Shoshana Zuboff

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pages: 791 words: 85,159

Social Life of Information by John Seely Brown, Paul Duguid

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AltaVista, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, cross-subsidies, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, Frank Gehry, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Gilder, George Santayana, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Y2K

Navy understood the potential of information technology to disempower when they resisted the introduction of Marconi's ship-to-shore radio.37 They realized that, once orders could be sent to them on-board ship, they would lose their independence of action. (Their resistance recalls a story of the famous British admiral Lord Nelson, who "turned a blind eye" to his telescope at the Battle of Copenhagen to avoid seeing his commander's signal to disengage.)38 In contemplating assumptions about the decentralizing role of information technology, Shoshona Zuboff, a professor at Harvard Business School, confessed to becoming much more pessimistic in the decade since she wrote her pathbreaking book on the infomated workplace, In the Age of the Smart Machine :"The paradise of shared knowledge and a more egalitarian working environment," she notes, "just isn't happening. Knowledge isn't really shared because management doesn't want to share authority and power."39 Of course this need not be the outcome.

For a case study of previously decentralized business organizations that were later centralized, see Duguid and Silva Lopes, 1999. 37. Fidler, 1997. 38. The same long arm of technology has led to the direct intervention of politics into battlefield planning; for example, though President Bush said he would leave decisions in the Gulf War to local commanders, the White House began to exercise veto power and control over the conduct of the war, after a smart bomb went astray and drew bad press. 39. Shoshona Zuboff, quoted in Lohr, 1996. 40. Meanwhile, Royal Dutch/Shell, one of the most well known and widely applauded decentralizers of the past decade, has announced that it will recentralize its "treasury." Decentralization had been too costly and inefficient. More generally, the Economist magazine's "Intelligence Unit" has noted a trend toward "shared services" in large corporationsand what they describe reads very much like recentralization. 41.

"For-Profit Higher Education: Godzilla or Chicken Little." Change: The Magazine for Higher Learning 31 (1): 12 19. Yates, Jo Anne. 1989. Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. Ziman, John M. 1967. Public Knowledge: An Essay Concerning the Social Dimension of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zuboff, Shoshona. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Page 307 Index A A.B. Dick, 159 Aetna, 175 Age of the Smart Machine, 30 Alexa.com, 188 Amazon.com, 148 acquisitions activities of, 25 bot use on, 37, 44, 45, 47 48 American Airlines, 45 American Notes, 195 Anderson, Benedict, 194, 197 AOL, acquisitions activities of, 25, 26 Apple Computer, 70, 87 innovativeness of, 159 160 relations with PARC, 151, 157, 163, 166 structure of, 154 AT&T, 178 downsizing by, 122 reengineering of, 92 relations with Microsoft, 25, 28 Attewell, Paul, 29 Autonomous agents, 36 37 and delegation, 53 54 negotiation and, 48 52 and representation, 54 56 strengths and limitations of, 41 56 unethical use of, 56 59 See also Bots B Babbage, Charles, 86 Barlow, John Perry, 66, 198 Barnard, Chester, 114 Barnes & Noble, 148 Bateson, Gregory, 138 Being Digital, 15 Bell, Alexander Graham, 87 88 Bell, Gordon, 11 Berkeley, University of California at, 228 Bots (autonomous agents), 36 37 and delegation, 53 54 future of, 39 41, 61 62 negotiation and, 48 52 as representative, 54 56 strengths and limitations of, 41 56 unethical use of, 56 59 Page 308 Boyle, Robert, 191 British Telecom, and home office, 98 99 Bruner, Jerome, 128, 135, 138, 153 Burg, Urs von, 166 Bush, Vannevar, 179 180 Business processes formal versus informal, 113 115 improvisation in, 109 111 reengineering of, 91 93, 97 99 C Cameron, Stephen, 223 Cancelbots, 58 Canon, 157 Carlson, Chester, 159, 161 CDNow, bot use on, 37, 44 Champy, James, 92, 107, 111, 144 Chandler, Alfred, 161 Chaparral Steel, 123 Chatterbots, 36 Chaum, David, 60 Chiat, Jay, 71 Chiat/Day, 70 73, 75, 82 Chrysler Financial, technology costs at, 82 Claims processing, 96 Clustering, 161 164 and distance, 167 170 and ecologies of knowledge, 165 167 economic effects of, 164 165 Coase, Ronald, 23 24 Code of code, 249 Cole, Robert, 123 Common Sense, 195 Communities formed around Internet, 189 190 of practice, 141, 142 143, 162 scientific, 191 192 support of knowledge management, 125 127 textual, 190 Competition, changes in, 208 209 Conduit metaphors, 184 Constraints, complexities of, 244 245 Context, 202 Control Data Systems, 212 Copyright law, 248 software issues and, 249 250 Covidea (AT&T), 178 Credentialing, 214 215 bogus, 216 future of, 215 216, 234 235 meaning of, 217 221 Customization, 26 D Daniel, Sir John, 25, 223 Databases, versus documents, 186 Davenport, Tom, 122, 198 David, Paul, 83 de Long, Brad, 46, 52 Decentralization, 29 30 Dee, John, 211 Defoe, Daniel, 139 Degrees.

Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

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Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

F I G U R E 4.1 . diverse platforms and applications. What follows in the book is an hour-­ by-­hour account of a day in the life of two imaginary corporations, one a packaged-­food multinational with 15,000 employees around the world, and the other a smaller manufacturing firm with 350 workers making office partitions, the cubicles that so decisively divide and relegate white-­collar workers to what Shoshana Zuboff terms “the realm of the machine.”52 Corporate managers figure prominently in the story that Beyond Paper tells, but so do the underlings on whom they make extraordinary demands. The copier jams repeatedly as an executive secretary tries to use it, and then her boss vanishes before she can protest how long it will take to fax 100 pages across the country; a mail boy with a cart already full of deliveries to make is hijacked by a marketing director who wants him to rush to deliver an important interoffice envelope; and a four-­person team struggles to prepare a new sales proposal needed immediately by their persnickety boss, only to come up with four separate files and two different handouts: all problems solved, of course, by Adobe™ Acrobat™, which aimed at reducing but not replacing the uses of paper and the uses of copiers, fax ma126    CHAPTER FOUR chines, express mail, interoffice mail, airplanes, envelopes, binders, staples, and paper clips.53 Reducing labor costs remains an unspoken benefit.

See National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, “Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library of Congress Collections,” 7 March 2007, accessed August 2009, http://www.digitalpreservation .gov/formats/intro/intro.shtml. “Lossy” encoding compresses files by discarding some of the data they contain; archivists prefer lossless compression. 51. Bienz and Richard Cohn, Portable Document Format Reference Manual; Ames, Beyond Paper. 52. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Nature of Work and Power (New York: Basic, 1984), 125. 53. Ames, Beyond Paper, 45–47, 85. 54. Ibid., 93. 55. Streeter, The Net Effect, 124 (emphasis in the original). A related point about the uneven penetration of technological change had been made before by Alvin Toffler in The Third Wave (New York: William Morrow, 1980), 207–8. 56. Jacques Derrida, Paper Machine, trans.

Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. ———. Structuring the Information Age: Life Insurance and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. Zielinski, Siegfried. Deep Time of Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means. Translated by Gloria Custance. Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Nature of Work and Power. New York: Basic, 1984. 204    WORKS CITED INDEX Adams, William Taylor, 142 Adobe Systems, 117, 118, 123–28 adolescents. See young adults Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (arpanet), 100 advertisements, 4, 45, 102, 112, 115, 139 amateurs, 12, 14, 15, 20, 38, 51–52, 62, 72, 74–78, 81–82, 116, 122, 136–50 American Antiquarian Society, 39, 42, 46, 47, 52, 80, 138, 139 American Council of Learned Societies, 14, 54–55, 57, 60, 80.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

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barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

By this point the rhetoric of crisis had become so commonplace in the computer industry literature that for many young programmers the software crisis was “less a turning point than a way of life.”16 This comes back to some of the central questions of this book: How can we explain the continued existence of a seemingly perpetual crisis in what is generally considered to be one of the most successful and profitable industries of all time? How can we understand the role of computer specialists—in many respects the paradigmatic “knowledge workers” of post-industrial society—within this troubled framework of crisis, conflict, and contested identity? If, as Shoshona Zuboff has suggested, computer-based technologies are not simply neutral artifacts, but rather “embody essential characteristics that are bound to alter the nature of work within factories and offices, and among workers, professionals, and managers,” then what are the “essential characteristics” of software and software development that shape our understanding of work, identity, and power in the information technology industry (and the many industries that rely on information technology)?

Dobbs Journal (2008). 15. Andrew Pollack, “Year 2000 Problem Tests Professionalism of Programmers,” New York Times (May 3, 1999): C1; Mark Manion and William M. Evan, “The Y2K Problem: Technological Risk and Professional Responsibility,” ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society 29, no. 4 (1999): 24–29. 16. John Shore, “Why I Never Met a Programmer I Could Trust,” Communications of the ACM 31, no. 4 (1988): 372. 17. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). 18. Thomas Gieryn, “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists,” American Sociological Review 48, no. 4 (1983): 781–795. 19. Ibid. 20. Andrei P. Ershov, “Aesthetics and the Human Factor in Programming,” Communications of the ACM 15, no. 7 (1972): 502. 21.

Classics in Software Engineering. New York: Yourdon Press, 1979. Zabusky, Stacia, and Stephen Barley. Redefining Success: Ethnographic Observations on the Careers of Technicians. In Broken Ladders: Managerial Careers in the New Economy, ed. Paul Osterman, 185–214. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Zaphyr, P. A. “The Science of Hypology” (letter to editor). Communications of the ACM 2 (1) (1959): 4. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Zussman, Robert. Mechanics of the middle class: Work and politics among American engineers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Index Abbott, Andrew, 234 ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) academic orientation of, 173–174, 191 Communications of the ACM, 101, 114–115, 173, 182 conflict with DPMA, 177, 182, 189, 196 Education Committee, 118, 173, 234 history of, 170–175 Journal of the ACM, 173 membership statistics, 170–171 Adaptive programming.


In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff

affirmative action, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, demand response, deskilling, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, fudge factor, future of work, industrial robot, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, job automation, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, old-boy network, optical character recognition, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Shoshana Zuboff, social web, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, zero-sum game

fi." t ve" o paa e IN THE AGE OF THE SMART MACHINE The Future of Work and Power SHOSHANA ZUBOFF BASIC BOOKS, INC., PUBLISHERS NEW YORK "Home" reprinted by permission; @ 1984 John Witte. Originally in The New Yorker. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Zuboff, Shoshana, 1 95 1- In the age of the smart machine. Includes index. 1. Automation-Economic aspects. 2. Automation-Social aspects. 3. Machinery in industry. 4. Organizational effectiveness. I. Title. HD45.2.Z83 1988 338'.06 87-47777 ISBN 0-465-03212-5 Copyright @ 1988 by Basic Books, Inc. Printed in the United States of America 88 89 90 91 HC 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 To Bob, Who hears the world's heart And has taught me much about how to listen. CONTENTS Preface xi AcknowledBments xvi i INTRODUCTION DILEMMAS OF TRANSFORMATION IN THE AGE OF THE SMART MACHINE 3 PART ONE KNOWLEDGE AND COMPUTER-MEDIA TED WORK 17 CHAPTER ONE THE LABORING BODY: SUFFERING AND SKILL IN PRODUCTION WORK 19 CHAPTER TWO THE ABSTRACTION OF INDUSTRIAL WORK 58 CHAPTER THREE THE WHITE-COLLAR BODY IN HISTORY 97 CHAPTER FOUR OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AS EXILE AND INTEGRATION 124 viii Contents CHAPTER FIVE MASTERING THE ELECTRONIC TEXT 174 PART TWO AUTHORITY: THE SPIRITUAL DIMENSION OF POWER 219 CHAPTER SIX WHAT WAS MAN AGERIAL AUTHORITY?

Alan Fox, IIManagerial Ideology and Labour Relations," British Journal of Industrial Relations 4, no. 3 (November 1966): 367. 28. Howell John Harris, The Right to Manage: Industrial Relations Policies of Ameri- can Business in the 1940s (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982), 97. 29. Ibid., 98. 30. Bendix, Work and Authority 323; see Fox, IIManagerial Ideology," 369; for a more extensive discussion of this point see Shoshana Zuboff, liThe Work Ethic and Work Organization," in Jack Barbash, ed., The Work Ethic: A Critical Analysis (Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983), 165-73. 31. Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Boston: Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1945), 120, 122. 32. Harris, Right to Manage, 102. 33. Bendix, Work and Authority 326-28. 34.

I borrow the term intricate from Gendlin's usage, as his formulation provides the general context within which these alterations in workplace relations are a salient example. See Eugene T. Gendlin, "A Philosophical Critique of the Concept of Narcissism: The Significance of the Awareness Movement," in D. M. Levin, ed., Pathologies of the Modern Sell Postmodern Studies (New York: New York University Press, 1987), 251-304. 10. For a more elaborate discussion of this view of traditional work organiza- tion, see Shoshana Zuboff, "I Am My Own Man: The Democratic Vision and Workplace Hierarchy," in Robert Schrank, ed., Industrial Democracy at Sea: Author- ity and Democracy on a Norwegian Freighter (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1983), 171-92. 11. In their analysis of ordinary language, Lakoff and Johnson define the func- tion of metaphor as "understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another." Because human thought processes are largely metaphorical, the use of metaphor in everyday language provides a window onto the conceptual sys- tem that people use to structure and interpret experience.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

At the end of this intellectual itinerary, impressive on many grounds, one fundamental idea emerges: automation, which received its full meaning only with the deployment of information technology, increases dramatically the importance of human brain input into the work process.49 While automated machinery, and later computers, have indeed been used for transforming workers into second-order robots, as Braverman argued,50 this is not the corollary of technology, but of a social organization of labor that stalled (and still does) the full utilization of the productive capacity generated by the new technologies. As Harley Shaiken, Maryellen Kelley, Larry Hirschhorn, Shoshana Zuboff, Paul Osterman, and others have shown in their empirical work, the broader and deeper the diffusion of advanced information technology in factories and offices, the greater the need for an autonomous, educated worker able and willing to program and decide entire sequences of work.51 Notwithstanding the formidable obstacles of authoritarian management and exploitative capitalism, information technologies call for greater freedom for better-informed workers to deliver the full promise of their productivity potential.

. —— (2000b) “Old hierarchies or new networks of centrality: the global geography of the Internet content market”, submitted for a special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist. —— (2000c) “The role of regional venture capital in the development of the Internet commerce industry: the San Francisco Bay region and the New York Metropolitan area”, unpublished PhD dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California. Zuboff, Shoshana (1988) In the Age of the Smart Machine, New York: Basic Books. Zukin, Sharon (1992) Landscapes of Power, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Index Abbate, Janet Abegglen, J. C. Abeles, Ronald P. Abelson, Harold Abolaffia, Michael Y. Abrahamson, Jeffrey Acorda Adam, Barbara Adleman, Leonard Adler, David E. Adler, Gerald Adler, Glenn Adler, Paul S. Adobe advanced economies: automation; FDI; labor strategies; productivity; service employment Afghanistan War African countries age factors: employment; Internet use Agence de l’Informatique Aglietta, Michel agriculture Alarcon, Rafael Algerian War Allen, G.

Woodward, Kathleen work process; see also employment; labor workers: age; automation; autonomy; education; flex-time; involvement; management; see also skill levels working class working conditions working hours working life World Bank; economic crises; emerging markets; global economy; productivity; World Development Report World City Fair, Tokyo World Health Organization World War II world wide web Wozniak, Steve written communication WTO WuDunn, Sheryl Wyatt, Edward Wyman, Donald xenophobia Xerox, Palo Alto Yahoo! Yamada, J. Ybarra, Josep-Antoni Yeltsin, Boris Yergin, Daniel Yeung, Yue-man Yonekura, Seiichiro Yoo, S. Yoshihara, K. Yoshino, Kosaku Yoshino, M. Y. Young, K. Young, Michael YouTube zaibatsu Zaldivar, Carlos Alonso Zaloom, Caitlin Zapatistas Zerubavel, Eviatar Zhivov, Victor M. Zook, Matthew Zuboff, Shoshana Zukin, Sharon Zysman, John


pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

See Ronald Inglehart, Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989); Inglehart, Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); and Daniel Yankelovich, "The Shifting Direction of America's Cultural Values," address to DYG's annual SCAN Conference, New York City, 29 May 1998. For another treatment of individualism's global reach, see Thomas M. Franck, The Empowered Self: Law and Society in the Age of Individualism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). [back] 12. "The Widening Rift between Corporations and Society," interview with James Maxmin and Shoshana Zuboff, Working Knowledge, 14 October 2002. See their discussion of individualism in Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin, The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2002), 93–117. [back] 13. Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1979). For an overview of the rise of the Christian right, see Steve Bruce, The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right: Conservative Protestant Politics in America 1978–1988 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Difference as a Resource for Democratic Communication. In Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics, ed. James Bohman and William Rehg, 383–406. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Yunus, M. 2001. Microcredit and IT for the Poor. New Perspectives Quarterly 18 (1): 25–26. Zimmerman, Andrew D. 1995. Toward a More Democratic Ethic of Technological Governance. Science, Technology & Human Values 20:86–107. Zuboff, Shoshana. 1989. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Index Academia, 33 Addams, Jane, 105 Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 158–159 African Americans earnings, 70 education, 57–58, 67 poverty, 61 unemployment, 58, 69 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 85–86, 97 Allen, Dorothy, 42, 45, 91, 97, 134, 136 American Graduation Initiative, 153 ARISE (A Regional Initiative Supporting Empowerment), 168 Autonomous Technology, 83 Banta, Martha, 74 Barney, Darrin, 36 Basel hazardous waste ban, 169 Beat the System: Surviving Welfare, 119–125, 215 Benner, Chris, 61 Bernhardt, Annette, 162–163 Borda, Orlando Fals, 106 Bush (George W.) administration, 36 Call centers, 72–73 Campbell, Nancy D., 13, 145, 149–150 Campus architecture, 83–84 Capital Region, 158–159 Caregiving, 65, 75–77, 160–163 Caseworkers, 94–95 Child care, 160–162 Citizenship conceptions of, 30 as contract, 25 and IT, 29–31, 89 and political learning, 85–86 and popular technology, 96–98, 104, 125–127, 131–132, 136 Clinton, Bill, 35 Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace, 84 Cognitive justice, 147–148, 151–152, 163 Collar Laundry Union, 50 Collective process, 18–19 Collingwood, Harris, 53–55 Colorful cards, 133 Community Asset Bank (CAB), 120, 215 Community benefits agreements (CBAs), 167 Community building, 144–146 Community Technology Center Program, 166 Community technology centers (CTCs), 165–166 Community Technology Laboratory, 109–114, 215 260 Index Composite stories, 120, 123, 125 Confidentiality, 92–93 Consensus conferences, 163–164 DuBois, W.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

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1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

., ‘More than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux’s Size’, www.dwheeler.com, July 2002. Available from http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/ redhat71-v1/redhat71sloc.html Williams, Eliza, ‘The Future of TV?’, Creative Review, August 2006 Wright, Robert, Nonzero (Abacus, 2001) Zeldin, Theodore, Conversation (Harvill Press, 1998) Zittrain, Jonathan L., ‘The Generative Internet’, Harvard Law Review 119. 1974 (2006) Zuboff, Shoshana, and James Maxim, The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism (Allen Lane, 2002) Web addresses www.blizzard.com/inblizz/profile.shtml www.bookcrossing.com c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiHistory counter.li.org/ english.ohmynews.com/ www.fark.com www.ige.com www.plastic.com portal.eatonweb.com www.slashdot.org www.technorati.com/about www.worldofwarcraft.com INDEX 42 Entertainment 10, 11 A ABC 173 academia, academics 6, 27, 48, 59 Acquisti, Alessandro 210 Adam, James 95 adaptation 109, 110, 121 advertising 104, 105, 129, 173, 180, 219 Aegwynn US Alliance server 99 Afghanistan 237 Africa broadband connections 189 mobile phones 185, 207 science 196 use of Wikipedia 18 Aids 193, 206, 237 al-Qaeda 237 Alka-Seltzer 105 Allen, Paul 46 Altair BASIC 46 Amadeu, Sérgio 202 amateurism 105 Amazon 86 America Speaks 184 American Chemical Society 159 anarchy cultural 5 Wikipedia 16 Anderson, Chris: The Long Tail 216 Apache program 68 Apple 42, 103, 104, 135, 182 iPhone 134 iPods 46 Arendt, Hannah 174, 176 Argentina 203 Arrayo, Gloria 186 Arseblog 29, 30 Arsenal Football Club 29, 30 Arsenal.com 29 arXiv 160 Asia access to the web 5, 190 attitude to open-source 203 and democracy 189 mobile phones 166, 185 and open-source design communities 166–7 Ask a Ninja 57, 219 assembly line 93, 130 assets 224 astronomy 155, 162–3 authority 110, 115, 233 authorship and folk culture 57, 58 and mapping of the human genome 62 Azerbaijan 190 B bacteria, custom-made 164 Baker, Steve 148 Banco do Brazil 201 Bangladesh 205–6 banking 115, 205–6 Barber, Benjamin: Strong Democracy 174 Barbie, Klaus 17 Barbie dolls 17 Barefoot College 205 barefoot thinking 205–6 Barthes, Roland 45 Batchelor, Charles 95 Bath University 137 BBC 4, 17, 127, 142 news website 15 beach, public 49, 50, 51 Beach, The (think-tank) xi Bebo 34, 85, 86 Bedell, Geraldine x, xii–xiii Beekeepers 11, 15 Benkler, Yochai 174 The Wealth of Networks 194 Berger, Jorn 33 Bermuda principles 160 Billimoria, Jeroo 206 BioBrick Foundation 164 biology 163 open-source 165 synthetic 164–5 BioMedCentral 159 biotechnology 154, 163–4, 196–7, 199 black fever (visceral leishmaniasis) 200 Blackburn Rovers Football Club 29 Blades, Joan 188 Blizzard Entertainment 100 Bloc 8406 191 Blogger.com 33 blogs, blogging 1, 3, 20, 29–35, 57, 59, 74, 75, 78, 86, 115, 159, 170, 171, 176, 179, 181–2, 183, 191, 192, 214, 219, 229 BMW 140 Bohr, Neils 93 bookshops 2 Boulton, Matthew 54–5 Bowyer, Adrian 139, 140, 232 Boyd, Danah 213, 214 Bradley, Bill 180 Brand, Stewart 39–40, 43, 63 brands 104, 109 Brazil 201–2 Brenner, Sydney 62–5, 70, 77, 118, 231 Brief History of Time, A (Hawking) 163 Brindley, Lynne 141, 142, 144–5 British Library, London 141, 142, 144, 145 British Medical Journal 159 British National Party 169 Brooks, Fred 77–8 Brooks Hall, San Francisco 38 BT 112 bugs, software 70, 72, 165 bulletin boards 34, 40, 68, 77 Burma 190, 191 Bush, President George W. 18, 33–4, 180, 183 business services 130, 132, 166 C C. elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans) 62–5 Cambia 197 Cambridge University Press 159 camcorders 11 Campbell, Anne 176 Cancer Genome Atlas 160 capital 224 capitalism 224 commune 121, 125 managerial 24 modern 91, 121 social dimension of 90 Carlson, Rob 164 Carnegie Mellon University 210 cars manufacture 135–6 sharing 153 CBS 173 Center for Bits and Atoms, MIT 139 CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) 30–31, 159 Chan, Timothy 106, 107 chat rooms 165 Chavez, President Hugo 203 Cheney, Dick 180 Chevrolet 105 Chicago: Full Circle council project 184 China based on privileged access to information 236 creative and cultural sectors 129–30 hackers 234 Internet connection 190, 204 makes available genetic data 199 motor-cycle production 136–7 online games market 106 open-access scientific data 159–60 open-source designs 141 politics 171, 192 power struggle in 235 spending on R & D 96, 159 web censorship 190–91 Chinese Communist Party 171, 235 Chongquing, China 136 Cisco 190 Citibank 207 Citizendium 14 climate change 170, 239 Clinton, Bill 174, 188 Clinton, Senator Hillary 181, 182, 183 CNN 15 co-operatives 121, 122, 123, 188 co-ordination 109, 110–11 coffee houses, London 95 Coke 109–10, 239 Cold War 169, 235 Coles, Polly xiii collaboration 9, 22, 31, 32, 36, 67, 79–80, 81, 82 collaborative innovation 65, 70, 75 and commerce 227 computer game 99, 100 Cornish tin-mining 55 and healthcare 150 and the library of the future 145 new technologies for 227–8 open 126, 128 peer 239 public services 145, 146, 152, 153 scientific 154, 155–6 We-Think 21, 23, 24, 146 Collis, Charles 134 Columbia University 212 commerce 25, 38, 48, 52, 57, 98, 227 commons 49, 50, 51–3, 79, 80, 124, 191, 226 communes 39–40, 46, 90, 121, 122, 128 communication(s) 130, 168, 174, 206, 239 mobile 186 Communism, collapse of 6 communities collaborative 117 and commerce 48 and commons 52 conversational 63 Cornish tin-mining 55 creative 70, 95 diverse 79–80 egalitarian 27, 48, 59, 63, 64 hacker 232 healthcare 151, 152 independence of 23 of innovation 54 libertarian, voluntaristic 45 Linux 65, 227 and loss of market for local newspapers 3 meritocratic 63 open-source 45, 68, 75, 80, 83, 95–6, 102, 109, 110, 111 open-source design 166–7 of scientists 53, 228 self-governing 59, 79, 80, 97, 104, 232 sharing and developing ideas 25 web 21, 23 worm-genome researchers 62–5 community councils 77, 80, 82 Community Memory project 42–3 companies computer-games 128 employee-owned 121, 122 shareholder-owned 122, 123, 125 see also corporations; organisations computer games 60, 127, 218 children and 147 created by groups on the web 7, 23, 87 modularity 78 multi-player 7, 204 success of World of Warcraft 98–9 tools for creating content 74 and We-Think 23 computer-aided design 134 computers democratising how information is accessed 139 distrust of 39 Goa School Computers Project 200–201 laptop 5, 36, 82, 155 mini- 135 personal 39, 46, 203 punch-cards 38 and science 154, 155 viruses 3, 4 connect 67, 75–9 Connectiva 201 consumer spending 131 consumers 98–108 consumer innovators 101–3 consumption constraints 25–6 engaging 89 fans 103–4 freedom 218 and innovation risk 100–101 participant 98–108 urban 124 contribute 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74–5 conversation 53, 54, 63, 69, 77, 93, 95, 113, 118, 174 Copernicus, Nicolaus 162 copyright 124, 157, 196 core 66, 67, 68–9, 70 Cornell University 233 ‘Cornish’ engines 55–6, 136, 229 Cornish tin-mining industry 54–6, 63, 125, 136 corporations centralisation of power 110 closed 128 and collaborative approaches to work 109 the cost of corporate efficiency 89–90 difficulty in making money from the web 7 hierarchies 88, 110 industrial-era 88 leadership 115, 117–19 loss of stability 122 restructuring and downsizing 88–9 see also companies; organisations counter-culture (1960s) 6, 27, 39, 45, 46, 59 Counts, David 183 Craigslist 3, 40, 118, 128, 218 Creative Commons 124 creative sector 129–30 creativity 1–2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 67, 82–3 collaborative 7, 20, 58, 86, 154 collective 39, 57–8 consumers 89 corporate 91–2 emergence of 93, 96 enabled by the web 1–2, 3, 5, 19, 26, 218–21, 222, 227 freedom to create 218–21 and interaction 119 and open innovation 93 origin of 112–13 social 5, 7, 58, 59, 82, 83, 86 tools for 218, 219 Crick, Francis 52, 62, 76 crime 153, 169, 183 criminality 1, 3 crowds 23, 61, 70, 72, 77 Crowdspirit 134 cultural élite 2 cultural sector 129–30 culture academic 38 anti-industrial 27, 28 basis of 4 collaborative 135 consumerist 172 corrosion of 4 cultural anarchy 5 folk 6, 27, 56–9, 220, 226 hippie 38 individual participation 6 political 171 popular 102 post-industrial 27, 28 pre-industrial 27, 28 We-Think 28, 59, 62, 169, 194, 230, 232–3, 238 Web 2.0 45 web-inflected 27 Western 239 wiki 14 work 114 YouTube cultural revolution 3 Cunningham, Ward 35–6 cyber cafés 107, 190, 192, 201, 204 Cyworld 34, 85, 86 D Dali, Salvador 105 Darby, Newman 102 Darpa 164 David, Paul 53 de Soto, Hernando 224–5 The Mystery of Capital 224 de Vellis, Phil 182 Dean, Howard 176–7, 178, 180, 185 Dean Corps 177 Debian 66 Debord, Guy 45, 46 decentralisation 7, 13, 39, 46, 59, 78, 226, 232 decision-making 78, 82, 84, 115, 173, 174 del.i.cious 86 democracy 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 16, 24, 170–74, 175, 176–92 basis of 174 conversational democracy at a national level 184 ‘craftsmen of democracy’ 174 Dean campaign 178 democratic advances 184 depends on public sovereignty 172 formal 195 geek 65 Homebrew 176 public debate 170, 171 and We-Think 170, 221, 239 Department for International Development (DFID) 207 Descartes, René 19–20 design 166 modular 136–7 open-source 133–5, 140, 141, 162–3, 166–7 developing world Fab Labs in 166 government attitudes to the Internet 190 impact of the web on 166 mobile phones 185–6 and open-access publishing 166 and open-source design communities 166–7 and open-source software 200–203 research and development 196 and We-Think’s style of organisation 204 diabetes 150 Digg 33 discussion forums 77 diversity 9, 23, 72, 76, 77, 79–80, 112, 121 division of labour 111 DNA description of the double helix (Watson and Crick) 52, 62, 76 DNA-sequencing 164–5 Dobson, John 102, 162–3 Doritos 105 dot.com boom 106 Dupral 68 Dyson (household-goods company) 134 Dyson, Freeman 163, 164 E E-Lagda.com 186 Eaton, Brigitte 33 Eatonweb 33 eBay 40, 44, 102, 128, 152, 165, 216–18, 221, 229, 235 Ebola virus 165 Eccles, Nigel xi economies of scale 137 economy digital 124, 131, 216 gift 91, 226 global 192 global knowledge 239 of ideas 6 individual participation 6 industrial 122 market 91, 221 a mass innovation economy 7 networked 227 of things 6 UK 129, 130 and We-Think 129 Edison, Thomas 72, 93, 95 EditMe 36 education 130, 146–50, 167, 183, 194, 239 among the poorest people in the world 2, 193 civic 174 a more convivial system 44 Edwards, John 181 efficiency 109, 110 Einstein, Albert: theory of relativity 52 elderly, care of 170 Electronic Arts 105, 106, 128, 177 Electronic Frontier Foundation 40 electronics 93, 135 Eli Lilly (drugs company) 77 Ellis, Mark: The Coffee House: a social history 95 enclosures 124 Encyclopaedia Britannica, The 15–18, 126 encyclopaedias 1, 4, 7, 12–19, 21, 23, 36, 53, 60, 61, 79, 161, 231 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) 161, 226 Endy, Drew 164, 165 energy 166, 232, 238 Engelbart, Doug 38–9, 59 engineering 133, 166 Environmental Protection Agency 152 epic poems 58, 60 equality 2, 24, 192–7, 198, 199–208 eScholarship repository, University of California 160 Estonia 184, 234 Estrada, President Joseph 186 ETA (Basque terrorist group) 187 European Union (EU) 130 Evans, Lilly x Evolt 68, 108 F Fab Labs 139, 166, 232 fabricators 139 Facebook 2, 34–5, 53, 142, 152, 191, 193, 210 factories 7, 8, 24 families, and education 147 Fanton, Jonathan 161 Fark 33 Feinstein, Diane 176 Felsenstein, Lee 42, 43, 44 fertilisers 123 Field Museum of Natural History, Harvard University 161 file-sharing 51, 58, 135, 144, 233 film 2, 3, 4, 47, 86, 129, 216, 218, 220–21 film industry 56 filters, collaborative 36, 86 financial services 130, 132 Financial Times 118 First International Computer (FIC), Inc. 136, 141 flash mobbing 10, 11 Flickr 34, 85, 86, 210, 218–19 Food and Drug Administration (US) 92 Ford, Henry 24, 93, 96 Fortune 500 company list 122 Frank, Ze (Hosea Jan Frank) 57, 219 freedom 1, 2, 6, 24, 208, 209, 210–21, 226 French, Gordon 41, 42 friendly societies 188 Friends Reunited 34 friendship 5, 233 combinatorial 95 Friendster 34, 35 fundamentalists 232 G Gaia Online 35 Galileo Galilei 154 gambling 169 GarageBand software 57, 135, 148 Gates, Bill 46, 47, 51, 227 Gates Foundation 160 geeks 27, 29–36, 37, 38, 48, 59, 65, 179 gene-sequencing machines, automated 64 genetic engineering 164, 196–7, 235 Georgia: ’colour revolution’ 187 Gershenfeld, Neil 139–40, 166, 232 GetFrank 108 Ghana, Fab Lab in 139 Gil, Gilberto 202 Gjertsen, Lasse 56, 218 Gland Pharma 200 global warming 238 globalisation 202, 228, 239 Gloriad 155 GM 135 Goa School Computers Project 200–201 Goffman, Erving 103–4 Goldcorp Inc. 132–3, 153 Golden Toad 40 GoLoco scheme 153 Google x, 1, 29, 32, 33, 47, 66, 97, 104, 113–14, 128, 141, 142, 144, 212 Google Earth 161 Gore, Al 64 governments in developing countries 190 difficulty in controlling the web 7 GPS systems 11 Grameen Bank 205–6, 208 ‘grey’ sciences 163 grid computing 155 Gross, Ralph 210 group-think 23, 210–11 groups 230–31 of clever people with the same outlook and skills 72 decision-making 78 diverse 72, 80, 231 and tools 76–7 Guthrie, Woody 58 H Habermas, Jurgen 174 hackers 48, 74, 104, 140, 232, 234 Hale, Victoria 199 Halo 2 science fiction computer game 8 Hamilton, Alexander 17–18 Hampton, Keith 183–4 Hanson, Matt xi health 130, 132, 146, 150–52, 167, 183, 239 Heisenberg, Werner 93 Henry, Thierry 29 Hewlett Packard 47 hierarchies 88, 110, 115 hippies 27, 48, 59, 61 HIV 193 Homebrew Computer Club 42, 46–7, 51, 227 Homebrew Mobile Phone Club 136 Homer Iliad 58 Odyssey 58 Homer-Dixon, Thomas: The Upside of Down 238–9 Hubble, Edwin 162 Human Genome Project 62, 64, 78, 155, 160, 161, 226 human rights 206 Hurricane Katrina 184 Hyde, Lewis: The Gift 226 hypertext 35, 39 I I Love Bees game 8, 10–12, 15–16, 19, 20, 69, 231 IBM 47, 66, 97 System/360 computer 77 idea-sharing 37, 94, 237, 239 as the biggest change the web will bring about 6 with colleagues 27 and consumer innovators 103 dual character of 226 gamers 106 Laboratory of Molecular Biology 63 through websites and bulletin boards 68 tools 222 We-Think-style approach to 97 and the web’s underlying culture 7 ideas combining 77 and creative thinking 87 from creative conversations 93, 95 gifts of 226 growth of 222, 239 and the new breed of leaders 117–18 ratifying 84 separating good from bad 84, 86 testing 74 the web’s growing domination 1 identity sense of 229 thieves 213–14 Illich, Ivan 43–5, 48 Deschooling Society 43, 44, 150 Disabling Professions 43 The Limits to Medicine 43, 152 Tools for Conviviality 44 independence 9, 72, 231 India Barefoot College 205 creative and cultural sectors 129–30 Fab Lab in 139 Internet connection 190, 204 mobile phones 207 and One World Health 200 spending on R & D 96 telephone service for street children 206 individuality 210, 211, 215, 216, 233 industrialisation 48, 150, 188 information barriers falling fast 2 computers democratise how it is accessed 139 effect of We-Think 129 large quantities on the web 31–2 libraries 141, 142, 143, 145 looking for 8 privileged access to 236 sharing 94, 136 the web’s growing domination 1 Wikipedia 19 Innocentive 77 innovation 5, 6, 91–3, 94, 95–8, 109 among the poorest people in the world 2 biological 194 collaborative 65, 70, 75, 90, 119, 146, 195 collective 170, 238 and competition/co-operation mix 137 Cornish mine engines 54–6 corporate 89, 109, 110 and creative conversations 93, 95 creative interaction with customers 113 cumulative 125, 238 decentralised 78 and distributed testing 74 and diverse thinking 79 and education 147 independent but interconnected 78 and interaction 119 and Linux 66 local 139 a mass innovation economy 7 medical 194 open 93, 96–7, 125, 195 in open-source communities 95–6 and patents 124 pipeline model 92, 93, 97 R & D 92, 96 risks of 100–101 social 170, 238 successful 69 user-driven 101 and We-Think 89, 93, 95, 125, 126 the web 2, 5, 7, 225 Institute for One World Health 199–200 Institute for Politics, Democracy & the Internet (IPDI) 179 Institute of Fiscal Studies 131 institutions convivial 44 industrial-era 234 and knowledge 103 and professionals 3, 5 public 142, 145 Instructables site 134 Intel 97 intellectual property 75, 122, 124, 125, 234 law 124–5 intelligence, collective bloggers 33 getting the mix right 23 Google’s search system 32 I Love Bees and Wikipedia examples 8, 10–19 milked by Google 47 the need to collaborate 32 self-organisation of 8 and social-networking sites 35 the web’s potential 3, 5 International Polar Year (IPY) 156, 226 Internet broadband connection 178, 189, 192 combined with personal computers (mid-1990s) 39 cyber cafés 107, 190, 192, 201, 204 Dean campaign 177 in developing countries 190 draws young people into politics 179, 180 an early demonstration (1968) 38 and Linux 66 news source 178–9 open-source software 68 openness 233 and political funding 180 pro-am astronomers 163 used by groups with a grievance 168 in Vietnam 189–90, 191 investment 119, 121, 133, 135 Iran 190, 191 Iraq war 18, 134, 191 Israel 18 Ito, Joi 99 J Japan politics 171 technology 171 JBoss 68 Jefferson, Richard 197, 199 Jodrell Bank Observatory, Macclesfield, Cheshire 162 JotSpot 36 journalism 3, 74, 115, 170–71 Junker, Margrethe 206 K Kampala, Uganda 206 Kazaa music file-sharing system 144 Keen, Andrew 208 The Cult of the Amateur 208 Kelly, Kevin 211 Kennedy, John F. 176 Kenya 207 Kepler, Johannes 162 Kerry, John 180 Khun, Thomas 69 knowledge access to 194, 196 agricultural 194 barriers falling fast 2 collaborative approach to 14, 69 encyclopaedia 79 expanding 94 gifts of 226 individual donation of 25 and institutions 103 and networking 193 and pro-ams 103 professional, authoritative sources of 222 sharing 27, 44, 63, 70, 199 spread by the web 2, 3 Wikipedia 16, 18, 19, 195 Korean War 203 Kotecki, James (’EmergencyCheese’) 182 Kraus, Joe 36 Kravitz, Ben 13 Kuresi, John 95 Kyrgyzstan: ’colour revolution’ 187 L Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge 62–3, 77 labour movement 188 language 52–3 Lanier, Jaron 16, 210–11, 213 laptop computers 5, 36, 82, 155 lateral thinking 113 leadership 89, 115, 116, 117–19 Lean, Joel 55 Lean’s Engine Reporter 55, 63, 77 Lee, Tim Berners 30–31 Lego: Mindstorms products 97, 104, 140 Lewandowska, Marysia 220, 221 libraries 2, 141–2, 143, 144–5, 227 life-insurance industry (US) 123 limited liability 121 Linked.In 35 Linux 65–6, 68, 70, 74, 80, 85, 86, 97, 98, 126, 127, 128, 136, 201, 203, 227 Lipson Community College, Plymouth 148 literacy 194 media 236 Lloyd, Edward 95 SMS messaging (texting)"/>London coffee houses 95 terrorist bombings (July 2005) 17 Lott, Trent 181–2 Lula da Silva, President Luiz Inacio 201 M M-PESA 207, 208 MacArthur Foundation 161 McCain, John 180 MacDonald’s 239 McGonigal, Jane 11, 69 McHenry, Robert 17 McKewan, Rob 132–3, 153 McLuhan, Marshall: Understanding the Media 45 Madrid bombings (March 2004) 186–7 Make magazine 165 management authoritative style of 117 and creative conversation 118 hierarchies 110 manufacturing 130, 132, 133–7, 138, 139–41, 166, 232 niche 139 Marcuse, Herbert 43 Marin 101 Mark, Paul xi market research 101 market(s) 77, 90, 93, 102, 123, 216, 226–7 Marsburg virus 165 Marx, Karl 224 mass production 7, 8, 24, 56, 96, 227, 232, 238 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 139, 164, 233 Matsushita 135 media 129, 130, 156, 172, 173, 182, 211 literacy 236 Meetup 179, 185 Menlo Park laboratory, New Jersey 95 Merholz, Peter 33 meritocracy 16, 63 Microsoft 46, 47, 51, 56, 75, 109–10, 126, 127, 144, 202, 203, 204, 239 Office 201 Windows 200 Windows XP 66 Middle East 170, 189, 190, 192 Milovich, Dimitry 102 ‘minihompy’ (mini homepage) 204 Minnesota Mining and Materials 121 mobile phones 5 in Africa 185, 207 in Asia 166, 185 camera phones 74, 115, 210 children and 147 in developing-world markets 207–8 with digital cameras 36 flash mobs 10 I Love Bees 11 in India 207 open-source 136, 203 politics 185–9 SMS messaging (texting) 101–2, 185, 187, 214, 215 mobs 23, 61 flash 10, 11 modularity 77, 84 Moore, Fred 41–2, 43, 46, 47, 59, 227 More, Thomas: Utopia 208 Morris, Dick 174 Morris, Robert Tappan 233 Mosaic 33 motivation 109–12, 148 Mount Wilson Observatory, California 162 mountain bikes 101 MoveOn 188–9 Mowbray, Miranda xi music 1, 3, 4, 47, 51, 52, 57, 102, 135, 144, 218, 219, 221 publishing 130 social networking test 212–13 mutual societies 90, 121 MySpace 34, 44, 57, 85, 86, 152, 187, 193, 214, 219 MySQL 68 N National Football League (US) 105 National Health Service (NHS) 150, 151 National Public Radio (NPR) 188 Natural History Museum, London 161 Nature magazine 17 NBC 173 neo-Nazis 168 Netflix 216, 218 Netherlands 238 networking by geeks 27 post-industrial networks 27 social 2–7, 20, 23, 34–5, 36, 53, 57, 86, 95, 147, 149, 153, 159, 171, 183–4, 187, 193, 208, 210, 212, 213–15, 230, 233 New Economy 40 New Orleans 184 New York Magazine 214 New York Review of Books 164 New York Stock Exchange 95 New York Times 15, 182, 191 New Yorker magazine 149 Newmark, Craig 118 news services 60, 61, 171, 173, 178–9 newspapers 2, 3, 30, 32, 34, 171, 172, 173 Newton, Sir Isaac 25, 154 niche markets 216 Nixon, Richard 176 NLS (Online System) 39 Nokia 97, 104, 119, 140 non-profits 123 Nooteboom, Bart 74 Noronha, Alwyn 200–201 Norris, Pippa 189 North Africa, and democracy 189 Nosamo 35, 186 Noyes, Dorothy 58 Nupedia 13, 14 Nussbaum, Emily 214–15 O Obama, Barack 181, 191 Ofcom (Office of Communications) 31 OhmyNews 34, 87, 204, 231 oil companies 115 Oldenburg, Henry 25, 53–4, 156 Ollila, Jorma 119 Online System (NLS) 39 Open Architecture Network (OAN) 133–4 Open Net Initiative 190 Open Office programme 201 Open Prosthetics 134 Open Source Foundation 97 OpenMoko project 136 OpenWiki 36 O’Reilly, Tim 31 organisation commons as a system of organisation 51 pre-industrial ideas of 27, 48 social 20, 64, 165 We-Think’s organisational recipe 21 collaboration 21, 23 participation 21, 23 recognition 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 196 organisations civic 189 open/collaborative vs. closed/hierarchical models 89, 126, 127, 128 public 152 successful 228 see also companies; corporations Orwell, George: 1984 182 Ostrom, Elinor 51–2, 80 ownership 6, 119, 120, 121–6, 127, 128, 225 Oxford University 234 P paedophiles 3, 168, 213–14 Page, Scott xi, 72 Pakistan 237 Palace of Fine Arts, San Francisco 40 parallel universes 7 participation 23, 216, 223, 230, 232 consumers 98, 100 public services 145, 146, 150, 152, 153 a We-Think ingredient 21, 24 Partido Populaire (PP) (Spain) 187 patents 55, 56, 92, 97, 102, 124, 154, 196, 197, 199 Paul, Ron 185 Pawson, Dave x–xi Pax, Salam 57 peasants 27, 48, 59 peer recognition 54, 106, 111, 156, 228–9 peer review 53, 54, 156, 165, 236 peer-to-peer activity 53–4, 135, 148, 151 People’s Computer Company 41 People’s Democratic Party (Vietnam) 191 performance art/artists 2, 10 performance management 110 Perl 68 Peruvian Congress 202 Pew Internet & American Life 31, 179 pharmaceutical industry 92–3, 195–6, 197, 199, 200 Phelps, Edmund 114–15, 220 Philippines: mobile phones 185–6 Philips, Weston 105 photographs, sharing of 34, 75, 86, 218–19 Pitas.com 33 Plastic 33 Playahead 35 podcasts 142 Poland 220–21 polar research 156 politics bloggers able to act as public watchdog 181–2, 183 decline in political engagement 171–2 democratic 173 donations 179 funding 180–81 and journalism 170–71 and mobile phones 185–9 online 183 the online political class 179 and online social networks 35, 86 political advocates of the web 173–4 racist groups on the web 169 and television 173, 183 ultra-local 183, 184 US presidential elections 173, 179 videos 182 the web enters mainstream politics 176 young people drawn into politics by the Internet 179 Popper, Karl 155 Popular Science magazine 102 pornography 169, 214 Post-it notes 121 Potter, Seb 108–9 Powell, Debbie ix power and networking 193 technological 236 of the We-Think culture 230 of the web 24–5, 185, 233 PowerPoint presentations 140, 142, 219 privacy 210, 211 private property 224, 225 Procter and Gamble (P & G) 96–7, 98 productivity 112, 119, 121, 151, 227, 232 agricultural 124 professionals, and institutions 3, 5 property rights 224 public administration 130 Public Broadcasting Service 188 Public Intellectual Property Research for Agriculture initiative 199 Public Library of Science 159 public services 132, 141–2, 143, 144–53, 183 public spending 146 publishing 130, 166 science 156–7, 159–60 Putnam, Robert 173, 184 Python 68 Q quantum mechanics 93 ‘quick-web’ 35 R racism 169, 181–2 radio 173, 176 RapRep (Rapid Replicator) machines 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 232 Rawls, John: A Theory of Justice 194 Raymond, Eric 64 recognition 21, 223 peer 54, 106, 111, 156 record industry 56, 102 recycling 111 Red Hat 66, 227 Red Lake, Ontario 132, 133 research 166 market 101 pharmaceutical 195–6 research and development (R & D) 92, 96, 119, 196 scientific 154–7, 159–65 retailing 130, 132 Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 201 Roh Moo-hyun, President of South Korea 35, 186 Roosevelt, Franklin 176 Roy, Bunker 205 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey 161 Royal Society 54 Philosophical Transactions 25, 156 Ryze.com 34 S Sacca, Chris 113, 114 Safaricom 207 St Louis world fair (1904) 75–6 Samsung xi, 203 Sanger, Larry 13, 14, 16 Sanger Centre, Cambridge 155 Sao Paolo, Brazil 201 SARS virus 165 Sass, Larry 139 satellite phones 11 Saudi Arabia 190 scanners 11 Schumacher, E.


pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

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A. Roger Ekirch, Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John Markoff, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Shoshana Zuboff, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

On the German steel helmet, Ludwig Baer’s The History of the German Steel Helmet, 1916–1945, trans. K. Daniel Dahl (San Jose, Calif.: R. J. Bender, 1985) is based on original documents. Donald A. Norman’s The Psychology of Everyday Things (New York: Basic Books, 1988), now reprinted as The Design of Everyday Things, emphasizes the mental side of physical objects. The most important recent study of the body in today’s workplace is Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). For the history of the visionary side of technology, mind, and body, there is Thierry Bardini’s Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000). In cyborg anthropology, the starting point is Donna Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991).


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. Zablocki, Benjamin David. Alienation and Charisma: A Study of Contemporary American Communes. New York: Free Press, 1980. Zelizer, Barbie. Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Zicklin, Gilbert. Countercultural Communes: A Sociological Perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Index abstract expressionism, 46, 47 “Access Mobile,” 71 Acid Tests, 65, 66 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 108, 213 Albrecht, Bob, 70, 101, 113, 114, 133 Alinsky, Saul, Rules for Radicals, 98 Allison, Dennis, 252 Alloy, 96 –97, 273n54 Alpert, Richard (Baba Ram Dass), 61 Altair, 114, 274n1 alternative energy, 233 Alto, 111 American Indian Movement, 97 America Online, 161 analog computers, 20 Andreesen, Marc, 213 Ant Farm art and design collective, 86, 272n36 anti-aircraft predictor, 21, 25, 26, 95, 178 anti-automationists, 29 antiwar protests, 64, 74, 118, 209 AOL, 217 Apple Computer, 106, 116, 129, 139, 198, 247 Architecture Machine Group, 163, 177–78 Arcosanti, 81 ARPA community, 116 ARPANET, 28, 109, 117, 213 artificial intelligence, 177 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Laboratory, 116, 133, 134, 177 Artificial Life Conference, 198 –99 artificial-life movement, 203 Ashby, Ross, 26, 178 “Aspen Summit: Cyberspace and the American Dream II,” 230 Association for Computing Machinery / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ACM/IEEE), 110 AT&T, 182, 193 Atari, 134, 163 Atkinson, Bill, 137 Atlas missile system, 19 atomic bomb, 18 atomic era, 17, 30 –31, 243 atomic forecasting, 187 Aufderheide, Patricia, 230 Augmentation Research Center (ARC), 61, 106, 107– 8, 109, 110 Autodesk, 163 automaton, 21 Baba, Meher, 75 back-to-the-land movement, 73, 76, 244, 245 Baer, Steve, 81, 95, 96, 97, 109; Dome Cookbook, 94 Baldwin, Jay, 94 Barayón, Ramón Sender, 65, 146 Barbrook, Richard, 208, 259, 279n43 Bardini, Thierry, 105, 274n1 Barlow, John Perry: and Aspen conference, 223; and computational metaphor, 16; conference on bionomics, 224; contributions to Wired, 217, 218; “Crime and Puzzlement,” 171, 172 –74, 195; “Declaration of [ 313 ] [ 314 ] Index Barlow, John Perry (continued) the Independence of Cyberspace,” 13 –14; and Electronic Frontier Foundation, 172, 218, 220; experiences with mysticism and LSD, 165; forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; and Grateful Dead, 166; and Kapor, 172; linked hacking and free speech as central components of “cyberspace,” 171; linking of virtual reality to LSD, 163, 165; longing to return to an egalitarian world, 248; notion of cyberspace as an electronic frontier, 162, 172 –74; shift from agricultural work to information work, 166; and the WELL, 3, 142, 155, 167; and the Whole Earth network, 7 Barnett, Steve, 191 Basch, Reva, 154, 155 BASIC programming language, 113, 114 Bateson, Gregory, 121–25; attacked mechanistic visions of the social and natural worlds, 126; bridged high technology and communitarian idealism, 124; Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry, 53; on ecological crisis, 276n42; intellectual influence on CQ, 124; and Macy Conferences, 26; rejection of transcendence, 123; and second-generation cybernetics, 123, 148; Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 123, 124, 165; theory of immanent mind, 123 –24; and “the pattern that connects,” 243; transformed cybernetic principles into communication-based theories of alcoholism, schizophrenia, and learning, 123; vision of material world as information system, 104 Bateson, Mary Catherine, 182, 189, 191 Battelle, John, 209, 216 Baxter, Richard, 171 Bay area computer programmers, 103 Beach, Scott, 102 Beat movement, 62 “Behavior, Purpose, and Teleology” (Rosenblueth, Wiener, and Bigelow), 22 “be-in,” 51–52, 269n20 Bell, Daniel, 32, 228, 245; The Coming of PostIndustrial Society, 241– 42 Berkeley Barb (magazine), 80, 114 Berners-Lee, Tim, 213 Berry, Wendell, 126 –27 Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 265n43 Best, Eric, 221 Bevirt, Ron, 81 Big Brother & the Holding Company, 66 Bigelow, Alice, 226 Bigelow, Julian, 20, 21, 22, 122, 226 Big Rock Candy Mountain publishers, 70 Biondi, Frank, 208 bionomics, 224, 225 Biosphere, 176, 182, 190 Black Mountain College, 47 Black Panthers, 97 Black Power, 34 Blanchard, Chuck, 172 Boczkowski, Pablo, 271n7 Bolt, Baranek, and Newman, 134 Bonestell, Chesley, The Conquest of Space, 42 Bonner, Jay, 99 Borsook, Paulina, 226 “boundary object,” 72 Bourdieu, Pierre, 157 Bowker, Geoffrey, 25 –26, 84 Brand, Lois, 71, 74, 76, 113 Brand, Stewart, 3, 223; aimed to imitate the goals and tactics of American research culture, 78; at Alloy, 97; America Needs Indians, 66, 69, 270n49; analytical framework drawn from ecology and evolutionary biology, 44 – 45; argument that personal computer revolution and Internet grew out of counterculture, 103; and “Aspen Summit,” 231; association of cybernetics with alternative forms of communal organization, 43; authority across technological, economic, and cultural eras, 250 –51; brought together representatives of the technical world and former New Communalists, 109 –10, 116, 132, 216, 246, 247, 250, 255; buttons, 69; celebrated as a socio-technical visionary, 101; and coevolution, 121; coverage of Alloy, 96; crossing of disciplinary and professional boundaries, 249; cybernetic notion of organization-as-organism, 90; cybernetics as social and rhetorical resources for entrepreneurship, 5; definition of purpose of Catalog, 82 – 83; “Demise Party,” 101–2; depicted Media Lab as living demonstration of an alternative society, 179 – 81; description of Whole Earth as a “research organization,” 96; drew on systems theory to design the Catalog, 78; on Dyson, 227; editorial tactics, 79, 273n43; Index and Electronic Frontier Foundation, 172, 218; enthusiasm for computer-conferencing, 130; on faculty of School of Management and Strategic Studies, 129 –30; fear of living in a hyperrationalized world, 42 – 43; fear of Soviet attack in 1950s, 41– 42; first experience with LSD, 61; forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; and Global Business Network, 176, 184, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193; and Hackers’ Conference, 139 – 40, 254; helped computers to be seen as “personal” technology, 105, 238; and Herman Kahn, 186; How Buildings Learn, 205; idealized vision of Native Americans, 59; idea that information-based products embodied an economic paradox, 136; imagined world as a series of overlapping information systems, 250; influence of Fuller on, 57; influence of Kesey on, 60; integration of ideas and people of Whole Earth into world of networked computing, 132; interview with Newsweek in 1980, 128 –29; introduction to Signal, 196; issues facing hackers to the themes of countercultural work and the Whole Earth group, 139; Kesey as role model, 65; and Learning Conferences, 181– 83; linking of information technologies to New Communalist politics, 216; Long Now Foundation, 206, 285n67; as a manager, 79, 89 –90; The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT, 178 – 81; and the Merry Pranksters, 61– 62; military service, 46; mirror logic of cybernetics, 259; at MIT’s Media Lab, 177; modeled the synthesis of counterculture and research culture, 253; multimedia pieces, 270n49; networked cultural entrepreneurship, 251– 55; network forums, 239, 249 –50; “New Games Tournament,” 120; in New York art scene, 46; on outer space, 127; Point Foundation, 120; at Portola Institute, 70; portrayal of Nicholas Negroponte, 179 – 80; principle of juxtaposition, 84; private online conference for software reviewers, 131; reaction to the libertarianism of the mid-1990s, 287n49; reconfigured the cultural status of information and information technologies, 8, 238 –39, 249; repudiated the Catalog’s New Communalist origins, 121; response to criticism of Catalog’s poli- [ 315 ] tics, 99 –100; return to the Whole Earth Catalog, 120; search for individual freedom, 45; search for new, flexible modes of living, 59; and Software Catalog, 130 –31; “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” 116 –18; “Sticking Your Head in Cyberspace,” 195; “Transcendental planning,” 90 –91; transcript of the Hacker Ethic forum, 138; travels after discharge from the army, 48; and Trips Festival, 65 – 68; turn back toward the computer industry, 104; visit to Drop City, 74; and the WELL, 141, 142 – 43, 145 – 46; work with USCO, 49, 51; writing for Wired, 217; and Xerox PARC, 246 – 47 Branwyn, Gareth, 81 Brautigan, Richard, “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,” 38 –39 Breines, Wini, 267n80 Briarpatch Society, 70 Brilliant, Larry, 141, 142 Britton, Lois, 273n44 Brockman, John, 129, 130, 290n24 Broderbund Software Inc., 135 Bronson, Po, 225 Brown, Jerry, 186 Browning, Page, 61 Budge, Bill, 135 bulletin board system (BBS), 144, 247 Burnham, Jack, 268n13 Burroughs, William, 62 Burstein, Daniel, 287n37 Burt, Ronald, 5, 135 Bush, Vannevar, 17, 20, 24, 229; “As We May Think,” 106 –7 Business 2.0 (magazine), 207 butterfly ecology, 43 Byte (magazine), 137 Cage, John, 43, 46 – 47, 67; Theatre Piece No. 1, 47– 48 “Californian Ideology,” 208, 285n4 Callahan, Michael, 48, 51, 66 Callon, Michelle, 277n71 Calvert, Greg, 35 Calvin, William, 191 Cameron, Andy, 208, 259 Carlston, Doug, 135 Carpenter, Edmund, 53 Carroll, Jon, 143, 155 [ 316 ] Index Castañeda, Carlos, 92 Castells, Manuel, 149, 242, 278n23 Center for Linear Studies, 198 Centre Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), 213 Ceruzzi, Paul, 105 – 6, 129 “Cheerful Robot,” 29 Christian right, 215 CIA, MK-ULTRA program, 60 Citibank/Citicorp, 198 Citizens’ Band radio, 144 civil rights movement, 31, 34, 35 Clinton, Bill, 215 closed informational system, 17 Club of Rome, The Limits to Growth, 120 Coate, John, 146 – 47, 148, 155, 159 “coevolution,” 121 CoEvolution Quarterly, 97, 120 –22, 131, 132, 176, 186, 194 cold war era: artistic process, 47; engagement of universities with, 12; mechanistic world, 62.


pages: 446 words: 138,827

What Should I Do With My Life? by Po Bronson

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back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, clean water, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, high net worth, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, telemarketer, traffic fines, young professional

He visited a lab in Boston where they were splicing salmon genes into catfish DNA, with the hopes their supercatfish would get the magical ice water gene. Don told me this upcoming passage felt different from the one he made a decade ago. He’s not trying to play it down, minimize the change it will surely bring. “Transition’s not the right word—it’ll require a transformation.” Last October, he went to a continuing education retreat at Harvard, taught by a sociology professor named Shoshana Zuboff. Her course was called “Odyssey,” and it was mostly attended by businesspeople looking for the next thing in life. She had Don write his autobiography, then helped him expand on it, write more and more into it, picking out themes, adding layers. She built her course around the metaphor of an oyster shell; the outside layer, the formative layer, is fragile and vulnerable, but the old layers are hard and strong.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Many people read all or parts of the manuscript: Ross Anderson, Steve Bass, Caspar Bowden, Cody Charette, David Campbell, Karen Cooper, Dorothy Denning, Cory Doctorow, Ryan Ellis, Addison Fischer, Camille François, Naomi Gilens, John Gilmore, Jack Goldsmith, Bob Gourley, Bill Herdle, Deborah Hurley, Chrisma Jackson, Reynol Junco, John Kelsey, Alexander Klimburg, David Levari, Stephen Leigh, Harry Lewis, Jun Li, Ken Liu, Alex Loomis, Sascha Meinrath, Aleecia M. McDonald, Pablo Molina, Ramez Naam, Peter Neumann, Joseph Nye, Cirsten Paine, David M. Perry, Leah Plunkett, David Prentiss, Barath Raghavan, Marc Rotenberg, Martin Schneier, Seth David Schoen, Adam Shostack, Peter Swire, Kit Walsh, Sara M. Watson, David Weinberger, Dustin Wenzel, Marcy Wheeler, Richard Willey, Ben Wizner, Josephine Wolff, Jonathan Zittrain, and Shoshana Zuboff. Every one of these people gave me suggestions that I incorporated into the book. A few people were invaluable in writing this book. Kathleen Seidel is the best researcher I have ever found, and I can no longer imagine writing a book without her help. Same with Rebecca Kessler, who edited the book twice during my writing process and gave me critical suggestions each time. Beth Friedman, who has copyedited everything I have written for over a decade, continues to be irreplaceable.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

Wootton, Richard, John Craig, and Victor Patterson (eds.), Introduction to Telemedicine, 2nd edn. (London: Hodder Arnold, 2011). Zittrain, Jonathan, The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009). Zittrain, Jonathan, and Benjamin Edelman, ‘Documentation of Internet Filtering in Saudi-Arabia’, 12 Sept. 2002 <http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/filtering/saudiarabia/> (accessed 7 March 2015). Zuboff, Shoshana, In the Age of the Smart Machine, paperback edn. (Oxford: Heinemann Professional Publishing, 1988). Index 3-D printing 53, 98–9, 131 Abbott, Andrew 19, 23, 30–1 Accenture 2, 78, 80, 84, 139 accountants 14, 16, 33, 84, 86, 106–7, 118, 206–7 accounting firms 83, 85, 89, 119, 140, 184, 204 acquisitive society 24 administrative work 111, 238 advisers, trusted 106, 169, 205, 236, 251 affective capability 277, 280 affective computing 54, 160, 168, 170–2, 187 affective data 172 affordable expertise 242, 268 affordable practical expertise 239, 246, 254, 257–8, 268 agents 93, 121, 226 AI (artificial intelligence) 45, 85, 94, 160, 164, 182, 186, 226–7 fallacy 45, 165, 170, 192, 227, 272, 277–8, 294 second wave 160, 165, 187 weak 274–5 winter 183 algorithms 48, 52, 65, 75, 77–8, 87, 92–3, 119 Alterman, Eric 72 alternative providers 110, 135, 261, 301 alternatives 3, 31–2, 36–7, 40, 42, 112, 129, 215 altruism 18, 237, 239 analysts, process 107, 124, 127, 212, 266, 293 Anderson, Chris 98 anxieties 231–3, 235, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 247 arbitrage 102, 122–4, 136 ArchDaily 100 architects 16, 19–20, 94–5, 97–8, 100, 107, 121, 123–4 architecture 41, 94–100, 123, 129, 133, 150, 219, 224 Aristotle 32 artificial intelligence, see AI Asimov, Isaac 257, 282 aspiring professionals 17, 259, 262–3 asymmetry 24, 39–40, 44, 129 audit 41, 84–94, 140, 184, 202, 226, 273 practices 2, 93, 140, 264 auditors 89–93, 101, 107, 115, 134, 140, 205, 207 automation 102, 109–12, 114, 125, 217, 219–20, 245, 271 autonomous flying robots 1, 99 autonomy 17, 21–2, 126, 282 Autor, David 214, 292, 294 Ayasdi 82 Baggini, Julian 244–5 baristas 244–5 beliefs 42, 62, 141, 239, 267, 289 Benkler, Yochai 180, 191, 299 bespoke production 244–5 bespoke service 101, 105–6, 137 move away from 102 BetterDoctor 48, 129, 181, 219, 249 BeyondCore 82 biases 43–6 Big Data 59, 80, 92, 152, 160–3, 172, 175, 187 techniques 69, 162–4, 279 blogs 56, 75, 82, 123, 177 Bostrom, Nick 274 brains 128, 171, 227, 274, 276 Brazil 87–8 brute-force computing 164, 187 brute-force processing 45, 186–7, 275 Brynjolfsson, Erik 117, 293 bypassed gatekeepers 102, 106, 127 CAAT (computer-assisted audit techniques) 90–1 CAD (computer aided design) 94–7, 113, 201 software 95, 100, 246 CAE (computer aided engineering) 95, 113 Cambridge 11–12, 56 capabilities 126, 128, 158–9, 162, 269, 271, 277, 280 cognitive 277, 279 capable machines, see increasingly capable machines capitalism 29, 257 death of gentlemanly 106 Carr-Saunders, Alexander 25 central questions 31–2 charge online 197, 203 checklists 47, 106, 119–20, 185, 194, 200–1, 266, 279 children 10–11, 54–5, 57, 116 choice 134–5, 177, 197, 241–3, 277–8, 307 Christensen, Clayton 78, 83, 109–10 classroom 55–7, 59, 113, 271 clergy 1, 61–6, 250 clients 38–40, 78–82, 92–4, 114–16, 118, 136–40, 189–90, 204 cognitive capabilities 277, 279 collaboration mass 178–9 online 102, 114, 128, 132–3 collective knowledge 38, 153, 303, 307 commoditization 195–7, 207, 245, 257, 303 commons 197, 203–4, 210, 227, 296–7, 299–301, 307 basis 203, 224, 302 creative 224 of practical expertise 203, 300–1 tragedy of the 297, 301 communication, new ways 114–15 communities 83, 86, 132–3, 147–9, 177–80, 182, 223–4, 297 of experience 107, 132–3, 178, 204, 224, 237, 262 model 216, 223–4, 266 online 1, 53, 97, 128–9, 132, 215–16 of practice 133, 178 Company of Barber-Surgeons 20 competences 102, 114, 238 competition 12, 27, 34, 78, 88, 106–7, 207, 300 competitors 45, 108, 115, 118, 180, 190, 193, 195 complexity 39, 142, 146, 149–52, 200, 218, 233–4 computer aided design, see CAD computer aided engineering (CAE) 95, 113 computer-assisted audit techniques, see CAAT computer scientists 65, 156, 162, 273 computer systems 98, 119–20, 164–6, 171, 185, 272 computerization 48–9, 77, 86, 88–9, 92, 201–2, 213, 257 computers 162, 165, 167, 170, 175, 180, 185–6, 274–6 computing 157, 170–1, 173 affective 54, 160, 168, 170–2, 187 brute-force 164, 187 pervasive 173–4 confidentiality 3–4, 17, 233 conflicts of interest 17, 30 connected humans 155, 159, 175, 177 consciousness 252, 271, 273–5 consolidation 134, 138–9 conspiracies 26, 28 constituent tasks 122, 124, 198, 212–14, 245, 255–6, 266, 286 consultants 101, 106, 109, 115, 118, 134, 216, 219 management 20, 31, 33, 36, 39, 78–84, 194, 199 consulting 2, 5, 38, 78, 80, 83–4, 222, 224 businesses/firms 78–81, 83–4, 115, 124, 204 consumers 67, 70, 108, 112, 116, 254, 256, 258 contracts 189, 238–9, 246 control 28, 39, 203–4, 211, 216, 296–7, 300, 304–6 and ownership 203–4, 297, 300, 305 social 21, 25 Corruption Objection 241–3 costs 51, 53–4, 98–9, 109, 206–9, 285, 287, 296–300 development 226–7 fixed 206–7, 298 lower 36, 68, 113, 124, 196, 259, 261, 300 marginal 206–7, 298, 300 set-up 298, 302 craft 20, 106, 119, 196–201, 205, 208–10, 244–7, 268 guilds 19–20 lost 244–8 traditional 199, 206, 215, 244, 246 craftsmanship 2, 142, 208, 215, 262 craftspeople 106, 198–9, 201–2, 205, 264 creative commons 224 credentials 15–16, 128 crowdsourcing 53, 82, 93, 133, 179–81, 223 Cukier, Kenneth 59, 92, 162, 191 culture 30, 147, 180, 188, 262 customization 103, 222 individual 130 mass 98, 102–3, 128, 130, 222, 225 cuteness 169–70 data affective 172 big, see Big Data exhausts 79, 163 financial 84, 93 mastery of 102, 115–16 mining 115 raw 87, 146 scientists 60, 107, 127, 161–2, 264, 267 sets 59–60, 82, 92, 115–16, 163, 172 volumes of 52, 87, 92, 115–16, 161–2 databases 79, 164, 187, 201 large 172, 252, 275 decomposed tasks 124–5, 134, 212, 238 decomposition 101–2, 119, 122–6, 134, 137, 198, 252, 258 of professional work 211–14 Deep Blue 164, 276 delegation 102, 123–5, 282 Deloitte 2, 80, 83–4, 86, 88–9, 139 demand, latent, see latent demand demystification 140–2, 303 dentistry 41, 168, 201 Dershowitz, Nachum 65 designers 96–7, 266–7 developers 179, 226–7, 295 development costs 226–7 devices 50–2, 59, 69, 76, 276, 303 increasingly pervasive 155, 159, 172–5 mobile 64, 74–5, 185 dexterity 128, 159–60, 168, 201, 255–6, 278 diagnoses 48, 163–4, 166, 190, 228, 254 diagnostic systems 113, 269, 295, 298 digitization 130, 202, 303 disintermediation 102, 119, 121–2, 303 disruption 78, 110 distribution 5, 28, 188, 206, 212, 215, 217–18, 252 of knowledge 188–9, 191, 193, 195, 197, 199, 201, 203 models 225, 246, 290 of practical expertise 145, 216, 259, 261, 263, 283, 298, 304 diversification 84, 102, 114, 117–19 division of labour 123, 214, 235, 255–8 doctors 1, 16–17, 47–53, 110–11, 115, 190, 212–14, 249–50 traditional 113, 249 Doerr, John 59 domain experts 183, 226 due diligence work 68, 70, 89 Duolingo 60 Durkheim, Émile 24–5 e-mail 3, 68, 114–15, 136, 152, 176, 201, 210 eBay 129, 181–2 economic characteristics of knowledge 189–93, 211, 305 economics 157, 207, 214, 285 economists 13, 22, 167, 189, 191, 254–5, 289, 292 Edmodo 56, 224 education 55–61, 131, 133, 163, 166, 198–9, 258–60, 262 embedded expertise 132, 225 embedded knowledge 102, 128, 131, 216, 262, 267 model 216, 225–8 emotional states 168, 171, 251–3, 280 emotions 160, 170–2, 252–3, 273, 277, 280 empathy 169, 232, 249–54, 265, 268–9, 280 employment 5, 10, 126, 136, 255, 258, 284, 289–92 engineers 54–5, 98, 100, 113, 123, 226, 267, 276 knowledge 107, 127, 221–2, 226, 264–5, 267 structural 95–7 errors 49, 100, 165, 190, 192, 200–2, 268 ethics 30, 233, 239, 278 professional 18, 29, 233, 237 evolution of professional work 123, 145, 195–202 evolutionary path 197–8, 201–2, 204–5, 208, 211 exclusivity 11, 14, 22, 26–9, 135, 296, 298–9, 301–2 experience 2–5, 32–6, 40–2, 121–2, 127, 132–4, 177–8, 266–8 communities of 107, 132–3, 178, 204, 224, 237, 262 and knowledge 2, 10, 32–3, 36, 42, 106, 127, 134 expert professionals 137, 220–1, 259 expert systems 31, 182–5, 273, 276 functional definition 184–5 in law 183–4, 273, 276 expertise 1–3, 31, 33–4, 38–42, 146–50, 209–11, 220–3, 300–2 affordable 242, 268 embedded 132, 225 liberation 134, 210–11, 302, 304–5 machine-generated 262 practical, see practical expertise production and distribution 5, 145, 215–28, 259, 261, 263, 298, 304 professional 9, 34, 132 experts 32–3, 81, 133, 149–50, 200–1, 205–8, 220–1, 279–80 becoming expert 258–63 domain 183, 226 human 85–6, 119–20, 128, 192, 196, 215–16, 220–1, 279–80 traditional 196, 220 exponential growth 164–5, 175, 304 externalization 196–7, 215, 244–5, 299 drive towards 202–10 EY 118–9 face-to-face interaction 33, 36, 111, 128–9, 217, 219, 248–50, 268 Facebook 52, 66, 74–7, 177–8, 182 facial expressions 171–2 failures 46, 129, 132, 178, 200, 268 faith 61–2, 65 feasibility 295–301, 305 Feynman, Richard 43, 54, 275–6 financial data 84, 93 Fish, Stanley 28 fixed costs 206–7, 298 flexible self-employment 102, 123, 126 Forbes 77, 216 formal knowledge 16, 41–2, 189, 221 formats 73, 92–3, 202, 215, 217, 220, 223 Freidson, Eliot 14 Frey, Carl Benedikt 88, 294 functions 25–6, 51, 184, 200, 262 gatekeepers 23, 28, 42, 106–7, 133–4, 204, 210–11, 303–4 bypassed 102, 106, 127 Gawande, Atul 21, 47 Gleick, James 149 Global Voices 75 globalization 134–6 good faith 11, 17, 22, 236, 238 good work 254–8, 264 goods, physical 189, 191, 300 Google 50, 54, 76, 152, 167, 169, 176, 187 grand bargain 9–45, 107, 190, 243, 296–8, 301, 304 explained 21–3 historical context 18–21 guidance 120–2, 127, 129–33, 163, 185, 187, 217, 233–4 guilds 20–1, 149 craft 19–20 handcrafting 119, 199, 209, 265 Hardin, Garrett 297, 300–1 Hart, Herbert 39, 141 health 4, 22, 25, 38, 46–55, 108, 295, 298 healthcare 10, 47, 50, 52, 132–3, 166, 169, 243 heuristics 40, 91, 192 high-performing systems 163, 274–5, 277, 280, 303 honesty 11, 18, 235, 238 hospitals 49, 109, 124, 168, 175, 264, 271 hotdog story 285–8 hourly billing basis 37–8, 137, 206 Huffington Post 1, 76, 123 Hughes, Everett 22, 27 human beings 145–7, 186–7, 222–3, 225–7, 247–8, 252–3, 267–75, 292–4 need for 277–84 human experts 85–6, 119–20, 128, 192, 196, 215–16, 220–1, 279–80 human specialists 15, 45, 165, 211, 273, 294 humans beings, connected 155, 159, 175–82 IBM, Watson 48–9, 82, 152, 160, 164–6, 186–7, 272–5, 278 ignorance, veil of 306–7 Illich, Ivan 15, 28 incentives 30, 89, 295 incomes 290, 305–6 increasingly capable machines 2, 5, 155, 159–72, 226, 231, 303, 305 non-thinking 272–7, 293, 306 increasingly connected humans 155, 159, 175–82 increasingly pervasive devices 155, 159, 172–5 India 4, 63, 79–80, 87, 97, 124 industrial society, print-based 2–3, 128, 151, 153, 268, 270, 300, 304 inequality 34, 241–3 Inequality Objection 241–3 information 79, 145–7, 149–52, 161, 163, 176–7, 179–80, 298–9 information and technology 145–87 information substructure 145–7, 152–3, 188 information technology 145–7, 150–1, 155–8, 160, 165, 293 exponential growth 155–9, 304 innovation 102, 109–10, 112–14, 202, 208, 217, 219, 271 intellectual property 218, 221, 223, 227, 305 intelligence 159, 187, 271, 275 interaction 111–12, 198, 202, 211, 218, 248–9, 251, 253 face-to-face 33, 36, 111, 128–9, 217, 219, 248–50, 268 personal 139, 248–51, 268 intermediaries 61, 121, 150 Internet 61–2, 66, 72–3, 81–3, 147, 150, 173–5, 180–1 technology-based Internet society 32, 34–5, 150–3, 188–9, 236–7, 246, 304, 306–7 users 127, 129, 132, 174, 177–8, 180, 182, 204 Internet of Things 174–5 Japan 54–5, 61 jargon 3, 13, 149 jobs, new 213, 257, 263, 286, 291, 293–4 Johnson, Terence 26 journalism 71–8, 123, 132, 216, 224, 235, 249 journalists 1, 72, 75–7, 121, 190, 198, 212, 216 junior professionals 125, 138, 260 Kasparov, Garry 276 Kenny, Anthony 36, 308 Keynes, John Maynard xi, 284 Khan Academy 57–8, 178 knowledge 16, 26–9, 34–6, 38–43, 146–50, 188–95, 200–4, 220–7 asymmetry 40, 44 collective 38, 153, 303, 307 economic characteristics 189–93, 211, 305 embedded 102, 128, 131, 216, 225–6, 262, 267 engineers 107, 127, 221–2, 226, 264–5, 267 and experience 2, 10, 32–3, 36, 42, 106, 127, 134 formal 16, 41–2, 189, 221 management 187, 194–5 processing 151–2, 165 production and distribution 188–228 and professions 193–5 special characteristics 189, 201–2, 210 specialist 3, 15, 24, 38, 41, 231, 270 knowledge engineering model 216, 221–3, 225, 265 KPMG 38, 92 Krause, Elliot 29 Kurzweil, Ray 157–8 labour arbitrage 122–4 laptops 122, 147, 173, 293 Larson, Magali 27 latent demand 113, 128, 130, 133, 181, 208, 290–1, 300 law, expert systems in 183–4, 273, 276 law firms 67–9, 71, 204, 214, 264 lawyers 3–4, 22–4, 66–71, 106–7, 136–7, 188–90, 206–7, 250–1 legal profession, see lawyers legal services 4, 67, 69, 71, 133 Lessig, Lawrence 203 Levy, Frank 167 LexisNexis 68, 87 liberalization 134–5, 240, 242–3 liberation of expertise 134, 210–11, 302, 304–5 limited understanding 3, 39, 42, 231, 234, 268, 270 litigation 17, 68–9, 123 livery companies 20, 199 London 1, 20, 95–6, 199 lost craft 244–8 McAfee, Andrew 117, 293 McChesney, Robert W. 72 MacDonald, Keith 26 machine-generated expertise 262 machine-generated model 216, 226, 267 machine learning 115, 165, 183 machines 116–17, 128–34, 159–60, 167–70, 225–8, 247–8, 251–3, 271–2, 274–94; see also systems expectations of 269 increasingly capable 2, 5, 155, 159–60, 226, 231, 303, 305 McKinsey 78–80, 83–4 Maister, David 19, 103 management 14–15, 78, 84, 119, 139 knowledge 187, 194–5 management consultants 20, 31, 33, 36, 39, 78–84, 194, 199 marginal costs 206–7, 298, 300 market, values 240, 243, 260 market forces 89, 196, 199, 272 market norms 239–43 markets 27, 45, 51, 90, 115, 135, 191, 209 moral limits 239–44, 247 Marx, Karl 29, 254, 256 Maslow, Abraham 43 mass collaboration 178–9 mass customization 98, 102–3, 128, 130, 222, 225 Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor 59, 92, 162, 191 means and ends 268 medicine 17, 19, 41, 47, 49–50, 107–8, 131–2, 200 messy data 92 Mill, John Stuart xi mobile devices 64, 74–5, 185 money 10, 34, 108, 112, 179, 195, 296, 299 monopolies 9, 20, 27, 67, 79, 82, 134–5, 141 Moore’s Law 156–7, 173 moral character 232, 236, 239, 241, 243–4 moral limits of markets 239–44, 247 more-for-less challenge 102, 105, 108–9 motivations 24, 29–30, 127, 203, 236, 239, 258, 273 Murnane, Richard 167 mystification 37, 141–2 National Health Service, see NHS Negroponte, Nicholas 77 Neo-Luddites 288 networked experts, model 216, 218–23, 261, 264 networking, social 114, 153, 177, 224 networks 52, 55, 74, 175, 177, 179–80, 182, 218–19 social 56, 66, 77, 114–15, 150, 155 new mindset 37–43 new practical expertise 163, 295–7 new roles 60, 114, 258, 267, 271, 303 new specialists 102, 107, 123, 127–8 new tasks 246, 288–9, 291, 294 new technologies 44–5, 115, 117, 151, 213, 249, 287–9, 292–3 New York Times 1 newspapers 72–4, 77, 235 NHS (National Health Service) 50, 54, 243, 300 non-experts 35, 218, 223–4 non-professionals 26, 32, 185, 290 non-routine tasks 120, 291, 294 non-thinking machines 272, 274, 276–7, 279–80, 293, 306 norms 172, 239–40, 242–3 market 239–43 professional 234, 239–40, 242 nurses 49–50, 54, 106, 135, 221 objections and anxieties 231–69 occupations 12, 15, 18, 20, 26–7, 29, 239, 243 ODR, see online dispute resolution omissions 36, 46, 91, 201, 308 Ong, Walter 146, 147–8 online collaboration 102, 114, 128, 132–3 online communities 1, 53, 97, 128–9, 132, 215–16 online dispute resolution (ODR) 1, 70 online platforms 55, 57–8, 72–3, 76–7, 81–2, 96–7, 111, 113 online selection 102, 128, 219 online self-help 102, 128–30, 222 online services 119–21, 129–30, 133, 137–8, 204, 221–2, 237–8, 265–6 online systems 76, 86, 185, 222, 225, 266 Osborne, Michael 88, 294 owners 33, 138, 174–5, 190, 223, 226, 297 ownership 188, 203–4, 221, 226, 296–7, 300, 304–5 and control 203–4, 297, 300, 305 para-professional model 216, 219–22, 226, 265 para-professionalization 102, 123–5, 138 para-professionals 125–6, 135, 137–8, 220–2, 249–50, 252, 262, 264–6 paralegals 68–9, 107, 220 parents 11, 56–7, 59, 105, 198 Parsons, Talcott 18, 25 partnerships 67, 86, 138–9, 293 patients 16–17, 38–40, 46–52, 54–5, 111, 114–16, 168–9, 190 personal interaction 139, 248–51, 268 personalization 102, 128, 131 pervasive computing 173–4 pessimists 288–9 philosophers 13, 22, 35, 188, 255, 273–5, 277–8 physical goods 189, 191, 300 physicians 19, 21–2, 47, 149, 249; see also doctors Picard, Rosalind 170 policymakers 45, 133, 153, 253, 262 post-professional society 15, 18, 105, 231, 263, 303 practical expertise 127–34, 192–3, 202–7, 210–11, 215–19, 221–7, 265–70, 295–307 affordable 239, 246, 254, 257–8, 268 distribution of 145, 216, 259, 261, 263, 283, 298, 304 machine-generated 267 new 163, 295–7 new sources 107, 128, 189 ownership and control 296, 304 production 295–6 production and distribution 145, 216, 259, 261, 263, 298, 304 sharing 215, 224, 251, 268, 271, 297–8, 303 pre-print communities 147–50 predictions 45, 54, 147, 152, 155, 158, 160, 162 predictive analytics 115, 161 prestige 11, 18, 20, 27–8, 244 prices 207, 209, 241, 243, 250, 284, 287, 292 print-based communities 147–50 print-based industrial society 2–3, 128, 151, 153, 268, 270, 300, 304 printing 53, 64, 72, 131, 150 3-D 53, 98–9, 131 problems 33–7 process analysts 107, 124, 127, 212, 266, 293 processes, standard 71, 87, 119, 125, 265 processing brute-force 45, 186–7, 275 power 153, 156–8, 164 production, bespoke 244–5 production and distribution of expertise 5, 145, 215–28, 259, 261, 263, 298, 304 of knowledge 188–228 productivity 121, 170, 255–7, 289 professional ethics 18, 29, 233, 237 professional expertise 9, 34, 132 professional firms 10, 30, 34, 36, 109, 118, 126, 137–40 preoccupations 134–40 professional norms 239, 242 professional organizations 29, 179, 201, 211, 260 professional providers 2, 42, 101, 110, 134, 137, 139, 207 professional services 18–19, 32–4, 39–40, 103–4, 108–9, 133–4, 217, 222–3 professional tasks 119, 192, 207, 291 professional work 32–4, 101–11, 122–4, 128–30, 195–9, 205–9, 211–14, 259 decomposition 211–14 evolution 123, 145, 195–202 impact of technology 289–95 reconfigured 119–34 traditional 107, 111, 113, 217, 305 professionalism 12–13, 27, 31, 84 professionals 15–17, 34–45, 114–21, 126–31, 133–42, 192–8, 256–63, 289–94 aspiring 17, 259, 262–3 junior 125, 138, 260 traditional 127, 129, 137, 139, 151, 205–6, 208, 249 work of 112, 133, 138, 168, 187, 216, 260, 270–1; see also professional work young 138, 258–62 professions, see also Introductory Note after 270–302 and knowledge 193–5 as one object of study 3–4 patterns across 101–42 scope of 13–18 theories of 23–31 traditional 39, 42, 106–7, 215–16, 231–2, 246, 248, 263 profit 29–30, 34, 74, 138, 295–6, 298–300 providers 39–41, 104, 126–7, 208–9, 219, 238, 302, 305–7 psychologists 13, 43, 273, 275, 277 psychology 43, 171, 273 PwC 90, 92 quasi-trust 233, 237–8 raw data 87, 146 Rawls, John 306–7 realization of latent demand 102, 133 reassurance 38–40, 234, 237, 260, 265 regulation 17, 39, 41, 89, 134–6, 140, 233, 238–9 reintermediation 102, 119, 121–2 reliability 12, 91, 233, 236–8, 301 religions 61, 132, 149 reputation 22, 94, 128, 234, 237 resources 33, 43, 127, 203–4, 217, 225, 299, 306–7 responsibility 16, 35, 139, 277, 280, 282, 305 Rifkin, Jeremy 298 robotics 54, 99, 112, 160, 166–9, 172, 183, 187 robots 49, 54–5, 98–9, 166–72, 247, 257, 281–2, 284 autonomous flying 1, 99 Rocketship Education 55, 216 roles absence of future roles for traditional professionals 263–7 new 60, 114, 258, 267, 271, 303 Rose, David 168, 170 routine work 111, 138, 159, 232, 260, 279 routinization 101–2, 119–21, 130, 303 rule-based expert systems 165, 281 Sandel, Michael 240–2 sceptics 3, 14, 44, 91, 151, 156, 190, 196 Scheer, David Ross 95 scholars 18, 29, 41, 149, 188, 277 Schön, Donald 21, 26 scientists 54, 187, 273–5 computer 65, 156, 162, 273 data 60, 107, 127, 161–2, 264, 267 scope of professions 13–18 script 146–8, 153 second wave of AI 160, 165, 187 selection, online 102, 128, 219 self-employment, flexible 102, 123, 126 self-help, online 102, 128–30, 222 self-interest 24, 135, 180, 239, 297 sensors 162, 171, 174, 225 services 32–5, 37–41, 105–7, 117–22, 128–32, 206–9, 217–24, 241–4 legal 4, 67, 69, 71, 133 online 119–21, 129–30, 133, 137–8, 204, 221–2, 237–8, 265–6 professional 18–19, 32–4, 39–40, 103–4, 108–9, 133–4, 217, 222–3 set-up costs 298, 302 Shaw, George Bernard 28 skills 3, 34, 41–2, 220, 227, 232, 244–6, 265 new 114–15, 117, 285 smartphones 51, 132, 165, 170, 173 Smith, Adam 22, 255 social control 21, 25 social media 76–7, 82, 151, 154, 219, 221, 235 social networking 114, 153, 177, 224 social networks 56, 66, 77, 114–15, 150, 155 society 1–2, 21–7, 30–3, 145–9, 151–3, 239–41, 243, 306–7 sociologists 13, 18, 22, 25–7, 29–30, 134, 141, 188 software 85, 87–8, 93, 95, 107, 179, 295, 298 source materials 42, 150, 152, 187 special pleading 44, 89, 205, 232 specialist knowledge 3, 15, 24, 38, 41, 231, 270 specialists 19–20, 24, 123, 149–51, 161–2, 218–19, 221–2, 265–7 human 15, 45, 165, 211, 273, 294 new 102, 107, 123, 127–8 specialization 4, 21, 134, 136–7 standard processes 71, 87, 119, 125, 265 standardization 89, 131, 196, 199–202, 210, 212, 245 standards 17, 22, 25, 135, 141, 201, 208, 220 statistics 14, 92–3, 120, 186, 275 status quo bias 43–4 students 16, 19, 55–60, 111, 113, 115–16, 171, 261 subject matter experts 127, 222, 233, 252, 267 substructure, information 145–7, 152–3, 188 Summers, Larry 60–1 surgeons 12, 19–21, 50, 54, 168, 198, 244, 249–51 Susskind, Richard 39, 66, 109, 151–2, 183–4, 214 systematization 201, 210, 245 systems 127–32, 162–6, 169–72, 182–8, 201–5, 219–28, 269–75, 277–83; see also machines computer 98, 119–20, 164–6, 171, 185, 272 diagnostic 113, 269, 295, 298 expert 31, 182–5, 273, 276 high-performing 163, 274–5, 277, 280, 303 online 76, 86, 185, 222, 225, 266 tablets 61, 147, 155, 173, 175, 210 tasks 122–5, 165–8, 212–14, 257–9, 261–7, 277–81, 285–92, 294–5 constituent 122, 124, 198, 212–14, 245, 255–6, 266, 286 decomposed 124–5, 134, 212, 238 professional, see professional tasks tax 31, 41–2, 84–94, 183–4, 202, 204, 224, 226 advisers 33, 39, 109, 115, 194, 198, 200, 206–7 authorities 85, 87–8, 108 professionals 85, 88–9, 140 specialists 68, 86, 89 teachers 1, 3, 55–9, 107, 121–4, 206, 208, 249–50 technological change 46, 111, 159, 254, 256, 307 technological myopia 44, 159 technological unemployment 213, 272, 284–91, 294–5 technology 44–6, 109–14, 116–17, 145–7, 149–55, 159–61, 163–7, 181–8 future impact 153–5 impact on professional work 289–95 new relationships with 116–17 textbooks 40, 43, 109, 221, 266 theories of professions 23–31 theorists 13, 16, 18–19, 23, 25–9, 31, 40 tools 43, 45, 83, 97–8, 100, 123, 201–2, 215 Topol, Eric 46–7 traditional crafts 199, 206, 215, 244, 246 traditional model 55, 112–13, 132, 210, 216–21, 223, 252, 264 traditional professionals 127, 129, 137, 139, 151, 205–6, 208, 249 absence of future roles 263–7 tragedy of the commons 297, 301 training 12, 39–40, 94, 96, 193, 195, 259–62, 295–6 transformations 1–2, 89, 102, 104–5, 231–2, 235, 245–6, 267–8 by technology 109–14 trust 22, 39–40, 195, 233–8; see also quasi-trust objection 233–7, 239 trusted adviser 106, 169, 205, 236, 251 trustworthiness 18, 236–7 Turing Test 275 Twitter 2, 62, 74–5, 78, 182, 235, 249 United Kingdom 10–11, 72, 74, 86, 88–9, 241, 243, 245 United States 47, 50–3, 57, 72–3, 83, 85, 87, 240–1 University of Oxford 183, 274 users 74–5, 77–8, 120–2, 150–2, 177–9, 202–3, 221–2, 252–3 Internet 127, 129, 132, 174, 177–8, 180, 182, 204 values, market 240, 243, 260 Varian, Hal 81, 191, 207 veil of ignorance 306–7 videos 56–8, 74, 77, 162, 177, 298 wages 10, 124, 284–5, 295 Watson 48–9, 82, 152, 160, 164–6, 186–7, 272–5, 278 weak AI 274–5 wealth 28, 55, 59, 236, 255, 306 Weber, Max 27, 257 websites 1, 41, 43, 63, 150, 165, 178, 185 Weizenbaum, Joseph 253 WikiHouse 1, 96, 133, 224 Wikipedia 59, 127, 178, 223, 299 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 15 work 16–20, 29–32, 115–26, 205–9, 212–14, 216–21, 254–63, 283–6 good 254–8, 264 professional, see professional work routine 111, 138, 159, 232, 260, 279 young professionals 138, 258–62 YouTube 74–5, 177, 182 ZocDoc 48, 129, 181, 219, 249 Zuboff Soshana 160–1


pages: 549 words: 147,112

The Lost Bank: The Story of Washington Mutual-The Biggest Bank Failure in American History by Kirsten Grind

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, big-box store, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, fixed income, housing crisis, Maui Hawaii, money market fund, mortgage debt, naked short selling, NetJets, shareholder value, short selling, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, too big to fail, Y2K

Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: The Role of High Risk Home Loans, April 13, 2010, Exhibit 1h, p. 26. (Hereafter cited as Senate Investigations Subcommittee.) 26. Kirsten Grind, “Insiders Detail Reasons for WaMu’s Failure,” Puget Sound Business Journal, Jan. 23, 2009. 27. Melissa Allison, “Less Office, More Space for WaMu,” Seattle Times, Mar. 10, 2006. 28. Robert Slater, Jack Welch and the GE Way (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999). 29. Shoshana Zuboff, “The New Adulthood,” Fast Company, Aug. 1, 2004. 30. Senate Investigations Subcommittee, Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: The Role of High Risk Loans, Steve Rotella interview. 31. Stephanie Anderson Forest, “Is This Any Way to Run a Bank?” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Oct. 13, 2003. 32. Bill Virgin, “Class-Action Bid in WaMu Lawsuit Will Be Argued at Court Hearing,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 9, 2002. 33.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

Porup: “‘Internet of Things’ Security Is Hilariously Broken and Getting Worse,” arstechnica.com, January 23, 2016. [96] Bruce Schneier: Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World. W. W. Norton, 2015. ISBN: 978-0-393-35217-7 [97] The Grugq: “Nothing to Hide,” grugq.tumblr.com, April 15, 2016. [98] Tony Beltramelli: “Deep-Spying: Spying Using Smartwatch and Deep Learning,” Masters Thesis, IT University of Copenhagen, December 2015. Available at arxiv.org/abs/1512.05616 [99] Shoshana Zuboff: “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, volume 30, number 1, pages 75–89, April 2015. doi:10.1057/jit.2015.5 [100] Carina C. Zona: “Consequences of an Insightful Algorithm,” at GOTO Berlin, November 2016. [101] Bruce Schneier: “Data Is a Toxic Asset, So Why Not Throw It Out?,” schne‐ ier.com, March 1, 2016. [102] John E.