna Carta (1215) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Mail on Sunday 1 Major, John 1, 2, 3 Malaysia Square (London) 1 Malthus, Thomas 1 Manafort, Paul 1 Mandelson, Peter 1 ‘market exclusivity’ 1 Marshall, Paul 1 Marshall Plan 1 Marx, Karl 1, 2 Mason, Paul 1, 2, 3, 4 mass media 1, 2, 3, 4 MeasureOne 1 Medallion Financial 1 mental health 1 Messina, Jim 1, 2 Met Patrol Plus 1 Metro 1 Microsoft 1 migration 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Milburn, Alan 1, 2, 3 Miliband, Ed 1, 2 Milner, Yuri 1 Miłosz, Czesław 1 Milstein, César 1 Mincome 1 minimum wage 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Mirrlees, James 1 Mises, Ludwig von 1, 2 Mishel, Lawrence 1 Mitterrand, François 1 Money Advice Trust 1 Monitor 1 Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) 1, 2, 3 Monti, Mario 1, 2, 3 ‘moonlighters’ 1 moral hazards 1, 2, 3 Motorola 1 MoVimento 1 Stelle (M 2S) 3 MPC (Monetary Policy Committee) 1 Mugabe, Robert 1 Murdoch, Rupert 1, 2, 3, 4 Murphy, Richard 1 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 1, 2 NAIRU (nonaccelerating inflation rate of unemployment) 1 Nash, John 1, 2 National Audit Office 1, 2 National Council for Voluntary Organisations 1 National Crime Agency 1 National Gallery 1 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (1949) 1 National Trust 1 Nationwide Building Society 1 ‘natural capital’ 1 Neo-liberalism 1, 2 and commons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and democracy 1, 2, 3 and occupational dismantling 1 and revolt of precariat 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and shaping of rentier capitalism 1, 2 and subsidies 1, 2, 3, 4 New Labour 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 New Scotland Yard 1 Newman, Maurice 1 News of the World 1 NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 1 NHS (National Health Service) 1, 2, 3 Nine Elms development (London) 1, 2 ‘non-dom’ status 1, 2 North Sea oil 1, 2, 3 North York Moors National Park Authority 1 Northern Rock 1, 2 O’Neill, Jim 1 Obama, Barack 1, 2, 3 Observer, The 1, 2 Occidental Petroleum 1 occupational dismantling 1 Occupy Movement 1, 2, 3, 4 ODI (Overseas Development Institute) 1 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Ofcom 1 Office for Budget Responsibility 1, 2 offshore tax havens 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Oil Change International 1 Ola Cabs 1, 2 Olympic Park (Stratford) 1 on-call employees 1 on-demand economy 1, 2, 3 online dispute resolution 1 ONS (Office of National Statistics) 1, 2, 3, 4 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 1 Optum 1 Osborne, George 1 Ostrom, Elinor 1 Oxfam 1 PAC (Parliamentary Accounts Committee) 1 PACs (Political Action Committees) 1 Paine, Thomas 1 Panama Papers 1 Paolozzi, Sir Eduardo 1 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) 1 ‘participation income’ system 1 party politics 1 ‘pass-through’ structures 1 patent boxes 1 patents 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 see also intellectual property Paulson, Henry 1 payday loans 1 PayPal 1 peer-to-peer lending 1, 2, 3 PeoplePerHour 1 PEP (Personal Equity Plan) 1 Perkins, Adam 1 Permanent Wyoming Mineral Trust Fund 1 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) 1 PFI (private finance initiative) 1, 2, 3 Pfizer 1, 2 Pharmac 1 Philip Morris International 1, 2, 3 Phillips, A.


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Inequality and the 1% by Danny Dorling

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, buy and hold, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, David Graeber, delayed gratification, Dominic Cummings, double helix, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, family office, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, land value tax, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, mega-rich, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, TaskRabbit, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, very high income, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor

No other UK city has as many squatters as London has. Protests are most common here, and the age of the people involved is getting younger and younger. It is the young who have lost the most in recent years, and it is they who are beginning to show their resentment through resistance. That resistance is spreading, and is expressed in many ways, from street demonstrations to the graffiti and other art of the Occupy movement. London is where financial deregulation began, in the 1980s. It is London that benefited most, and it is in London that those with some of the greatest debts now reside. London is home to most of the 1 per cent, most of the rest of whom live just a short distance away from the capital. London’s financial markets were constrained between 1929 and 1978, just as they were in the US, when the 1 per cent was forced to become more normal (see Figure 3.5).

For outsiders, it can be shocking to discover that a sixty-one-year-old in the US needs to pay $10,000 dollars a year just to receive what they see as basic healthcare – and that measures by the current Obama administration to improve this are said by some to be making the situation worse.55 But the spirit embodied in Obama’s ‘yes we can’ campaign rhetoric gave widespread hope to those desperate for change. Source: Table A1.1 2012-based Expectation of Life, 1981–2062, Principal Projection, United Kingdom, December 2013 Figure 5.5 Life Expectancy of Women aged sixty-five in the UK In Puerta del Sol, Madrid’s central square, on 7 June 2011 – before the Occupy movement took off elsewhere – a young woman who joined the indignados tried to explain what it felt like to make her voice heard: ‘It’s impossible to switch off … I dream about it at night. It was hard work learning how to conduct the assemblies, especially the big one … We learn something new every day.’56 Protesting in Spain – like enacting progressive legislation in the US, like researching the changing influences on life expectancy in Finland – can be a cause of elation; but much of it is also a bitter grind, with only the occasional moment of celebration.

In the UK, ‘rising bonuses paid to bankers alone accounted for around two-thirds of the increase in the national wage bill (‘earnings pie’) taken by the top one percent of workers since 1999.’ B. Bell and J. Van Reenen, ‘Bankers and Their Bonuses’, Centre for Economic Performance Occasional Paper 35 (2013), London School of Economics, at cep.lse.ac.uk. 32. P. Crush, ‘HSBC Circumvents EU Bankers’ Bonus Cap’, Chartered Institute of Professional Development, 25 February 2014, at cipd.co.uk. 33. As revealed by Canadian data, a proxy for the US/UK. S. Breau, ‘The Occupy Movement and the Top 1 Per Cent in Canada’, Antipode, 27 August 2013, at onlinelibrary.wiley.com. 34. Official website of the British Monarchy, at royal.gov.uk. 35. G. Smith, ‘The “Value for Money Monarchy” Myth’, Republic Campaign, 2013, at republic.org.uk. 36. Imagine the boost to tourism from having over a thousand royal families! There would be some 10,000 royal places to visit and jobs for hundreds of thousands of servants.


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Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

This is one of the issues that has most interested me during these last years and to which I intend to dedicate a good part of my future work, both on account of the current reproduction crisis—including the destruction of an entire generation of young people, mostly of young people of color, now rotting in our jails—and on account of the recognition growing among activists in the United States that a movement that does not learn to reproduce itself is not sustainable.9 In New York, this realization has for some years inspired a discussion about “self-reproducing movements” and “communities of care” side by side with the development of a variety of community-based structures. Expanding the notion of the commons and giving it a more broad political meaning also shapes the horizon of the Occupy Movement, the Arab Spring and the many enduring antiausterity struggles worldwide. For their transformational powers stem from their ability to appropriate spaces that are controlled by the state and commodified by the market and turn them once again into common lands. I THEORIZING AND POLITICIZING HOUSEWORK WAGES AGAINST HOUSEWORK (1975) They say it is love. We say it is unwaged work.

The financialization of everyday reproduction through the use of credit cards, loans, indebtedness, especially in the United States, should be also seen in this perspective, as a response to the decline in wages and a refusal of the austerity imposed by it, rather than simply a product of financial manipulation. Across the world, a movement of movements has also grown that, since the ‘90s, has challenged every aspect of globalization—through mass demonstrations, land occupations, the construction of solidarity economies and other forms of commons building. Most important, the recent spread of prolonged mass uprisings and “Occupy” movements that over the last year has swept much of the world, from Tunisia, to Egypt, through most of the Middle East, to Spain, and the United States have opened a space where the vision of a major social transformation again becomes possible. After years of apparent closure, where nothing seemed capable of stopping the destructive powers of a declining capitalist order, the “Arab Spring” and the sprawling of tents across the American landscape, joining the many already set in place by the growing population of homeless, show the bottom is once again rising, and a new generation is walking the squares determined to reclaim their future, and choosing forms of struggle that potentially can begin to build a bridge across some of the main social divides.

Amid wars, economic crises, and devaluations, as the world around them was falling apart, they have planted corn on abandoned town plots, cooked food to sell on the side of the streets, created communal kitchens—ola communes, as in Chile and Peru—thus standing in the way of a total commodification of life and beginning a process of reappropriation and recollectivization of reproduction that is indispensable if we are to regain control over our lives. The festive squares and “occupy” movements of 2011 are in a way a continuation of this process as the “multitudes” have understood that no movement is sustainable that does not place at its center the reproduction of those participating in it, thus also transforming the protest demonstrations into moments of collective reproduction and cooperation. III REPRODUCING COMMONS ON ELDER CARE WORK AND THE LIMITS OF MARXISM (2009) Introduction up “Care work,” especially eldercare, has come in recent years to the cen-Wter of public attention in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in response to a number of trends that have put many traditional forms of assistance into crisis.


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Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

It will place contemporary culture wars in some historical context and attempt to untangle the real from the performance, the material from the abstract and the ironic from the faux-ironic, if such a thing is any longer possible. Chapter One The leaderless digital counter-revolution It is worth thinking back now to the early 2010s, when cyberutopianism had its biggest resurgence since the 90s, before the dot-com bubble burst. This time it emerged in response to a series of political events around the world from the Arab Spring to the Occupy movement to new politicized hacker movements. Anonymous, Wikileaks and public-square mass protests in Spain and across the Middle East were getting huge coverage in the news, causing a flurry of opinion and analysis pieces about their profound significance. All of these events were being attributed to the rise of social media and characterized as a new leaderless form of digital revolution. The hyperbole and hubris of the moment should have been enough to make anyone skeptical, but most on the left were swept up in the excitement as images of vast crowds in public squares appeared on social media and then in the mainstream media.

When she explained on her blog why she had to step back from public life, writing that she was terrified that her stalkers might go through with their threats, it sparked a whole new wave of geek hatred against her. Andrew Auernheimer (aka weev), a now well-known hacker and troll, seems to have been heavily involved in the attacks against Sierra, spreading false information online about her being a battered wife and a former prostitute. In 2009, weev claimed to have hacked into Amazon’s system and reclassified books about homosexuality as porn. Once a part of the Occupy movement, he now regularly posts anti-Semitic and anti-gay rants on YouTube, has a swastika tattoo on his chest and was also the self-appointed president of a trolling initiative called the Gay Nigger Association of America. This was dedicated to opposing popular blogging and other mainstream activities, thought to be destroying authentic Internet-culture. Sierra has commented on how things have progressed: ‘What happened to me pales in comparison to what’s happening to women online today… I thought things would get better.


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Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

She is also a senior associate of the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, and teaches on the Economics for Transition programme at Schumacher College. Her internationally acclaimed idea of Doughnut Economics has been widely influential amongst sustainable development thinkers, progressive businesses and political activists, and she has presented its core ideas to audiences ranging from the UN General Assembly to the Occupy movement. Over the past 20 years, Kate’s career has taken her from working with micro-entrepreneurs in the villages of Zanzibar to co-authoring flagship reports for the United Nations Development Programme in New York, followed by a decade as Senior Researcher at Oxfam. Named by the Guardian as ‘one of the top ten tweeters on economic transformation’, her media work includes articles and interviews for the Financial Times, the Wall Street Journal, the New Statesman, CNN, and Al-Jazeera.

16 For decades mainstream economists dismissed her views as foolishly radical, but they actually echo those of Kuznets, the hallowed creator of national income itself. ‘Distinctions must be kept in mind,’ he advised back in the 1960s, ‘between quantity and quality of growth, between its costs and return, and between the short and the long term … Objectives should be explicit: goals for “more” growth should specify more growth of what and for what.’17 Evicting the cuckoo Knocked sideways by the 2008 financial crash, alarmed by the 2011 Occupy movement’s global resonance, and under growing pressure to act on climate change, it’s no wonder that politicians today have started searching for words to express more inspiring visions of social and economic progress. But they seem always to revert to the same answer: growth, the ubiquitous noun, decked out in a splendid array of aspirational adjectives. In the wake of the financial crisis (while still in the midst of crises of poverty, climate change and widening inequalities), the visions offered up by political leaders started to make me feel like I had stepped into a Manhattan deli, hoping for a simple sandwich, only to be confronted by an endless choice of fillings.

Out of all of these power relationships, when it comes to the workings of the economy, one in particular demands attention: the power of the wealthy to reshape the economy’s rules in their favour. Samuelson’s Circular Flow diagram inadvertently helped to gloss over this matter by depicting households as a homogeneous group, each one offering its labour and capital in return for wages and a share of profits – which are, in turn, paid out by a cluster of homogeneous firms. But, as the Occupy Movement made clear with its meme of the 1% and the 99%, that stylised picture doesn’t quite do justice to the reality we have come to know. Inequality amongst households and firms alike has soared in many countries in recent decades. And the extreme concentration of income and wealth – in the hands both of billionaires and of corporate boards – rapidly turns into power over how and for whom the economy is run.


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Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Disillusioned by the “recovery” that wasn’t (see Figure 8-1), in September 2011, several hundred people came together under the slogan “We are the 99%” and occupied New York City’s Zuccotti Park, near Wall Street, in protest. What in another time and place might have remained an obscure act of civil disobedience instead found a discouraged global public willing to join in. Within a month, the Occupy movement had spread to over 950 cities in 82 countries across five continents. Protest across the democratic world The Occupy movement became a global brand, but it was itself inspired by popular uprisings in Europe and the Arab world. Unlike the financial crisis in the US, the financial crises that unfolded in European countries like Spain, Greece, Ireland, Iceland and Italy were beyond the resources of their own governments to cope. So, they appealed to the European Union, the European Central Bank and the IMF (the “troika,” as they came to be known) for help.

If Facebook were a nation, it would be the most populous on Earth, with over 1.5 billion active users each month.31 And despite being dispersed around the globe, they are all, on average, less than four degrees of separation apart.32 On Facebook, even if we’ve never met, a friend of your friend knows a friend of my friend. This new group intelligence has been pivotal in many of the most talked-about events of the twenty-first century: the Arab Spring, the Occupy movement, public relief efforts in response to Hurricane Sandy, the Paris Climate Accord and the rise of extremist political parties in Europe. The wide range of these activities highlights how the new digital medium can bring both positive and negative outcomes. Societies and citizens are still fumbling to learn how to operate and manage this layer of consciousness. It has helped give rise to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS/ISIL)—and to new Arab secular movements that reject not just religious violence but religious governance (see Chapter Eight).

See Buonarroti, Michelangelo middle class, 73–5, 93, 178, 186, 241 Middle East, 40–1, 93 Arab Spring, 24, 36, 211, 222–4, 228 and economic divergence, 211 and development, 161 and health care, 98 and life expectancy, 76 See also Islam migration benefits of, 86–8 challenges of, 230–1 drivers of, 59 economic migration, 56–7 and innovation, 59 international migration flows, 58 and labor, 57–9 long-term, 52–60 and policy, 249–51, 254 in the Renaissance, 55–6 and selected capital inflows to developing world, 87 and urbanization, 53–5, 249–50 See also refugees Milner, Yuri, 156 modernity, 152, 207–10, 212, 229 Moore, Gordon, 31 Moore, Michael, 227 Moore’s Law, 31–2, 117, 123, 136 More, Thomas, 75, 261 Mosteghanemi, Ahlam, 212 Musk, Elon, 243 Myanmar, 24, 206, 252 9/11, 4, 166, 207, 219, 227, 242 nanotechnology, 125–31, 157, 162 National Security Agency (NSA), 24 nationalism, 65, 230 new media, 25–37 New Renaissance, 7–10, 139, 235–67 beginning of, 10 breadth of achievement, 101 and collaboration, 145 and democracy, 230 and life sciences, 121 and progress, 11, 98–9 and protest, 223 Newton, Isaac, 107, 124, 237 Nigeria, 43, 94, 146, 182 Nobel Prize, 137, 158, 238 Nokia, 43 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 25 North Korea, 25, 98, 111, 197–9, 223 Occupy movement, 36, 220–1, 224 offshoring, 44, 249 open-source movement, 145, 241 Open Tree of Life, 36 Ottoman Empire, 2, 10–11, 18, 30, 40–1, 51, 55, 60–1, 72–3, 135, 194–5, 204, 209, 213, 230 Oweidat, Nadia, 213 pandemics, 137, 185–7 Black Death, 1, 70, 72–3, 93, 143, 173–5, 177, 184 defined, 179 Ebola, 181–3 H5N1 (bird flu), 165, 183–5, 186, 237, 253 HIV/AIDS, 76, 83, 98, 101, 154, 158, 185–6 SARS, 180–1 Spanish flu, 165 paradigm shifts and Copernicus, 105–8, 110–12, and genius, 107 in life science, 112–21 in physical science, 121–31 in the Renaissance, 105–11 See also genius Paris Climate Accord, 36, 67 patents, 136–7, 159, 227, 244–5 PayPal, 59, 153, 243 perspective, need for, 4–7 Peru, 29, 93 Petrarch, 80, 133, 256 Peurbach, Georg von, 105, 133 PewDiePie, 138 pharmaceutical industry, 83–4, 113, 183, 245 3D-printed drugs, 119 and diminishing returns, 154–5 gene therapy, 119–20, 158 and nanotechnology, 131 and pace of discovery, 162–3 R&D spending, 154 Phelps, Edmund, 240–1 physics, 121–5 quantum mechanics, 123–8 and random motion, 128 and scale, 121–8 scanning tunneling microscope (STM), 128 and stickiness, 128 plague.


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Uneasy Street: The Anxieties of Affluence by Rachel Sherman

American ideology, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, estate planning, financial independence, gig economy, high net worth, income inequality, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, mental accounting, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, school choice, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor

Whether one is wealthy in this connotative way is defined by how much moral integrity one has—not how much money. In the past ten years, rich people have faced another symbolic challenge as economic inequality has emerged as a dominant issue on the national stage.26 The 2008 housing market collapse and the subsequent “Great Recession” brought economic struggles front and center. In 2011 the Occupy movement’s critique of “the 1 percent” dominated even the mainstream media. In 2014 French economist Thomas Piketty’s 700-page book on inequality became a bestseller in the United States. Strikes by fast-food workers and prominent debates about raising the minimum wage to fifteen dollars per hour also put the spotlight on low-wage workers in this period. The 2016 presidential campaigns of Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump, despite their differences, kept outrage about economic disparities in the public eye.

Indeed, astronomical compensation in these industries, the low-wage service jobs they generate,41 and city development strategies favoring the rich have made New York the most unequal large city in the United States,42 creating a situation Mayor Bill De Blasio has labeled an “inequality crisis.”43 In 2014 the gap between the poorest and the wealthiest in Manhattan was the largest in the country, as the average earnings of the top 5 percent were more than eighty-eight times those of the bottom 20 percent.44 New York’s levels of residential segregation by income as well as race are also among the highest in the nation.45 As more wealthy professionals have stayed in the city rather than move to the suburbs, real estate prices have shot up. Many neighborhoods, especially in Manhattan and Brooklyn, have gentrified rapidly, pushing nonwealthy people farther into the outer boroughs. Issues of wealth and inequality are also extremely visible in the city. It is where the Occupy movement first appeared in the United States in 2011. Activists took over Zuccotti Park, in the heart of the financial district, thrusting these issues into the public spotlight. Finally, Manhattan is the backdrop for many of the most dominant images of the morally suspect wealthy, from the “Primates of Park Avenue”46 to the “wolves of Wall Street.”47 But who counts as “elite”?48 As I discuss further in the appendix, defining elites is complicated.

What would it mean, for example, to say that we should be critical of the fact that J. K. Rowling is a billionaire—regardless of how she came by her fortune, how she spends it, or whether she gives it away—just on the basis of the idea that such wealth is inseparable from extreme inequality, which is both pernicious to society and itself immoral? To some extent recent public discourses critical of inequality emerging from the Occupy movement, the Fight for Fifteen struggle for a $15 minimum wage, and the Bernie Sanders presidential campaign have raised exactly these questions. As we have seen, the people I talked with sometimes responded quite negatively to these critiques, interpreting them as personal judgments, as when high earners reacted defensively after President Obama advocated repealing high-wage tax cuts. But this tendency to feel personally affronted by public criticism of inequality also has to do with exactly the same process of attaching entitlement to individual merit.


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Stuffocation by James Wallman

3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

Social scientists would say that all these reasons – the stress of stuff, the stable upbringing, the environment, the ageing population, the growing population, the rise of the global middle class, and the move to cities – they are all relevant, but that we are also increasingly fed up with materialism because we simply don’t believe in the system anymore. One social scientist, such as Ruth Milkman, for instance, might point out that we are disillusioned with its inherent inequalities, that the protesters in the Occupy movement reflected the anger the rest of us felt. Another might highlight the fact that, till recently, we thought that if we earned more and bought more things, it would make us happier. But researchers like Tom Gilovich have shown that this is not the case, and as this truth reaches the mainstream it is changing the importance people place on possessions. An economist might smile at all these explanations.

Now she is Jenna Marbles, her video channel has nine million subscribers, and her videos have been watched more than a billion times. The internet has also transformed fashion. Once the front of catwalks was strictly Hollywood A-listers and VIPs. It still is – only the VIPs now include bloggers like twelve-year-old Tavi Gevinson. And it has revolutionized politics: consider the impact of Facebook and Twitter on Egypt, Iran, and the Occupy movement. Because of the internet, the direction of influence and the structure of power have changed. Instead of the old, top-down system, where information and influence flowed from the top, now they also flow in other ways, from the bottom upwards, and also sideways. And before, the few at the top held sway over the many at the bottom. If you wanted to visualize it, you could describe this system as a pyramid.

Jenna Marbles Watch the amazing Jenna Mourey get ready to go to work as a dancer in her “How to Trick People Into Thinking You’re Good Looking” video at YouTube. Tavi Gevinson Read about the time the twelve-year-old blogger sat front row in “Tavi Gevinson: 13-Year-Old Fashion Blogger Skips School, Attends Fashion Week”, Huffington Post, 17 November 2009. Social media’s effect on politics For the impact of Facebook and Twitter on Egypt, Iran, and the Occupy Movement, consider Jose Antonio Vargas, “Spring Awakening: How an Egyptian Revolution Began on Facebook”, New York Times, February 17, 2012, and Jared Keller, “Evaluating Iran’s Twitter Revolution”, The Atlantic, 18 June 2010. CHAPTER FOUR I Love to Count: the 33, 47, 69 and 100 Things of Minimalism Read more about Tammy Strobel at www.rowdykittens.com. The 39 Socks All the minimalists here have blogs.


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Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel

anti-communist, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, creative destruction, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

The new prominence of debt in rich countries—no novelty in poorer ones—has lately been matched by its political salience. In Greece, Portugal, and Spain, sovereign debt burdens have driven protesters onto the streets in the tens of thousands. They are indignant at being made to repair their governments’ books through higher taxes and reduced salaries and benefits. In Chile, excessive interest rates on student loans figured among the main grievances in demonstrations throughout the southern winter. And the Occupy movement in the US—whose slogan, “We are the 99 percent,” was reportedly first floated by Graeber himself—has condemned not only the maldistribution of wealth but the related vice of massive consumer debt, in the form of mortgages, student loans, and usurious interest rates on credit cards. Generally speaking, the 1 percent lends and the rest borrow. Western politicians meanwhile excuse their policies by alluding to the national debt.

Some readers of Debt have surmised that Graeber opposes all forms of impersonal economic relationship, on the basis of his warm accounts of neighborly credit relations or the Islamic bazaar with its “handshake deals,” as well as his denunciation of a credit system, articulated through laws and defended by violence, that exempts debt obligations and the value of money from the sort of continuous revision typical of humane dealings among equals. In response, Graeber has said that he is not “against impersonal relations, or all impersonal exchange relations,” which must in some degree characterize “any complex society.” There is no reason to doubt him. Yet the spirit of the Occupy movement has so far been defined by what Graeber, in Direct Action: An Ethnography (2009), described as the—mainly anarchist—theory and practice of “direct action,” or what is now often called “prefigurative politics.” In this ethos, “means and ends become, effectively, indistinguishable; a way of actively engaging with the world to bring about change, in which the form of the action … is itself a model for the change one wishes to bring about.”


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The Rise of the Outsiders: How Mainstream Politics Lost Its Way by Steve Richards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, call centre, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, David Brooks, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, full employment, housing crisis, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, obamacare, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley

In March 2011, less than three years after the financial crash, the then Governor of the Bank of England, Mervyn King, noted candidly: ‘I’m surprised the real anger has not been greater than it has… The people whose jobs were destroyed were in no way responsible for the excesses of the financial sector and the crisis that followed.’1 King was both insightful and premature in his analysis. He made a noteworthy observation. The global Occupy movement against social inequality came closest to an insurrectionary protest, but there were no riots related directly to the crash across Europe or the US. Instead of riots, the anger of electorates was channelled largely into support for parties and candidates away from the mainstream. Those who were victims of the crash, or felt they were, discovered a far more effective way of expressing their anger: they gave power or influence to an outsider on the left or right, through the ballot box.

Johnson: former US president Lionel Jospin: former French PM Sir Mervyn King: former Governor of the Bank of England Neil Kinnock: former Labour leader Pia Kjærsgaard: founder of the Danish People’s Party Oskar Lafontaine: former German minister Nigel Lawson: former UK chancellor Left Bloc: part of a coalition in Portugal Left Party: Germany Jean-Marie Le Pen: Front National, France Marine Le Pen: Front National Enrico Letta: Italian PM Damian McBride: Gordon Brown’s press secretary John McDonnell: Labour MP Emmanuel Macron: French minister John Major: former PM Peter Mandelson: former Labour politician and adviser Catarina Martins: leader of Portugal’s Left Bloc Theresa May: PM Angela Merkel: German chancellor David Miliband: former Foreign Secretary Ed Miliband: former Labour leader François Mitterrand: former French president Walter Mondale: former US vice-president Mario Monti: former Italian PM Chantal Mouffe: Belgian political theorist Lisa Nandy: MP for Wigan National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) Northern League (Lega Nord): Italy Paul Nuttall: current leader of UKIP Barack Obama: former US President Occupy movement: global movement against social inequality One Nation party: Australia George Osborne: former Chancellor of the Exchequer Party for Freedom: Holland Pasok: Greek socialist party Mike Pence: US vice-president People’s Party (PP): Spain Frauke Petry: chairwoman of the Alternative for Germany (AfD) party Podemos: left-wing party in Spain Virginia Raggi: Mayor of Rome Mariano Rajoy: Spanish PM Matteo Renzi: former Italian PM Republican Party: US Marco Rubio: Florida senator Kevin Rudd: former PM of Australia Mark Rutte: Dutch prime minister Paul Ryan: Speaker of the US House of Representatives Alex Salmond: former SNP leader Matteo Salvini: leader of Italy’s Northern League Antonis Samaras: former PM of Greece Pedro Sánchez: former leader of PSOE in Spain Bernie Sanders: US presidential candidate Nicolas Sarkozy: former French president Anthony Scaramucci: Trump adviser Gerhard Schroeder: former German chancellor Martin Schulz: leader of Germany’s SDP Scottish National Party (SNP): UK Peter Skaarup: leader of the Danish People’s Party Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ): Austria Social Democratic Party (SPD): Germany Social Democratic Party (SDP): UK Social Democrats: Denmark Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSOE) Heinz-Christian Strache: Freedom Party Nicola Sturgeon: SNP leader Larry Summers: former US Secretary of the Treasury and economist Sweden Democrats party Syriza: left-wing party in Greece Tea Party: US Margaret Thatcher: former PM Justin Trudeau: Canadian prime minister Donald Trump: US president Alexis Tsipras: leader of Greece’s Syriza party Malcolm Turnbull: Australian PM Alexander Van der Bellen: President of Austria Yanis Varoufakis: former Greek finance minister William Waldegrave: former Conservative minister Geert Wilders: founder of the Dutch Party for Freedom Harold Wilson: former PM Stewart Wood: a senior adviser to Gordon Brown Steven Woolfe: UKIP leadership candidate ______ NOTES INTRODUCTION 1 Mervyn King to Treasury Select Committee, 1 March 2011 2 The Briefing Room, BBC Radio 4, 22 December 2016 CHAPTER ONE: The Outsiders on the Right 1 The Guardian, 23 May 2016 2 Televised debate of potential Republican candidates, 14 January 2016 3 The New York Times, 30 January 2016 4 Donald Trump’s victory speech in New Hampshire, 9 February 2016 5 Trump press conference, 16 February 2017 6 Trump rally in Florida, 18 February 2017 7 The Guardian, 6 September 2016 8 Ibid. 9 The Economist, 23 January 2016 10 Stephen Nickell (SERC, CEP, Nuffield College, University of Oxford) and Jumana Saleheen (Bank of England), ‘The Impact of Immigration on Occupational Wages: Evidence from Britain’, Spatial Economics Research Centre discussion paper 34, October 2009 11 The Economist, 23 January 2016 12 Ibid. 13 BBC2, Stewart Lee Comedy Vehicle, 8 March 2014 14 Tony Blair speech, Bloomberg, London, 17 February 2017 15 Jan-Werner Müller, The Guardian, 2 September 2016, and What is Populism?

Starr, The (Gormley) ref1 defections ref1 Democratic Party of Italy (PD) ref1 Democratic Party (US) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10, ref11–ref12, ref13, ref14 Denmark ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4 Dole, Bob ref1 Donoughue, Bernard ref1 Duffy, Gillian ref1 Duncan Smith, Iain ref1 Ecclestone, Bernie ref1 Economist, The ref1, ref2 education ref1 Erdogan, Recep Tayyip ref1 Errejón, Íñigo ref1, ref2, ref3 European Central Bank ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 European Stability Mechanism ref1 European Union (EU) ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10–ref11 free movement ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 immigrants ref1–ref2 refugees ref1, ref2–ref3 see also Brexit eurosceptics ref1, ref2, ref3 eurozone ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Evening Standard ref1 Exchange Rate Mechanism ref1 expenses scandal (UK) ref1–ref2 Facebook ref1, ref2 ‘fake news’ ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4 Farage, Nigel ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Fawcett, Edmund ref1 Faymann, Werner ref1–ref2 Fillon, François ref1 financial crash (2008) ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9–ref10, ref11–ref12, ref13, ref14 Financial Times ref1, ref2, ref3 Finkelstein, Daniel ref1 ‘fiscal cliff’ ref1 Five Star Movement of Italy (M5S) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Flynn, Michael ref1 Forbes magazine ref1 ‘forgotten middle class’ ref1 Forsyth, James ref1 Forza Italia party ref1, ref2, ref3 Fowler, Norman ref1 France ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9–ref10, ref11, ref12–ref13, ref14, ref15 corruption ref1–ref2 media ref1–ref2 presidential election (2017) ref1–ref2 terrorist attacks (2015) ref1 Free Democratic Party (Germany) ref1 Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Front National (France) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5 policies ref1 G8 (Group of Eight) ref1 G20 London summit (2009) ref1–ref2 Gaddafi, Colonel Muammar ref1 Gauland, Alexander ref1 generational divide ref1 Germany ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 grand coalition ref1–ref2 media ref1–ref2 refugee crisis ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9–ref10 ‘Third Way’ ref1–ref2 trust ref1–ref2 Gillard, Julia ref1, ref2 Gilligan, Andrew ref1–ref2 globalization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11–ref12, ref13, ref14 Goldman Sachs ref1 Google ref1–ref2 Gormley, Ken ref1 Gould, Philip ref1 Gove, Michael ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4 Greece ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10–ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14 economic crisis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 general election (2015) ref1–ref2 referendum (2015) ref1–ref2 Green Party (Austria) ref1, ref2, ref3 Green Party (Germany) ref1, ref2 Green Party (Holland) ref1 Grillo, Beppe ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Guardian, The ref1 Hague, William ref1, ref2 Haines, Joe ref1 Hammond, Philip ref1 Hanson, Pauline ref1–ref2 Have I Got News for You ref1 Heath, Edward ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5 Heffer, Simon ref1 Hillbilly Elegy (Vance) ref1 Hobbs, Gabe ref1 Hofer, Norbert ref1, ref2, ref3 Holland ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4 Hollande, François ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Howard, Michael ref1, ref2, ref3 Humphrys, John ref1, ref2–ref3 Hungary ref1 Hunt, Tristram ref1 ‘identity politics’ ref1–ref2 Iglesias Turrión, Pablo ref1, ref2–ref3 immigration/immigrants ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10–ref11, ref12 Australian ‘points system’ ref1 students ref1–ref2 United Kingdom ref1–ref2 see also asylum-seekers incomes policy ref1–ref2 Independent, The ref1–ref2, ref3 International Monetary Fund (IMF) ref1, ref2 Iraq War (2003–11) ref1–ref2, ref3 Islam/Islamism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Italy ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9–ref10, ref11, ref12–ref13 corruption ref1 media ref1 James, Diane ref1 Jenkins, Roy ref1–ref2 job definition ref1–ref2 job markets ref1 Jobbik party (Hungary) ref1 Johnson, Boris ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4 Johnson, Lyndon B. ref1 Jospin, Lionel ref1, ref2 Katz, Ian ref1 Kearns Goodwin, Doris ref1 Keegan, William ref1 Keynesian solution ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Kielinger, Thomas ref1 Kind of Blue (Clarke) ref1 King, Sir Mervyn ref1, ref2, ref3 Kinnock, Neil ref1, ref2, ref3 Kjærsgaard, Pia ref1 Kristol, William ref1 Krugman, Paul ref1 labour markets ref1, ref2 Labour Party (Holland) ref1 Labour Party (UK) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14–ref15, ref16, ref17–ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22–ref23 annual conference (2005) ref1–ref2 defections ref1 general election (1992) ref1 general election (2010) ref1 general election (2015) ref1–ref2 leadership contest (2015) ref1–ref2 New Labour ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4 Scottish Labour Party ref1 Lafontaine, Oskar ref1 Lawson, Nigel ref1 Le Pen, Jean-Marie ref1, ref2 Le Pen, Marine ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Lee, Stewart ref1 Left Bloc (Portugal) ref1, ref2–ref3 Left Party (Germany) ref1 left-wing outsiders ref1–ref2 Lega Nord (Northern League) ref1, ref2 Lehman Brothers ref1, ref2 Letta, Enrico ref1 Lewinsky, Monica ref1 Liberal Democrats (UK) ref1, ref2, ref3 liberalism ref1–ref2, ref3 Liberalism: The Life of an Idea (Fawcett) ref1 Limbaugh, Rush ref1–ref2 Living Wage ref1 local politics ref1–ref2 London, UK ref1–ref2 McBride, Damian ref1 McDonnell, John ref1 McGovern, John ref1 Maastricht Treaty ref1 Macron, Emmanuel ref1 Mail on Sunday, The ref1, ref2 Major, John ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11–ref12 Mandelson, Peter ref1, ref2 Marlow, Alexander ref1 Martins, Catarina ref1–ref2 Masood, Khalid ref1 May, Theresa ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7 media ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4 Merkel, Angela ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 and refugee crisis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9 and ‘trust’ ref1–ref2 Miliband, David ref1 Miliband, Ed ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10, ref11 Mitterrand, François ref1–ref2 Mondale, Walter ref1 Monti, Mario ref1, ref2 Mouffe, Chantal ref1–ref2, ref3 Müller, Jan-Werner ref1, ref2 Murdoch, Rupert ref1 Nandy, Lisa ref1–ref2 National Alliance (AN) (Italy) ref1 National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) ref1–ref2 National Health Service (NHS) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 National Review ref1 Netherlands see Holland New European, The ref1 New Labour ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 New Statesman ref1, ref2 New York ref1 New York Times, The ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8 New Yorker, The ref1, ref2 Newsnight ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 newspapers ref1–ref2 Nickell, Stephen ref1 Nilsson, Niclas ref1 North American Free Trade Agreement ref1–ref2 Northern Ireland ref1 Northern League (Lega Nord) (Italy) ref1 Nuttall, Paul ref1, ref2 Obama, Barack ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16 G20 summit (2009) ref1–ref2, and globalization ref1–ref2, Obamacare ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5 State of the Union Address (2011) ref1–ref2 Observer, The ref1 Occupy movement ref1 Oliver, Jamie ref1 One Nation party (Australia) ref1 Osborne, George ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 as chancellor ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6 general election (2015) ref1–ref2 Party for Freedom (Holland) ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 party leaders ref1–ref2 party unity ref1–ref2 Pasok (Greece) ref1–ref2 Path to Prosperity, The (Ryan) ref1 Pence, Mike ref1 People of Liberty (PDL) (Italy) ref1 People’s Party of Spain (PP) ref1, ref2–ref3 Pethokoukis, James ref1 Petry, Frauke ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5–ref6 Podemos (Spain) ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6 Poirier, Agnès ref1 Poland ref1 ‘political cross-dressing’ ref1, ref2 political inexperience ref1–ref2 Portugal ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6 general election (2015) ref1 post-truth era ref1–ref2 Powell, Colin ref1 property ownership ref1 protectionism ref1, ref2 public-spending cuts ref1, ref2, ref3 qualifications for leadership ref1 Question Time ref1, ref2 racism ref1 ‘radical centre’ ref1, ref2, ref3 Raggi, Virginia ref1 Rajoy, Mariano ref1–ref2 Reagan, Ronald ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 ‘Reaganomics’ ref1, ref2 referendums ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7 refugees ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7–ref8 see also asylum-seekers ‘Remain’ campaign ref1–ref2, ref3 Remnick, David ref1 Renzi, Matteo ref1–ref2, ref3 Republican Party (US) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10–ref11, ref12–ref13, ref14, ref15–ref16, ref17 Rice, Condoleezza ref1 right-wing outsiders ref1–ref2 Robart, James ref1 Rosen, Jay ref1 Rubio, Marco ref1 Rudd, Kevin ref1, ref2, ref3 Rumsfeld, Donald ref1 Russia ref1 Rutte, Mark ref1–ref2 Ryan, Paul ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Ryley, John ref1–ref2 Saddam Hussein ref1–ref2 Saleheen, Jumana ref1 Salmond, Alex ref1 Salvini, Matteo ref1, ref2 Samaras, Antonis ref1 Sánchez, Pedro ref1 Sanders, Bernie ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12–ref13 Sarkozy, Nicolas ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Scaramucci, Anthony ref1 Scarlett, Sir John ref1, ref2 Schroeder, Gerhard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Schulz, Martin ref1, ref2, ref3 Scotland ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5 Scottish nationalism ref1, ref2 Scottish National Party (SNP) ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5 self-deprecation ref1–ref2 ‘shock jocks’ ref1–ref2 Skaarup, Peter ref1 Sky News ref1 ‘sleaze’ ref1–ref2 slogans ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4 Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) ref1, ref2–ref3 Social Democratic Party (SPD) (Germany) ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4 Social Democratic Party (SDP) (UK) ref1 Social Democrats (Denmark) ref1 social media ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5 socialism ref1 Spain ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12–ref13 general election (2015) ref1–ref2 Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSOE) ref1, ref2 Spectator magazine ref1, ref2 Starr, Kenneth ref1–ref2 Stephens, Philip ref1, ref2 Strache, Heinz-Christian ref1–ref2 Strictly Come Dancing ref1 Sturgeon, Nicola ref1 Summers, Larry ref1 Sun, The ref1, ref2 Sunday Times, The ref1 ‘superbanks’ ref1 ‘Sure Start’ initiative ref1 Sweden ref1 Sweden Democrats ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 ‘swingometer’ ref1 Swiss People’s party ref1 Syriza (Greece) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10 ‘taking back control’ ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4 Tapper, Jake ref1 Tauber, Peter ref1 tax credits ref1–ref2 tax rates ref1, ref2 Tea Party (US) ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4 technological revolutions ref1, ref2–ref3 Teneo Intelligence ref1 terrorism ref1 Thatcher, Margaret ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Thatcherism ref1, ref2, ref3 ‘Third Way’ ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Thompson, Mark ref1 Times, The ref1 Today programme ref1–ref2, ref3 Trans-Pacific Partnership ref1–ref2 transport ref1–ref2 Trudeau, Justin ref1 True Finns ref1 Trump, Donald ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9–ref10, ref11, ref12–ref13, ref14, ref15–ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20–ref21, ref22, ref23, ref24, ref25, ref26, ref27, ref28, ref29 and climate change ref1 and globalization ref1–ref2 and immigration ref1 and the media ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7 policies ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4 as president ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4 presidential campaign ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and trust ref1, ref2–ref3, ref4 ‘trust’ ref1, ref2–ref3 Tsipras, Alexis ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Turkey ref1 Turnbull, Malcolm ref1–ref2 Twitter ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8 Uber ref1–ref2 UK Independence Party (UKIP) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 defections ref1 immigration ref1 leadership contests ref1, ref2 policies ref1 Umunna, Chuka ref1 unemployment ref1–ref2, ref3 United Kingdom ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5–ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9, ref10–ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15–ref16, ref17, ref18–ref19, ref20–ref21 Brexit referendum (2016) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10–ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16–ref17, ref18–ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23–ref24, ref25 coalition government ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4 European elections (2014) ref1 expenses scandal ref1 general election (1979) ref1 general election (1992) ref1, ref2 general election (1997) ref1 general election (2005) ref1 general election (2010) ref1 general election (2015) ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5–ref6 immigration ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4 media ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5–ref6 ‘Third Way’ ref1–ref2 trust ref1–ref2, ref3–ref4 Westminster terrorist attack (2017) ref1–ref2 see also Brexit; Labour Party (UK); UK Independence Party United States ref1, ref2, ref3–ref4, ref5, ref6–ref7, ref8–ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12–ref13, ref14–ref15, ref16–ref17 media ref1–ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6 party nominations ref1–ref2, ref3 presidential election (2016) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4–ref5, ref6, ref7–ref8, ref9–ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17–ref18, ref19, ref20–ref21, ref22, ref23–ref24, ref25 trust ref1–ref2, ref3 State of the Union Address (2011) ref1–ref2 see also Democratic Party; Republican Party Van der Bellen, Alexander ref1 Vance, J.


pages: 423 words: 92,798

No Shortcuts: Organizing for Power in the New Gilded Age by Jane F. McAlevey

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, feminist movement, hiring and firing, immigration reform, informal economy, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, precariat, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, The Chicago School, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

Social-movement organizations (SMOs) are typically the self-selecting type that Han’s book describes. They, along with most community-based organizations and now, unfortunately, unions as well, label as a leader just about anyone who enthusiastically shows up at two successive meetings (even one sometimes), making the words activist and leader interchangeable. It’s an egalitarian impulse, as is the aversion to power. The Occupy movement has muddied this discussion even more with its talk of “leaderless movements” and “horizontalism.” But in any strategy for building power, all people are not the same. Given the $50 million ($330 million today) that the CCHD began granting in the early 1970s to the organizations and groups that carried on Alinsky’s work, it’s not surprising that Alinsky-based thinking has dominated the field coming out of the New Left period.

According to Sharkey: The old guard were Shankerites, basically unrepentant business unionists who thought that contracts were tough sometimes but we could win them by having a big hand on the table and making deals by talking tough, but we began to ask aloud, How’s that going to work with Rahm? He’s not coming to make deals, he’s coming to fight. The new leaders were changing the conversation about how a contract should be won, and they were acting like a union by involving all the members in the discussion. The Occupy movement had just surfaced on the heels of the spring 2011 uprising in Wisconsin, which was led by Midwestern teachers with many ties to Chicago. Every month, the CTU and CORE mobilized activists to attend the CPS school board meetings and to challenge the board during the period of open public comments on the agenda, which is required by law. The fall of 2010 had been colored by CPS administration-prompted skirmishes, but by the fall of 2011, the skirmishes were prompted by the CTU and aimed at socializing the teachers into taking harder and more frequent direct actions, building their confidence in their ability to win.

See also Smithfield Foods African American vote in, 175–76 immigration in, 149, 158 median income and wage in, 143–44, 178 Moral Mondays movement in, 143, 168, 177 union membership in, 144, 152 nursing home unionization. See also homecare workers 1199NE approach to, 71–72, 84–88, 90, 92, 93t, 95–100, 202 Local 775 approach to, 73–77, 80–84, 92, 94t, 95–100, 209 strikes and employer reaction in, 216n17 Obama, Barack, 41, 172, 176, 208, 217n27 Occupy movement, 48, 130 O’Dell, Jack, 31, 216n6 oligarchy, 25, 32, 105, 108, 112 Olney, Peter, 51, 154 organic leaders activist approach compared to, 122, 123 characteristics of, 34, 36, 80 in CIO model, 19, 34, 92–93 compared to grassroots activists, 12t identification of, 19, 34, 35–37, 47–48, 60, 97–98, 197–98, 209 leadership development and, 13, 209 mobilizing approach and, 65–66 power structure analysis for, 5–6 power theory of, 8–9 risk assessment and actions of, 36–37 in Smithfield Foods unionization fight, 160–62 social class of, 12 structure-based approach focus on, 14 structure test for, 35, 39 “organizer-leader,” 46–47, 49, 209 organizers, 46 faith-based, 14–15 leaders compared to, 209 “left,” 32–35, 38, 39, 41 struggle’s role in development of, 85, 155, 176 worker preparation by, 89–92 organizing model.


When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

The top 1 per cent alone saw their share of after-­tax income rise from 10 per cent of the total in 1979 to a staggering 20 per cent by 2007. In effect, the already rich became the super-­rich. Admittedly, others ended up better off, but the gap between rich and not-­so-­rich widened enormously. The spoils of US economic success went mostly to those who already were very well off.8 It’s no wonder that, following the financial crisis, the Occupy movement has become so popular. For the UK, the top 1 per cent of income earners saw their share reach a trough of around 6 per cent in the mid-­1970s. Thereafter, the share rose dramatically, reaching a peak of over 15 per cent in 2007, close to ratios last seen before the Second World War. On this particular metric, the UK is not so different from Argentina. The land of the pampas saw the share of the richest 1 per cent hit a trough in the mid-­1970s before rising rapidly thereafter.

When those dreams turn to nightmares, however, it’s hardly surprising that mistrust spreads. Does that mistrust then destroy the innovative culture that, while contributing to financial bubbles and high levels of income inequality, ultimately allows living standards to rise for the many, not the few? THE SECOND SCHISM: GROWING OLD DISGRACEFULLY Income inequality may be the issue that grabs headlines, not least thanks to the efforts of the Occupy movement, whether on Wall 170 4099.indd 170 29/03/13 2:23 PM Three Schisms Street, outside the San Francisco Federal Reserve or in a campsite outside London’s St Paul’s Cathedral. There is, however, a second schism that, ultimately, may be more problematic because, within our democratic framework, it is so difficult to deal with. We are on the verge of an intergenerational war. Economic stagnation makes it near enough impossible to satisfy the expectations of both the baby boomers – who hope to enjoy a happy, healthy and financially stress-­ free retirement – and younger generations – who, increasingly, are expected to pick up the bill.

L. 41 Knickerbocker Trust Company 131 Korea 14, 193, 195, 202–4, 205 Krugman, Paul 112–15, 117, 118–19 labour market 115–16, 252 productivity 53 Landes, David 26 Latin American debt crisis 216 Layard, Richard 114, 117 Lehman Brothers 30, 255 Leveson inquiry 148 Libor 126 life expectancy 47 liquidity 84, 90 liquidity trap 72 Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) 83 Little Dorrit (Dickens) 138–9 living standards 11, 27, 158, 169, 180–1 belief in ever rising 13, 34 China 27 Indonesia 197 Japan 23 Korea 195 late 19th century 185, 186 Malaysia 198 post-Second World War 139 US 11, 163 loan-to-value ratios, mortgage 51–2 Long Depression 189–90 loss aversion 40–1 lotteries 164–5 Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure (MIP) 233 macroeconomic policies 32, 60, 121, 181, 253 Japan 21 macroprudential rules 256 Madoff, Bernie 35 Mahathir Mohamad 198–201, 205 Malaysia 193, 198–201, 205 Malthus, Thomas 37–9 Manchester United 165–6 Marr, Wilhelm 189 Marx, Karl 57, 179–80 Mary Poppins 131–2 May Report 98 Megawati Sukarnoputri 197 Mellon, Andrew 106, 108 Mexico 158 Mieno, Yasushi 21 miners 103–4 Mississippi 163 mistrust creditors and debtors 141 cross-border 176 endemic 147–9 governments 140, 217–18 of money 219–21 and political extremism 227 monetarism 59 monetary policy 58, 68–74, 77–9, 87–9, 97, 111–12 a new monetary framework 245–50 see also Gold Standard; interest rates; quantitative easing (QE) Monetary Policy Committee 90–1 monetary unions 236–7 see also eurozone moral hazard 62 mortgage-backed securities 30, 65, 136–7 mortgages 51–2, 63–5 Napoleon Bonaparte 156 Napoleon III 182 National Bank of North America 131 national incomes 32, 49–50, 141–2, 247 Germany 33 Japan 32 UK 33, 110–11, 112 US 33, 70, 109, 115, 117–18 284 4099.indd 284 29/03/13 2:23 PM Index National Lottery 164–5 nationalism 228 the Netherlands 48 New Deal 108–9 ‘new economy’ of the 1990s 29–30 New Order (Indonesia) 197 New Zealand 187 Nicholson, Viv 50 Nigeria 19 Northern Rock 30, 51–2, 129, 255 Norway 158 Occupy movement 162, 170–1 Office for Budget Responsibility 33 Oliver Twist (Dickens) 43 Osborne, George 231 Overend, Gurney and Co. 131 painkillers 70–1, 89 ‘The Panic of 1873’ 186 Paul, Ron 93 Peasants’ Revolt 213 Pension Protection Fund (PPF) 172 pensioners’ voting patterns 88 pensions 47, 51, 75, 171–3, 174 per capita incomes 27, 49, 159–60, 163 Argentina and Germany 14 China 251 France 101, 105 Germany 101, 105 India 27, 251 Indonesia 197 Japan 21 Korea 202 Malaysia 198 UK 1, 44, 101, 105 US 14, 101, 105 Perón, Eva 16 Perón, Juan 16–17 Pew Center report 173 Pickett, Kate 159 Pigou, Arthur 59 policies and central bankers 65 fiscal 58, 66–7, 69–70, 77–8, 246–7 macroeconomic 21, 32, 60, 121, 181, 253 monetary 58, 68–74, 77–9, 87–9, 97, 111–12 new monetary framework 245–50 political extremism 226–9 politics and central bankers 78, 89–90, 91–5 and economics 24–6, 34, 102, 191–2, 217 and the eurozone 224–5, 237 and expectations 152–3 and income inequality 160–1 and lack of trust 147–8, 149 and monetary regimes 119–20 voters 50, 78, 88, 222, 242–4 poll tax 211 populations, ageing 78, 88, 250 age-related expenditure 48 generational divide 171–4, 241, 243–5 Germany 136 Japan 23, 25 Portugal 50, 146, 158, 191 precious metal standards 183–4 see also Gold Standard prices asset 73 commodity 77, 109, 116–17 rising 157 see also deflation; inflation property sector see housing markets protectionism 214–15 capital controls 16, 199–200, 201, 234 tariffs 16 Protestant work ethic 26, 28 public sector see governments public spending 49–50, 66, 142, 147–8, 203 government spending 58, 109, 119 social spending 45–7 quantitative easing (QE) 72–82, 84–6, 91, 97, 176–7 ratings agencies 234–5 rationing 114–15, 142–3 recessions 2 recovery from the Asian crisis 195–6, 204–5, 206, 208–9 UK in the 1930s 101–2 redistribution by stealth 90 Reform Acts 222, 242–3 regulation 125, 256 dangers of further 214, 251 dollar transactions 177 reduction 168 the regulatory trap 83–4 Statute of Labourers 213 renminbi (currency) 177 Réveillon, Jean-Baptiste 155–6 Ricardo, David 183–4 Richard II 211–12 ringgit (currency) 198 285 4099.indd 285 29/03/13 2:23 PM When the Money Runs Out risk and banks 255–6 creditors and debtors imbalance 234 and financial services 168 and rapid economic change 170 risk aversion 216 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 107–9, 117–18, 119, 219 Royal Bank of Scotland 30 Royal Navy 99 Russia 117, 135 Rwanda 19 Samuel, Herbert 104 Saudi Arabia 117, 135 savers and banks 136 confidence 65 and illusions 137 and income inequality 162–3 and interest rates 90, 91, 97 and the subprime boom 133–4 schisms between debtors and creditors 174–7, 191 generational 170–4 income inequality 158–70 Schwartz, Anna 59, 106, 188 second-hand car market 123–4 Sierra Leone 163 silver standard 183 SIVs (structured investment vehicles) 129–30 Skidelsky, R. and E. 37 Smith, Adam 39–40, 207 melancholy state 42, 124–5, 159–60 Snowden’s budget 99–102, 105 soccer 165 social contract, between generations 244–5 social insurance 44–8 social security systems 12 social spending 45–7 Soros, George 200 South Korea 14, 193, 195, 202–4, 205 South Sea Bubble 29 space exploration 9–10, 35 Spain deficit 54, 134 and the eurozone 191, 235–6 exports 82 fiscal position 85 government borrowing 144 interest rates 146 political disenfranchisement 95 property bubble 140 suicide of Amaia Egana 153 spending government 58, 109, 119 public sector 49–50, 66, 142, 147–8, 203 social 45–7 stagnation 37–43, 50, 52–3, 158, 219 and political extremism 227–8 Standard & Poor’s 80 ‘stately home’ effect 221–3 Statute of Labourers 211, 213 sterling 98–106, 110 Stern Review 38–9 stimulus 3–4 and jobs 116 monetary and fiscal 30, 57–8, 181 Paul Krugman 112–15, 118–19 policy 32, 69–70, 82 political debate 205 prior to the financial crisis 67 stock markets 20–1, 30, 193 stock-market crashes 18, 61–2, 66, 99, 186 Straw, Jack 212 structured investment vehicles (SIVs) 129–30 subprime boom 130, 133–4 crisis 190 Suharto 196–7, 205 surpluses 66, 135–7, 204, 232–4 Sweden 158, 204 Switzerland 158, 184 Taiwan 14 Takeshita, Noburo 24 Tanzania 19 tariffs 16 tax avoidance 49, 211, 214 taxation ancien régime and the French Revolution 154–5 death duties 139 medieval poll tax 211 taxpayers 145, 170, 174, 215, 254 technological progress 2–3, 10–11 dotcom bubble 169 and financial industry wages 167 Industrial Revolution 38 Thailand 193, 195 Thaler, R.


pages: 363 words: 92,422

A Fine Mess by T. R. Reid

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, game design, Gini coefficient, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, industrial robot, land value tax, loss aversion, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

The protesters generally agreed on what they were complaining about: big business got large government bailouts after the global recession, while ordinary citizens lost their jobs, their homes, and their savings. But the various groups never settled on what they wanted to do about it. There were few if any specific demands for action from the Occupiers. As the urban campers began to leave their muddy tent cities in the cold of winter, it was hard to identify any policy change spurred by this occupation. And yet the Occupy movement did make a lasting contribution to American political discourse. The notion stuck that the country was divided between a filthy rich 1% and everybody else. Politicians from left to right—from the Democratic senator Elizabeth Warren to the Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump—declared that the American economic system is “rigged” to benefit the rich at the expense of the rest. In the 2012 election, Democrats never missed a chance to remind the voters that the Republican presidential nominee, Mitt Romney, was a certified 1-percenter, with bank accounts in Switzerland and the Cayman Islands.

The good news, he said, is that everybody is getting better off; it just happens at different rates. “Any increase in wealth inequality or pre-tax income inequality in Britain or America is caused by the rich getting disproportionately richer, not by the poor getting poorer.”4 With all the talk of inequality, some of the 1% began moaning out loud about the focus on their wealth, giving birth to a curious new American species: the whining billionaire. “From the Occupy movement to the demonization of the rich . . . I perceive a rising tide of hatred of the successful one percent,” the Silicon Valley magnate Tom Perkins wrote in an open letter. “I would call attention to the parallels of fascist Nazi Germany in its war on its ‘one percent,’ namely its Jews, to the progressive war on the American one percent, namely the ‘rich.’”5 The Nazi parallel was taken up by the investment banker Stephen Schwarzman, who was unhappy with proposals to reduce inequality by ending a lucrative tax break for his industry.

(This proposal actually made Hollande something of a moderate in the presidential race; the candidate from the Left Front pledged to impose a tax of 100% on incomes over $375,000.) Hollande’s supertax on what he called “the arrogant and grasping rich” drew strong support from liberal newspapers and from prominent economists, including Thomas Piketty. Looking across the Atlantic to the demonstrations by “the 99%” in America, Piketty said that “Hollande’s 75-percent tax is the right response to the Occupy movement. The irony is that the street movement is happening in the United States, while the political response is coming in France.”8 Although the supertax actually touched only a minute fraction of French taxpayers, it ran into furious resistance. The Conseil Constitutionnel, a sort of Supreme Court, ruled that a tax rate of 75% amounted to a “confiscation” of wealth, in violation of the French Constitution.


pages: 165 words: 48,594

Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism by Richard D. Wolff

asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, feminist movement, financial intermediation, Howard Zinn, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, wage slave, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

These included concentration of capital into ever-larger units, rampant financialization, and imperialism (rechristened as “globalization” to mask the steady relocation of manufacturing and then service-sector jobs out of the United States), as well as wars, speculative bubbles, and massive capitalist crises. Anger and frustration accumulated on the left. With the stunningly rapid national and even international spread of the Occupy Wall Street movement in late 2011, an explicit protest movement began to crystallize. The Occupy movement broke through decades of left resignation about the possibility and potential mass support for challenging the resurgence of private capitalism. The Occupy critique focused on capitalism’s unacceptable concentration of wealth and power. It explicitly welcomed and articulated direct challenges to capitalism. It reopened communication with the declining labor movement in the interests of active collaboration and mutual reinforcement.

Graduate economics programs elevate such utopian claims into formalized models that claim to show how and why capitalism yields a general optimally efficient equilibrium that maximizes the welfare of all market participants.† The organic intellectuals of the WSDE movement can present both practical possibilities (as in section 10.1 above) and utopian visions of a socialism that is far more democratic than the standard examples from the twentieth century. By doing so, they may be able to persuade the Occupy movement and the millions it has engaged that WSDEs belong on the agenda for social change. The program for increased WSDEs needs to support and build—in universities, labor unions, social movements, and beyond—the meetings, discussions, courses, and centers that can generate and train organic intellectuals. 11.5 A New Independent Political Party As WSDEs grow and proliferate, they will acquire and develop organic intellectuals who produce and elaborate their criticisms of capitalism and their programs for social alternatives.


pages: 416 words: 100,130

New Power: How Power Works in Our Hyperconnected World--And How to Make It Work for You by Jeremy Heimans, Henry Timms

"side hustle", 3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, battle of ideas, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Chris Wanstrath, Columbine, Corn Laws, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, future of work, game design, gig economy, hiring and firing, IKEA effect, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, Kibera, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, profit motive, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Snapchat, social web, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, web application, WikiLeaks

After a significant public backlash, with black users sharing their experiences alongside the hashtag #AirbnbWhileBlack, in 2016 the company announced a series of measures to fight this kind of discrimination. But notably, they resisted calls to anonymize names and profile pictures because “profile photos are essential to Airbnb’s overall mission of building a community.” Who calls the shots? When members of the Occupy movement in Zuccotti Park made decisions, they gathered for what they called the “general assembly.” Decisions required almost complete consensus among hundreds or even thousands of people via an elaborate system of hand gestures: waggling fingers for agreement, limp wrists to the floor for disagreement, crossed fists for an outright veto on a proposal. At the general assembly, everything was designed to create a feeling of radical inclusiveness and a sense that every voice was equally valued, not just the loudest or most powerful ones.

The Podemos story begins on the back of a big disappointment (and a familiar lesson in the limits of new power). The spring of 2011 was a tense time in Spain. Corruption was rife. Bankers were being cast as villains in the collapse of the economy. Youth unemployment had reached a staggering 43 percent. Public squares were full of demonstrations. Out of the tension emerged the Indignados (or 15-M) movement—a mass protest of Spain’s budget cuts and a precursor to the broader Occupy movement that would rattle the world that fall. It was new, exciting, and full of possibility. As The Guardian reported at the time, “City square by city square, individual meeting by individual meeting, thousands of citizens have come together in a networked approach to politics that is fresh and engaging because it defies, above anything else, the hierarchical approach favored by vested interests.”

It had broken the country’s two-party rule before its second birthday. * * * — Four months before the Indignados movement broke out, two thousand miles away Wael Ghonim was launching his own assault on the establishment. He was an administrator of the “We Are All Khaled Said” Facebook page that sparked the Egyptian chapter in the Arab Spring. Yet this surge of new power, like the Indignados and Occupy movements, would dissipate. In Egypt, the unrest of the revolution presented opportunities for old power forces—more despotic than those they replaced—to grab control. As Ghonim recalled in a 2015 TED Talk, “I once said, ‘If you want to liberate a society, all you need is the Internet.’ I was wrong.” Ghonim, looking back, believes that the distributed leadership and social networks of the Egyptian protest movement actually served to weaken rather than strengthen it.


pages: 379 words: 99,340

The Revolt of the Public and the Crisis of Authority in the New Millennium by Martin Gurri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, business cycle, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, David Graeber, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, job-hopping, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, too big to fail, traveling salesman, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, young professional

Spain was a top-down country, and those at the top had no idea what to make of the young demonstrators. They seemed to have come from nowhere. An inconclusive debate began among the elites about the meaning of it all: whether the crowds in the street were a symptom of political health or sickness. In the next few days, an “assembly” of Madrid protesters voted to “take” the large plaza called Puerta del Sol – it became their version of Tahrir Square. The move would inspire a rash of “Occupy” movements in the US, Britain, and elsewhere. The Spanish protesters called themselves the “15-M movement,” from the date of the first demonstration, but they were better known as the indignados: the outraged. The label had been borrowed from a pamphlet by a 93-year-old French writer, Stéphane Hessel, whose message to young people was, “It’s time to get angry!” The protesters sounded more earnest than angry – and they were clever, popularizing a string of witty slogans.

In reality, he was president of Spain, with all the pomp and distance – and hostility from a rebellious public – his position entailed. Zapatero and his party never resolved this fundamental dilemma. Netanyahu, the free marketeer, responded by swallowing his principles and addressing the more concrete complaints coming out of Rothschild Boulevard. His government moved with unusual tactical speed, and may well have survived for this reason. In the US, the Occupy movement never remotely threatened the Federal government. City governments, almost all of them run by liberal Democratic politicians, struggled to assume the proper posture toward local occupations. Even New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, a billionaire and “one percenter” if ever there was one, relied on technicalities first to tolerate then to shut down Zuccotti Park. Bloomberg kept reporters away from the site while it was being cleared – again offering vague technical reasons for doing so.

Bloomberg kept reporters away from the site while it was being cleared – again offering vague technical reasons for doing so. On occasion, President Obama was asked by the media for his opinion of the Occupy groups. He invariably responded with sympathy for the protesters, whose grievances he identified with the economic problems that had won him the presidency in 2008. Here is a fairly typical statement from the president: “I think it [the Occupy movement] expresses the frustrations the American people feel, that we had the biggest financial crisis since the Great Depression, huge collateral damage all throughout the country… and yet you’re still seeing some of the same folks who acted irresponsibly trying to fight efforts to crack down on the abusive practices that got us into this in the first place.”[73] To underline the message, the White House, on October 16, proclaimed that President Obama was “working for the interests of the 99 percent.”[74] It may seem puzzling for a sitting president to embrace a movement which repudiated the legitimacy of government because it was run by corporations.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

It is not simply that crowds are resistant to scientific techniques of observation and measurement. There are too many voices who don’t want them to be defined in that way, including the organizers, speakers, and members of large gatherings. A neutral objective perspective is hard to come by and difficult to defend. Public rallies are as old as politics itself. But they have taken on a fresh sense of purpose since the global financial crisis of 2007–9, especially on the left. The Occupy movement that emerged in 2011 to protest against the banks made public assembly its central political purpose, and took the cold, scientific language of statistics and turned it into a mobilizing identity with the famous slogan “we are the 99%.” Left-wing leaders, such as Alexis Tsipras in Greece, Pablo Iglesias in Spain and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, have placed renewed political emphasis on the ability to bring large numbers of people together in public spaces.

., Martin Luther, 21, 224 knowledge economy, 84, 85, 88, 151–2, 217 known knowns, 132, 138 Koch, Charles and David, 154, 164, 174 Korean War (1950–53), 178 Kraepelin, Emil, 139 Kurzweil, Ray, 183–4 Labour Party, 5, 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Lagarde, Christine, 64 Le Bon, Gustave, 8–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25, 38 Le Pen, Marine, 27, 79, 87, 92, 101–2 Leadbeater, Charles, 84 Leeds, West Yorkshire, 85 Leicester, Leicestershire, 85 Leviathan (Hobbes), 34, 39, 45 liberal elites, 20, 58, 88, 89, 161 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173, 196, 209, 226 Liberty Fund, 158 Libya, 143 lie-detection technology, 136 life expectancy, 62, 68–71, 72, 92, 100–101, 115, 224 Lindemann, Frederick Alexander, 1st Viscount Cherwell, 138 Lloyds Bank, 29 London, England bills of mortality, 68–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 127 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 EU referendum (2016), 85 Great Fire (1666), 67 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 and gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 78 housing crisis, 84 insurance sector, 59 knowledge economy, 84 life expectancy, 100 newspapers, early, 48 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 plagues, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 127 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 London School of Economics (LSE), 160 loss aversion, 145 Louis XIV, King of France, 73, 127 Louisiana, United States, 151, 221 Ludwig von Mises Institute, 154 MacLean, Nancy, 158 Macron, Emmanuel, 33 mainstream media, 197 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 Manchester, England, 85 Mann, Geoff, 214 maps, 182 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210, 211 marketing, 14, 139–41, 143, 148, 169 Mars, 175, 226 Marxism, 163 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 179 Mayer, Jane, 158 McCarthy, Joseph, 137 McGill Pain Questionnaire, 104 McKibben, William “Bill,” 213 Megaface, 188–9 memes, 15, 194 Menger, Carl, 154 mental illness, 103, 107–17, 139 mercenaries, 126 Mercer, Robert, 174, 175 Mexico, 145 Million-Man March (1995), 4 mind-reading technology, 136 see also telepathy Mirowski, Philip, 158 von Mises, Ludwig, 154–63, 166, 172, 173 Missing Migrants Project, 225 mobilization, 5, 7, 126–31 and Corbyn, 81 and elections, 81, 124 and experts, 27–8 and Internet, 15 and Le Bon’s crowd psychology, 11, 12, 16, 20 and loss, 145 and Napoleonic Wars, xv, 127–30, 141, 144 and Occupy movement, 5 and populism, 16, 22, 60 and violence, opposition to, 21 Moniteur Universel, Le, 142 monopoly on violence, 42 Mont Pelerin Society, 163, 164 moral emotion, 21 morphine, 105 multiculturalism, 84 Murs, Oliver “Olly,” ix Musk, Elon, 175, 176, 178, 183, 226 Nanchang, Jiangxi, 13 Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), 126–30 chappe system, 129, 182 and conscription, 87, 126–7, 129 and disruption, 170–71, 173, 174, 175, 226 and great leader ideal, 146–8 and intelligence, 134 and mobilization, xv, 126–30, 141, 144 and nationalism, 87, 128, 129, 144, 183, 211 and propaganda, 142 Russia, invasion of (1812), 128, 133 Spain, invasion of (1808), 128 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Audit Office (NAO), 29–30 national citizenship, 71 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 national sovereignty, 34, 53 nationalism, 87, 141, 210–12 and conservatism, 144 and disempowerment, 118–19 and elites, 22–3, 60–61, 145 ethnic, 15 and health, 92, 211–12, 224 and imagined communities, 87 and inequality, 78 and loss, 145 and markets, 167 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145, 197, 198 and war, 7, 20–21, 118–19, 143–6, 210–11 nativism, 61 natural philosophy, 35–6 nature, 86 see also environment Nazi Germany (1933–45), 137, 138, 154 Netherlands, 48, 56, 129 Neurable, 176 neural networking, 216 Neuralink, 176 neurasthenia, 139 Neurath, Otto, 153–4, 157, 160 neurochemistry, 108, 111, 112 neuroimaging, 176–8, 181 Nevada, United States, 194 new atheism, 209 New Orleans, Louisiana, 151 New Right, 164 New York, United States and climate change, 205 and gross domestic product (GDP), 78 housing crisis, 84 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 knowledge economy, 84 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 New York Times, 3, 27, 85 newspapers, 48, 71 Newton, Isaac, 35 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 217 Nixon, Robert, 206 no-platforming, 22, 208 Nobel Prize, 158–9 non-combatants, 43, 143, 204 non-violence, 224 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 123, 145, 214 North Carolina, United States, 84 Northern Ireland, 43, 85 Northern League, 61 Northern Rock, 29 Norwich, Norfolk, 85 nostalgia, xiv, 143, 145, 210, 223 “Not in my name,” 27 nuclear weapons, 132, 135, 137, 180, 183, 192, 196, 204 nudge techniques, 13 Obama, Barack, 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158, 172 Obamacare, 172 objectivity, xiv, 13, 75, 136, 223 and crowd-based politics, 5, 7, 24–5 and death, 94 and Descartes, 37 and experts, trust in, 28, 32, 33, 51, 53, 64, 86, 89 and Hayek, 163, 164, 170 and markets, 169, 170 and photography, 8 and Scientific Revolution, 48, 49 and statistics, 72, 74, 75, 82, 88 and telepathic communication, 179 and war, 58, 125, 134, 135, 136, 146 Occupy movement, 5, 10, 24, 61 Oedipus complex, 109 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 Ohio, United States, 116 oil crisis (1973), 166 “On Computable Numbers” (Turing), 181 On War (Clausewitz), 130 Open Society and Its Enemies, The (Popper), 171 opiates, 105, 116, 172–3 opinion polling, 65, 80–81, 191 Orbán, Viktor, 87, 146 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 72 Oxford, Oxfordshire, 85 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 Oxford University, 56, 151 OxyContin, 105, 116 pacifism, 8, 20, 44, 151 pain, 102–19, 172–3, 224 see also chronic pain painkillers, 104, 105, 116, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 parabiosis, 149 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Paris Commune (1871), 8 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Paul, Ronald, 154 PayPal, 149 Peace of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 peer reviewing, 48, 139, 195, 208 penicillin, 94 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 pesticides, 205 Petty, William, 55–9, 67, 73, 85, 167 pharmacology, 142 Pielke Jr., Roger, 24, 25 Piketty, Thomas, 74 Pinker, Stephen, 207 plagues, 56, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 95 pleasure principle, 70, 109, 110, 224 pneumonia, 37, 67 Podemos, 5, 202 Poland, 20, 34, 60 Polanyi, Michael, 163 political anatomy, 57 Political Arithmetick (Petty), 58, 59 political correctness, 20, 27, 145 Popper, Karl, 163, 171 populism xvii, 211–12, 214, 220, 225–6 and central banks, 33 and crowd-based politics, 12 and democracy, 202 and elites/experts, 26, 33, 50, 152, 197, 210, 215 and empathy, 118 and health, 99, 101–2, 224–5 and immediate action, 216 in Kansas (1880s), 220 and markets, 167 and private companies, 174 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145 and statistics, 90 and unemployment, 88 and war, 148, 212 Porter, Michael, 84 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 111–14, 117, 209 post-truth, 167, 224 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 power vs. violence, 19, 219 predictive policing, 151 presidential election, US (2016), xiv and climate change, 214 and data, 190 and education, 85 and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 79, 145 and inequality, 76–7 and Internet, 190, 197, 199 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and Russia, 199 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 prisoners of war, 43 promises, 25, 31, 39–42, 45–7, 51, 52, 217–18, 221–2 Propaganda (Bernays), 14–15 propaganda, 8, 14–16, 83, 124–5, 141, 142, 143 property rights, 158, 167 Protestantism, 34, 35, 45, 215 Prussia (1525–1947), 8, 127–30, 133–4, 135, 142 psychiatry, 107, 139 psychoanalysis, 107, 139 Psychology of Crowds, The (Le Bon), 9–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25 psychosomatic, 103 public-spending cuts, 100–101 punishment, 90, 92–3, 94, 95, 108 Purdue, 105 Putin, Vladimir, 145, 183 al-Qaeda, 136 quality of life, 74, 104 quantitative easing, 31–2, 222 quants, 190 radical statistics, 74 RAND Corporation, 183 RBS, 29 Reagan, Ronald, 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 real-time knowledge, xvi, 112, 131, 134, 153, 154, 165–70 Reason Foundation, 158 Red Vienna, 154, 155 Rees-Mogg, Jacob, 33, 61 refugee crisis (2015–), 60, 225 relative deprivation, 88 representative democracy, 7, 12, 14–15, 25–8, 61, 202 Republican Party, 77, 79, 85, 154, 160, 163, 166, 172 research and development (R&D), 133 Research Triangle, North Carolina, 84 resentment, 5, 226 of elites/experts, 32, 52, 61, 86, 88–9, 161, 186, 201 and nationalism/populism, 5, 144–6, 148, 197, 198 and pain, 94 Ridley, Matt, 209 right to remain silent, 44 Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 160, 166 Robinson, Tommy, ix Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 52 Royal Exchange, 67 Royal Society, 48–52, 56, 68, 86, 133, 137, 186, 208, 218 Rumsfeld, Donald, 132 Russian Empire (1721–1917), 128, 133 Russian Federation (1991–) and artificial intelligence, 183 Gerasimov Doctrine, 43, 123, 125, 126 and information war, 196 life expectancy, 100, 115 and national humiliation, 145 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 and social media, 15, 18, 199 troll farms, 199 Russian Revolution (1917), 155 Russian SFSR (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 155, 177, 180, 182–3 safe spaces, 22, 208 Sands, Robert “Bobby,” 43 Saxony, 90 scarlet fever, 67 Scarry, Elaine, 102–3 scenting, 135, 180 Schneier, Bruce, 185 Schumpeter, Joseph, 156–7, 162 Scientific Revolution, 48–52, 62, 66, 95, 204, 207, 218 scientist, coining of term, 133 SCL, 175 Scotland, 64, 85, 172 search engines, xvi Second World War, see World War II securitization of loans, 218 seismology, 135 self-employment, 82 self-esteem, 88–90, 175, 212 self-harm, 44, 114–15, 117, 146, 225 self-help, 107 self-interest, 26, 41, 44, 61, 114, 141, 146 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 sentiment analysis, xiii, 12–13, 140, 188 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 shell shock, 109–10 Shrecker, Ted, 226 Silicon Fen, Cambridgeshire, 84 Silicon Valley, California, xvi, 219 and data, 55, 151, 185–93, 199–201 and disruption, 149–51, 175, 226 and entrepreneurship, 149–51 and fascism, 203 and immortality, 149, 183–4, 224, 226 and monopolies, 174, 220 and singularity, 183–4 and telepathy, 176–8, 181, 185, 186, 221 and weaponization, 18, 219 singularity, 184 Siri, 187 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 slavery, 59, 224 smallpox, 67 smart cities, 190, 199 smartphone addiction, 112, 186–7 snowflakes, 22, 113 social indicators, 74 social justice warriors (SJWs), 131 social media and crowd psychology, 6 emotional artificial intelligence, 12–13, 140–41 and engagement, 7 filter bubbles, 66 and propaganda, 15, 18, 81, 124 and PTSD, 113 and sentiment analysis, 12 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 weaponization of, 18, 19, 22, 194–5 socialism, 8, 20, 154–6, 158, 160 calculation debate, 154–6, 158, 160 Socialism (Mises), 160 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 South Africa, 103 sovereignty, 34, 53 Soviet Russia (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 177, 180, 182–3 Spain, 5, 34, 84, 128, 202 speed of knowledge, xvi, 112, 124, 131, 134, 136, 153, 154, 165–70 Spicer, Sean, 3, 5 spy planes, 136, 152 Stalin, Joseph, 138 Stanford University, 179 statactivism, 74 statistics, 62–91, 161, 186 status, 88–90 Stoermer, Eugene, 206 strong man leaders, 16 suicide, 100, 101, 115 suicide bombing, 44, 146 superbugs, 205 surveillance, 185–93, 219 Sweden, 34 Switzerland, 164 Sydenham, Thomas, 96 Syriza, 5 tacit knowledge, 162 talking cure, 107 taxation, 158 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 technocracy, 53–8, 59, 60, 61, 78, 87, 89, 90, 211 teenage girls, 113, 114 telepathy, 39, 176–9, 181, 185, 186 terrorism, 17–18, 151, 185 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 emergency powers, 42 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 suicide bombing, 44, 146 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Thames Valley, England, 85 Thatcher, Margaret, 154, 160, 163, 166 Thiel, Peter, 26, 149–51, 153, 156, 174, 190 Thirty Years War (1618–48), 34, 45, 53, 126 Tokyo, Japan, x torture, 92–3 total wars, 129, 142–3 Treaty of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 trends, xvi, 168 trigger warnings, 22, 113 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 Trump, Donald, xiv and Bannon, 21, 60–61 and climate change, 207 and education, 85 election campaign (2016), see under presidential election, US and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 145 inauguration (2017), 3–5, 6, 9, 10 and inequality, 76–7 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and March for Science (2017), 23, 24, 210 and media, 27 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and Paris climate accord, 207 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 Tsipras, Alexis, 5 Turing, Alan, 181, 183 Twitter and Corbyn’s rallies, 6 and JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x and Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x and Russia, 18 and sentiment analysis, 188 and trends, xvi and trolls, 194, 195 Uber, 49, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 192 UK Independence Party, 65, 92, 202 underemployment, 82 unemployment, 61, 62, 72, 78, 81–3, 87, 88, 203 United Kingdom austerity, 100 Bank of England, 32, 33, 64 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 Brexit (2016–), see under Brexit Cameron government (2010–16), 33, 73, 100 Center for Policy Studies, 164 Civil Service, 33 climate-gate (2009), 195 Corbyn’s rallies, 5, 6 Dunkirk evacuation (1940), 119 education, 85 financial crisis (2007–9), 29–32, 100 first past the post, 13 general election (2015), 80, 81 general election (2017), 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 79 immigration, 63, 65 Irish hunger strike (1981), 43 life expectancy, 100 National Audit Office (NAO), 29 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 and opiates, 105 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 and pain, 102, 105 Palantir, 151 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 quantitative easing, 31–2 Royal Society, 138 Scottish independence referendum (2014), 64 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 Thatcher government (1979–90), 154, 160, 163, 166 and torture, 92 Treasury, 61, 64 unemployment, 83 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 World War II (1939–45), 114, 119, 138, 143, 180 see also England United Nations, 72, 222 United States Bayh–Dole Act (1980), 152 Black Lives Matter, 10, 225 BP oil spill (2010), 89 Bush Jr. administration (2001–9), 77, 136 Bush Sr administration (1989–93), 77 Bureau of Labor, 74 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 3, 136, 151, 199 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 Civil War (1861–5), 105, 142 and climate change, 207, 214 Clinton administration (1993–2001), 77 Cold War, see Cold War Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 176, 178 Defense Intelligence Agency, 177 drug abuse, 43, 100, 105, 115–16, 131, 172–3 education, 85 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 137 Federal Reserve, 33 Fifth Amendment (1789), 44 financial crisis (2007–9), 31–2, 82, 158 first past the post, 13 Government Accountability Office, 29 gross domestic product (GDP), 75–7, 82 health, 92, 99–100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 115–16, 158, 172–3 Heritage Foundation, 164, 214 Iraq War (2003–11), 74, 132 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Kansas populists (1880s), 220 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173 life expectancy, 100, 101 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210 McCarthyism (1947–56), 137 Million-Man March (1995), 4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 Obama administration (2009–17), 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158 Occupy Wall Street (2011), 5, 10, 61 and opiates, 105, 172–3 and pain, 103, 105, 107, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 presidential election (2016), see under presidential election, US psychiatry, 107, 111 quantitative easing, 31–2 Reagan administration (1981–9), 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 Rumsfeld’s “unknown unknowns” speech (2002), 132 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 and torture, 93 Trump administration (2017–), see under Trump, Donald unemployment, 83 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 World War I (1914–18), 137 World War II (1939–45), 137, 180 universal basic income, 221 universities, 151–2, 164, 169–70 University of Cambridge, 84, 151 University of Chicago, 160 University of East Anglia, 195 University of Oxford, 56, 151 University of Vienna, 160 University of Washington, 188 unknown knowns, 132, 133, 136, 138, 141, 192, 212 unknown unknowns, 132, 133, 138 “Use of Knowledge in Society, The” (Hayek), 161 V2 flying bomb, 137 vaccines, 23, 95 de Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban, 73 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 Vesalius, Andreas, 96 Vienna, Austria, 153–5, 159 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 violence vs. power, 19, 219 viral marketing, 12 virtual reality, 183 virtue signaling, 194 voice recognition, 187 Vote Leave, 50, 93 Wainright, Joel, 214 Wales, 77, 90 Wall Street, New York, 33, 190 War College, Berlin, 128 “War Economy” (Neurath), 153–4 war on drugs, 43, 131 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Watts, Jay, 115 weaponization, 18–20, 22, 26, 75, 118, 123, 194, 219, 223 weapons of mass destruction, 132 wearable technology, 173 weather control, 204 “What Is An Emotion?”

., Martin Luther, 21, 224 knowledge economy, 84, 85, 88, 151–2, 217 known knowns, 132, 138 Koch, Charles and David, 154, 164, 174 Korean War (1950–53), 178 Kraepelin, Emil, 139 Kurzweil, Ray, 183–4 Labour Party, 5, 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Lagarde, Christine, 64 Le Bon, Gustave, 8–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25, 38 Le Pen, Marine, 27, 79, 87, 92, 101–2 Leadbeater, Charles, 84 Leeds, West Yorkshire, 85 Leicester, Leicestershire, 85 Leviathan (Hobbes), 34, 39, 45 liberal elites, 20, 58, 88, 89, 161 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173, 196, 209, 226 Liberty Fund, 158 Libya, 143 lie-detection technology, 136 life expectancy, 62, 68–71, 72, 92, 100–101, 115, 224 Lindemann, Frederick Alexander, 1st Viscount Cherwell, 138 Lloyds Bank, 29 London, England bills of mortality, 68–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 127 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 EU referendum (2016), 85 Great Fire (1666), 67 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 and gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 78 housing crisis, 84 insurance sector, 59 knowledge economy, 84 life expectancy, 100 newspapers, early, 48 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 plagues, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 127 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 London School of Economics (LSE), 160 loss aversion, 145 Louis XIV, King of France, 73, 127 Louisiana, United States, 151, 221 Ludwig von Mises Institute, 154 MacLean, Nancy, 158 Macron, Emmanuel, 33 mainstream media, 197 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 Manchester, England, 85 Mann, Geoff, 214 maps, 182 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210, 211 marketing, 14, 139–41, 143, 148, 169 Mars, 175, 226 Marxism, 163 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 179 Mayer, Jane, 158 McCarthy, Joseph, 137 McGill Pain Questionnaire, 104 McKibben, William “Bill,” 213 Megaface, 188–9 memes, 15, 194 Menger, Carl, 154 mental illness, 103, 107–17, 139 mercenaries, 126 Mercer, Robert, 174, 175 Mexico, 145 Million-Man March (1995), 4 mind-reading technology, 136 see also telepathy Mirowski, Philip, 158 von Mises, Ludwig, 154–63, 166, 172, 173 Missing Migrants Project, 225 mobilization, 5, 7, 126–31 and Corbyn, 81 and elections, 81, 124 and experts, 27–8 and Internet, 15 and Le Bon’s crowd psychology, 11, 12, 16, 20 and loss, 145 and Napoleonic Wars, xv, 127–30, 141, 144 and Occupy movement, 5 and populism, 16, 22, 60 and violence, opposition to, 21 Moniteur Universel, Le, 142 monopoly on violence, 42 Mont Pelerin Society, 163, 164 moral emotion, 21 morphine, 105 multiculturalism, 84 Murs, Oliver “Olly,” ix Musk, Elon, 175, 176, 178, 183, 226 Nanchang, Jiangxi, 13 Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), 126–30 chappe system, 129, 182 and conscription, 87, 126–7, 129 and disruption, 170–71, 173, 174, 175, 226 and great leader ideal, 146–8 and intelligence, 134 and mobilization, xv, 126–30, 141, 144 and nationalism, 87, 128, 129, 144, 183, 211 and propaganda, 142 Russia, invasion of (1812), 128, 133 Spain, invasion of (1808), 128 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Audit Office (NAO), 29–30 national citizenship, 71 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 national sovereignty, 34, 53 nationalism, 87, 141, 210–12 and conservatism, 144 and disempowerment, 118–19 and elites, 22–3, 60–61, 145 ethnic, 15 and health, 92, 211–12, 224 and imagined communities, 87 and inequality, 78 and loss, 145 and markets, 167 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145, 197, 198 and war, 7, 20–21, 118–19, 143–6, 210–11 nativism, 61 natural philosophy, 35–6 nature, 86 see also environment Nazi Germany (1933–45), 137, 138, 154 Netherlands, 48, 56, 129 Neurable, 176 neural networking, 216 Neuralink, 176 neurasthenia, 139 Neurath, Otto, 153–4, 157, 160 neurochemistry, 108, 111, 112 neuroimaging, 176–8, 181 Nevada, United States, 194 new atheism, 209 New Orleans, Louisiana, 151 New Right, 164 New York, United States and climate change, 205 and gross domestic product (GDP), 78 housing crisis, 84 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 knowledge economy, 84 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 New York Times, 3, 27, 85 newspapers, 48, 71 Newton, Isaac, 35 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 217 Nixon, Robert, 206 no-platforming, 22, 208 Nobel Prize, 158–9 non-combatants, 43, 143, 204 non-violence, 224 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 123, 145, 214 North Carolina, United States, 84 Northern Ireland, 43, 85 Northern League, 61 Northern Rock, 29 Norwich, Norfolk, 85 nostalgia, xiv, 143, 145, 210, 223 “Not in my name,” 27 nuclear weapons, 132, 135, 137, 180, 183, 192, 196, 204 nudge techniques, 13 Obama, Barack, 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158, 172 Obamacare, 172 objectivity, xiv, 13, 75, 136, 223 and crowd-based politics, 5, 7, 24–5 and death, 94 and Descartes, 37 and experts, trust in, 28, 32, 33, 51, 53, 64, 86, 89 and Hayek, 163, 164, 170 and markets, 169, 170 and photography, 8 and Scientific Revolution, 48, 49 and statistics, 72, 74, 75, 82, 88 and telepathic communication, 179 and war, 58, 125, 134, 135, 136, 146 Occupy movement, 5, 10, 24, 61 Oedipus complex, 109 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 Ohio, United States, 116 oil crisis (1973), 166 “On Computable Numbers” (Turing), 181 On War (Clausewitz), 130 Open Society and Its Enemies, The (Popper), 171 opiates, 105, 116, 172–3 opinion polling, 65, 80–81, 191 Orbán, Viktor, 87, 146 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 72 Oxford, Oxfordshire, 85 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 Oxford University, 56, 151 OxyContin, 105, 116 pacifism, 8, 20, 44, 151 pain, 102–19, 172–3, 224 see also chronic pain painkillers, 104, 105, 116, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 parabiosis, 149 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Paris Commune (1871), 8 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Paul, Ronald, 154 PayPal, 149 Peace of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 peer reviewing, 48, 139, 195, 208 penicillin, 94 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 pesticides, 205 Petty, William, 55–9, 67, 73, 85, 167 pharmacology, 142 Pielke Jr., Roger, 24, 25 Piketty, Thomas, 74 Pinker, Stephen, 207 plagues, 56, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 95 pleasure principle, 70, 109, 110, 224 pneumonia, 37, 67 Podemos, 5, 202 Poland, 20, 34, 60 Polanyi, Michael, 163 political anatomy, 57 Political Arithmetick (Petty), 58, 59 political correctness, 20, 27, 145 Popper, Karl, 163, 171 populism xvii, 211–12, 214, 220, 225–6 and central banks, 33 and crowd-based politics, 12 and democracy, 202 and elites/experts, 26, 33, 50, 152, 197, 210, 215 and empathy, 118 and health, 99, 101–2, 224–5 and immediate action, 216 in Kansas (1880s), 220 and markets, 167 and private companies, 174 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145 and statistics, 90 and unemployment, 88 and war, 148, 212 Porter, Michael, 84 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 111–14, 117, 209 post-truth, 167, 224 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 power vs. violence, 19, 219 predictive policing, 151 presidential election, US (2016), xiv and climate change, 214 and data, 190 and education, 85 and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 79, 145 and inequality, 76–7 and Internet, 190, 197, 199 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and Russia, 199 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 prisoners of war, 43 promises, 25, 31, 39–42, 45–7, 51, 52, 217–18, 221–2 Propaganda (Bernays), 14–15 propaganda, 8, 14–16, 83, 124–5, 141, 142, 143 property rights, 158, 167 Protestantism, 34, 35, 45, 215 Prussia (1525–1947), 8, 127–30, 133–4, 135, 142 psychiatry, 107, 139 psychoanalysis, 107, 139 Psychology of Crowds, The (Le Bon), 9–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25 psychosomatic, 103 public-spending cuts, 100–101 punishment, 90, 92–3, 94, 95, 108 Purdue, 105 Putin, Vladimir, 145, 183 al-Qaeda, 136 quality of life, 74, 104 quantitative easing, 31–2, 222 quants, 190 radical statistics, 74 RAND Corporation, 183 RBS, 29 Reagan, Ronald, 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 real-time knowledge, xvi, 112, 131, 134, 153, 154, 165–70 Reason Foundation, 158 Red Vienna, 154, 155 Rees-Mogg, Jacob, 33, 61 refugee crisis (2015–), 60, 225 relative deprivation, 88 representative democracy, 7, 12, 14–15, 25–8, 61, 202 Republican Party, 77, 79, 85, 154, 160, 163, 166, 172 research and development (R&D), 133 Research Triangle, North Carolina, 84 resentment, 5, 226 of elites/experts, 32, 52, 61, 86, 88–9, 161, 186, 201 and nationalism/populism, 5, 144–6, 148, 197, 198 and pain, 94 Ridley, Matt, 209 right to remain silent, 44 Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 160, 166 Robinson, Tommy, ix Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 52 Royal Exchange, 67 Royal Society, 48–52, 56, 68, 86, 133, 137, 186, 208, 218 Rumsfeld, Donald, 132 Russian Empire (1721–1917), 128, 133 Russian Federation (1991–) and artificial intelligence, 183 Gerasimov Doctrine, 43, 123, 125, 126 and information war, 196 life expectancy, 100, 115 and national humiliation, 145 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 and social media, 15, 18, 199 troll farms, 199 Russian Revolution (1917), 155 Russian SFSR (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 155, 177, 180, 182–3 safe spaces, 22, 208 Sands, Robert “Bobby,” 43 Saxony, 90 scarlet fever, 67 Scarry, Elaine, 102–3 scenting, 135, 180 Schneier, Bruce, 185 Schumpeter, Joseph, 156–7, 162 Scientific Revolution, 48–52, 62, 66, 95, 204, 207, 218 scientist, coining of term, 133 SCL, 175 Scotland, 64, 85, 172 search engines, xvi Second World War, see World War II securitization of loans, 218 seismology, 135 self-employment, 82 self-esteem, 88–90, 175, 212 self-harm, 44, 114–15, 117, 146, 225 self-help, 107 self-interest, 26, 41, 44, 61, 114, 141, 146 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 sentiment analysis, xiii, 12–13, 140, 188 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 shell shock, 109–10 Shrecker, Ted, 226 Silicon Fen, Cambridgeshire, 84 Silicon Valley, California, xvi, 219 and data, 55, 151, 185–93, 199–201 and disruption, 149–51, 175, 226 and entrepreneurship, 149–51 and fascism, 203 and immortality, 149, 183–4, 224, 226 and monopolies, 174, 220 and singularity, 183–4 and telepathy, 176–8, 181, 185, 186, 221 and weaponization, 18, 219 singularity, 184 Siri, 187 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 slavery, 59, 224 smallpox, 67 smart cities, 190, 199 smartphone addiction, 112, 186–7 snowflakes, 22, 113 social indicators, 74 social justice warriors (SJWs), 131 social media and crowd psychology, 6 emotional artificial intelligence, 12–13, 140–41 and engagement, 7 filter bubbles, 66 and propaganda, 15, 18, 81, 124 and PTSD, 113 and sentiment analysis, 12 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 weaponization of, 18, 19, 22, 194–5 socialism, 8, 20, 154–6, 158, 160 calculation debate, 154–6, 158, 160 Socialism (Mises), 160 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 South Africa, 103 sovereignty, 34, 53 Soviet Russia (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 177, 180, 182–3 Spain, 5, 34, 84, 128, 202 speed of knowledge, xvi, 112, 124, 131, 134, 136, 153, 154, 165–70 Spicer, Sean, 3, 5 spy planes, 136, 152 Stalin, Joseph, 138 Stanford University, 179 statactivism, 74 statistics, 62–91, 161, 186 status, 88–90 Stoermer, Eugene, 206 strong man leaders, 16 suicide, 100, 101, 115 suicide bombing, 44, 146 superbugs, 205 surveillance, 185–93, 219 Sweden, 34 Switzerland, 164 Sydenham, Thomas, 96 Syriza, 5 tacit knowledge, 162 talking cure, 107 taxation, 158 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 technocracy, 53–8, 59, 60, 61, 78, 87, 89, 90, 211 teenage girls, 113, 114 telepathy, 39, 176–9, 181, 185, 186 terrorism, 17–18, 151, 185 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 emergency powers, 42 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 suicide bombing, 44, 146 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Thames Valley, England, 85 Thatcher, Margaret, 154, 160, 163, 166 Thiel, Peter, 26, 149–51, 153, 156, 174, 190 Thirty Years War (1618–48), 34, 45, 53, 126 Tokyo, Japan, x torture, 92–3 total wars, 129, 142–3 Treaty of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 trends, xvi, 168 trigger warnings, 22, 113 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 Trump, Donald, xiv and Bannon, 21, 60–61 and climate change, 207 and education, 85 election campaign (2016), see under presidential election, US and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 145 inauguration (2017), 3–5, 6, 9, 10 and inequality, 76–7 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and March for Science (2017), 23, 24, 210 and media, 27 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and Paris climate accord, 207 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 Tsipras, Alexis, 5 Turing, Alan, 181, 183 Twitter and Corbyn’s rallies, 6 and JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x and Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x and Russia, 18 and sentiment analysis, 188 and trends, xvi and trolls, 194, 195 Uber, 49, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 192 UK Independence Party, 65, 92, 202 underemployment, 82 unemployment, 61, 62, 72, 78, 81–3, 87, 88, 203 United Kingdom austerity, 100 Bank of England, 32, 33, 64 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 Brexit (2016–), see under Brexit Cameron government (2010–16), 33, 73, 100 Center for Policy Studies, 164 Civil Service, 33 climate-gate (2009), 195 Corbyn’s rallies, 5, 6 Dunkirk evacuation (1940), 119 education, 85 financial crisis (2007–9), 29–32, 100 first past the post, 13 general election (2015), 80, 81 general election (2017), 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 79 immigration, 63, 65 Irish hunger strike (1981), 43 life expectancy, 100 National Audit Office (NAO), 29 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 and opiates, 105 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 and pain, 102, 105 Palantir, 151 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 quantitative easing, 31–2 Royal Society, 138 Scottish independence referendum (2014), 64 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 Thatcher government (1979–90), 154, 160, 163, 166 and torture, 92 Treasury, 61, 64 unemployment, 83 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 World War II (1939–45), 114, 119, 138, 143, 180 see also England United Nations, 72, 222 United States Bayh–Dole Act (1980), 152 Black Lives Matter, 10, 225 BP oil spill (2010), 89 Bush Jr. administration (2001–9), 77, 136 Bush Sr administration (1989–93), 77 Bureau of Labor, 74 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 3, 136, 151, 199 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 Civil War (1861–5), 105, 142 and climate change, 207, 214 Clinton administration (1993–2001), 77 Cold War, see Cold War Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 176, 178 Defense Intelligence Agency, 177 drug abuse, 43, 100, 105, 115–16, 131, 172–3 education, 85 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 137 Federal Reserve, 33 Fifth Amendment (1789), 44 financial crisis (2007–9), 31–2, 82, 158 first past the post, 13 Government Accountability Office, 29 gross domestic product (GDP), 75–7, 82 health, 92, 99–100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 115–16, 158, 172–3 Heritage Foundation, 164, 214 Iraq War (2003–11), 74, 132 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Kansas populists (1880s), 220 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173 life expectancy, 100, 101 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210 McCarthyism (1947–56), 137 Million-Man March (1995), 4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 Obama administration (2009–17), 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158 Occupy Wall Street (2011), 5, 10, 61 and opiates, 105, 172–3 and pain, 103, 105, 107, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 presidential election (2016), see under presidential election, US psychiatry, 107, 111 quantitative easing, 31–2 Reagan administration (1981–9), 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 Rumsfeld’s “unknown unknowns” speech (2002), 132 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 and torture, 93 Trump administration (2017–), see under Trump, Donald unemployment, 83 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 World War I (1914–18), 137 World War II (1939–45), 137, 180 universal basic income, 221 universities, 151–2, 164, 169–70 University of Cambridge, 84, 151 University of Chicago, 160 University of East Anglia, 195 University of Oxford, 56, 151 University of Vienna, 160 University of Washington, 188 unknown knowns, 132, 133, 136, 138, 141, 192, 212 unknown unknowns, 132, 133, 138 “Use of Knowledge in Society, The” (Hayek), 161 V2 flying bomb, 137 vaccines, 23, 95 de Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban, 73 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 Vesalius, Andreas, 96 Vienna, Austria, 153–5, 159 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 violence vs. power, 19, 219 viral marketing, 12 virtual reality, 183 virtue signaling, 194 voice recognition, 187 Vote Leave, 50, 93 Wainright, Joel, 214 Wales, 77, 90 Wall Street, New York, 33, 190 War College, Berlin, 128 “War Economy” (Neurath), 153–4 war on drugs, 43, 131 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Watts, Jay, 115 weaponization, 18–20, 22, 26, 75, 118, 123, 194, 219, 223 weapons of mass destruction, 132 wearable technology, 173 weather control, 204 “What Is An Emotion?”


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

Occupy Wall Street as a meme; Twitter as a political platform; the hashtag as a way of organizing information: all three came from the edges of the network, not the center. The temptation, of course, is to draw a straight line of techno-determinism between the Seattle protests and the global wave of pro-democratic and egalitarian protest that swept across the planet in 2010 and 2011: from the Arab Spring to the Spanish Revolution to the Occupy movement. The prediction back in 2000 would have gone something like this: because the Internet abhorred hierarchies and top-down command structures, hierarchies and command structures would come under increasing attack, by organizations and movements that looked like Baran Webs and not Legrand Stars. The Internet helped us grasp the real-world potential of peer networks; the next logical step was to take that transformative insight to the streets.

Global movements comparable to Occupy Wall Street formed many times before the age of networked computing, as Gladwell observed; they might have had a harder time reaching critical mass without the speed and efficiency of the Net, but they were at least within the realm of possibility. But high-frequency trades are literally impossible to execute in a world without networked computers. If the Internet has a bias toward certain kinds of outcomes, you could make a plausible case that it is more biased toward derivatives traders than it is toward the general assemblies of the Occupy movement. So what does the Internet want? It wants to lower the costs for creating and sharing information. The notion sounds unimpeachable when you phrase it like that, until you realize all the strange places that kind of affordance ultimately leads to. The Internet wants to breed algorithms that can execute thousands of financial transactions per minute, and it wants to disseminate the #occupywallstreet meme across the planet.


pages: 215 words: 56,215

The Second Intelligent Species: How Humans Will Become as Irrelevant as Cockroaches by Marshall Brain

Amazon Web Services, basic income, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, income inequality, job automation, knowledge worker, low earth orbit, mutually assured destruction, Occupy movement, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, working poor

In fact, riots seem likely. But chances are will see nothing of the sort. Why is that? Why won't we see millions of unemployed truck drivers rioting in the streets? Sure, it might happen, and it definitely would have happened in the past, but it is unlikely today. Why? First, police forces, especially in urban areas, have become much more militarized, with military equipment and military tactics. In the Occupy movements in 2011, there were many examples of a particular tactic: when people started to organize or march in a concerted way, they were repelled with startling amounts of force. A group of people would assemble, and a platoon of police officers twice as large, wearing riot gear and carrying a variety of weapons, would appear and control them. See videos like this one [11] as an example. In addition, the mainstream media outlets will not cover the protests of truckers, or the force used against them, to any great extent.

This paragraph from Wikipedia is telling: On October 5, 2011, conservative talk radio host Rush Limbaugh told his listening audience: "When I was 10 years old I was more self-sufficient than this parade of human debris calling itself Occupy Wall Street."[172] Glenn Beck said on his internet television network GBTV, "Capitalists, if you think that you can play footsies with these people, you are wrong. They will come for you and drag you into the streets and kill you. They will do it. They’re not messing around."[173][174] Newt Gingrich said, "All the Occupy movements starts with the premise that we all owe them everything. Now, that is a pretty good symptom of how much the left has collapsed as a moral system in this country and why you need to reassert something as simple as saying to them, go get a job right after you take a bath." Rick Santorum also told the protesters to get jobs. [12] “Human debris”? “Drag you into the streets and kill you”? “go get a job right after you take a bath”?


pages: 171 words: 53,428

On Anarchism by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, crowdsourcing, feminist movement, land reform, means of production, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, profit motive, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

A new generation of radicals had experienced a moment in the limelight and a sense of possibility—and had little clear idea about what to do next. They had participated in an uprising that aspired to organize horizontally, that refused to address its demands to the proper authority, and that, like other concurrent movements around the world, prided itself on the absence of particular leaders. One couldn’t call the Occupy movement an anarchist phenomenon per se; though some of its originators were self-conscious and articulate anarchists, most who took part wouldn’t describe their objectives that way. Still, the mode of being that Occupy swept so many people into with its temporary autonomous zones in public squares nevertheless left them feeling, as it was sometimes said, anarcho-curious. The generation most activated by Occupy is one for which the Cold War means everything and nothing.

However much one cursed at the time, one realized afterwards that one had been in contact with something strange and valuable. One had been in a community where hope was more normal than apathy or cynicism, where the word “comrade” stood for comradeship and not, as in most countries, for humbug. One had breathed the air of equality. With a few proper nouns adjusted, much the same statement could have come from a witness to the Occupy movement, though the awe would be less well deserved. Orwell saw anarchy overtake a whole city along with large swaths of countryside, rather than the square block or less of a typical Occupy encampment. That these far smaller utopias managed to convey the same sense of knock-you-down newness, of soul-conquering significance, is probably because of historical amnesia again: most people had never learned about the bigger ones in school.


pages: 344 words: 104,077

Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together by Thomas W. Malone

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, clean water, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, gig economy, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Rulifson, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

On several Saturdays, I went downtown to watch what was happening in and around Zuccotti Park, where the Occupy protesters were gathered. The most interesting thing I saw was a group of people working to develop a mission statement for the Occupy movement. About 50 people were sitting on benches and other makeshift seats in the otherwise deserted lobby of a big office building. Anyone could join the meeting, and during the time I was there, I noticed Michael Moore, the well-known documentary filmmaker, watching the proceedings, too. A key part of the Occupy movement was a desire for participatory democracy, and in this spirit, the group was using a special formal process for consensus decision making. When I joined the group, the members were working on the opening of the mission statement. They had already agreed on the words “We believe in a free and just society.”

Then the group spent another very long time debating whether she was allowed to retract her own block. When I finally left the group about two hours later, the group members still hadn’t decided whether to add the word truly, and I was very pessimistic that they would ever succeed in producing anything of interest using their extremely cumbersome consensus process. Now, years later, after searching the web and news reports from the time, I think my pessimism was warranted. The Occupy movement did produce a few consensus documents, but as far as I can tell, it never succeeded in producing a mission statement.23 I don’t think this necessarily reflects poorly on the Occupy protesters themselves. Instead I think it is a demonstration of the incredible difficulty of consensus decision making in any large face-to-face group. I saw very similar difficulties when I watched a group of antinuclear protesters plan a demonstration at a California nuclear plant almost 40 years ago and again when I observed a negotiating session among professional diplomats at the Paris climate talks in December 2015.


pages: 576 words: 105,655

Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Blyth

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, debt deflation, deindustrialization, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, ending welfare as we know it, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Irish property bubble, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Philip Mirowski, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, savings glut, short selling, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

At the same time, a continent away, the turmoil in the European bond market that began in Greece in 2009 now threatened to engulf Italy and Spain, undermining the European single currency while raising doubts about the solvency of the entire European banking system. Meanwhile, London, one of the world’s great financial centers, was hit by riots that spread all over the city, and then the country. The London riots quickly blew over, but then the Occupy movement began, first in Zuccotti Park in Manhattan, and then throughout the United States and out into the wider world. Its motivations were diffuse, but one stood out: concern over the income and wealth inequalities generated over the past twenty years that access to easy credit had masked.1 Winter, and police actions, emptied the Occupy encampments, but the problems that spawned those camps remain with us.

The Distribution of Debt and Deleveraging Austerity advocates argue that regardless of its actual origins, since the debt ended up on the state’s “books,” its “balance sheet of assets and liabilities,” the state’s balance sheet must be reduced or the increased debt will undermine growth.27 The economic logic once again sounds plausible, but like Bill Gates walking into a bar and everyone becoming millionaires as a result (on average), it ignores the actual distribution of income and the critical issue of ability to pay. If state spending is cut, the effects of doing so are, quite simply, unfairly and unsustainably distributed. Personally, I am all in favor of “everyone tightening their belts”—as long as we are all wearing the same pants. But this is far from the case these days. Indeed, it is further from the case today than at any time since the 1920s. As the Occupy movement highlighted in 2011, the wealth and income distributions of societies rocked by the financial crisis have become, over the past thirty years, extremely skewed. The bursting of the credit bubble has made this all too clear. In the United States, for example, the top 1 percent of the US income distribution now has a quarter of the country’s income.28 Or, to put it more dramatically, the richest 400 Americans own more assets than the bottom 150 million, while 46 million Americans, some 15 percent of the population, live in a family of four earning less than $22,314 per annum.29 As Robert Wade has argued: The highest-earning 1 per cent of Americans doubled their share of aggregate income (not including capital gains) from 8 per cent in 1980 to over 18 per cent in 2007.

P. 48, 190 Morgan Stanley, 48 Morgantheau, Henry, 188 Müller-Armack, Alfred, 137, 139 Naphtali, Fritz, 196 National Asset Management Agency (NAMA), 235 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), 126 Nazis. See Germany neoliberalism, 102, 117–119, 155–157 Austria and, 118 See also liberalism, ordoliberalism Netherlands fiscal adjustment in, 173 Neumann, M. J. M., 169. New Deal, 126 new liberalism, 117–119 Niskanen, William, 155 Nixon, Richard M., 244 Noguchi, Ashai, 198 Occupy movement, 2, 13, 242 On Liberty (Mill), 116 “On Money” (Hume), 107 ordoliberalism building of, 138–139 in Europe, 141–143, 169–170 origins of, 135–137 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 161, 165, 170, 174, 208 stimulations, 210 Osaka Mainichi and editorials about the gold standard, 198 Osborne, George, 72 Pagano, Marco, 171, 176, 205, 206 “Can Severe Fiscal Contractions be Expansionary?


pages: 558 words: 168,179

Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right by Jane Mayer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bakken shale, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, energy security, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Gilder, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mont Pelerin Society, More Guns, Less Crime, Nate Silver, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working poor

The fact that Armey was himself a Washington insider belied the notion that the Tea Party movement was anti-elitist. Armey had spent eighteen years in Congress and was reportedly paid $750,000 a year as a lobbyist at the law firm DLA Piper, which represented corporate clients such as the pharmaceutical giant Bristol-Myers Squibb. But billionaire backers were useful. They gave the nascent Tea Party movement organization and political direction, without which it might have frittered away like the Occupy movement. The protesters in turn gave the billionaire donors something they’d had trouble buying—the numbers needed to lend their agenda the air of legitimacy. As Armey put it, “We’d been doing this lonely work for years. From our point of view, it was like the cavalry coming.” FreedomWorks, it was later revealed, also had some hired help. The tax-exempt organization quietly cemented a deal with Glenn Beck, the incendiary right-wing Fox News television host who at the time was a Tea Party superstar.

But it caused a little problem. One of the Koch donors turned out to have invested in Solyndra and was not happy. A subsequent Koch-created ad, aired by the American Future Fund, also proved problematic. The mysterious Iowa-based front group was a favorite choice for messages from which the Koch camp preferred to distance itself. Shot as populist rage against the “1 percent” was coalescing in the Occupy movement and protesters were marching on David Koch’s apartment, the ad slyly attacked Obama for being too cozy with Wall Street. After quoting Obama calling Wall Street bankers “fat cats,” it asked, “Guess who voted for the Wall Street bailout? His White House is full of Wall Street executives,” it went on, as mug shots of Obama’s advisers flashed by. The Kochs’ political operatives tested the ad in fifteen separate focus groups.

Once aired, it seemed to be a great success, getting over five million hits on YouTube. But some of the finance industry executives in the donor group were not amused by the political misdirection. “Why attack Wall Street?” they asked. One donor, Peter Schiff, an attendee at the June Koch seminar, evidently didn’t receive the new, populist talking points. A Connecticut financial analyst and broker, he barged into the midst of the Occupy movement’s Manhattan encampment in October with a sign proclaiming, “I am the 1%. Let’s talk.” Subsequent video footage of him arguing in favor of eliminating the minimum wage and paying “mentally retarded” people $2 an hour made him a laughingstock on Jon Stewart’s Daily Show. The Kochs’ “Mother of All Wars” wasn’t starting out all that much better than Saddam Hussein’s. — The picture was far brighter in the key presidential battleground state of Wisconsin.


pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Few could have anticipated that, when a small band of Malaysian activists decided in the summer of 2011 to “occupy” Dataran square in Kuala Lumpur, thus emulating the Indignados (“the indignant ones”) camping in Madrid’s Puerta del Sol, a similar movement would spring up to occupy Wall Street and spark similar initiatives in 2,600 cities around the world. Although the concrete political changes produced by the “Occupy” movements have thus far been meager, their impact is worthy of notice. As noted 1960s chronicler Todd Gitlin observed, “The sort of sea changes in public conversation that took three years to develop during the long-gone sixties—about brutal war, unsatisfying affluence, debased politics, and the suppressed democratic promise—took three weeks in 2011.”16 In terms of speed, impact, and new forms of horizontal organization, the Occupy movements also revealed the erosion of the monopoly that traditional political parties once had over the channels through which members of society transmitted their grievances, hopes, and demands.

The most surprising and consequential manifestation of this broader activist trend started with an upheaval in a small town in Tunisia in December 2010. It led to the toppling of the government there and ultimately to the contagious wave of protests and demonstrations throughout the Middle East that became the Arab Spring. Millions of once passive—and repressed—citizens became political actors willing to make extreme sacrifices that included not just risking their own lives but even putting their families in danger. In contrast to the “Occupy” movements, which so far have been unable to convert political energy into political power, in the Arab Spring the political awakening did lead to important power shifts. Thus, whereas under normal circumstances political participation is for small groups of engaged activists, in other instances, such as revolutions, political activism becomes the obsessive focus of entire societies. But revolutions are too costly, their outcome is too uncertain, and progress is not their guaranteed result.


pages: 374 words: 113,126

The Great Economists: How Their Ideas Can Help Us Today by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

Hayek opposed the use of monetary policy, which is when the cost and quantity of money in the economy is adjusted to influence growth, as well as Keynes’s fiscal activism, setting him at odds with much of the economics profession. Although Hayek found an intellectual home at the London School of Economics and Political Science, his theories are still not widely accepted in academia. With capitalism itself now under attack in the aftermath of the Great Recession by the Occupy movement and others, Hayek’s ideas have come back into fashion as the search continues for arguments to defend the market system against growing scepticism. Those ideas can help us discern whether there are any lessons to be learned from the financial crisis. Joan Robinson, another of the twentieth-century’s leading lights, is the sole woman among the Greats in this book, which reflects the chronic dearth of women in economics.

He placed himself, with his penchant for reinvention during a varied career, among the ranks of those innovators, many of whom have changed the way that we live. Schumpeter believed that the innovator-entrepreneur had a ‘will to conquer … Our type seeks out difficulties, changes in order to change, delights in ventures.’43 CHAPTER 8 Friedrich Hayek: What Can We Learn from Financial Crises? On 15 October 2011 members of the Occupy movement attempted to set up a protest camp in Paternoster Square, outside the London Stock Exchange. They were foiled, as the area was privately owned, so any protesters would have been trespassing and the police were able to seal off the entrance before any could enter. However, the group of around 3,000 people simply gathered instead outside nearby St Paul’s Cathedral, where an indefinite camp was established.

A month earlier a similar encampment had been set up in New York’s Wall Street, and soon protests of different sizes emerged in cities around the world. Occupy’s slogan, ‘We are the 99 per cent’, referred to the high proportion of global wealth accounted for by the top 1 per cent of the distribution. They reflected the widespread public anger in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. The protesters called for financial reform, a fairer distribution of income and wealth and a rejection of austerity. The Occupy movement reflected the modern version of a struggle that had been ongoing since the previous century. The twentieth century had witnessed an ideological battle between socialism and welfare state capitalism, culminating in the triumph of the latter with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the lifting of the Iron Curtain in 1989, which led to the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. Economics Nobel laureate Milton Friedman had observed: There is no figure who had more of an influence on the intellectuals behind the Iron Curtain than Friedrich Hayek.


pages: 390 words: 109,870

Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett

Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism

In 2008 author Clay Shirky published Here Comes Everyone, which put forward the argument that the internet dramatically lowers the cost for people to organise and collaborate. With Facebook, Flickr and blogs, he said, there was no need for large formal organisations. (US internet penetration rates had grown from 21 per cent in 1997 to 75 per cent in 2007.) Shirky’s thesis, which Casaleggio and Beppe both read closely, was being borne out by events. Around this time the Occupy Movement in the United States started to use the Net to coordinate offline sit-ins and occupations; the Pirate Party, founded by Rick Falkvinge (whom I’d later meet, see Chapter 8), was using internet-enabled direct democracy to score stunning victories in Germany, Sweden and Iceland; and Tommy Robinson was setting up a Facebook group that would turn into the English Defence League.* Barack Obama—an outsider in 2007—was elected US president in 2008 thanks in part to his active social media following.

Their ideas are experiments in how to live differently. They ensure we have new ideas to draw on as our societies adapt, as they surely must, to the challenges of this century. And we need to tolerate, even encourage, a wide range of these experiments because we never know which ones we might need. Radicals also open avenues that others might one day pursue, by injecting imagination, ambition and daring into politics. The Occupy movement of the last decade played a pivotal role in starting political conversations about corporate greed, wages, inequality and austerity (some of which Donald Trump has taken up). The 1968-ers did not turn France into a situationist/anarchist/Marxist state (thankfully), but many of its cultural arguments—over sexual liberation and feminism—transformed society in myriad positive ways. Sometimes new ideas are buried deeply by received opinion of the day but are later dug up when the time is right.

See coal; Ffos-y-fran coal mine, trespass on mining, bitcoin, 288 Mohammadi, Rahmaan, 138 Montevido Convention, 281 More, Max, 11–12, 45 MoVimento 5 Stelle (Five Star Movement) anthem, 153 blog, 159, 163, 178, 181–183 capital “V” in, 154 digital populism and, 156–158 European Parliament and, 168–173 Meetup groups, 159–160, 162, 166–168 MEPs from, 170–173 parliament impacted by, 166 parliamentary election of 2013 votes for, 155, 164–165 promise of, 162 start of, 158–161 in 2010 regional elections, 164 Muehl, Otto, 203, 209 Musk, Elon, 36 Muslims Busher on framing stories of, 73 immigration into Europe, 50, 52–53, 77 living in Western democracies, 130 Pegida desire for integration of, 89–90 Pegida world view and, 73–74 Prevent viewed by, 133–134, 136 Robinson and, 72–73, 82 Trump focus on, 147, 149 unfair targeting of, 137–138 Weston on, 75 See also British Muslims Muslims Women’s Network UK, 73 Mussolini, Benito, 187–188 NAD (enzyme), 32 Nanas, 255–257, 260–263 National Geographic, 15 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 98 nation-state model, 273, 274, 300–301 Native American cultures, psychedelics in, 101 Negroponte, Nicholas, 157 neo-Nazis, 76 Netherlands, psilocybin as legal in, 112 New Age, 216 Newbury Bypass, 236 nimbyism. See activism, nimbyism and Nixon, Richard, 105 non-dualism, 110–111 Obama, Barack, 161, 263 Occupy Movement, 160–161 oil, 263–264 Dakota Access Pipeline, 265–266 open-cast coal mines, 247–248, 249 Our Posthuman Future (Fukuyama), 38 Overton, Joseph, 3 Overton window, 3, 7, 305, 309 Owen, Robert, 205, 307 Paffard, Danni, 109, 240–241, 246, 251 Pahnke, Walter, 102 Paris Climate Talk, demonstrations during, 241–242 Paris deal, 236 parliament, European bloc party system in, 169 Five Star Movement and, 155, 166, 168–173 2014 elections, 167 Parsons, Tony, 111 Pascal, Blaise, 13 Pasok (Greek democratic party), 4 Pasokification, 4 Pearce, David, 12 Peggy Sue’s (diner), 39 Pegida, 50, 53, 54 far right stance of, 51–52 Muslim integration desire of, 89–90 Muslim stereotyping by, 74–75 Pegida-Polska, 89 Pegida-UK, 60 Birmingham demonstration, 86–93 demonstrations, 88 Dresden rally of, 85, 86, 88 failure of, 90–91, 92 fascism and anti-fascism issues, 70–76 heroism and, 82–83 Islamist radicalism opposed by, 82 Islamist totalitarianism fear of, 71–72 leadership, 49, 61–66 Prague Declaration by, 50, 85 social drinking and, 83–85 supporters of, 77 Trump and, 91–93 Pelliser, Hank, 43 Periscope, 68, 84 Phillips, Jess, 81 Pistono, Federico, 182 Place of the Children, in Tamera commune, 195 Podemos party, 5, 306 polarised politics, 186 police, 87–88 border, 283, 295 at Liberland conference, 283 undercover, 238, 239 politics left-wing, 80–81 myth of, 174 polarised, 186 rules for establishing political parties, 40–41 social media and, 177–178 two major trends in, 156–157 unpredictable nature of, 7 in Western democracies, 184 See also digital politics populism, 309 digital, 156–158 Grillo and, 176–177 Mussolini and, 187–188 social media and, 180 Prague Declaration, by Pegida-UK, 50, 85 presidential campaign tour, Gyurko, 13–14, 16–17 assistant, 18, 27 bio-hacking lab stop on, 20–27 election votes and, 47 first day of, 19–20 in Las Vegas, 30–36, 41 media coverage after, 46–47 media-generation of, 41–44 opposition to, 44–45 participants in, 18 social media and, 27–28 in Washington D.C., 46 Prevent budget of, 136 CAGE and, 145–146 Channel Panel of, 140–144 critical thinking role of, 150–151 criticism and challenges of, 136–140, 144, 145 first projects of, 133–134 Islamophobia legalising and, 146 major problem for, 148–149 misperceptions about, 139 publicizing of, 134 purpose of, 136 al-Qaeda and, 132–133 radicalisation and, 136–140 reason for starting, 132–133 structure of, 139–140 suit against, 146 Syria and, 144 terrorism complexity challenge of, 134–135 2011 revamping of, 135 unintentional side effects of, 144–148 unseen successes of, 144–145 US version of, 132 psilocybin, 96, 101–102 bloodstream entered by, 118 brain functioning and, 117–118 legal use of, 112 personal experience of, 125–128 serotonin effects mimicked by, 118 2014 research on, 117–118 Weekend Experience and, 112–116 psychedelic drugs, 97 benefits of, 122 best practice guidelines, 108 celebrities and, 98 danger of, 100 effects of, 108 hallucinations, 115 Huxley, A., on experience during, 116 Leary’s experience with, 95–96 mindset and, 99–100 in Native American cultures, 101 Netherlands legality of, 112 non-dualism and, 110–111 outlawing of, 105 paranoia from, 108 personal experience of psilocybin, 125–128 psilocybin research in 2014, 117–118 resurgence in 1990s, 105–106 right conditions for profound effect from, 121 safe environment for, 124 societies and retreats, 97–98 studies on, 101–104, 106–109 as truth initiation, 124–125 unity and transcendence feeling from, 116 See also Weekend Experience, Psychedelic Society Psychedelic Society aspirations and website of, 120–121 drug laws and, 111–112 founder of, 96, 100, 109–112 quest for meaning represented by, 122 See also Weekend Experience, Psychedelic Society Psychoactive Substances Bill, 111–112 psychodrama, 194 Qadir, Hanif, 143–144 al-Qaeda, 131, 132–133, 143, 149 Qu’ran, 143, 178 Qureshi, Asim, 145 radicalisation conveyor-belt model, 137–138 definition of, 136 far-right and far-left, 149 Prevent and, 136–140 radicalism climate change and, 308–309 compromise and, 314–315 disruptive nature of, 7–8 in early nineteenth-century Europe, 307 liberal democracies and, 131, 312, 316 line between mainstream and, 5 Mill example of changing perceptions of, 1 radical decentralisation and, 289–290 scope of explored, 6 2016 and, 305–306, 311–312 types of, 306 US prevention model, 132 See also Islamist radicalism radicals age of, 307–316 danger of silencing, 311 definition and Latin root of, 4 historical examples of now-extolled, 308 importance of, 307–316 mainstream as influenced by, 312–313 optimism of, 299 paradox of, 315 as source of hope, 315–316 uncertainty and, 310 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip, 23, 24–26 Raggi, Virginia, 174 Ram Dass.


pages: 228 words: 68,880

Revolting!: How the Establishment Are Undermining Democracy and What They're Afraid Of by Mick Hume

anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, colonial rule, David Brooks, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Slavoj Žižek, the scientific method, We are the 99%, World Values Survey

… The idea of international human rights points in the opposite direction – that it is not all that important whether particular policies are agreeable to the country that must live with them.18 Whatever its problems, national self-determination remains a fundamental democratic right worth fighting for. Just ask the Kurds battling ISIS. On the radical wing of the anti-sovereignty movement are the anti-globalisation movements which claim that, with national democracy outdated and all but useless in an interconnected world dominated by ‘neo-liberal’ market economics, new globalised protest networks are needed. According to one recent sympathetic account, the World Social Forum and Occupy movements envisage a ‘new democratic subject’: a ‘politically progressive cosmopolitan agent of the neo-liberal age, able to move fluidly among sites of power and resistance, from the national to the regional, the local and the global … The democratic subject is formed in the space between local confrontation and global techniques of organisation and consciousness-raising’, seeking ‘a broader and more fluid global community committed to democratic thought and practices’.19 Blimey.

The mythical democratic subject ‘formed in the space between’ the local and the global seems to be floating around the globe (or at least the World Wide Web) adrift from notions of accountability and responsibility. Thus they can assume the ‘democratic’ right to speak on behalf of the global masses, without any need to ask those people what they might think or want. The famous slogan of the Occupy movements that camped out in various Western cities asserted, ‘We are the 99 per cent!’ A bold claim from protests that did not even number anywhere near 1 per cent. These ‘new democratic subjects’ have redefined democracy to mean staging media-oriented protests ‘on behalf of’ the passive populace, whether the people want it or not. They are speaking for a ‘new global civic society’ that exists in their imagination and web forums rather than on the streets.


pages: 202 words: 8,448

Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl

With images of the Arab Spring inspiring millions throughout the region, the Syrians thought it would be a simple enough thing to take down Assad. They thought that all they needed was a few tens of thousands of eager young people showing up in the middle of Damascus waving their sts, and their dictator would fall just as quickly as had Mubarak in Egypt and Ben Ali in Tunisia before him. But the Syrians, like the leaders of the Occupy movement in the United States, were deceived by the apparent simplicity of the revolutions in Egypt and elsewhere. What people didn’t realize was that the group of Egyptian revolutionaries trained by CANVAS in Belgrade had spent two years winning small victories, building coalitions, and branding their movement before they undertook their Tahrir Square action. Proper revolutions are not cataclysmic explosions; they are long, controlled burns.

If someone asked me, “Srdja, do you feel like part of the 99 percent?” I might answer, “Well, my wife and I live in a ve-hundred-square-foot apartment and drive a car that’s almost a decade old. So yes, I guess I de nitely feel like the 99 percent.” I’d probably even wear a pin that said that. Why not? But if they asked me, “Do you feel like occupying Zuccotti Park?” I’d be less likely to sign up. With just a simple name change, the Occupy movement could have shown themselves welcoming of so many people: the urban, the rural, the conservative, the liberal, the short, the tall, the drivers, and the pedestrians. I would have loved to see that happen. That’s because unity, in the end, is about much more than having everybody line up behind a particular candidate or issue. It’s about creating a sense of community, building the elements of a group identity, having a cohesive organization, leaving none of your men or women behind, and sticking to your values.


pages: 254 words: 68,133

The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks

During this “Great Compression,” destined to last into the 1970s, the rich got richer, but low-income and middle-income Americans also benefited appreciably, enough to reduce the gap between the well-to-do and everyone else.10 By 2016, the Great Compression had long since given way to a Great Decompression. While the rich were still getting richer, most others struggled just to keep up. Meanwhile, social cohesion had seriously eroded. None of this qualified as a secret. During the previous decade, economic discontent had inspired both the right-wing Tea Party and the left-wing Occupy Movement. Each created a stir without leaving much of a lasting mark. Until Sanders (and Trump) came along, protest was confined to the fringes, while the seemingly impervious juggernaut of globalized neoliberalism kept rolling on. Members of the political establishment saw no reason why it should not continue to do so indefinitely. Yet as Sanders racked up victories in successive state primaries, jeopardizing Hillary Clinton’s taken-for-granted nomination, it became increasingly difficult to dismiss him as a mere protest candidate and his supporters as a lefty fringe.

See globalized neoliberalism neo-populism Neptune Spear, Operation New Deal New Hampshire primary New Orleans, Battle of New Republic new world order Bill Clinton and Buchanan and Bush Jr. and Bush Sr. and globalization and Wilson and New York Daily News New York Times Niebuhr, Reinhold Nixon, Richard Nobel Peace Prize Noriega, Manuel North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) North Korea Novak, Robert nuclear arms Iran and North Korea and Nuremberg tribunal Obama, Barack accomplishments of Afghanistan and bin Laden and economy and election of 2008 and freedom and Hillary Clinton and Iraq and Nobel Prize and primaries of 2016 and ranking of RMA and Trump and Obamacare Obergefell v. Hodges Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Occupy Movement opioid crisis Oslo Peace Accords Paine, Thomas Pakistan Panama Paris Accord on climate change Partisan Review Pataki, George patriarchy Paul, Rand Pax Americana globalized capitalism and policing of peace dividend peace-through-dominion Pearl Harbor attacks pensions People Perot, H. Ross Perry, Rick Persian Gulf War (1990–91) Philippines Poland Politico Polk, James poor populism post–Cold War (Emerald City) consensus Bill Clinton and Buchanan and Bush Jr. and Bush Sr. and climate change and dawn of as elite-managed democracy failure of failure of, and American condition in 2016 failure of, and elections of 1992 freedom and Fukuyama’s “end of history” and globalization and Hillary Clinton and militarism and military service and normalization of war and Obama and Perot and presidential power and primaries of 2016 and reframing conversation on Trump of 2000 and Trump’s election as rejection of Powell, Colin power elite Presbyterians preschool, universal presidential supremacy unitary executive and preventive war Princeton University privacy Progressive movement progressives Project for a New American Century Protestant, Catholic, Jew (Herberg) Puritanism Putin, Vladimir race and racism Bill Clinton and Bush Jr. and Obama and Trump and Rather, Dan Reagan, Ronald Farewell Address Gorbachev and “Star Wars” and Rector, Ricky Ray Reed, Donna Reform Party religion Republican Party Bush Jr. and McCain and primaries of 2016 Trump and retirement savings Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) Rice, Condoleezza Rio Pact (1947) Roe v.


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Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

No matter what passport you hold, if you run or own a global company, that is not really a big deal. But, as Autor, Dorn, and Hanson show, if you are an American worker, that “leveling out” can be painful indeed. Professor Van Reenen said these tensions have been building for years but have been laid bare by the financial crisis. That, he believes, has sparked a wave of populist protest, ranging from the Tea Party on the right to the Occupy movement. “These things have been going on for a couple of decades,” he said. “What has happened is, with the rise of the financial crisis, all of these things are coming into sharp relief.” — The twin gilded ages are speeding each other up: The industrialization of the emerging economies is creating new markets and new supply chains for the West—iPhones are produced in China, and also sold there.

“I recently talked to an IT engineer at a midsize financial services company downtown and he complained that his budget is being slashed every year, as he’s expected to do more with less,” Rosoff wrote on his Business Insider blog. “He’s over forty and sees no chance of getting hired at one of these sexy start-ups run by 20-somethings and funded by VCs who are younger than him. So maybe Eric Schmidt and the people he talks to really don’t discuss the Occupy movement. But that’s not a Silicon Valley thing—that’s just the circles he travels in.” The plutocratic bubble isn’t just about being insulated by the company of fellow super-elites, although that is part of it. It is also created by the way you are treated by everyone else. One financier, speaking about his friend who is one of the top five hedge fund managers in the world, said, “He’s a good man—or as good as you can be when you are surrounded by sycophants.”

., 131–34, 137 Murray, Charles, 286 music industry, 109–10, 126–27, 170–71 n-11 economies, 30 Nakamoto, Michiyo, 169 Naspers, 66 Neeleman, David, 156–57 Netherlands, 16 NetJets, 2, 66 New Class, 264–69 New Class, The (Djilas), 89–90 New Deal, 13–14, 132–34, 177 Newsweek, 127 New Yorker, 33 New York Times, 6, 7, 39, 45, 70, 125, 126, 140, 165, 174, 227, 258, 268 New York World, 7 New Zealand, 3, 159–60 Next Convergence, The: The Future of Economic Growth in a Multispeed World (Spence), 20 Nicaragua, 191 Niccolini, Julian, 36 Nigeria, 66 Nobel, Alfred, 71 Nobel Prize, 50, 69, 123, 124, 126, 175 Nolte, Nick, 127 Nucor, 158 Oakland A’s, 129 Obama, Barack, x, 18, 92–93, 242–43, 245, 247, 249, 250, 258, 269 as empiricist, 93 Observer, 74 Occupy movement, 28, 42, 80, 83, 92, 238, 244–45, 248–51 O’Connor, Caroline, 171–72 Odnoklassniki, 163 OECD, 3 O’Neill, Jim, 19, 21, 29–30, 33 one percent, xii, 135 0.1 percent vs., 79–83 99 percent vs., 80 during 1940s–1970s period, 14 in economic recovery of 2009–2010, xiii political vs. economic focus on, xiv share of national income, 3, 14 Open Society Foundations, 70, 77 Orange Revolution, 79–80, 192 Orlov, Yuri, 90 Orszag, Peter, 18 Orwell, George, 90 outsourcing, 92, 105, 106, 155, 179, 241 Oxford University, 62 Page, Larry, 55 PaineWebber, 142 Palin, Sarah, 83, 223 Pangea3, 106–7 paradigm shifts, 144, 145, 164 see also revolutions paradox of happy peasants and miserable millionaires, 31–32, 51, 82 Paulson, Hank, 213, 271–72 Paulson, John, 148, 244 Pavarotti, Luciano, 97, 98 pay for performance, 136, 138, 139 PayPal, 171, 183 Perella, Joe, 170 Peru, 82 Peterson, Holly, 1–3, 52, 80–81 Peterson, Pete, 1, 36–37, 44–45, 70, 78, 80 Petrarca, Francesco, 278 philanthro-capitalism, 71, 74–76, 264, 267 philanthropy, 70–76, 246, 264 Philippines, 25 Philippon, Thomas, 48, 53, 220–21 Pierson, Paul, 18 Piff, Paul, 239 Piketty, Thomas, 34, 43 Pimco, 65, 251 Pinchuk, Victor, 72–73, 268, 270 Pipes, Richard, 145 Pisarev, Kirill, 103 pivoting, 171–73 Platinum Study, 43 Pleading Guilty (Turow), 38 Plepler, Richard, 72 Pliny the Elder, 195 Plutarch, 195 political influence, 222–24, 247, 260–62 political revolutions, 144–46 politicians, 76–79, 269–70 Polo, Marco, 278 Poore, Peter, 76 PopTech, 67 Porter, Michael, 23 Posner, Victor, 120, 122 Potanin, Vladimir, 151 Premji, Azim, 155 Prince, Chuck, 169–70 private equity, 120–22, 128, 190, 243, 280 privatization, 193–94, 205, 207, 222, 225 in Russia, 162–64, 176, 179–81, 188, 192–93, 198, 207, 218, 223, 225 telecom, 196–98 privilege, 239 transferred to children, 282–83 Progress and Poverty (George), 38, 40–41 Progressive Era, 39, 78 Prokhorov, Mikhail, 162 Putin, Vladimir, 80, 107, 149–51, 255 Qiu Ying, 96 Quantum Fund, 142, 143, 154, 172 Queen Elisabeth Competition, 126 Quiggin, John, 48 Radia, Niira, 200 railroads, 178, 191 Raja, Andimuthu, 200 Rajan, Raghuram, 188–89, 198, 201, 228 Rajaratnam, Raj, 121–22 Rakoff, Jed, 256 Rand, Ayn, 249 Rauh, Joshua, 119–20 Ravid, Abraham, 130 Reagan, Ronald, 17, 89 Reagan Revolution, xii real estate, 222–23 Red Capitalism (Walter and Howie), 207–8 Reformed Broker, The, 84 Reich, Robert, 3 Renaissance, 96 Renaissance Capital, 65, 159 rentier elite, 42, 43, 283 rent-seeking, 188–228, 283 in China, 204–10 globalization and, 226–28 in India, 198–200, 228 value creation vs., 280–81 Reshef, Ariell, 48, 220–21 revolutions, 141–87 industrial, see industrial revolution political, 144–46 in technology, xiv, 4, 14–15, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 28, 30–31, 67, 100, 104, 146, 157–58, 164, 166, 184, 221, 285 Reynolds, Joshua, 94 “rich,” use of word, x Roach, Stephen, 210 robber barons, xv, 9, 19, 41, 42, 71, 118, 134, 191, 195, 237 Roosevelt on, 177–78 Robertson, Julian, 142 Robinson, James, 279–80 Rockefeller, John D., 195 Rodriguez, Alex, 108–9 Rolls-Royce, 46 Romney, Mitt, 77, 92–94, 236, 237, 286 as empiricist, 93–94 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 132 Commonwealth Club speech of, 176–78 New Deal of, 13–14, 132–34, 177 Roosevelt, Theodore, 39 Rose, Charlie, 72 Rosen, Sherwin, 97, 99–100, 107–12, 116, 123 Rosoff, Matt, 238 Royal Bank of Canada, 217 Royal Bank of Scotland, 217 Rubenstein, David, 121, 148–49 Rubin, Bob, 213 Russia, 3, 14, 19, 35, 56, 62, 66, 82, 96, 148, 149, 159–61, 163, 164, 178–81, 186, 206, 260 billionaire-to-GDP ratio in, 189 Bolsheviks in, 14, 93, 145, 284 privatization in, 162–64, 176, 179–81, 188, 192–93, 198, 207, 218, 223, 225 Revolution in, 152–53 science and technology in, 178–79 Russian oligarchs, 42, 46, 51–52, 61–62, 72, 92, 107, 147, 149–52, 186, 193, 196, 223, 255, 285 Ryan, Paul, 83, 190 Sabharwal, Manish, 32 Saez, Emmanuel, xiii, 34, 35–36, 43, 117, 281 Saïd, Wafic, 62 Sainath, Palagummi, 32 Saint Laurent, Yves, 114–16 Salganik, Matthew, 126 Salinas, Carlos, 196, 198 Salomon Brothers, 130 Sandberg, Sheryl, 174–75 Santorum, Rick, 246 Sawiris, Naguib, 4, 35, 77 Say’s law, 30–31 Schiff, Peter, 245 Schmidt, Eric, 56, 58, 69, 104–5, 236, 238, 280–81 Schmidt, Jacqueline, 70 Schrage, Elliot, 47 Schultz, Howard, 69 Schumer, Chuck, 211–13, 227 Schumpeter, Joseph, 32, 118 Schwarzman, Steve, 1, 36–37, 45, 46, 60, 147, 237, 243 science, 123–25 screenplays, 128 Seasteading Institute, 250 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 226, 256 self-interest, 178, 215, 216, 239–40, 243–44, 249, 273–75, 286 Sennett, Mack, 98 Sense and Sensibility (Austen), 274–75 sewing machine, 113–15 Shaw, George Bernard, 39 Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 89 Shubrick, 40 Silicon Valley, 46–47, 56, 93, 163–64, 166, 171, 174, 175, 181–83, 230–31, 235, 236, 238, 283, 285 Silver Lake, 59 Simmons, Ruth, 284 Singapore, 63 Singer, Paul, 77 Singh, Manmohan, 155, 198–99 Sinha, Jayant, 189 skill-biased technical change, 91 skimming, 138 Slim, Carlos, 42, 46, 51, 195–98, 199, 218, 227, 236, 255 Smith, Adam, 67, 131, 138, 194, 229 Smith, Art, 112 Smith, Michael, 102 social mobility, 5, 82, 278–79 income inequality and, 283–84 Socialnet, 183 Somoza family, 191 Sorensen, Alan, 126 Soros, George, 53–54, 70, 73, 77, 141–45, 147, 148, 152–55, 172–73, 242 Soros, Jonathan, 153, 173 Soros, Tivadar, 152–53 South Korea, 32, 193 Soviet republics, former, 20, 77, 149, 155, 192, 193, 267 Soviet Union, 14, 17, 89–90, 144, 155, 178–80, 266 Spectator, 56–57, 59, 67 Spence, Michael, 20, 187 Spitzer, Eliot, 213 Splinter, Michael, 64 sports stars, 108–9, 129, 130, 138 Stalin, Joseph, 20, 90 Stanford Business School, 61, 147 Starr International, 101 Start-Up of You, The (Hoffman), 184–85, 187 Stengel, Rick, 72 Stephenson, Randall, 164, 185–86 Stevenson, Betsey, 32 Stewart, Rod, 36 Stiglitz, Joe, 27 Stock Market Boys, 51 Stoll, Craig, 112–13 Strauss-Kahn, Dominique, 72, 238–39 Stringer, Howard, 36 student activism, 268 Sull, Donald, 145, 147, 167–68, 171 Summers, Larry, xiii, 49, 87, 165, 174 Sunstein, Cass, 93 Sun Valley, 68 Sun Yat-sen, 39 superstars, 88–140 fees charged by, 101–3 globalization and, 91–92, 108 income of, vs. everyone else, 100–101 industrial revolution and, 95–99, 118 and talent vs. capital, 116–17, 122, 129–30 technology and, 91–92, 98–100, 108, 109 “Sustaining New York’s and the US’ Global Financial Services Leadership,” 211–15 Swank, Hilary, 110 Sweden, xii, 3, 12 Switzerland, 35, 63 Szelényi, Ivan, 89–90, 136, 266 Tahrir Square, 80 Taiwan, 35 Tawney, R.


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Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis by Robert D. Putnam

assortative mating, business cycle, correlation does not imply causation, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, full employment, George Akerlof, helicopter parent, impulse control, income inequality, index card, jobless men, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, school choice, selection bias, Socratic dialogue, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, upwardly mobile, Walter Mischel, white flight, working poor

But first, zooming out from our close focus on Port Clinton to a wide-angle view of contemporary American society, let’s examine the principle of equality and what it actually means for Americans today. Inequality in America: The Broader Picture Contemporary discussion of inequality in America often conflates two related but distinct issues: • Equality of income and wealth. The distribution of income and wealth among adults in today’s America—framed by the Occupy movement as the 1 percent versus the 99 percent—has generated much partisan debate during the past several years. Historically, however, most Americans have not been greatly worried about that sort of inequality: we tend not to begrudge others their success or care how high the socioeconomic ladder is, assuming that everyone has an equal chance to climb it, given equal merit and energy. • Equality of opportunity and social mobility.

Bill, 160–61 gifted-and-talented programs, 143, 153 Gilded Age, 41, 191 global warming, 228 Golden, Claudia, 34 Goodnight Moon time, 126–27, 242 government policies: on child development, 248–51 on family structure, 244–48 on parenting, 248–51 on schooling, 251–58 grandparents: financial assistance from, 6, 133 as replacement parents, 102, 132–34, 149–52 Great Depression, 34, 74, 191 Great Migration, 13 Great Recession, 22, 35, 130, 148, 223 grit, 4, 111, 176, 241 H hand-me-downs, 9–11 Hardy Boys, The (mystery series), 87 Hargittai, Eszter, 211–12 Harlem Children’s Zone (HCZ), 254 Head Start, 153, 249–50 helicopter parents, 133 high school: drop outs and, 26, 56 educational attainment and, 183–84 equivalency tests (GEDs), 93, 157, 183 graduation rates and, 137 see also Santa Ana High School; Troy High School High School movement, 160, 183, 260 Holzer, Harry, 231 Hooked on Phonics, 85, 118 housing: affordable, 251–52 crowded, 136 mixed-income, 251–52 school choice and, 164 vouchers for, 60, 247 Hout, Michael, 36 hug/spank ratio, 121 I immigrants: European, 192 Latino, 47, 84, 135 traditional marriage and, 72 unaccompanied children as, 261 upward mobility and, 141 imprisonment, parental, 76–77, 77 child poverty and, 26–27, 152 policy changes and, 247–48 incarceration policy, 76, 247–48 income: academic achievement and, 162, 165 distribution of, 22, 23, 31–32 Earned Income Tax Credit and, 247 equality, 31–34 mixed-income housing and, 251–52 social mobility and, 43–44 trends in, 35–36 income inequality, 37 in 21st century, 35, 43 low- vs. high-income schools and, 137, 138, 163, 166 Occupy movement and, 31 opportunity gap and, 227–28 poor old-timers vs. rich newcomers, 47, 251 residential segregation and, 38–39, 38 individualism, 206, 261 informal mentoring, 213 intensive parenting, 128 intergenerational mobility, 31, 82, 233 Internet: fund-raising and, 205 political uses of, 236 social networks and, 211–12, 269 Invisible Man (Ellison), 18 Isabella, 137, 139, 141–48, 160, 161, 165, 169, 182, 225 Ivy League schools: competitive pressure and, 139, 145, 147 educational attainment and, 139, 142, 198 graduation from, 148, 193 J James Joyce (Ellmann), 1 Jesse, 2, 12–16, 18–19, 30, 274 Jim Crow South, 13, 81 Job Corps training programs, 59 Joe, 54–56, 58–60, 64, 68, 73, 79, 118, 167 John, 203–204 “John Henry effect,” 113 Junior Women’s Club, 8 K Katz, Lawrence, 34, 160, 231 Kayla, 49, 54–61, 64–65, 67–68, 78, 115, 118, 125, 128, 185, 188, 216, 221, 234, 240, 256 Kefalas, Maria, 73–74 Kensington, 192–193, 198–205, 213, 216–221 Kenworthy, Lane, 246 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 241 Kirk, David, 170 Knott’s Berry Farm, 141, 162 Kornhauser, William, 239–40 L Laguna Beach, Calif., 136 Lake Erie, 3, 21 Land-Grant College movement, 160–61 language: as barrier to education, 155, 159 social class and, 29, 116 Lareau, Annette, 118 Latinos, 39, 47, 101, 267 affluent, 139–48, 158–60 in gangs, 140, 149, 152 in Orange County, Calif., 131, 135–37, 140–41, 144, 158–59, 175 poverty of, 148–58 traditional marriages and, 72, 84 see also specific individuals Lauren, 83, 92–100, 123, 185, 188, 216, 256 learning disabilities, 111, 163 Libby, 2, 9–12, 18–19, 30, 274 library cards, 97 licking and grooming, 115 life stories, research for, 263–77 see also specific accounts of individuals LinkedIn, 211 Lisa, 198–206, 216, 225, 234, 256, 257 logging industry, 46 Lola, 132, 137, 148–57, 161, 171–72, 175, 178, 182, 184, 188, 216, 234, 240, 256, 267, 269 Los Angeles, Calif., 135, 139 Lower Merion, 192–98, 205, 206, 217, 221 M McGuffey’s Reader, 33 McLanahan, Sara, 63, 65, 68, 69–70, 71 Madeline, 193–96 manners, 10, 151 March on Washington, 241 Marines, U.S., 157 Marnie, 193–98, 205, 209, 211, 229, 264, 269 marriage: class gap and, 40–41 cohabitation vs., 67–68 government policies and, 244 shotgun, 62 traditional, 7, 12, 62, 72 marriage trap, 56 Mary Sue, 221, 268 Massey, Douglas, 34, 44–45, 252 mass movements, 240 medical insurance, 201 mentors, mentoring: Big Brothers Big Sisters, 213 church leaders as, 4, 197 class gap and, 213–16, 215 formal vs. informal, 213 parents as, 98, 197 as solution to class gap, 259 sports coaches as, 14 teachers as, 141, 196 methods appendix: qualitative research, 263–74 quantitative research, 268–69 Michelle, 83, 92–100, 125, 128, 185, 188, 216, 234, 256, 267, 270 mining industry, 13, 16, 20 Mississippi, 13, 14 mobility: absolute vs. relative, 41–42 intergenerational, 31, 82–83 methods of assessing, 43–44 PCHS class of ’59 and, 4, 7 social, 31–34, 43–44 trends in, 228–29 see also upward mobility Molly, 198–206, 217, 218, 224, 233 Mommy and Me classes, 86 money: “old money” gentry and, 25 parental spending and, 125–26 politics and, 238–39 mothers: age at child’s birth and, 64, 65 employment of, 71, 71 marital status and, 66–68, 66 stay-at-home, 71 Mount Laurel, 251–52 Moving to Opportunity, 223 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 62 multi-partner fertility, 68–71, 78 Mullainathan, Sendhil, 130 Murnane, Richard, 250 My Brother’s Keeper, 213 “My City Was Gone” (song), 1 N natural growth, 118 neglect: educational, 155 parental, 26, 104, 111–12 Negro Family, The (Moynihan), 62 neighborhoods: affluence vs. poverty and, 217–23, 219 childhood obesity and, 222–23, 222 class segregation and, 38–39, 38 crime in, 102–3, 199–200 Moving to Opportunity and, 223 regeneration of, 259–60 safety and, 97, 140 social trust and, 219–21, 219 neighborhood development, 251, 259–60 Nelson, Timothy J., 68 New Deal, 34 New Hope Program, 260 New Orleans, La., 102–4 New York, N.Y., 81, 84, 254 1950s: affluence in, 5–6 class disparities in, 6–9 economic mobility during, 9–12 family structure and, 62–63 parental involvement in schools during, 156 Port Clinton during, 1–19, 29–30 race in and, 12–19 social norms of, 12 working class in, 3–4 Nixon, Richard, 135 noncognitive skills, 111, 176 O obesity, childhood, 222–23, 222 Occupy movement, 31 Okun, Arthur, 230–31, 234 opportunity, equality: as American Dream, 41–44 child development for, 248–58 class gap and, 31–34 Declaration of Independence and, 241 through democracy, 230, 234–41 diminishing the gap of, 260–61 through economic growth, 230–34 education and, 32, 44–45, 137, 161, 258 fairness in, 22, 241–42, 264 income distribution and, 31–32 mobility and, 31–34, 41–44 moral obligation to, 240–42 social mobility and, 41–44 statistical evidence and, 42–43 opportunity gap, 227–61 child development and, 248–51 community and, 258–60 community colleges and, 257–58 democracy and, 234–40 economic growth and, 230–34 family structure and, 244–48 income equality and, 227–28 moral obligation and, 240–42 opportunity costs and, 230 opportunity youth and, 232, 232 schools and, 251–58 solutions to, 242–44, 260–61 Orange County, Calif.: affluence in, 135, 139–143, 264–265, 270–71 demographic changes in, 135–36 Latinos in, 135–37, 139–43, 148–52, 158–59 life stories of, see Clara; Isabella; Lola; Ricardo; Sofia Santa Ana schools in, 137, 138, 153–57 Troy High School in, 137, 138, 143–48 working-class communities, 265 Orfield, Gary, 165 Origins of Totalitarianism (Arendt), 240 out-out-wedlock births, see nonmarital pregnancies Ozzie-and-Harriet families, 61, 63 P para-school funding, see fund-raising parental leave, 248 parenting, 80–134 age of mother and, 64, 65 child development and, 109–17 class gap and, 119–22, 120, 133–34 day care and, 128–30, 248–49 education of parents and, 119, 249 family dinners and, 24, 122–24, 124 government policies on, 248–51 grandparents and, 132–34 imprisonment and, 26–27, 76–77, 77, 152, 247–48 investments in children, 24, 29, 51, 86–88, 92, 123–24, 127, 143, 145, 159, 166–67, 195 nonmarital births and, 66–68, 66 permissive, 117 planned vs. unplanned births and, 64–65 school involvement and, 24, 86, 156, 167 solutions for problems in, 248–51 spending and, 125–26, 126 stress and, 130–32 time and, 26, 59, 88, 126–28, 127 verbal, 120 parenting trends, 117–34 parent-teacher association (PTA), 88, 167 parochial schools, 84, 254–55 Patty, 50–52, 92, 128, 229 pay-to-play policies, 180–81, 258 peer pressure, 160–73 People of Plenty (Potter), 33 Percheski, Christine, 69–70 permissive parenting, 117 Philadelphia, Pa.: community disparity in, 191–206 life stories of, see Amy; Eleanor; Lisa, Madeline; Marnie; Molly Philadelphia Story, The (film), 191 Philadelphia Youth Orchestra, 204 piano lessons, 86, 139, 178, 194 pluralism, 136 Police Athletic League (PAL), 199–200 politics: class gap and, 237–40 class savvy and, 11, 140 Politics of Mass Society, The (Kornhauser), 240 Port Clinton, Ohio, 1–45 in 1950s, 1–9, 29–30, 270; see also Port Clinton High School (PCHS) in 21st century, 2, 19–30, 270 affluence in, 5–6, 24–26 class gap and, 2, 6–9, 19–30, 270 factory closings in, 20 life stories of, see Cheryl; Chelsea; David; Don; Frank; Jesse; Libby opportunity gap in, 29 poverty in, 22, 23, 26–29 race in, 12–19 Port Clinton High School (PCHS), 3–6, 9–19 class of 1959, 3 Potter, David, 33 poverty: antipoverty programs and, 246–47 in Bend, Oreg., 47–48, 48 child development and, 116 costs of, 231–32 family instability and, 74 in Kensington, 198–206 in neighborhoods, 217–19, 219 in New Orleans, La., 102–3 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 22, 23 in Santa Ana, Calif., 136–38, 138, 170 schools and, 169–71, 171 pregnancy: marital, 203, 205 nonmarital, 61–62, 66–72, 66, 75, 78, 162, 204, 243, 245 teen, 2, 70, 196, 203–5, 245–46 trends in, 64–66, 73–75 premarital sex: family structure and, 62 teens and, 196, 203–5 Pretenders, The (band), 1 prison, see imprisonment, parental private schools, 52, 173, 194 Progressive Era, 244, 253, 256 property taxes, 165 prostitution, 152 public education system: Common School movement and, 160 equal opportunity and, 32 High School movement and, 160 Land-Grant College movement and, 160–61 see also class gap, education and public policy, 75–76 Q qualitative research, 263–74 constraints of, 272–84 life stories as, 263 model for, 265–66 participants and, 265–67 sample and, 270–71 Sandelson and, 265 Silva and, 270–71, 269–71 topics of, 267–68 quantitative research, 274–77 data sets and, 277 life stories as, 274 PCHS class of ’59 survey, 274–75 statistics of, 276–77 survey results, 276 R race: in 1950s, 12–19 in 21st century, 18, 91 affluence and, 84–92 class gap and, 76, 161–62 college scholarships and, 14, 17 in discrimination and segregation, 81–83 socializing and, 16–18 racism, 18–19 reading, 87, 143, 249 real estate: good schools and, 164 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 22 property taxes and, 165 white flight and, 81 Reardon, Sean, 161–62, 280 “rearview mirror” method, 44 relative mobility, 41–42 religion: child development and, 89–90 church attendance and, 224–25, 225 communities and, 197, 201–4, 223–26 see also churches research: field, 264 financial support and, 266 leadership of, 266 undergraduate, 265 see also qualitative research; quantitative research residential segregation: affordable housing and, 251–52 income and, 38–39, 38 schools and, 163–64, 251–52 residential sorting, 163 Ricardo, 137, 139, 141, 143, 146, 148, 165, 229 Riis, Jacob, 41 Rocky (film), 191–92 Rotary Club, 8 row houses, 192 Rust Belt, 30, 73, 264 S Sampson, Robert, 170, 217–18 San Diego, Calif., 135 Santa Ana, Calif.: as America’s most troubled city, 136 gangs in, 136, 170 poverty in, 136–37, 138, 170 Santa Ana High School, 59, 136–38, 148, 153–58, 163–64, 166–67, 169–70 characteristics of, 136 SATs (scholastic aptitude tests): as academic measure, 137, 142, 246 competitive pressure and, 139 preparation for, 144, 147, 197, 206 savvy gap, 213–16 Sawhill, Isabel, 79, 229, 245 Scarcity (Mullainathan and Shafir), 130 scholarships, 8 for black students, 14, 17 for Latino students, 141 school choice, 97, 164–65 school climate, 97, 153–54, 171–73 schools, schooling, 135–90 AP classes and, 39, 143, 168, 168, 173 Catholic, 84, 201, 254–55 class divergence and, 160 class gap and, 137, 138, 160–73 discipline problems in, 171 drugs and violence in, 153–54, 170 educational attainment and, 183–90, 189, 190 extracurricular activities and, 174–83, 177 finances of, 165–66 fund-raising and, 137, 147, 167 government policies and, 251–58 inequality in, 137, 138 Latino communities and, 158–60 opportunity gap and, 251–58 peer influence in, 11, 160-73, 197, 214, 236 poverty in, 169–70, 171 private schools and, 52, 173, 194 public education system and, 160–61 residential segregation and, 163–64, 251–52 solutions for problems in, 251–58 tracking and, 143, 173 see also education; specific schools Science Olympiad, 144 Schlozman, Kay, 236 Scott, Helen Hope Montgomery, 191 seat belts, sociological, 224 SeaWorld, 151 Section 8 housing assistance, 60 security, emotional, 53, 115 segregation, residential, 38–39, 38, 163–64, 251–52 “Self-Reliance” (Emerson), 261 serve-and-return interactions, 110, 123, 126 sexual norms, 73 Shafir, Eldar, 130 Shonkoff, Jack, 109–12 shotgun marriages, 62 Silva, Jennifer: field research and, 264 research methods appendix and, 263–74 Simone, 83, 84–92, 101, 110, 117–19, 122, 128, 143, 164, 166, 174, 206 single-parent families: changing family structure and, 69–71, 70, 92–101 in 1970s, 21, 62 nonmarital births and, 66–68, 66 parental imprisonment and, 76 social class: education and, 44–45 language and, 29, 116 parenting style and, 119–22, 120 see also class gap social isolation, 16–17, 28, 211 social mobility, 31–34, 43–44 social networks: affluence and, 209–10, 209 churches as, 4, 10, 89–90, 201, 206 class gap and, 207–10, 208 communities and, 207–13 Internet and, 211–12, 269 social safety net, and communities, 132, 206, 229, 246–47, 254, 258–59, 261, 264, 265 social trust, 95, 201, 219–20 socioeconomic status (SES), 189–90 Sofia, 132, 137, 148–58, 160–61, 165, 168, 171, 172, 175, 178, 182, 185, 188, 216, 234, 256, 269 soft skills, 174–76 spending, parental, 125–26, 126 Spock, Benjamin, 117 sports: class gap and, 178, 179 as equalizer, 4, 97 pay-to-play policies and, 180–81, 258 Title IX and, 175 Stephanie, 83, 92–101, 110–11, 114, 117, 120–21, 123, 128, 163, 167, 263, 267 step-parents, 63, 93 step-siblings, 57, 63 stress: competitive, 144–45 financial, 130–31, 131 parental, 130–32 toxic, 111–14 suburbs, 261, 265 summer learning gap, 86–87, 143, 162 Sun Belt, 80 Supporting Healthy Marriage program, 244 T teachers: Talent Transfer Initiative and, 253 teacher flight and, 253 teacher quality and, 137 teacher salaries and, 165–66 team sports, see sports technology, 143, 212, 257, 265 see also computers; Internet teen pregnancy, 203–5, 245–46 television, 3, 57, 89, 91, 93, 117, 119, 123, 128, 162 test scores: K-12 education and, 161–62 see also SATs Tiger Moms, 145, 159 time, child-parent relationships and, 126–28, 127 Tolstoy, Leo, 61 tough love, 88, 96, 100–101, 120, 195 toxic stress, 111–14 tracking, 143, 173 traditional families, 61–62 traditional marriage, 7, 12, 62, 72 trailer parks, 22, 57 travel, 53 Troy High School, 137, 142, 143–48, 163, 165 characteristics of, 138 competitive pressure at, 139, 144–45 curriculum of, 143–44, 213 extracurricular activities in, 145–47 fund-raising and, 147 Newsweek ranking of, 143 Tiger Moms and, 145 trust: building of, 270 social, 95, 201, 219–21 trust funds, 6 U unemployment, 20, 136 United Auto Workers (UAW), 8 upward mobility: gender and, 11 parental spending and, 125 PCHS class of ’59 and, 4, 7 race and, 18 2nd generation immigrants and, 141 trends in, 228–29 V values, 75, 240 Verba, Sidney, 236 verbal parenting, 120 veterans, 160–61 violence: in New Orleans, La., 102–3 in Santa Ana, Calif., 136 in schools, 153–54, 170 in South, 13 vocabulary gap, 92 vocational education, 255–56 volunteer work, 157, 259 voting, 235–37, 235 W Waldfogel, Jane, 122, 248 Waltham, Mass., 270, 272 War on Drugs, 76 Washbrook, Elizabeth, 122 weak ties, 198, 208–10, 208, 209 wealth gap, 31, 37 welfare system: costs of, 232 family structure and, 75 medical insurance and, 202 reforms of, 244 Wendy, 24–25, 29, 92, 143, 266 Weston, Mass., 270 white flight, 81 Y youth: church programs for, 202–4 Facebook and, 205, 269 recreation, 199 voting and, 235–37, 235 YouthBuild network, 256 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2015 by Robert D.

., 68 New Deal, 34 New Hope Program, 260 New Orleans, La., 102–4 New York, N.Y., 81, 84, 254 1950s: affluence in, 5–6 class disparities in, 6–9 economic mobility during, 9–12 family structure and, 62–63 parental involvement in schools during, 156 Port Clinton during, 1–19, 29–30 race in and, 12–19 social norms of, 12 working class in, 3–4 Nixon, Richard, 135 noncognitive skills, 111, 176 O obesity, childhood, 222–23, 222 Occupy movement, 31 Okun, Arthur, 230–31, 234 opportunity, equality: as American Dream, 41–44 child development for, 248–58 class gap and, 31–34 Declaration of Independence and, 241 through democracy, 230, 234–41 diminishing the gap of, 260–61 through economic growth, 230–34 education and, 32, 44–45, 137, 161, 258 fairness in, 22, 241–42, 264 income distribution and, 31–32 mobility and, 31–34, 41–44 moral obligation to, 240–42 social mobility and, 41–44 statistical evidence and, 42–43 opportunity gap, 227–61 child development and, 248–51 community and, 258–60 community colleges and, 257–58 democracy and, 234–40 economic growth and, 230–34 family structure and, 244–48 income equality and, 227–28 moral obligation and, 240–42 opportunity costs and, 230 opportunity youth and, 232, 232 schools and, 251–58 solutions to, 242–44, 260–61 Orange County, Calif.: affluence in, 135, 139–143, 264–265, 270–71 demographic changes in, 135–36 Latinos in, 135–37, 139–43, 148–52, 158–59 life stories of, see Clara; Isabella; Lola; Ricardo; Sofia Santa Ana schools in, 137, 138, 153–57 Troy High School in, 137, 138, 143–48 working-class communities, 265 Orfield, Gary, 165 Origins of Totalitarianism (Arendt), 240 out-out-wedlock births, see nonmarital pregnancies Ozzie-and-Harriet families, 61, 63 P para-school funding, see fund-raising parental leave, 248 parenting, 80–134 age of mother and, 64, 65 child development and, 109–17 class gap and, 119–22, 120, 133–34 day care and, 128–30, 248–49 education of parents and, 119, 249 family dinners and, 24, 122–24, 124 government policies on, 248–51 grandparents and, 132–34 imprisonment and, 26–27, 76–77, 77, 152, 247–48 investments in children, 24, 29, 51, 86–88, 92, 123–24, 127, 143, 145, 159, 166–67, 195 nonmarital births and, 66–68, 66 permissive, 117 planned vs. unplanned births and, 64–65 school involvement and, 24, 86, 156, 167 solutions for problems in, 248–51 spending and, 125–26, 126 stress and, 130–32 time and, 26, 59, 88, 126–28, 127 verbal, 120 parenting trends, 117–34 parent-teacher association (PTA), 88, 167 parochial schools, 84, 254–55 Patty, 50–52, 92, 128, 229 pay-to-play policies, 180–81, 258 peer pressure, 160–73 People of Plenty (Potter), 33 Percheski, Christine, 69–70 permissive parenting, 117 Philadelphia, Pa.: community disparity in, 191–206 life stories of, see Amy; Eleanor; Lisa, Madeline; Marnie; Molly Philadelphia Story, The (film), 191 Philadelphia Youth Orchestra, 204 piano lessons, 86, 139, 178, 194 pluralism, 136 Police Athletic League (PAL), 199–200 politics: class gap and, 237–40 class savvy and, 11, 140 Politics of Mass Society, The (Kornhauser), 240 Port Clinton, Ohio, 1–45 in 1950s, 1–9, 29–30, 270; see also Port Clinton High School (PCHS) in 21st century, 2, 19–30, 270 affluence in, 5–6, 24–26 class gap and, 2, 6–9, 19–30, 270 factory closings in, 20 life stories of, see Cheryl; Chelsea; David; Don; Frank; Jesse; Libby opportunity gap in, 29 poverty in, 22, 23, 26–29 race in, 12–19 Port Clinton High School (PCHS), 3–6, 9–19 class of 1959, 3 Potter, David, 33 poverty: antipoverty programs and, 246–47 in Bend, Oreg., 47–48, 48 child development and, 116 costs of, 231–32 family instability and, 74 in Kensington, 198–206 in neighborhoods, 217–19, 219 in New Orleans, La., 102–3 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 22, 23 in Santa Ana, Calif., 136–38, 138, 170 schools and, 169–71, 171 pregnancy: marital, 203, 205 nonmarital, 61–62, 66–72, 66, 75, 78, 162, 204, 243, 245 teen, 2, 70, 196, 203–5, 245–46 trends in, 64–66, 73–75 premarital sex: family structure and, 62 teens and, 196, 203–5 Pretenders, The (band), 1 prison, see imprisonment, parental private schools, 52, 173, 194 Progressive Era, 244, 253, 256 property taxes, 165 prostitution, 152 public education system: Common School movement and, 160 equal opportunity and, 32 High School movement and, 160 Land-Grant College movement and, 160–61 see also class gap, education and public policy, 75–76 Q qualitative research, 263–74 constraints of, 272–84 life stories as, 263 model for, 265–66 participants and, 265–67 sample and, 270–71 Sandelson and, 265 Silva and, 270–71, 269–71 topics of, 267–68 quantitative research, 274–77 data sets and, 277 life stories as, 274 PCHS class of ’59 survey, 274–75 statistics of, 276–77 survey results, 276 R race: in 1950s, 12–19 in 21st century, 18, 91 affluence and, 84–92 class gap and, 76, 161–62 college scholarships and, 14, 17 in discrimination and segregation, 81–83 socializing and, 16–18 racism, 18–19 reading, 87, 143, 249 real estate: good schools and, 164 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 22 property taxes and, 165 white flight and, 81 Reardon, Sean, 161–62, 280 “rearview mirror” method, 44 relative mobility, 41–42 religion: child development and, 89–90 church attendance and, 224–25, 225 communities and, 197, 201–4, 223–26 see also churches research: field, 264 financial support and, 266 leadership of, 266 undergraduate, 265 see also qualitative research; quantitative research residential segregation: affordable housing and, 251–52 income and, 38–39, 38 schools and, 163–64, 251–52 residential sorting, 163 Ricardo, 137, 139, 141, 143, 146, 148, 165, 229 Riis, Jacob, 41 Rocky (film), 191–92 Rotary Club, 8 row houses, 192 Rust Belt, 30, 73, 264 S Sampson, Robert, 170, 217–18 San Diego, Calif., 135 Santa Ana, Calif.: as America’s most troubled city, 136 gangs in, 136, 170 poverty in, 136–37, 138, 170 Santa Ana High School, 59, 136–38, 148, 153–58, 163–64, 166–67, 169–70 characteristics of, 136 SATs (scholastic aptitude tests): as academic measure, 137, 142, 246 competitive pressure and, 139 preparation for, 144, 147, 197, 206 savvy gap, 213–16 Sawhill, Isabel, 79, 229, 245 Scarcity (Mullainathan and Shafir), 130 scholarships, 8 for black students, 14, 17 for Latino students, 141 school choice, 97, 164–65 school climate, 97, 153–54, 171–73 schools, schooling, 135–90 AP classes and, 39, 143, 168, 168, 173 Catholic, 84, 201, 254–55 class divergence and, 160 class gap and, 137, 138, 160–73 discipline problems in, 171 drugs and violence in, 153–54, 170 educational attainment and, 183–90, 189, 190 extracurricular activities and, 174–83, 177 finances of, 165–66 fund-raising and, 137, 147, 167 government policies and, 251–58 inequality in, 137, 138 Latino communities and, 158–60 opportunity gap and, 251–58 peer influence in, 11, 160-73, 197, 214, 236 poverty in, 169–70, 171 private schools and, 52, 173, 194 public education system and, 160–61 residential segregation and, 163–64, 251–52 solutions for problems in, 251–58 tracking and, 143, 173 see also education; specific schools Science Olympiad, 144 Schlozman, Kay, 236 Scott, Helen Hope Montgomery, 191 seat belts, sociological, 224 SeaWorld, 151 Section 8 housing assistance, 60 security, emotional, 53, 115 segregation, residential, 38–39, 38, 163–64, 251–52 “Self-Reliance” (Emerson), 261 serve-and-return interactions, 110, 123, 126 sexual norms, 73 Shafir, Eldar, 130 Shonkoff, Jack, 109–12 shotgun marriages, 62 Silva, Jennifer: field research and, 264 research methods appendix and, 263–74 Simone, 83, 84–92, 101, 110, 117–19, 122, 128, 143, 164, 166, 174, 206 single-parent families: changing family structure and, 69–71, 70, 92–101 in 1970s, 21, 62 nonmarital births and, 66–68, 66 parental imprisonment and, 76 social class: education and, 44–45 language and, 29, 116 parenting style and, 119–22, 120 see also class gap social isolation, 16–17, 28, 211 social mobility, 31–34, 43–44 social networks: affluence and, 209–10, 209 churches as, 4, 10, 89–90, 201, 206 class gap and, 207–10, 208 communities and, 207–13 Internet and, 211–12, 269 social safety net, and communities, 132, 206, 229, 246–47, 254, 258–59, 261, 264, 265 social trust, 95, 201, 219–20 socioeconomic status (SES), 189–90 Sofia, 132, 137, 148–58, 160–61, 165, 168, 171, 172, 175, 178, 182, 185, 188, 216, 234, 256, 269 soft skills, 174–76 spending, parental, 125–26, 126 Spock, Benjamin, 117 sports: class gap and, 178, 179 as equalizer, 4, 97 pay-to-play policies and, 180–81, 258 Title IX and, 175 Stephanie, 83, 92–101, 110–11, 114, 117, 120–21, 123, 128, 163, 167, 263, 267 step-parents, 63, 93 step-siblings, 57, 63 stress: competitive, 144–45 financial, 130–31, 131 parental, 130–32 toxic, 111–14 suburbs, 261, 265 summer learning gap, 86–87, 143, 162 Sun Belt, 80 Supporting Healthy Marriage program, 244 T teachers: Talent Transfer Initiative and, 253 teacher flight and, 253 teacher quality and, 137 teacher salaries and, 165–66 team sports, see sports technology, 143, 212, 257, 265 see also computers; Internet teen pregnancy, 203–5, 245–46 television, 3, 57, 89, 91, 93, 117, 119, 123, 128, 162 test scores: K-12 education and, 161–62 see also SATs Tiger Moms, 145, 159 time, child-parent relationships and, 126–28, 127 Tolstoy, Leo, 61 tough love, 88, 96, 100–101, 120, 195 toxic stress, 111–14 tracking, 143, 173 traditional families, 61–62 traditional marriage, 7, 12, 62, 72 trailer parks, 22, 57 travel, 53 Troy High School, 137, 142, 143–48, 163, 165 characteristics of, 138 competitive pressure at, 139, 144–45 curriculum of, 143–44, 213 extracurricular activities in, 145–47 fund-raising and, 147 Newsweek ranking of, 143 Tiger Moms and, 145 trust: building of, 270 social, 95, 201, 219–21 trust funds, 6 U unemployment, 20, 136 United Auto Workers (UAW), 8 upward mobility: gender and, 11 parental spending and, 125 PCHS class of ’59 and, 4, 7 race and, 18 2nd generation immigrants and, 141 trends in, 228–29 V values, 75, 240 Verba, Sidney, 236 verbal parenting, 120 veterans, 160–61 violence: in New Orleans, La., 102–3 in Santa Ana, Calif., 136 in schools, 153–54, 170 in South, 13 vocabulary gap, 92 vocational education, 255–56 volunteer work, 157, 259 voting, 235–37, 235 W Waldfogel, Jane, 122, 248 Waltham, Mass., 270, 272 War on Drugs, 76 Washbrook, Elizabeth, 122 weak ties, 198, 208–10, 208, 209 wealth gap, 31, 37 welfare system: costs of, 232 family structure and, 75 medical insurance and, 202 reforms of, 244 Wendy, 24–25, 29, 92, 143, 266 Weston, Mass., 270 white flight, 81 Y youth: church programs for, 202–4 Facebook and, 205, 269 recreation, 199 voting and, 235–37, 235 YouthBuild network, 256 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2015 by Robert D.


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

Saving the banks has cost more money than it cost to fight WWII, the first Gulf War, put a man on the moon, clean up after last year’s Japanese Tsunami, and the entire African aid budget for the last 20 years all put together.” —David McWilliams, PunkEconomics This was not just a crisis of identity, a challenge to the perception of banks as “secure” and “socially responsible” bastions of the community. It was a challenge to the very role of banks in an open, transparent society. This was more than just the “occupy” movement and a backlash against unreasonable bonuses—bankers suddenly found themselves having to answer to the public for their decisions that led to the crisis. Bankers rallied in this environment to claim how unjust negative public opinion was, how they had the right to make a profit (thanks for that gem, Brian Moynihan), how bankers needed to get huge bonuses because otherwise they might leave their employers, and that they were sick of the sledging they were getting from customers who really had no idea how banks or the banking system worked.

Within just 10 short years, we’ve gone from 50–60 per cent of transactions done over the counter at the branch to 95 per cent of our day-to-day transactions now going through the mobile, Internet, call centre and ATM.24 Game changing . . . In the later part of this first phase, in parallel to the start of the second phase, was the emergence of social media. Social media is a sort of theme running contiguously throughout each of the four phases, but it was enabled by the Internet (obviously). The key to understanding the disruption of social media can be seen not only in base crusades such as the Occupy Movement, but in the fundamental shift in power within the customer value exchange (see Chapter 5). In retail banking previously, banks had the enviable position of being able to “reject” customers because they were too risky, or not profitable enough. Customers would come to the bank, jump through all these hoops called “KYC” (Know-Your-Customer), and if the bank didn’t like them, sorry—they didn’t qualify.

Regardless of where social media is taking us, credibility is built only through dialogue and open communication with the crowd. If you aren’t in the game already, it’s getting harder and harder to get a proper seat at the table. There’s no technological fix to being able to tell whether or not people like you. There’s only the ability to change the way you talk to your audience. Crowdsourcing—use the power of the crowd The “occupy” movement we talked about earlier is an example of how communities work in the social, hyperconnected landscape of today. However, there is a mechanism for using crowdsourcing as a mechanism for designing new products and services that are immediately advocated by customers because they were designed by the crowd, for the crowd. Commonwealth Bank in Australia has invited the crowd to submit, discuss and vote on ideas that improve the Australian banking experience.


pages: 279 words: 76,796

The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle Class Survives by Lisa Servon

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, employer provided health coverage, financial exclusion, financial independence, financial innovation, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, M-Pesa, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, precariat, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, too big to fail, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

It used to be that government and the private sector helped people manage risk by providing health care, unemployment insurance, and pensions. Those benefits have been eroded, leaving individuals to cope with the unexpected and unfortunate events that happen to all of us. As Jacob Hacker, author of The Great Risk Shift, argues, “More and more economic risk has been offloaded by government and corporations onto the increasingly fragile balance sheets of workers and their families.” Rising inequality also plays a role. The Occupy movement, with its slogan “We are the 99 percent,” drew attention to this inequality in the wake of the financial crisis. Worldwide, people took to the streets to protest corporate greed and broken social contracts. The New York City incarnation of the movement, Occupy Wall Street, placed the financial sector at the center of the problem. In 2015, there is more income inequality in the United States than in any other “developed” democratic country.

See also specific minority groups Mint.com, 114–15 Mission Asset Fund (MAF), 142, 146, 161–62 mobile banking, 111–14, 144 Mondelli, Mike, 141–42, 149–52 money guards, 129–30, 138–39 money laundering, 10 money orders, xii, 119 money shame, 68–69 monopolies, 27 Mooney, Beth, 158–59, 164 morality, 34–35, 64–65 mortgages, 7–8, 35, 39–40, 41–45, 226n174 Mott Haven, 3 Muckenfuss, Cantwell Faulkner, III, 35–36, 40–41 Mullainathan, Sendhil, 54 Murphy, Bruce, 157–61 N natural disaster victims, 88 neighborhood ratings, 41–44 New Deal, 41–42 Nickel and Dimed (Ehrenreich), 156 Noah, Timothy, 51 O Obama, Barack, 39, 40 Occupy movement, 50–51 older adults, 55, 56, 57–59, 106, 109–10, 169, 219n109 Oportún, 145, 162–64 Orman, Suze, 63 overdraft fees account closure from, xvi, 31–32 age and, 16 as bank revenue, 17, 29–32, 87, 195–96nn30–31 blacklisting from, xv–xvi debit resequencing and, 33–34 flat fees vs., 7 opt in/out for, 17, 194n17, 196n31 on payday loans, 80, 98, 215–16n91 as short-term loan, 87 overdraft protection, 17, 29, 32 P parental support, 57–59, 109–10, 219n109 Paula, Ana, 9 pawnshops, 64, 82, 118–19 payday lending as alternative to banks, xii, 3 as alternative to credit cards, 63–64 benefits vs. costs of, 88–91 debt collection departments, 92–95, 97–100 expansion of, xiii–xiv fees, 79–82, 92–93 financial health and, 171 innovations in, 145–46 interest rates of, 81–82 legality, 77, 85, 89–91, 97 millennials and, 117–19 opposition to, 81–83, 88–89 predators, 96–101, 182, 184 regulation of, 77, 85, 89–91, 147, 215–16n91 renewals and rollovers in, 80–83, 95 repayment plans, 81, 94–95 research approach to, 183–84 restrictions on, 90–91, 147 stigma of, 102 typical consumer of, 50, 95–96, 213–15n88 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 113 pensions, 50, 55, 169 Pew Charitable Trusts, 17, 194n17, 196–97n32 Phishing for Phools (Akerlof & Shiller), 34, 172 policy recommendations on banking-government relationship, 170–73 on decision making, 173–75 for financial health, 167–69 on innovation, 175–76 problem definition and, 165–67 postal banking, 172–73 poverty.


pages: 253 words: 75,772

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald

airport security, anti-communist, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, Ted Kaczynski, WikiLeaks

In 2011, there were days of rioting in London. In the United States both the Right—the Tea Party protests of 2008 and 2009—and the Left—the Occupy movement—have launched enduring citizens protests. Polls in these countries revealed strikingly intense levels of discontent with the political class and direction of society. Authorities faced with unrest generally have two options: to placate the population with symbolic concessions or fortify their control to minimize the harm it can do their interests. Elites in the West seem to view the second option—fortifying their power—as their better, perhaps only viable course of action to protect their position. The response to the Occupy movement was to crush it with force, through tear gas, pepper spray, and prosecution. The para-militarization of domestic police forces was on full display in American cities, as police officers brought out weapons seen on the streets of Baghdad to quell legally assembled and largely peaceful protesters.


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

And to speak of banks as if they were all the same—to wit, part of an overarching Wall Street system—glosses over the complexity of financial institutions that do not operate in unison and are fragmented within themselves. Indeed, one could argue that divisions within banks, and their fragmented epistemic cultures, played a significant role in bringing the crisis about (MacKenzie 2011). Nevertheless, it is mainly the banks that have provided the conduit through which critique and protest have flowed since the crisis began. The Occupy movement is broad-based, its aims unclear, its progress uncertain. But its core thesis—that the financial system has grown absurdly disproportionate relative to the rest of the economy: distorting capitalism, widening inequality, damaging society, and exposing its key public institutions to unacceptable risks—has gained popular support across the political spectrum, on both left and right. This phenomenon raises a question that has been in the background of political discussion of events in the financial system since 2007 but remains largely unremarked upon by scholars: where did the crisis leave money?

In effect, Eurozone countries falling within the former group “have their own currencies and therefore can’t run out of money—a club all of whose members have very low borrowing costs, more or less independent of their debts and deficits”; see “France has its own currency again,” April 8, 2013, http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/08/france-has-its-own-currency-again/, accessed May 10, 2013. 55 Hudson is invoking a meme of the Occupy movement, which is designed to capture the concentration of wealth in the richest 1 percent of Americans, whose incomes rose by 275 percent between 1979 and 2007, compared to a rise of 40–60 percent for the remaining 99 percent. 56 The precise nature of the myth is that excessive government spending leads to hyperinflation. In reality, Hudson argues, every hyperinflation has been caused by international payment deficits. 57 See “Helicopter QE will never be reversed,” The Telegraph (London), April 3, 2013; “Helicopter money and supply-siders,” Financial Times (London), February 6, 2013; “Helicopters can be dangerous,” Financial Times (London), February 17, 2013.

In Agamben, it is the ban—the exception—that produces bare life, creating a zone of indeterminacy between bios (or life as defined in relation to the polis) and zoē (or life as defined in relation to oikos). In law, this zone is created by a suspension of human rights: the person who is subjected to it is placed at the threshold of the law and rendered as an outcast, a refugee.49 These two logics, exception and crisis, meet in political protest, in those makeshift camps that form the amorphous Occupy movement. The insolvent state is the state that fails to pay its debts. An insolvent state that lacks the capacity to create its own money is—in relation to the international monetary system—in a position that is analogous to the outcast. Its debts are entered into through bonds taken out as if between private parties: the state is essentially treated as a debtor, much as a firm or household would be.


pages: 284 words: 85,643

What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Suddenly, cable news shows that had been obsessing over the deficit “crisis” and President Obama’s latest poll numbers were explaining how decades of tax cuts and deregulation unraveled the social contract established in the New Deal. It had been accepted by every American president for thirty years afterward, until Richard Nixon brilliantly divided the New Deal coalition, largely around race. In the early days, polls showed that the Occupy movement’s grievances were broadly shared, even by the white working class, which Nixon and then Ronald Reagan had lured to the GOP. Yet how long before the 99 percent would cleave back into the 51 and the 48 percent? I couldn’t know. For the moment, though, it was amazing to see such broadly shared political discontent surfacing at all. As I headed down the dark canyon of Wall Street itself, I decided to climb the steps of Federal Hall to get a better view of blue-helmeted cops behind barricades, waiting for trouble that never came that day.

The New Deal wasn’t handed to us; it took decades of fighting, including strikes and civil disobedience, to get government’s and business’s attention. The civil rights movement likewise involved strife and turmoil and jail time for its leaders. I was thrilled to see the new activism. Maybe we were finally realizing we’re all in this together. Maybe. But the old ways take time to be unlearned. Though the Occupy movement transformed the political debate, emblazoning the issue of income inequality high on the national agenda, many of its local satellites fell back into ’60s style infighting—over property destruction and violence, relations with police, and race and gender. Too many Democrats judged the new activism only on the grounds of whether it was good or bad for President Obama and the party’s congressional leadership.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

A Greek default might start in Athens, but it would quickly spread to Paris, Berlin, New York and Tokyo. Today’s interconnected financial market gives everyone exposure to everyone else. Will taxpayers be asked to finance another massive bank bailout? Will protest movements such as Occupy Wall Street morph into a broader-based political opposition that will demand far more in return for the next round of bailouts than the free ride the banks got the last time around? The Occupy movement has been dismissed by the conservative establishment as mere fringe groups of young people camping in city parks. But what if they’re simply the most vocal representation of a deeper current of dissatisfaction among citizens? Could other changes be on the way? The financial industry is overdue for a deep structural overhaul that will help to eliminate some of the conflicts of interest that led to the 2008 financial crisis.

But what happens if society’s values change along with the economic speed limit? If conservation and sustainability become the watchwords for a new generation of eco-conscious adults, maybe keeping up with the Joneses will mean building a rooftop garden or installing solar panels in your backyard. A Rolex watch, to pick another example, has long been a token of wealth and status, but there’s no reason that can’t change. Judging by the protesters in the Occupy movement, a significant segment of our society has lost faith in the merits of unregulated capitalism. To them, a Rolex isn’t a sign that the wearer is an investment banker worthy of respect. Instead, it signals that the person who owns it may be about to break another securities law or make millions engineering a Ponzi scheme that will bilk suckers out of their life savings. As always, virtue is in the eye of the beholder.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

As a 2014 Pew Report showed, 90% of Americans think that the Web has been good for them personally—with 76% believing it has been good for society.21 It is true that most of the personal lives of the estimated 3 billion Internet users (more than 40% of the world’s population) have been radically transformed by the incredible convenience of email, social media, e-commerce, and mobile apps. Yes, we all rely on and even love our ever-shrinking and increasingly powerful mobile communications devices. It is true that the Internet has played an important and generally positive role in popular political movements around the world—such as the Occupy movement in the United States, or the network-driven reform movements in Russia, Turkey, Egypt, and Brazil. Yes, the Internet—from Wikipedia to Twitter to Google to the excellent websites of professionally curated newspapers like the New York Times and the Guardian—can, if used critically, be a source of great enlightenment. And I certainly couldn’t have written this book without the miracles of email and the Web.

The letter was a defense of Silicon Valley’s technological elite—the venture capitalists, entrepreneurs, programmers, and Internet executives of KPCB-backed local Internet companies like Google, Twitter, and Facebook, identified by Perkins as “the successful one percent.”3 It turned out to be the most commented upon letter ever published in the Journal, sparking an intense debate about the nature of the new digital economy. “From the Occupy movement to the demonization of the rich embedded in virtually every word of our local newspaper, the San Francisco Chronicle, I perceive a rising tide of hatred of the successful one percent. This is a very dangerous drift in our American thinking. Kristallnacht was unthinkable in 1930; is its descendant ‘progressive’ radicalism unthinkable now?,” Perkins wrote about the growing popular resentment in the Bay Area to dominant Internet companies like Google and Facebook.


Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, different worldview, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, liberation theology, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

It has to be the spirit, the culture, the dance, the music, the generosity of people Rethinking Money 223 toward each other, and I think this is happening because of the rise of the women to full partnership with men in the whole domain of human affairs with a new emphasis on process rather than on product, on making things grow, cohere, relate. This is already the biggest shift, I think, in human sensibility.” She continues: “Take the fact that the Arab Spring, whatever happens with it, became the basis of the Occupy Movement, and what has happened there, the end of which we neither have seen nor can imagine. And it will end up in many movements, leading us into a deeper exploration and communication of the steps toward radical democracy and the gradual arising of a world civilization with high individuation of culture. This is a shift that is changing everything. As the great civilizations 4,000 years ago grew up along the great rivers—the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Ganges, the Nile, the Yellow River—so a whole new order of civilization is finding its outer mythic base in the Internet and social media and on the innernet in its inner mythic expression of psycho-spiritual growth and development.”17 The new mythology is one of emancipation, the liberation to express in word and in deed each individual’s gifts and abilities.

See Nazi Party Nayahan Banjar. See Banjar Nazi Party, 180 Network structure, 32– 33 Newtonian physics, 29– 31 Nigeria, 42– 43 Nobel Prize in Economics, 35– 36 Nongovernmental organization (NGO), 56, 59, 73–74, 93; in Blaengarw, 159–161; competition among, 162; in Japan, 167; in principled society, 193 Nonmarket economy, 34 Nonprofit. See Nongovernmental organization NU-card, 186 Nyanza, 207–209 Obsolescence, 15 Occupy Movement, 223 Oil, 137–138 Oil spill, 211 257 Ooin, 186 OPEC nations, 113–114 Open source software, 123 Operational cost, 139, 140 Overcrowding, 164 Overdraft, 39 Panda, 32– 33 Papelitos, 183–184 Paper money, 25–26, 114, 152–153, 184–185 Paradigm: competition, 215–216; in education, 220–221 Pareto distribution, 68 Paris Club, 43 Patch Adams Free Clinic, 164–165 Patriarchy, 15 Pay-it-forward system, 83, 85 PayPal, 115–116 Pemaksan, 187 Performance bonus, 50 Pis bolong, 189 Pollution, 141 Poverty trap, 108 Prestige, 64 Principled society, 193–194 Privacy, 48 Private international scrip, 74, 199, 200 Private public partnership (PPP), 20–21 Privatization, 1, 20–21 Production loan, 104–105, 107 Profit-neutral investment system, 193–194 Prohibition, 157 Prostitution, 20, 184, 227n19 Prosumidores, 183–184 Psychiatry, 17, 34 Public good, 49 Publicity, 111–112 Public transport, 141–143, 152 Punishment, 197 Puntos, 125 Puntotransacciones, 125 Qoin, 93, 123, 150 Quality of life, 143 QuipShare, 77–78 258 INDEX Racial violence, 83 Randomness, 31– 32 Rationalism, 217; Age of Enlightenment, 15, 29– 30; markets as, 4 Real estate, 110–111 Realism, 30 Recession, 2, 50, 78–79 Recidivism, 83– 84 Reciprocity, 47– 49, 82, 171–172 Recirculation, 129–130 Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 181 Reconstruction multiplier, 170 Recycling, 142, 234n1 Red Cross, 83 Red Global de Trueque, 182–183 Redistribution, 217 Reference currency, 140, 199, 200 Reforestation, 67, 206, 207 Regio, 85– 89 Regional currency, 5, 75, 85– 87; criteria for, 191; in monetary ecosystem, 199, 201 Reichsbank, 179–180 Reichsmark, 176, 236n5 Relief money.


pages: 272 words: 83,798

A Little History of Economics by Niall Kishtainy

"Robert Solow", Alvin Roth, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, central bank independence, clean water, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, first-price auction, floating exchange rates, follow your passion, full employment, George Akerlof, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, loss aversion, market clearing, market design, means of production, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent

And you wouldn’t have spent so much of the parade gazing down at tiny people filing past. Income was much more evened out across the population. Since then, the rich have made faster gains than the rest: in the 1970s, America’s top 1 per cent of earners earned less than a tenth of the nation’s income. By the first decade of the twenty-first century, it earned around a fifth. Many people worry that inequality has become too pronounced. In the last few years, the Occupy movement protested against the rapid growth of the tallest giants, the so-called ‘1 per cent’ of top earners. In major cities protestors camped out and set up makeshift universities where people debated the reasons for increasing inequality and what could be done about it. Economics professors joined the debate. The French economist Thomas Piketty (b. 1971) published a book in 2014, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, which examined the rise of the rich and confirmed fears about how fast they were pulling ahead of everybody else.

(i), (ii) Kerala (India) (i) Keynes, John Maynard (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Keynesian theory (i), (ii), (iii) Klemperer, Paul (i) Krugman, Paul (i), (ii) Kydland, Finn (i), (ii) labour (i) in ancient Greece (i) and market clearing (i) women as unpaid (i) labour theory of value (i), (ii) laissez-faire (i) landowners (i), (ii), (iii) Lange, Oskar (i) law of demand (i), (ii) leakage of spending (i) Lehman Brothers (i) leisure class (i) leisured, women as (i) Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (i), (ii) Lerner, Abba (i) Lewis, Arthur (i) Lincoln, Abraham (i) List, Friedrich (i) loss aversion (i) Lucas, Robert (i), (ii) MacKay, Charles (i) Macmillan, Harold (i) macro/microeconomics (i) Malaysia, and speculators (i) Malthus, Thomas (i), (ii), (iii) Malynes, Gerard de (i), (ii) manufacturing (i), (ii) division of labour (i) see also Industrial Revolution margin (i) marginal costs (i), (ii) marginal principle (i), (ii), (iii) marginal revenue (i) marginal utility (i), (ii) market, the (i) market clearing (i) market design (i) market failure (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) ‘Market for Lemons, The’ (Akerlof) (i) market power (i) markets, currency (i), (ii) Marshall, Alfred (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Marx, Karl (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Marxism (i) mathematics (i), (ii), (iii) means of production (i) mercantilism (i), (ii) Mesopotamia (i) Mexico, pegged currency (i) micro/macroeconomics (i) Microsoft (i) Midas fallacy (i) minimum wage (i) Minsky, Hyman (i) Minsky moment (i), (ii) Mirabeau, Marquis de (i), (ii), (iii) Mises, Ludwig von (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) mixed economies (i), (ii) Mobutu Sese Seko (i) model villages (i) models (economic) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) modern and traditional economies (i), (ii) monetarism (i) monetary policy (i), (ii) money (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) see also coins; currency money illusion (i) money wages (i) moneylending see usury monopolies (i), (ii) monopolistic competition (i), (ii) monopoly, theory of (i) monopoly capitalism (i), (ii), (iii) monopsony (i) moral hazard (i), (ii) multiplier (i) Mun, Thomas (i), (ii), (iii) Muth, John (i) Nash, John (i), (ii) Nash equilibrium (i) national income (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) National System of Political Economy (List) (i) Nelson, Julie (i) neoclassical economics (i) net product (i) Neumann, John von (i) New Christianity, The (Saint-Simon) (i) new classical economics (i) New Harmony (Indiana) (i) New Lanark (Scotland) (i) Nkrumah, Kwame (i), (ii) non-rival good (i) Nordhaus, William (i), (ii) normative economics (i), (ii) Obstfeld, Maurice (i) Occupy movement (i) oligopolies (i) opportunity cost (i), (ii) organ transplant (i) output per person (i) Owen, Robert (i) paper money (i), (ii) Pareto, Vilfredo (i) pareto efficiency (i), (ii) pareto improvement (i) Park Chung-hee (i) partial equilibrium (i) pegged exchange rate (i) perfect competition (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) perfect information (i) periphery (i) phalansteries (i) Phillips, Bill (i) Phillips curve (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) physiocracy (i), (ii) Pigou, Arthur Cecil (i), (ii), (iii) Piketty, Thomas (i), (ii), (iii) Plato (i), (ii), (iii) policy discretion (i) Ponzi, Charles (i) Ponzi finance (i) population and food supply (i), (ii), (iii) of women (i) positive economics (i) poverty (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) in Cuba (i) Sen on (i) and utopian thinkers (i) Prebisch, Raúl (i) predicting (i) Prescott, Edward (i), (ii) price wars (i), (ii) primary products (i) prisoners’ dilemma (i) private costs and benefits (i) privatisation (i) productivity (i), (ii), (iii) profit (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and capitalism (i), (ii) proletariat (i), (ii) property (private) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and communism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) protection (i), (ii), (iii) provisioning (i) public choice theory (i) public goods (i) quantity theory of money (i) Quesnay, François (i) Quincey, Thomas de (i), (ii) racism (i) Rand, Ayn (i) RAND Corporation (i), (ii) rate of return (i), (ii) rational economic man (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) rational expectations (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) real wages (i), (ii), (iii) recession (i) and governments (i), (ii), (iii) Great Recession (i) Keynes on (i), (ii) Mexican (i) redistribution of wealth (i) reference points (i) relative poverty (i) rent on land (i), (ii), (iii) rents/rent-seeking (i) resources (i), (ii) revolution (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Cuban (i) French (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Russian (i), (ii) Ricardo, David (i), (ii), (iii) risk aversion (i) Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek) (i) robber barons (i) Robbins, Lionel (i) Robinson, Joan (i) Roman Empire (i) Romer, Paul (i) Rosenstein-Rodan, Paul (i) Roth, Alvin (i), (ii) rule by nature (i) rules of the game (i) Sachs, Jeffrey (i) Saint-Simon, Henri de (i) Samuelson, Paul (i), (ii) savings (i), (ii) and Say’s Law (i) Say’s Law (i) scarcity (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Schumpeter, Joseph (i), (ii) sealed bid auction (i) second price auction (i) Second World War (i) securitisation (i) self-fulfilling crises (i) self-interest (i) Sen, Amartya (i), (ii) missing women (i), (ii), (iii) services (i) shading bids (i), (ii) shares (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) see also stock market Shiller, Robert (i), (ii) signalling (i) in auctions (i) Smith, Adam (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) social costs and benefits (i) Social Insurance and Allied Services (Beveridge) (i) social security (i), (ii) socialism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) socialist commonwealth (i) Socrates (i) Solow, Robert (i) Soros, George (i), (ii), (iii) South Africa, war with Britain (i) South Korea, and the big push (i) Soviet Union and America (i) and communism (i), (ii) speculation (i) speculative lending (i) Spence, Michael (i) spending government (fiscal policy) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) and recessions (i), (ii) and Say’s Law (i) see also investment stagflation (i), (ii) Stalin, Joseph (i) standard economics (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Standard Oil (i) Stiglitz, Joseph (i) stock (i) stock market (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) stockbrokers (i) Strassmann, Diana (i), (ii) strategic interaction (i), (ii) strikes (i) subprime loans (i) subsidies (i), (ii) subsistence (i) sumptuary laws (i) supply curve (i) supply and demand (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and currencies (i) and equilibrium (i), (ii) in recession (i), (ii), (iii) supply-side economics (i) surplus value (i), (ii) Swan, Trevor (i) tariff (i) taxes/taxation (i) and budget deficit (i) carbon (i) and carbon emissions (i) and France (i) and public goods (i) redistribution of wealth (i) and rent-seeking (i) technology as endogenous/exogenous (i) and growth (i) and living standards (i) terms of trade (i) Thailand (i) Thaler, Richard (i) theory (i) Theory of the Leisure Class, The (Veblen) (i) Theory of Monopolistic Competition (Chamberlain) (i) Thompson, William Hale ‘Big Bill’ (i) threat (i) time inconsistency (i), (ii) time intensity (i) Tocqueville, Alexis de (i) totalitarianism (i) trade (i), (ii), (iii) and dependency theory (i) free (i), (ii), (iii) trading permit, carbon (i) traditional and modern economies (i), (ii) transplant, organ (i) Treatise of the Canker of England’s Common Wealth, A (Malynes) (i) Tversky, Amos (i), (ii) underdeveloped countries (i) unemployment in Britain (i) and the government (i) and the Great Depression (i) and information economics (i) and Keynes (i) and market clearing (i) and recession (i) unions (i), (ii) United States of America and free trade (i) and growth of government (i) industrialisation (i) and Latin America (i) Microsoft (i) recession (i), (ii) and the Soviet Union (i) and Standard Oil (i) stock market (i) wealth in (i) women in the labour force (i) unpaid labour, and women (i) usury (i), (ii), (iii) utility (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) utopian thinkers (i), (ii) Vanderbilt, Cornelius (i), (ii) Veblen, Thorstein (i), (ii), (iii) velocity of circulation (i), (ii) Vickrey, William (i) wage, minimum (i) Walras, Léon (i) Waring, Marilyn (i) wealth (i) and Aristotle (i), (ii) and Christianity (i) Piketty on (i) and Plato (i) Smith on (i) Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) (i), (ii) welfare benefits (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) welfare economics (i) Who Pays for the Kids?


pages: 353 words: 81,436

Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism by Wolfgang Streeck

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, banking crisis, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial repression, fixed income, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, means of production, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, profit maximization, risk tolerance, shareholder value, too big to fail, union organizing, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

In unclear situations – contrary to what is repeatedly claimed – fear can be a good counsellor. That the crisis might lead to ‘social unrest’ is a constant nightmare for the men and women at the helm, even though what has been seen on the streets up to now bears little relation to it. Apparently the ruling class has not yet totally forgotten the events of 1968 in Paris or Turin, and in this respect the occasional street battles in Athens or the global ‘Occupy’ movement of the ‘99 per cent’ marked a good beginning. A lot can be learned from the excessive reaction of banks and governments, or from the sense of horror aroused by movements such as Occupy, tiny as they are. The idea that ‘the markets’ should adapt to the people, not vice versa, is nowadays thought of as outright crazy – and indeed it is so if the world is taken as it is. It might, however, become more realistic perhaps if it were argued more often, with dogged persistence, bypassing the blocked channels of institutionalized democracy, so that the calculators have to build it into their calculations and to reckon with the incorrigibly romantic view of ordinary people that they should not have to spend the rest of their lives in thrall to the spreadsheets of some IOU buffs and their trained collectors.

See solidarity, national national sovereignty, 2.1 passim, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1n23, 4.2 passim; curtailment/surrender of, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.5n14, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8 passim, 3.9, 3.10n91, 3.11 NATO neo-Protestantism, 1.1, 3.1 Netherlands, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Neue Länder. See Germany: Neue Länder Nobel Prize in Economics Norquist, Grover North Atlantic Treaty Organization. See NATO nuclear energy Obama, Barack Occupy movement O’Connor, James, 1.1, 2.1n38, 2.2, 2.3 Offe, Claus offshoring oil, itr.1, 1.1, 2.1n8, 2.2 Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD), 1.1, 3.1 ownership, private panic, 1.1, 2.1n68, 3.1 Papademos, Lukas, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Papandreou, George Papanikolaou, Spyros pay, 1.1 passim, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3n40, 2.4, 3.1, 4.1; deferred; EU, 3.3, 3.4; expectations; of public workers; relationship to devaluation of currency; relationship to productivity/production profits, 1.5n76, 3.5; ‘reservation wage’, 2.5n54; by results; of Sicilian politicians; subsidies, 3.7.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The rise of wearable computing and cheap, portable digital cameras and smartphones has contributed to a phenomenon known as sousveillance, in which people participating in an activity, such as a protest, film it. That footage may prove useful in a lawsuit that claims police brutality, or it may simply help a group to analyze an event after the fact. In many cases, the video is then shared on social media, helping to catalyze political awareness. Sousveillance became particularly popular during the Occupy movement, in which activists filmed and photographed police and made heavy use of streaming video in order to transmit their message to a wider audience. Syrian rebels, from secular Kurdish groups to foreign jihadists, use video to publicize their exploits, as propaganda against Bashar al-Assad, as a plea for foreign aid, or as a way to inform the world of a government attack. Variations of sousveillance have become central to the quantified self movement, in which people use smartphones, cameras, sensors, and other devices to record and analyze data about anything from their eating habits to their daily movements.

The pagination of this electronic edition does not match the edition from which it was created. To locate a specific passage, please use your e-book reader’s search tools. Abbey, Edward, 327 Abelson, Brian, 98 About The Data Web site, Acxiom, 307–8 ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), 365–68 acquihiring, 17 Acquisti, Alessandro, 302 activists Electronic Frontier Foundation, 311 methods of protection, 356–64 Occupy movement, 136–37 open source activism, 359–62 vs. abuse, injustice, and racism, 169–73 Acxiom, 307–8, 316–17 ad critic at BuzzFeed, 117 addiction to the Internet, 337–38, 341–42 Adium app, 369 advertisers overview, ix, 297–98 and Do Not Track signals, 296–97, 306 Facebook’s data for, vii, 12, 41–42, 293–94, 300, 305–6, 316–18 and Facebook’s News Feed algorithm, 203 and Google, 16 and Like, +1, or heart buttons, 10–11 producing optimal conditions for, 265–66, 266n and sentiment analysis, 39 use of social graph to push your friends, 157 advertising advertorials, 116–17 appropriation of memes, 60 authentic identity as basis for, 10 creating dissatisfaction with, 24 and endorsements, 31–35, 85, 191 fraudulent companies, 97–98 and Google, 14 and hashtags, 94–95 metrics, 97–99 Old Spice campaign, 93–94 online vs. physical world, 298 opting out of advertising-based social networks, 275–77 roots of, 23–24 Ruckus Network email gleaning ploy, 92 and social media, 23–24, 31–35, 148 sponsored content, 28, 31–32, 116–18 targeting individuals, 298–300, 301, 302, 316–17 and television, 249 tradition of deception, 59, 94–95 on Tumblr, 27, 28–30 See also marketing; targeting individuals Advertising Age journal, 358 Afghanistan, 362 African Americans, 70–71, 170–73, 210 aggregators overview, 122–23, 214, 235–36 Bleacher Report, 125–28 Gawker, 75, 96, 111 Huffington Post, 115, 179 Klout, 194–96, 200 and mugshot photographs, 207–9, 210–11, 213–14, 217 Stellar, 32 story reworking process, 106–7 Upworthy, 102, 121–22, 125 See also BuzzFeed Airbnb overview, 181–82 CEO’s “people as businesses” attitude, 234 costs, 237–38, 243 hosts and regulations, 242–43 and Peers, 238–39 racial discrimination on, 182–84 on social and economic benefits, 244 terms, 240 Alang, Navneet, 274 alert noises video, 362–63 alerts and notifications, 50–53, 214 Alexander, Keith B., 314 Alford, Henry, 54–55 algorithms overview, 200–201 decoding their processes, 201 effect of syntax, slang, and cultural context, 37–38 experimentation with social graph, 204–6 Facebook’s, 201, 202–4 and fractional workers, 228, 229–30 and Google Search, 198 for incoming call management, 40 for influence scores, 194 for labor market laborers, 227 news outlet importance, 84–85 for recommendations, 201–2 for searches, 188 Amazon overview, 245 abusive labor practices, 266–67n deleting e-books from Kindles, 255 long-term marketing plan, 242n Mechanical Turk, 90, 226, 228, 229–30 ambient awareness of others, 50 American Airlines, 195 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 365–68 amplifiers for memes, 88–89 analytics computational voice analysis, 40–43 cost-benefit analysis of social media rebellion tools, 369–70 predictive analytics, 216–17, 309 for speech, 40–43 See also sentiment analysis analytics firms and online presence, 99 ANAR Foundation, 299–300 Andrejevic, Mark, 307 anonymity on 4chan, 162 assault on, 177 and Big Data, 317–18 and charity, 179–80 governments’ use of, 179 importance for some people, 166 merits of, 175–78 and online abusers, 177–78 of online speech, 180 as preserving control over your name, 168 and security, 176–77 AOL Community Leader Program, 263 apartments as short-term rentals, 237–38 Apple, 3, 99 applications “apps” augmented reality, 191–92 BlinkLink, 358 chatting, 369 data-sharing policies, 176–77 dating, 141, 191, 246–47 facial recognition, 301 fitness, 305–6 Girls Around Me, 140–41 Hell Is Other People, 358 messaging, 156, 177, 259 ObscuraCam, 357 Social Roulette for Facebook, 360 tracking blockers, 297 Twitch for Androids, 260 and Twitter, 16 voice analysis, 40–41 App.net, 362 archive.org, 364 Arpaio, Joe, 193 ARPANET, 251 artifacts on the Internet, 363–64 Atkin, Douglas, 239, 244 attention economy, 302 AT&T U-verse Internet Service plans, 282 audience as collection of data points, 124–25 metrics, 95–96, 101–2, 103 augmented reality apps, 191–92 authentication process, 10 authentic identity allowing for ambiguity vs., 184–85 branding yourself, 181 Facebook’s advocacy for using online, 8–9, 158–60 intolerance for deception about, 74 real names, 160, 178 and reblogs and retweets, 56 and rudeness or antisocial behaviors, 159–60 and social media, 9–10, 48, 164, 180–81 AutoAdmit Web site, 79 automation leading to unemployment, 331–32 Aytes, Ayhan, 229 Baffler, The (Byrne), x Bain & Company, 281–82, 328–29 Balial, Nandini, 219–26, 245–48 Ballard, J.

See also sentiment analysis Moran, Robert, 191 Morozov, Evgeny, 4–5, 84, 322 Moves fitness app, 305–6 mugshot Web sites, 207–9, 210–11, 213–14, 217 multitasking, 51–52 Mun, Sang, 358 MyEx.com, 210 Myspace, 9 Nambikwara tribe, Brazil, 167–68, 356 narcissism of the social media experience, 61–62 National Reconnaissance Office spy satellite, 314 National Science Foundation (NSF), 279 National Security Agency (NSA), 129–32, 312, 314 National Security Letters (NSLs), 130 NEC, 299, 301 negative sentiments and sharing, 24, 31, 203–4, 305 Negri, Toni, 264 networked privacy model, 291–92 network effects, 13–14, 47, 272–73, 275–76, 295, 327 news consumers’ culpability, 109 news organizations algorithms rating news outlet importance, 84–85 and audience metrics, 101–2, 103 and embeddable media, 259–60 firehose approach to news, 112 as invasion of privacy, 288 memes from local newscasts, 69–72 presidential press conferences, 105 pushing articles selectively, 98 social media/viral editor, 122–23 trawling social media, 113 trending articles as premium journalism, 101 See also BuzzFeed; journalism New Times newspaper, 67–68 New York City and Uber, 237 New York Comic Con 2013, 34 New York Post, 113 New York Times Magazine, 75 Nike, 139 Niquille, Simone C., 356–57 Nissenbaum, Helen, 284, 297 notifications and alerts, 50–53, 214 NSA (National Security Agency), 129–32, 312, 314 NSF (National Science Foundation), 279 NSLs (National Security Letters), 130 Obama, Barack, 134, 169, 194 “Obama Is Wrong” (Hayes), 105–6 ObscuraCam, 357 Occupy movement, 136–37 OCR (optical character recognition) software, 260, 358 O’Donnell, Robert, 152 Office Max, 279–80 OkCupid, 204 Old Spice advertising campaign, 93–94 Omidyar, Pierre, 239 online persona, 344–45 online recommendations, 201–2 online reputation. See reputation On the Media radio program, 109 Open Graph, 11–12 opting out of advertising-based social networks, 275–77 cost of, 295 difficulty finding option for, 32, 33 of friends adding you to a group, 92 of Google Shared Endorsements, 33 of including your location in messages, 177 of Klout, 195 opt-in vs., 7–8 of social media, 272, 340–41, 342, 346, 347 oral storytelling, 62, 63 Oremus, Will, 106–7, 265 outing students via privacy faux pas, 286 ownership of your identity, 256–57, 273–74, 275–77, 311, 360 Page, Larry, 250 page views overview, 95–96, 98 and advertising dollars, 71, 93, 97 Facebook-ready content for generating, 115 and invented controversy, 107 meme-related, 84, 103–4, 105 new outlets’ boosting of, 122–23 Palihapitiya, Chamath, 249 Pandora, 303 paparazzos, 211–12 parents, scrapbooking about their children, 46, 55–60 Pariser, Eli, 122 Paris, France, 267, 268 Patriot Act, 130 pay-per-gaze advertising, 302 Peers, 238–39, 244 peer-to-peer social networks, 311 Peretti, Jonah, 114–15 personal care, 224 personal endorsements, 31–35 personal graph, 18–19 Persson, Markus, 164–65 Pezold, John, 187 PGP, 368–69 PHD, 304 PhoneID Score, TeleSign, 40 phones.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Jay Olshansky and his colleagues published in Health Affairs, the average American white woman without a high school diploma had a life expectancy of 73.5 years in 2008, compared to 78.5 years in 1990. Life expectancy for white men without a high school education fell by three years during this period.10 It’s no wonder that protests broke out across America even as it was beginning to recover from the Great Recession. The Tea Party movement on the right and the Occupy movement on the left each channeled the anger of the millions of Americans who felt the economy was not working for them. One group emphasized government mismanagement and the other abuses in the financial services sector. How Technology Is Changing Economics While undoubtedly both of these problems are important, the more fundamental challenge is deep and structural, and is the result of the diffusion to the second machine age technologies that increasingly drive the economy.

., robot use by Minsky, Marvin MIT, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab at Mitchell, Tom Mitra, Sugata MITx Monster.com Montessori, Maria Monthly Labor Review Moore, Gordon Moore’s Law in business in computing persistence of spread of Moravec, Hans Moravec’s paradox Morris, Ian mortgages Mullis, Kary multidimensional poverty index Munster, Gene Murnane, Richard Murray, Charles music, digitization of Nader, Ralph Narrative Science NASA National Academy of Sciences National Association of Realtors National Bureau of Economic Research National Review Nature of Technology, The (Arthur) Neiman, Brent New Digital Age, The (Schmidt and Cohen) New Division of Labor, The (Levy and Murnane) Newell, Al new growth theory New York Times Next Convergence, The (Spence) Nike Nixon, Richard Nordhaus, William numbers: development of large Occupy movement oDesk Oh, Joo Hee Olshansky, S. Jay OpenTable OrCam O’Reilly, Tim Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Orteig Prize Orwell, George Oswald, Andrew Page, Larry Paine, Thomas Pandora Partnership for a New American Economy Pascarella, Ernest pattern recognition Pauling, Linus peer economy Perrow, Charles Perry, Mark philosophy, transformative phones, mobile: in developing world see also smartphones photography photo sharing Picasso, Pablo Pigou, Arthur Pigovian taxes Pink, Daniel Pinker, Steven Pinterest Pivot Power Plutarch Polanyi, Michael pollution polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Popular Science Porter, Michael Powerbook G4 Power Law distributions Principles of Economics (Mankiw) printing, 3D privacy, in digital vs. analog world productivity: decoupling of employment from decoupling of wages from effect of spread on in electricity era growth of innovation linked to intangible goods’ effect on mid-1990s U.S. increase in new paths to post-1970 U.S. decline in post-2000 U.S. growth in see also economic growth; gross domestic product (GDP); labor productivity, capital productivity, multifactor productivity, total factor publishing, digitization and Putnam, Robert Quirky R Race Against the Machine (Brynjolfsson and McAfee) Rajan, Raghuram Rampell, Catherine Raymond, Eric reading AI capabilities in Reagan, Ronald regulation: of business of peer economy religion rents, economic resource curse Rethink Robotics retinal implants Rhapsody Ricardo, David Rigobon, Roberto Robinson, James Robotics, Three Laws of robots: business use of; see also automation rapid progress in sensory equipment for skills acquisition by; see also Moravec’s paradox towel-folding see also artificial intelligence (AI) Rockoff, Jonah Roksa, Josipa Romer, Paul Roomba Roosevelt, Franklin D.


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Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

It began with defacing and breaching attacks against websites and servers of a bewildering and sometimes confusing array: the Tunisian, Egyptian, Zimbabwean, Malaysian, Libyan, and other governments; private companies like Sony, accused of censorship in the guise of protecting its intellectual property; financial services companies like Mastercard, PayPal, and Visa (for boycotting donations made to WikiLeaks); and the CIA, NSA, FBI, U.S. Department of Justice, and police forces around the world. Twitter accounts with the prefix “Anon” proliferated, and at one point in the fall of 2011, it appeared that Anonymous and the Occupy movement would consolidate into a powerful social force threatening the elites of the industrialized world – a more mature, digitally empowered next-generation version of the 1990s anti-globalization movement. But then a series of dragnet-style arrests took place. Beginning in July 2011, and coordinated across the U.S., U.K., and the Netherlands, twenty people were detained. This was followed in February 2012 with Operation Unmask, coordinated by law enforcement agencies in Chile, Argentina, Colombia, and Spain, and resulting in the arrest of twenty-five people, followed by another wave of arrests in March 2012.

In June 2011, Anonymous launched attacks on ninety-one websites, including fifty-one Malaysian government sites; see Niluksi Koswanage and Liau Y-Sing, “Hackers Disrupt 51 Malaysian Government Websites,” Reuters, June 16, 2011, http​://www.r​euter​s.co​m/art​icle/2​011​/06​/16​/u​s-ma​lays​ia-hack​ers-idU​S-TR​E75​F06​Y201​106​16. The Anonymous movement was split on the Libyan uprisings; see “Operation Reasonable Reaction,” Github, http​s://gith​ub.com/bi​banon/b​ibano​n/wiki​/Operat​ion-Reaso​nable-Reac​tion. The relationship between the Occupy Movement and Anonymous is detailed in Sean Captain, “The Real Role of Anonymous in Occupy Wall Street,” Fast Company, October 17, 2011, http​://www.f​astcompa​ny.com/​178839​7/th​e-real-ro​le-of-anon​ymo​us-at-occ​upy-wa​ll-str​eet. 8 is it wise to actually encourage DDoS attacks: Yochai Benkler explains why Anonymous should not be viewed as a threat to national security in “Hacks of Valor,” Foreign Affairs, April 4, 2012, http​://ww​w.forei​gnaffa​irs.com​/arti​cles​/1​3738​2​/​yocha​i-benk​ler​/​hack​s-of-val​or. 9 One of the few to study this question in depth: Gabriella Coleman’s work offers a comprehensive history and analysis of Anonymous: Gabriella Coleman “Our Weirdness Is Free: The Logic of Anonymous – Online Army, Agent Chaos, and Seeker of Justice,” Triple Canopy (2012), http​://canop​ycano​pycan​opy.com​/​15​/our​_​weir​dness​_​is​_​free; and “Peeking Behind the Curtain at Anonymous: Gabriella Coleman at TEDGlobal 2012,” TED Blog, June 27, 2012, http​://blo​g.ted.c​om/20​12/06​/27​/peeki​ng-behi​nd-the-cur​tain-at-an​onymo​us-gabr​iell​a-colem​an-at-te​dglob​al–201​2/. 10 MIT Museum Hack archivist: A history of MIT hacks is detailed in T.F.


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Capitalism: Money, Morals and Markets by John Plender

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, diversification, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, money market fund, moral hazard, moveable type in China, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Veblen good, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

The Almighty certainly never intended that people should travel at such breakneck speeds.67 Throughout history, such creative destruction, in the celebrated phrase of the economist Joseph Schumpeter, has increased economic growth and, ultimately, human welfare, but the transitional human cost as the structure of the economy changes is invariably high. There are also social costs. Many of the newer industries that are replacing manufacturing operate, in salary terms, on a ‘winner takes all’ basis, so that a lucky few make vast fortunes. This contributes to inequality both inside companies and in society at large, leading to the kinds of discontent and alienation expressed by the Occupy movement across America in 2011 and 2012, along with similar protests around the world. It is possible to put a case that manufacturing can shrink too far if international specialisation causes economies to suffer from a lack of diversity. That was the case with Britain, which was seriously under-diversified when the credit crunch struck in 2007. Back then, it derived more than 9 per cent of GDP from financial services.

E. 1 morbidity syndrome 1 More, Thomas 1, 2 Morgan, John Pierpont 1 Mozart 1, 2 Mussolini 1 Mutual Assured Production (Richard Katz) 1 Mynors, Humphrey 1 Napoleonic Wars 1 Nash, Ogden 1, 2 Native Americans 1 Nazi Germany 1 Netherlands 1 New Deal 1, 2 New Testament 1 Newton, Isaac 1, 2, 3 Nicholas Nickleby (Dickens) 1, 2, 3 Nigeria 1 Norquist, Grover 1 North, Roger 1 North and South (Mrs Gaskell) 1 North Korea 1 Northern Rock (UK) 1 Novalis 1 Nuffield, Lord 1 Obama, Barack 1, 2 Occupy movement 1, 2 oil states 1 da l’Osta, Andrea 1, 2 outsourcing 1, 2 paper currency 1 Parker, Dorothy 1 Pascal, Blaise 1, 2 Past and Present (Thomas Carlyle) 1 Paulson, John 1 Peasants’ Revolt (England) 1 pension funds 1 Pepys, Samuel 1 Peruzzi family 1 perverse incentives 1, 2 Petronius 1 Picasso 1, 2 Piketty, Thomas 1 Pitt, William the Elder 1 Pitt, William the Younger 1 Plato 1, 2, 3 Political Discourses (Hume) 1 Politics (Aristotle) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 poll taxes 1 Pope, Alexander 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Portugal 1 positional goods 1 Poussin, Nicolas 1 Prell, Michael 1 Priestley, Joseph 1 printing 1 Proposition 1 (California) 2 Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber) 1 Prussia 1, 2, 3 public sector debt 1 R.


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The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The abolitionists, the “know-nothings,” the isolationists, the progressives, the John Birchers, the suffragettes—they all worked, to different effect, to shape the nation’s history. But none emerged out of nowhere: each was incubated by connections forged between friends, neighbors, and familiar acquaintances. That’s not how things work anymore. More recently that “style” of movement has become almost antiquated. Far from harnessing the connections wrought by preexisting middle-ring relationships, the Tea Party and Occupy movements, two of the most prominent echoes of earlier campaigns for change, were fueled by messages sent through the outer rings. People offended by what they saw, respectively, as the stifling authority of Washington and the corrupting power of Wall Street found each other without nearly so much middle-ring brokering. Quite the opposite, the miracle of information technology—blogs and social networks, e-mails and Twitter feeds—made it possible for individuals to find, connect, and organize ideological peers without knowing one another very well.

., 19, 84, 128, 176, 230 Chinatown in, 33–35 Diamond District in, 98–99, 135 Jacobs’s views on, 85–86, 166, 167–68 New York Times, xiv, 27, 38, 46, 54–55, 59, 182, 229 New York Times Book Review, 5–6 New York Times Magazine, 64 niches, 36, 40, 41, 44–45, 73–74 affirmation and, 107–8, 110–11 Nichols, Mike, 4, 248n Nie, Norman, 125 1950s, 3–6, 32, 50, 52, 60, 114, 115, 127, 138, 139, 248n conformity in, 4–5, 65, 73, 74 family routines in, 58 fantasy view of, 3, 51 membership associations in, 130–31 1960s, 70–71, 248n social trust in, 135 upheavals of, 6, 68, 87, 108–9, 128 Nisbet, Robert, 194 North American Free Trade Agreement, 197–98 nostalgia, ix–x, 51, 72, 146, 182–83 nuclear war, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 60 nursing homes, 197, 200, 202, 206–7 Obama, Barack, 24, 37–38, 42, 59, 146, 186, 205, 210 Occupy movement, 109–10 Office, The (TV show), 131 Ogle, Richard, 162 Olds, Jacqueline, 130 Olympic Games (2014), 178 online buying, 41, 69–70 online communities, 114–15, 116, 145, 250n opportunity, 12–13, 26, 27, 32, 43, 49, 62, 69, 73, 74, 75, 98, 212, 213 affirmation and, 103, 108 optimism, 51, 82, 114, 236 Organization Man, The (Whyte), 5, 6, 138 organizations: new breed of, 116–18 voluntary, 80, 116, 118, 130–31, 187, 201, 228, 239 Osteen, Joel, 72, 238 other-directedness, 5–7 Our Best Life (Osteen), 72 outer-ring relationships, 96–97, 114–19, 137, 138–39, 143, 145, 147–48, 169, 173, 190, 204, 237, 238 affirmation and, 107–12, 115 online, 114–15, 121–22 Oxycodone epidemic, 147–48 Packer, George, 235, 236 Palin, Sarah, 206 Pariser, Eli, 37, 48, 176, 194–95 Park Forest, 4–5 Pasteur, Louis, 158–59, 174 Pauling, Linus, 161 PBS, 182, 192 pensions, 20, 205, 235–36 Perot, Ross, 197–98 Perry Preschool Project, 224 Pew Center for American Life, 250n Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 71 Pew Internet & American Life Project, 125 Pew Research Center, 106–7, 237 Pixar studio, 164–65 Planet Money (radio show), 180–81 Platinum Mile, 176 polio, 51, 52, 59 political science, 66–69, 141 politics, xiv–xvii, xix, 11, 15, 82, 101, 148, 181–95, 210, 229, 232 affirmation and, 108–10 Chinatown Bus effect and, 44, 47–48 culture wars and, 114 globalization and, 18 taste and, 37–38 polls, polling, 7, 29, 182, 226 deliberative, 192–93, 195 World Values Survey, 67–68, 73 Poole, Keith, 184 Porter, Eduardo, 255n potlikker, 136–37 poverty, 11, 22, 41, 43, 54, 62, 75, 146, 194, 201, 226, 255n in Brazil, 178, 267n urbanism and, 83, 216 prejudice, 88, 146, 148, 231 against homosexuals, 42, 43, 51 racial, 24, 39, 146 productivity, 19, 53, 167 progress, 24, 31, 35, 68, 75, 174, 238 progressives (the left), 11, 15, 23, 26, 31, 47, 148, 235 crime and, 56 Washington dysfunction and, 182, 184, 189, 190 property, 82, 179, 229 prosperity, 52–55, 57, 62, 67, 68–69, 72, 178, 230 psychology, Maslow’s influence in, 61–62 public policy, failure of, 22–23 Pulitzer, Joseph, 188 purchasing power, 53–54 Putnam, Robert, 7, 97, 99–100, 113–16, 119, 120, 141, 151–52, 170, 192 on social trust, 134–35 quality of life, 21, 50–62 affluence and, 52–55, 62, 72 health and, 31, 51, 52, 57–60 hierarchy of needs and, 61–62, 72 security and safety and, 52, 55–62, 72 Quest for Community, The (Nisbet), 194 race, 11, 32, 68, 79, 147, 148, 237 prejudice and, 24, 39, 146 see also African Americans racism, 4, 51 Radicalism of the American Revolution, The (Wood), xii, 81, 194 radio, 36, 37, 71, 133, 148, 152, 180–81 Rainie, Lee, 237 Rauch, Jonathan, 199 Raytheon, 165 Reagan, Ronald, 22 Real World, The (TV show), 63 rebels, 102–3, 127 religion, 29, 39, 48, 71–72, 74, 114, 147, 148, 231, 238 Republicans, 15, 37–38, 148, 182–85 retirement, 55, 60, 104–5, 197, 198, 204–5, 235–36 Riesman, David, 5–8, 12, 65, 73, 74, 213 Rock, Chris, 40 romance, 70, 71, 74 Romney, Mitt, 37–38 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 203 Rose, Charlie, 182 Rosenthal, Howard, 184 Rotary Clubs, 44, 45, 116 Rumspringa, 28–29, 30 Sachar, Abram L., 4 Saddleback Church, 72 Safford, Sean, xi, 97, 169–72 Sampson, Robert, 149–50 San Francisco, Calif., 129, 189 Santayana, George, 51 Saturn model, 95–98 see also intimate relationships; middle-ring relationships; outer-ring relationships Schmidt, Eric, 18 Schwartz, Richard, 130 Second Wave society, 16–17, 20, 23, 31–32, 48 mass market and, 40 membership organizations and, 44 townships in, 88, 89, 233 security and safety, 52, 55–62, 67, 68, 72, 133, 150 segregation, 40–41, 79, 237–38 self-actualization, 61, 72 self-control, 214–25 self-expression, 69, 71–72 self-fulfillment, 104, 261n self-interest, 183, 195 Senate, U.S., xvi, 184, 185, 186, 188, 191 service jobs, 18–19, 53, 132, 138, 236 settled horticultural societies, 92, 95 shopping, 25, 38–42, 49 shopping malls, 40, 41 Silicon Valley, 174, 175, 227, 237 Silver, Nate, 7 Skocpol, Theda, 44, 45, 116–18, 130, 201 smallpox, 157–58 social architecture, 232–34 in Barbados vs.


pages: 98 words: 25,753

Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning

Actor Ashton Kutcher can reach over 10 million people instantly. The American Red Cross has over 700 thousand followers. One has to wonder what Martin Luther King, Jr. would have done with a Twitter account. Or how the Civil War would have been changed in a world with blogs and real-time search. The telegraph was instrumental enough in how wartime communication took place; what if Lincoln or Churchill and Roosevelt had instant messaging? The Occupy movement has benefited enormously from being able to coordinate action and communicate its message on the backs of big-data systems. And, at both ends of the spectrum, imagine a data breach at Facebook: what would Hitler have done with that information? How would Mahatma Gandhi have utilized that kind of information about so many people? And because of the sheer velocity, volume, and variety of big data, as it evolves, it is introducing ethical challenges in places and ways we’ve never encountered before.


pages: 339 words: 99,674

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War by James Risen

air freight, airport security, banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, Edward Snowden, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, large denomination, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, Stuxnet, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

So it is only natural that the FBI, Homeland Security, and state and local law enforcement agencies have to find ways to fill their days. In late 2012, the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund, a civil rights group, obtained a series of FBI documents that showed that the FBI had been spying on the Occupy Wall Street movement, treating it like a terrorist threat. FBI agents in New York and across the country conducted surveillance on the Occupy movement and shared information with businesses, universities, and local police and other law enforcement agencies. In Indianapolis, the FBI issued a “potential criminal activity alert” even before any protests were scheduled there. In Syracuse, New York, the Joint Terrorism Task Force sent information about Occupy protests to campus police at colleges in the region. These FBI documents underscore the danger posed by the unbridled growth of the nation’s counterterrorism infrastructure, and how easily the machinery designed to catch terrorists can be turned to other targets.

. [>] bin Laden et al. (2011), [>] Hayden, Michael, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] health hazards, burn pits as, [>]–[>] Heilbrun, Mark, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] Hersh, Seymour, [>]–[>] Homeland Security Department: counterterrorism and, [>]; cybersecurity and, [>]–[>]; drones program and, [>]; Einstein [>] and, [>]; enhanced interrogation methods and, [>]; intelligence operations and, [>]–[>]; money and, [>]; Occupy movement and, [>]; Operation Stonegarden and, [>]–[>] homeland security-industrial complex: overview of, [>]–[>], [>]; airport security and, [>], [>]–[>]; anti-Muslim rhetoric and, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>]; architecture and, [>]–[>]; Boston marathon bombing in 2013 and, [>], [>]–[>]; Canadian border and, [>]–[>], [>]; Derby Line Battle and, [>]–[>], [>]; fear and, [>], [>], [>], [>]; government buildings and, [>]; greed and, [>]; independent terrorism analysts and, [>]–[>], [>]; individual extremists and, [>]–[>]; money and, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>]; NIH and, [>]–[>]; 9/11 terrorist attacks and, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>]; power/abuse of power and, [>]–[>]; press investigations and, [>]–[>]; security zones/procedures and, [>]–[>].


pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

They were, in part, inspired by the Spanish indignados (outraged) who had occupied Madrid's main square the previous May in protest at the Spanish government's response to the banking crisis; they, in tum, had followed the example of Egyptian revolutionaries who had taken Cairo's Tahrir Square. The New York protests spawned a global 'Occupy' movement, as similar camps were set up in hundreds of cities across the globe-including London, where tents were erected outside St Paul's Cathedral. The key slogan of the Occupy movement, 'We are the 99 per cent', reflected that the interests of the overwhelming majority of people conflicted with those of the elite 1 per cent at the top. It may not have been an accurate figure, but that wasn't the point: the slogan tapped into a deep sense of injustice that had taken root since the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008.


pages: 296 words: 98,018

Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World by Anand Giridharadas

"side hustle", activist lawyer, affirmative action, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, friendly fire, global pandemic, high net worth, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyperloop, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, working poor, zero-sum game

Two months after Cohen enrolled, and in a very different vein, the Tea Party won a significant victory in the 2010 midterm congressional elections. “They just didn’t seem to care about the regular working person any more,” the scholars Vanessa Williamson and Theda Skocpol quoted a Tea Partier named Beverly as saying in a dissection of the movement published in the spring of Cohen’s freshman year and later taught at Georgetown. The Occupy movement launched in the first weeks of Cohen’s sophomore year. Thanks in part to its agitations, Google searches for “inequality” would more than double among Americans during Cohen’s college career, and searches for “the 1 percent” would more than triple. In the spring of her junior year, a new pope was elected, a Jesuit like Georgetown’s leaders. Pope Francis soon called for poverty to be “radically resolved by rejecting the absolute autonomy of markets and financial speculation and by attacking the structural causes of inequality,” which he called “the root of social ills.”

It provides access to jobs and opportunities if you don’t live in a good economy.” Some in the Valley have become downright glib about the leveling bias of technology. “Thanks to Airbnb,” the venture capitalist Marc Andreessen says, “now anyone with a house or apartment can offer a room for rent. Hence, income inequality reduced.” Investors like Andreessen, according to this view, are just like the Occupy movement, but with bigger houses and clearer results. Networks are the basis for much of this new power—networks that simultaneously push power out to the edges and suck it into the core. This idea comes from an authority on networks, Joshua Cooper Ramo, a journalist turned protégé of Henry Kissinger, who some years ago became interested in how new varieties of power were upending the old laws of strategy and geopolitics.


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

A recent book-length study by the Economic Policy Institute, which has been the major source of reputable data on these developments for years, is entitled Failure by Design. The phrase “by design” is accurate; other choices were certainly possible. And as the study points out, the “failure” is class based. There is no failure for the designers—far from it. The policies are only a failure for the large majority—the 99 percent, in the imagery of the Occupy movements—and for the country, which has declined and will continue to do so under these policies. One factor is the offshoring of manufacturing. As the Chinese solar panel example mentioned earlier illustrates, manufacturing capacity provides the basis and stimulus for innovation, leading to higher stages of sophistication in production, design, and invention. Those benefits too are being outsourced—not a problem for the “money mandarins” who increasingly design policy, but a serious problem for working people and the middle classes, and a real disaster for the most oppressed: African-Americans, who have never escaped the legacy of slavery and its ugly aftermath, and whose meager wealth virtually disappeared after the collapse of the housing bubble in 2008, setting off the most recent financial crisis, the worst so far.

Non-Aligned Movement Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) NORAD North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Northern Alliance North Korea North Vietnam Norway nuclear weapons Nuremberg tribunal Obama, Barack assassinations and climate change and Cuba and economy and energy and habeas corpus and Israel and Latin America and nuclear weapons and terrorism and torture and Obeid, Sheikh Abdul Karim Occupied Territories Occupy movement oil. See also energy Okinawa Oman one-state solution Ornstein, Norman Orwell, George Oslo Accords Oslo Peace Research Institute Ostrom, Elinor Ottoman Empire Oxfam Ozanne, Julian Pacific Rim Pakistan Palestine (Carter) Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Palestinian Authority (PA) Palestinian National Council (PNC) Palestinians. See also Israeli-Palestinian conflict; and specific territories binational secular democracy and elections of 2006 expulsion of “external” vs “internal” Palestinian state.


pages: 370 words: 99,312

Can Democracy Work?: A Short History of a Radical Idea, From Ancient Athens to Our World by James Miller

Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto

Samuel Huntington had identified “three waves” of global democratization: the first occurring in the United States and Europe from 1776 to 1945; the second occurring around the world as a result of decolonization after World War II; and the third occurring after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, and sweeping through Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Since then, other scholars have suggested a “fourth wave,” this one including much of sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab World, and cresting in 2011. The Occupy movement was prompted, in part, by the impressive speed with which Arab activists had harnessed social media to mobilize large masses of protesters, as if to prove (as one Internet guru boasted) “the power of organizing without organization”—an anarchist’s dream come true. At the same time, Occupy was modeled more closely on the direct-democratic public assemblies of protesters favored that year by the Indignados—the Outraged—a Spanish anti-austerity movement that occupied Puerta del Sol square in Madrid in May 2011.

The larger a group, the more ineradicable such diversity will be, unless the group is willing to resort to coercion, in an effort to force unity and guarantee political participation (as has happened routinely in a great many avowedly democratic and socialist organizations and states over the years). In other words, I seriously doubt that experiments in rule-by-consensus, like those I experienced in the 1960s, or the Occupy movement in 2011, will ever generate the kinds of alternative institutions that are needed to meet the challenges of our current situation. * * * INSTEAD OF SINGLE-MINDEDLY PURSUING a new form of “collective thinking” through endless meetings meant to forge consensus—a quixotic and self-destructive goal that led astray the sans-culottes in 1793, the soviets in 1905 and 1917, and the New Left of the 1960s— we would do better to explore new ways to foster a tolerant ethos that accepts, and can acknowledge, that there are many incompatible forms of life and forms of politics, not always directly democratic or participatory, in which humans can flourish.


Corbyn by Richard Seymour

anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, first-past-the-post, full employment, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, liberal world order, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Philip Mirowski, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, working-age population, éminence grise

Corbyn squeezed past the nominations barrier at the last minute with just thirty-six nominees. Some of the energies that would appear in the campaign began to make themselves visible in a significant public protest that summer. In June 2015, for the first time in several years, an anti-austerity protest drew tens of thousands of people to the streets. This would not have been the largest such protest if it had happened in 2011, the year of the Arab Uprisings, the Occupy movement and a series of mass demonstrations, public sector strikes and even riots in the UK. But on this occasion, it followed years of demoralisation and defeat, in which every crisis seemed to favour the Right. Labour’s long retreat from its brief experiment with anti-austerity politics, its welfare-bashing and its feeble attempt to triangulate UKIP on immigration, had resulted in yet another election defeat.

It was not until late 2010 that the first glimmer of any kind of organised revolt against austerity began to make itself visible in the form of the students’ rebellion. And that movement, while culturally very significant and probably laying some groundwork for a general turn to the left among the young, was as short-lived as subsequent public sector pensions campaigns, and the UK’s miserably diminished version of the Occupy movement. As such, there was no continuous or generalised shift to the left, and in fact much of the movement after 2011 was to the racist and authoritarian Right. But the most important answer was political. It was an integral part of Ed Miliband’s strategy for reviving and rebranding Labour that it should seek a new synthesis of left and right, rather than be seen to move to the left. This was arguably another reason that Miliband needed the Blairites, to counter pressure from trade unionists and constituency activists to move further left than he wished to go.


pages: 493 words: 98,982

The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good? by Michael J. Sandel

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, global supply chain, helicopter parent, High speed trading, immigration reform, income inequality, Khan Academy, laissez-faire capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Washington Consensus

With their encouragement, he bailed out the banks on terms that did not hold them to account for the behavior that led to the crisis and offered little help for those who had lost their homes. His moral voice muted, Obama placated rather than articulated the seething public anger toward Wall Street. Lingering anger over the bailout cast a shadow over the Obama presidency and ultimately fueled a mood of populist protest that reached across the political spectrum—on the left, the Occupy movement and the candidacy of Bernie Sanders; on the right, the Tea Party movement and the election of Trump. The populist uprising in the United States, Great Britain, and Europe is a backlash directed generally against elites, but its most conspicuous casualties have been liberal and center-left political parties—the Democratic Party in the U.S., the Labour Party in Britain, the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in Germany (whose share of the vote reached a historic low in the 2017 federal election), Italy’s Democratic Party (whose vote share dropped to less than 20 percent), and the Socialist Party in France (whose presidential nominee won only 6 percent of the vote in the first round of the 2017 election).

Gregory, 136–37 , 139 manufacturing jobs, 86 , 197 , 215 market(s), 30 , 31 , 55 , 62–64 , 72 , 130 , 132 ; free, 53 , 55 , 56 , 62 , 133 , 137 , 214 ; free-market liberalism, 125–28 , 133–34 ; free trade, 19–21 , 55 , 56 , 206–207 , 215 ; globalization and, 19–22 , 184 , 202 , 213 , 222 , 226 ; incentives and, 107 ; market value versus moral value, 137–40 ; merit and, 62–64 , 134–37 ; technocracy and, 19–22 Markovits, Daniel, 171–72 , 253 n86 , 254 n91 May, Theresa, 70 McCain, John, 67 , 86 mental health issues, 179–80 , 188 merit, 14–15 ; college admission based on, 10 , 11 , 13–14 , 120 ; common good and, 223–27 ; difficulty of identifying, 132 ; disagreement about, 133 ; grace and, 25 , 35 , 38–41 , 46 , 57–58 , 193–94 ; Hayek’s distinction between value and, 126–27 , 134–36 ; hiring based on, 33 , 34 , 155 ; language of, in public discourse, 152–53 ; luck egalitarianism and, 146 ; markets and, 62–64 , 134–37 ; moral history of, 33–58 ; providentialism and, see providentialism ; rejection of, 132–34 , 134 , 148 , 150 ; salvation and, 37–41 , 51 , 59 ; technocratic, and moral judgment, 27–29 ; tyranny of, 25 , 30 , 36 , 42 , 73 , 85 , 126 , 155 , 183 , 186 , 188 , 194 , 195 , 227 ; why it matters, 34–35 meritocracy: alternatives to, 125–32 , 134 ; appeal of, 34 , 123 ; aristocracy versus, 113–15 , 173 ; author’s first encounter with, 194 ; Blair’s use of term, 152 ; and cachet of elite colleges, 13 ; coining of term, 30 , 116 , 152 ; of college admissions, formation of system, 156–63 , 172 , 173 ; of college admissions, inequality entrenched by, 165–67 ; complaints about, 119–20 ; cosmic, 35–37 ; dark side of, 116–19 ; defenders of, 124 ; deservingness in, see deservingness ; as dystopia, 116–19 ; ethic of, 24–25 ; free-market liberalism as alternative to, 125–28 , 133–34 ; as hereditary aristocracy, 24 , 119–20 ; higher education and, 156–63 ; inequality justified in, 119 , 122 ; liberal, 87 ; moral arbitrariness in, 116 ; as myth, 120 ; Obama on, 70–71 ; objections to, 120 ; perfect, justness of, 121–22 ; philosophical critiques of, 120 ; poverty in, 114–15 ; reassertion of attitudes of, 148 ; reconsidered, 119–20 ; rejection of, 132–34 , 134 ; rise of, 152–53 ; toxic turn of, 33 , 73 ; welfare state liberalism (egalitarian liberalism) as alternative to, 125 , 128–32 , 133–34 , 141 , 143 , 146 , 150–51 ; Young on, 30 , 116–19 , 152 , 173 , 174 , 201 Merkel, Angela, 98 middle class, 13 , 20 , 22 , 23 , 70 , 75 , 78 , 206 , 208 Middle East, 52 , 53 misfortune and suffering, 26 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 44 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 64 ; “through no fault of their own” phrase and, 64–65 mobility, 26 , 75 , 77 , 78 , 85 , 120 , 158 , 165 ; college education and, 167–70 , 172 ; equality versus, 122 ; faith in, 23 ; optimism and pessimism about, 77 , 78 ; perfectly mobile society as ideal, 121–22 ; “social mobility,” first use of term, 158–59 ; see also opportunity ; rising, rhetoric of moral and civic education, 192–93 moral desert, see deservingness morality and ethics, 24–25 ; arbitrariness of, in meritocracy, 116 ; arc of the moral universe, 54–58 ; deservingness and, see deservingness ; market value versus moral value , 137–40 ; and merit versus value, 126–27 , 134–36 ; moral history of merit, 33–58 ; and one’s “lot in life,” 35 ; providentialism and, see providentialism ; and right side of history , 51–56 , 213 ; success and, 42 ; talents and, 122–23 , 130 , 142 , 146 , 150 ; technocratic merit and, 27–29 ; see also success ethics Morrison, Herbert, 100 Mounk, Yascha, 66 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 109 , 110 MSNBC, 8 multiculturalism, 17 , 72 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), 56 Nagel, Thomas, 145–46 national borders, 28 National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 210 nationalism, 17–18 , 31 , 55 , 56 , 104 , 213 natural disasters, 45 , 51 neoliberal globalization, 55 , 198 , 207 , 215 Netherlands, 95 , 98 , 215 New Deal, 99–100 , 137 New York Times, The , 8 , 69 , 76 , 92 , 109 , 200 Nixon, Richard, 236 n15 , 237 n21 9/11 attacks, 4 , 45 , 58 noble lie, 77 Norway, 76 Obama, Barack, 21 , 23 , 26 , 79 , 87 , 89–91 , 101 , 103 ; academic records of, 81 , 82 ; “Amazing Grace” eulogy of, 105 ; “arc of the moral universe” and, 54 , 56–57 ; “as far as their talents will take them” and, 67–68 ; birth certificate of, 82 ; cabinet appointees of, 90 ; on climate change debate, 111 ; on education, 86–87 ; financial crisis and, 21 , 90–91 ; foreign policy of, 94 ; globalization and, 108 ; government as viewed by, 105–106 ; “guns or religion” comment of, 203 ; health care plan of, 47–48 , 106–107 ; incentivizing and, 107 ; on meritocracy, 70–71 ; on people’s access to information, 105–106 , 108–109 ; political polarization as viewed by, 108–10 ; “right side of history” and, 52 , 53 , 56–57 ; “smart” and, 92–94 , 107 , 109 ; as technocrat, 105–107 ; “through no fault of their own” and, 65 ; “you can make it if you try” and, 23 , 79 ; “you didn’t get there on your own,” 131 Obama, Michelle, 68 , 89 Obamacare, 47–48 , 106–107 Occupy movement, 21 Olympic Games, 124 , 125 Once and Future Worker, The (Cass), 214–16 opportunity, 26 , 65 ; affirmative action and, 11 , 119 , 163 , 171 ; equality of, 22–24 , 60 , 85 , 87 , 88 , 114 , 119 , 143 , 144 ; equality of, moving beyond, 224–26 ; frontier and, 158 , 159 ; rhetoric of, 23 , 24 ; see also mobility ; rising, rhetoric of Osteen, Joel, 46 outsourcing, 19 , 20 , 25 , 30 , 212 Oxycontin, 201–202 parents, 70 ; college admission and, 7–13 , 61 ; earnings of, versus their children, 75–76 ; fathers, 202 ; parenting styles, 12–13 , 178–79 , 188 ; poor, 23 ; wealthy, 116–17 , 119 , 121 Paris Accords, 27 , 109 , 111 Parker, Theodore, 54–55 parliaments, 97–99 , 102 Pelagius, 38 perfectionism, 181 , 183 Phelps, Michael, 124 philosophers, contemporary, 120 , 134 , 210 ; luck egalitarian, 69 , 146–50 philosophers, in ancient world, 27–28 ; Aristotle, 28 , 90 , 145 , 209 , 212 ; Plato, 27–28 , 77 phronesis , 28 Piketty, Thomas, 101 , 103 Plato, 27–28 , 77 political debate and public discourse, 29 , 31 , 60 , 108 , 110 , 112 , 119 , 192 ; about climate change, 109 , 110–12 ; elite attitudes and, 118 ; language of merit in, 152–53 ; technocratic turn of, 104–108 , 184 political polarization, 4 , 5 , 14 , 15 , 29 , 214 ; Obama’s view of, 108–10 Poor Law thinking, 146–47 , 148 populism, populist backlash, 4 , 5 , 21 , 25 , 26 , 30–31 , 64 , 87 , 95 , 103 , 104 , 108 , 119 , 120 , 143–46 , 153 , 198–99 , 207 , 216 ; diagnosing, 18–19 ; and rhetoric of rising, 71–73 ; of Trump, 27 ; see also resentment populist nationalism, 17–18 poverty, 23 , 35 , 64 , 74 , 75 , 96 , 128 , 134 , 146 ; class-based affirmative action and, 171 ; and deaths of despair, 200–201 ; deservingness and, 65 ; in meritocracy, 114–15 ; and merit versus value, 135 ; responsibility versus circumstance in, 146–47 predestination, 39–43 presidential election of 2008, 21 , 56 , 86 presidential election of 2016, 4 , 17–18 , 21 , 26–27 , 49 , 56 , 71 , 73 , 82 , 83 , 101 , 108 , 118 , 119 , 199 , 202 , 206 , 213 , 231 n10 Price of Privilege, The (Levine), 179–80 Princeton University, 11 , 68 , 156 , 166–68 , 171 , 249 n31 prisons, 190 ; incarceration rates, 29 producer and consumer identities, 207–209 , 211 property, 142–43 , 145 prosperity gospel, 46–49 , 58 , 61 Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The (Weber), 39–42 Protestants, 38–39 , 41 , 43 , 74 , 156 , 162 , 165 providentialism, 41–45 , 51 , 54 , 58 , 62 , 213 ; God’s meritocracy, 35–37 ; God’s salvation and, 37–41 , 51 , 59 ; great-because-good, 49–50 , 51 , 54 , 58 ; liberal, 49–52 ; prosperity gospel, 46–49 , 58 , 61 public discourse, see political debate and public discourse punishments, 36 , 37 , 47 , 143 , 145 ; disasters as, 45 , 51 Puritans, 39 , 40 , 41 , 43 , 48 , 58 , 59 , 61–62 , 193 Putin, Vladimir, 53 Qadhafi, Muammar, 53 Qaida, Al, 52 racism, 17 , 18 , 23 , 27 , 29 , 72 , 85 , 87 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 203 ; affirmative action and, 11 , 119 , 163 , 170 ; athletes and, 223–24 ; college admissions and, 11 , 119 , 162 , 163 , 165 Rand, Ayn, 220 Rawls, John, 128–30 , 132–33 , 137 , 141–44 , 146 , 148 Reagan, Ronald, 20 , 21 , 23 , 50 , 60 , 62–65 , 67–70 , 234 n54 , 236 n15 redistribution, 126 , 132 , 142 , 144 , 146 , 149 , 206 , 207 religion: fundamentalism, 31 ; see also Christianity ; God Republican Party, Republicans, 4 , 21 , 23 , 50 , 56 , 67 , 83 , 94 , 104 , 189 , 214 ; climate change and, 109 , 110 ; and education level of voters, 102 ; health care and, 47–48 ; and Obama’s “you didn’t get there on your own” statement, 131 resentment, 4 , 5 , 17 , 22 , 25 , 26 , 33 , 70 , 118 , 134 , 155 , 198–99 , 208 ; among working class, 202–205 , 206 ; see also populism, populist backlash responsibility, 34–35 , 37 , 41 , 44 , 47 , 48 , 51–52 , 59 , 96 , 150 , 183–84 , 193 ; education as, 96 ; for poverty, 146–47 ; rhetoric of, 63–66 , 69 ; victimhood and, 147 ; see also deservingness ; hard work ; success and failure, winners and losers results, equality of, 129 , 224 rewards, 24 , 25 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 47 , 62 , 70 right and the good, relation between, 142 , 143 , 145 right side of history, being on, 51–56 , 213 Rise of the Meritocracy, The (Young), 30 , 116–19 , 152 , 173 rising, rhetoric of, 22–24 , 59–80 , 85 , 104 , 115 , 120 , 153 , 212–13 ; “as far as their talents and hard work will take them,” 23 , 24 , 34 , 60 , 63 , 65 , 67–68 , 72 , 85 , 121 , 151 ; and beliefs and perceptions about rising, 77 , 78–79 ; defined, 63 ; deservingness and, 59–63 , 68–71 , 75 , 79 , 121 ; hard work and, 13 , 24 , 25 , 34 , 35 , 42 , 46 , 47 , 59 , 61 , 67 , 68 , 70 , 71 , 73–75 , 77–79 , 121 , 122 ; markets and merit in, 62–64 ; populist backlash and, 71–73 ; rhetoric of responsibility and, 63–66 ; striving in, 60–63 ; “you can make it if you try,” 23 , 25–26 , 73–77 , 79 risk-taking, 148–49 Robertson, Pat, 45 Robinson, Jackie, 223 Romney, Mitt, 214 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 65 , 99–100 , 162 Roosevelt, Theodore, 106 Rowling, J.


pages: 124 words: 30,520

Rebooting Democracy: A Citizen's Guide to Reinventing Politics by Manuel Arriaga

banking crisis, business climate, David Graeber, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, Gunnar Myrdal, Occupy movement, principal–agent problem, Slavoj Žižek

I hope it is easy to (intuitively!) recognize that complex policy issues (e.g., how to properly regulate the financial sector) don’t quite have an “intuitively evident” solution. [xi] It should be clear from the outset, though, that these citizen panels should have more power than merely producing “recom­mendations” for the benefit of the government and/or the state bureaucracy. [xii] In the wake of the Occupy movement, some argued that “popular assemblies,” in which all citizens who wished to do so would be able to freely participate in the decision-making process, could also help us avoid those problems. However, they are plagued by their own serious difficulties. First, popular assemblies do not scale to a large society. Second, they are vulnerable to manipulation by powerful interests who are able to more effectively organize and sponsor the participation of their own supporters.


Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomsky, Laray Polk

American Legislative Exchange Council, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

That book, like the present volume, was composed from interviews. Chomsky has written and lectured widely on linguistics, philosophy, intellectual history, contemporary issues, international affairs, and US foreign policy. In 2010 Chomsky, Eduardo Galeano, Michael Hardt, Naomi Klein, and Vandana Shiva became signatories to United for Global Democracy, a manifesto created by the international Occupy movement. Laray Polk was born in Oklahoma in 1961 and currently lives in Dallas, Texas. She is a multimedia artist and writer. Her articles and investigative reports have appeared in the Dallas Morning News, D Magazine, and In These Times. As a 2009 grant recipient from the Investigative Fund at the Nation Institute, she produced stories on the political entanglements and compromised science behind the establishment of a radioactive waste disposal site in Texas, situated in close proximity to the Ogallala Aquifer.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

We’ll have the technology to cure diseases and perhaps even extend life itself, we’ll have machines that mimic or surpass humans in intelligence, we’ll have self-driving cars, we’ll land the first humans on Mars and we’ll finally have the technology to live sustainably on the planet with abundant energy and creativity. Shifts of these magnitudes often bring incredible opportunities, jarring sociological adjustment and, on many occasions, even violence. The Internet, social media and smartphones brought us email, selfies, hashtags and YouTube, but they also brought us the Arab Spring, ISIS propaganda, Wikileaks, NSA’s PRISM programme and the global Occupy movement. Social media gave us Facebook and Twitter and arguably propelled Barak Obama to the presidency in 2008, but it has also allowed some of the most hateful and racist vilification in recent history to find a home. It has created cyberbullying that has left numerous victims in its wake and has exposed intimate details of both famous personalities and secret government agencies. Is all this technological advancement inherently good or bad for us?

The baby boomers (born 1946–1963) in particular, but also the early Gen Xs, those who are still at the helm of government and big business, tend to be the generations that are most resistant to political or economic change because they consider stability to be a core need. In fact, the 113th Congress in the United States is the oldest congress in history, with the average member being 62 years of age,26 and considered one of the least effective historically.27 With the introduction of social media, we’ve seen a huge increase in protests by Gen Y/Millennials attempting to provoke change—whether through the Arab Spring, the Occupy movements, protests against police brutality and extrajudicial killings in the United States and the like. The baby boomers longed for sustained peace; Gen X for economic prosperity and stability. The new citizens of the world, the generation that will dominate the world by 2023, don’t want stability per se. They want positive progress through change. These two worlds will very likely collide in the next decade when it comes to issues like climate change, energy, employment and education.


pages: 419 words: 109,241

A World Without Work: Technology, Automation, and How We Should Respond by Daniel Susskind

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, precariat, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor, working-age population, Y Combinator

Today, though, as Figure 8.2 shows, the reverse is true: it is the incomes of the richest that have risen instead. Focusing our attention on that richest fraction of society gives us a third approach to the issue, known as “top income inequality” or just “top inequality.” This measure has captured the imagination of protesters and public commentators in the last decade, with “The One Percent” becoming a well-known label and “We are the 99 Percent” the battle cry of the Occupy Movement. Their frustration is not without cause: the proportion of total income that goes to the 1 percent who earn the most, particularly in developed countries, has increased significantly. In the United States and the UK, that share has almost doubled over the last few decades.15 Figure 8.3 shows that much the same story is unfolding elsewhere. Figure 8.2: Average Annual US Income Growth14 Even in Nordic countries, like Finland, Norway, and Sweden, often lauded for their equality, the share going to the richest 1 percent has grown.

See massive open online courses Moravec, Hans Moravec’s Paradox Moretti, Enrico Murnane, Richard. See also ALM hypothesis music composition Musk, Elon Nadella, Satya narrow intelligence, artificial National Endowment for the Arts National Health Service nationalization Native Americans natural selection navigation systems network effects Newell, Allen Newton, Isaac Ng, Andrew Nilsson, Nils non-routine tasks Norway Obama, Barack Occupy Movement O’Connor, Sarah Odysseus OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) offshore tax havens O’Grady, Frances Old Testament Omidyar, Pierre omitted variable bias On Assistance to the Poor (Vives) “The One Percent” online education On the Origin of Species (Darwin) opacity opium of the people ornithology Orwell, George Osborne, Michael oversight, political ownership Paine, Thomas Paley, William Palro (humanoid) paper clip analogy “Parable of Horseshit” parametric design Paro (therapeutic baby seal) participation rate partnerships pay pension systems Pepper (humanoid robot) personal computer (PC) personalized learning systems PhotoMath PIAAC.


pages: 121 words: 36,908

Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase

Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

Mass protest everywhere is already violently repressed, and not just in states like Egypt or China that are popularly regarded as authoritarian. A 2013 report from the International Network of Civil Liberties Organizations documents the widespread “use of lethal and deadly force in response to largely peaceful gatherings seeking to express social and political viewpoints,” in places ranging from Canada to Egypt to Kenya to South Africa to the United States.31 The crackdown on the Occupy movement was one example of this, a show of force by squads of armored cops in cities across the country. Meanwhile the surveillance-state techniques revealed by former National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden and others show just how powerful are the state’s tools for repressing dissent and monitoring the activities of activists. In this context, it becomes easier to envision the slippage from inhuman prisons, violent police crackdowns, and occasional summary executions to more systematic forms of elimination.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

They do not shrink from violence and are convinced that the only way to preserve their threatened freedoms is to pursue a politics of total domination. This political current is supported and to some degree meshes with increasingly violent militarised responses to any and all movements that threaten to break through the walls of that repressive tolerance so crucial to the perpetuation of liberal governmentality. Consider as examples the unduly violent police repression of the Occupy movement in the United States; the even more violent response to ongoing peaceful protests in Turkey that began in Taksim Square; police actions in Syntagma Square in Athens that smack of the fascist tactics of Golden Dawn; the continuous police brutality visited on student protesters in Chile; the government-organised attack upon protesters against the unsafe labour conditions in Bangladesh; the militarisation of the response to the Arab Spring movement in Egypt; the murder of union leaders in Colombia and many more.

283 Maddison, Angus 227 Maghreb 174 Malcolm X 291 Maldives 260 Malthus, Thomas 229–30, 232–3, 244, 246, 251 Manchester 149, 159 Manhattan Institute 143 Mansion House, London 201 manufacturing 104, 239 Mao Zedong 291 maquilas 129, 174 Marcuse, Herbert 204, 289 market cornering 53 market economy 198, 205, 276 marketisation 243 Marshall Plan 153 Martin, Randy 194 Marx, Karl 106, 118, 122, 142, 207, 211 and alienation 125, 126, 213 in the British Museum library 4 on capital 220 conception of wealth 214 on the credit system 239 and deskilling 119 on equal rights 64 and falling profits 107 and fetishism 4 on freedom 207, 208, 213 and greed 33 ‘industrial reserve army’ 79–80 and isolation of workers 125 labour theory of value 109 and monetary system reforms 36 monopoly power and competition 135 reality and appearance 4, 5 as a revolutionary humanist 221 and social reproduction 182 and socialist utopian literature 184 and technological innovation 103 and theorists of the political left 54 and the ‘totally developed individual’ 126–7 and world crises xiii; Capital 57, 79–80, 81, 82, 119, 129, 132, 269, 286, 291–2 The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 269, 286 Grundrisse 97, 212–13 Theories of Surplus Value 1 Marxism contradiction between productive forces and social relations 269 ‘death of Marxism’ xii; ecologically sensitive 263 and humanism 284, 286, 287 ‘profit squeeze’ theory of crisis formation 65 traditional Marxist conception of socialism/ communism 91 Marxists 65, 109 MasterCard Priceless 275 Mau Mau movement 291 Melbourne 141 merchants 67 and industrial capital 179 price-gouging customers 54 and producers 74–5 Mercosur 159 Mexican migrants 115, 175, 195–6 Mexico 123, 129, 174 Mexico City riots (1968) x microcredit 194, 198 microfinance 186, 194, 198, 211 Microsoft 131 Middle East 124, 230 Milanovic, Branko 170 military, the capacities and powers 4 dominance 110 and technology 93, 95 ‘military-industrial complex’ 157 mind-brain duality 70 mining 94, 113, 123, 148, 239, 257 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 292 Mitchell, David: Cloud Atlas 264 Mitchell, Timothy 122 Modern Times (film) 103 Mondragon 180 monetarism xi monetary wealth and incomes, inequalities in (1920s) x 1071 monetisation 44, 55, 60, 61, 62, 115, 192–3, 198, 235, 243, 250, 253, 261, 262 money abandonment of metallic basis of global moneys 30, 37, 109 circulation of 15, 25, 30–31, 35 coinage 15, 27, 29, 30 commodification of 57 commodity moneys 27–31 creation of 30, 51, 173, 233, 238–9, 240 credit moneys 28, 30, 31, 152 cyber moneys 36, 109–10 electronic moneys 27, 29, 35, 36, 100 and exchange value 28, 35, 38 fiat 8, 27, 30, 40, 109, 233 gap between money and the value it represents 27 global monetary system 46–7 love of money as a possession 34 measures value 25, 28 a moneyless economy 36 oxidisation of 35 paper 15, 27, 29, 30, 31, 37, 40, 45 power of 25, 36, 59, 60, 62, 65–66, 131–6, 245, 266 quasi-money 35 relation between money and value 27, 35 represented as numbers 29–30 and social labour 25, 27, 31, 42, 55, 88, 243 and the state 45–6, 51, 173 storage of value 25, 26, 35 the US dollar 46–7 use value 28 money capital 28, 32, 59, 74, 142, 147, 158, 177, 178 money laundering 54, 109 ‘money of account’ 27–8, 30 monopolisation 53, 145 monopoly, monopolies 77 and competition 131–45, 218, 295 corporate 123 monetary system 45, 46, 48, 51 monopoly power 45, 46, 51, 93, 117, 120, 132, 133–4, 136, 137, 139, 141, 142–3 monopoly pricing 72, 132 natural 118, 132 of state over legitimate use of force and violence 42, 44, 45, 51, 88, 155, 173 see also prices, monopoly monopsony 131 Monsanto 123 Montreal Protocol 254, 259 ‘moral restraints’ 229, 233 mortgages 19, 21, 28, 32, 54, 67, 82, 239 multiculturalism 166 Mumbai 155, 159 Murdoch, Rupert xi Myrdal, Gunnar 150 N NAFTA 159 name branding 31, 139 nano-trading 243 Nation of Islam 291 national debt 45, 226, 227 National Health Service 115 National Labor Relations Board 120 National Security Administration 136 nationalisation 50 nationalism 7, 8, 44, 289 natural resources 58, 59, 123, 240, 241, 244, 246, 251 nature 56 alienation from 263 capital’s conception of 252 capital’s relation to 246–63 commodification of 59 domination of 247, 272 Heidegger on 59, 250 Polanyi on 58 power over 198 process-thing duality 73 and technology 92, 97, 99, 102 Nazis 151 neoclassical economists 109 neocolonialism 143, 201 neoliberal era 128 neoliberal ethic 277 neoliberalisation x, 48 neoliberalism xiii, 68, 72, 128, 134, 136, 176, 191, 234, 281 capitalism 266 consensus 23 counter-revolution 82, 129, 159, 165 political programme 199 politics 57 privatisation 235 remedies xi Nevada, housing in 77 ‘new economy’ (1990s) 144 New York City 141, 150 creativity 245 domestic labour in 196 income inequality 164 rental markets 22 social reproduction 195 Newton, Isaac 70 NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 189, 210, 284, 286, 287 Nike 31 Nkrumah, Kwame 291 ‘non-coincidence of interests’ 25 Nordic countries 165 North America deindustrialisation in 234 food grain exports 148 indigenous population and property rights 39 women in labour force 230 ‘not in my back yard’ politics 20 nuclear weapons 101 Nyere, Julius 291 O Obama, Barack 167 occupational safety and health 72 Occupy movement 280, 292 Ohlin Foundation 143 oil cartel 252 companies 77, 131 ‘Seven Sisters’ 131 embargo (1973) 124 ‘peak oil’ 251–2, 260 resources 123, 240, 257 oligarchy, oligarchs 34, 143, 165, 221, 223, 242, 245, 264, 286, 292 oligopoly 131, 136, 138 Olympic Games 237–8 oppositional movements 14, 162, 266–7 oppression 193, 266, 288, 297 Orwell, George 213 Nineteen Eighty-Four 202 overaccumulation 154 overheating 228 Owen, Robert 18, 184 Oxfam xi, 169–70 P Paine, Tom: Rights of Man 285 Paris 160 riots (1968) x patents 139, 245, 251 paternalism 165, 209 patriarchy 7 Paulson, Hank 47 pauperisation 104 Peabody, George 18 peasantry ix, 7, 107, 117, 174, 190, 193 revolts 202 pensions 134, 165, 230 rights 58, 67–8, 84, 134 people of colour: disposable populations 111 Pereire, Emile 239 pesticides 255, 258 pharmaceuticals 95, 121, 123, 136, 139 Philanthropic Colonialism 211 philanthropy 18, 128, 189, 190, 210–11, 245, 285 Philippines 115, 196 Picasso, Pablo 140–41, 187, 240 Pinochet, Augusto x Pittsburgh 150, 159, 258 planned obsolescence 74 plutocracy xi, xii, 91, 170, 173, 177, 180 Poland 152 Polanyi, Karl 56, 58, 60, 205–7, 210, 261 The Great Transformation 56–7 police 134 brutality 266 capacities and powers 43 powers xiii, 43, 52 repression 264, 280 surveillance and violence 264 violence 266, 280 police-state 203, 220 political economy xiv, 54, 58, 89, 97, 179–80, 182, 201, 206–9 liberal 204, 206, 209 political parties, incapable of mounting opposition to the power of capital xii political representation 183 pollutants 8, 246, 255 pollution 43, 57, 59, 60, 150, 250, 254, 255, 258 Pontecorvo, Gillo 288 Ponzi schemes 21, 53, 54, 243 population ageing 223, 230 disposable 108, 111, 231, 264 growth 107–8, 229, 230–31, 242, 246 Malthus’s principle 229–30 Portugal 161 post-structuralism xiii potlatch system 33 pounds sterling 46 poverty 229 anti-poverty organisations 286–7 and bourgeois reformism 167 and capital 176 chronic 286 eradication of 211 escape from 170 feminisation of 114 grants 107 and industrialisation 123 and population expansion 229 and unemployment 170, 176 US political movement denies assistance to the poor 292–3 and wealth 146, 168, 177, 218, 219, 243 world xi, 170 power accumulation of 33, 35 of capital xii, 36 class 55, 61, 88, 89, 97, 99, 110, 134, 135, 221, 279 computer 105 and currencies 46 economic 142, 143, 144 global 34, 170 the house as a sign of 15–16 of labour see under labour; of merchants 75 military 143 and money 25, 33, 36, 49, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65–6, 245, 266 monopoly see monopoly power; oligarchic 292 political 62, 143, 144, 162, 171, 219, 292 purchasing 105, 107 social 33, 35, 55, 62, 64, 294 state 42–5, 47–52, 72, 142, 155–9, 164, 209, 295 predation, predators 53, 54, 61, 67, 77, 84, 101, 109, 111, 133, 162, 198, 212, 254–5 price fixing 53, 118, 132 price gouging 132 Price, Richard 226, 227, 229 prices discount 133 equilibrium in 118 extortionate 84 food 244, 251 housing 21, 32, 77 land 77, 78, 150 low 132 market 31, 32 and marketplace anarchy 118 monopoly 31, 72, 139, 141 oil 251, 252 property 77, 78, 141, 150 supermarket 6 and value 31, 55–6 private equity firms 101, 162 private equity funds 22, 162 private property and the commons 41, 50, 57 and eradication of usufructuary rights 41 and individual appropriation 38 and monopoly power 134–5, 137 social bond between human rights and private property 39–40 and the state 47, 50, 58, 59, 146, 210 private property rights 38–42, 44, 58, 204, 252 and collective management 50 conferring the right to trade away that which is owned 39 decentralised 44 exclusionary permanent ownership rights 39 and externality effects 44 held in perpetuity 40 intellectual property rights 41 microenterprises endowed with 211 modification or abolition of the regime 14 and nature 250 over commodities and money 38 and state power 40–41, 42–3 underpinning home ownership 49 usufructuary rights 39 privatisation 23, 24, 48, 59, 60, 61, 84, 185, 235, 250, 253, 261, 262, 266 product lines 92, 107, 219, 236 production bourgeois 1 falling value of 107 immaterial 242 increase in volume and variety of 121 organised 2 and realisation 67, 79–85, 106, 107, 108, 173, 177, 179, 180, 221, 243 regional crises 151 workers’ dispossession of own means of 172 productivity 71, 91, 92, 93, 117, 118, 121, 125, 126, 132, 172, 173, 184, 185, 188, 220, 239 products, compared with commodities 25–6 profitability 92, 94, 98, 102, 103, 104, 106, 112, 116, 118, 125, 147, 184, 191–2, 240, 252, 253, 256, 257 profit(s) banking 54 as capital’s aim 92, 96, 232 and capital’s struggle against labour 64, 65 and competition 93 entrepreneurs 24, 104 falling 81, 107, 244 from commodity sales 71 and money capital 28 monopoly 93 rate of 79, 92 reinvestment in expansion 72 root of 63 spending of 15 and wage rates 172 proletarianisation 191 partial 175, 190, 191 ‘property bubble’ 21 property market boom (1920s) 239 growth of 50 property market crashes 1928 x, 21 1973 21 2008 21–2, 54, 241 property rights 39, 41, 93, 135 see also intellectual property rights; private property property values 78, 85, 234 ‘prosumers’ 237 Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph 183 Prozac 248 public goods 38 public utilities 23, 60, 118, 132 Q quantitative easing 30, 233 R R&D ix race 68, 116, 165, 166, 291 racial minorities 168 racialisation 7, 8, 62, 68 racism 8 Rand, Ayn 200 raw materials 16, 17, 148, 149, 154 Reagan, Ronald x, 72 Speech at Westminster 201 Reagan revolution 165–166 realisation, and production 67, 79–85, 106, 107, 108, 173, 177, 179, 180, 221, 243 reality contradiction between reality and appearance 4–6 social 27 Reclus, Elisée 140 regional development 151 regional volatility 154 Reich, Robert 123, 188 religion 7 religious affiliation 68 religious hatreds and discriminations 8 religious minorities 168 remittances 175 rent seeking 132–3, 142 rentiers 76, 77, 78, 89, 150, 179, 180, 241, 244, 251, 260, 261, 276 rents xii, 16–19, 22, 32, 54, 67, 77, 78, 84, 123, 179, 241 monopoly 93, 135, 141, 187, 251 repression 271, 280 autocratic 130 militarised 264 police-state 203 violent 269, 280, 297 wage 158, 274 Republican Party (US) 145, 280 Republicans (US) 167, 206 res nullius doctrine 40 research and development 94, 96, 187 ‘resource curse’ 123 resource scarcity 77 revolution, Fanon’s view of 288 revolutionary movements 202, 276 Ricardo, David 122, 244, 251 right, the ideological and political assault on the left xii; response to universal alienation 281 ‘rights of man’ 40, 59, 213 Rio de Janeiro 84 risk 17, 141, 162, 219, 240 robbery 53, 57, 60, 63, 72 robotisation 103, 119, 188, 295 Rodney, Walter 291 romantic movement 261 Roosevelt, Theodore 131, 135 Four Freedoms 201 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 213, 214 Ruhr, Germany 150 rural landscapes 160–61 Russia 154 a BRIC country 170, 228 collapse of (1989) 165 financial crisis (1998) 154, 232 indebtedness 152 local famine 124 oligarchs take natural resource wealth 165 S ‘S’ curve 225, 230–31 Saint-Simon, Claude de Rouvroy, comte de 183 sales 28, 31, 187, 236 San Francisco 150 Santiago, Chile: street battles (2006–) 185 Sao Paulo, Brazil 129, 195 savings the house as a form of saving 19, 22, 58 loss of 20, 58 private 36 protecting the value of 20 Savings and Loan Crisis (USA from 1986) 18 savings accounts 5, 6 Scandinavia 18, 85, 165 scarcity 37, 77, 200, 208, 240, 246, 260, 273 Schumpeter, Joseph 98, 276 science, and technology 95 Seattle 196 Second Empire Paris 197 Second World War x, 161, 234 Securities and Exchange Commission 120, 195 security xiii, 16, 121, 122, 165, 205, 206 economic 36, 153 food 253, 294, 296 job 273 national 157 Sen, Amartya 208–11, 281 Development as Freedom 208–9 senior citizens 168 Seoul 84 serfdom 62, 209 sexual hatreds and discriminations 8 Shanghai 153, 160 share-cropping 62 Sheffield 148, 149, 159, 258 Shenzhen, China 77 Silicon Valley 16, 143, 144, 150 silver 27–31, 33, 37, 57, 233, 238 Simon, Julian 246 Singapore 48, 123, 150, 184, 187, 203 slavery 62, 202, 206, 209, 213, 268 slums ix, 16, 175 Smith, Adam 98, 125–6, 157, 185, 201, 204 ‘invisible hand’ 141–2 The Wealth of Nations 118, 132 Smith, Neil 248 social distinction 68, 166 social inequality 34, 110, 111, 130, 171, 177, 180, 220, 223, 266 social justice 200, 266, 268, 276 social labour 53, 73, 295 alienated 64, 66, 88 and common wealth 53 creation of use values through 36 expansion of total output 232 household and communal work 296 immateriality of 37, 233 and money 25, 27, 31, 42, 55, 88, 243 productivity 239 and profit 104 and value 26, 27, 29, 104, 106, 107, 109 weakening regulatory role of 109, 110 social media 99, 136, 236–7, 278–9 social movements 162–3 social reproduction 80, 127, 182–98, 218, 219, 220, 276 social security 36, 165 social services 68 social struggles 156, 159, 165, 168 social value 26, 27, 32, 33, 55, 172, 179, 241, 244, 268, 270 socialism 215 democratic xii; ‘gas and water’ 183 socialism/communism 91, 269 socialist revolution 67 socialist totalitarianism 205 society capitalist 15, 34, 81, 243, 259 civil 92, 122, 156, 185, 189, 252 civilised 161, 167 complex 26 demolition of 56 and freedom 205–6, 210, 212 hope for a better society 218 industrial 205 information 238 market 204 post-colonial 203 pre-capitalist 55 primitive 57 radical transformation of 290 status position in 186 theocratic 62 women in 113 work-based 273 world 204 soil erosion 257 South Africa 84–5, 152, 169 apartheid 169, 202, 203 South Asia labour 108 population growth 230 software programmers and developers 115, 116 South Korea 123, 148, 150, 153 South-East Asia 107–8 crisis (1997–8) 154, 232, 241 sovereign debt crises 37 Soviet Bloc, ex-, labour in 107 Soviet Union 196, 202 see also Russia Spain xi, 51, 161 housing market crash (2007–9) 82–3 spatio-temporal fixes 151–2, 153, 154, 162 spectacle 237–8, 242, 278 speculative bubbles and busts 178 stagnation xii, 136, 161–2, 169 Stalin, Joseph 70 standard of life 23, 175 starvation 56, 124, 246, 249, 260, 265 state, the aim of 156–7 brutality 266, 280 and capital accumulation 48 and civil society 156 curbing the powers of capital as private property 47 evolution of the capitalist state 42 and externality effects 44 guardian of private property and of individual rights 42 and home ownership 49–50 interstate system 156, 157 interventionism 193, 205 legitimate use of violence 42, 44, 45, 51, 88, 155, 173 loss of state sovereignty xii; and money 1, 45–6, 51, 173 ‘nightwatchman’ role 42, 50 powers of 42–5, 47–52, 57–8, 65, 72, 142, 155–9, 209, 295 and private property 47, 50, 58, 59, 146, 210 provision of collective and public goods 42–3 a security and surveillance state xiii; social democratic states 85 war aims 44 state benefits 165 state regulatory agencies 101 state-finance nexus 44–5, 46–7, 142–3, 156, 233 state-private property nexus 88–9 steam engine, invention of the 3 steel industry 120, 121, 148, 188 steel production 73–4 Stiglitz, Joseph 132–4 stock market crash (1929) x Stockholm, protests in (2013) 171, 243 strikes 65, 103, 124 sub-prime mortgage crisis 50 suburbanisation 253 supply and demand 31, 33, 56, 106 supply chain 124 supply-side remedies xi supply-side theories 82, 176 surplus value 28, 40, 63, 73, 79–83, 172, 239 surveillance xiii, 94, 121, 122, 201, 220, 264, 280, 292 Sweden 166, 167 protests in (2013) 129, 293 Sweezy, Paul 136 swindlers, swindling 45, 53, 57, 239 ‘symbolic analysts’ 188 Syntagma Square, Athens 266, 280 T Tahrir Square, Cairo 266 Taipei, Taiwan 153 Taiwan 123, 150, 153 Taksim Square, Istanbul 266, 280 Tanzania 291 tariffs 137 taxation 40, 43, 47, 67, 84, 93–4, 106, 133, 150, 155, 157, 167, 168, 172, 190 Taylor, Frederick 119, 126 Taylorism 103 Tea Party faction 205, 280, 281, 292 technological evolution 95–6, 97, 101–2, 109 technological imperatives 98–101 technological innovation 94–5 technology changes involving different branches of state apparatus 93–4 communicative technologies 278–9 and competition 92–3 constraints inhibiting deployment 101 culture of 227, 271 definition 92, 248 and devaluation of commodities 234 environmental 248 generic technologies 94 hardware 92, 101 humanising 271 information 100, 147, 158, 177 military 93, 95 monetary 109 and nature 92, 97, 99, 102 organisational forms 92, 99, 101 and productivity 71 relation to nature 92 research and development 94 and science 95 software 92, 99, 101 a specialist field of business 94 and unemployment 80, 103 work and labour control 102–11 telephone companies 54, 67, 84, 278 Tennessee 148 Teresa, Mother 284 Thatcher, Margaret (later Baroness) x, 72, 214, 259 Thatcherism 165 theft 53, 60, 61, 63 Thelluson, Peter 226, 227 think tanks 143 ‘Third Italy’ 143 Third World debt crisis 240 Toffler, Alvin 237 tolls 137 Tönnies, Ferdinand 122, 125 tourism ix, 16, 140, 141, 187, 236 medical 139 toxic waste disposal 249–50, 257 trade networks 24 trade unions xii, 116, 148, 168, 176, 184, 274, 280 trade wars 154 transportation 23, 99, 132, 147–8, 150, 296 Treasury Departments 46, 156 TRIPS agreement 242 tropical rainforest 253 ‘trust-busting’ 131 trusts 135 Turin, Italy 150 Turkey 107, 123, 174, 232, 280, 293 Tuscany, Italy 150 Tutu, Archbishop Desmond 284 Twitter 236 U unemployment 37, 104, 258, 273 benefits 176 deliberately created 65, 174 high xii, 10, 176 insurance 175 and labour reserves 175, 231 and labour-saving technologies 173 long-term 108, 129 permanent 111 echnologically induced 80, 103, 173, 274 uneven geographical developments 178, 296 advanced and underserved regional economies 149–50 and anti-capitalist movements 162 asset bubbles 243 and capital’s reinvention of itself 147, 161 macroeconomic processes of 159 masking the true nature of capital 159–60 and technological forms 219 volatility in 244 United Fruit 136 United Kingdom income inequality in 169; see also Britain United Nations (UN) 285 United States aim of Tea Party faction 280 banking 158 Bill of Rights 284 Britain lends to (nineteenth century) 153 capital in (1990s) 154 Constitution 284 consumption level 194 global reserve currency 45–6 growth 232 hostility towards state interventions 167 House of Representatives 206 human rights abuses 202 imperial power 46 indebtedness of students in 194 Indian reservations 249 interstate highway system 239 jobless recoveries after recession 172–3 liberty and freedom rhetoric 200–201, 202 Midwest ‘rust belt’ 151 military expenditures 46 property market crashes x, 21–2, 50, 54, 58, 82–3 racial issues 166 Savings and Loan Crisis (from 1986) 18 social mobility 196 social reproduction 196–7 solidly capitalist 166 steel industry 120 ‘symbolic analysts’ 188 ‘trust-busting’ 131 unemployment 108 wealth distribution 167 welfare system 176 universal suffrage 183 urbanisation 151, 189, 228, 232, 239, 247, 254, 255, 261 Ure, Andrew 119 US Congress 47 US dollar 15, 30, 45–6 US Executive Branch 47 US Federal Reserve xi, 6, 30, 37, 46, 47, 49, 132, 143, 233 monetary policy 170–71 US Housing Act (1949) 18 US Treasury 47, 142, 240 use values collectively managed pool of 36 commodification of 243 commodities 15, 26, 35 common wealth 53 creation through social labour 36 and entrepreneurs 23–4 and exchange values 15, 35, 42, 44, 50, 60, 65, 88 and housing 14–19, 21–2, 23, 67 and human labour 26 infinitely varied 15 of infrastructural provision 78 loss of 58 marketisation of 243 monetisation of 243 of money 28 privatised and commodified 23 provision of 111 and revolt of the mass of the people 60 social demand for 81 usufructuary rights 39, 41, 59 usury 49, 53, 186, 194 utopianism 18, 35, 42, 51, 66, 119, 132, 183, 184, 204, 206–10, 269, 281, 282 V value(s) commodity 24, 25 failure to produce 40 housing 19, 20, 22 net 19 production and realisation of 82 production of 239 property 21 relation between money and value 27, 35 savings 20 storing 25, 26, 35 see also asset values; exchange values; social value; use values value added 79, 83 Veblen, Thorstein: Theory of the Leisure Class 274 Venezuela 123, 201 Vietnam, labour in 108 Vietnam War 290 violence 53, 57, 72, 204–5, 286 against children 193 against social movements 266 against women 193 colonial 289–90, 291 and contemporary capitalism 8 culture of 271 of dispossession 58, 59 in a dystopian world 264 and humanism 286, 289, 291 of the liberation struggle 290 militarised 292 as the only option 290–91 political 280 in pursuit of liberty and freedom 201 racialised 291 state’s legitimate use of 42, 44, 45, 51, 88, 155, 173 of technology 271 and wage labour 207 virtual ecological transfer 256 Volcker, Paul 37 W wages 103 basic social wage 103 falling 80, 82 for housework 115, 192–3 low xii, 114, 116, 186, 188 lower bound to wage levels 175 non-payment of 72 and profits 172 reduction in 81, 103, 104, 135, 168, 172, 176, 178 rising 178 and unskilled labour 114 wage demands 150, 274 wage levels pushed up by labour 65 wage rates 103, 116, 172, 173 wage repression 158–9 weekly 71 see also income Wall Street criticised by a congressional committee 239–40 illegalities practised by 72, 77 and Lebed 195 new information-processing technologies 100 Wall Street Crash (1929) x, 47 Wall-E (film) 271 Walmart xii, 75, 84, 103, 131 war on terror 280 wars 8, 60, 229 currency 154 defined 44 monetisation of state war-making activities 44–5 privatisation of war making 235 resource 154, 260 and state aims 44 state financing of 32, 44, 48 and technology 93 trade 154 world 154 water privatisation 235 wave theory 70 wave-particle duality 70 wealth accumulation of 33, 34, 35, 157, 205 creation of 132–3, 142, 214 disparities of 164–81 distribution of 34, 167 extraction from non-productive activities 32 global 34 the house as a sign of 15–16 levelling up of per capita wealth 171 and poverty 146, 168, 177, 218, 219, 243 redistribution of 9, 234, 235 social 35, 53, 66, 157, 164, 210, 251, 265, 266, 268 taking it from others 132–3 see also common wealth weather futures 60 Weber, Max 122, 125 Weimar Republic 30 welfare state 165, 190, 191, 208 Wells Fargo 61 West Germany 153, 154, 161 Whitehead, Alfred North 97 Wilson, Woodrow 201 Wolf, Martin 304n2 Wollstonecraft, Mary: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman 285 women career versus family obligations 1–2 disposable populations 111 exploitation of 193 housework versus wage labour 114–15 oppression against 193 social struggle 168 trading of 62 violence against 193 in the workforce 108, 114, 115, 127, 174, 230 women’s rights 202, 218 workers’ rights 202 working classes and capital 80 consumer power 81 crushing organisation 81 education 183, 184 gentrified working-class neighbourhoods ix; housing 160 living conditions 292 wage repression and consumption 158–9 working hours 72, 104–5, 182, 272–5, 279 World Bank 16, 24, 100, 186, 245 World Trade Organization 138, 242 WPA programmes (1930s) 151 Wright, Frank Lloyd: Falling Water 16 Wriston, Walter 240 Y YouTube 236 Yugoslavia, former 174 Z Zola, Émile 7


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Instead, as ownership of British cities goes back to private landlords, the process of removing public rights of way is buried in the arcane language and technical detail of the most obscure parts of planning law … there is an adage in highway law which says ‘once a highway, always a highway’ … In many British towns and cities, this common-law right is being quietly eroded.18 It is difficult to reboot the community if our public spaces are being closed off. Where shall we meet if everywhere we go is mediated by CCTV or private security guards with hi-vis vests and walkie-talkies? At a recent talk at London’s Southbank Centre, the urban sociologist Richard Sennett, who had supported the Occupy movement since the outset, told the audience that the threat to public spaces is one of the most dangerous attacks on our civil liberties and had to be defended by any means. The audience applauded as he called for ‘more occupation of spaces’, encouraging the listeners to ‘go where you don’t belong’. It is only now, once we have lost these public spaces, that we mourn their passing. We have become afraid of shared spaces and are inclined to ignore their importance; as a result they are disappearing without a whisper of protest.

The advantages of ‘La Droite de la Ville’ being a philosophical essay rather than a political road map has meant that the concept has been refreshed and refined by subsequent thinkers and campaigners. It was there at the Occupy camps in cities around the world, in the concept of taking public space and transforming it through their actions. As the American legal activist Peter Marcuse blogged, there was a strong connection between 1968 and Occupy: ‘The spirit of 1968 has continued and is part of the DNA of the Occupy movement and the Right to the City movements … both reflect the underlying impetus for change, the congealed demands of the exploited, the oppressed, and the discontented.’34 Some cities have already adopted the idea of the right to the city as an expressive part of their constitution. For example, the 2001 statute of São Paulo states that each citizen is guaranteed ‘the right to sustainable cities, understood as the right to urban land, to housing, to environmental sanitation, to urban infrastructure, to public transit and public services, to work and to leisure, for present and future generations’ (although this does not seem to have changed the everyday life of the city, which is one of the most inequal in the world).


pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, basic income, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

“Increasingly, the conditions that define the lives of domestic workers—like instability, low wages, low benefits—these are conditions increasingly defining the reality for most American workers. We’re in the same boat more than ever.” Yet, while more people were making these connections, this hadn’t yet translated into mass political movements. Occupy Wall Street garnered much public sympathy, but most people sympathized from the sidelines. They didn’t have the time and energy to engage in the sort of all-in protests that came to define the Occupy movement—at least in part because so many people were working such long hours just to keep their families afloat—they didn’t like the confrontational tactics and scruffy style of the Occupiers, or they didn’t feel that camping out in parks and outside of city halls would actually change a whole lot in their lives. And despite the opinion poll data showing that Americans were becoming increasingly uneasy about the degree of inequality seen in the country, on the whole that unease was more about the shrinking middle class than it was about the conditions of those at the very bottom of the economy.

Why hasn’t such a tax been enacted? Not because it’s impractical; not because it would bankrupt oil companies—but because those companies pump a huge amount of money into lobbying against such measures, and because today in America the political process is far more finely tuned to meeting the needs of the affluent than those of the poor. This leads to the third and last problem: until the Occupy movement grabbed the political spotlight, for decades America’s poor had come to think of themselves as ever more disempowered, ever more passive in the face of their poverty. And to a large extent, the assumption of powerlessness became self-fulfilling. Unable to influence the body politic, more and more people simply opted out: not voting in elections, not joining trade unions, and not informing themselves about the great issues of the day.


pages: 453 words: 114,250

The Great Firewall of China by James Griffiths;

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, gig economy, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mobile money, Occupy movement, pets.com, profit motive, QR code, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, zero day

Never mind that many VPN services are unreliable and insecure and require credit card payments, the records of which could get any Chinese user (rather than the Facebook-addicted foreigners nearly all China-focused VPN services are targeting) in a heap of legal trouble. A great deal of writing on Chinese censorship is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of both how the censors operate and what their ultimate goals are. The internet is a liberatory technology not because it can help share information, but because it can help build solidarity. It’s why the Occupy movement spread across multiple countries, and how a small protest in Tunisia could spark a wave of pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the Arab world. At the same time, it’s also how the Islamic State is able to spread its message and recruit volunteers from thousands of kilometres away, and how minor disagreements over representation in pop culture can evolve into the anti-feminist Gamergate movement.

., 111 Cuba, 237 Cultural Revolution, 8, 23, 24, 48, 176, 205; Xinjing avoidance, 133 ‘cyber-sovereignty’, China doctrine, 8, 234, 237–8, 242, 250 Cyberspace Administration of China, 181 Da Cankao, 35–6, 79, 91, 93, 97; back issues, 100; defeat of, 92; first issue, 39 Dalai Lama, 84–5, 87, 160, 206, 309; office hacked, 162 Darfur, 291 Deibert, Ron, 159–60 Delta Airlines, 309 Democracy Forum, 65, 66 Democratic National Committee, Russian hacking of, 192 Demos/Relcom, Russia, 252–3, 255–6 Deng Xiaoping, 21–4, 47, 89; martial law declaration, 37 Dharamsala, 85–8, 160, 163, 276; internet, 84, 160 ‘digital divide’, 222 Dilshat Perhat, 150 Ding, James, 30–1 DIT, Broadcasting Board of Governors, 108 Diyarim.com, 150–1, 157 Djibouti naval base, 289 domain name system (DNS), 220 Dorsey, Jack, 111 dot.com bubble, first, 84 Dourado, Eli, 228–32 Dow Chemical, 170 Dow Jones, 81 Downey, Brandon, 314 Dreazen, Yochi, 110 DropBox, 276 Drummond, David, 61–2, 171 Dunhuang, 154 Durov, Pavel, 259–63, 265–6, 268–9, 272; Dubai exile, 270; flight, 267 Dynamic Internet Technology, 104, 106–7; Broadcasting Board of Governors, 108 DynaWeb, 101–2; Foundation, 106 Dzungaria, 136 ‘East Turkestan’, 136, 149; question of, 152 Eastern Buddhas Study Falun Dafa Association, 97 Education Computer Resource Centre, India, 86 Egypt, 230–1; Twitter, 264 Eiffel Tower, website crash, 2 Electronic Frontier Foundation, 244–6 elite, Chinese, 90, 117 email address grabbing, 35 encryption, 268–9 Epoch Times, 96–8 Epstein, Helen, 297 Ethiopia, 10, 289, 304 EU (European Union), WSIS stance, 223 Eudora, 88 Eximbank, 288 Facebook, 18, 242, 264, 282, 286, 297, 301, 303, 312–13, 317; banned, 183; censoring by, 314; Firewall blocked, 259, 278; Internet.org, 291 ‘fake news’ panic, 311, 314 Falun Gong, 9, 28, 45–6, 49, 59, 62, 91, 96, 102, 107–8, 112, 118; anti- campaign, 48, 58; blocking of, 99; China mass detentions, 54; community, 103; CRQS withdrawal, 51; members self-immolating, 56; -neoconservatives link, 98; North America shift, 96–7; online censorship, 55; origins, 47 Research Society, 54 FalunDafa.org, 97 Fang Binxing, 249–50 FBI (US Federal Bureau of Investigations), 186, 190–1 FDC (Forum for Democratic Change, 294–6, 300 Ferzat, Ali, 209 filters, border, 29 financial crash 2008, 8, 289 FinFisher, 293, 294 FireChat, 19 FireEye, 192 foreign media coverage, importance of, 255 France, Rwanda Hutu aid, 291 Freedom House, 104 FreeGate, 95–6, 103, 105, 107–9, 110, 112–13; successful, 104; user-friendly, 102 FreeNet China, 99, 101; 2001 launched, 100 freetibet.org, 163 Friedman, Tom, 90, 246 Friendster, 260 Friends of Tibet, 308 FSB, Russia, 265–6, 269 Fuyou Street, Beijing, 45 Gaddafi, Muammar, 290 Gallagher, Ryan, 314 Gamma Group, 293 Gang of Eight, USSR, 254–5 Gauthier, Ursula, 199 George Mason University, 228 Geshe Sopa, 84 Ghost Remote Administration Tool (Gh0st Rat), 162–3; hackers, 164 Gilmore, John, 244 Github, DDos attack, 1–4, 310 global governance, cycles of, 236 Global Internet Freedom Consortium (GIFC), 102, 110; funding boom, 109; projects, 112 Global Internet Inc, 106 Global Times, 172 GoAgent, 5, 6 Golden Shield project, 26–7, 91 Goldsmith, Jack, 30, 219, 243 gongfu, Chinese martial art, 48 Google, 64, 113; 2002 blocked, 91, 2006 China attitude, 115, 2009 accusations, 167, censorship compliance, 118, censorship reversal, 172, China ‘foreignness’ accusation, 125, China blocked, 166, China brand, 117, China cultural errors, 126, China operating, 116, China strategy, 119, Chinese-language search engine, 62, Congressional hearing, 120, 124, cultural mistakes, 125; Dragonfly, 314, Google China, 61, 62, 165, 246; Google Drive, 162; hacked, 168, Schrage accusation, 121, shareholder critique, 168, US criticism, 173, US media criticism, 115 Google.cn search engine, 117 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 75, 173, 252, 255–6; KGB detained, 253 Gordon, Richard, 176 Gore, Al, 31 government commentators employed, 213 Grateful Dead, 244 Great Cannon, China cyber weapon, 3–4 ‘Great Firewall’, 5, 8, 9, 26–7, 29, 43, 46, 58, 66, 71, 90, 92, 99, 101, 107, 112, 117, 159, 199, 207, 242, 311; Cisco help, 116; costs of fighting it, 106; export of, 10; Google brief ejection, 124; international spreading of, 310; keywords detection, 28; Kremlin copy, 260; Uganda import, 287; upgrading of, 92; US components, 30 Great Hall of the People, 23 Great Leap Forward, 8, 138; Xinjiang avoidance, 133 Great Wall, historical, 25 GreatFire.org, 3–4 ‘Green Dam Youth Escort’, 27, 98 Greenwald, Glenn, 268 Group of 77, 237 Gu Ge, name error, 125 see also NoGuGe Guangdong, 143, 201 Guangxi, 78 Guangzhou, 29 Gulf of Aden, 289 Guo Wengui, 92 Guomindang, 49 Guonei Dongtai Qingyang, 79 Haig, Dan, 83–4, 86–8, 160 Hainan, Lingshui: signals intelligence, 164; servers in, 163 ‘Harmony’ CCP-speak, 72 Harris, Rachel, 151 Harvard, 71, 74, 91; Law, 244 HBGary Federal, 185–6; hack, 188 He Guoqiang, 171 He Zuoxiu, 49 Hefei, anti-corruption case, 280 Hinton, Carma, 176 Hitchens, Christopher, 49 Hoglund, Greg, 186 Holder, Eric, 189 Holdstock, Nick, 137, 149 home routers, 217 Hong Kong: Admiralty, 18; Broadband, 155; Chinese University, 217; Civic Square, 15; independence discussions, 20; Internet Exchange, 217–18; parliamentary elections, 19; Science Park, 200; 2014 effect, 19; Umbrella Movement, 255 Horowitz, Michael, 107, 109 hosts.txt file, 219 HP corporation, 245 Hsu, Stephen, 108 Hu Jintao, 184 Hu Qiheng, 234 Hu Yaobang, 21 Huai Jinping, 234 Huang Cuilian, 145 Huang Shike, arrest of, 280 Huang, Alan, 102 Huawei, 251, 288; military ties, 235; Uganda censorship profits, 304 Hudson Institute, 107 Human Rights in China, New York, 76 Human Rights Watch, 147, 234 Hvistendahl, Mara, 281 IBM Nazi Germany connection comparison, 119, 122–3 ICANN see Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Ilham, Jewher, 141, 195–8 images, censorship challenges, 208 India, blackouts, 87 Indiana University, 195–6 Infocom, 222; prosecution of, 223 Inner Mongolia massacre, 133 Instagram, 309, 316 intellectuals, anti-qigong, 49 International Centre for Human Rights and Democracy, 30 International Criminal Court, 299 international telecommunications, access as human right, 232 internet: access points, 28; Africa blackouts, 10; China war on, 6; Chinese characters, 31; construction control, 156; content providers government registration, 72; founders, 219; governance, 225, 228; intergovernmental control, 223; unwritten rules, 72; US control conflict, 222; utopianism, 245; workings of, 155 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, 219, 222 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 221–5, 228, 230, 256; China influence, 234; China pushing, 237 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 234 Internet Explorer browser, 169 Internet Governance Forum, 224 Internet Society of China, 234–5 IP server connection, 28, 155; addresses workings of, 154; numbers, 219 Iran, 111; Green revolution, 311; social networking blocking, 111; 2009 election protests, 110, 112, 246 Iraq: US invasion of 2003, 223; Uyghur fighters, 199 ‘iron rice bowl’ jobs, 47 Isa, Aziz, 151 Islamic State, 199; internet use, 9; Paris attacks, 269 Islamists, 195 Israeli intelligence, 190 Jacobs, Justin, 137 Jiang Qing, 133 Jiang Zemin, 32, 78, 90–1, 184 Jiangsu province, 74 Jiao Guobiao, dismissal of, 95 Jilin, China, 47–8 Jobs, Steve, 117, 259 Jones, Roy, 307–9 Kadeer, Rebiya, China riots blame, 152 Kaifu Lee, 116–17, 124–6, 165–6, 171–2; government fights, 167; Making a World of Difference, 118 Kalathil, Shanthi, 236 Kang Xiaoguang, 54 Kapor, Mitch, 244 Kaspersky Labs, Moscow, 192 keywords, 184; Chinese language filtering, 208; detection, 28 KGB/FSB (USSR/Russia), 256–7, 265–6, 269 Kirillovich, Vladimir, 249 Kiselyov, Dmitry, 247 Kissinger, Henry, 108 Kleinwächter, Wolfgang, 223 Kot, Edward, 264–5 Kramer, Terry, 228–9, 232–3 Kremlin, deep packet inspection, 266 Kristof, Nick, 46 Krumholtz, Jack, 122–3 Kryuchkov, Vladimir, 253 Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, 252, 256, 261 LAN protocols, 241 Lantos, Tom, 122 Leach, Jim, 120; censorship accusation, 121 Leavy, Penny, 186 Leo Technology, Urumqi-based, 200 letter substitutions, 107 Leung Chun-ying, 19 Leviev, Lev, 267 Levy, Stephen, 118 Lhasa, 85 Li Chang, 54 Li Changchun, 165–6, 171 Li Dongxiao, 178 Li Gang, 5 Li Hongkuan, 35–6, 38–9, 79, 91–3, 99 Li Hongzhi, 47–50, 53–6, 96–7, 99, 103; books banned, 46; teachings of, 52; USA move, 51 Li Keqiang, 240 Li Peng, 26, 42; martial law declaration, 21 Li Yuanlong, 95; son’s arrest, 96 Li Zhi, 148 Li, Robin, 124–6, 172 Lin Hai, 39 Link, Parry, 73 Liu Xiaobo, 66, 198 LiveJournal, DDoS attack, 264 Lo, Kenneth, 217–18 Lockheed Martin, 187 Lokodo, Simon, 304 love bug, 161 Lu, Phus, 5–6 Lu Wei, 78, 80–1, 207, 237, 242, 249, 312; downfall of, 313; promotion, 181; rise of, 79 Luo Fuhe, 77 Ma Zhaoxu, 173 Ma, Jack, 67 Ma, Pony, 280 MacArthur Genius Grant, 76 MacKinnon, Rebecca, Consent of the Networked, 72 Mail.ru, 267 Makanim.com, 149 Makerere University, 295, 300 Malofeev, Konstantin, 248–51 malware, 162; specialised, 163 Mandiant, malware, 186, 188–90 Manitsme, malware family, 188 Manning, Chelsea, 229; defence fund, 186 Mao Zedong, 184, 240; Anti-Rightist campaigns, 205; death of, 23; Great Leap Forward, 89 Marczak, Bill, 3 Marriott Global Reservations Sales and Customer Care Centre, 307–8; China apology, 309; Chinese language website, 308 Martínez, Antonio García, 317 mass mailings, 103 May Fourth Movement, 176 McLaughlin, Andrew, 117 Medvedev, Dmitry, 263 melamine, contaminated, 204 Messi, Lionel, 278 Micek, Peter, 236 Microsoft, 115–16, 119, 245 Millward, James, 133, 137 Minghui.org, 97 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 235–6 Minzu Iniversity, 134 Mirilashvili, Vyacheslav, 260, 267 MIT Media Lab, 243 mobile payments, 279 Moma, Google intranet, targeted, 169 Mong Kok, camp, 19 Montreal, 85 Morozov, Evgeny, 110 Mountain View Google HQ, 116, 169 Mugabe, Robert, 285, 290 Murong Xuecun, 205 Museveni, Yoweri, 285, 287, 292–3, 296–8, 300, 301–3, 305; Kampala opposition, 286; 2016 swearing in, 299 Museveni, Janet, 286 MySpace, 260 Nagaraja, Shishir, 162 Nairobi, Chinese language signs, 288 Namubiru, Lydia, 305 Nanfang Daily, 64 Nanjing, 36; University, 212 Nasa, Goddard Space Flight Center, 99 National Endowment for Democracy, 92, 108 National Reconciliation Day, 158 nationalism, Chinese, 8 Navalny, Alexei, 263–5 Negroponte, Nicholas, 243 Network Solutions, 220–1 New Tang Dynasty Television, 97 Newland, Jesse, 2 Ng, Jason Q., 183 Nigeria, 232 Noah, Trevor, 302 NoGuGe.com, 126 non-aggression, cyber pact, 251 Northrop Grumman, 170 Nossik, Anton, 257, 262 Nur Bekri, 146, 148 Nureli, 157 Nyanzi, Stella, 286–7, 303, 305; imprisoned, 301–2; Stella, persecution of, 300 Obama, Barack, 157, 165, 191, 228, 246; ‘pivot to Asia’, 192 Obote, Milton, 292; overthrow of, 285 Occupy movement, 9 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 190, Chinese hacked, 191 “Operation Fungua Macho”, 293 Ownby, David, 55, 98 Page, Larry, 116, 168, 171 Palmer, David, 50 Palmer, Mark, 107–9 Pan Shiyi, 180–2 Pan Yiheng, 177 Panama Papers, 251 ‘patriotic hackers’,161 peer-to-peer software, Chinese, 101 Pegasus, early email software, 86 Pentagon, the, 161 perestroika, 75 Perhat, Dilshat, 157 Pfeifle, Mark, 110 Philippines, 161; China boycotts call, 77 Piccuta, Dan, 165–6 Pirate Bay, file-sharing website, 185 PLA (Chinese People’s Liberation Army), 22, 37, 132, 240, 242, 251, 312; Third Technical Department, 164; US indictment, 189 pornography, 91, 105–6 Postel, John, 219, 221–2, 228; ‘benevolent dictator’, 220 Press, Larry, 254–5 Prophet Muhammed, image forbidden, 209 proxies: sharing of, 102; use of, 101 ‘public opinion channellers’, 214 ‘public order’, CCP-speak, 72 Public Pledge on Self-Discipline for the Chinese Internet, 64 Public Security Bureau, 149 Putin, Vladimir, 228, 247, 249, 251, 257, 262–6; internet concern, 261 qigong, 55; enthusiasm for, 47; groups, 50 masters’ absurd claims, 49; opinion shift against, 48 Qin Yongmin, 42 Qin Zhihui, arrest, 182 Qing Gang, 35 QQ, 182, 277 Qzone, 182, 278 Radio Free Asia, 106, 147, 248, 311 Rajagopalan, Megha, 199 Rand Corporation, 192 Razak, Najib, 209 Reagan, Ronald, 248 Rebel Pepper, 212, 215 Red Guards, 133 Reincarnation Party, 209 Relcom see Demos/Relcom Ren Zhengfei, 251 RenRen, 182 Reporters Without Borders, 64 Republic of China (ROC/Taiwan), 288 Reuters, 80–1 RFA, 108; 1994 launch, 107 riots, Urumqi, 148 ‘River Elegy’, TV programme, 20 Robinson, Michael, 30–2 Roldugin, Sergei, 251 root authority, 201 rootkit.com, 186, 188 Rosenberg, Jonathan, 117 Roskomnadzor, 266, 269, 270 Ross, Alec, 264 Rossiya Segodnya, 247–8 RSA, hacked, 187 RT, TV station, 247, 311 Runet, 257, 270 Russian Federation, 10, 237; early years of, 256; FAPSI, 257; firewall urgency of, 251; internet blacklist, 266; internet use surge, 257; liberal internet era, 262; Libertarian Party, 272 nationalised internet, 231; Safe Internet Forum, 248; 2012 election protests, 251 Sadikejiang Kaze, killing of, 146 Safe Internet League, 249–50 Safe Web, Triangle Boy, 108 Sakharov, Andrei, 270 Salkin.com, 157 Samdup, Thubten, 85–6, 160 Saudi Arabia, 230 Saulsbury, Brendan, 190 Schmidt, Eric, 116, 124, 127, 168; China strategy support, 126; Google outvoted, 171 Schneider, Rick, 87 Schrage, Elliot, 120–4 ‘secret backdoors’, 162 Seldon, Tenzin, 170 self-censorship, Google justification, 120 self-immolation, 58 SenseTime, 200 Sha Tin New Town, Hong Kong, 217 Shambaugh, David, 233 Shanghai, 29; Cooperation Organisation, 251; Cyberspace Administration, 308; European Jews haven, 205; Expo 2010, 180; police computer security, 35 Shaoguan incident see Xuri Toy factory Shchyogolev, Igor, 248, 250 Shen Yun, performance group, 97 Shenzhen, 143; public security bureau, surveillance division, 72–3 Shi Caidong, 51–3 Shi Tao, 64–5 67, 76, 116, 119; prison sentence, 66 Sichuan province, 201 Siemens BS2000 mainframe computer, 24 Signal, encryption app, 268 Silicon Valley, 1; biggest companies, 59; private enterprise victory, 7 Silk Road, dark web, 100 Sima Nan, 49 Sina Weibo, 182–3, 278; censors at, 75 Sino-Soviet split, 288 Sither, Lobsang Gyatso, 276–7, 283 Smirnov, Sergei, 266 Smith, Chris, 115 Smith, Craig, 90, 309 Snapchat, 260 Snowden, Edward, 190, 268, 269; revelations of, 313 Sobel, David, 245 social media, companies, 7 Soldatov, Alexey, 256, 261 solidarity: surveillance attention, 74; threat of, 10 Solzhenitsyn, Alexander, 5 Song Zheng, 235 South China Sea: Chinese ambitions, 192; international court ruling, 77 spammers, trading among, 39 ‘spear-phishing’, 159, 187 ‘spiritual pollution’, 35 Sprint, 30–1 St Petersburg: briefcase bomb 2017, 269; State University, 260 Stanford Research Institute, 220 State Commission of Machine Industry, 24 Steve Jackson Games, 245 Stevens, John Paul, 245 Students for a Free Tibet, 170 Stuxnet virus, 190 Sudan, 230, 290 Sullivan, Andrew, 110 Sulzberger Jr, Arthur Ochs, 89–90 supremacist ideology, Han, 133 Surkov, Vladislav, 262–3 Sweden, 232 Symantec, 108, 170 Syria, Uyghur fighters, 199 System of Operative Search Measures, Russia, 257 Taiwan see Republic of China Tanzania, 288; Tan–Zam railway line, 287 Tarim Basin, 136 Tarnoff, Ben, 317 tear gas, 18 tech giants, collaboration accusation, 119 techno-libertarians, 243, 246 Telegram app, 268, 272; banned, 269; blocked, 270 Tencent, 182, 235, 279, 281–2; data hoovering, 280; leg up, 278; WeChat, 277; Weibo, 278 The Atlantic, 110 The Gate of Heavenly Peace, subtitled version, 176 The New Republic, 110 The New York Times, 3, 89–90, 100, 111, 179, 211, 223, 257 The People’s Daily, 21, 79, 172, 178, 246 The Wall Street Journal, 110, 309 The Washington Post, 57, 110, 302 Third World Academy of Sciences, 24 Tian, David, 99 Tian, Edward, 30–1 Tiananmen Square, 9, 21, 25, 46, 62, 99, 175; anger, 38; crackdown, 89, 107; massacre, 22, 26, 3, 208; massacre 20th anniversary, 166; Mothers, 65; movement, 20, 76; Papers, 100; protests, 78; self-immolation, 56–7; Tianjin protest, 52–4 Tibet, 83–4, 98, 106, 138, 149, 210; Action Institute, 274, 276; Computer Resource Centre, 86, 161; diaspora battling cyberspies, 276; Freedom Movement fund for, 163; Institute of the Performing Arts, 85; PLA victory, 85; Youth Congress, 85 Tohti, Ilham, 132, 134, 140–1, 143, 150, 152, 158, 195, 199; detention, 157; father killing, 133; harassment experience, 135; trial of, 131, US exile, 140 Tor Browser, 100, 102 Touré, Hamadoun, 228, 231, 236 traffic spikes, websites, 2 Trivedi, Aseem, 209 trolls: Badiucao attacks, 211; pro-China government, 92, 212 Trump, Donald, 192 Tsai Ing-wen, 212 Tsang, Donald, 15 Tunis Agreement 2005, 237 Tunisia, 9; Facebook, 264 Turnbull, Malcolm, 203 Tusiime, Samson, 295–6, 304; arrest of, 300 Twitter, 111, 207, 211, 246, 296–7, 303, 307, 309, 311–12; banned, 183; blocked, 27; ‘Revolution’, 110 UAE (United Arab Emirates), 230 Uganda: Chieftaincy of Military Intelligence, 293; Communications Commission, 303–4; Computer Misuse Act, 300; fake wireless hotspots, 294; security services, China learning, 295, 303; Special Investigations Unit, 300; Telecom, 304; Trojan horse viruses, 294; Twitter, 300; 2016 election, 296–8; ‘walk to work’ protests, 292 UgandaDecides, hashtag, 297 UglyGorilla, 187–8 UK (United Kingdom), 232 Ukraine, 250 Ulhaque, Zulkiflee Anwar (Zunar), 209 UltraSurf, 102, 105, 107–10, 112; programming, 106; successful, 104 Umbrella Movement/generation, 16, 19–20 United Nations, 10, 313; ‘cyber-sovereignty’, concept of, 224; ITU, 225, 227–32, 236; ITRs, 225, 233; WSIS, 222 Unit 61398, 190–1; indictment of, 189 United Arab Emirates, 230 United Russia party 2011 rally, 263 University of British Columbia, 309 University of California, Berkeley, 30 University of Edinburgh, 99 University of Helsinki, 253 University of Southern California, 220–1 University of Toronto, 159; Citizen Lab, 3–4 university servers, 35 URLs: blocking of, 29; proxies, 102–3 Urumqi, 132, 136, 153–4, 201; -Beijing link, 156; Han revenge attacks, 149; internet cut-off, 151; People’s Intermediate Court, 131; police attack, 148; proxies, 102–3; riots, 183; student protest, 146–7 USA: Chinese Embassy protests, 98; -China relationship, 112; Commerce Department, 222; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 219; Google Congressional hearing, 122; House Subcommittee on Human Rights, 115; imperialism internet use, 112; National Security Agency, 170, 244, 268, 293, 313; Republican Party, 244; Senate Sub-Committee on Human Rights, 108; State Department, 22, 81, 109–11, 166, 298 UseNet, 253 Usmanov, Alisher, 261, 267 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics): dissolution of, 256; 1990s internet start, 252 Uyghurs, Chinese language forums, 157, dangerous vagabonds characterised, 132; discrimination against, 138–9, 152; doppa headgear, 132; internet, 143, 150; pervasive unemployment, 134; stereotyping of, 140; terrorism label, 140; Uyghur Online, 131, 135, 139, 151, 157; websites control, 149 Villeneuve, Nart, 159–60, 162–3 VIP Reference, 35 virtual private networks (VPNs), 9, 103, 113, 157, 299; apps, 297; users, 28 VKontakte (VK), 259–60, 262, 267; customer support, 265; groups, 270; user base growth, 261 Voice of America, 106–8, 248, 311 Voice of China, 287 Voice of Russia, 247 “Walk to Work” protests, 294 Walton, Greg, 160–3, 276 Wang Baodong, 109 Wang Dong, 188–9 Wang Lequan, 152 Wang Liming, 209, 210 Wang Yongping, 178 Wang Youcai, 42 Wang Yunfeng, 24, 25 Wang Zhiwen, 54 Wang, Jack, 188 ‘War on Terror’, 290 WCITLeaks, 229–31, 233, 236 Weaver, Nicholas, 3 WeChat (Weixin), 207, 242, 277–8, 281–3; censorship challenge, 268; monopoly of, 278; payments system, 279–80 Weibo, 46, 177–9, 181, 184, 206–7, 210, 268, 277; failure, 215; ingenuity of, 182; microbloggers use, 180; muzzling of, 214; public offering, 182; surveillance sidestep attempts, 208; Weiboscope, 77 Weigel, Moira, 317 Weir, Bob, 244 Wen Jiabao, 79–80 Wenhui Daily, 173 Wenzhou train crash, 177, 179; internet revealed, 178 Westinghouse, 187 Wexler, Robert, 123 WhatsApp, 16, 268, 278, 296, 303, 316 Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link, 244 WikiLeaks, 104, 185–6, 315–16 Wikipedia, specific pages blocked, 27 Wired, 84, 106, 243–4 World Bank, 24 World Conference on International Telecommunications, 227; Leaks see above World Internet Conference 2015, 241 World Uyghur Congress, 152 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 234 WSIS 10, 237; US victory, 224 WTO (World Trade Organization), 80–1; China joining, 42, 91–2 Wu, Dandan, 125 Wu, Tim, 30, 219, 241, 243 wumao, 212 wumaodang, recruited students, 213 Wuyi, Zhejiang province, 310 Wuzhen, 239–40 Xabnam.com, 157 Xi Jinping, 81, 181, 191, 203, 207, 238–40, 281, 312; internet clampdown, 78 Xia, Bill, 99–100, 102–3, 107, 112 Xiao Qiang, 76, 21 Xi’an, Shaanxi province, 154 Xinhua, 56–7, 64, 77, 78, 156, 181; commercial offerings, 80; Hong Kong bureau, 79; journalists’ watchdog role, 79; official line, 148 Xinjiang Autonomous Region, 107, 131–2, 135, 140, 148, 156, 195, 199, 210, 280; Beijing terrorism lens, 152; famine avoidance, 138; internet access, 156; internet blackout, 153; new policies of control, 200; Qing Empire, 137; Shanshan county, 201; University, 150 Xu Hong, 39 Xu Wendi, 42 Xue, Charles, 180, 181 Xuri Toy Factory/Shaoguan incident, 143, 146; footage of, 151; Uyghur workers, 144–5 Yahoo, 115, 119, 170; arrest responsibility, 116; China subsidiary, 63–4, 67; informer role criticised, 66 Yanayev, Gennady, 253 Yang Jisheng, 20 Yang, Jerry, 66–7 Yanukovych, Viktor, 267 Yeltsin, Boris, 75, 254–5, 257; resignation, 261 YouTube, 167, 246, 274, 303, 314, 316; blocked, 183 Yu Jie, China’s Best Actor, 80 Yu Wanli, 173–4, 246 Yuan Zengxin, 138 Zambia, 304 Zara, 309 Zhang Zhenhuan, 49 Zhang Jianchuan, 235 Zhang, Shawn, 309 Zhao Houlin, 236–7 Zhao Jing, 36 Zhao Ziyang, 80, 889; house arrest, 21–2 Zhongnanhai complex, 45; 1999 protest, 46, 52–3, 55 Zhou Yongkang, 171 Zhu Rongji, 53 Zhu, Julie, 62 Zhuan Falun, 50; text banned, 52 Zimbabwe, 10, 290, 304 Zorn, Werner, 24–5 ZTE, 288 Zuckerberg, Mark, 260, 312 Zed is a platform for marginalised voices across the globe.


pages: 178 words: 43,631

Spoiled Brats: Short Stories by Simon Rich

dumpster diving, immigration reform, Kickstarter, Occupy movement, pattern recognition

It’s hard to think of a better metaphor for our times. If we don’t give back to society—if we don’t “return our jars”—then our world may very well fall apart. Luckily, we have Herschel to help us hold it all together. Strange things soon begin to happen. People start to camera me when I am manning cart. Customers ask me to write my name on jars that they have bought. One day, newspaper lady asks my opinion on “Occupy movement.” I do not understand her words and so I let Claire answer. “Our company believes in the value of all human beings,” she says. “We stand for the ninety-nine percent.” She says many things like this to many people. Her words are crazy, but I do not stop her, because it is making more people buy our pickles. Every day, there are more and more customers lining up. “This is so wonderful,” she says to me one night while helping me count out the day’s moneys.


pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

Four months after the first Snowden leaks, the literary organization PEN surveyed American writers on how the revelations impacted their lives. The results were unsettling. Writers worried they were being monitored. Many admitted to censoring themselves or feeling reluctant to write, speak, or do research about politically sensitive subjects online. Topics that might make them targets, they speculated, included mass incarceration, the drug wars, sexual assault in the military, anti-American sentiment overseas, the Occupy movement, and the NSA leaks themselves. “I have felt that even to comment on the Snowden case in an email would flag my email as worthy of being looked at,” one anonymous respondent wrote. PEN’s researchers were disturbed by these responses. But what upset them even more was what, they feared, writers wouldn’t say. As their report explained: Part of what makes self-censorship so troubling is the impossibility of knowing precisely what is lost to society because of it.


pages: 388 words: 125,472

The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent

‘London Anti-Cuts Protests End in Violence and 200 Arrests’, declared The Metro, a headline ignoring the fact that the vast majority of those detained had been arrested for taking part in a peaceful sit-in over tax avoidance at the Fortnum & Mason department store. ‘TUC March: The Militants behind the Violence’ and ‘How a Family Day Turned to Mayhem’ was how the Daily Telegraph reported the day. When protesters peacefully set up camp outside London’s St Paul’s Cathedral as part of the global ‘Occupy’ movement, they were met with ridicule from the media, and a lack of serious engagement with the issues they were raising. ‘When we think of occupations, we think of the Nazis in Germany, in France for example,’ said Adam Boulton of Sky News to an Occupy protester; Boulton attempted to justify such eyebrow-raising hyperbole by suggesting protesters were ‘imposing your will on everybody else in quite a similar way’.

This, of course, helps perpetuate its own dominance. None of this is to say that opponents of the Establishment have been entirely Missing in Action in recent years. By tapping into an age-old tradition of peaceful civil disobedience, UKUncut has forced the political and media elite to at least engage with (if not tackle) the issue of tax avoidance on the part of corporate interests and wealthy individuals. The Occupy movement, pitching its tents outside St Paul’s Cathedral, drew attention to how Britain and the world is being run in the interests of ‘the 1%’ rather than ‘the 99%’. Trade unionists have protested and gone on strike in their hundreds of thousands, demonstrating their defiance against austerity, while groups such as Disabled People Against Cuts have fought back against attacks on some of the most vulnerable in society.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

In his book The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap, Rolling Stone journalist Matt Taibbi argues that the problem begins at home: “We [Americans] have a profound hatred of the weak and poor, and a corresponding groveling terror before the rich and powerful, and we’re building a bureaucracy to match those feelings.”9 In copious detail, Taibbi shows how key instigators of the 2008 financial crisis have not just been spared jail time but have benefited and been protected, while untold millions of needy men and women are crunched through an unforgiving legal system. With a few exceptions, such as the Occupy movement, there has been no public protest movement to demand prosecutions for Wall Street fraud. Taibbi goes to the heart of an economic, social, and legal system that underpins the abuses documented here and explains why they are allowed to happen. “We’re creating a dystopia,” he explains, “where the mania of the state isn’t secrecy or censorship but unfairness. Obsessed with success and wealth and despising failure and poverty, our society is systematically dividing the population into winners and losers, using institutions like courts to speed the process.”10 It is this carelessness and cruelty, amplified through the corporate media, that allows companies in the United States and globally to behave badly against the poor.

Ashraf 42–3 Haiti 26, 105–53, 175, 308 aid 12, 108, 120, 123–8, 144–7, 342n89 aid delivery failure 340n56 aid dependency 121, 126 American colonialism 109–13 American corporate pillaging 111–12 American investment 116–20 American policy 115–16, 116–20, 134 Aristide rule 112–13 beggars 106 Canadian aid 120 Caracol industrial park 116, 128–33, 133–6, 148 challenge facing 152–3 child slaves 145 cholera outbreak 113–16 CIA involvement 110 and the Cold War 111 corruption 141 coup, 2004 112 death toll, cholera outbreak 113 death toll, earthquake 107, 145 debt 127 Duvalier dictatorship 109–12 earnings 117, 132, 144 earthquake, January 2010 12, 107, 117 earthquake, January 2010, aftermath of 105–7 economic exploitation 132, 133–6 economic fragility 109–13 economic resistance 150 eco-system damage 130 effect of neoliberalism on 112–13 exploitation 107–8 foreign investment 116–18, 121–2, 133–6 French aid 120 historical background 109–13 homelessness 107 housing 129–30, 140, 150–1 human rights 110, 116 indigenous development 147–9, 150–2 job creation 131 leadership 119–20 living conditions 105–7, 141–4 mining regulation 120–1 National Palace demolition 137–9 NGO-ization of 137–41 occupation of 127 organisations populaires 112 paramilitary groups 109 political freedom 109 Presidential elections, 2015 140 reconstruction gold rush 107–9 refugee camps 141–4 religious faith 106 resource exploitation 120–1 revolution 109 rice imports 122–3 sovereignty 135, 146, 152 tourism 152 unemployment rate 127 unregulated capitalism 135–6 UN stabilization force 113, 115–16 women in 142–3 workers’ rights 148 Haiti Economic Lift Program 133 Haiti Grassroots Watch 117, 120 Haiti-Liberte 108–9 Halliburton 28 Hallward, Peter 109, 111–12, 152 Hamburg 84, 311 Hammond, Philip 16 Harding, Richard 284 Hardwick, Nick 263–7 Harper, Stephen 120 Harry (Christmas Islander) 272–3 Hastings, Michael 26 Hayatullah (asylum seeker) 301–3, 360n49 Headley, Linden 220–1 health services privatization, United Kingdom 244–5 heart disease 14 Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation 74 Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy 96 Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund 101–2 helplessness, feeling of 308–9 Higgins, Greg 128 Hill+Knowlton 25–6 History Channel 306–7 homelessness 107 Honduras 225 Howard, John 275–6, 279 humanitarian relief, NGO-ization of 137–41 humanitarian work, military and 58–9 human rights 123 Afghanistan 42 commodification of 308 disregard for 9 and economic freedom 2 Haiti 110, 116 Human Rights Defense centre 216 Human Rights Watch 47, 48, 67, 71, 196, 200 Human Terrain System 53, 331n67 human trafficking 29, 70 Huppert, Julian 249–51 Hurricane Katrina 26, 118, 124, 337n6 Hurricane Sandy 8 Hyman, Christopher 290 identity, questions of 103–4 immigrants children 212, 225 criminalization 198–9 demonization of 226 deportation 212, 227–8 detention centers 211–28 incarceration rates 195 legal representation 217–18 United Kingdom 243–4 United States of America 198–9, 211–28 see also asylum seekers imperialism, legacy of 10–11 Independent Human Rights Commission, Conflict Mapping in Afghanistan since 1978 32 Independent Timbers and Stevedoring 344n19 IndustriALL 187 inequality 2–4, 56, 242–3, 302–3 information management consultancy 51–6 Innocent, Alix 130–2 Integrity Watch Afghanistan 24 intellectuals, responsibility of 310 intelligence gathering, privatization 51–6 Inter-American Development Bank 123, 130 Interfaith Prison Coalition 216 Interim Haiti Recovery Commission (IHRC) 118 International Criminal Court (ICC) 43 International Health and Medical Services 295 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 4–5, 62, 72, 99, 112, 127 International Organization for Migration 74 International Relief and Development (IRD) 28 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 32 interrogators and interrogation, privatization 15 Inter-Services Intelligence 56, 331n73 “Invisible Suffering” (MSF) 75 Iran 23, 49 Iraq 12, 14, 25, 27, 28, 323n33 Islamabad 56, 57 Islamic State (ISIS) 16, 41 Jack (PMC owner) 20–5 Jalalabad 38 Japan 11 Jean, Arnolt 121 Jean, Wyclef 141 job creation 131 John (BCL manager) 160–1, 164–5, 166–7 John (detention center guard) 296–8 Jones, Justin 198 Josephine (teacher, PNG) 183 Josh (PMC contractor) 59–60 journalism, usefulness of 309 J/P Haitian Relief Organization 137–9 JSOC 59 Jubilee 159 Jubilee Australia 190–1 Justice Police Institute (JPI) 201 Justinvil, Pierre 130 Kabul 19, 36 drinking holes 59–62 drug abuse 38–9 population 45 private military companies 19–25 suicide attacks 41 women in 47–8 Kambana, Adrienne Makenda 258–9 Kampagiannis, Thanasis 93–5 Kandahar 55 Karachi 56 Karunakara, Unni 139 Karzai, Ahmed Wali 41 Karzai, Hamid 27, 31–2, 41, 44, 47 Katz, Jonathan 119, 139–40 Kauona, Samuel 161, 178–80, 346n35 Kavo, Havila 186 KBR 28 Keerfa, the Movement United Against Racism and the Fascist Threat 93 Kelleher, Joan 285–6 Keller, Ska 97 Kemish, Ian 189 Kentucky 205, 228 Kerry, John 30, 62 Khalilzad, Zalmay 50 Khan, Muhammad Alamgir 57 Khogyani, Saima 48–50 Khyber News Bureau 58–9 Kilcullen, David 53 Kim Woong-ki 133 Kirra, Bernadine 185 Klein, Naomi 6–8, 11 KOFAVIV 142–3 Koim, Sam 188 Koofi, Maryam 50–1 Korean Peninsula 23 Kosovo 26 Kotsioni, Ioanna 76–7 Krugman, Paul 243 Kuwait 25 labor abuses 29 Laleau, Wilson 116–17 Lamothe, Laurent 120 landowner rights 177 Langdon, Robert 60, 332n82 Lasslett, Kristian 159–60, 161 Lebrun, Jean Robert 148 Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin 96–7 Leonard (teacher, PNG) 181 Lepani, Charles 189 Libby Sacer Foundation 103–4 Libya 16, 30 Limits to Growth, The (Randers) 1–2 Lloyds Banking Group 16 lobbying 124 Lockheed Martin 31 Logan, Steve 198–9 London, Becket House 263 Louisiana 200 Lucke, Lewis 108–9 Lujan, Nathan K. 306–7 Lumpkin, Georgia, USA 222–3 Stewart immigration detention center 211–22 McDowall, Paul 252 McDowell, Janine 252 McFate, Sean 16 McGregor-Smith, Ruby 242, 245–9 McKibben, Bill 8–9 McLean, Murray 11 Malmström, Cecilia 98 Management and Training Corp 218–19 Management Today 242 Manjoo, Rashida 252 Manus Island 276–7, 280, 281, 282–3, 297, 357n11 market principles, application of 14–15 market system 2 Marr, David 282 Martelly, Michel 106, 110, 116, 117, 140, 339n34 Mason, Paul 73, 267 MASS Design Group 114–15 Matheson, Scott 299 Maywood, California 5 Médecins de Monde (MdM) 77–80 Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) 75–7, 114, 183 media outlets, ownership of 5 Medical Association of Athens 84 medical care asylum seekers 77–80, 78–80, 256–8 detention centers 77–80, 266, 295 Germany 84 Greece 80–4 prisons 205, 209, 214–15, 215–16 Medical Justice 256–8, 260 Medina, Roberto Martinez 218 Meek, James 234, 239 Mehmood, Tahir, death of 241 mental health 254–5, 285, 286, 295, 302 mentally disturbed people, incarceration rates of 201 mercenaries 20, 59 Merkel, Angela 73 Merten, Kenneth 107–8, 339n34 Metropolitan Community Clinic, Athens 80–4 Michael (asylum seeker) 230–2 Migration Policy Institute (MPI) 212 MiHomecare 255 military ideology 15 Miller, Phil 263 “Mining for Development” initiative, Australia 190 Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection, Greece 76 MINUSTAH 113, 115–16 Mitie 242, 245–9, 255 Mlotshwa, Emma 255–8 Moise, Rosembert 150 Momis, John 159, 161, 169 Monaghan, Karon 260 Monbiot, George 9, 236 Money Morning 49 Monsanto 267 Moradian, Davood 44–6 Morales, Evo 125 Morales, Pablo 107 Morauta, Mekere 188 Morrison, Scott 279–80 Mortime, Antonal 140 Morumbi 346n33 MSS Security 296–8 Mubenga, Jimmy, killing of 258–60 Mudd, Gavin 185 Mundell, Robert 84 Munnings, Kate 358n25 murders, private military companies 15, 46, 57, 60, 323–4n40 Murdoch, Rupert 5, 41, 359n30 Musharraf, Pervez 57 MWH Americas 124 Nader, Ralph 173 Namaliu, Sir Rabbie 160, 343n6 Namorong, Martyn 190 Nashville, Tennessee 209 Nathan (PNG resident) 167–8 National Audit Office 236 National Health Service 244–5 National Institute of Money in State Politics 201 National Research Council 198 nation building 23 Nation (magazine) 118 Nation (newspaper) 57 NATO 32, 55, 63 Nauru 275–6, 276, 276–7, 280–1, 283, 296 Needham, Emma 299 neo-colonization 190 neoliberalism 83, 112–13 New Economics Foundation 243 Newmont Mining 120 News Corporation 5 New York Times 8, 38, 101, 113, 115, 118, 131, 141, 199, 212, 226, 243, 284, 340n56 New Zealand 361n51 New Zealand Aid Programme 158–9 Nicaragua 134 Nicholls, Adelina 224–6 No Logo (Klein) 7–8 non-government organizations, and humanitarian relief 137–41 North American Free Trade Agreement 225 Northrop Grumman 35 Norway 2, 186–7 Obama, Barack 3, 31, 35, 45, 118, 124, 149, 195, 212, 221–2, 224 obesity 14 Occupy movement 5–6, 309 Occupy Wall Street 3 O’Faircheallaigh, Ciaran 162 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations 139 O’Grady, Mary Anastasia 134 Ohio 197–8 oil prices 166 Ona, Francis 169, 178 O’Neill, Peter 159, 166, 171, 186, 188, 347n50 One World 117 Operation Enduring Freedom 31 organisations populaires, Haiti 112 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 6, 267 outsourcing 28–30 outsourcing contractors, United Kingdom 240–2 overcharging 29 overconsumption 8 Oxfam 191, 242–3 Pakistan 12, 56–9, 62 community mapping 58 Federally Administrated Tribal Areas 58 feeling of occupation 59 private military companies 56, 57 state absence 56–7 Taliban in 31 US army action 58 Palast, Greg 84 Panagiotaros, Ilias 91–3 Panguna Landowners’ Association 177 Panguna mine, Papua New Guinea 154–64, 164–5, 167, 168, 177–8, 181, 182, 184–6, 191–2 Panguna town, Papua New Guinea 165–7 Papua New Guinea 11–12, 12, 117, 154–92 agricultural exports 174 aid 13, 167, 171–5, 179 and America 170–1 and Australia 154, 160, 163, 167, 169–75, 176–7, 188, 188–91 Australian exploitation of 169–75 Australian goals 172 Australian government aid 158–9, 171–5, 179, 182, 189–91 Autonomous Bougainville Government 161, 167, 178–80, 184, 346n33 average age 158 baby boom 157 BCL legacy 160–1 Bougainville mining legislation 161 and China 170 civil disturbances 175 civil war 154–5, 158–9, 161, 163–4, 178–80, 180–2, 187 constitutional planning committee 169 corruption 170, 171, 188 desire for independence 176–8 education 158, 166–7, 167–8 environmental destruction 157–8 foreign investment 186–7 forest 336n19 gold panning 164 Grasberg mine 187 independence 169–70 lack of change 167–9 life expectancy 175 maternal mortality rate 183 mining boom 13, 156, 169–76, 184–91, 344n50 mining waste 157 officials’ role 175–6 Ok Tedi Mine 157–8, 173, 188, 345n23 opposition to mining 168–9, 174, 178–80 Panguna Landowners’ Association 177 Panguna mine 154–64, 164–5, 167, 168, 177–8, 181, 182, 184–6, 191–2 Panguna reserves 186 Panguna town 165–7 pollution 157, 164, 173 poverty 175 private military companies 180 Ramu nickel mine 174 reconciliation meeting, February 2013 158–9 resource exploitation 120, 154–64, 176, 184–91, 344n19, 346n33 the Sandline controversy 180 sovereign fund 188 sovereignty 156, 175–6, 176–8, 191, 192 Task Force Sweep 188 weapons decommissioning 181–2 women in 182–4 World War II 170 Papua New Guinea Sustainable Development Program (PNGSDP) 345n23 Partners in Health 113–14 Partners Worldwide 136 Pay Any Price (Risen) 11 Peace and Security Project 98 peace building 54–5 Peck, Raoul 118–19 Penn, Sean 137–9 Pennsylvania 209 Pentagon, the, waste 34–5 people-smugglers 70, 287 Peshawar 57–9 Peter (PMC contractor) 59–60 Petraeus, David 52–3 Piketty, Thomas, Capital in the Twenty-First Century 6 Pilger, John 10, 245 Pindar, Paul 241–2 Pipiro, Moses 184 Pita, Aaron 181–2 Platform of Haitian Human Rights Organizations 140 Podur, Justin 115, 147 police militarized 203, 238 privatization 240 surveillance 6 police brutality Greece 83 United States of America 203 pollution, Papua New Guinea 157, 164, 173 Port-au-Prince 105–7, 107, 116, 118, 127, 128, 146, 149–50, 150–1 Port Moresby 166 poverty 98–9, 175 PPSS 206 predatory capitalism 11, 13–14, 162, 310–11 press freedom 74, 75 price-gouging 292 Prince, Erik 16 prisons and the prison industry 197, 202–11 abuse 216–17, 218 access 219 American Correctional Association (ACA) conference, 2014 202–11 bed mandate 226–7 children in 208 emotional impact of incarceration 207–8 employee wages 223 exploitation 227 failure of private 200–1 female population 197 food 215 green technology 204 incarceration rates 195–6, 200, 201, 204 inmate labor 205–6, 211, 213 lack of oversight 216, 228–9 lack of transparency 225–6 medical care 205, 209, 214–15, 215–16 money saving 217 occupancy quotas 226–7, 228 opposition to private 223–8 overcrowding 196 phone call costs 214 prisoner costs 200–1 privacy 208–9 private operators 196–8 privatization 13, 195–229, 240, 264–5 profits 197, 201–2 Scandinavian 208–9 solitary confinement 208, 209, 218–19 state oversight 205 Stewart immigration detention center, Lumpkin, Georgia, USA 211–22 suicide rate 209, 217 United Kingdom 240, 264–5 uprisings 208–9 visit 211–22 private military companies 12 accountability 16 Afghanistan 19–25, 33–5, 41–3, 44, 46–8, 50, 59–62, 331n69 Australian contractors 60 casualties 32, 326n27 clients 20–1 connection between 23–4 contractor motivations 59–62 employees 22, 47, 57 exploitation by 22 fees 21 future 23 hiring practices 61 influence 41–2 justifications 22–3 killings 46, 57, 60, 61 lack of state control 34, 47 locals view of 46–8 motivation 23 murders 15, 46, 57, 60, 323–4n40 and nation building 23 need for 21 numbers 20 origins 33 Pakistan 56, 57 Papua New Guinea 180 problem of 42 recruits 20 regulations 21, 22 and sovereignty 22–3 static work 21–2 transparency 34 weapons 20, 21 private power 4, 9 private security contractors, motivations 59–62 privatization asylum seeker detention network 77 Australia 361n51 border controls 241 contractor privacy 248–9 costs 236 detention centers 13, 98, 230–5, 245–51, 280–5, 289–99 disaster relief 108–9 economic logic of 289–99 failure of 239 Golden Dawn and 92–3 Greece 72, 98, 100–2, 307–8 and the IMF 4–5 intelligence gathering 51–6 justification 238–9, 245–6 Klein’s critique of 6–7 opposition to 100, 101, 102–3, 251 overcharging 240–1 prisons 13, 195–229, 240, 264–5 public services 230–68 as recent history 311 resistance to 7 revolving door 197 scale in UK 244 school teachers 4 surveillance 15 tender process 289–90 transparency 246, 290–1 United Kingdom 230–68, 310 of war 7 and waste reduction 30 profit, and poverty-level wages 117 prostitution 102 Psarras, Dimitris 85–7, 93 public services, privatization 230–68 Public Service Strategy Board 245–6 punishment, outsourcing 264–5 Putin, Vladimir 90, 93 racism 80, 259–60, 294 Raleigh, Jeff 26 Ramsbotham, David 260–1 Randers, Jørgen, The Limits to Growth 1–2 rape 47, 142–3, 183 Rau, Cornelia 289 Reagan, Ronald 238 Red Cross 342n89 refugee camps, Haiti 141–4 refugee crisis, Europe 95–8 refugees see asylum seekers Regan, Tony 159, 161 Rendon Group 26 Rene, George Andy 136 Reporters Without Borders 74 resource curse 13 resource exploitation accountability 180 Afghanistan 24, 49–50 Christmas Island 274 as entertainment 306–7 Haiti 120–1 impact 164–5, 166–7, 168 landowner rights 177 opposition to 178–80 Papua New Guinea 120, 154–64, 176, 184–91, 344n19, 346n33 regulation 120–1 responsibility 161 toxic dilemma of 162 and violence 159–60, 163–4, 167–8 “Restore Haiti” conference 136 Rhiannon, Lee 50 Rice, Susan 116 Rio Tinto 154, 157, 159, 162, 180, 186–8, 189 Risen, James, Pay Any Price 11 Roches, James Des 33 Roka, Theonila 159 Rolling Stone 41 Rompos, Antonios 78–80 Rooney, Nahau 281 Roupakias, Giorgos 90 Royal Mail 236 Roy, Arundhati 5–6, 307–8 Rubio, Marco 228 Rudd, Kevin 289, 290 Rumsfeld, Donald 26, 29–30 Saddam Hussein 25 Sae-A 130, 131, 132, 134, 135, 148 SAIC 31 Sally (case manager) 300–1, 303–4 Samaras, Antonis 94–5 Sanderson, Janet A. 115 Sandline 180 Sanon, Reyneld 150–1 Sarantou, Elina 66–7 Sarobi 38 Sassen, Saskia 99 Sassine, George 134–6 Sathi (asylum seeker) 253–4 Scahill, Jeremy 15 Scarperia, Annette 206 Schäuble, Wolfgang 75 Schofield, Josh 206 Schuller, Mark 107 Schumer, Chuck 228 Schwartz, Timothy 144–7, 342n92 Schweich, Thomas 38 Sean (Serco source) 292–4 Security and Management Services 57 security, outsourcing see private military companies Sediqqi, Sediq 41–2 sentencing reform, United States of America 198 September 11 terrorist attacks, 2001 7, 33 Serco 13, 232, 235, 240, 248, 252, 264, 270, 271, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 284, 289–99, 359n30 Shah, Rajiv 123 Shahshahani, Azadeh 226–7 Shah, Silky 222, 227–8 Sharon (detention center worker) 298 Sheffield 230–5, 262 Shell 186 Shield Defence Systems 204 shock doctors 8 Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (Klein) 6–7, 11 Sideris, Christos 80–4 Simon (teacher) 272 Singer, P.


pages: 478 words: 126,416

Other People's Money: Masters of the Universe or Servants of the People? by John Kay

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, NetJets, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War

Credit expansion could not continue indefinitely: it would inevitably go into reverse when the low quality of much of the induced lending was revealed. And that was what happened in the global financial crisis. The social tensions that had been suppressed when consumption was growing faster than incomes were no longer contained. Public opinion turned against banking and finance, reflected in the Occupy movement and the surge in popularity of fringe political movements. A century after Upton Sinclair and Ida Tarbell the tradition of the muckraker was revived. A new generation of journalists sought to expose corporate and – especially – financial malpractice. When the internet journalist Matt Taibbi described Goldman Sachs as ‘a giant vampire squid, sucking money from wherever it finds it’,45 the description quickly went viral.

.: Hyperion 220 Loomis, Carol 108 lotteries 65, 66, 68, 72 Lucas, Robert 40 Lynch, Dennios 108 Lynch, Peter 108, 109 M M-Pesa 186 Maastricht Treaty (1993) 243, 250 McCardie, Sir Henry 83, 84, 282, 284 McGowan, Harry 45 Machiavelli, Niccolò 224 McKinley, William 44 McKinsey 115, 126 Macy’s department store 46 Madoff, Bernard 29, 118, 131, 132, 177, 232, 293 Madoff Securities 177 Magnus, King of Sweden 196 Manhattan Island, New York: and Native American sellers 59, 63 Manne, Henry 46 manufacturing companies, rise of 45 Marconi 48 marine insurance 62, 63 mark-to-market accounting 126, 128–9, 320n22 mark-to-model approach 128–9, 320n21