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Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans
"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K
Her intellectual ambidexterity was legendary: Kathleen Broome Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004), 12. It was a nice vacation from the breakneck: Williams, Grace Hopper, 16. “one jump ahead of the students”: Grace Murray Hopper, interview by Uta Merzbach, July 1968, Computer Oral History Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, 16, http://amhistory.si.edu/archives/AC0196.pdf. it was a “gorgeous year”: Ibid., 28. “I was beginning to feel pretty isolated”: Ibid., 25. “We usually ended up going through together”: Ibid. “I just reveled in it”: Ibid., 26. “Where have you been?”: Ibid., 29. Everyone at Harvard called it the Mark I computer: Kurt W. Beyer, Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009), 37.
CHAPTER THREE: THE SALAD DAYS He promptly remarried: Williams, Grace Hopper, 17. “My time was up”: Hopper, interview by Merzbach, 1969, 15. If the computer didn’t run: Ibid. But computers had a huge: Abbate, Recoding Gender, 42. “I loved it,” she wrote: Bartik, Pioneer Programmer, 140. “The fact is,” Betty Snyder said: Frances E. “Betty” Holberton, interview by James Ross, April 1983, Charles Babbage Institute, Center for Information Processing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 10, www.cbi.umn.edu/oh. “a very delightful person”: Hopper, interview by Merzbach, 1969, 3. “We all accepted Pres”: Bartik, Pioneer Programmer, 138–40. A year into her employment: Ibid., 123. “That’s how so many secretaries”: Captain Grace Hopper, “Oral History of Captain Grace Hopper: Interviewed by Angeline Pantages,” December 1980, Computer History Museum, 27, www.computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories.
But working on military calculations during World War II allowed Betty Jean Jennings, Betty Snyder, Grace Hopper, and their peers to do more with their lives than teach, marry, or be secretaries. It opened an entirely new technical field to women, one whose importance would become evident only after they showed what remarkable things could be done at the confluence of people and computing machines. But change is never so simple. As easily as war gave these women a ticket out of potentially desultory marriages and dead-end secretarial careers, peace threatened to take it all away. After the war, as military funding dried up and authority over computational projects transitioned back to civilian hands, Grace Hopper found herself at a crossroads. In a short time, she’d become an expert in a nascent field, but she’d made sacrifices.
AIQ: How People and Machines Are Smarter Together by Nick Polson, James Scott
Air France Flight 447, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, basic income, Bayesian statistics, business cycle, Cepheid variable, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Charles Pickering, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Flash crash, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, index fund, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, late fees, low earth orbit, Lyft, Magellanic Cloud, mass incarceration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Moravec's paradox, more computing power than Apollo, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, North Sea oil, p-value, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, speech recognition, statistical model, survivorship bias, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional
Why is data so important here—why can’t you just get a machine to follow linguistic rules that we write down explicitly, the same way you teach a third-grader to understand English grammar, or a machine to understand Python? To answer these questions, we’d like to tell you the story of Grace Hopper. She was nicknamed “Amazing Grace,” and not just because she’s the only person in this book to have appeared on the David Letterman show.* Hopper earned a PhD in mathematics from Yale in 1934, joined the United States Navy during World War II, and served her country in uniform for over 42 years. Along the way, she became the first person in history to get a computer to understand English. So the story of machines that can speak, listen, and write—the story of Watson, Alexa, chatbots, Google Translate, and all the other linguistic marvels of the digital world—really all begins with Amazing Grace. Grace Hopper, Queen of Software Grace Hopper was born in New York City in 1906. As a young girl she learned quickly that her family held two values in especially high esteem: self-sufficiency and service to country.
A minor technical point: for our purposes, there is no need to distinguish between a “compiler” (for a language like C++ or Java) and an “interpreter” (for a language like Python). We use the term “compiler” to encompass both concepts here. 4. Kathleen Broome Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2004), 1. 5. Ibid., 2. 6. Ibid., 11. 7. Ibid., 18–20. 8. Ibid., 22. 9. Ibid., 26. 10. Ibid., 29. 11. Ibid., 27–28. 12. Ibid., 82. 13. Kurt W. Beyer, Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009), 53. 14. Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Vintage, 1980), 290. 15. Williams, Grace Hopper, 70. 16. Ibid., 80. 17. Ibid., 85. 18. Ibid., 86. 19. Ibid. 20. See ibid., 87. Original reference in Richard L. Wexelblat, ed., History of Programming Languages I (New York: ACM, 1978), 17. 21.
At her promotion to commodore in 1983, her words as she shook the hand of President Ronald Reagan were “I’m older than you are.” She finally retired for good in 1986, at the age of 79. Hopper died in 1992, but her legacy lives on. Over the years she’s had many things named after her, including a navy ship, a Cray supercomputer, and Grace Hopper College, at Yale University. She was posthumously honored with a Google Doodle in December of 2013, and with a Presidential Medal of Freedom in November of 2016. No doubt her great-grandfather the admiral would have been proud. Through her efforts to bring people and machines a bit closer together through language, Grace Hopper played an enormous role in inventing the modern world. 5 THE GENIUS AT THE ROYAL MINT Real-time monitoring, from sports to policing to financial fraud: what Isaac Newton’s worst mathematical mistake can teach you about the search for anomalies in massive data sets.
The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson
1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
The Staff of the Harvard Computation Library [Grace Hopper and Howard Aiken], A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Harvard, 1946). 8. Grace Hopper oral history, Computer History Museum. 9. Beyer, Grace Hopper, 130. 10. Beyer, Grace Hopper, 135. 11. Richard Bloch oral history, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. 12. Beyer, Grace Hopper, 53. 13. Grace Hopper and Richard Bloch panel discussion comments, Aug. 30, 1967, in Henry S. Tropp, “The 20th Anniversary Meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery,” IEEE Annals, July 1987. 14. Beyer, Grace Hopper, 5. 15. Hopper oral history, Smithsonian, July 5, 1972. 16. Howard Aiken oral history, conducted by Henry Tropp and I. Bernard Cohen, Smithsonian Institution, Feb. 1973. 17. Grace Hopper and John Mauchly, “Influence of Programming Techniques on the Design of Computers,” Proceedings of the IRE, Oct. 1953. 18.
In addition to the sources cited below, this section draws from Kurt Beyer, Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age (MIT, 2009), and the following trove of Grace Hopper oral histories: Smithsonian (five sessions), July 1968, Nov. 1968, Jan. 7, 1969, Feb. 4, 1969, July 5, 1972; the Computer History Museum, Dec. 1980; Grace Hopper interview, Sept. 1982, Women in Federal Government oral history project, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard. 3. Kurt Beyer mistakenly calls her the first to get a math doctorate from Yale. Charlotte Barnum was the first in 1895, and there were ten before Hopper. See Judy Green and Jeanne LaDuke, Pioneering Women in American Mathematics: The pre-1940 PhDs (American Mathematical Society, 2009), 53; Beyer, Grace Hopper, 25 and 26. 4. Hopper oral history, Smithsonian, July 5, 1972. 5.
This would require the next major step in the creation of the modern computer: figuring out how to store programs inside a machine’s electronic memory. GRACE HOPPER Starting with Charles Babbage, the men who invented computers focused primarily on the hardware. But the women who became involved during World War II saw early on the importance of programming, just as Ada Lovelace had. They developed ways to code the instructions that told the hardware what operations to perform. In this software lay the magic formulas that could transform the machines in wondrous ways. The most colorful programming pioneer was a gutsy and spirited, yet also charming and collegial, naval officer named Grace Hopper, who ended up working for Howard Aiken at Harvard and then for Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. Born Grace Brewster Murray in 1906, she was from a prosperous family on the Upper West Side of Manhattan.
1947: Where Now Begins by Elisabeth Åsbrink
Despite their luxurious residences and luxurious cars, the Journal writes, Cominform staff live like prisoners. Cambridge, Massachusetts Grace Hopper walks a tightrope between two languages. The field in which she establishes herself lies between machine and human. She drinks too much, smokes too much, works too much. It is a lonely life. There comes a time when she wants to give up, but she keeps going, sobers up, and returns to the work that she herself invents. Computers are her workmates, huge beasts to be tamed, and she becomes their tamer. Grace Hopper thinks less about what the machines actually do than about what they might do. One never knows. Just imagine. She’s sure their internal workings can be modified. This is a year when new inventions sparkle: Polaroid cameras, transistors, wireless phones. In Grace Hopper’s view, it should be possible to replace all these different devices with a single one that can perform all tasks — with the right programming.
This comprises a minimum of six toothed wheels, each driving another so that each hand moves at precisely the correct speed. There is a flat spring in its case. Adjacent to it is a pinion. The pendulum swings from one tick to another. The amplitude in between is called time. Grace Hopper is interested in calculations. She was seven years old when she opened all seven clocks at home. After that, her parents made sure she received an education in physics and mathematics. In the course of her life, she holds a string of posts that have no job title, simply because she herself invents them. Grace Hopper increasingly absorbs the future into herself. Now she is at Harvard, having been appointed to a wartime post as a mathematician in the US Navy — despite being a woman. (Her boss, the brilliant Mr Aiken, never tires of commenting on that fact.)
If only there were a language that could translate human commands to the machine, if only the machine could program itself, she would be spared the task. She sits at her desk for hours on end, her head bent over her calculations. Later, when each new computer requires its own intermediary language, threatening the expanding information technology empire with fragmentation, Grace Hopper leads work on creating a single, standardized programming language, COBOL. “I can get a computer to do exactly what I want, as long as I define it.” There are a thousand reasons to open a clock. When seven-year-old Grace Hopper opens seven clocks, there must be at least seven thousand reasons. Now she uses figures to construct a language to talk to a machine. Buenos Aires One of the men who arrive in Buenos Aires in 1947 is the Swedish Nazi and SS volunteer Hans-Caspar Kreuger. He works here as an instructor in the Argentinian army.
Technically Wrong: Sexist Apps, Biased Algorithms, and Other Threats of Toxic Tech by Sara Wachter-Boettcher
Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, Grace Hopper, job automation, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
Back in October 2014, when she was a sophomore computer science major at Dartmouth, she headed to Houston for the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing—a massive conference full of famous speakers, big budgets, and lots of conference swag. She was ready. She had just completed an internship at Time Inc., where she’d worked on a new app for Entertainment Weekly. She’d also just launched an iPhone app of her own, We Read Too, which helps kids and teens find books featuring people of color. She had worked in an on-campus lab building games. She had contributed to open-source code projects. And she’d put it all on a résumé she hoped would catch the attention of the “cool” tech companies that attend Grace Hopper to recruit interns and new staffers, and get some good PR for supporting women in technology—companies like Twitter, Pinterest, Apple, and Google.
And so she felt invisible—erased from an event that, she thought, was designed for people like her: young women aiming to kick-start their technical careers. Thomas had good reason to think Grace Hopper would lead to internship opportunities, too. These companies talk endlessly about how hard it is to find enough programmers to fill their positions. Other women told her they’d left the event swimming in job offers to choose from. But looking back, Thomas realized that those women all had something in common: they were white. She is black. So she started talking with other women of color and found that their experiences were similar: they felt ignored or overlooked in a sea of white faces. It’s not just Grace Hopper. You can’t throw a pebble in Palo Alto without hitting a corporate-funded “diversity” event these days—like the “Lean In” circles that Facebook executive Sheryl Sandberg advocated in her book of the same name, or the ubiquitous code camps for kids from low-income homes put on by companies like Google.
You can’t throw a pebble in Palo Alto without hitting a corporate-funded “diversity” event these days—like the “Lean In” circles that Facebook executive Sheryl Sandberg advocated in her book of the same name, or the ubiquitous code camps for kids from low-income homes put on by companies like Google. But what Thomas experienced convinced her that it’s not really about the pipeline. The tech industry just isn’t looking for people of color—even when those candidates are right in front of them, like she was at Grace Hopper. Plus, most tech recruiters go back to the same schools, over and over—Stanford, Carnegie Mellon, MIT—rather than reaching out to places with more diverse student bodies (and strong computer science departments). “If you want to recruit more new grads of color, send technical recruiters to Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Hispanic-Serving Institutes [sic],” she wrote. “Stop blaming us for not doing YOUR job.” 11 The numbers back her up.
Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang
23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce
A story broke: Amir Efrati, “Uber Group’s Visit to Seoul Escort Bar Sparked HR Complaint,” The Information, March 24, 2017, https://www.theinformation.com/uber-groups-visit-to-seoul-escort-bar-sparked-hr-complaint. “Why Is Silicon Valley So Awful to Women?”: Liza Mundy, “Why Is Silicon Valley So Awful to Women?,” Atlantic, April 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/04/why-is-silicon-valley-so-awful-to-women/517788. she attended the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women: Sheryl Sandberg et al., “GHC 2013 Keynote Sheryl Sandberg, Maria Klawe, Telle Whitney,” Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, Nov. 9, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=362AygQGMGk. Chou wrote a Medium essay: Tracy Chou, “Where Are the Numbers?,” Medium, Oct. 11, 2013, https://medium.com/@triketora/where-are-the-numbers-cb997a57252. The “Elephant in the Valley” study: Trae Vassallo et al., “The Elephant in the Valley,” www.elephantinthevalley.com, 2017, https://www.elephantinthevalley.com.
But in tech’s earliest days, programmers looked a lot different. In fact, they looked like women. In his history of the internet, The Innovators, Walter Isaacson points out that while men focused on building computer hardware in the industry’s early days, it was women who pioneered the equally important task of developing software—that is, telling the machines what to do. One pioneer was Grace Hopper, a mathematics PhD and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy, who in 1944 programmed the Mark I, a giant computer at Harvard University. During World War II, the Mark I helped design the atomic bombs America would drop the following year. Hopper had an uncanny ability to translate problems into mathematical equations, then communicate them to machines in a language they could process. She also took a collaborative approach to coding, sending versions to others to ask for help with improvements.
The photo of a real-life IBM systems engineer, Ann Richardson, appeared alongside the piece. Sporting a dress, pearly earrings, and a short bouffant, she smiled broadly as she pointed to a computer screen. One woman quoted explained that she thought she would just be pressing buttons all day but instead discovered that “I figure out how the computer can solve a problem and then instruct the machine to do it.” Cosmopolitan even interviewed Grace Hopper, who compared programming to planning a dinner, something she said women are expert at because of their patience and attention to detail. “Women are ‘naturals’ at computer programming,” Hopper declared matter-of-factly. Cosmo backed her up, declaring this “a whole new kind of work for women . . . Telling the miracle machines what to do and how to do it . . . and if it doesn’t sound like woman’s work—well, it just is.”
Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra
Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce
Corporations set up training programmes, fly-by-night vocational schools sprang up guaranteeing jobs: “There’s room for everyone. The industry needs people. You’ve got what it takes.”21 In 1967, Cosmopolitan magazine carried an article titled “The Computer Girls” that emphasized that programming was a field in which there was “no sex discrimination in hiring”—“every company that makes or uses computers hires women to program them … If a girl is qualified, she’s got the job.” Admiral Grace Hopper, programming pioneer, assured the Cosmo readers that programming was “just like planning a dinner … You have to plan ahead and schedule everything so it’s ready when you need it. Programming requires patience and the ability to handle detail. Women are ‘naturals’ at computer programming.”22 Already, though, the “masculinization process” of the computing industry was underway. The severe limitations of memory and processing power in the machines of the day demanded Mel the Real Programmer’s wizardry; John Backus described programming in the fifties as “a black art, a private arcane matter … [in which] the success of a program depended primarily on the programmer’s private techniques and inventions.”23 The aptitude tests used by the industry to identify potential Mels consisted primarily of mathematical and logical puzzles, which often required a formal education in these disciplines; even Cosmopolitan magazine, despite its breezy confidence about the absence of sexism in computing, recognized this as a barrier to entry for its readers.
The “masculinization process” that Ensmenger describes has resulted in a contemporary American culture of programming that is overwhelmingly male, as one can see at conferences, on websites and blogs. The metaphors used within this world of one-man armies are very often martial. Teams working against impossible deadlines go on “death marches.” Finding and fixing defects in software is a pains-taking, detail-oriented task, one which Grace Hopper might have compared to housekeeping; but in the parlance of many programming shops, the most proficient bug sweepers are “bug slayers.” In March 2011, David Barrett, CEO of Expensify (“Expense Reports That Don’t Suck”), blogged about how his start-up wouldn’t hire programmers who used Microsoft’s very large and elaborate .NET framework, which—according to him—provided ready-made, assembly-line tools that turned these programmers into drudges capable of only mass-producing pre-designed code, the programming equivalent of fast-food burgers.
One of the hallmarks of a cultural system that is predominant is that it succeeds, to some degree, in making itself invisible, or at least in presenting itself as the inevitable outcome of environmental processes that exist outside of the realm of culture, within nature. The absence of women within the industry is thus often seen as a hard “scientific” reality rooted in biology, never mind that the very first algorithm designed for execution by a machine was created by Lady Ada Byron, never mind Grace Hopper’s creation of the first compiler, and never mind that the culture of the industry may be foreign or actively hostile to women. The tech industry prides itself on being populated by rational thinkers, by devotees of the highest ideals of freedom and equality. Human resources departments are rightfully leery of litigation, and try to protect the companies through training and education. Yet, over the last few years, the industry has been beset by controversies sparked by acts of casual sexism—images of bikini-clad women used as backdrops for presentations about software; a Boston start-up that announced a hack-a-thon and as “Great Perks” offered gym access, food trucks, and women: “Need another beer?
The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger
barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K
This had the positive effect of convincing the ENIAC managers that programmers were essential to the success of the overall project and that well-informed, technically proficient, high-quality programmers were especially indispensable. Thus, what was supposed to have been a low-level skill, a static activity, prepared these women coders well for careers as programmers, and indeed, those who did pursue professional careers in computing often became programmers and thrived at it. A few women, Grace Hopper and Betty Holberton of UNIVAC as well as Ida Rhodes and Gertrude Blanche of the National Bureau of Standards in particular, continued to serve as leaders in the programming profession. But despite the success of the ENIAC women in establishing a unique occupational niche for the programmer within the ENIAC community, programming continued to be perceived as marginal to the central business of computer development.
Some companies tested all of their employees, including the secretaries, in the hope that hidden talent could be identified.99 A group called the Computer Personnel Development Association was formed to scour local community centers for promising programmer candidates.100 Local YMCAs offered the test for a nominal fee, as did local community colleges.101 In 1968 computer service bureaus in New York City, desperate to fill the demand for more programmers, began testing inmates at the nearby Sing-Sing Prison, promising them permanent positions pending their release.102 That same year, Cosmopolitan Magazine urged “Cosmo Girls” to go out and become “computer girls” making “$15,000 a year” as programmers. Not only did the widespread personnel problem in computing make it possible for women to break into the industry but the field was also currently “overrun with males,” making it easy to find desirable dating prospects. Programming was “just like planning a dinner,” the article quoted software pioneer Admiral Grace Hopper as saying. “Women are ‘naturals’ at computer programming.” And in true Cosmopolitan fashion, the article was also accompanied by a quiz: in this case, a mini programmer aptitude test adapted from an exam developed at NCR.103 The influx of new programmer trainees and vocational school graduates into the software labor market only exacerbated an already-dire labor situation. The market was flooded with aspiring programmers with little training and no practical experience.
The Short Order Code allowed Mauchly to directly enter equations into the BINAC using a fairly conventional algebraic notation. The system did not actually produce program code, however: it was an interpretative system that merely called up predefined subroutines and displayed the result. Nevertheless, the Short Order Code represented a considerable improvement over the standard binary instruction set. In 1951 Grace Hopper, another UNIVAC employee, wrote the first automatic program compiler. Although Hopper, like many other programmers, had benefited from the development of a subroutine library, she also perceived the limitations connected with its use. In order to be widely applicable, subroutines had to be written as generically as possible. They all started at line 0 and were numbered sequentially from there.
Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game
We need to be willing to lean into uncertainty, to take risks, and to move quickly when we make mistakes, recognizing failure happens along the way to mastery. Sometimes it feels like a bird learning to fly. You flap around for a while, and then you run around. Learning to fly is not pretty but flying is. If you want to see what flapping around looks like, do a search for me and karma. It’s a fall day in Phoenix, Arizona, and I am attending the Grace Hopper celebration of women in computing, the world’s largest gathering of women technologists. Diversity and inclusion is a bedrock strategy in building the culture we need and want, but as a company and as an industry we’ve come up far too short. According to one report, women in the United States held 57 percent of professional occupations in the 2015 workforce, but only 25 percent of professional computing occupations.
But perhaps what taught me more was hearing stories from women I deeply respect about the bias they experienced earlier in their careers: being told to smile more often, being blocked from joining the good old boys’ club, or facing the difficult trade-off between taking time off after having a baby or relentlessly climbing the career ladder—these powerful women who shared the hurt of their past experiences with me. During this time, I also found myself reflecting on the sacrifices my mother made for me and the challenging decision Anu had made to leave her promising career as an architect to care for Zain and our two girls full-time for more than two decades. She made it possible for my career to advance at Microsoft. Since my remarks at Grace Hopper, Microsoft has made the commitment to drive real change in this area—linking executive compensation to diversity progress, investing in diversity programs, and sharing data publicly about pay equity for gender, racial, and ethnic minorities. In some ways, I’m glad I messed up in such a public forum because it helped me confront an unconscious bias I didn’t know I had, and it helped me find a new sense of empathy for the great women in my life and at my company.
., 145 Gates, Bill, 4, 12, 21, 28, 64, 46, 67–69, 73–75, 87, 91, 127, 146, 183, 203 Gavasker, Sunil, 36 GE, 3, 126–27, 237 Gelernter, David, 143, 183 Geneva Convention, Fourth (1949), 171 Georgia Pacific, 29 Germany, 220, 223, 227–36 Gervais, Michael, 4–5 Gini, Corrado, 219 Gini coefficient, 219–21 GLEAM, 117 Gleason, Steve, 10–11 global competitiveness, 78–79, 100–102, 215 global information, policy and, 191 globalization, 222, 227, 235–37 global maxima, 221–22 goals, 90, 136 Goethe, J.W. von, 155 Go (game), 199 Goldman Sachs, 3 Google, 26, 45, 70–72, 76, 127, 160, 173–74, 200 partnership with, 125, 130–32 Google DeepMind, 199 Google Glass, 145 Gordon, Robert, 234 Gosling, James, 26 government, 138, 160 cybersecurity and, 171–79 economic growth and, 12, 223–24, 226–28 policy and, 189–92, 223–28 surveillance and, 173–76, 181 Grace Hopper, 111–14 graph coloring, 25 graphical user interfaces (GUI), 26–27 graphics-processing unit (GPU), 161 Great Convergence, the (Baldwin), 236 Great Recession (2008), 46, 212 Greece, 43 Green Card (film), 33 Guardians of Peace, 169 Gutenberg Bible, 152 Guthrie, Scott, 3, 58, 60, 82, 171 H1B visa, 32–33 habeas corpus, 188 Haber, Fritz, 165 Haber process, 165 hackathon, 103–5 hackers, 169–70, 177, 189, 193 Hacknado, 104 Halo, 156 Hamaker, Jon, 157 haptics, 148 Harvard Business Review, 118 Harvard College, 3 Harvey Mudd College, 112 Hawking, Stephen, 13 Hazelwood, Charles, 180 head-mounted computers, 144–45 healthcare, 41–42, 44, 142, 155–56, 159, 164, 198, 218, 223, 225, 237 Healthcare.gov website, 3, 81, 238 Heckerman, David, 158 Hewlett Packard, 63, 87, 127, 129 hierarchy, 101 Himalayas, 19 Hindus, 19 HIV/AIDS, 159, 164 Hobijn, Bart, 217 Hoffman, Reid, 232, 233 Hogan, Kathleen, 3, 80–82, 84 Holder, Eric, 173–74 Hollywood, 159 HoloLens, 69, 89, 125, 144–49, 236 home improvement, 149 Hong Kong, 229 Hood, Amy (CFO), 3, 5, 82, 90 Horvitz, Eric, 154, 208 hospitals, 42, 78, 145, 153, 223 Hosseini, Professor, 23 Huang, Xuedong, 151 human capital, 223, 226 humanistic approach, 204 human language recognition, 150–51, 154–55 human performance, augmented by technology, 142–43, 201 human rights, 186 Hussain, Mumtaz, 36, 37 hybrid computing, 89 Hyderabad, 19, 36–37, 92 Hyderabad Public School (HPS), 19–20, 22, 37–38, 136 hyper-scale, cloud-first services, 50 hypertext, 142 IBM, 1, 160, 174, 198 IBM Watson, 199–200 ideas, 16, 42 Illustrator, 136 image processing, 24 images, moving, 109 Imagine Cup competition, 149 Immelt, Jeff, 237 Immigration and Naturalization Act (1965), 24, 32–33 import taxes, 216 inclusiveness, 101–2, 108, 111, 113–17, 202, 206, 238 independent software vendor (ISV), 26 India, 6, 12, 17–22, 35–37, 170, 186–87, 222–23, 236 immigration from, 22–26, 32–33, 114–15 independence and, 16–17, 24 Indian Administrative Service (IAS), 16–17, 31 Indian Constitution, 187 Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), 21, 24 Indian Premier League, 36 IndiaStack, 222–23 indigenous peoples, 78 Indonesia, 223, 225 industrial policy, 222 Industrial Revolution, 215 Fourth or future, 12, 239 information platforms, 206 information technology, 191 Infosys, 222 infrastructure, 88–89, 152–53, 213 innovation, 1–2, 40, 56, 58, 68, 76, 102, 111, 120, 123, 142, 212, 214, 220, 224, 234 innovator’s dilemma, 141–42 insurance industry, 60 Intel, 21, 45, 160, 161 intellectual property, 230 intelligence, 13, 88–89, 126, 150, 154–55, 160, 169, 173, 239 intelligence communities, 173 intensity of use, 217, 219, 221, 224–26 International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, 162 Internet, 28, 30, 48, 79, 97–98, 222 access and, 225–26, 240 security and privacy and, 172–73 Internet Explorer, 127 Internet of Things (IoT), 79, 134, 142, 228 Internet Tidal Wave, 203 Intersé, 3 Interview, The (film), 169–71 intimidation, 38 investment strategy, 90, 142 iOS devices, 59, 72, 123, 132 iPad, 70, 141 iPad Pro, 123–25 iPhone, 70, 72, 85, 121–22, 125, 177–79 Irish data center, 176, 184 Islamic State (ISIS), 177 Istanbul, 214 Jaisimha, M.L., 18, 36–37 Japan, 44, 223, 230 Japanese-American internment, 188 JAVA, 26 Jeopardy (TV show), 199 Jha, Rajesh, 82 jobs, 214, 231, 239–40.
Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise
Coders tend to be good at thinking logically, systematically. All day long you’re having to think about if-then statements or ponder wickedly complex ontologies, groups that are subgroups of subgroups. (Philosophy students, it seems, make excellent coders: I met philosophy majors employed at Kickstarter, start-ups, and oodles of other firms.) Coders are curious, relentlessly so, about how things work. When the pioneering coder Grace Hopper was a child, she destroyed so many clocks trying to open them up that her parents restricted her to just one to dismantle and rebuild. But if you had to pick the central plank of coder psychology, the one common thread in nearly everyone who gravitates to this weird craft? It’s a boundless, nigh masochistic ability to endure brutal, grinding frustration. That’s because even though they’re called “programmers,” when they’re sitting at the keyboard, they’re quite rarely writing new lines of code.
After the war, coding jobs shifted from the military to the workplace, and industry desperately needed more programmers—and thus some way to make coding easier than having to onerously write cryptic, number-based “machine code.” Here, women again wound up being pioneers. They designed some of the first “compilers.” These were programs that would let you create a programming language that more closely resembled actual English writing. A coder could thus write the English-like code, and the compiler would do the hard work of turning it into 1s and 0s for the computer. Grace Hopper was wildly productive in this field, often credited as creating the first compiler, as well as the “FLOW-MATIC” language aimed at nontechnical businesspeople. Later, she worked with a team to create COBOL, the language that became massively used by corporations, and the programmer Jean Sammet from that group remained influential in the language’s use for decades. (Her desire, she said, was “to put every person in communication with the computer.”)
Unleashed by Anne Morriss, Frances Frei
"side hustle", Airbnb, Donald Trump, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Jeff Bezos, Netflix Prize, Network effects, performance metric, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, women in the workforce
Here’s what different tends to look like when it comes to attraction: identify the profiles you’re missing and recruit in places where they tend to gather. For example, if you’re an organization that skews white and male in its leadership ranks and you’re now looking for legal talent, start with organizations like 1844, an association of successful black lawyers.b If you’re looking for technical talent, attend the Grace Hopper Celebration, which bills itself as “the world’s largest gathering of women technologists.”2 Begin actively recruiting at historically black colleges and universities. And women’s colleges. And colleges in geographies that are unfamiliar to you. Said differently, if you want to attract different types of people, then start meeting them where they are, in different types of places (ideally, where they’re the majority).
INDEX absence leadership, 131–132 culture and, 165–192 strategy and, 135–163 Adams, John, 3 Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 62 after-action reviews, 79 agony of the super smart (ASS), 40 AirBnB, 102 “A” leaders, 132 Amazon, 158 Anheuser-Busch, 107–108 Apple, 113, 143 Aristotle, 34 attribute maps, 137, 139–140 auftragstaktik, 17 authenticity in digital age, 52–54 triggers, 52–53 trust and, 34–37, 47–54, 57 Average You, 139 Azzarello, Patty, 139 “balanced slates,” 103–104 Basch, Michael, 165–166 Bee, Samantha, 102–103 belonging, 12, 13, 87, 89–127 Bezos, Jeff, 158 bias, 47, 92, 93, 115, 116 Bird, Larry, 45 Black Googlers Network, 5 Black Lives Matter, 24 black working moms, 126–127 Blendoor, 103 blind submissions, 102 bro culture, 180 Brown-Philpot, Stacy, 5, 148–152, 161 Bummer You, 139 Burns, Ursula, 101 Carlzon, Jan, 159–160 change beginning, 90–91 to culture, 167, 182–185, 186–190 managing, 152 resistance to, 92–94 Chouinard, Yvon, 42 Coleman, Debi, 77 common information effect, 48–49 communal workspaces, 40 communication of change, 152 of devotion, 82–84 directness in, 22–23 effective, 45–46 of strategy, 156–161 communication triangle, 46, 56 compensation, 121–122, 146–148 constructive advice, 75–76 Corning, 80–81 Costco, 44 cultural fit, 102–104 cultural values, 166–172 at Netflix, 168–169, 172 at Riot Games, 124, 181 at Uber, 32, 55 culture, 12–14, 132, 165–192 changing, 167, 182–185, 186–190 defined, 166–169, 172 examining your, 176–178 humor and, 170–172 of inclusion, 104–108 problems, 172–182 role of, 165–166 Culture Change Playbook, 182–185 culture of inclusion, creating, 104–107 culture warrior, 168, 177, 182 Curl-Mix, 157 deeply/simply communication, 158 #deleteUber, 31 DeLong, Tom, 90–91 Dempsey, Martin, 16–17 development, 109, 112–114 devotion, 62–67, 72–73, 74, 81, 82–84 diverse teams, 48–49 diversity, 89–90 attracting diverse talent, 95–104 celebrating, 105, 107 cherishing, 105, 107–108 Doukeris, Michel, 107–108 Drucker, Peter, 132 Drybar, 157 Dunaway, Cammie, 96–97, 102 Duolingo, 96–97 Dweck, Carol, 72–73, 74, 191 Edmondson, Amy, 107 1844 organization, 96 empathy constructive advice and, 75 future of work and, 42–44 trust and, 34–41, 51, 57 empathy wobble, 39–41, 42 employees attracting diverse, 95–104 development of, 109, 112–114 firing, 84, 85–86 investment in, 44, 55–56 outside lives of, 83–84, 100–101 promotion process for, 114–115, 116 retaining, 120–122 selection of, 102 supporting queer, 110–113 toxic, 123 wages of, 146–148 empowerment leadership, 4–5, 10–15, 18–21 in action, 16–18 belonging and, 90 commitment to, 116 development of, 71–87 getting started with, 22–23 Endeavor, 121 equal opportunity, 104–114 equal pay, 121–122 Escobari, Marcela, 43–44 exit interviews, 175 Facebook, 102 FedEx, 165–166 feedback giving effective, 22–23 positive, 73–76 fidelity, 61, 63, 64, 66, 73 firing, with respect, 85–86 forgiveness, 123 Fowler, Susan, 31, 174 Franco-Prussian War, 17 Freire, Paulo, 44 Gandhi, Mohandas, 24 Gelb, Scott, 124–126 gender bias, 117–118 gender equity, 91, 115 gender identities, 110–112 gig economy, 148 GLAAD, 110 good jobs research, 147–148 Google, 5, 79 grace, 123, 124–126 Grace Hopper Celebration, 96 Gross, Terry, 82 growth mindset, 72–73, 191 Hannenberg, Emily, 17–18 Harvard Business School, 91, 115, 122, 186–190 Hastings, Reed, 169, 172 high standards, 77–81 hiring quotas, 104 Hoffman, Reid, 9, 11 Hogan, Kathleen, 116, 191 Holder, Eric, 51 homogenous teams, 48–49 Hoobanoff, Jamie, 98 HP, 139 Hsieh, Tony, 146 Huffington, Arianna, 7, 32 human resources life cycle, 90 Human Rights Campaign, 110 humor, 170–172 identity gender, 110–112 letting go of, 71–72 implicit bias, 116 improv, 20–21 inclusion, 50, 89–91 attracting diverse talent and, 95–104 commitment to, 116 culture of, 104–108 dial, 104–105 equal opportunity to thrive and, 104–114 growth and, 124 levels of, 104–108 promotions process and, 114–115, 116 of queer people, 110–112 resistance to, 92–94 at Riot Games, 124–126 talent retainment and, 120–122 working toward full, 126–127 inclusive hiring, 97 inclusive meetings, 108–109, 112–114 inclusive teams, 49, 89 “indignities” list, 101 informal development, 112–114 information common information effect, 48–49 learning from new, 54 Innova Schools project, 69–70 Intel, 79 Intercorp, 67–70 Isaac, Mike, 172–173 Isaacson, Walter, 77 JetBlue, 44, 167 Jobs, Steve, 77, 80–81 Johnson, Claire Hughes, 14 jokes, 170–172 Jordan, Michael, 3 Joyce, Meghan, 31 justice, 60–61, 63, 65, 66, 67, 71, 87, 122–123 Kalanick, Travis, 31–32, 51, 54, 172–176, 178–179 Kelleher, Herb, 136–138, 161 Khosrowshahi, Dara, 55, 56, 178–179 Krause, Aaron, 157 Landit, 14 language, “I” vs.
The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets by Simon Singh
Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Benoit Mandelbrot, cognitive dissonance, Donald Knuth, Erdős number, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, Kickstarter, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, P = NP, Paul Erdős, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, Schrödinger's Cat, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Wolfskehl Prize, women in the workforce
Similarly, mathematicians who have co-authored a paper with someone who has co-authored a paper with Erdős are said to have an Erdős number of 2, and so on. Via one chain or another, Erdős can be connected to almost any mathematician in the world, regardless of their field of research. Take Grace Hopper (1906–92) for example. She built the first compiler for a computer programming language, inspired the development of the programming language COBOL, and popularized the term bug to describe a defect in a computer after finding a moth trapped in the Mark II computer at Harvard University. Hopper did much of her mathematics in industry or as a member of the United States Navy. Indeed, “Amazing” Grace Hopper was eventually promoted to rear admiral, and there is now a destroyer named the USS Hopper. In short, Hopper’s hardheaded, applied, technology-driven, industrial, military mode of mathematics was utterly different from Erdős’s purist devotion to numbers, yet Hopper has an Erdős number of just 4.
Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters With Reality and Virtual Reality by Jaron Lanier
4chan, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, cosmological constant, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, impulse control, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons
You simply do one thing and then another, within the same world, the same continuity. Wouldn’t it make sense for VR software to be like that as well? Modeless?1 This was obvious from the start. So my compatriots and I had to reconsider the architecture of our software, starting with the most fundamental principles. Grace Back-and-forth mode swapping—between developing and running code—was mostly invented by Grace Hopper, the navy rear admiral and computer scientist who “codified” the core patterns for how software is still created today. “Source code” is the artifact we modify while in the caterpillar mode, when computer software is being created and edited. Such code is typically made of words from English plus other symbols, and it seems somewhat readable, as if it were a story about what the computer is supposed to do.
In that case, there will be various actions you can perform that cause the underlying bits to change so that the virtual world you are in will suddenly function differently. What might these actions be? Will you operate a simulated control panel that looks like the bridge of the Starship Enterprise? Or will you pull on chains in a medieval dungeon, or dance like a leaf? Or edit text that looks like the Grace Hopper–style source code everyone uses these days? Any and all of these editor designs might have a place. But there has to be some design. You can’t accomplish anything without embracing a point of view and a way of thinking. But there is no reason, fundamentally, to be inflexible about which design to use at a given time. What has happened in Grace’s universe of nonphenotropic source code is that each computer language proposes that certain abstract objects are not only real but mandatory, eternal, and inevitable while using that language.
A phenotropic editor could be designed and constrained to look like text, even though the effect arose from a more general graphical construction. Such an editor could do anything a compiler could do, but as live visual tweaking.6 We played favorites with certain editor designs, meaning with certain visual representations of code, often preferring a principle called dataflow. Dataflow typically looks like wires connecting modules. But it wasn’t fundamental. We could swap in Grace Hopper text–like editors, or other editors. The experience of programming briefly became a little more improvisatory, a little more like a cross between playing jazz on a horn and drawing mathematical diagrams. * * * Fifty-second VR Definition: A way of using computers that suggests a rejection of the idea of code. * * * Alas, we eventually had to ask VR customers to develop on a regular monitor instead of from within the virtual world.
Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway
Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor
Cyberfeminism adds a new dimension to the discussion begun in the previous sections on hackers and viruses, for this new strain deals with the negative space created within protocol through the injection of mutations, crashes, and viral code. With cyberfeminism, protocol becomes disturbed. Its course is altered and affected by the forces of randomness and corruption. Indeed it is possible to think of cyberfeminism itself as a type of virus, a bug within the larger protocological network. Sadie Plant and others have identiﬁed Grace Hopper as the discoverer of the ﬁrst computer bug. The bug was quite literally that, a moth caught in the innards of an early computing machine. The moth disrupted the normal functioning of the machine. Henceforth the term bug has been used to describe logical mistakes or glitches in computer code. The computer bug, far from being an unwanted footnote in the history of computing, is in fact a space where some of the most interesting protocological 30.
It seemed to me, that a lot of ‘orthodox’ feminist theory was still very technophobic.”38 Technophobic she is not. Throughout Plant’s book the intersection of woman and the protocological matrix is primary. This materializes itself historically in the matrix-based weaving processes of industrial power looms, in the predominantly female operators of phone networks, in the trope of the woman as computer programmer (Ada Lovelace, Grace Hopper) and in the weblike structure of cyberspace. Because of this history, Plant writes that technology threatens phallic control and is fundamentally a process of emasculation. “The matrix weaves itself in a future which has no place for historical man,”39 says Plant. The digital provides a space of valences that exists outside of and potentially preempts patriarchal structures. In other words, as protocol rises, patriarchy declines.
The Pragmatic Programmer by Andrew Hunt, Dave Thomas
A Pattern Language, Broken windows theory, business process, buy low sell high, c2.com, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Menlo Park, MVC pattern, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, revision control, Schrödinger's Cat, slashdot, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, traveling salesman, urban decay, Y2K
Once you've got it, show people, and let them marvel. Then say "of course, it would be better if we added...." Pretend it's not important. Sit back and wait for them to start asking you to add the functionality you originally wanted. People find it easier to join an ongoing success. Show them a glimpse of the future and you'll get them to rally around.  While doing this, you may be comforted by the line attributed to Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Hopper: "It's easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission." Tip 5 Be a Catalyst for Change The Villagers' Side On the other hand, the stone soup story is also about gentle and gradual deception. It's about focusing too tightly. The villagers think about the stones and forget about the rest of the world. We all fall for it, every day. Things just creep up on us. We've all seen the symptoms.
How do you get updates of the source? How do you make changes—does the project regulate access or arbitrate the inclusion of changes? 18. Debugging It is a painful thing To look at your own trouble and know That you yourself and no one else has made it • Sophocles, Ajax The word bug has been used to describe an "object of terror" ever since the fourteenth century. Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Hopper, the inventor of COBOL, is credited with observing the first computer bug—literally, a moth caught in a relay in an early computer system. When asked to explain why the machine wasn't behaving as intended, a technician reported that there was "a bug in the system," and dutifully taped it—wings and all—into the log book. Regrettably, we still have "bugs" in the system, albeit not the flying kind.
Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, From Missiles to the Moon to Mars by Nathalia Holt
Bill Gates: Altair 8800, British Empire, computer age, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, financial independence, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, labor-force participation, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, music of the spheres, new economy, operation paperclip, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Steve Jobs, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra
“Well, surely if she’s wearing one we can get away with it too?” Barbara said to Margie. They bought the pantsuits and wore them to the lab, feeling both beautiful and slightly scandalous. They had never worn slacks to work before. While trying out their new fashion-forward outfits, they were also debugging programs. A computer bug was a problem in the code. The term had been coined by Thomas Edison and then popularized by navy rear admiral Grace Hopper while she worked as a research fellow at Harvard University. On the evening of September 9, 1947, the operators of a Mark II computer at the university were having trouble with the machine. Upon investigating, they found a moth trapped in the relay points of a panel. They jokingly taped the dead insect in their lab notebook, noting “First actual case of bug being found.” After that night they loved to kid that they were debugging their computer program, and the term spread.
Birth control became available in 1960 in the United States, as described in James Reed, The Birth Control Movement and American Society: From Private Vice to Public Virtue (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014). A history of FORTRAN, along with descriptions of how early keypunch computers worked and the IBM 1620, can be found in Paul E. Ceruzzi, A History of Modern Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003). Grace Murray Hopper’s story is told in her biography, Kathleen Broome Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013). Lois Haibt is quoted as saying, “Nobody knew anything,” etc., when asked about compilers, in Lois Haibt, an oral-history interview conducted August 2, 2001, by Janet Abbate, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers History Center, Hoboken, NJ, U.S.A. (http://ethw.org/Oral-History:Lois_Haibt). The IBM 1620’s nickname of CADET was facetiously said to stand for “Can’t Add, Doesn’t Even Try” because it had no digital circuit that performed addition functions, which meant that operators had to look up their answers in tables instead, as described in Richard Vernon Andree, Computer Programming and Related Mathematics (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 1966).
Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari
Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional
We realized we had lots of similarities—it was just uncanny the number of similar things we had done over the years or our shared reactions to things. Now, she tells people that I am her sister. We became and continue to be very good friends. She introduced me to the Anita Borg2 people. At first, I didn't understand why I should go to the conferences that they ran, so Maria basically dragged me kicking and screaming to a Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing event. After that, I discovered I liked them and became very involved. I've sat on various committees for them and have done other things with them over the years. Ghaffari: What made you decide to head back to the East Coast to found the New England research center—Microsoft East? Chayes: Well, I wanted a challenge—a change. This is another characteristic I have.
I though there needed to be a combination of the mathematical and socials sciences, and also with design—considering design as an academic as well as applied discipline. __________ 2 Anita Borg was an American computer scientist who founded the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology, one of largest groups advocating for women in technology and engineering. The Institute runs the annual Grace Hopper Conference, which brings together thousands of women technologists. I knew very little about these other areas of inquiry. I started to do a little bit of work in economics and thought about trying to build an economics group in Redmond. I became frustrated because I talked to some of the top economists in the world, and they didn't seem interested in relocating to Redmond, whereas I had been able to get some of the top mathematicians in the world when I started a mathematics group.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
In September 1947, Navy researchers working with professors at Harvard University were running the Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator through its paces when it suddenly began to miscalculate. Tearing open the primitive electromechanical computer, they found a moth trapped between one of its relays. On a website maintained by Navy historians, you can still see a photograph of the page from the lab notebook where someone carefully taped the moth down, methodically adding an annotation: “First actual case of bug being found.”4 As legend has it, that person was Grace Hopper, a programmer who would go on to become an important leader in computer science. (Hopper’s biographer, however, disputes this was the first time “bug” was used to describe a malfunction in the early development of computers, arguing “it was clear the term was already in use.”)5 Since that day, bugs have become endemic in our digital world, the result of the enormous complexity and ruthless pace of modern engineering.
Casale, “The Origin of the Word ‘Bug,’” The OTB (Antique Wireless Association), February 2004, reprinted at http://www.telegraph-history.org/bug/index.html. 2Thomas P. Hughes, American Genesis: A History of the American Genius for Invention (New York: Penguin Books, 1989), 75. 3William Maver Jr. and Minor M. Davis, The Quadruplex (New York: W. J. Johnston, 1890), 84. 4http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h96000/h96566k.jpg. 5Kathleen Broome Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004), 54. 6“Surge Caused Fire in Rail Car,” Washington Times, last modified April 12, 2007, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2007/apr/12/20070412-104206-9871r/. 7“About recent service interruptions, what we’re doing to prevent similar problems in the future,” Bay Area Rapid Transit District, last modified April 5, 2006, http://www.bart.gov/news/articles/2006/news20060405.aspx. 8“The Economic Impact of Interrupted Service,” 2010 U.S.
From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly
Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Grace Hopper, information asymmetry, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, linear programming, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
The crucial breakthrough in programmer productivity was the development of programming languages in the second half of the 1950s.16 In a programming language, a single line of code could generate several machine instructions, improving productivity by a factor of 5 or 10. Unfortunately, early programming languages were so inefficient that gains in programmer productivity were squandered by inordinate translation times and long, inefficient programs. For example, at Univac, Grace Hopper, the doyenne of automatic programming, had developed a system called the “A-0 Compiler” in 1952, but programs could take as long as an hour to translate and were chronically inefficient. There were many similar academic and research laboratory developments.17 The most important early development in programming languages was FORTRAN for the IBM 704.18 The FORTRAN project took place in IBM’s Technical Computing Bureau under the leadership of John Backus, a 29year-old mathematician and programmer.
Users made software investments of tens of millions of lines of FORTRAN code, and when selecting a new computer—whether from IBM or another manufacturer—they needed a compatible FORTRAN system to protect their software investment, and also to share programs with others. (Though FORTRAN was the de facto standard for scientific programming, the data processing language COBOL later became an officially sanctioned standard.) Data processing compilers for business applications came onto the scene a year or two after scientific programming systems. In 1956, Grace Hopper’s Univac programming group established an early lead with its B-0 compiler (subsequently branded as FLOW-MATIC).21 The Univac compiler was a strong influence on the two other major business languages of the 1950s, IBM’s Commercial Translator, COMTRAN, and Honeywell’s FACT, begun in 1957 and 1959 respectively. These were impressive developments, but both were eclipsed by COBOL.22 In April 1959, the US Department of Defense convened a meeting of computer manufacturers and major computer users with the aim of agreeing on a standard business language.
Start It Up: Why Running Your Own Business Is Easier Than You Think by Luke Johnson
Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Grace Hopper, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, James Dyson, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Kickstarter, mass immigration, mittelstand, Network effects, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, patent troll, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman, tulip mania, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators
But women are frequently more organized and efficient than men, and invention demands a systematic approach to discovery. And so it should come as no surprise that essential breakthroughs have been pioneered by women, despite many deterrents put in their way. Their stories serve as inspiration for any entrepreneur. Astoundingly, the first business computer software program was devised by a woman. Grace Hopper trained as a mathematician and was working at Sperry Corporation when she developed COBOL, a compiler language still in use today. Throughout her life she broke barriers inhibiting women’s progress in the workplace. She ended her career when she retired from the US Navy as a rear admiral in 1985 aged seventy-nine – the oldest person on active duty. Possibly the most impressive female scientist of modern times was Dr Gertrude Elion, following in the footsteps of the French genius Marie Curie.
CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon
8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Donald Knuth, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar
Ellyn: And people crack up because, of course, she was a comedienne. She was always in some kind of ridiculous situation. Umm, they never really let you know what kind of work she did, but she was independent in the sense that she had her own apartment in New York City and, you know, she seemed to be having a lot of fun and she was really cute. So, it’s a joke, but the truth is, not only were there not any women in IT, I mean, I heard early about Grace Hopper, but I never met her, and there were no professional women, certainly not somebody with a title like a senior vice president that I ever met. And for probably the first two thirds of my career, umm, I didn’t know very many women executives, and if I did, they were at a very large distance, so there was no model. Yourdon: Now that is very interesting. Now you spent an early part of your career out in Silicon Valley, didn’t you?
., 87 Arizona Public Service (APS) Company, 66, 211, 223 Arizona State University, 227 ARPANET, 19, 117, 135 Art of Computer Programming, 2 Atlanta-based Southern Company, 191 AT&T, 191, 249 B Ballmer, Steve, 39 Bank of Boston, 47 Baylor-Grapevine Board of Trustees, 47 Bedrock foundation, 249 Bell Atlantic Mobile, 231 Bell Labs, 2, 249 BlackBerry, 60, 96, 116, 121, 171, 184, 246, 261, 296, 317 Blalock, Becky, 182, 191, 215 adaptability, 192 Air Force brat, 191, 192 Atlanta-based Southern Company, 191 banking industry, 203 Boucher, Marie, 196 brainstorm, 202 24/7 business, 199 business intelligence, 204 cloud computing, 205 cognitive surplus, 206 cognitive time, 206 Coker, Dave, 196 communication and education, 200 Community and Economic Development, 194 consumer market, 202 cybersecurity, 207, 209 data analytics, 204, 205 disaster recovery, 209 distributed generation, 204 distribution organization, 201 Egypt revolution, 198 farming technology, 206 finance backgrounds/marketing, 200, 209 Franklin, Alan, 193 Georgia Power, 191 Georgia Power Management Council, 193 global society, 206 Google, 198 incredible technology, 195 Industrial Age, 206 Information Age, 206 InformationWeek's, 196 infrastructure, 202 intellectual property, 196 intelligence and redundancy, 207 Internet, 198, 206 leapfrog innovations, 205 mainframe system, 207 marketing and customer service, 193, 200 MBA, finance, 192 microfiche, 207 microwave tower, 207 mobile devices, 203 mobility and business analytics, 205 Moore's Law, 205 new generation digital natives, 197 flexible and adaptable, 199 innovation and creativity, 199 superficial fashion, 198 Olympic sponsor, 193 out pushing technology, 202 reinforcement, 201 sense of integrity, 200 Southern Company, 194, 198, 201, 207 teamwork survey, 201 technology lab, 202 undergraduate degree, marketing, 192 virtualization, 205 VRU, 203 Ward, Eileen, 196 wire business, 201 world-class customer service, 203 Bohlen, Ken, 211 American Production Inventory Control Society, 211 Apple, 217 APS, 211, 223 ASU, 227 benchmarking company, 216 chief innovation officer, 229 Citrix, 217 cloud computing, 218, 219 cognitive surplus, 220 DECnet, 212 Department of Defense, 222 distributed computing, 217 energy industry, 214 gizmo/whiz-bang show, 216 GoodLink, 217 hard-line manufacturing, 218 home computing, 219 home entertainment, 219 Honeywell, 219 HR generalists, 215 information technology department, 211 Intel machines, 217 John Deere, 213 just say yes program, 223 Lean Six Sigma improvement process, 211 Linux, 220 MBA program, 214 mentors, 213 national alerts, 224 North American universities, 228 paradigm shifts, 218, 220 PDP minicomputers, 212 Peopleware, 226 prefigurative culture, 221 R&D companies, 218 Rhode Island, 226 role models, 213 San Diego Fire Department, 224 security/privacy issues, 217 skip levels, 223 smart home concepts, 219 smartphone, 217 social media, 225 Stead, Jerry, 214 Stevie Award, 211 Storefront engineering, 212 traditional management, 219, 226 Twitter, 224 vocabulary, 221 Waterloo operations, 213 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 wikipedia, 220 Y2K, 222 Botnets, 23 Brian's and Rob Pike's, 2 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Broadband networks, 241 Brown, 227 Bryant, 227 BT Global Services, 253 BT Innovate & Design (BTI&D), 253 Bumblebee tuna, 130 C Career writing technology, 67 CASE tools, 232 Cash, Jim, 50 Christensen, Clyde, 212 Chrome, 14, 18 Chrysler Corporation, 175 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313 Citrix, 217 Client-server-type applications, 59 Cloud computing, 218, 219, 239, 240, 261, 262, 310, 311, 313 Cloud technology, 62 CNN, 54 COBOL, 250 Cognitive surplus, 20, 79, 206, 291 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 Columbia University, 1 Community and Economic Development, 194 Computer Sciences Corporation, 35 Computerworld magazine, 196 Consumer-oriented technology, 22 Content management system, 133 Corporate information management (CIM) program, 309 Corporate Management Information Systems, 87 Corvus disk drive, 36 Customer Advisory Boards of Oracle, 191 Customer-relationship management (CRM), 56 Cutter Business Technology Council, 173 D Dallas Children's Medical Center Development Board, 48 DARPA, 19 DDoS attacks and security, 81 DECnet, 212 Dell Platinum Council, 113 DeMarco, Tom, 16, 226 Department of Defense, 222, 329, 332 Detroit Energy, 252 Digital books, 30 Digital Equipment, 48 Distributed computing, 217 Dodge, 189 Dogfooding, 11, 37, 38, 236 DTE Energy, 173 DuPont Dow Elastomers, 151 E Educational Testing Service (ETS), 151 E-government, 282, 285 Electrical distribution grid, 182 Elementary and Secondary Education Strategic Business Unit, 151 Elements of Programming Style, 2 Ellyn, Lynne, 173 advanced technology software planning, 175 Amazon, 184 artificial intelligence group, 175 Association for Women in Computing, 173 benchmark, 180, 181 BlackBerries, 184 Burns, Ursula, 175 Chrysler, 176 Cisco, 186 cloud computing, 183, 184 component-based architecture, 186 corporate communications customer service, 185 Crain's Detroit Business, 173 cyber security threats, 177 degree of competence, 187 diversity and sophistication, 182 DTE Energy, 173 energy trading, 176 engineering and science programs, 188 enterprise business systems policy, 186 executive MBA program, 176 Facebook, 185 fresh-out-of-the-university, 187 General Electric, 174 Google, 184 Grace Hopper, 174 grid re-automation, 182 Henry Ford Hospital, 174 internal social media, 185 International Coaching Federation, 178 iPads, 184 IP electrical grids, 182 iPod applications, 182 IT budgets, 186 IT responsibilities, 176 Java, 186 level of sophistication, 179 lobbying efforts, 181 medical computing, 175 Miller, Joan, 174 Mulcahey, Anne, 175 Netscape, 175 neuroscience leadership, 189 object-oriented programming, 186 Oracle, 186 peer-level people, 179 people system, 177 policies and strategies, 180 Radio Shack, 180 remote access capacity, 189 security tool and patch, 183 sense of community, 180 Shipley, Jim, 174 smart grid, 177, 182 smart meters, 182 smart phone applications, 183 swarming, 179 technical competence, 178, 179 Thomas, Marlo, 174 Twitter, 185 UNITE, 181 vendor community, 186 virtualization, 183, 184 Xerox, 175 E-mail, 9 Employee-relationship management (ERM), 56 Encyclopedia, 115 Encyclopedia Britannica, 292 ERP, 123 F Facebook, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Sridhara, Mittu, 73, 84 Temares, Lewis, 116, 121, 131 Wakeman, Dan, 169 Federal information technology investments, 299 Flex, 236 Ford, 102 Ford, Monte, 47 agile computing, 59 agile development, 62, 66 airplanes, 51 American Airlines, 47 Arizona Public Services, 66 Bank of Boston, 47 Baylor-Grapevine Board of Trustees, 47 BlackBerry, 60 board of Chubb, 51 board of Tandy, 51 business organizations, 63 business school, dean, 50 career writing technology, 67 client-server-type applications, 59 cloud technology, 62 CNN, 54 common-sense functionality, 49 consumer-based technology, 60 CRM, 56 Dallas Children's Medical Center Development Board, 48 Digital Equipment, 48 ERM, 56 financial expert, 69 frequent-flier program, 57 frontal lobotomy, 57 Harvard Business Review, 50 HR policies, 65 IBM, 48 information technology, 47, 52 Internet, 54 Internet-based protocol, 59 iPhone, 52 IT stuff, 58 Knight Ridder, 51 legacy apps, 59 mainframe-like applications, 59 management training program, 64 marketing and technical jobs, 48 Maynard, Massachusetts mill, 48 MBA program, 50 mentors, 49 Microsoft, 50 mobile computing, 62 New York Times, 53 operations center, 54 PDP-5, 49 PDP-6, 49 Radio Shack, 51 revenue management, 57 role models, 49 security paradigms, 62 self-service machine, 57 Silicon Valley companies, 68 smartphones, 54 social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 stateful applications, 59 techie department, 48 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 transmission and distribution companies, 47 wireless network, 59 YouTube, 65 Fort Worth, 226 Free software foundation, 19 Fried, Benjamin, 1, 241 agile development, 25 agile methodologies, 26 Apple Genius Bar, 8 ARPANET, 19 Art of Computer Programming, 2 Bell Labs, 2 books and records, accuracy, 25 botnets, 23 Brian's and Rob Pike's, 2 cash-like principles, 29 CFO, 4 check writers, 18 chrome, 14, 18 classic computer science text, 1 cognitive surplus, 20 Columbia University, 1 compensation management, 7 competitive advantage, 9, 18 computer science degree, 1 computer scientists, 6 consumer-driven computing, 12 consumer-driven software-as-a-service offerings, 12 consumer-driven technology, 12 consumer-oriented technology, 14, 22 corporate leadership, 25 cost centers, 4 DARPA, 19 decision makers, 17 decision making, 13 360-degree performance management, 7 detroit energy, 30 digital books, 30 document workbench, 2 dogfooding, 11 e-books, 29 Elements of Programming Style, 2 e-mail, 9 end-user support, 7 engineering executive group, 4 European vendors, 6 file servers and print servers, 17 Folger Library editions, 30 free software foundation, 19 German company, 13 German engineering, 13 Gmail, 15 Godot, 26 Google, 1 books, 29 products, 5, 10 software engineers, 6 hiring managers, 6 HR processes and technologies, 6 IBM model, 13 instant messaging, 9 Internet age, 6 interviewers, training, 6 iPad, 29 iPhone, 29 IPO, 3 IT, engineering and computer science parts, 4 Knuth's books, 2 Linux machine, 8 Linux software, 19 machine running Windows, 8 Macintosh, 8 Mac OS, 9 macro factors, 11 Managing Director, 1 mentors, 1 microcomputers, 18 Microsoft, 5 Minds for Sale, 20 Morgan Stanley, 1–3, 5, 16 nonacademic UNIX license, 2 nontechnical skills, 5 oil exploration office, 17 open-source phone operating system, 20 outlook, 15 PARC, 19 performance review cycles, 7 personal computer equipment, 15 post-Sarbanes-Oxley world, 25 project manager, 13 quants, 24 rapid-release cycle, 26 R&D cycle, 24 regression testing, 27 role models, 1 shrink-wrapped software, 14 signature-based anti-virus, 22 smartphone, 20, 27 social contract, 8 society trails technology, 21 software engineering tool, 13 software installation, 14 supply chain and inventory and asset management, 10 SVP, 4 telephony, 17 ten things, 13 TMRC, 19 TROFF, 2 typesetter workbench, 2 UI designer, 14 university computing center, 28 videoconferencing, 12 Visicalc, 24 Wall Street, 23 Walmart, 6 waterfall approach, 25 XYZ widget company, 5 YouTube video, 20 G Gates, Bill, 39, 50 General Electric, 134 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 33, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Georgia Power Company, 191–193, 196 Georgia Power Management Council, 193 German company, 13 German engineering, 13 German manufacturing company, 232 Gizmo/whiz-bang show, 216 Gmail, 15 GoodLink, 217 Google, 1, 84, 85, 117, 217, 219, 220, 222, 235, 241, 263, 302, 319 apps, 314 books, 29 commercial products, 10 model, 293 Government Accountability Office (GAO), 305 4G program, 250 4G smartphone, 235 GTE, 231 Gupta, Ashish aspiration, organization, 256 bandwidth and network infrastructure, 267 BlackBerry, 261 business and customer outcomes, 274 capital investment forums, 269 career progression, 255 cloud-based shared infrastructure model, 263 cloud computing, 261, 262 collaboration, 272 communications infrastructure, 258 compute-utility-based model, 262 control and integrity, 268 core competency, 255 core network infrastructure, 267 core strengths, 256 cost per unit of bandwidth, 267 customer demands, 268 data protection, 261, 262 decision-making bodies, 269 demographics, 272, 273 device convergence, 263 dogfooding, 259 employee flexibility, 260, 264 engagement and governance, 269 enterprise market segment, 261 equipment management, 260 executive MBA, 256 fourth-generation LTE networks, 267 functional service departments, 270 Global Services, distributed organization, 257 Google, 263, 275 Google Apps, 266 handheld devices, 265 hastily formed networks, 258 IMF, 266 innovation and application development, 265 iPad, 257, 260, 261, 266,267 iPhone, 266 Japan, 257, 258 London Business School, 253 management functions, 257 management sales functions, 257 market segments, 259 MBA, General Management, 253 measurements, 271 messaging with voice capability, 264 mini-microcomputer model, 261 mobile communications network, 258 mobile-enabling voice, 259 mobile phone network, 260 mobile traffic explosion, 265 network infrastructures, 265 network IT services, 254 network quality, 257 new generation digital natives, 271 disadvantages, 273 Google, 273 opportunities, 273 Olympics, 263 opportunities, 275 organizational construct, 272 outsourced network IT services, 259 outsourcing, 271 per-use-based model, 262 portfolio and business alignment, 274 Portfolio & Service Design (P&SD), 253 primary marketing thrust, 264 product development thrust, 264 product management team, 259 project and program management, 255 resource balance, 270 scalability, 262 security, 262 Selley, Clive, 254, 255 service delivery organization, 254 single-device model, 264 smart devices, 267 smart phones, 266 telecommunications capability, 259 upward-based apps, 264 virtualization, 261 voice-over-IP connections, 258 Windows platform, 261 Gurnani, Roger, 231 accounting/finance department, 233 analog cellular networks, 250 AT&T, 249 bedrock foundation, 249 Bell Atlantic Mobile, 231 Bell Labs, 249 blogs, 244 broadband networks, 241 business benefits, 237 business device, 240 business executives, 238 business leaders, 248, 249 business relationship management, 248 buzzword, 239 CASE tools, 232 cloud computing, 239, 240 COBOL, 250 consumer and business products, 231 consumer electronics devices, 241 consumer telecom business, 233 customer-engagement channel, 244 customer forums, 244 customer support operations, 251 customer-touching channels, 236 degree of control, 246 distribution channel, 250 dogfooding, 236 ecosystem, 243, 249 enterprise business, 233 ERP systems, 236 face-to-face communications, 244 FiOS product, 235 flex, 236 "follow the sun" model, 239 German manufacturing company, 232 4G program, 250 4G smartphone, 235 hardware/software vendors, 247 information assets, 245 information technology strategy, 231 intellectual property rights, 244 Internet, 235, 239 iPhone, 243 Ivan, 232 Lowell, 232 LTE technology-based smartphone, 235 marketing, 251 MIT, 246 mobile technology, 234 Moore's law, 242 MP3 file, 235 network-based services, 240 Nynex Mobile, 233 P&L responsibility, 251 PDA, 238 personal computing, 235 product development, 234, 251 role models, 232 sales channels, 251 smartphones, 238 state-level regulatory issues, 251 state-of-the-art networks, 243 telecom career, 232 telephone company, Phoenix, 234 Verizon Communication, 231, 232 virtual corporations, 241 Web 2.0, 244 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 wireless business, 233 H Hackers, 19 Harmon, Jay, 213 Harvard Business Review, 50 Harvard Business School, 331 Heller, Martha, 171 Henry Ford Hospital, 174 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 Home computing, 219 Honda, 102 Honeywell, 219 Houghton Mifflin, 134, 136 I IBM, 48, 250 manpower, 311 model, 13 Indian IT outsourcing company, 255 Information technology, 52 Intel machines, 217 International Coaching Federation, 178 Internet, 9, 44, 54, 117, 235, 239, 316, 322 Internet-based protocol, 59 Interoperability, 341 iPads, 2, 94, 97, 184, 257, 260, 264, 267, 288, 289, 295, 296 IP electrical grids, 182 iPhones, 43, 52, 96, 101, 170, 181, 260, 264,296 iPod, 101 IT lifecycle management process, 37 Ivan, 232 J John Deere, 213 K Kansas, 226 Kernigan, Brian, 2 Knight Ridder, 51 Knuth, Donald, 2, 29 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 Krist, Nicholas, 28 Kundra, Vivek Clever Commute, 305 cognitive surplus, 303 command and control systems, 301 consumerization, 302 consumption-based model, 300 cyber-warfare, 301 Darwinian pressure, 302 desktop core configuration, 306 digital-borne content, 301 digital oil, 300, 307 digital public square, 304 enterprise software, 303 entrepreneurial startup model, 306 frugal engineering, 306 Google, 302 government business, 302 innovator's dilemma, 307 iPad, 302 IT dashboard, 302 leapfrog technology, 306 massive consumerization, 301 megatrends, 301 parameter security, 302 Patent Office, 305 pharmaceutical industry, 304 phishing attacks, 301 policy and strategic planning, 299 security and privacy, 301 server utilization, 300 social media and technology, 300, 306 storage utilization, 300 Trademark Office, 305 Wikipedia, 303 L LAN, 259 Lean Six Sigma improvement process, 211 Levy, Steven (Hackers), 19 Linux, 220 machine, 8 open-source software, 19 Lister, Tim, 226 London Business School, 73, 253, 256 Long-term evolution (LTE), 235 Lowell, 232 M MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Macintosh, 8 Mainframe computers, 118 Mainframe-like applications, 59 Marriott's Great America, 35 McDade, 327 McGraw-Hill Education, 133, 147, 150 Mead, Margaret, 221 Mendel, 311 Microcomputers, 18 Microsoft Corporation, 5, 11, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46, 50, 156, 217, 223, 236, 250, 293 Microsoft Higher Education Advisory Group, 113 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 Middlesex University, 189 Miller, Joan Apple products, 295 authority and accuracy, 292 award-winning ICT programs and services, 277 back locked-down information, 289 big-scale text issues, 294 big-time computing, 279 BlackBerry, 296 business management training, 281 business skills, 281 central government, 283 cognitive surplus, 291 community care project, 278 community development programs, 277, 278 computers, constituency office, 294 confidential information, 284 data management, 281 decision making, 286 democratic process, 288 economics degree, 278 e-government, 282, 285 electronic communication, 289 electronic-enabled public voice, 286 electronic information, 288 electronic media, 286 electronic records, 280, 284 electronic services, 294 e-mail, 289, 290, 295 forgiving technology, 296 front-office service, 282, 283 Google, 292 Google's cloud service, 290 Government 2, 287 Health and Social Care, 284 House business, 294 House of Lords, 288 ICT strategy, 289, 290 information management, 278 insurance company, 278 Internet information, 285 iPad, 288, 289, 296 IT data management, 279 management principle, 280 local government, 283 mainframe environment, 289 member-led activity, 287 messages, 289 Microsoft, 293 Microsoft's cloud service, 290 mobile electronic information, 284 mobile technology, 289 national organization, 284 network perimeters, 290 official government information, 285 on-the-job training, 281 organizational planning, 278 Parliamentary ICT, 277 project management, 279 public sector, 282 public transportation, 285 quango-type organizations, 283 representational democracy, 286 security, 290, 291 social care organization, 279 social care services, Essex, 278 social care systems, 284 social networking, 285 sovereignty, 291 sustainability and growth, 293 technical language, 294 technology skills, 281 transactional services, 285 transferability, 291 Web-based services, 285 Wikipedia, 291, 292 X-factor, 286 Minds for Sale, 20 Mitchell & Co, 333 MIT Media Labs, 149 Mobile computing, 62 Mobile technology, 234 Mooney, Mark, 133 artificial intelligence, 134 back-office legacy, 136 balancing standpoint, 145 BBC, 140 Bermuda Triangle, 135 BlackBerry shop, 142 Bureau of National Standards, 136 business model, 140 career spectrum, 144 cloud computing, 148 competitive intelligence and knowledge, 143 Connect, 141 customer-facing and product development, 135 customer-facing product space, 137 customer space and product development, 136 digital products development, 144 digital space and product, 146 educational and reference content, 139 educational products, 141 entrepreneur, 150 General Electric, 134 GradeGuru, 140 handheld devices, 142 hard-core technical standpoint, 146 hardware servers, 142 Houghton Mifflin, 134, 136 HTML, 138 industrial-strength product, 141 intellectual content, 148 Internet, 148 iPad, 138, 139, 142 iPhone, 142, 143 iTunes, 138 Klein, Joel, 147 learning management systems, 137 long-term production system, 141 Marine Corps, 134 McGraw-Hill Education, 133, 147 media development, 144 media space, 138, 142 mobile computing, 139 MOUSE, 150 online technology, 138 open-source capabilities, 142 Oracle quota-management system, 143 people's roles and responsibilities, 137 Phoenix, 149 product development, 149 publishing companies, 142 publishing systems, 137 Reed Elsevier, 133, 136 Salesforce.com, 144, 149 scalability testing, 145 senior business leaders, 146 social network, 148 soft discipline guidelines, 141 solar energy, 149 Strassmann, Paul, 135 technical skill set, 143, 144 testing systems integration, 145 The Shallows, 139 transactional systems, 142 trust and integrity, 145 TTS, QuickPro, and ACL, 144 Vivendi Universal, 134 War and Peace today, 139 Moore's law, 242 Morgan Stanley, 2, 3, 16 N NASA, 309, 333, 334 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 173 Naval Postgraduate School, 134 Netscape, 175 New Brunswick model, 282 News Corp., 147 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 87, 116, 223, 278 New York Times, 53 North American universities, 228 NSA/CIA software, 134 Nynex Mobile, 233 O Oil exploration office, 17 Open-source phone operating system, 20 Outlook, 15 P Pacer Software, 135 Paradigm shifts, 218, 220 Parks and Recreation Department, 126 PDP minicomputers, 212 Peopleware, 226 Personal computing, 235 Personal digital assistant (PDA), 238 Petri dish, 44 Phoenix, 211 Plauger, Bill, 2 Q Quants, 24 R Radio Shack, 51 Reed Elsevier, 133, 136 Reed, John, 335 Rubinow, Steve, 87 AdKnowledge, Inc., 87 agile development, 110 Agile Manifesto, 110 Archipelago Holdings Inc., 87 attributes, 108 capital market community, 91 cash/actual trading business, 88 channel marketing departments, 92 cloud computing, 97 CNBC, 89 collaborative technology, 95 collective intelligence, 95 communication skills, 102, 106 conference organizations, 99 consumer marketplace, 94 data center, 90 decision making, 105, 108 economy standpoint, 100 e-mail, 100 Fidelity Investments, 105 financial services, 92 IEEE, 101 innovative impression, 94 Internet, 98 iPad, 97 iPod device, 91 labor laws, 110 listening skills, 106 logical progression, 104 Mac, 96 mainframe, 104 management and leadership, 104, 105 market data system, 89 micro-second response time, 89 mobile applications, 94 multidisciplinary approach, 103 multimedia, 97 multi-national projects, 110 multiprocessing options, 99 network operating system, 103 NYSE Euronext, 87 open outside system, 88 parallel programming models, 99 personal satisfaction, 109 PR function, 106 proclaimed workaholic, 109 real estate business, 88 regulatory and security standpoint, 96 Rolodex, 94 Rubin, Howard, 99 server department, 97 software development, 89 sophisticated technology, 101 technology business, 88 technology integration, 91 trading engines, 90 typewriter ribbon, 94 virtualization, 98 Windows 7, 96 younger generation video games, 93 visual interfaces, 93 Rumsfeld, Donald, 222 S San Diego Fire Department, 224 Santa Clara University, 36 SAS programs, 131 Scott, Tony, 10, 33, 236 Android, 43 Apple Computer, 35 architectural flaw, 44 BASIC and Pascal, 35 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Bunch, Rick (role model), 34 business groups, 42 COO, 39 Corporate Vice President, 33 Corvus disk drive, 36 CSC, 35 Defense department, 45 dogfooding, 37, 38 games and arcades, 35 General Motors, 33 IBM's role, 37 information systems management, 36 integrity factor, 40 Internet, 44 iPhone, 43 IT lifecycle management process, 37 leadership capability, 40 leisure studies, 34 macro-architectural threats, 44 Marriott's Great America, 35 math models, 36 Microsoft Corporation, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 parks and recreation, 34 Petri dish, 44 playground leader, 42 product groups, 42 quality and business excellence team, 33 Santa Clara University, 36 Senior Vice President, 33 smartphone, 43 social computing, 38 Sun Microsystems, 36 theme park industry, 35 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 value-added business, 33 Walt Disney Company, 33 Senior Leadership Technology and Product Marketing, 71 Shakespeare, 30 Shirky, Clay, 220 Sierra Ventures, 191 Silicon Valley companies, 68 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 Skype, 118 Smart Grid Advisory Committee, 177 Smartphones, 20, 27, 43, 54, 217, 238 Social care computer electronic record system, 279 Social computing, 38, 320 Social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 Society trails technology, 21 SPSS programs, 131 Sridhara, Mittu, 71 Amazon, 76 American Airlines, 72 back-end computation and presentation, 80 banking, 77 B2B and B2C, 85 business/product departments, 82 business work context, 74 buzzword, 77 career aspiration, 73 career spans, 73 coders, 72 cognitive surplus, 79 competitive differentiation, 74 computing power, 78 contribution and energy, 85 convergence, 75 CPU cycles, 78 cross-channel digital business, 71 cultural and geographic implementation, 72 customer experience, 84, 85 customer profile, 76 data visualization, 79, 80 DDoS protection, 81 economies of scale, 77 elements of technology, 72 encryption, 82 end customer, 83 entertainment, 75 ERP system, 72 Facebook, 84 finance and accounting, 73 foster innovation and open culture, 81 friends/mentors/role models, 74 FSA, 76 gambling acts, 81 games, 79 gaming machines, 80 GDS, 72 global organization, 71 Google, 75, 84, 85 Group CIO, Ladbrokes PLC, 71 industry-standard technologies, 77 integrity and competence, 83 IT, 74, 82 KickOff app, 71 land-based casinos, 79 live streaming, 78 London Business School, 73 mobile computing, 78 multimedia, 84 new generation, 84 on-the-job training, 73 open-source computing, 79 opportunity, 80, 83 PCA-compliant, 81 personalization, 76 real-time systems, 74 re-evaluation, 81 reliability and availability, 77 security threats, 80 smart mobile device, 75 technology-intense customer, 85 top-line revenue, 74 trader apps, 82 true context, 73 underpinning business process, 76 virtualization, 78 Visa/MasterCard transactions, 78 Web 3.0 business, 76 web-emerging web channel, 76 Wikipedia, 79, 85 Word documents and e-mail, 82 work-life balance, 84 young body with high miles, 72 Zuckerberg, Mark, 73 Stead, Jerry, 214 Storefront engineering, 212 Strassmann, Paul, 228, 309 agile development, 340 Amazon EC2, 314 America information processors, 322 Annapolis, 340 AT&T, 332 backstabbing culture, 339 BlackBerry, 317 block houses, 319 CFO/CEO position, 337 CIM program, 309 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313, 339 cloud computing, 310, 311, 313 coding infrastructure, 341 communication infrastructure, 341 corporate information management, 329 Corporate Information Officer, 309 counterintelligence, 320 cyber-operations, 338 Dell server, 314 Department of Defense, 329, 332 Director of Defense Information, 309 employee-owned technology, 316 enterprise architecture, 316 exfiltration, 313 financial organizations, 320 firewalls and antiviruses, 312 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Google apps, 314 government-supported activities, 326 Harvard Business School, 331 HR-related issues, 331 IBM manpower, 311 infiltration, 313 Internet, 316, 322 interoperability, 315, 317, 341 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Machiavellian view, 327 mash-up, 316 military service, 331 NASA, 309, 333, 334 police department, economics, 312 powerpoint slides, 324 Radio Shack, 319 senior executive position, 334 service-oriented architecture, 316 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 social computing, 320 Strassmann's concentration camp, 318 structured methodologies, 342 U.S.
Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost
Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional
Although good for its kind, much of it is “internalist,” technical, and focused on narrow software genres, which makes it difficult for a nonexpert to get a foothold in the topic. An excellent starting point is Steve Lohr’s engaging biographically oriented Go To: The Story of the Programmers Who Created the Software Revolution (2001). Grace Murray Hopper’s role in promoting programming languages is well described in Kurt Beyer’s Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age (2009). To try to bring some order to the history of the software field, a conference was organized in 2000 by the Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum, Paderborn, Germany, and the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. The papers presented at the conference were published as History of Computing: Software Issues (Hashagen et al., eds., 2002). This book gives the best overview of the subject so far published.
New York: John Wiley. Berlin, Leslie. 2005. The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley. New York: Oxford University Press. Berners-Lee, Tim. 1999. Weaving the Web: The Past, Present, and Future of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor. London: Orion Business Books. Bernstein, Jeremy. 1981. The Analytical Engine. New York: Random House. Beyer, Kurt W. 2009. Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Bliven, Bruce, Jr. 1954. The Wonderful Writing Machine. New York: Random House. Bosman, Julie. 2012. “After 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presses.” New York Times, 13 March. Bowden, B. V., ed. 1953. Faster Than Thought. London: Pitman. Braun, Ernest, and Stuart Macdonald. 1978. Revolution in Miniature: The History and Impact of Semiconductor Electronics.
Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld
barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, G4S, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Raise diversity topics in meetings; include information in newsletters or in professional development; and coordinate with female colleagues about how to best handle larger-group conversations. 10. Reach out to formal and informal women’s groups: Male advocates stressed the importance of requesting invitations to technical women’s meetings, participating in women-in-tech groups, and making sure that other men, especially top leadership, attend as well. Men also described the benefits of sending male colleagues to conferences like the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing. —Lucy Sanders, NCWIT, @ncwit In 20 years, when I look back, I expect that the gender ratio in the startup community leadership will be roughly equal, but it’ll take another generation to get there. Race is more difficult because there are so few minorities in Boulder. As a result, it takes real leadership, from people like Tom Chickoree (Filtrbox co-founder), who is leading a new TechStars program called RisingStars (http://startuprev.com/k0).
97 Things Every Programmer Should Know by Kevlin Henney
A Pattern Language, active measures, business intelligence, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, database schema, deliberate practice, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fixed income, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, index card, inventory management, job satisfaction, loose coupling, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, The Wisdom of Crowds
Managers with no experience of development think what programmers do is simple, and programmers with no experience of management think the same of what managers do. Programming is something some people do—some of the time. And the hard part—the thinking—is the least visible and least appreciated by the uninitiated. There have been many attempts to remove the need for this skilled thinking over the decades. One of the earliest and most memorable is the effort by Grace Hopper to make programming languages less cryptic—which some accounts predicted would remove the need for specialist programmers. The result (COBOL) has contributed to the income of many specialist programmers over subsequent decades. The persistent vision that software development can be simplified by removing programming is, to the programmer who understands what is involved, obviously naïve. But the mental process that leads to this mistake is part of human nature, and programmers are just as prone to making it as everyone else.
The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
To get to a workable understanding of the history of the culture machine, we need to braid these three strands, looking at programmers, millionaires, and dreamers. That these strands can all combine 145 GENERATIONS in the story of one person, one machine, or even one company is all to the good. The Warriors: A Prehistory Life was simple before World War II. After that, we had systems. —Rear Admiral Grace Hopper The question to begin with is not, “What is a computer?,” but rather, “Who is a computer?,” because computers were humans ﬁrst and machines second. Computers were people, usually women, who computed numbers, tabulated results, and published lists or matrices with the results. They worked for nineteenth- and early twentieth-century businesses and government ministries, and laid the groundwork for the data-driven, statistically charted, numerically marked world in which we now live.
How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets by Andy Kessler
Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, animal electricity, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
With $100,000 of funding from IBM, he began work in 1939 on the Harvard Mark I, eventually known as the IBM Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator. It had 3300 relays and the rest was mechanical, but that didn’t stop the Bureau of Ships from co-opting the machine to compute firing tables. The Mark I had 750,000 parts, weighed five tons and could do three operations per second. It constantly broke down. The Mark II, III and IV would eventually be built. Grace Hopper was given the task of programming these machines. When trying to figure out why one of her programs didn’t work, she actually found a moth caught in one of the relays. No myth, she pasted the moth into the logbook of the Mark II (now at the Smithsonian). Hence the name computer bug. Aiken would remark in 1947 that he thought six computers would just about do it for all the computing needs of the United States.
The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age by Paul J. Nahin
Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, four colour theorem, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, New Journalism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Turing test, V2 rocket
If a fly or a moth, for example, happened to be sitting on the make contact when the coil was energized, then it could be squashed and, after its smashed little body dried, the contacts would be covered with a very disgusting but quite effective insulator. To clean up such a disabled relay was called debugging, a term that has survived in the vocabulary of modern computer users trying to fix their faulty programs. This is not a joke—I heard it as a quite serious story in a lecture at the Naval Postgraduate School in 1982 from a legend in computer science, Rear Admiral Grace Hopper (1906–1992), a Yale PhD mathematician who worked during the Second World War with Harvard’s five ton, 800 cubic foot Mark I relay computer, which when operating was described as sounding like a “roomful of ladies knitting.” To debug such a machine must have been an “interesting” job for someone; the successor to the Mark I—called, not surprisingly, the Mark II—had 13,000 relays. These were not fast machines; representing numbers in the form of ±p · 10n (with the decimal p given to ten significant digits and n varying from −15 to +15) the Mark II’s add, multiply, and divide times were 0.2 seconds, 0.7 seconds, and 4.7 seconds, respectively.
5 Day Weekend: Freedom to Make Your Life and Work Rich With Purpose by Nik Halik, Garrett B. Gunderson
Airbnb, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, business process, clean water, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, Ethereum, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial independence, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Home mortgage interest deduction, Isaac Newton, litecoin, Lyft, market fundamentalism, microcredit, minimum viable product, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Nelson Mandela, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, side project, Skype, TaskRabbit, traveling salesman, uber lyft
To achieve this requires that you think like the wealthy do — outside the box of “buy, hold, and pray.” The accumulation theory of investing (save money in tax-deferred vehicles and let it grow) will not create a 5 Day Weekend for you. Instead, consider cash-flowing investments as an alternative to what you’ve been taught. Focusing on cash flow is the path to true financial independence. “The most dangerous phrase in the language is ‘We’ve always done it this way.’ ” —GRACE HOPPER CHAPTER 21 SEASONS OF INVESTING Farmers know there is a season for everything. They plant in the spring, cultivate in the summer, harvest in the fall, and fields lay dormant in the winter. Economists are also familiar with seasons and cycles. There is a natural, measurable, and predictable ebb and flow to economic activity. Most cycles are driven by human emotions — primarily fear, greed, and indecision.
Humans Are Underrated: What High Achievers Know That Brilliant Machines Never Will by Geoff Colvin
Ada Lovelace, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Black Swan, call centre, capital asset pricing model, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Freestyle chess, future of work, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, rising living standards, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs
I hate to pile it on, but in addition to women’s considerable advantages in an economy that increasingly values empathy, collaboration, and relationships, men have another reason to worry. Besides losing in competition with women, they are likely to lose disproportionately in competition with technology. This seems odd, considering that men, on average, are attracted to technology and have been, on average, the sex most responsible for the technology revolution. Of course, a number of computer pioneers were unsung women—Ada Lovelace, Grace Hopper, Jean Jennings, to name a few—who are only beginning to get the recognition they deserve. But it’s undeniable that the industry has been and remains dominated by men, a situation that many companies, schools, and governments worldwide are trying to remedy. Yet the surprising new trend is that for men in general, technology’s advance is becoming a problem. That’s because in the systemizers-versus-empathizers model, systemizing is exactly what technology is taking over.
Zeitgeist by Bruce Sterling
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, informal economy, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, jitney, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, new economy, offshore financial centre, rolodex, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Y2K
You’re not telling me what it fuckin’ was.” “Well, there’s an underage kid involved.…” “Aw, Jesus.” “She’s my daughter.” “Your daughter?” O’Houlihan gasped in astonishment. “Your daughter, Starlitz? Your daughter by what?” She paused. “Not those little toll-fraud dyke bitches from Oregon.” “Uh, yeah, one of them.” “Why do men do this to themselves?” said O’Houli-han wonderingly. “When there are wonderful women in the world, like Grace Hopper, and Madeleine Albright, and Janet Reno. Honest women. Clean. Dedicated. Faithful public servants.” “It’s not just asking for me, okay? It’s for the kid. They’ll book her in some kind of juvenile facility, and she’s led a really sheltered life. She’s only eleven years old.” “So what is this alleged child’s name? You got her SS number handy?” “Her name is Zenobia Boadicea Hypatia McMillen.”
Alchemy: The Dark Art and Curious Science of Creating Magic in Brands, Business, and Life by Rory Sutherland
3D printing, Alfred Russel Wallace, barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, butterfly effect, California gold rush, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double helix, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Firefox, George Akerlof, gig economy, Google Chrome, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Hyperloop, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, IKEA effect, information asymmetry, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, loss aversion, low cost airline, Mason jar, Murray Gell-Mann, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the map is not the territory, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, US Airways Flight 1549, Veblen good
.* They also implemented Operation Eliminate the Macho Effect, in which males who showed off in class were taken aside and told to desist. Almost overnight, Harvey Mudd’s introductory computer science course went from being the most despised required course to the absolute favourite. That was just the beginning. Improving the introductory course obviously helped, but it was also important to ensure that women signed up for another class. The female professors took the students to the annual Grace Hopper Conference, an annual ‘celebration of women in technology’. It was an important step in demonstrating that there was nothing weird or anti-social about women working in tech. Finally, the college offered a summer of research for female students to apply their new-found talents to something useful and socially beneficial. ‘We had students working on things like educational games and a version of Dance Dance Revolution for the elderly.
The Zenith Angle by Bruce Sterling
airport security, Burning Man, cuban missile crisis, digital map, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Iridium satellite, market bubble, new economy, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, Y2K
They could wait for a procurement check to be cut, but by that time, they would have lost the critical first-mover advantage that had led them to plan a Grendel in the first place. So Van had paid for Grendel’s hardware himself. Van still knew that this was the sensible choice. He knew that the baby CCIAB would quickly die if they didn’t prove their serious chops as go-to technical people. Jeb had promised that the feds would be good for Van’s money sooner or later. As the legendary Admiral Grace Hopper had often told Jeb, it was always easier to apologize to a bureaucracy than it was to get permission. Jeb did not have the necessary money, himself. Jeb had spent most of the last twenty years as a federal law-enforcement instructor. So, Van personally tasked Fawn with buying 350 used PCs on eBay. As a bridge loan for the CCIAB, Van sold his Range Rover. The Range Rover was in big trouble parked in his Washington neighborhood anyway.
Practical C Programming, 3rd Edition by Steve Oualline
How Programming Works Communicating with computers is not easy. They require instructions that are exact and detailed. It would be nice if we could write programs in English. Then we could tell the computer, “Add up all my checks and deposits, then tell me the total,” and the machine would balance our checkbook. But English is a lousy language when it comes to writing exact instructions. The language is full of ambiguity and imprecision. Grace Hopper, the grand old lady of computing, once commented on the instructions she found on a bottle of shampoo: Wash Rinse Repeat She tried to follow the directions, but she ran out of shampoo. (Wash-Rinse-Repeat. Wash-Rinse-Repeat. Wash-Rinse-Repeat...) Of course, we can try to write in precise English. We’d have to be careful and make sure to spell everything out and be sure to include instructions for every contingency.
The Big Nine: How the Tech Titans and Their Thinking Machines Could Warp Humanity by Amy Webb
Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Sanders, bioinformatics, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Flynn Effect, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Inbox Zero, Internet of things, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, New Urbanism, one-China policy, optical character recognition, packet switching, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, uber lyft, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day
She was a researcher in the Electroencephalography Department of the Neurological Institute of Columbia Presbyterian at the time of the Dartmouth Summer Research Project. Evelyn Boyd Granville, a PhD in mathematics who developed the computer programs used for trajectory analysis in the first US-manned missions to space and the moon. Betty Holberton, mathematician and one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer. She invented breakpoints in computer debugging. Grace Hopper, computer scientist and eventual creator of COBOL, an early programming language still in use today. Mary Jackson, engineer and mathematician, who later became NASA’s first Black female engineer. Kathleen McNulty, mathematician and one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer. Marlyn Meltzer, mathematician and one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer, which was the first all-electronic programmable computer.
The 5 AM Club: Own Your Morning. Elevate Your Life. by Robin Sharma
Albert Einstein, dematerialisation, epigenetics, Grace Hopper, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, index card, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, white picket fence
You’ll also begin to differentiate between your beliefs that are merely cultural constraints and those that are actual truths. And between the trustworthy voice of your intuition and the persuasive pronouncements of your fears. In solitude, you’ll also receive the disruptive insights that will transform your field. I know it sounds strange but amid serenity, you’ll actually visit the alternate reality in which visionaries like Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, Grace Hopper, Thomas Edison, John D. Rockefeller, Marie Curie, Andrew Carnegie, Katharine Graham, Sam Walton, Rosalind Franklin, and Steve Jobs, among other luminaries, spent much time. Why do you think the legendary scientists, inventors, industrialists and artists all made so much effort to be alone? I’ve shared with you that long stretches spent in noiseless contemplation is one of the secrets of the advanced mind.
A People’s History of Computing in the United States by Joy Lisi Rankin
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, corporate social responsibility, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pink-collar, profit motive, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, wikimedia commons
During the 1960s Greenberger deployed his industry experience and computing expertise as a prominent public intellectual. The program for MIT’s lecture series presented a who’s who of the American scientific and computing elite. Vannevar Bush directed the Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II; he had invested in American science at an unprecedented rate to support the war effort. Jay Forrester directed Project Whirlwind and then Lincoln Lab, where he led the design of SAGE. Grace Hopper worked with Harvard’s computer during World War II before introducing new programming techniques and the computer compiler to the industry during the 1950s. Kemeny spoke, as did the physicist Sir Charles Percy (C. P.) Snow, the author of The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Other speakers included John Mauchly, well known to this community as the cocreator of World War II’s ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), America’s first 112 A People’s History of Computing in the United States electronic computer; Marvin Minsky, the codirector of MIT’s Artificial Intelligence group; and Norbert Wiener, a leading proponent of cybernetics, an influential approach to scientific problems of control and communication.
Men Who Hate Women: From Incels to Pickup Artists, the Truth About Extreme Misogyny and How It Affects Us All by Laura Bates
4chan, Ada Lovelace, Boris Johnson, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, off grid, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Snapchat, young professional
Like most incel sites, the MGTOW community differs from some other areas of the manosphere in its decision to actively police its online spaces to exclude women. ‘MGTOW.com is exclusively a men’s interest website – for men only,’ emphasises the website. Of course, MGTOW philosophy gifts this community a particularly powerful rationale for the exclusion of women. As one typical site puts it: ‘The internet was… created by men (for other men), and it is only by our divine manly grace that women are permitted to use it.’ Tell that to Ada Lovelace and Grace Hopper. MGTOW ideology has also spawned a number of spin-off and related online movements, including IBMOR (Introspective Black Men of Reform) – an online movement with extremely similar aims, but the additional desire to overthrow white supremacy. ‘INTROSPECTIVE BLACK MEN OF REFORM (IBMOR)’, declares the community page for the group, in dramatic capital letters, ‘ARE BLACK MEN WHO ARE DEDICATED TO SELF-STUDY AND SELF IMPROVEMENT.
Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg
A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
If we could only discover dependable principles by which software operates, we could transcend the overpowering complexity of today’s Rube Goldberg–style programs and engineer our way out of the mire of software time. One day we could find ourselves in a world where software does not need to be programmed at all. For many on this quest, the common grail has been the idea of “automatic software”—software that nonprogrammers can create, commands in simple English that the computer can be made to understand. This dream was born at the dawn of the computer era when Rear Admiral Grace Hopper and her colleagues invented the compiler. “Hopper believed that programming did not have to be a difficult task,” her official Navy biographical sketch reports. “She believed that programs could be written in English and then translated into binary code.” Flow-Matic, the language Hopper designed, became one of the roots of Cobol, the business-oriented programming language that was still in wide use at the turn of the millennium.
Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff
"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game
Taking the Linux operating system as a reference, it was obvious that when programmers worldwide have access to an extraordinary common set of tools, it makes everybody’s research a lot easier. “I should give everyone that tool in vision research,” he decided. While his boss was on sabbatical he launched OpenCV, or Open Source Computer Vision, a software library that made it easier for researchers to develop vision applications using Intel hardware. Bradski was a believer in an iconoclastic operating style that was sometimes attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper and was shared by many who liked getting things done inside large organizations. “Better to seek forgiveness than to ask permission” was his motto. Eventually OpenCV contained a library of more than 2,500 algorithms including both computer vision and machine-learning software. OpenCV also hosted programs that could recognize faces, identify objects, classify human motion, and so on. From his initial team of just a handful of Intel researchers, a user community grew to more than 47,000 people, and more than ten million copies of the toolset have been downloaded to date.
Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
In fact, women were the original ‘computers’, doing complex maths problems by hand for the military before the machine that took their name replaced them.56 Even after they were replaced by a machine, it took years before they were replaced by men. ENIAC, the world’s first fully functional digital computer, was unveiled in 1946, having been programmed by six women.57 During the 1940s and 50s, women remained the dominant sex in programming,58 and in 1967 Cosmopolitan magazine published ‘The Computer Girls’, an article encouraging women into programming.59 ‘It’s just like planning a dinner,’ explained computing pioneer Grace Hopper. ‘You have to plan ahead and schedule everything so that it’s ready when you need it. Programming requires patience and the ability to handle detail. Women are ‘naturals’ at computer programming.’ But it was in fact around this time that employers were starting to realise that programming was not the low-skilled clerical job they had once thought. It wasn’t like typing or feeling. It required advanced problem-solving skills.
Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software by Charles Petzold
Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Eratosthenes, Grace Hopper, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Daguerre, millennium bug, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture
Throughout the history of programming languages, however, people have tried creating languages that could be used by a wider range of people. One of the first successful languages designed for businesspeople and business problems was COBOL (the COmmon Business Oriented Language), still widely used today. A committee that combined American industries and the defense department created COBOL beginning in 1959, influenced by Grace Hopper's early compilers. In part, COBOL was designed so that managers, while probably not doing the actual coding, could at least read the program code and check that it was doing what it was supposed to be doing. (In real life, however, this rarely occurs.) COBOL has extensive support for reading records and generating reports. Records are collections of information organized in a consistent manner.
Beautiful Testing: Leading Professionals Reveal How They Improve Software (Theory in Practice) by Adam Goucher, Tim Riley
Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Black Swan, call centre, continuous integration, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Grace Hopper, index card, Isaac Newton, natural language processing, p-value, performance metric, revision control, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, the scientific method, Therac-25, Valgrind, web application
Page 92 of this notebook, shown in Figure 6-1, displays typical engineering notes from September 9, 1947: 1525 Started Mult+Adder Test. 1545 Relay # 70 Panel F (moth) in relay. First actual case of bug being found. FIGURE 6-1. The first bug found The Smithsonian’s notes alongside this page mention that the term “bug” was used in engineering at least as far back as Thomas Edison’s time. But this moth made for a very good story often told by Admiral Grace Hopper, inventor of the COBOL language and one of the computer engineers who worked on the Mark II. This bug became part of computing history. Moths are far too big to become wedged inside individual gates of modern microprocessors, but software bugs haven’t gone away. This particular bug report doesn’t describe the symptoms, but it contains two important details that are unfortunately lacking in many contemporary bug reports: 68 CHAPTER SIX • The bug is closely associated with the test procedure (presumably the test procedure that revealed this bug). • When the root cause was found, it was explained along with a detailed attachment.
Inventors at Work: The Minds and Motivation Behind Modern Inventions by Brett Stern
Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Build a better mousetrap, business process, cloud computing, computer vision, cyber-physical system, distributed generation, game design, Grace Hopper, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart transportation, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the market place, Yogi Berra
Usually it goes along the line of keeping it simple. Find an idea that you can pull off without multiple new components and complexities, etc. Then build up complexity from a base of success. Stern: Are there any inventors or inventions that you admire, whether the person or the product? Greiner: I have two or three that come to mind. Mary Anderson, who invented windshield wipers in 1905. Stephanie Kwolek, who invented Kevlar. And Admiral Grace Hopper, who invented compilers. Stern: Why the windshield wipers? Greiner: Well, these inventors had to overcome more than the technical and adoption hurdles typical for any inventor. They also had to overcome gender stereotypes and biases that were even more prevalent in the past. Stern: Would you say there is a reason why women don’t get more involved in the inventing or technical world? Greiner: Women have to overcome many stereotypes and biases to get into positions where they can invent.
Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science) by Thierry Bardini
Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog
In the course of these negotiations, the actors mobIhze resources not accordIng to theIr pos- sIble categOrIZatIons In the socIal or technological realm, but accordIng to a strategy that is both social and technological. The result of these negotiations is a sociotech- nological system in whIch the uncertaInty about the socIal Identities of the maJor ac- tors and the qualities of the technology is slowly dimInIshed. 2. The word "compiler" was chosen by Grace Hopper from Remington Rand when she created the A-O compIler In 1951 for the UNIVAC. Martin Campbell-Kelly and WIlham Aspray reported that she "chose the word comptler because the system would automatically put together the piece of code that made up the complete pro- gram" (Campbell-Kelly and Aspray 1996, 187). 3. For the descriptIon of the development of FORTRAN, see Campbell-Kelly and Aspray (1996), 188-92. 4.
Code Complete (Developer Best Practices) by Steve McConnell
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Grace Hopper, haute cuisine, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, inventory management, iterative process, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Menlo Park, Perl 6, place-making, premature optimization, revision control, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine, web application
If you follow the advice in this book, you'll have fewer errors to debug. Most of the defects you'll have will be minor oversights and typos, easily found by looking at a source-code listing or stepping through the code in a debugger. For the remaining harder bugs, this chapter describes how to make debugging much easier than it usually is. Overview of Debugging Issues The late Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, co-inventor of COBOL, always said that the word "bug" in software dated back to the first large-scale digital computer, the Mark I (IEEE 1992). Programmers traced a circuit malfunction to the presence of a large moth that had found its way into the computer, and from that time on, computer problems were blamed on "bugs." Outside software, the word "bug" dates back at least to Thomas Edison, who is quoted as using it as early as 1878 (Tenner 1997).
Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software Intensive Systems” [bib36entry230] “IEEE Std 1490-1998, Guide - Adoption of PMI Standard - A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” [bib36entry231] “IEEE Std 1540-2001, Standard for Software Life Cycle Processes - Risk Management” [bib36entry232] “IEEE Std 730-2002, Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans” [bib36entry233] “IEEE Std 828-1998, Standard for Software Configuration Management Plans” [bib36entry234] “IEEE Std 829-1998, Standard for Software Test Documentation” [bib36entry235] “IEEE Std 830-1998, Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications” [bib36entry236] “IEEE Std 830-1998. IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications”. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. [bib36entry237] IEEE, 1991. IEEE Software Engineering Standards Collection, Spring 1991 Edition. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [bib36entry238] IEEE, 1992. “"Rear Adm. Grace Hopper dies at 85."” IEEE Computer, February, 84. [bib36entry239] Ingrassia,FrankS. 1976. “"The Unit Development Folder (UDF): An Effective Management Tool for Software Development."” TRW Technical Report TRW-SS- 76-11. Also reprinted in Reifer 1986, 366–79. [bib36entry240] Ingrassia,FrankS. 1987. “"The Unit Development Folder (UDF): A Ten-Year Perspective."” Tutorial: Software Engineering Project Management, ed.
Practical OCaml by Joshua B. Smith
cellular automata, Debian, domain-specific language, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, John Conway, Paul Graham, slashdot, SpamAssassin, text mining, Turing complete, type inference, web application, Y2K
If you have a 10,000-line program, how do you verify that it does what you think it does? What about a 100,000-line program? What about 1,000,000 lines? Overview of Programming Styles Functional preprogramming (FP) is only one of several programming styles that are currently in widespread use. Each of these programming styles seeks to maximize programmer efficiency and minimize bugs. Programming has always tried to do these things, even before Grace Hopper created the first useful compiler. ■Note Back in the days before assembly language, programmers had to program in machine code directly or hard-wire the logic directly. For these purposes, programming styles can be divided into three groups: structured, object-oriented, and functional. They are not strong divisions, and often a given programming language supports features of all three. Most of the time, a given programming language does have more strength in one of the three groups. 261 620Xch20final.qxd 262 9/22/06 12:18 AM Page 262 CHAPTER 20 ■ DIGRESSION: FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING Structured Programming Structured programming is sometimes also referred to as imperative programming.
If Then: How Simulmatics Corporation Invented the Future by Jill Lepore
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, anti-communist, Buckminster Fuller, computer age, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, game design, George Gilder, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, index card, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, job automation, land reform, linear programming, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, Peter Thiel, profit motive, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
“Don’t Pity the Liberal Arts Grads—They’re Bossing the Engineers,” Hartford Courant, February 13, 1962. T. R. Kennedy Jr., “Electronic Computer Flashes Answers, May Speed Engineering,” NYT, February 15, 1946. See my discussion in These Truths, 557–65. Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics (New York: Wiley, 1948). Clive Thompson, “The Secret History of Women in Coding,” NYT, February 13, 2019. Grace Hopper, “The Education of a Computer ,” Annals of the History of Computing 9 (1988): 272. Louis Hyman, Temp: How American Work, American Business, and the American Dream Became Temporary (New York: Viking, 2018), 127. Joy Lisi Rankin, A People’s History of Computing in the United States (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018), 14. Robert Jungk, Tomorrow Is Already Here: Scenes from a Man-Made World (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1954), 178–82, 187.
The History of the Future: Oculus, Facebook, and the Revolution That Swept Virtual Reality by Blake J. Harris
4chan, airport security, Anne Wojcicki, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, computer vision, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, financial independence, game design, Grace Hopper, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Peter Thiel, QR code, sensor fusion, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, white picket fence
This designer—a thirtysomething woman with a high and tight haircut; her bangs stylishly quaffed upward—was Caitlin Kalinowski. She nodded not because she was dazzled by Home, but because after fourteen years in Silicon Valley, she finally felt like she’d found a company that felt like home: Facebook. Kalinowski had only been with Facebook for a couple of months now, but her journey there began more than a year earlier. In Portland, in November 2011, at the annual Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing where Kalinowski crossed paths with a recruiter who expressed interest in bringing her to Facebook. At the time, Kalinowski was at Apple, where she was the technical lead on the company’s funky-looking, coffeemaker-inspired cylindrical Mac Pro. Though Kalinowski greatly enjoyed working on that project, she had been at Apple for several years and was open to the idea of making a change, especially if that meant going to a company with a reputation like Facebook; and even more especially upon learning that they were looking to hire her for a “supersecret project.”
Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White
Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, combinatorial explosion, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, full text search, Grace Hopper, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, linked data, loose coupling, openstreetmap, recommendation engine, RFID, SETI@home, social graph, web application
My wife, Eliane, not only kept the home going, but also stepped in to help review, edit, and chase case studies. My daughters, Emilia and Lottie, have been very understanding, and I’m looking forward to spending lots more time with all of them. Chapter 1. Meet Hadoop In pioneer days they used oxen for heavy pulling, and when one ox couldn’t budge a log, they didn’t try to grow a larger ox. We shouldn’t be trying for bigger computers, but for more systems of computers. —Grace Hopper Data! We live in the data age. It’s not easy to measure the total volume of data stored electronically, but an IDC estimate put the size of the “digital universe” at 0.18 zettabytes in 2006, and is forecasting a tenfold growth by 2011 to 1.8 zettabytes. A zettabyte is 1021 bytes, or equivalently one thousand exabytes, one million petabytes, or one billion terabytes. That’s roughly the same order of magnitude as one disk drive for every person in the world.
Seeking SRE: Conversations About Running Production Systems at Scale by David N. Blank-Edelman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, bounce rate, business continuity plan, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, dark matter, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fear of failure, friendly fire, game design, Grace Hopper, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, invisible hand, iterative process, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, microservices, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, performance metric, platform as a service, pull request, RAND corporation, remote working, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, single page application, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, source of truth, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, web application, WebSocket, zero day
Lorch, Yingnong Dang, Murali Chintalapati, Randolph Yao, “Gray Failure: The Achilles’ Heel of Cloud-Scale Systems” 6 Jude Karabus, “BA’s ‘global IT system failure’ was due to ‘power surge’”. 7 Gareth Corfield, “BA IT systems failure: Uninterruptible Power Supply was interrupted”. 8 Cited by John Allspaw: Koen, Billy V. (1985). Definition of the Engineering Method. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education, p. 5. 9 Lafeldt, Mathias. (2017). “Impermanence: The Single Root Cause”, Medium.com. 10 Watch Grace Hopper illustrate a nanosecond. Understanding the state of a computer system that executes multiple instructions per nanosecond when your view of that system is an indeterminate length of time removed from the real execution means that the interface through which you come to understand the system is, at best, seeing “through a glass darkly.” 11 Drucker, Peter F. (1963). “Managing for Business Effectiveness,” Harvard Business Review. 12 See Benjamin Purgason’s presentation, “The Evolution of Site Reliability Engineering” for more on the subject. 13 Dweck, Carol. (2007).
Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra
On one hand, the work on unmanned vehicles and weapons stagnated. Indeed, the new U.S. Air Force (formed from the army’s Air Corps) was so uninterested in drones and guided missiles that their further development was left to the army and navy ordnance departments. Computers, though, continued to take off, with the military at the center of their funding and development. Among the early pioneers in this period was “Amazing” Grace Hopper. Hopper was a U.S. naval officer who worked on the development of the Harvard Mark I computer made by IBM. The Mark I, which was fifty-one feet in length and had some five hundred miles of wire, is credited by many as being the first digital computer that could store numbers and automatically calculate them. The challenge for these early computer pioneers was that all the instructions for the computer had to be written out in binary code.