Shoshana Zuboff

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pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

p. 99 prediction: in 2020 three-quarters of American homes will have smart speakers: “The Smart Audio Report, Spring 2019,” National Public Media, Nationalpublicmedia.com. p. 99 number of voice-activated assistants could rival earth’s human population: Judith Shulevitz, “Alexa, Should We Trust You?,” Atlantic, November 2018; Ronan De Renesse, “Digital Assistant and Voice AI–Capable Device Forecast: 2016–21,” Ovum, April 28, 2017, ovum.informa.com. p. 99 surveillance capitalism: Shoshona Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (PublicAffairs, 2019). p. 101 Amazon technology analyzes human voice to determine ethnic origin, gender, age, health, and mental state: Madison Malone Kircher, “I Don’t Want My Echo Dot to Be Able to Tell When I’m Sick,” New York, October 15, 2018; Belle Lin, “Amazon’s Accent Recognition Technology Could Tell the Government Where You’re From,” Intercept, November 15, 2018; Jon Brodkin, “Amazon Patents Alexa Tech to Tell if You’re Sick, Depressed and Sell You Meds,” Ars Technica, October 11, 2018, arstechnica.com.

Market researchers estimated that in 2020 three-quarters of American homes would have smart speakers and that, by the following year, the number of voice-activated assistants could easily rival earth’s human population. As Amazon saturates the market with new smart speakers, it also works to expand the capabilities of those it has already sold via software updates. The “smarter” they get, the better such devices become at extracting continuous — and ever-greater — profits from users worldwide. The writer Shoshana Zuboff has referred to this model as “surveillance capitalism,’’ and most ordinary folk have more to fear from it than they do from the NSA. A panopticon in every parlor, after all, is good for business. Amazon’s patents offer what could be a sneak preview of the future. They include technologies to mine ambient speech for keywords and share them with advertisers, even in the absence of a “wake” command.

See Bill of Rights US Customs and Border Patrol, 15 US Department of Homeland Security, 145 US Department of Justice, 29, 42, 85, 94 US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 113 US Postal Service (USPS), 1–2, 28, 50, 56–9, 62 US Senate, 93; Church Committee, 89–90, 91, 93 Verizon, 46 Vidal, Gore, 95 Vietnam War, 90. See also Pentagon Papers Vimeo, 70–2 Walmart, 112 Wäscher, Till, 94 Washington Post, 41, 43, 45, 54, 86 Watergate Affair, 88 WhatsApp, 94, 136–7 WikiLeaks, 10, 16, 17, 23, 56, 67, 129–30 Wikipedia, 108 Wizner, Ben, 42–3, 45, 122 World Trade Center: 9/11, 52–3, 91 World War I, 142 World War II, 106, 118 Wyden, Ron, 8, 93 Yahoo, 48 Zelensky, Volodymyr, 11 Zuboff, Shoshana, 99 Zuckerberg, Mark, 137, 140


pages: 791 words: 85,159

Social Life of Information by John Seely Brown, Paul Duguid

business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, cross-subsidies, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, Frank Gehry, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Gilder, George Santayana, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Y2K

Navy understood the potential of information technology to disempower when they resisted the introduction of Marconi's ship-to-shore radio.37 They realized that, once orders could be sent to them on-board ship, they would lose their independence of action. (Their resistance recalls a story of the famous British admiral Lord Nelson, who "turned a blind eye" to his telescope at the Battle of Copenhagen to avoid seeing his commander's signal to disengage.)38 In contemplating assumptions about the decentralizing role of information technology, Shoshona Zuboff, a professor at Harvard Business School, confessed to becoming much more pessimistic in the decade since she wrote her pathbreaking book on the infomated workplace, In the Age of the Smart Machine :"The paradise of shared knowledge and a more egalitarian working environment," she notes, "just isn't happening. Knowledge isn't really shared because management doesn't want to share authority and power."39 Of course this need not be the outcome.

For a case study of previously decentralized business organizations that were later centralized, see Duguid and Silva Lopes, 1999. 37. Fidler, 1997. 38. The same long arm of technology has led to the direct intervention of politics into battlefield planning; for example, though President Bush said he would leave decisions in the Gulf War to local commanders, the White House began to exercise veto power and control over the conduct of the war, after a smart bomb went astray and drew bad press. 39. Shoshona Zuboff, quoted in Lohr, 1996. 40. Meanwhile, Royal Dutch/Shell, one of the most well known and widely applauded decentralizers of the past decade, has announced that it will recentralize its "treasury." Decentralization had been too costly and inefficient. More generally, the Economist magazine's "Intelligence Unit" has noted a trend toward "shared services" in large corporationsand what they describe reads very much like recentralization. 41.

"For-Profit Higher Education: Godzilla or Chicken Little." Change: The Magazine for Higher Learning 31 (1): 12 19. Yates, Jo Anne. 1989. Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. Ziman, John M. 1967. Public Knowledge: An Essay Concerning the Social Dimension of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zuboff, Shoshona. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Page 307 Index A A.B. Dick, 159 Aetna, 175 Age of the Smart Machine, 30 Alexa.com, 188 Amazon.com, 148 acquisitions activities of, 25 bot use on, 37, 44, 45, 47 48 American Airlines, 45 American Notes, 195 Anderson, Benedict, 194, 197 AOL, acquisitions activities of, 25, 26 Apple Computer, 70, 87 innovativeness of, 159 160 relations with PARC, 151, 157, 163, 166 structure of, 154 AT&T, 178 downsizing by, 122 reengineering of, 92 relations with Microsoft, 25, 28 Attewell, Paul, 29 Autonomous agents, 36 37 and delegation, 53 54 negotiation and, 48 52 and representation, 54 56 strengths and limitations of, 41 56 unethical use of, 56 59 See also Bots B Babbage, Charles, 86 Barlow, John Perry, 66, 198 Barnard, Chester, 114 Barnes & Noble, 148 Bateson, Gregory, 138 Being Digital, 15 Bell, Alexander Graham, 87 88 Bell, Gordon, 11 Berkeley, University of California at, 228 Bots (autonomous agents), 36 37 and delegation, 53 54 future of, 39 41, 61 62 negotiation and, 48 52 as representative, 54 56 strengths and limitations of, 41 56 unethical use of, 56 59 Page 308 Boyle, Robert, 191 British Telecom, and home office, 98 99 Bruner, Jerome, 128, 135, 138, 153 Burg, Urs von, 166 Bush, Vannevar, 179 180 Business processes formal versus informal, 113 115 improvisation in, 109 111 reengineering of, 91 93, 97 99 C Cameron, Stephen, 223 Cancelbots, 58 Canon, 157 Carlson, Chester, 159, 161 CDNow, bot use on, 37, 44 Champy, James, 92, 107, 111, 144 Chandler, Alfred, 161 Chaparral Steel, 123 Chatterbots, 36 Chaum, David, 60 Chiat, Jay, 71 Chiat/Day, 70 73, 75, 82 Chrysler Financial, technology costs at, 82 Claims processing, 96 Clustering, 161 164 and distance, 167 170 and ecologies of knowledge, 165 167 economic effects of, 164 165 Coase, Ronald, 23 24 Code of code, 249 Cole, Robert, 123 Common Sense, 195 Communities formed around Internet, 189 190 of practice, 141, 142 143, 162 scientific, 191 192 support of knowledge management, 125 127 textual, 190 Competition, changes in, 208 209 Conduit metaphors, 184 Constraints, complexities of, 244 245 Context, 202 Control Data Systems, 212 Copyright law, 248 software issues and, 249 250 Covidea (AT&T), 178 Credentialing, 214 215 bogus, 216 future of, 215 216, 234 235 meaning of, 217 221 Customization, 26 D Daniel, Sir John, 25, 223 Databases, versus documents, 186 Davenport, Tom, 122, 198 David, Paul, 83 de Long, Brad, 46, 52 Decentralization, 29 30 Dee, John, 211 Defoe, Daniel, 139 Degrees.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

By this point the rhetoric of crisis had become so commonplace in the computer industry literature that for many young programmers the software crisis was “less a turning point than a way of life.”16 This comes back to some of the central questions of this book: How can we explain the continued existence of a seemingly perpetual crisis in what is generally considered to be one of the most successful and profitable industries of all time? How can we understand the role of computer specialists—in many respects the paradigmatic “knowledge workers” of post-industrial society—within this troubled framework of crisis, conflict, and contested identity? If, as Shoshona Zuboff has suggested, computer-based technologies are not simply neutral artifacts, but rather “embody essential characteristics that are bound to alter the nature of work within factories and offices, and among workers, professionals, and managers,” then what are the “essential characteristics” of software and software development that shape our understanding of work, identity, and power in the information technology industry (and the many industries that rely on information technology)?

Dobbs Journal (2008). 15. Andrew Pollack, “Year 2000 Problem Tests Professionalism of Programmers,” New York Times (May 3, 1999): C1; Mark Manion and William M. Evan, “The Y2K Problem: Technological Risk and Professional Responsibility,” ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society 29, no. 4 (1999): 24–29. 16. John Shore, “Why I Never Met a Programmer I Could Trust,” Communications of the ACM 31, no. 4 (1988): 372. 17. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). 18. Thomas Gieryn, “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists,” American Sociological Review 48, no. 4 (1983): 781–795. 19. Ibid. 20. Andrei P. Ershov, “Aesthetics and the Human Factor in Programming,” Communications of the ACM 15, no. 7 (1972): 502. 21.

Classics in Software Engineering. New York: Yourdon Press, 1979. Zabusky, Stacia, and Stephen Barley. Redefining Success: Ethnographic Observations on the Careers of Technicians. In Broken Ladders: Managerial Careers in the New Economy, ed. Paul Osterman, 185–214. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Zaphyr, P. A. “The Science of Hypology” (letter to editor). Communications of the ACM 2 (1) (1959): 4. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Zussman, Robert. Mechanics of the middle class: Work and politics among American engineers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Index Abbott, Andrew, 234 ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) academic orientation of, 173–174, 191 Communications of the ACM, 101, 114–115, 173, 182 conflict with DPMA, 177, 182, 189, 196 Education Committee, 118, 173, 234 history of, 170–175 Journal of the ACM, 173 membership statistics, 170–171 Adaptive programming.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

‘Germany’s Vision for Industrie 4.0: The Revolution Will Be Digitised’. ZDNet, 23 February. http://www.zdnet.com/article/germanys-vision-for-industrie-4-0-the-revolutionwill-be-digitised (accessed 10 June 2016). Zuboff, Shoshana. 2015. ‘Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization’. Journal of Information Technology, 30 (1): 75–89. doi: 10.1057/jit.2015.5. Zuboff, Shoshana. 2016. ‘Google as a Fortune Teller: The Secrets of Surveillance Capitalism’. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 5 March. http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/the-digital-debate/shoshana-zuboff-secrets-of-surveillance-capitalism-14103616.html (accessed 12 June 2016). Zucman, Gabriel. 2015. The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens, translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Rana Foroohar, “Echoes of Wall Street in Silicon Valley’s Grip on Money and Power,” Financial Times, July 3, 2017. 16. Tom Hamburger and Matea Gold, “Google, Once Disdainful of Lobbying, Now a Master of Washington,” The Washington Post, April 12, 2014. 17. Rana Foroohar, “Silicon Valley Has Too Much Power,” Financial Times, May 14, 2017; Foroohar, “Echoes of Wall Street in Silicon Valley’s Grip.” 18. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), introductory page. 19. Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, April 17, 2015. 20. Niall Ferguson, The Square and the Tower: Networks and Power, from the Freemasons to Facebook (New York: Penguin, 2018). Chapter 1: A Summary of the Case 1.

Just as, in the years before the 2008 financial crisis, the world’s top bankers dispatched surrogates to Washington, London, and Brussels to live among and lobby the legislators in charge of regulating them, so Silicon Valley faces have become the most familiar ones in these capitals over the past decade—with Google dispatching so many emissaries to Washington that they needed office space as large as the White House to hold them all.16 But despite the efforts of scores of Silicon Valley lobbyists and PR teams, the public worries about the economic and social effects of technology, and those worries are not going away.17 In fact, they are increasing, as the technology itself spreads more deeply into our economy, politics, and culture. Big Tech has become the new Wall Street, and as such, is the prime target for a populist backlash in a world increasingly bifurcated, economically and socially. The changes Big Tech has wrought have become one of the most pressing economic issues of our time. Harvard Business School professor emerita Shoshana Zuboff and other scholars have decried the rise of “surveillance capitalism,” which is, as Zuboff defines it, “a new economic order that claims human experience as free raw material for hidden commercial practices of extraction, prediction and sales,” as well as “a parasitic economic logic in which the production of goods and services is subordinated to a new global architecture of behavioral modification” via digital surveillance technologies.18 She believes (and I would agree) that surveillance capitalism represents a significant threat to our economic and political systems, as well as a potential instrument for social control.19 I’ve also come to believe that curbing Silicon Valley’s nefarious side effects will become “the signature economic issue [for lawmakers] over the next five years, especially as automation increases and they make investments into other areas of the economy,” as one staffer for an influential senior Democratic senator has put it to me.

Decades ago, in his book The Great Transformation, historian Karl Polanyi identified three “fictions” that needed to be sustained in order for the market economies of the industrial revolution to thrive.63 First was that human life could be rebranded as labor. Second was that nature could be rebranded as real estate. Third was that free exchanges of goods and services could be rebranded as money. In 2015, academic and tech scholar Shoshana Zuboff posited a fourth fiction for the age of Big Tech—that reality itself was undergoing the same kind of metamorphosis. “Data about the behaviors of bodies, minds, and things take their place in a universal real-time dynamic index of smart objects within an infinite global domain of wired things. This new phenomenon produces the possibility of modifying the behaviors of persons and things for profit and control.”64 Today, we live in that world, governed by our Big Tech overlords.


Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, WikiLeaks, Works Progress Administration

F I G U R E 4.1 . diverse platforms and applications. What follows in the book is an hour-­ by-­hour account of a day in the life of two imaginary corporations, one a packaged-­food multinational with 15,000 employees around the world, and the other a smaller manufacturing firm with 350 workers making office partitions, the cubicles that so decisively divide and relegate white-­collar workers to what Shoshana Zuboff terms “the realm of the machine.”52 Corporate managers figure prominently in the story that Beyond Paper tells, but so do the underlings on whom they make extraordinary demands. The copier jams repeatedly as an executive secretary tries to use it, and then her boss vanishes before she can protest how long it will take to fax 100 pages across the country; a mail boy with a cart already full of deliveries to make is hijacked by a marketing director who wants him to rush to deliver an important interoffice envelope; and a four-­person team struggles to prepare a new sales proposal needed immediately by their persnickety boss, only to come up with four separate files and two different handouts: all problems solved, of course, by Adobe™ Acrobat™, which aimed at reducing but not replacing the uses of paper and the uses of copiers, fax ma126 CHAPTER FOUR chines, express mail, interoffice mail, airplanes, envelopes, binders, staples, and paper clips.53 Reducing labor costs remains an unspoken benefit.

See National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, “Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library of Congress Collections,” 7 March 2007, accessed August 2009, http://www.digitalpreservation .gov/formats/intro/intro.shtml. “Lossy” encoding compresses files by discarding some of the data they contain; archivists prefer lossless compression. 51. Bienz and Richard Cohn, Portable Document Format Reference Manual; Ames, Beyond Paper. 52. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Nature of Work and Power (New York: Basic, 1984), 125. 53. Ames, Beyond Paper, 45–47, 85. 54. Ibid., 93. 55. Streeter, The Net Effect, 124 (emphasis in the original). A related point about the uneven penetration of technological change had been made before by Alvin Toffler in The Third Wave (New York: William Morrow, 1980), 207–8. 56. Jacques Derrida, Paper Machine, trans.

Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. ———. Structuring the Information Age: Life Insurance and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. Zielinski, Siegfried. Deep Time of Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means. Translated by Gloria Custance. Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Nature of Work and Power. New York: Basic, 1984. 204 WORKS CITED INDEX Adams, William Taylor, 142 Adobe Systems, 117, 118, 123–28 adolescents. See young adults Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (arpanet), 100 advertisements, 4, 45, 102, 112, 115, 139 amateurs, 12, 14, 15, 20, 38, 51–52, 62, 72, 74–78, 81–82, 116, 122, 136–50 American Antiquarian Society, 39, 42, 46, 47, 52, 80, 138, 139 American Council of Learned Societies, 14, 54–55, 57, 60, 80.


pages: 242 words: 245

The New Ruthless Economy: Work & Power in the Digital Age by Simon Head

Asian financial crisis, business cycle, business process, call centre, conceptual framework, deskilling, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, informal economy, information retrieval, medical malpractice, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, supply-chain management, telemarketer, Thomas Davenport, Toyota Production System, union organizing

In my journeys across America I was overwhelmed by the attention, support, and encouragement I received from so many people, among them: In Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the Bay Area: Charles Ackerman, xvii xvni ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Danny Bobrow, Michael Borrus, Sandy Close, John Hummer, Sandy Kurtzig, AnnaLee Saxenian, Franz Schurmann, Harley Shaiken, Marc Trachtenberg, Bob Treuhaft, Jack Whalen, Horace Wood, and John Zysman. In Cambridge, Mass.: Richard Freeman, Michael Porter, and Shoshana Zuboff. In Fairhaven, Mass.: Gary Johnson. In Boston: Frederick Reichheld. In Madison, Wise.: Frank Emspak and Joel Rogers. In Milwaukee: Ellen Bravo. In Iowa City: Dick Greenwood, Marc Linder, and Clara Olsen. In London: Robert Oakeshott. In New York City: Roger Alcaly, Nelson Aldrich, Dee Aldrich, Steven Aronson, Elizabeth Baker, Annabel Bartlett, Helen Bodian, Bill Bradley, Ernestine Bradley, Susanna Duncan, Ed Epstein, Frances Fitzgerald, Andrea Gabor, Edward Garmey, Joann Haimson, Alexandra Howard, Philip Howard, Bokara Legendre, Valerie Lucznikowska, Sidney Morgenbesser, Constancia Romilly, Richard Sennett, Sigrun Svavardsdottir, and Lou Uchitelle.

Similarly, Thomas Davenport writes of a "culture of facilitative management," in which "trust is extended whether or not direct management control is now exercised."39 The layoffs of the early and mid-1990s were particularly hard on middle managers, and Hammer and Champy cite this downsizing as evidence of management's diminished role. But such evidence can bear more than one interpretation. The bloodletting can be taken as evidence of management's withering away, as the reengineers claim. But the culling of the cubicles can also signify that tasks of monitoring and control have been subject to partial automation, so that fewer managerial bodies are needed around the office. In her In the Age of the Smart Machine, Shoshana Zuboff draws a THE RISE OF THE REENGINEERS distinction between the power of information technology to "automate" and its power to "informate." Automation "replaces the human body with a technology that enables the smart processes to be performed with more continuity and control"—as in John Hall's and Henry Ford's machine shops. But contemporary information technology "simultaneously generates information about the underlying productive and administrative process."

In the peripheric ring, one is totally seen, without ever seeing; in the central tower, one sees everything, without ever being seen.39 Foucault then deepens his analysis of the state of mind of those who are the objects of panoptic power: He who is subjected to a field of visibility, and who knows it, assumes responsibility for the constraints of power; he makes them play spontaneously upon himself; he inscribes in himself the power relation in which he simultaneously plays both roles; he becomes the principle of 165 166 THE NEW RUTHLESS ECONOMY his own subjection. By this very fact the external power may throw off its physical weight. . . . It is a perpetual victory that avoids any physical confrontation and which is always decided in advance.40 In her book In the Age of the Smart Machine, Shoshana Zuboff shows how Foucault's analysis and language can very easily be transferred to the non-penal setting of the business enterprise. The attainment of panoptic power has been a goal of scientific managers ever since Taylor created his shop floor planning departments, with their hordes of "functional foremen." But it is only with the coming of the computer, and the computer's empowerment with the attachment of monitoring software, that panoptic power has become a real and overwhelming presence in offices and factories.


pages: 523 words: 61,179

Human + Machine: Reimagining Work in the Age of AI by Paul R. Daugherty, H. James Wilson

3D printing, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, friendly AI, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lyft, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, software as a service, speech recognition, telepresence, telepresence robot, text mining, the scientific method, uber lyft

Our framework goes beyond what is typically found in IT and business-transformation methodologies, specifically addressing advanced AI and its accompanying issues, including those that tend to be neglected such as corporate culture, ethics, consumer trust, and employee trust. 1. Mindset: Imagine Processes That Might Be Reimagination requires a completely different mindset—“a rupture with the world we take for granted,” to borrow a phrase from technology researcher Shoshana Zuboff.1 It is exactly such “ruptures” with the way things are currently done that enable companies to imagine novel business models and develop game-changing innovations. That is, when people simply accept an existing process and then use AI to automate it, they can achieve incremental improvements but little more. To attain step-level performance gains, they need to envision those ruptures—novel ways that work might be accomplished—and then figure out how to deploy AI to make those ruptures a reality.

v=CROBmw5Txl. 11.Michael Reilly, “Rethink’s Sawyer Robot Just Got a Whole Lot Smarter,” MIT Technology Review, February 8, 2017, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/603608/rethinks-sawyer-robot-just-got-a-whole-lot-smarter/. 12.Cassie Werber, “The World’s First Commercial Drone Delivery Service Has Launched in Rwanda,” Quartz, October 14, 2016, https://qz.com/809576/zipline-has-launched-the-worlds-first-commercial-drone-delivery-service-to-supply-blood-in-rwanda/. 13.Jessica Leber, “Doctors Without Borders Is Experimenting with Delivery Drones to Battle an Epidemic,” Fast Company, October 16, 2014, https://www.fastcompany.com/3037013/doctors-without-borders-is-experimenting-with-delivery-drones-to-battle-an-epidemic. 14.Wings For Aid website, https://www.wingsforaid.org, accessed October 25, 2017. Chapter 7 1.Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1989), 13. 2.Autoline Network, “The ART of Audi,” YouTube video, 1:04:45, August 22, 2014, https://youtu.be/Y6ymjyPryRo. 3.Sharon Gaudin, “New Markets Push Strong Growth in Robotics Industry,” ComputerWorld, February 26, 2016, http://www.computerworld.com/article/3038721/robotics/new-markets-push-strong-growth-in-robotics-industry.html. 4.Spencer Soper and Olivia Zaleski, “Inside Amazon’s Battle to Break into the $800 Billion Grocery Market,” Bloomberg, March 20, 2017, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2017-03-20/inside-amazon-s-battle-to-break-into-the-800-billion-grocery-market. 5.Izzie Lapowski, “Jeff Bezos Defends the Fire Phone’s Flop and Amazon’s Dismal Earnings,” Wired, December 2, 2014, https://www.wired.com/2014/12/jeff-bezos-ignition-conference/. 6.Ben Fox Rubin, “Amazon’s Store of the Future Is Delayed.

See computer vision Volkswagen, 126 Wade & Wendy, 198–199 Wahba, Phil, 163 Walmart, 5, 162 Walton, Sam, 163 warehouses, 30–33 collaboration in, 150 Watson (IBM), 49, 99, 145–146 in drug discovery process, 82 Tone Analyzer, 196 Waze, 6–7 Wegner, Hans, 136–137 Wenchel, Adam, 191–192 Wingfield, Nick, 31 Woodside Petroleum, 49 work developing employee potential and, 14 future of, 12 redefining, 11–12 reimagining, 13–14 repetitive/routine, 26–27, 29–30, 46–47, 52–54 time and, 186–189 World Economic Forum, 184–185 worldview and localization trainers, 119–120 x.ai, 196 Yahoo!, 117 ZestFinance, 123–124 Zilis, Shivon, 70–72, 195 Zipline, 150 Zuboff, Shoshana, 155 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The development of Human + Machine has been a fascinating journey, born over a cup coffee in Boston’s Copley Plaza almost two years ago, and influenced by thousands of experiences along the way—conversations with executives, entrepreneurs, workers, AI experts, technologists, economists, social scientists, policymakers, futurists, venture capitalists, educators, students, among others.


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They Don't Represent Us: Reclaiming Our Democracy by Lawrence Lessig

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, Cass Sunstein, Columbine, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Parag Khanna, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair

At the time the Internet was born, the technology was not powerful enough to do the things that big data would eventually do. But when the tech companies tripped onto the gold that was flowing across the wires, they realized that this was the enormous surplus—the “behavioral surplus”—that would make Silicon Valley rich. All of that is insanely great. Indeed, I want to exaggerate here so you don’t miss my point. My argument is fundamentally different from the work of surveillance skeptics, like Shoshana Zuboff. Her magisterial book, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, tells a terrifying story of the emergence of a new form of capitalism that trades fundamentally on surveillance. There is tons to learn from her analysis, and much to be anxious about. We do not begin to understand the scope of this surveillance, or how it is changing, fundamentally, our relation to each other. Yet in the end, her criticism reaches too far.

We are being nudged and crafted, rendered anxious and triggered, made happy, made lonely, made angry, made more partisan, so that Facebook and the like can sell more ads. Think about it: if we had destroyed democracy so we could end world hunger, if we had made it impossible to find common ground, so that we could cure cancer, or end climate change, then one might well wonder whether the sacrifice was worth it. But all of the sacrifice here is so that some can sell more ads. A “bet-the-farm commitment,” as Shoshana Zuboff puts it, “for the sake of [advertising] revenues.”122 A business that literally did not exist in anything like its present form twenty years ago has now infected and corrupted critical domains of public life. Yes, I can find the Nike shoes I want much more easily. Yes, with a single click, they are on their way. And yes, in a million other ways, life has been made more interesting and more diverse.

On the potential contributions of the media to mitigating the Downs effect, see Alexander Dyck, David Moss, and Luigi Zingales, “Media versus Special Interests,” The Journal of Law & Economics 56, no. 3 (August 2013): 521–53. 51.Ewan Palmer, “Barack Obama: ‘If You Watch Fox News, You’re in One Reality, and If You Read the New York Times, You’re in a Different Reality,’” Newsweek, March 7, 2019, available at link #97. 52.Tufekci, Twitter and Tear Gas, 270. 53.Stephan Guyenet, “Fast Food, Weight Gain and Insulin Resistance,” Whole Health Source, May 22, 2011, available at link #98. 54.Lessig, Republic, Lost, 43–52 (discussing food regulation). 55.Herbert Hoover, quoted in Wu, The Attention Merchants, loc. 1624. 56.Eric Barnouw, quoted in Wu, The Attention Merchants, loc. 2907. 57.Larry Page and Sergey Brin, quoted in Wu, The Attention Merchants, loc. 4920. 58.John Battelle, quoted in Wu, The Attention Merchants, loc. 4933–34. 59.This road has been cleared by others before. For the most compelling accounts, see Wu, The Attention Merchants; McChesney and Nichols, Death and Life of American Journalism. For the most comprehensive and theorized recent account, see Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019). 60.Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Random House, 2001), 7. 61.Compare Cass R. Sunstein, “The First Amendment in Cyberspace,” Yale Law Journal 104 (1995): 1757–1804, available at link #99, with Eugene Volokh, “Cheap Speech and What It Will Do,” Yale Law Journal 104 (1995): 1805–50, available at link #100.


The Winner-Take-All Society: Why the Few at the Top Get So Much More Than the Rest of Us by Robert H. Frank, Philip J. Cook

accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Alvin Roth, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business cycle, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, global village, haute couture, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, positional goods, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Shoshana Zuboff, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy

Strong backs continue to be displaced by machinery, but we now see programmable industrial ro­ bots that displace even highly skilled craftsmen, often doing their in­ tricate work not only faster but to a higher quality standard as well. The result has been a reduction in demand for craftsmen and an in­ crease in demand for the designers of the robots that replace them. Perhaps the most significant change in production methods is that the new machines not only perform the work but also gather, record, and transmit detailed information about what they are doing. As technology analyst Shoshana Zuboff describes the change: "The same technology simultaneously generates information about the underly­ ing productive and administrative processes through which an organization accomplishes its work. It provides a deeper level of trans- The Growth a/Winner-Take-A!! Markets 55 parency to activities that had been either partially or completely opaque."19 T he newly available information, Zuboff argues, will have profound effects on the ways in which businesses are organized and managed.

The American Almanac 0/ Jobs and Salaries. New York: Avon, 1990. Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Li/e. New York: Pantheon, 1994. Wriston, Walter B. The Twilight 0/ Sovereignty: How the In/onnation Revolu­ tion Is Trans/onning Our World. New York: Scribner's, 1992. Wylie, R. C. The Self-Concept. vol. 2. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Wortman, Marc. "Can Need-Blind Survive?" 1979. Zuboff, Shoshana. 1 988. In the Age 0/ the Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books, Index AT. Kearney, 73 Abortion, 1 84-185 Absolute performance, 24, 26, 1 15-1 1 6 Academia. See Education Academic rankings, 36, 162-164 Accountants, 88 Acquired tastes, 40-4 1 Adair, Red, 5 1 Advertising and promotion, 1 3 9-142, 176 Agassi, Andre, 66 Aikman, 'froy, 82 Airline industry, 49-50, 56 Alba Madonna, The (Raphael), 83 American Airlines, 49-50 American Psycho (Ellis), 200 America's Cup, 1 7 1 Anabolic steroids, 1 0 , 133-134, 170 Analog system, 27, 33 Andersen Consulting, 73 Anheuser-Busch, 1 4 1 Antitrust policy, 1 6, 177, 225-227 Apple Computer, 56 Arab oil embargo ( 1974 ), 86 Arbitration, 178 Arledge, Roone, 77 Art, 3 , 26, 29, 44, 82-84, 88 Arthur, Brian, 34-35 Arl o/the Deal, The ('frump), 192 Asher, Aaron, 62 Assembly workers, 24, 25 Athletic directors, 79-80 AT&T Company, 72 Attractiveness, 14-15 Auctions, 30, 12 1-122 Auel, Jean, 65 Auletta, Ken, 77 Automobile industry, 3 , 27, 36, 1 16 Avon Books, 63, 64 Bach, Richard, 63-64 Bader, Jim, 96, 97 Bailyn, Lotte, 143 Baker, Lansing, 1 37 Banking industry, 56 Bantam Books, 64, 140 Bardeen, John, 120 Barnes & Noble, 62 Baseball, 8, 56, 80-8 1 , 168, 169 262 Index Basketball, 79, 8 1 , 104, 135, 137, 168, 169, 185 Battle, Kathleen, 2 Bazerman, Max, 129-130 Beatty, Warren, 75 Becker, Boris, 38 Bendetti, Caprice, 78 Berlyne, David, 40 Besaw, Jim, 158 Best-seller lists, 34, 62, 65, 140, 1 4 1 , 1 92 Beta, 27, 33 Bidding, 55-56, 75, 76, 80, 9 1 , 120, 149, 1 65 Billington, Elizabeth, 45 Black, Shane, 74-75 Blair, Margaret, 67 Bluebeard (Vonnegut), 1 Blue laws, 15, 1 8 1 Body piercings, 174-175 Bogdanovich, Peter, 195 Bohl, Helmut, 133 Bok, Derek, 5, 68, 69 Bonds, Barry, 6 Books.

See also Education; Entertain­ ment; Income inequality; Positional arms control agreements; specific pro­ fessions; Sports challenges posed by, 19-20 contestants in, 26-30 defined, 23-25 everyday life and, 14-15 fairness norms and, 17 growth of, 45-60 mass and deep-pocket markets, 26, 43, 50 in media and culture, 1 8-19, 1 89-209 minor-league superstars, 85-99 misallocation of talent, 7-1 1 overcrowding and, 8, 2 1 , 1 0 1-123 process for determining winners, 30-32 sources of, 32-44 technological competition, 26-27, 33-35 wasteful investment, 125-146 Wolfe, Tom, 75 WordPerfect, 36 Working hours, 15, 16, 1 42-144, 1 8 1 , 227-228 Workplace safety, 180-181 Worthy, James, 8 1 Wriston, Walter, 4 8 Yachting competitions, 1 7 1 Yale University, 147, 152-154, 158, 266 Zuboff, Shoshana, 54-55 F O R T H E B E S T I N PA P E R B A C K S , L O O K F O R T H E � In every corner or the world, on every ,ubject under the ,un, I'enguin repre,ents quality and variety-the very best in publishing today. For complete inrormation about books available rrom Penguin-including PuRin<, Penb'lli n Classics, and Arkana-and how to order them, write to us at the appropriate address below.


pages: 379 words: 109,223

Frenemies: The Epic Disruption of the Ad Business by Ken Auletta

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, corporate raider, crossover SUV, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, Google Glasses, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, NetJets, Network effects, pattern recognition, pets.com, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, éminence grise

What if you have a knee replacement that failed and you sue the manufacturer and the manufacturer goes to Acxiom and subpoenas your behavioral history to show you viewed ads about canoeing? Does that mean you went canoeing? It means you’re interested in canoeing.” Advertisers would be keen on having access to medical records so they could market pharmaceutical products. The accumulation of data to predict future behavior has been labeled surveillance capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff, a professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. Its pioneers have been digital companies like Google and Facebook that derive their marketing power from shadowing citizens and using data to become fortune-tellers. “The game,” Zuboff wrote, “is no longer about sending you a mail-order catalogue or even about targeting online advertising. The game is selling access to the real-time flow of your daily life—your reality—in order to directly influence and modify your behavior for profit.

See WPP Wired, 326 Wojcicki, Susan, 199 World Federation of Advertisers, 77 WPP, 8, 10, 11, 13, 328–30, 332–33 ad spending on Snapchat versus on Facebook/Google, 137–38 agency reviews and, 22, 79 communication services and, 109 companies owned by, 109 data and tech company investments of, 110–11 founding of, 107 geographic diversification of revenue streams of, 108 global expansion of, 144–47 GroupM (See GroupM) Johnson sexual harassment suit against Martinez and, 230–32 lack of new leadership at, 99 programmatic advertising and, 264–65 public relations agencies owned by, 218 revenues of, 100 Sorrell on threats facing, 30–31, 82, 117 succession planning at, 328 takeovers of, 107–9 Wren, John, 100 Wu, Tim, 24, 172, 311 Xaxis, 111, 140, 264–65 Young, Miles, 40, 45, 111, 112, 144 Young & Rubicam, 108 YouTube, 197, 199–200, 272, 314 Zenith, 143 Zuboff, Shoshana, 164 Zuckerberg, Mark, 129, 130, 179, 273, 276–77 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABOUT THE AUTHOR KEN AULETTA has written the “Annals of Communications” profiles for The New Yorker since 1992. He is the author of eleven books, five of them national bestsellers, including Three Blind Mice, Greed and Glory on Wall Street, World War 3.0, The Highwaymen, and Googled. As Jack Shafer said in his Washington Post review of Googled: “I dare you to name a more plugged-in media and communications technology reporter than New Yorker staff writer Ken Auletta.

* Bessie Lee at a September 21, 2016, Financial Times panel in New York. * Sue Halpern, “They Have, Right Now, Another You,” The New York Review of Books, December 22, 2016. * Julia Angwin, Terry Parris, Jr., and Surya Mattu, “What Facebook Knows About You,” ProPublica, September 28, 2016. * Sarah Perez, “Google’s New ‘About Me’ Page Lets You Control What Personal Info Others Can See,” TechCrunch.com, November 11, 2015. * Shoshana Zuboff, “The Secrets of Surveillance Capitalism,” Frankfurter Allgemeine, March 5, 2016. * Sandy Parakilas, “Facebook Won’t Protect Your Privacy,” New York Times op-ed page, November 20, 2017. * As we see, data on the size of the ad-blocking community vary wildly. * The disparity between Mary Meeker’s figure of 5.2 billion mobile phones and Carolyn Everson’s figure of 7.2 billion is a reminder that gathering global data involves some guesswork


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Excerpt(s) from Social Physics: How Good Ideas Spread—The Lessons from a New Science by Alex Pentland, copyright © 2014 by Alex Pentland. Used by permission of Penguin Press, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. The publisher is not responsible for websites (or their content) that are not owned by the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Zuboff, Shoshana, 1951- author. Title: The age of surveillance capitalism : the fight for a human future at the new frontier of power / Shoshana Zuboff. Description: First edition. | New York : PublicAffairs, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018003901 (print) | LCCN 2018039998 (ebook) | ISBN 9781610395700 (ebook) | ISBN 9781610395694 (hardcover) Subjects: LCSH: Consumer behavior—Data processing. | Consumer profiling—Data processing. | Information technology—Social aspects.

—Doc Searls, author of The Intention Economy, and editor-in-chief of Linux Journal “Shoshana Zuboff has produced the most provocative compelling moral framework thus far for understanding the new realities of our digital environment and its anti-democratic threats. From now on, all serious writings on the internet and society will have to take into account The Age of Surveillance Capitalism.” —Joseph Turow, Robert Lewis Shayon Professor of Communication, Annenberg School, University of Pennsylvania “In the future, if people still read books, they will view this as the classic study of how everything changed. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism is a masterpiece that stunningly reveals the essence of twenty-first-century society, and offers a dire warning about technology gone awry that we ignore at our peril. Shoshana Zuboff has somehow escaped from the fishbowl in which we all now live and introduced to us the concept of water.

Copyright Copyright © 2019 by Shoshana Zuboff Hachette Book Group supports the right to free expression and the value of copyright. The purpose of copyright is to encourage writers and artists to produce the creative works that enrich our culture. The scanning, uploading, and distribution of this book without permission is a theft of the author’s intellectual property. If you would like permission to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), please contact permissions@hbgusa.com. Thank you for your support of the author’s rights. PublicAffairs Hachette Book Group 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104 www.publicaffairsbooks.com @Public_Affairs First Edition: January 2019 Published by PublicAffairs, an imprint of Perseus Books, LLC, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group, Inc.


pages: 519 words: 142,646

Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum

active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking

The unnamed office that Ackerman worked in when the poem was written was, we may surmise, a product of what was once widely known as the “office of the future”—the name the business administration literature of the late 1970s and early 1980s had given to the nexus of information technology, scientific management theory, and labor practices that was supposed to maximize workplace productivity in the face of the ever-increasing amounts of data, text, and information swirling through a modern organization. And word processing was envisioned as its cornerstone. “The electronic text exists independently of space and time,” wrote Shoshana Zuboff of just such an office as Ackerman’s (and at about the same time). “[It] can infuse an entire organization, instead of being bundled into discrete objects, like books or pieces of paper.”17 Yet word processing itself originally entailed something rather different from what we know today. It was understood as something far more than just a passive verb: it would have connoted a full-fledged system or paradigm for automating the flow of textual production in the office of the future.

Closure thus comes with a touch of comic relief, the realization that the gaffer—the only individual not dressed in business attire and situated in the only locale that is not an office interior or an industrial site—is perhaps the figure we can all aspire to be with the aid of IBM.22 Cinematically, the sort of imagery one finds in the Henson film—close-ups of machines for sorting and stacking and typing and copying reams of paper—would become the stock visual signature of its era, much like the cascades of luminescent ones and zeroes that would follow a decade and a half later. There would have been no question for any member of the professional managerial class that they were then living in an information age. “Information,” declared one authority, “is the end product of paperwork.”23 This is what Shoshana Zuboff meant by what she termed “informatting,” the way in which information was capable of autonomously generating more information.24 And computerization notwithstanding, information was still largely made out of paper: “No data come out of the computer without having been somewhere, somehow, part of a paperwork operation,” as the same industry authority put it.25 Though the words are never spoken in the film, the solution to the paperwork explosion—the means to harness all that undirected energy—was of course word processing.

The colophon reads, “A book composed by hand in 10 point Garamond Bold, printed by the poet, me, on a Vandercook 219, at the New College Print Shop, sometime in June and July, wanting to finish.” (That last phrase an echo of the title.) There are no other overt references to word processing among the fifteen other poems in the book. The copy I consulted is in the Fales Library at New York University. 17. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988), 179–180. 18. Thomas Haigh, “Remembering the Office of the Future,” IEEE Computer Society 28, no. 4 (2006): 7. 19. Thomas J. Anderson and William R. Trotter, Word Processing (New York: Amacom, 1974), 5; emphasis in original. 20. George R. Simpson, quoted in ibid., 5. 21. Ibid., 1. 22. Walter A.


pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

In natural settings, it aspires to what a wilderness guide in some particular mountain range or swamp might call local ecological awareness. The senior product manager for Google Maps introduced the Ground Truth project by saying, “If you look at the offline world, the real world in which we live, that information is not entirely online.” This is a defect in reality. It represents darkness and inaccessibility, and these are bad. More cheerfully, it is a gap to be bridged. Because we can. As Shoshana Zuboff reports, “Ground Truth is the ‘deep map’ that contains the detailed ‘logic of places’: walking paths, goldfish ponds, highway on-ramps, traffic conditions, ferry lines, parks, campuses, neighborhoods, [the interiors of] buildings, and more. Getting these details right is a source of competitive advantage in the contest for behavioral surplus accrued from mobile devices.” We will parse Zuboff’s revelatory concept of behavioral surplus in the chapter “If Google Built Cars.”

“Location information can reveal some of the most intimate details of a person’s life—whether you’ve visited a psychiatrist, whether you went to an A.A. meeting, who you might date,” said Senator Ron Wyden, Democrat of Oregon . . . .3 Like many interested citizens, I have been reading analyses and critiques of Silicon Valley for the last twenty-five years, and even contributed a few of my own. But it was only upon reading Shoshana Zuboff’s masterwork The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, published in 2019, that the big picture came into view. What follows is heavily indebted to her work, both the details and the larger frame. Let’s start with the big picture of surveillance capitalism and some definitions, and work our way to the implications for internet-mediated mobility. Zuboff is emerita professor at Harvard Business School.

., 291 Whitfield, Randy, 87–89 Wiener, Earl, 101 Williams, Bernard, 119–120, 283 windows, tinted, 253 women female riders, 192–194 girl-power affirmation, 194 in kitchen restaurant culture, 194–195 overcomer complex, 197–198 working-class, 195–196 working class, 196 Works Progress Administration, 38 World Health Organization, 242 World War One aerial combats, 173–176 calvary, 174–175 Churchill, Winston, 174, 177 RAF fighter pilots, 177–178 Richthofen, Manfred von, 174–176 wrecking yard. See junkyards Wyden, Ron, 302 Yamaha, 164 yam-houses, 69 yard wealth, 68–71 Yellow Vest movement, 29–30, 224–226 Zients, Jeffrey, 4 Zuboff, Shoshana, 273–274, 302–303, 305–306, 309 Zündapp, 139–140 © Shutterstock / Dudarev Mikhail Also by Matthew B. Crawford SHOP CLASS AS SOULCRAFT THE WORLD BEYOND YOUR HEAD Copyright WHY WE DRIVE. Copyright © 2020 by Matthew B. Crawford. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. By payment of the required fees, you have been granted the nonexclusive, nontransferable right to access and read the text of this e-book on-screen.


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM CONTINUES TO DRIVE THE INTERNET Corporations want your data. The websites you visit are trying to figure out who you are and what you want, and they’re selling that information. The apps on your smartphone are collecting and selling your data. The social networking sites you frequent are either selling your data, or selling access to you based on your data. Harvard Business School professor Shoshana Zuboff calls this “surveillance capitalism,” and it’s the business model of the Internet. Companies build systems that spy on people in exchange for services. This surveillance is easy because computers do it naturally. Data is a by-product of computer processes. Everything we do that involves a computer creates a transaction record. This includes browsing the Internet, using—and even just carrying—a cell phone, making a purchase online or with a credit card, walking past a computerized sensor, or saying something in the same room as Amazon’s Alexa.

EVERYONE FAVORS INSECURITY 56The FBI wants you to have security: I’ll talk about this in Chapter 11, but here’s just one recent example: Cyrus Farivar (7 Mar 2018), “FBI again calls for magical solution to break into encrypted phones,” Ars Technica, https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2018/03/fbi-again-calls-for-magical-solution-to-break-into-encrypted-phones. 57“surveillance capitalism”: Shoshana Zuboff (17 Apr 2015), “Big other: Surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2594754. 57Companies are trying to figure out: Aaron Taube (24 Jan 2014), “Apple wants to use your heart rate and facial expressions to figure out what mood you’re in,” Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com/apples-mood-based-ad-targeting-patent-2014-1.

., “The Two Cultures,” 221 Snowden, Edward, 22, 103, 118, 163, 169 software: “Agile” development model of, 42–43 algorithms, see algorithms bugs in, 20–21 copyright of, 62 international, 197–98 licensing of, 130, 140 for offensive autonomous attack, 85 patching of, see patching pirated copies of, 37 and product liability, 129–32 quality standards of, 20–21, 34 restriction on availability of, 204–6 and robots, 86–87 vulnerabilities of, 20–22, 35, 83–84 “Waterfall” development model of, 42–43 Soltani, Ashkan, 149 Sony Pictures, hacking of, 54, 71, 78, 178 Spafford, Gene, 19 spam, 16, 84, 99–100, 154 Spectre, 21 spyware, 64–68 standard: mandatory, 145 use of term, 122 voluntary, 151 stingray, 168 stock market, flash crash of, 85 Stuxnet computer worm, 50, 71, 72, 79 supply-chain attacks, 87–89 surveillance: anonymity eliminated via, 53, 201 baby monitors, 133–35 and censorship, 67–68 and control, 62–63, 65–68 and espionage, 65–68 government, 64–68, 172, 195, 208 mass, 201–2 networked with smart devices, 4 by social media, 58–59, 169 ubiquitous, 201–2 by US law enforcement, 67, 173–76 surveillance capitalism, 57–59, 65, 209 Suskind, Ron, 93–94 Sutton, Willie, 74 Sweeney, Latanya, 222 Symantec, 74 Syrian Electronic Army, 69 Tailored Access Operations (TAO), 45 Target Corporation, 45 Tay chatbot, 84 TechCongress, 223 technical determinism, 218 technology: advances in, 90–91, 92, 201–2, 218–19 extrapolation of, 218 incentives to improve, 100–101 and policy, 217–25 speed of innovation in, 152 telephones: cell phone towers, 168–70 as computers, 3–4, 24 government collection of metadata on, 201 invention of, 152 iPhones, 42–43, 174, 197 networks of, 119 television, development of, 152 terms of service, 129 terrorism: and “movie-plot threats,” 96 risk of, 92–96 Thomlinson, Matt, 158 Three Mile Island, 29 Titan Rain, 66 tokens, authentication via, 46 Tor Project, 162, 198, 200 Toyota Prius, 63 toys, Internet-connected, 105–6 trade secrets, 111 transparency, 108, 110, 111–12, 135, 196 trust, 10, 81, 190, 207–10 Turkey, oil pipeline hacked in, 116 Turnbull, Malcolm, 222 Uber, hacking of, 125 Ulbricht, Ross, 52 Underwriters Laboratories, 136 UN Economic Commission for Europe, 187 unpeace, 71–74 UN Security Council, 214 updates, 36–37, 38, 196 US: likelihood of doing nothing, 181–84 mistrust of, 208 offense prioritized over defense in, 73 regulatory gap in, 187 US Cyber Command, 86, 162, 173, 178 user credentials, 199 username, authentication via, 45–46 VASTech, 65 voice recognition, 135 Volkswagen, 42, 127 voting machines, 220 vulnerabilities, 20–22 cost of, 126 in cyberweapons, 72, 74 disclosing and fixing, 162–67 discovered by researchers, 35–36, 41–43, 138 in interconnections, 28–30 markets for, 162 NOBUS (nobody but us), 164–65 patching of, 35–36, 38–40, 108–9 publication of, 35–36, 138 “responsible disclosure” of, 36 simultaneous, 94 types of, 30–32 vendors resistant to fixing, 35–36, 38, 41–42, 109 VEP (vulnerabilities equities process), 164–66 WannaCry malware, 37, 71 weapons: autonomous, 86 electromagnetic pulse, 93 weapons of mass destruction (WMD), 92–94, 158, 212 WhatsApp, 170, 195, 196, 197 Wildavsky, Aaron, Searching for Safety, 211 wiretapping, 131, 168, 170 World Anti-Doping Agency, 80 World Economic Forum, 211 Worldwide Threat Assessment, 70, 80–81, 89–90, 93 Wyndham Hotels, 151–52 Xi Jinping, 66 Yahoo, hacking of, 125 YouTube, 60 zero days, 162, 163, 165 Zerodium, 162 ZTE (Chinese company), 87 Zuboff, Shoshana, 57 ALSO BY BRUCE SCHNEIER Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World (2015) Carry On: Sound Advice from Schneier on Security (2013) Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust That Society Needs to Thrive (2012) Schneier on Security (2008) Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly about Security in an Uncertain World (2003) Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World (2000) Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C (1994 and 1996) ABOUT THE AUTHOR Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a security guru by the Economist.


In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff

affirmative action, American ideology, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, demand response, deskilling, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, fudge factor, future of work, industrial robot, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, job automation, lateral thinking, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, old-boy network, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Shoshana Zuboff, social web, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, zero-sum game

fi." t ve" o paa e IN THE AGE OF THE SMART MACHINE The Future of Work and Power SHOSHANA ZUBOFF BASIC BOOKS, INC., PUBLISHERS NEW YORK "Home" reprinted by permission; @ 1984 John Witte. Originally in The New Yorker. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Zuboff, Shoshana, 1 95 1- In the age of the smart machine. Includes index. 1. Automation-Economic aspects. 2. Automation-Social aspects. 3. Machinery in industry. 4. Organizational effectiveness. I. Title. HD45.2.Z83 1988 338'.06 87-47777 ISBN 0-465-03212-5 Copyright @ 1988 by Basic Books, Inc. Printed in the United States of America 88 89 90 91 HC 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 To Bob, Who hears the world's heart And has taught me much about how to listen. CONTENTS Preface xi AcknowledBments xvi i INTRODUCTION DILEMMAS OF TRANSFORMATION IN THE AGE OF THE SMART MACHINE 3 PART ONE KNOWLEDGE AND COMPUTER-MEDIA TED WORK 17 CHAPTER ONE THE LABORING BODY: SUFFERING AND SKILL IN PRODUCTION WORK 19 CHAPTER TWO THE ABSTRACTION OF INDUSTRIAL WORK 58 CHAPTER THREE THE WHITE-COLLAR BODY IN HISTORY 97 CHAPTER FOUR OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AS EXILE AND INTEGRATION 124 viii Contents CHAPTER FIVE MASTERING THE ELECTRONIC TEXT 174 PART TWO AUTHORITY: THE SPIRITUAL DIMENSION OF POWER 219 CHAPTER SIX WHAT WAS MAN AGERIAL AUTHORITY?

Alan Fox, IIManagerial Ideology and Labour Relations," British Journal of Industrial Relations 4, no. 3 (November 1966): 367. 28. Howell John Harris, The Right to Manage: Industrial Relations Policies of Ameri- can Business in the 1940s (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982), 97. 29. Ibid., 98. 30. Bendix, Work and Authority 323; see Fox, IIManagerial Ideology," 369; for a more extensive discussion of this point see Shoshana Zuboff, liThe Work Ethic and Work Organization," in Jack Barbash, ed., The Work Ethic: A Critical Analysis (Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983), 165-73. 31. Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Boston: Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1945), 120, 122. 32. Harris, Right to Manage, 102. 33. Bendix, Work and Authority 326-28. 34.

I borrow the term intricate from Gendlin's usage, as his formulation provides the general context within which these alterations in workplace relations are a salient example. See Eugene T. Gendlin, "A Philosophical Critique of the Concept of Narcissism: The Significance of the Awareness Movement," in D. M. Levin, ed., Pathologies of the Modern Sell Postmodern Studies (New York: New York University Press, 1987), 251-304. 10. For a more elaborate discussion of this view of traditional work organiza- tion, see Shoshana Zuboff, "I Am My Own Man: The Democratic Vision and Workplace Hierarchy," in Robert Schrank, ed., Industrial Democracy at Sea: Author- ity and Democracy on a Norwegian Freighter (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1983), 171-92. 11. In their analysis of ordinary language, Lakoff and Johnson define the func- tion of metaphor as "understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another." Because human thought processes are largely metaphorical, the use of metaphor in everyday language provides a window onto the conceptual sys- tem that people use to structure and interpret experience.


pages: 346 words: 97,330

Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1145/2872427.2883036. Yin, Ming, Siddharth Suri, and Mary L. Gray. “Running Out of Time: The Impact and Value of Flexibility in On-Demand Crowdwork.” In CHI ’18: Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1–11. New York: ACM, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1145/3173574.3174004. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Zyskowski, Kathryn, Meredith Ringel Morris, Jeffrey P. Bigham, Mary L. Gray, and Shaun K. Kane. “Accessible Crowdwork?: Understanding the Value in and Challenge of Microtask Employment for People with Disabilities,” In CSCW ’15: Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 1682–93.

“This drive to develop, produce, and market new products relies on the human ability to manage and solve analytical problems and communicate new information, so it keeps expert thinking and complex communication in strong demand.” See Frank Levy and Richard Murnane, The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004). [back] 42. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). [back] 43. Also called “piece-rate,” “putting-out,” British “cottage industries,” “industrial home work,” and the American “commission system.” See Albrecht, “Industrial Home Work,” 413–30. [back] 44. Lauren Weber, “Some of the World’s Largest Employers No Longer Sell Things, They Rent Workers,” Wall Street Journal, December 28, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/some-of-the-worlds-largest-employers-no-longer-sell-things-they-rent-workers-1514479580.


pages: 297 words: 83,651

The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Knopf: New York, 2010, p. 117; Bruce Sterling, The Epic Struggle of the Internet of Things, Strelka Press: Moscow, 2014, Kindle Loc. 32. 53. Every time we fill . . . Moshe Z. Marvit, ‘How Crowdworkers Became the Ghosts in the Digital Machine’, The Nation, 5 February 2014. 54. From the point of view of freedom, says Shoshana Zuboff . . . Shoshana Zuboff, ‘Big Other: surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilisation’, Journal of Information Technology, 2015, No. 30, pp. 75–89; Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, Profile Books, 2019. 55. Ludwig Börne . . . Quoted in Walter Benjamin, The Arcades Project, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA: 1999, p. 514. 56. Tristan Harris . . . Tristan Harris, ‘The Slot Machine in Your Pocket’, Der Spiegel, 27 July 2016. 57.

The social industry, by contrast, has gone much further, subjecting social life to an invariant written formula. This is about the industrialization of writing. It is about the code (the writing) which shapes how we use it, the data (another form of writing) which we generate in doing so, and the way in which that data is used to shape (write) us. III. We are swimming in writing. Our lives have become, in the words of Shoshana Zuboff, an ‘electronic text’.7 More and more of reality is being brought under the surveillance of the chip. While some platforms are about enabling industry to make its work processes more legible, more transparent and thus more manageable, data platforms like Google, Twitter and Facebook turn their attention to consumer markets. They intensify surveillance, rendering abruptly visible huge substrata of behaviour and wishes that had been occulted, and making price signals and market research look rather quaint by comparison.

We are even subtly assigned ‘microtasks’ without noticing. Every time we fill in a Captcha, where we are asked to transcribe some letters and numbers to ‘prove we are human’ and get access to our emails, we may be helping a commercial firm digitize an archive.53 In the emerging world, free labour is extracted from customers under the guise of ‘participation’ and ‘feedback’. From the point of view of freedom, says Shoshana Zuboff, this new ‘surveillance capitalism’ is worse than the panopticon.54 The panopticon teaches us to conform with dominant norms. But that sort of power at least acknowledges that we might not conform. In surveillance capitalism, by contrast, the mechanisms of observation and manipulation are designed without any assumption of psychological self-determination. Conformity disappears into the machinery, an order of stimulus–response, cause and effect.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

At the end of this intellectual itinerary, impressive on many grounds, one fundamental idea emerges: automation, which received its full meaning only with the deployment of information technology, increases dramatically the importance of human brain input into the work process.49 While automated machinery, and later computers, have indeed been used for transforming workers into second-order robots, as Braverman argued,50 this is not the corollary of technology, but of a social organization of labor that stalled (and still does) the full utilization of the productive capacity generated by the new technologies. As Harley Shaiken, Maryellen Kelley, Larry Hirschhorn, Shoshana Zuboff, Paul Osterman, and others have shown in their empirical work, the broader and deeper the diffusion of advanced information technology in factories and offices, the greater the need for an autonomous, educated worker able and willing to program and decide entire sequences of work.51 Notwithstanding the formidable obstacles of authoritarian management and exploitative capitalism, information technologies call for greater freedom for better-informed workers to deliver the full promise of their productivity potential.

. —— (2000b) “Old hierarchies or new networks of centrality: the global geography of the Internet content market”, submitted for a special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist. —— (2000c) “The role of regional venture capital in the development of the Internet commerce industry: the San Francisco Bay region and the New York Metropolitan area”, unpublished PhD dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California. Zuboff, Shoshana (1988) In the Age of the Smart Machine, New York: Basic Books. Zukin, Sharon (1992) Landscapes of Power, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Index Abbate, Janet Abegglen, J. C. Abeles, Ronald P. Abelson, Harold Abolaffia, Michael Y. Abrahamson, Jeffrey Acorda Adam, Barbara Adleman, Leonard Adler, David E. Adler, Gerald Adler, Glenn Adler, Paul S. Adobe advanced economies: automation; FDI; labor strategies; productivity; service employment Afghanistan War African countries age factors: employment; Internet use Agence de l’Informatique Aglietta, Michel agriculture Alarcon, Rafael Algerian War Allen, G.

Woodward, Kathleen work process; see also employment; labor workers: age; automation; autonomy; education; flex-time; involvement; management; see also skill levels working class working conditions working hours working life World Bank; economic crises; emerging markets; global economy; productivity; World Development Report World City Fair, Tokyo World Health Organization World War II world wide web Wozniak, Steve written communication WTO WuDunn, Sheryl Wyatt, Edward Wyman, Donald xenophobia Xerox, Palo Alto Yahoo! Yamada, J. Ybarra, Josep-Antoni Yeltsin, Boris Yergin, Daniel Yeung, Yue-man Yonekura, Seiichiro Yoo, S. Yoshihara, K. Yoshino, Kosaku Yoshino, M. Y. Young, K. Young, Michael YouTube zaibatsu Zaldivar, Carlos Alonso Zaloom, Caitlin Zapatistas Zerubavel, Eviatar Zhivov, Victor M. Zook, Matthew Zuboff, Shoshana Zukin, Sharon Zysman, John


pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, business cycle, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

See Ronald Inglehart, Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989); Inglehart, Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); and Daniel Yankelovich, "The Shifting Direction of America's Cultural Values," address to DYG's annual SCAN Conference, New York City, 29 May 1998. For another treatment of individualism's global reach, see Thomas M. Franck, The Empowered Self: Law and Society in the Age of Individualism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). [back] 12. "The Widening Rift between Corporations and Society," interview with James Maxmin and Shoshana Zuboff, Working Knowledge, 14 October 2002. See their discussion of individualism in Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin, The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2002), 93–117. [back] 13. Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1979). For an overview of the rise of the Christian right, see Steve Bruce, The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right: Conservative Protestant Politics in America 1978–1988 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).


pages: 134 words: 41,085

The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, universal basic income, Washington Consensus

Michel Foucault cited the Panopticon in Discipline and Punish (1975), when he worried about the “disciplinary society” that controls people more through invisible observation than through direct physical punishment. China’s use of facial recognition technology is designed to make a Panopticon out of the entire country. Is the West slipping into the same trap? Google and Facebook make their money by monitoring their customers, providing them with free and useful services but also raising the specter of what Shoshana Zuboff has called the “Age of Surveillance Capitalism.” The Western state is collecting ever more data on us, somewhat chaotically. Covid has given the state an excuse to create a surveillance society. Israel has even authorized Shin Bet, its domestic security force, to break into people’s mobile phones without their permission. The Panopticon may help keep us alive, but it is also bringing us closer to a future in which we are watched by our smartphones, filmed by cameras on every street corner, and obliged to scan bar codes when we get on the train.


pages: 462 words: 129,022

People, Power, and Profits: Progressive Capitalism for an Age of Discontent by Joseph E. Stiglitz

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, global supply chain, greed is good, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, late fees, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, two-sided market, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working-age population

Unfortunately, as the discussion below will illustrate, there are many uses of Big Data that disadvantage consumers as a whole, and especially informationally disadvantaged consumers. Some have referred to the market economy that is evolving using Big Data as surveillance capitalism. See, for instance, John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney, “Surveillance Capitalism,” Monthly Review, July 1, 2014; Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89; and Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2019). 17.“Perfect” price discrimination is the practice of trying to charge each consumer the maximum he is willing to pay for a good or service. In each market for a good or service, there are potential buyers—consumers—who would be willing to pay a range of prices for the same item, depending on their preferences and means.


pages: 511 words: 132,682

Competition Overdose: How Free Market Mythology Transformed Us From Citizen Kings to Market Servants by Maurice E. Stucke, Ariel Ezrachi

affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Chrome, greed is good, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, mortgage debt, Network effects, out of africa, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price anchoring, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ultimatum game, Vanguard fund, winner-take-all economy

While they were playing, Tiny Lab was surreptitiously harvesting the children’s personal data and sharing it with Google, Twitter, and several advertising companies.7 The way this game is designed and played—not Fun Kid Racing but the online advertising game—is that once an app or website user’s personal data has been harvested, the Gamemaker hosts an auction among the advertisers, who bid to see which one will get to target that person with an ad and promotion. In the advertising world, this is known as “behavioral advertising”—in which personal and behavioral data mined from online activities are used to match ads to the interests of the target audience. The Fun Kid Racing app’s marketing of its users’ data through the Google ecosystem is one small instance of the phenomenon Harvard Business School Professor Emerita Shoshana Zuboff has defined as “surveillance capitalism.” Surveillance capitalism “operates through unprecedented asymmetries in knowledge and the power that accrues to knowledge. Surveillance capitalists know everything about us, whereas their operations are designed to be unknowable to us. They accumulate vast domains of new knowledge from us, but not for us . . . for the sake of others’ gain, not ours.”8 By piecing together information gleaned from multiple sources, including the 2018 lawsuit brought by New Mexico’s attorney general against Tiny Lab, Google, and others,9 and recent reports from the United Kingdom,10 French,11 Australian,12 and German13 antitrust agencies, we can get a few glimpses of how this environment is designed by the likes of Google and Facebook.

Alyssa Newcomb, “Google Hit with FTC Complaint over ‘Inappropriate’ Kids Apps,” NBC News, December 19, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/google-hit-ftc-complaint-over-inappropriate-kids-apps-n949666; Google Play Developer Policy Center, “Families,” accessed April 30, 2019, https://play.google.com/about/families/. 5.Tiny Lab, “Tiny Lab Kids,” accessed April 30, 2019, https://www.tinylabkids.com. 6.Scott Goodson, “If You’re Not Paying for It, You Become the Product,” Forbes, March 5, 2012, https://www.forbes.com/sites/marketshare/2012/03/05/if-youre-not-paying-for-it-you-become-the-product. 7.NM AG Complaint ¶ 3. 8.Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), 11. 9.NM AG Complaint. 10.Unlocking Digital Competition: Report of the Digital Competition Expert Panel (London: March 2019), https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/785547/unlocking_digital_competition_furman_review_web.pdf (the “Furman Report”). 11.Autorité de la Concurrence, Opinion no. 18-A-03 of 6 March 2018 on Data Processing in the Online Advertising Sector, http://www.autoritedelaconcurrence.fr/doc/avis18a03_en_.pdf (“Autorité Report”). 12.Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC), Digital Platforms Inquiry: Preliminary Report (December 2018), https://www.accc.gov.au/focus-areas/inquiries/digital-platforms-inquiry/preliminary-report (“ACCC Preliminary Report”). 13.Bundeskartellamt, “Bundeskartellamt Prohibits Facebook from Combining User Data from Different Sources,” news release, February 7, 2019, https://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Meldung/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2019/07_02_2019_Facebook.html; Bundeskartellamt, “Preliminary Assessment in Facebook Proceeding: Facebook’s Collection and Use of Data from Third-Party Sources Is Abusive,” news release, December 19, 2017, https://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Meldung/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2017/19_12_2017_Facebook.html. 14.James B.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Only recently have we begun to view online platforms as meta-utilities, with the information layer feeding all other services, rapidly changing the way services are managed and delivered. Data, identity, and reputation are critical in the platform economy. Silicon Valley aspires to turn data into a new asset class—a commodity to be sold and traded in financial markets, with property regimes surrounding it. Shoshana Zuboff of Harvard Business School calls this new reality “surveillance capitalism.” We have to move from surveillance capitalism to a system that is able to socialize data—such as with new forms of cooperativism and democratic social innovation. Cities, for instance, should be able to run distributed common data infrastructure on their own, with systems that ensure the security, privacy, and sovereignty of citizens’ data.


pages: 268 words: 76,702

The System: Who Owns the Internet, and How It Owns Us by James Ball

Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, Chelsea Manning, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, packet switching, patent troll, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Crocker, Stuxnet, The Chicago School, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, yield management, zero day

aat=1&t=111&dnt=111 15https://www.eff.org/privacybadger 16https://www.eff.org/https-everywhere 17https://certbot.eff.org/ 18This is a pseudonym, but one Kidane uses in real life with his diaspora community too. 19https://uk.kantar.com/tech/social/2018/gen-z-is-the-generation-taking-a-stand-for-privacy-on-social-media/ 20Cohn notes this line of reasoning is central to Cory Doctorow’s online privacy themes in his young adult book, Little Brother. 21https://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org 22https://stats.wikimedia.org/v2/#/en.wikipedia.org 23https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics 24https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/2016-2017_Fundraising_Report 25https://www.vogue.co.uk/article/how-the-conduit-plans-to-change-the-world 26https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bomis 27https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_of_Wikipedia_in_Turkey 28https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LE15_Gender_overall_in_2018.png 29https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/10/how-wikipedia-is-hostile-to-women/411619/ 30https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05947-8 31As highlighted in a Twitter thread from Demos’s Carl Miller here: https://twitter.com/carljackmiller/status/1022055586471534592 32Zittrain is the author of The Future of the Internet – And How To Stop It, which is well worth a read. CONCLUSION 1https://www.populationpyramid.net/world/2018/ 2I was at first relatively sure I had coined this term myself, but a Google search throws up a few results, including this from Shoshana Zuboff (author of The Age of Surveillance Capitalism) article from 2014: https://www.shoshanazuboff.com/new/my-new-article-on-the-weapons-of-mass-detection/ 3http://www.cityam.com/273662/sainsburys-shares-crash-asda-merger-torpedoed 4https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-26266689 5https://www.theguardian.com/business/2012/jan/31/fred-goodwin-stripped-of-knighthood 6The idea that the internet is an essential service may still be contentious to some, but consider this: the idea would have been laughable a decade ago, but now in a country like the UK it is immensely difficult to access information on utility bills and payments, taxation, social housing lists, benefit information and applications, and more, without it.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

., ‘More than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux’s Size’, www.dwheeler.com, July 2002. Available from http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/ redhat71-v1/redhat71sloc.html Williams, Eliza, ‘The Future of TV?’, Creative Review, August 2006 Wright, Robert, Nonzero (Abacus, 2001) Zeldin, Theodore, Conversation (Harvill Press, 1998) Zittrain, Jonathan L., ‘The Generative Internet’, Harvard Law Review 119. 1974 (2006) Zuboff, Shoshana, and James Maxim, The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism (Allen Lane, 2002) Web addresses www.blizzard.com/inblizz/profile.shtml www.bookcrossing.com c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiHistory counter.li.org/ english.ohmynews.com/ www.fark.com www.ige.com www.plastic.com portal.eatonweb.com www.slashdot.org www.technorati.com/about www.worldofwarcraft.com INDEX 42 Entertainment 10, 11 A ABC 173 academia, academics 6, 27, 48, 59 Acquisti, Alessandro 210 Adam, James 95 adaptation 109, 110, 121 advertising 104, 105, 129, 173, 180, 219 Aegwynn US Alliance server 99 Afghanistan 237 Africa broadband connections 189 mobile phones 185, 207 science 196 use of Wikipedia 18 Aids 193, 206, 237 al-Qaeda 237 Alka-Seltzer 105 Allen, Paul 46 Altair BASIC 46 Amadeu, Sérgio 202 amateurism 105 Amazon 86 America Speaks 184 American Chemical Society 159 anarchy cultural 5 Wikipedia 16 Anderson, Chris: The Long Tail 216 Apache program 68 Apple 42, 103, 104, 135, 182 iPhone 134 iPods 46 Arendt, Hannah 174, 176 Argentina 203 Arrayo, Gloria 186 Arseblog 29, 30 Arsenal Football Club 29, 30 Arsenal.com 29 arXiv 160 Asia access to the web 5, 190 attitude to open-source 203 and democracy 189 mobile phones 166, 185 and open-source design communities 166–7 Ask a Ninja 57, 219 assembly line 93, 130 assets 224 astronomy 155, 162–3 authority 110, 115, 233 authorship and folk culture 57, 58 and mapping of the human genome 62 Azerbaijan 190 B bacteria, custom-made 164 Baker, Steve 148 Banco do Brazil 201 Bangladesh 205–6 banking 115, 205–6 Barber, Benjamin: Strong Democracy 174 Barbie, Klaus 17 Barbie dolls 17 Barefoot College 205 barefoot thinking 205–6 Barthes, Roland 45 Batchelor, Charles 95 Bath University 137 BBC 4, 17, 127, 142 news website 15 beach, public 49, 50, 51 Beach, The (think-tank) xi Bebo 34, 85, 86 Bedell, Geraldine x, xii–xiii Beekeepers 11, 15 Benkler, Yochai 174 The Wealth of Networks 194 Berger, Jorn 33 Bermuda principles 160 Billimoria, Jeroo 206 BioBrick Foundation 164 biology 163 open-source 165 synthetic 164–5 BioMedCentral 159 biotechnology 154, 163–4, 196–7, 199 black fever (visceral leishmaniasis) 200 Blackburn Rovers Football Club 29 Blades, Joan 188 Blizzard Entertainment 100 Bloc 8406 191 Blogger.com 33 blogs, blogging 1, 3, 20, 29–35, 57, 59, 74, 75, 78, 86, 115, 159, 170, 171, 176, 179, 181–2, 183, 191, 192, 214, 219, 229 BMW 140 Bohr, Neils 93 bookshops 2 Boulton, Matthew 54–5 Bowyer, Adrian 139, 140, 232 Boyd, Danah 213, 214 Bradley, Bill 180 Brand, Stewart 39–40, 43, 63 brands 104, 109 Brazil 201–2 Brenner, Sydney 62–5, 70, 77, 118, 231 Brief History of Time, A (Hawking) 163 Brindley, Lynne 141, 142, 144–5 British Library, London 141, 142, 144, 145 British Medical Journal 159 British National Party 169 Brooks, Fred 77–8 Brooks Hall, San Francisco 38 BT 112 bugs, software 70, 72, 165 bulletin boards 34, 40, 68, 77 Burma 190, 191 Bush, President George W. 18, 33–4, 180, 183 business services 130, 132, 166 C C. elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans) 62–5 Cambia 197 Cambridge University Press 159 camcorders 11 Campbell, Anne 176 Cancer Genome Atlas 160 capital 224 capitalism 224 commune 121, 125 managerial 24 modern 91, 121 social dimension of 90 Carlson, Rob 164 Carnegie Mellon University 210 cars manufacture 135–6 sharing 153 CBS 173 Center for Bits and Atoms, MIT 139 CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) 30–31, 159 Chan, Timothy 106, 107 chat rooms 165 Chavez, President Hugo 203 Cheney, Dick 180 Chevrolet 105 Chicago: Full Circle council project 184 China based on privileged access to information 236 creative and cultural sectors 129–30 hackers 234 Internet connection 190, 204 makes available genetic data 199 motor-cycle production 136–7 online games market 106 open-access scientific data 159–60 open-source designs 141 politics 171, 192 power struggle in 235 spending on R & D 96, 159 web censorship 190–91 Chinese Communist Party 171, 235 Chongquing, China 136 Cisco 190 Citibank 207 Citizendium 14 climate change 170, 239 Clinton, Bill 174, 188 Clinton, Senator Hillary 181, 182, 183 CNN 15 co-operatives 121, 122, 123, 188 co-ordination 109, 110–11 coffee houses, London 95 Coke 109–10, 239 Cold War 169, 235 Coles, Polly xiii collaboration 9, 22, 31, 32, 36, 67, 79–80, 81, 82 collaborative innovation 65, 70, 75 and commerce 227 computer game 99, 100 Cornish tin-mining 55 and healthcare 150 and the library of the future 145 new technologies for 227–8 open 126, 128 peer 239 public services 145, 146, 152, 153 scientific 154, 155–6 We-Think 21, 23, 24, 146 Collis, Charles 134 Columbia University 212 commerce 25, 38, 48, 52, 57, 98, 227 commons 49, 50, 51–3, 79, 80, 124, 191, 226 communes 39–40, 46, 90, 121, 122, 128 communication(s) 130, 168, 174, 206, 239 mobile 186 Communism, collapse of 6 communities collaborative 117 and commerce 48 and commons 52 conversational 63 Cornish tin-mining 55 creative 70, 95 diverse 79–80 egalitarian 27, 48, 59, 63, 64 hacker 232 healthcare 151, 152 independence of 23 of innovation 54 libertarian, voluntaristic 45 Linux 65, 227 and loss of market for local newspapers 3 meritocratic 63 open-source 45, 68, 75, 80, 83, 95–6, 102, 109, 110, 111 open-source design 166–7 of scientists 53, 228 self-governing 59, 79, 80, 97, 104, 232 sharing and developing ideas 25 web 21, 23 worm-genome researchers 62–5 community councils 77, 80, 82 Community Memory project 42–3 companies computer-games 128 employee-owned 121, 122 shareholder-owned 122, 123, 125 see also corporations; organisations computer games 60, 127, 218 children and 147 created by groups on the web 7, 23, 87 modularity 78 multi-player 7, 204 success of World of Warcraft 98–9 tools for creating content 74 and We-Think 23 computer-aided design 134 computers democratising how information is accessed 139 distrust of 39 Goa School Computers Project 200–201 laptop 5, 36, 82, 155 mini- 135 personal 39, 46, 203 punch-cards 38 and science 154, 155 viruses 3, 4 connect 67, 75–9 Connectiva 201 consumer spending 131 consumers 98–108 consumer innovators 101–3 consumption constraints 25–6 engaging 89 fans 103–4 freedom 218 and innovation risk 100–101 participant 98–108 urban 124 contribute 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74–5 conversation 53, 54, 63, 69, 77, 93, 95, 113, 118, 174 Copernicus, Nicolaus 162 copyright 124, 157, 196 core 66, 67, 68–9, 70 Cornell University 233 ‘Cornish’ engines 55–6, 136, 229 Cornish tin-mining industry 54–6, 63, 125, 136 corporations centralisation of power 110 closed 128 and collaborative approaches to work 109 the cost of corporate efficiency 89–90 difficulty in making money from the web 7 hierarchies 88, 110 industrial-era 88 leadership 115, 117–19 loss of stability 122 restructuring and downsizing 88–9 see also companies; organisations counter-culture (1960s) 6, 27, 39, 45, 46, 59 Counts, David 183 Craigslist 3, 40, 118, 128, 218 Creative Commons 124 creative sector 129–30 creativity 1–2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 67, 82–3 collaborative 7, 20, 58, 86, 154 collective 39, 57–8 consumers 89 corporate 91–2 emergence of 93, 96 enabled by the web 1–2, 3, 5, 19, 26, 218–21, 222, 227 freedom to create 218–21 and interaction 119 and open innovation 93 origin of 112–13 social 5, 7, 58, 59, 82, 83, 86 tools for 218, 219 Crick, Francis 52, 62, 76 crime 153, 169, 183 criminality 1, 3 crowds 23, 61, 70, 72, 77 Crowdspirit 134 cultural élite 2 cultural sector 129–30 culture academic 38 anti-industrial 27, 28 basis of 4 collaborative 135 consumerist 172 corrosion of 4 cultural anarchy 5 folk 6, 27, 56–9, 220, 226 hippie 38 individual participation 6 political 171 popular 102 post-industrial 27, 28 pre-industrial 27, 28 We-Think 28, 59, 62, 169, 194, 230, 232–3, 238 Web 2.0 45 web-inflected 27 Western 239 wiki 14 work 114 YouTube cultural revolution 3 Cunningham, Ward 35–6 cyber cafés 107, 190, 192, 201, 204 Cyworld 34, 85, 86 D Dali, Salvador 105 Darby, Newman 102 Darpa 164 David, Paul 53 de Soto, Hernando 224–5 The Mystery of Capital 224 de Vellis, Phil 182 Dean, Howard 176–7, 178, 180, 185 Dean Corps 177 Debian 66 Debord, Guy 45, 46 decentralisation 7, 13, 39, 46, 59, 78, 226, 232 decision-making 78, 82, 84, 115, 173, 174 del.i.cious 86 democracy 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 16, 24, 170–74, 175, 176–92 basis of 174 conversational democracy at a national level 184 ‘craftsmen of democracy’ 174 Dean campaign 178 democratic advances 184 depends on public sovereignty 172 formal 195 geek 65 Homebrew 176 public debate 170, 171 and We-Think 170, 221, 239 Department for International Development (DFID) 207 Descartes, René 19–20 design 166 modular 136–7 open-source 133–5, 140, 141, 162–3, 166–7 developing world Fab Labs in 166 government attitudes to the Internet 190 impact of the web on 166 mobile phones 185–6 and open-access publishing 166 and open-source design communities 166–7 and open-source software 200–203 research and development 196 and We-Think’s style of organisation 204 diabetes 150 Digg 33 discussion forums 77 diversity 9, 23, 72, 76, 77, 79–80, 112, 121 division of labour 111 DNA description of the double helix (Watson and Crick) 52, 62, 76 DNA-sequencing 164–5 Dobson, John 102, 162–3 Doritos 105 dot.com boom 106 Dupral 68 Dyson (household-goods company) 134 Dyson, Freeman 163, 164 E E-Lagda.com 186 Eaton, Brigitte 33 Eatonweb 33 eBay 40, 44, 102, 128, 152, 165, 216–18, 221, 229, 235 Ebola virus 165 Eccles, Nigel xi economies of scale 137 economy digital 124, 131, 216 gift 91, 226 global 192 global knowledge 239 of ideas 6 individual participation 6 industrial 122 market 91, 221 a mass innovation economy 7 networked 227 of things 6 UK 129, 130 and We-Think 129 Edison, Thomas 72, 93, 95 EditMe 36 education 130, 146–50, 167, 183, 194, 239 among the poorest people in the world 2, 193 civic 174 a more convivial system 44 Edwards, John 181 efficiency 109, 110 Einstein, Albert: theory of relativity 52 elderly, care of 170 Electronic Arts 105, 106, 128, 177 Electronic Frontier Foundation 40 electronics 93, 135 Eli Lilly (drugs company) 77 Ellis, Mark: The Coffee House: a social history 95 enclosures 124 Encyclopaedia Britannica, The 15–18, 126 encyclopaedias 1, 4, 7, 12–19, 21, 23, 36, 53, 60, 61, 79, 161, 231 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) 161, 226 Endy, Drew 164, 165 energy 166, 232, 238 Engelbart, Doug 38–9, 59 engineering 133, 166 Environmental Protection Agency 152 epic poems 58, 60 equality 2, 24, 192–7, 198, 199–208 eScholarship repository, University of California 160 Estonia 184, 234 Estrada, President Joseph 186 ETA (Basque terrorist group) 187 European Union (EU) 130 Evans, Lilly x Evolt 68, 108 F Fab Labs 139, 166, 232 fabricators 139 Facebook 2, 34–5, 53, 142, 152, 191, 193, 210 factories 7, 8, 24 families, and education 147 Fanton, Jonathan 161 Fark 33 Feinstein, Diane 176 Felsenstein, Lee 42, 43, 44 fertilisers 123 Field Museum of Natural History, Harvard University 161 file-sharing 51, 58, 135, 144, 233 film 2, 3, 4, 47, 86, 129, 216, 218, 220–21 film industry 56 filters, collaborative 36, 86 financial services 130, 132 Financial Times 118 First International Computer (FIC), Inc. 136, 141 flash mobbing 10, 11 Flickr 34, 85, 86, 210, 218–19 Food and Drug Administration (US) 92 Ford, Henry 24, 93, 96 Fortune 500 company list 122 Frank, Ze (Hosea Jan Frank) 57, 219 freedom 1, 2, 6, 24, 208, 209, 210–21, 226 French, Gordon 41, 42 friendly societies 188 Friends Reunited 34 friendship 5, 233 combinatorial 95 Friendster 34, 35 fundamentalists 232 G Gaia Online 35 Galileo Galilei 154 gambling 169 GarageBand software 57, 135, 148 Gates, Bill 46, 47, 51, 227 Gates Foundation 160 geeks 27, 29–36, 37, 38, 48, 59, 65, 179 gene-sequencing machines, automated 64 genetic engineering 164, 196–7, 235 Georgia: ’colour revolution’ 187 Gershenfeld, Neil 139–40, 166, 232 GetFrank 108 Ghana, Fab Lab in 139 Gil, Gilberto 202 Gjertsen, Lasse 56, 218 Gland Pharma 200 global warming 238 globalisation 202, 228, 239 Gloriad 155 GM 135 Goa School Computers Project 200–201 Goffman, Erving 103–4 Goldcorp Inc. 132–3, 153 Golden Toad 40 GoLoco scheme 153 Google x, 1, 29, 32, 33, 47, 66, 97, 104, 113–14, 128, 141, 142, 144, 212 Google Earth 161 Gore, Al 64 governments in developing countries 190 difficulty in controlling the web 7 GPS systems 11 Grameen Bank 205–6, 208 ‘grey’ sciences 163 grid computing 155 Gross, Ralph 210 group-think 23, 210–11 groups 230–31 of clever people with the same outlook and skills 72 decision-making 78 diverse 72, 80, 231 and tools 76–7 Guthrie, Woody 58 H Habermas, Jurgen 174 hackers 48, 74, 104, 140, 232, 234 Hale, Victoria 199 Halo 2 science fiction computer game 8 Hamilton, Alexander 17–18 Hampton, Keith 183–4 Hanson, Matt xi health 130, 132, 146, 150–52, 167, 183, 239 Heisenberg, Werner 93 Henry, Thierry 29 Hewlett Packard 47 hierarchies 88, 110, 115 hippies 27, 48, 59, 61 HIV 193 Homebrew Computer Club 42, 46–7, 51, 227 Homebrew Mobile Phone Club 136 Homer Iliad 58 Odyssey 58 Homer-Dixon, Thomas: The Upside of Down 238–9 Hubble, Edwin 162 Human Genome Project 62, 64, 78, 155, 160, 161, 226 human rights 206 Hurricane Katrina 184 Hyde, Lewis: The Gift 226 hypertext 35, 39 I I Love Bees game 8, 10–12, 15–16, 19, 20, 69, 231 IBM 47, 66, 97 System/360 computer 77 idea-sharing 37, 94, 237, 239 as the biggest change the web will bring about 6 with colleagues 27 and consumer innovators 103 dual character of 226 gamers 106 Laboratory of Molecular Biology 63 through websites and bulletin boards 68 tools 222 We-Think-style approach to 97 and the web’s underlying culture 7 ideas combining 77 and creative thinking 87 from creative conversations 93, 95 gifts of 226 growth of 222, 239 and the new breed of leaders 117–18 ratifying 84 separating good from bad 84, 86 testing 74 the web’s growing domination 1 identity sense of 229 thieves 213–14 Illich, Ivan 43–5, 48 Deschooling Society 43, 44, 150 Disabling Professions 43 The Limits to Medicine 43, 152 Tools for Conviviality 44 independence 9, 72, 231 India Barefoot College 205 creative and cultural sectors 129–30 Fab Lab in 139 Internet connection 190, 204 mobile phones 207 and One World Health 200 spending on R & D 96 telephone service for street children 206 individuality 210, 211, 215, 216, 233 industrialisation 48, 150, 188 information barriers falling fast 2 computers democratise how it is accessed 139 effect of We-Think 129 large quantities on the web 31–2 libraries 141, 142, 143, 145 looking for 8 privileged access to 236 sharing 94, 136 the web’s growing domination 1 Wikipedia 19 Innocentive 77 innovation 5, 6, 91–3, 94, 95–8, 109 among the poorest people in the world 2 biological 194 collaborative 65, 70, 75, 90, 119, 146, 195 collective 170, 238 and competition/co-operation mix 137 Cornish mine engines 54–6 corporate 89, 109, 110 and creative conversations 93, 95 creative interaction with customers 113 cumulative 125, 238 decentralised 78 and distributed testing 74 and diverse thinking 79 and education 147 independent but interconnected 78 and interaction 119 and Linux 66 local 139 a mass innovation economy 7 medical 194 open 93, 96–7, 125, 195 in open-source communities 95–6 and patents 124 pipeline model 92, 93, 97 R & D 92, 96 risks of 100–101 social 170, 238 successful 69 user-driven 101 and We-Think 89, 93, 95, 125, 126 the web 2, 5, 7, 225 Institute for One World Health 199–200 Institute for Politics, Democracy & the Internet (IPDI) 179 Institute of Fiscal Studies 131 institutions convivial 44 industrial-era 234 and knowledge 103 and professionals 3, 5 public 142, 145 Instructables site 134 Intel 97 intellectual property 75, 122, 124, 125, 234 law 124–5 intelligence, collective bloggers 33 getting the mix right 23 Google’s search system 32 I Love Bees and Wikipedia examples 8, 10–19 milked by Google 47 the need to collaborate 32 self-organisation of 8 and social-networking sites 35 the web’s potential 3, 5 International Polar Year (IPY) 156, 226 Internet broadband connection 178, 189, 192 combined with personal computers (mid-1990s) 39 cyber cafés 107, 190, 192, 201, 204 Dean campaign 177 in developing countries 190 draws young people into politics 179, 180 an early demonstration (1968) 38 and Linux 66 news source 178–9 open-source software 68 openness 233 and political funding 180 pro-am astronomers 163 used by groups with a grievance 168 in Vietnam 189–90, 191 investment 119, 121, 133, 135 Iran 190, 191 Iraq war 18, 134, 191 Israel 18 Ito, Joi 99 J Japan politics 171 technology 171 JBoss 68 Jefferson, Richard 197, 199 Jodrell Bank Observatory, Macclesfield, Cheshire 162 JotSpot 36 journalism 3, 74, 115, 170–71 Junker, Margrethe 206 K Kampala, Uganda 206 Kazaa music file-sharing system 144 Keen, Andrew 208 The Cult of the Amateur 208 Kelly, Kevin 211 Kennedy, John F. 176 Kenya 207 Kepler, Johannes 162 Kerry, John 180 Khun, Thomas 69 knowledge access to 194, 196 agricultural 194 barriers falling fast 2 collaborative approach to 14, 69 encyclopaedia 79 expanding 94 gifts of 226 individual donation of 25 and institutions 103 and networking 193 and pro-ams 103 professional, authoritative sources of 222 sharing 27, 44, 63, 70, 199 spread by the web 2, 3 Wikipedia 16, 18, 19, 195 Korean War 203 Kotecki, James (’EmergencyCheese’) 182 Kraus, Joe 36 Kravitz, Ben 13 Kuresi, John 95 Kyrgyzstan: ’colour revolution’ 187 L Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge 62–3, 77 labour movement 188 language 52–3 Lanier, Jaron 16, 210–11, 213 laptop computers 5, 36, 82, 155 lateral thinking 113 leadership 89, 115, 116, 117–19 Lean, Joel 55 Lean’s Engine Reporter 55, 63, 77 Lee, Tim Berners 30–31 Lego: Mindstorms products 97, 104, 140 Lewandowska, Marysia 220, 221 libraries 2, 141–2, 143, 144–5, 227 life-insurance industry (US) 123 limited liability 121 Linked.In 35 Linux 65–6, 68, 70, 74, 80, 85, 86, 97, 98, 126, 127, 128, 136, 201, 203, 227 Lipson Community College, Plymouth 148 literacy 194 media 236 Lloyd, Edward 95 SMS messaging (texting)"/>London coffee houses 95 terrorist bombings (July 2005) 17 Lott, Trent 181–2 Lula da Silva, President Luiz Inacio 201 M M-PESA 207, 208 MacArthur Foundation 161 McCain, John 180 MacDonald’s 239 McGonigal, Jane 11, 69 McHenry, Robert 17 McKewan, Rob 132–3, 153 McLuhan, Marshall: Understanding the Media 45 Madrid bombings (March 2004) 186–7 Make magazine 165 management authoritative style of 117 and creative conversation 118 hierarchies 110 manufacturing 130, 132, 133–7, 138, 139–41, 166, 232 niche 139 Marcuse, Herbert 43 Marin 101 Mark, Paul xi market research 101 market(s) 77, 90, 93, 102, 123, 216, 226–7 Marsburg virus 165 Marx, Karl 224 mass production 7, 8, 24, 56, 96, 227, 232, 238 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 139, 164, 233 Matsushita 135 media 129, 130, 156, 172, 173, 182, 211 literacy 236 Meetup 179, 185 Menlo Park laboratory, New Jersey 95 Merholz, Peter 33 meritocracy 16, 63 Microsoft 46, 47, 51, 56, 75, 109–10, 126, 127, 144, 202, 203, 204, 239 Office 201 Windows 200 Windows XP 66 Middle East 170, 189, 190, 192 Milovich, Dimitry 102 ‘minihompy’ (mini homepage) 204 Minnesota Mining and Materials 121 mobile phones 5 in Africa 185, 207 in Asia 166, 185 camera phones 74, 115, 210 children and 147 in developing-world markets 207–8 with digital cameras 36 flash mobs 10 I Love Bees 11 in India 207 open-source 136, 203 politics 185–9 SMS messaging (texting) 101–2, 185, 187, 214, 215 mobs 23, 61 flash 10, 11 modularity 77, 84 Moore, Fred 41–2, 43, 46, 47, 59, 227 More, Thomas: Utopia 208 Morris, Dick 174 Morris, Robert Tappan 233 Mosaic 33 motivation 109–12, 148 Mount Wilson Observatory, California 162 mountain bikes 101 MoveOn 188–9 Mowbray, Miranda xi music 1, 3, 4, 47, 51, 52, 57, 102, 135, 144, 218, 219, 221 publishing 130 social networking test 212–13 mutual societies 90, 121 MySpace 34, 44, 57, 85, 86, 152, 187, 193, 214, 219 MySQL 68 N National Football League (US) 105 National Health Service (NHS) 150, 151 National Public Radio (NPR) 188 Natural History Museum, London 161 Nature magazine 17 NBC 173 neo-Nazis 168 Netflix 216, 218 Netherlands 238 networking by geeks 27 post-industrial networks 27 social 2–7, 20, 23, 34–5, 36, 53, 57, 86, 95, 147, 149, 153, 159, 171, 183–4, 187, 193, 208, 210, 212, 213–15, 230, 233 New Economy 40 New Orleans 184 New York Magazine 214 New York Review of Books 164 New York Stock Exchange 95 New York Times 15, 182, 191 New Yorker magazine 149 Newmark, Craig 118 news services 60, 61, 171, 173, 178–9 newspapers 2, 3, 30, 32, 34, 171, 172, 173 Newton, Sir Isaac 25, 154 niche markets 216 Nixon, Richard 176 NLS (Online System) 39 Nokia 97, 104, 119, 140 non-profits 123 Nooteboom, Bart 74 Noronha, Alwyn 200–201 Norris, Pippa 189 North Africa, and democracy 189 Nosamo 35, 186 Noyes, Dorothy 58 Nupedia 13, 14 Nussbaum, Emily 214–15 O Obama, Barack 181, 191 Ofcom (Office of Communications) 31 OhmyNews 34, 87, 204, 231 oil companies 115 Oldenburg, Henry 25, 53–4, 156 Ollila, Jorma 119 Online System (NLS) 39 Open Architecture Network (OAN) 133–4 Open Net Initiative 190 Open Office programme 201 Open Prosthetics 134 Open Source Foundation 97 OpenMoko project 136 OpenWiki 36 O’Reilly, Tim 31 organisation commons as a system of organisation 51 pre-industrial ideas of 27, 48 social 20, 64, 165 We-Think’s organisational recipe 21 collaboration 21, 23 participation 21, 23 recognition 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 196 organisations civic 189 open/collaborative vs. closed/hierarchical models 89, 126, 127, 128 public 152 successful 228 see also companies; corporations Orwell, George: 1984 182 Ostrom, Elinor 51–2, 80 ownership 6, 119, 120, 121–6, 127, 128, 225 Oxford University 234 P paedophiles 3, 168, 213–14 Page, Scott xi, 72 Pakistan 237 Palace of Fine Arts, San Francisco 40 parallel universes 7 participation 23, 216, 223, 230, 232 consumers 98, 100 public services 145, 146, 150, 152, 153 a We-Think ingredient 21, 24 Partido Populaire (PP) (Spain) 187 patents 55, 56, 92, 97, 102, 124, 154, 196, 197, 199 Paul, Ron 185 Pawson, Dave x–xi Pax, Salam 57 peasants 27, 48, 59 peer recognition 54, 106, 111, 156, 228–9 peer review 53, 54, 156, 165, 236 peer-to-peer activity 53–4, 135, 148, 151 People’s Computer Company 41 People’s Democratic Party (Vietnam) 191 performance art/artists 2, 10 performance management 110 Perl 68 Peruvian Congress 202 Pew Internet & American Life 31, 179 pharmaceutical industry 92–3, 195–6, 197, 199, 200 Phelps, Edmund 114–15, 220 Philippines: mobile phones 185–6 Philips, Weston 105 photographs, sharing of 34, 75, 86, 218–19 Pitas.com 33 Plastic 33 Playahead 35 podcasts 142 Poland 220–21 polar research 156 politics bloggers able to act as public watchdog 181–2, 183 decline in political engagement 171–2 democratic 173 donations 179 funding 180–81 and journalism 170–71 and mobile phones 185–9 online 183 the online political class 179 and online social networks 35, 86 political advocates of the web 173–4 racist groups on the web 169 and television 173, 183 ultra-local 183, 184 US presidential elections 173, 179 videos 182 the web enters mainstream politics 176 young people drawn into politics by the Internet 179 Popper, Karl 155 Popular Science magazine 102 pornography 169, 214 Post-it notes 121 Potter, Seb 108–9 Powell, Debbie ix power and networking 193 technological 236 of the We-Think culture 230 of the web 24–5, 185, 233 PowerPoint presentations 140, 142, 219 privacy 210, 211 private property 224, 225 Procter and Gamble (P & G) 96–7, 98 productivity 112, 119, 121, 151, 227, 232 agricultural 124 professionals, and institutions 3, 5 property rights 224 public administration 130 Public Broadcasting Service 188 Public Intellectual Property Research for Agriculture initiative 199 Public Library of Science 159 public services 132, 141–2, 143, 144–53, 183 public spending 146 publishing 130, 166 science 156–7, 159–60 Putnam, Robert 173, 184 Python 68 Q quantum mechanics 93 ‘quick-web’ 35 R racism 169, 181–2 radio 173, 176 RapRep (Rapid Replicator) machines 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 232 Rawls, John: A Theory of Justice 194 Raymond, Eric 64 recognition 21, 223 peer 54, 106, 111, 156 record industry 56, 102 recycling 111 Red Hat 66, 227 Red Lake, Ontario 132, 133 research 166 market 101 pharmaceutical 195–6 research and development (R & D) 92, 96, 119, 196 scientific 154–7, 159–65 retailing 130, 132 Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 201 Roh Moo-hyun, President of South Korea 35, 186 Roosevelt, Franklin 176 Roy, Bunker 205 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey 161 Royal Society 54 Philosophical Transactions 25, 156 Ryze.com 34 S Sacca, Chris 113, 114 Safaricom 207 St Louis world fair (1904) 75–6 Samsung xi, 203 Sanger, Larry 13, 14, 16 Sanger Centre, Cambridge 155 Sao Paolo, Brazil 201 SARS virus 165 Sass, Larry 139 satellite phones 11 Saudi Arabia 190 scanners 11 Schumacher, E.


pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Chapter Seven LIBERTY AND PRIVACY 1. “Does China’s Digital Police State Have Echoes in the West?,” The Economist, May 31, 2018, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/05/31/does-chinas-digital-police-state-have-echoes-in-the-west. 2. “More Data and Surveillance Are Transforming Justice Systems,” The Economist,, June 2, 2018, https://www.economist.com/technology-quarterly/2018-05-02/justice. 3. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), 282–290. 4. Surveillance-Video, product catalog, https://www.surveillance-video.com/license-plate-cameras/ (accessed June 27, 2019). 5. Will Oremus, “Forget Security Cameras. Stores Are Using Face Recognition to See If You’re a Shoplifter,” Slate, November 24, 2015, http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2015/11/24/stores_are_using_face_recognition_to_catch_shoplifters.html (accessed June 27, 2019). 6.


pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

Will Oremus has written about Amazon as a surveillance company, with products like Ring and Echo, in the Medium publication OneZero (“Amazon Is Watching,” June 27, 2019). Goodreads and Twitch, the livestreaming video platform, are Amazon subsidiaries, but their social media operations are small in comparison to services like cloud computing, logistics, and retail. A good explanation of the difference between users and customers can be found in “The Discovery of Behavioral Surplus,” in Shoshana Zuboff’s The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (Public Affairs, 2019): “There is no economic exchange, no price, and no profit. Nor do users function in the role of workers … Users are not paid for their labor, nor do they operate the means of production.” 1. SEARCH In 2015, Google restructured itself and renamed its holding company “Alphabet,” but no one seems to actually call it that other than its shareholders.


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Difference as a Resource for Democratic Communication. In Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics, ed. James Bohman and William Rehg, 383–406. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Yunus, M. 2001. Microcredit and IT for the Poor. New Perspectives Quarterly 18 (1): 25–26. Zimmerman, Andrew D. 1995. Toward a More Democratic Ethic of Technological Governance. Science, Technology & Human Values 20:86–107. Zuboff, Shoshana. 1989. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Index Academia, 33 Addams, Jane, 105 Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 158–159 African Americans earnings, 70 education, 57–58, 67 poverty, 61 unemployment, 58, 69 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 85–86, 97 Allen, Dorothy, 42, 45, 91, 97, 134, 136 American Graduation Initiative, 153 ARISE (A Regional Initiative Supporting Empowerment), 168 Autonomous Technology, 83 Banta, Martha, 74 Barney, Darrin, 36 Basel hazardous waste ban, 169 Beat the System: Surviving Welfare, 119–125, 215 Benner, Chris, 61 Bernhardt, Annette, 162–163 Borda, Orlando Fals, 106 Bush (George W.) administration, 36 Call centers, 72–73 Campbell, Nancy D., 13, 145, 149–150 Campus architecture, 83–84 Capital Region, 158–159 Caregiving, 65, 75–77, 160–163 Caseworkers, 94–95 Child care, 160–162 Citizenship conceptions of, 30 as contract, 25 and IT, 29–31, 89 and political learning, 85–86 and popular technology, 96–98, 104, 125–127, 131–132, 136 Clinton, Bill, 35 Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace, 84 Cognitive justice, 147–148, 151–152, 163 Collar Laundry Union, 50 Collective process, 18–19 Collingwood, Harris, 53–55 Colorful cards, 133 Community Asset Bank (CAB), 120, 215 Community benefits agreements (CBAs), 167 Community building, 144–146 Community Technology Center Program, 166 Community technology centers (CTCs), 165–166 Community Technology Laboratory, 109–114, 215 260 Index Composite stories, 120, 123, 125 Confidentiality, 92–93 Consensus conferences, 163–164 DuBois, W.


pages: 268 words: 109,447

The Cultural Logic of Computation by David Golumbia

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, American ideology, Benoit Mandelbrot, borderless world, business process, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, future of work, Google Earth, Howard Zinn, IBM and the Holocaust, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Wright, Ronald. 2005. A Short History of Progress. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. Ziff, Paul. 1961. Semantic Analysis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Zittrain, Jonathan. 2008. The Future of the Internet—and How to Stop It. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Žižek, Slavoj. 1997. “Cyberspace, Or, The Unbearable Closure of Being.” In The Plague of Fantasies. New York: Verso, 127–167. Zuboff, Shoshana. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Zuse, Konrad. 1993. The Computer—My Life. New York: Springer-Verlag. Acknowledgments he friendship and support of Suzanne Daly, Shaun Fletcher, Sonali Perera, Elliott Trice, Chandan Reddy, Jen Leibhart, Lisa Henderson, Peter Mahnke, and Jodi Melamed were indispensible for writing this book; so was the inspiration offered by many people in the English Department at the University of Pennsylvania, especially James F.


Mindf*ck: Cambridge Analytica and the Plot to Break America by Christopher Wylie

4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, chief data officer, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, computer vision, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Etonian, first-past-the-post, Google Earth, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Keith Martin PC (for nurturing my independent spirit); Jeff Silvester (for mentoring my younger self, despite everything that happened later); Tom Brookes (for your support throughout); David Carroll and Paul-Olivier Dehaye (for your persistence in defending our data rights); Dr. Emma Briant (for uncovering critical evidence); Harry Davies, Ann Marlowe, and Wendy Siegelman (for your early investigative work); my former academic supervisor Dr. Carolyn Mair (for reviewing this book and teaching me so much about psychology, data, and culture); and Professor Shoshana Zuboff (whose work on surveillance capitalism helped me refine so many ideas). Perhaps most important, I want to recognize the hundreds of thousands of people who shared this story, called their representatives, marched in protests, held up placards, and sent me encouraging messages—there are so many people I have never even met who have passionately had my back throughout this journey. THIS BOOK And last, I would like to thank my two brilliant book collaborators, Lisa Dickey and Gareth Cook; my editor at Random House, Mark Warren; my literary agents at William Morris Endeavor, Jay Mandel and Jennifer Rudolph Walsh; Kelsey Kudak for fact-checking this book; and my entertainment lawyer, Jared Bloch.


pages: 350 words: 110,764

The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries by Kathi Weeks

basic income, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deskilling, feminist movement, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, late capitalism, low-wage service sector, means of production, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, pink-collar, post-work, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Shoshana Zuboff, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, universal basic income, wages for housework, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

.: Dover. Young, Iris. 1981. “Beyond the Unhappy Marriage: A Critique of Dual Systems Theory.” In Women and Revolution, edited by Lydia Sargent, 43–69. Boston: South End. Zerilli, Linda. 2005. Feminism and the Abyss of Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Zerowork, eds. 1975. Introduction. Zerowork 1:1–6. Zournazi, Mary. 2003. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. New York: Routledge. Zuboff, Shoshana. 1983. “The Work Ethic and Work Organization.” In The Work Ethic—A Critical Analysis, edited by Jack Barbash, Robert J. Lampman, Sar A. Levitan, and Gus Tyler, 153–81. Madison, Wis.: Industrial Relations Research Association. KATHI WEEKS is associate professor of women’s studies at Duke University. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Weeks, Kathi The problem with work : feminism, Marxism, antiwork politics, and postwork imaginaries / Kathi Weeks.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

Certain highly skilled workers will succeed wildly in this new environment—but far more may be displaced into lower paying service industry jobs at best, or permanent unemployment at worst. 3. Our educational system is not adequately preparing us for work of the future, and our political and economic institutions are poorly equipped to handle these hard choices. So the major disconnect seems to be whether you believe that these new technologies will augment our abilities or replace them. Harvard social scientist Shoshana Zuboff examined how companies used technology in her 1989 book In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. She looked at how some employers used technology to “automate”, or take power away from, the employee while some used technology to “informate”, or empower, the employee. Obviously, our thesis is that the latter is far more preferable! If we look at the last 30 years of software-based automation using customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP), we generally find that implementing the technology is the easy part.


pages: 416 words: 112,268

Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control by Stuart Russell

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Alfred Russel Wallace, Andrew Wiles, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, blockchain, brain emulation, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, Gerolamo Cardano, ImageNet competition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the wheel, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, positional goods, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, Thales of Miletus, The Future of Employment, Thomas Bayes, Thorstein Veblen, transport as a service, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, zero-sum game

Wikipedia’s article on the Stasi has several useful references on its workforce and its overall impact on East German life. 2. For details on Stasi files, see Cullen Murphy, God’s Jury: The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012). 3. For a thorough analysis of AI surveillance systems, see Jay Stanley, The Dawn of Robot Surveillance (American Civil Liberties Union, 2019). 4. Recent books on surveillance and control include Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (PublicAffairs, 2019) and Roger McNamee, Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe (Penguin Press, 2019). 5. News article on a blackmail bot: Avivah Litan, “Meet Delilah—the first insider threat Trojan,” Gartner Blog Network, July 14, 2016. 6. For a low-tech version of human susceptibility to misinformation, in which an unsuspecting individual becomes convinced that the world is being destroyed by meteor strikes, see Derren Brown: Apocalypse, “Part One,” directed by Simon Dinsell, 2012, youtube.com/watch?


pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

A. Roger Ekirch, Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Shoshana Zuboff, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

On the German steel helmet, Ludwig Baer’s The History of the German Steel Helmet, 1916–1945, trans. K. Daniel Dahl (San Jose, Calif.: R. J. Bender, 1985) is based on original documents. Donald A. Norman’s The Psychology of Everyday Things (New York: Basic Books, 1988), now reprinted as The Design of Everyday Things, emphasizes the mental side of physical objects. The most important recent study of the body in today’s workplace is Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). For the history of the visionary side of technology, mind, and body, there is Thierry Bardini’s Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000). In cyborg anthropology, the starting point is Donna Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991).


pages: 482 words: 121,173

Tools and Weapons: The Promise and the Peril of the Digital Age by Brad Smith, Carol Ann Browne

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, call centre, Celtic Tiger, chief data officer, cloud computing, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, immigration reform, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, national security letter, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school vouchers, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Grace Halden, Three Mile Island: The Meltdown Crisis and Nuclear Power in American Popular Culture (New York: Routledge, 2017), 65. Back to note reference 13. Julia Carrie Wong, “Mark Zuckerberg Apologises for Facebook’s ‘Mistakes’ over Cambridge Analytica,” Guardian, March 22, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/21/mark-zuckerberg-response-facebook-cambridge-analytica. Back to note reference 14. See Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019). Back to note reference 15. Julie Brill, “Millions Use Microsoft’s GDPR Privacy Tools to Control Their Data — Including 2 Million Americans,” Microsoft on the Issues (blog), Microsoft, September 17, 2018, https://blogs.microsoft.com/on-the-issues/2018/09/17/millions-use-microsofts-gdpr-privacy-tools-to-control-their-data-including-2-million-americans/.


Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett

Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

Aristotle, The Politics, translated by T. A. Sinclair (1962); revised translation by Trevor J. Saunders (1981) (London: Penguin Books, 1992). 11. William James, ‘Pragmatism, Action and Will’, in Pragmatism: The Classic Writings, ed. H. S. Thayer (Cambridge, Mass.: Hackett, 1982), p. 181. 12. Yochai Benkler, ‘Degrees of Freedom, Dimensions of Power’, Daedalus 145, no. 1 (2016): 20, 23. See also Shoshana Zuboff, ‘Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of Information Civilization’, Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89, and Tim Wu, The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires (New York: Knopf, 2010). 13. The Burckhardt phrase appears in English in Ernst Cassirer, ‘Force and Freedom: Remarks on the English Edition of Jacob Burckhardt’s “Reflections on History”’, The American Scholar 13, no. 4 (1944): 409–10. 14.


pages: 578 words: 131,346

Humankind: A Hopeful History by Rutger Bregman

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Broken windows theory, call centre, David Graeber, Donald Trump, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hans Rosling, invention of writing, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, placebo effect, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, universal basic income, World Values Survey

Financial Times (30 August 2013). 35Ibid. 36Officially: The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. 37Tine de Moor, ‘The Silent Revolution: A New Perspective on the Emergence of Commons, Guilds, and Other Forms of Corporate Collective Action in Western Europe’, International Review of Social History, Vol. 53, Issue S16 (December 2008). 38The classic work on this process is Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation. The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston, 2001). Originally published in 1944. 39Tine de Moor, ‘Homo Cooperans. Institutions for collective action and the compassionate society’, Utrecht University Inaugural Lecture (30 August 2013). 40See, for example, Paul Mason, Postcapitalism. A Guide to Our Future (London, 2015). 41See, for example, Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism. The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (London, 2019). 42Damon Jones and Ioana Elena Marinescu, ‘The Labor Market Impacts of Universal and Permanent Cash Transfers: Evidence from the Alaska Permanent Fund’, NBER Working Paper (February 2018). 43I’ve also written about this study in North Carolina and about universal basic income elsewhere.


pages: 446 words: 138,827

What Should I Do With My Life? by Po Bronson

back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, clean water, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, high net worth, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, Stanford marshmallow experiment, telemarketer, traffic fines, young professional

He visited a lab in Boston where they were splicing salmon genes into catfish DNA, with the hopes their supercatfish would get the magical ice water gene. Don told me this upcoming passage felt different from the one he made a decade ago. He’s not trying to play it down, minimize the change it will surely bring. “Transition’s not the right word—it’ll require a transformation.” Last October, he went to a continuing education retreat at Harvard, taught by a sociology professor named Shoshana Zuboff. Her course was called “Odyssey,” and it was mostly attended by businesspeople looking for the next thing in life. She had Don write his autobiography, then helped him expand on it, write more and more into it, picking out themes, adding layers. She built her course around the metaphor of an oyster shell; the outside layer, the formative layer, is fragile and vulnerable, but the old layers are hard and strong.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, young professional

Wootton, Richard, John Craig, and Victor Patterson (eds.), Introduction to Telemedicine, 2nd edn. (London: Hodder Arnold, 2011). Zittrain, Jonathan, The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009). Zittrain, Jonathan, and Benjamin Edelman, ‘Documentation of Internet Filtering in Saudi-Arabia’, 12 Sept. 2002 <http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/filtering/saudiarabia/> (accessed 7 March 2015). Zuboff, Shoshana, In the Age of the Smart Machine, paperback edn. (Oxford: Heinemann Professional Publishing, 1988). Index 3-D printing 53, 98–9, 131 Abbott, Andrew 19, 23, 30–1 Accenture 2, 78, 80, 84, 139 accountants 14, 16, 33, 84, 86, 106–7, 118, 206–7 accounting firms 83, 85, 89, 119, 140, 184, 204 acquisitive society 24 administrative work 111, 238 advisers, trusted 106, 169, 205, 236, 251 affective capability 277, 280 affective computing 54, 160, 168, 170–2, 187 affective data 172 affordable expertise 242, 268 affordable practical expertise 239, 246, 254, 257–8, 268 agents 93, 121, 226 AI (artificial intelligence) 45, 85, 94, 160, 164, 182, 186, 226–7 fallacy 45, 165, 170, 192, 227, 272, 277–8, 294 second wave 160, 165, 187 weak 274–5 winter 183 algorithms 48, 52, 65, 75, 77–8, 87, 92–3, 119 Alterman, Eric 72 alternative providers 110, 135, 261, 301 alternatives 3, 31–2, 36–7, 40, 42, 112, 129, 215 altruism 18, 237, 239 analysts, process 107, 124, 127, 212, 266, 293 Anderson, Chris 98 anxieties 231–3, 235, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 247 arbitrage 102, 122–4, 136 ArchDaily 100 architects 16, 19–20, 94–5, 97–8, 100, 107, 121, 123–4 architecture 41, 94–100, 123, 129, 133, 150, 219, 224 Aristotle 32 artificial intelligence, see AI Asimov, Isaac 257, 282 aspiring professionals 17, 259, 262–3 asymmetry 24, 39–40, 44, 129 audit 41, 84–94, 140, 184, 202, 226, 273 practices 2, 93, 140, 264 auditors 89–93, 101, 107, 115, 134, 140, 205, 207 automation 102, 109–12, 114, 125, 217, 219–20, 245, 271 autonomous flying robots 1, 99 autonomy 17, 21–2, 126, 282 Autor, David 214, 292, 294 Ayasdi 82 Baggini, Julian 244–5 baristas 244–5 beliefs 42, 62, 141, 239, 267, 289 Benkler, Yochai 180, 191, 299 bespoke production 244–5 bespoke service 101, 105–6, 137 move away from 102 BetterDoctor 48, 129, 181, 219, 249 BeyondCore 82 biases 43–6 Big Data 59, 80, 92, 152, 160–3, 172, 175, 187 techniques 69, 162–4, 279 blogs 56, 75, 82, 123, 177 Bostrom, Nick 274 brains 128, 171, 227, 274, 276 Brazil 87–8 brute-force computing 164, 187 brute-force processing 45, 186–7, 275 Brynjolfsson, Erik 117, 293 bypassed gatekeepers 102, 106, 127 CAAT (computer-assisted audit techniques) 90–1 CAD (computer aided design) 94–7, 113, 201 software 95, 100, 246 CAE (computer aided engineering) 95, 113 Cambridge 11–12, 56 capabilities 126, 128, 158–9, 162, 269, 271, 277, 280 cognitive 277, 279 capable machines, see increasingly capable machines capitalism 29, 257 death of gentlemanly 106 Carr-Saunders, Alexander 25 central questions 31–2 charge online 197, 203 checklists 47, 106, 119–20, 185, 194, 200–1, 266, 279 children 10–11, 54–5, 57, 116 choice 134–5, 177, 197, 241–3, 277–8, 307 Christensen, Clayton 78, 83, 109–10 classroom 55–7, 59, 113, 271 clergy 1, 61–6, 250 clients 38–40, 78–82, 92–4, 114–16, 118, 136–40, 189–90, 204 cognitive capabilities 277, 279 collaboration mass 178–9 online 102, 114, 128, 132–3 collective knowledge 38, 153, 303, 307 commoditization 195–7, 207, 245, 257, 303 commons 197, 203–4, 210, 227, 296–7, 299–301, 307 basis 203, 224, 302 creative 224 of practical expertise 203, 300–1 tragedy of the 297, 301 communication, new ways 114–15 communities 83, 86, 132–3, 147–9, 177–80, 182, 223–4, 297 of experience 107, 132–3, 178, 204, 224, 237, 262 model 216, 223–4, 266 online 1, 53, 97, 128–9, 132, 215–16 of practice 133, 178 Company of Barber-Surgeons 20 competences 102, 114, 238 competition 12, 27, 34, 78, 88, 106–7, 207, 300 competitors 45, 108, 115, 118, 180, 190, 193, 195 complexity 39, 142, 146, 149–52, 200, 218, 233–4 computer aided design, see CAD computer aided engineering (CAE) 95, 113 computer-assisted audit techniques, see CAAT computer scientists 65, 156, 162, 273 computer systems 98, 119–20, 164–6, 171, 185, 272 computerization 48–9, 77, 86, 88–9, 92, 201–2, 213, 257 computers 162, 165, 167, 170, 175, 180, 185–6, 274–6 computing 157, 170–1, 173 affective 54, 160, 168, 170–2, 187 brute-force 164, 187 pervasive 173–4 confidentiality 3–4, 17, 233 conflicts of interest 17, 30 connected humans 155, 159, 175, 177 consciousness 252, 271, 273–5 consolidation 134, 138–9 conspiracies 26, 28 constituent tasks 122, 124, 198, 212–14, 245, 255–6, 266, 286 consultants 101, 106, 109, 115, 118, 134, 216, 219 management 20, 31, 33, 36, 39, 78–84, 194, 199 consulting 2, 5, 38, 78, 80, 83–4, 222, 224 businesses/firms 78–81, 83–4, 115, 124, 204 consumers 67, 70, 108, 112, 116, 254, 256, 258 contracts 189, 238–9, 246 control 28, 39, 203–4, 211, 216, 296–7, 300, 304–6 and ownership 203–4, 297, 300, 305 social 21, 25 Corruption Objection 241–3 costs 51, 53–4, 98–9, 109, 206–9, 285, 287, 296–300 development 226–7 fixed 206–7, 298 lower 36, 68, 113, 124, 196, 259, 261, 300 marginal 206–7, 298, 300 set-up 298, 302 craft 20, 106, 119, 196–201, 205, 208–10, 244–7, 268 guilds 19–20 lost 244–8 traditional 199, 206, 215, 244, 246 craftsmanship 2, 142, 208, 215, 262 craftspeople 106, 198–9, 201–2, 205, 264 creative commons 224 credentials 15–16, 128 crowdsourcing 53, 82, 93, 133, 179–81, 223 Cukier, Kenneth 59, 92, 162, 191 culture 30, 147, 180, 188, 262 customization 103, 222 individual 130 mass 98, 102–3, 128, 130, 222, 225 cuteness 169–70 data affective 172 big, see Big Data exhausts 79, 163 financial 84, 93 mastery of 102, 115–16 mining 115 raw 87, 146 scientists 60, 107, 127, 161–2, 264, 267 sets 59–60, 82, 92, 115–16, 163, 172 volumes of 52, 87, 92, 115–16, 161–2 databases 79, 164, 187, 201 large 172, 252, 275 decomposed tasks 124–5, 134, 212, 238 decomposition 101–2, 119, 122–6, 134, 137, 198, 252, 258 of professional work 211–14 Deep Blue 164, 276 delegation 102, 123–5, 282 Deloitte 2, 80, 83–4, 86, 88–9, 139 demand, latent, see latent demand demystification 140–2, 303 dentistry 41, 168, 201 Dershowitz, Nachum 65 designers 96–7, 266–7 developers 179, 226–7, 295 development costs 226–7 devices 50–2, 59, 69, 76, 276, 303 increasingly pervasive 155, 159, 172–5 mobile 64, 74–5, 185 dexterity 128, 159–60, 168, 201, 255–6, 278 diagnoses 48, 163–4, 166, 190, 228, 254 diagnostic systems 113, 269, 295, 298 digitization 130, 202, 303 disintermediation 102, 119, 121–2, 303 disruption 78, 110 distribution 5, 28, 188, 206, 212, 215, 217–18, 252 of knowledge 188–9, 191, 193, 195, 197, 199, 201, 203 models 225, 246, 290 of practical expertise 145, 216, 259, 261, 263, 283, 298, 304 diversification 84, 102, 114, 117–19 division of labour 123, 214, 235, 255–8 doctors 1, 16–17, 47–53, 110–11, 115, 190, 212–14, 249–50 traditional 113, 249 Doerr, John 59 domain experts 183, 226 due diligence work 68, 70, 89 Duolingo 60 Durkheim, Émile 24–5 e-mail 3, 68, 114–15, 136, 152, 176, 201, 210 eBay 129, 181–2 economic characteristics of knowledge 189–93, 211, 305 economics 157, 207, 214, 285 economists 13, 22, 167, 189, 191, 254–5, 289, 292 Edmodo 56, 224 education 55–61, 131, 133, 163, 166, 198–9, 258–60, 262 embedded expertise 132, 225 embedded knowledge 102, 128, 131, 216, 262, 267 model 216, 225–8 emotional states 168, 171, 251–3, 280 emotions 160, 170–2, 252–3, 273, 277, 280 empathy 169, 232, 249–54, 265, 268–9, 280 employment 5, 10, 126, 136, 255, 258, 284, 289–92 engineers 54–5, 98, 100, 113, 123, 226, 267, 276 knowledge 107, 127, 221–2, 226, 264–5, 267 structural 95–7 errors 49, 100, 165, 190, 192, 200–2, 268 ethics 30, 233, 239, 278 professional 18, 29, 233, 237 evolution of professional work 123, 145, 195–202 evolutionary path 197–8, 201–2, 204–5, 208, 211 exclusivity 11, 14, 22, 26–9, 135, 296, 298–9, 301–2 experience 2–5, 32–6, 40–2, 121–2, 127, 132–4, 177–8, 266–8 communities of 107, 132–3, 178, 204, 224, 237, 262 and knowledge 2, 10, 32–3, 36, 42, 106, 127, 134 expert professionals 137, 220–1, 259 expert systems 31, 182–5, 273, 276 functional definition 184–5 in law 183–4, 273, 276 expertise 1–3, 31, 33–4, 38–42, 146–50, 209–11, 220–3, 300–2 affordable 242, 268 embedded 132, 225 liberation 134, 210–11, 302, 304–5 machine-generated 262 practical, see practical expertise production and distribution 5, 145, 215–28, 259, 261, 263, 298, 304 professional 9, 34, 132 experts 32–3, 81, 133, 149–50, 200–1, 205–8, 220–1, 279–80 becoming expert 258–63 domain 183, 226 human 85–6, 119–20, 128, 192, 196, 215–16, 220–1, 279–80 traditional 196, 220 exponential growth 164–5, 175, 304 externalization 196–7, 215, 244–5, 299 drive towards 202–10 EY 118–9 face-to-face interaction 33, 36, 111, 128–9, 217, 219, 248–50, 268 Facebook 52, 66, 74–7, 177–8, 182 facial expressions 171–2 failures 46, 129, 132, 178, 200, 268 faith 61–2, 65 feasibility 295–301, 305 Feynman, Richard 43, 54, 275–6 financial data 84, 93 Fish, Stanley 28 fixed costs 206–7, 298 flexible self-employment 102, 123, 126 Forbes 77, 216 formal knowledge 16, 41–2, 189, 221 formats 73, 92–3, 202, 215, 217, 220, 223 Freidson, Eliot 14 Frey, Carl Benedikt 88, 294 functions 25–6, 51, 184, 200, 262 gatekeepers 23, 28, 42, 106–7, 133–4, 204, 210–11, 303–4 bypassed 102, 106, 127 Gawande, Atul 21, 47 Gleick, James 149 Global Voices 75 globalization 134–6 good faith 11, 17, 22, 236, 238 good work 254–8, 264 goods, physical 189, 191, 300 Google 50, 54, 76, 152, 167, 169, 176, 187 grand bargain 9–45, 107, 190, 243, 296–8, 301, 304 explained 21–3 historical context 18–21 guidance 120–2, 127, 129–33, 163, 185, 187, 217, 233–4 guilds 20–1, 149 craft 19–20 handcrafting 119, 199, 209, 265 Hardin, Garrett 297, 300–1 Hart, Herbert 39, 141 health 4, 22, 25, 38, 46–55, 108, 295, 298 healthcare 10, 47, 50, 52, 132–3, 166, 169, 243 heuristics 40, 91, 192 high-performing systems 163, 274–5, 277, 280, 303 honesty 11, 18, 235, 238 hospitals 49, 109, 124, 168, 175, 264, 271 hotdog story 285–8 hourly billing basis 37–8, 137, 206 Huffington Post 1, 76, 123 Hughes, Everett 22, 27 human beings 145–7, 186–7, 222–3, 225–7, 247–8, 252–3, 267–75, 292–4 need for 277–84 human experts 85–6, 119–20, 128, 192, 196, 215–16, 220–1, 279–80 human specialists 15, 45, 165, 211, 273, 294 humans beings, connected 155, 159, 175–82 IBM, Watson 48–9, 82, 152, 160, 164–6, 186–7, 272–5, 278 ignorance, veil of 306–7 Illich, Ivan 15, 28 incentives 30, 89, 295 incomes 290, 305–6 increasingly capable machines 2, 5, 155, 159–72, 226, 231, 303, 305 non-thinking 272–7, 293, 306 increasingly connected humans 155, 159, 175–82 increasingly pervasive devices 155, 159, 172–5 India 4, 63, 79–80, 87, 97, 124 industrial society, print-based 2–3, 128, 151, 153, 268, 270, 300, 304 inequality 34, 241–3 Inequality Objection 241–3 information 79, 145–7, 149–52, 161, 163, 176–7, 179–80, 298–9 information and technology 145–87 information substructure 145–7, 152–3, 188 information technology 145–7, 150–1, 155–8, 160, 165, 293 exponential growth 155–9, 304 innovation 102, 109–10, 112–14, 202, 208, 217, 219, 271 intellectual property 218, 221, 223, 227, 305 intelligence 159, 187, 271, 275 interaction 111–12, 198, 202, 211, 218, 248–9, 251, 253 face-to-face 33, 36, 111, 128–9, 217, 219, 248–50, 268 personal 139, 248–51, 268 intermediaries 61, 121, 150 Internet 61–2, 66, 72–3, 81–3, 147, 150, 173–5, 180–1 technology-based Internet society 32, 34–5, 150–3, 188–9, 236–7, 246, 304, 306–7 users 127, 129, 132, 174, 177–8, 180, 182, 204 Internet of Things 174–5 Japan 54–5, 61 jargon 3, 13, 149 jobs, new 213, 257, 263, 286, 291, 293–4 Johnson, Terence 26 journalism 71–8, 123, 132, 216, 224, 235, 249 journalists 1, 72, 75–7, 121, 190, 198, 212, 216 junior professionals 125, 138, 260 Kasparov, Garry 276 Kenny, Anthony 36, 308 Keynes, John Maynard xi, 284 Khan Academy 57–8, 178 knowledge 16, 26–9, 34–6, 38–43, 146–50, 188–95, 200–4, 220–7 asymmetry 40, 44 collective 38, 153, 303, 307 economic characteristics 189–93, 211, 305 embedded 102, 128, 131, 216, 225–6, 262, 267 engineers 107, 127, 221–2, 226, 264–5, 267 and experience 2, 10, 32–3, 36, 42, 106, 127, 134 formal 16, 41–2, 189, 221 management 187, 194–5 processing 151–2, 165 production and distribution 188–228 and professions 193–5 special characteristics 189, 201–2, 210 specialist 3, 15, 24, 38, 41, 231, 270 knowledge engineering model 216, 221–3, 225, 265 KPMG 38, 92 Krause, Elliot 29 Kurzweil, Ray 157–8 labour arbitrage 122–4 laptops 122, 147, 173, 293 Larson, Magali 27 latent demand 113, 128, 130, 133, 181, 208, 290–1, 300 law, expert systems in 183–4, 273, 276 law firms 67–9, 71, 204, 214, 264 lawyers 3–4, 22–4, 66–71, 106–7, 136–7, 188–90, 206–7, 250–1 legal profession, see lawyers legal services 4, 67, 69, 71, 133 Lessig, Lawrence 203 Levy, Frank 167 LexisNexis 68, 87 liberalization 134–5, 240, 242–3 liberation of expertise 134, 210–11, 302, 304–5 limited understanding 3, 39, 42, 231, 234, 268, 270 litigation 17, 68–9, 123 livery companies 20, 199 London 1, 20, 95–6, 199 lost craft 244–8 McAfee, Andrew 117, 293 McChesney, Robert W. 72 MacDonald, Keith 26 machine-generated expertise 262 machine-generated model 216, 226, 267 machine learning 115, 165, 183 machines 116–17, 128–34, 159–60, 167–70, 225–8, 247–8, 251–3, 271–2, 274–94; see also systems expectations of 269 increasingly capable 2, 5, 155, 159–60, 226, 231, 303, 305 McKinsey 78–80, 83–4 Maister, David 19, 103 management 14–15, 78, 84, 119, 139 knowledge 187, 194–5 management consultants 20, 31, 33, 36, 39, 78–84, 194, 199 marginal costs 206–7, 298, 300 market, values 240, 243, 260 market forces 89, 196, 199, 272 market norms 239–43 markets 27, 45, 51, 90, 115, 135, 191, 209 moral limits 239–44, 247 Marx, Karl 29, 254, 256 Maslow, Abraham 43 mass collaboration 178–9 mass customization 98, 102–3, 128, 130, 222, 225 Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor 59, 92, 162, 191 means and ends 268 medicine 17, 19, 41, 47, 49–50, 107–8, 131–2, 200 messy data 92 Mill, John Stuart xi mobile devices 64, 74–5, 185 money 10, 34, 108, 112, 179, 195, 296, 299 monopolies 9, 20, 27, 67, 79, 82, 134–5, 141 Moore’s Law 156–7, 173 moral character 232, 236, 239, 241, 243–4 moral limits of markets 239–44, 247 more-for-less challenge 102, 105, 108–9 motivations 24, 29–30, 127, 203, 236, 239, 258, 273 Murnane, Richard 167 mystification 37, 141–2 National Health Service, see NHS Negroponte, Nicholas 77 Neo-Luddites 288 networked experts, model 216, 218–23, 261, 264 networking, social 114, 153, 177, 224 networks 52, 55, 74, 175, 177, 179–80, 182, 218–19 social 56, 66, 77, 114–15, 150, 155 new mindset 37–43 new practical expertise 163, 295–7 new roles 60, 114, 258, 267, 271, 303 new specialists 102, 107, 123, 127–8 new tasks 246, 288–9, 291, 294 new technologies 44–5, 115, 117, 151, 213, 249, 287–9, 292–3 New York Times 1 newspapers 72–4, 77, 235 NHS (National Health Service) 50, 54, 243, 300 non-experts 35, 218, 223–4 non-professionals 26, 32, 185, 290 non-routine tasks 120, 291, 294 non-thinking machines 272, 274, 276–7, 279–80, 293, 306 norms 172, 239–40, 242–3 market 239–43 professional 234, 239–40, 242 nurses 49–50, 54, 106, 135, 221 objections and anxieties 231–69 occupations 12, 15, 18, 20, 26–7, 29, 239, 243 ODR, see online dispute resolution omissions 36, 46, 91, 201, 308 Ong, Walter 146, 147–8 online collaboration 102, 114, 128, 132–3 online communities 1, 53, 97, 128–9, 132, 215–16 online dispute resolution (ODR) 1, 70 online platforms 55, 57–8, 72–3, 76–7, 81–2, 96–7, 111, 113 online selection 102, 128, 219 online self-help 102, 128–30, 222 online services 119–21, 129–30, 133, 137–8, 204, 221–2, 237–8, 265–6 online systems 76, 86, 185, 222, 225, 266 Osborne, Michael 88, 294 owners 33, 138, 174–5, 190, 223, 226, 297 ownership 188, 203–4, 221, 226, 296–7, 300, 304–5 and control 203–4, 297, 300, 305 para-professional model 216, 219–22, 226, 265 para-professionalization 102, 123–5, 138 para-professionals 125–6, 135, 137–8, 220–2, 249–50, 252, 262, 264–6 paralegals 68–9, 107, 220 parents 11, 56–7, 59, 105, 198 Parsons, Talcott 18, 25 partnerships 67, 86, 138–9, 293 patients 16–17, 38–40, 46–52, 54–5, 111, 114–16, 168–9, 190 personal interaction 139, 248–51, 268 personalization 102, 128, 131 pervasive computing 173–4 pessimists 288–9 philosophers 13, 22, 35, 188, 255, 273–5, 277–8 physical goods 189, 191, 300 physicians 19, 21–2, 47, 149, 249; see also doctors Picard, Rosalind 170 policymakers 45, 133, 153, 253, 262 post-professional society 15, 18, 105, 231, 263, 303 practical expertise 127–34, 192–3, 202–7, 210–11, 215–19, 221–7, 265–70, 295–307 affordable 239, 246, 254, 257–8, 268 distribution of 145, 216, 259, 261, 263, 283, 298, 304 machine-generated 267 new 163, 295–7 new sources 107, 128, 189 ownership and control 296, 304 production 295–6 production and distribution 145, 216, 259, 261, 263, 298, 304 sharing 215, 224, 251, 268, 271, 297–8, 303 pre-print communities 147–50 predictions 45, 54, 147, 152, 155, 158, 160, 162 predictive analytics 115, 161 prestige 11, 18, 20, 27–8, 244 prices 207, 209, 241, 243, 250, 284, 287, 292 print-based communities 147–50 print-based industrial society 2–3, 128, 151, 153, 268, 270, 300, 304 printing 53, 64, 72, 131, 150 3-D 53, 98–9, 131 problems 33–7 process analysts 107, 124, 127, 212, 266, 293 processes, standard 71, 87, 119, 125, 265 processing brute-force 45, 186–7, 275 power 153, 156–8, 164 production, bespoke 244–5 production and distribution of expertise 5, 145, 215–28, 259, 261, 263, 298, 304 of knowledge 188–228 productivity 121, 170, 255–7, 289 professional ethics 18, 29, 233, 237 professional expertise 9, 34, 132 professional firms 10, 30, 34, 36, 109, 118, 126, 137–40 preoccupations 134–40 professional norms 239, 242 professional organizations 29, 179, 201, 211, 260 professional providers 2, 42, 101, 110, 134, 137, 139, 207 professional services 18–19, 32–4, 39–40, 103–4, 108–9, 133–4, 217, 222–3 professional tasks 119, 192, 207, 291 professional work 32–4, 101–11, 122–4, 128–30, 195–9, 205–9, 211–14, 259 decomposition 211–14 evolution 123, 145, 195–202 impact of technology 289–95 reconfigured 119–34 traditional 107, 111, 113, 217, 305 professionalism 12–13, 27, 31, 84 professionals 15–17, 34–45, 114–21, 126–31, 133–42, 192–8, 256–63, 289–94 aspiring 17, 259, 262–3 junior 125, 138, 260 traditional 127, 129, 137, 139, 151, 205–6, 208, 249 work of 112, 133, 138, 168, 187, 216, 260, 270–1; see also professional work young 138, 258–62 professions, see also Introductory Note after 270–302 and knowledge 193–5 as one object of study 3–4 patterns across 101–42 scope of 13–18 theories of 23–31 traditional 39, 42, 106–7, 215–16, 231–2, 246, 248, 263 profit 29–30, 34, 74, 138, 295–6, 298–300 providers 39–41, 104, 126–7, 208–9, 219, 238, 302, 305–7 psychologists 13, 43, 273, 275, 277 psychology 43, 171, 273 PwC 90, 92 quasi-trust 233, 237–8 raw data 87, 146 Rawls, John 306–7 realization of latent demand 102, 133 reassurance 38–40, 234, 237, 260, 265 regulation 17, 39, 41, 89, 134–6, 140, 233, 238–9 reintermediation 102, 119, 121–2 reliability 12, 91, 233, 236–8, 301 religions 61, 132, 149 reputation 22, 94, 128, 234, 237 resources 33, 43, 127, 203–4, 217, 225, 299, 306–7 responsibility 16, 35, 139, 277, 280, 282, 305 Rifkin, Jeremy 298 robotics 54, 99, 112, 160, 166–9, 172, 183, 187 robots 49, 54–5, 98–9, 166–72, 247, 257, 281–2, 284 autonomous flying 1, 99 Rocketship Education 55, 216 roles absence of future roles for traditional professionals 263–7 new 60, 114, 258, 267, 271, 303 Rose, David 168, 170 routine work 111, 138, 159, 232, 260, 279 routinization 101–2, 119–21, 130, 303 rule-based expert systems 165, 281 Sandel, Michael 240–2 sceptics 3, 14, 44, 91, 151, 156, 190, 196 Scheer, David Ross 95 scholars 18, 29, 41, 149, 188, 277 Schön, Donald 21, 26 scientists 54, 187, 273–5 computer 65, 156, 162, 273 data 60, 107, 127, 161–2, 264, 267 scope of professions 13–18 script 146–8, 153 second wave of AI 160, 165, 187 selection, online 102, 128, 219 self-employment, flexible 102, 123, 126 self-help, online 102, 128–30, 222 self-interest 24, 135, 180, 239, 297 sensors 162, 171, 174, 225 services 32–5, 37–41, 105–7, 117–22, 128–32, 206–9, 217–24, 241–4 legal 4, 67, 69, 71, 133 online 119–21, 129–30, 133, 137–8, 204, 221–2, 237–8, 265–6 professional 18–19, 32–4, 39–40, 103–4, 108–9, 133–4, 217, 222–3 set-up costs 298, 302 Shaw, George Bernard 28 skills 3, 34, 41–2, 220, 227, 232, 244–6, 265 new 114–15, 117, 285 smartphones 51, 132, 165, 170, 173 Smith, Adam 22, 255 social control 21, 25 social media 76–7, 82, 151, 154, 219, 221, 235 social networking 114, 153, 177, 224 social networks 56, 66, 77, 114–15, 150, 155 society 1–2, 21–7, 30–3, 145–9, 151–3, 239–41, 243, 306–7 sociologists 13, 18, 22, 25–7, 29–30, 134, 141, 188 software 85, 87–8, 93, 95, 107, 179, 295, 298 source materials 42, 150, 152, 187 special pleading 44, 89, 205, 232 specialist knowledge 3, 15, 24, 38, 41, 231, 270 specialists 19–20, 24, 123, 149–51, 161–2, 218–19, 221–2, 265–7 human 15, 45, 165, 211, 273, 294 new 102, 107, 123, 127–8 specialization 4, 21, 134, 136–7 standard processes 71, 87, 119, 125, 265 standardization 89, 131, 196, 199–202, 210, 212, 245 standards 17, 22, 25, 135, 141, 201, 208, 220 statistics 14, 92–3, 120, 186, 275 status quo bias 43–4 students 16, 19, 55–60, 111, 113, 115–16, 171, 261 subject matter experts 127, 222, 233, 252, 267 substructure, information 145–7, 152–3, 188 Summers, Larry 60–1 surgeons 12, 19–21, 50, 54, 168, 198, 244, 249–51 Susskind, Richard 39, 66, 109, 151–2, 183–4, 214 systematization 201, 210, 245 systems 127–32, 162–6, 169–72, 182–8, 201–5, 219–28, 269–75, 277–83; see also machines computer 98, 119–20, 164–6, 171, 185, 272 diagnostic 113, 269, 295, 298 expert 31, 182–5, 273, 276 high-performing 163, 274–5, 277, 280, 303 online 76, 86, 185, 222, 225, 266 tablets 61, 147, 155, 173, 175, 210 tasks 122–5, 165–8, 212–14, 257–9, 261–7, 277–81, 285–92, 294–5 constituent 122, 124, 198, 212–14, 245, 255–6, 266, 286 decomposed 124–5, 134, 212, 238 professional, see professional tasks tax 31, 41–2, 84–94, 183–4, 202, 204, 224, 226 advisers 33, 39, 109, 115, 194, 198, 200, 206–7 authorities 85, 87–8, 108 professionals 85, 88–9, 140 specialists 68, 86, 89 teachers 1, 3, 55–9, 107, 121–4, 206, 208, 249–50 technological change 46, 111, 159, 254, 256, 307 technological myopia 44, 159 technological unemployment 213, 272, 284–91, 294–5 technology 44–6, 109–14, 116–17, 145–7, 149–55, 159–61, 163–7, 181–8 future impact 153–5 impact on professional work 289–95 new relationships with 116–17 textbooks 40, 43, 109, 221, 266 theories of professions 23–31 theorists 13, 16, 18–19, 23, 25–9, 31, 40 tools 43, 45, 83, 97–8, 100, 123, 201–2, 215 Topol, Eric 46–7 traditional crafts 199, 206, 215, 244, 246 traditional model 55, 112–13, 132, 210, 216–21, 223, 252, 264 traditional professionals 127, 129, 137, 139, 151, 205–6, 208, 249 absence of future roles 263–7 tragedy of the commons 297, 301 training 12, 39–40, 94, 96, 193, 195, 259–62, 295–6 transformations 1–2, 89, 102, 104–5, 231–2, 235, 245–6, 267–8 by technology 109–14 trust 22, 39–40, 195, 233–8; see also quasi-trust objection 233–7, 239 trusted adviser 106, 169, 205, 236, 251 trustworthiness 18, 236–7 Turing Test 275 Twitter 2, 62, 74–5, 78, 182, 235, 249 United Kingdom 10–11, 72, 74, 86, 88–9, 241, 243, 245 United States 47, 50–3, 57, 72–3, 83, 85, 87, 240–1 University of Oxford 183, 274 users 74–5, 77–8, 120–2, 150–2, 177–9, 202–3, 221–2, 252–3 Internet 127, 129, 132, 174, 177–8, 180, 182, 204 values, market 240, 243, 260 Varian, Hal 81, 191, 207 veil of ignorance 306–7 videos 56–8, 74, 77, 162, 177, 298 wages 10, 124, 284–5, 295 Watson 48–9, 82, 152, 160, 164–6, 186–7, 272–5, 278 weak AI 274–5 wealth 28, 55, 59, 236, 255, 306 Weber, Max 27, 257 websites 1, 41, 43, 63, 150, 165, 178, 185 Weizenbaum, Joseph 253 WikiHouse 1, 96, 133, 224 Wikipedia 59, 127, 178, 223, 299 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 15 work 16–20, 29–32, 115–26, 205–9, 212–14, 216–21, 254–63, 283–6 good 254–8, 264 professional, see professional work routine 111, 138, 159, 232, 260, 279 young professionals 138, 258–62 YouTube 74–5, 177, 182 ZocDoc 48, 129, 181, 219, 249 Zuboff Soshana 160–1


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. Zablocki, Benjamin David. Alienation and Charisma: A Study of Contemporary American Communes. New York: Free Press, 1980. Zelizer, Barbie. Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Zicklin, Gilbert. Countercultural Communes: A Sociological Perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Index abstract expressionism, 46, 47 “Access Mobile,” 71 Acid Tests, 65, 66 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 108, 213 Albrecht, Bob, 70, 101, 113, 114, 133 Alinsky, Saul, Rules for Radicals, 98 Allison, Dennis, 252 Alloy, 96 –97, 273n54 Alpert, Richard (Baba Ram Dass), 61 Altair, 114, 274n1 alternative energy, 233 Alto, 111 American Indian Movement, 97 America Online, 161 analog computers, 20 Andreesen, Marc, 213 Ant Farm art and design collective, 86, 272n36 anti-aircraft predictor, 21, 25, 26, 95, 178 anti-automationists, 29 antiwar protests, 64, 74, 118, 209 AOL, 217 Apple Computer, 106, 116, 129, 139, 198, 247 Architecture Machine Group, 163, 177–78 Arcosanti, 81 ARPA community, 116 ARPANET, 28, 109, 117, 213 artificial intelligence, 177 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Laboratory, 116, 133, 134, 177 Artificial Life Conference, 198 –99 artificial-life movement, 203 Ashby, Ross, 26, 178 “Aspen Summit: Cyberspace and the American Dream II,” 230 Association for Computing Machinery / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ACM/IEEE), 110 AT&T, 182, 193 Atari, 134, 163 Atkinson, Bill, 137 Atlas missile system, 19 atomic bomb, 18 atomic era, 17, 30 –31, 243 atomic forecasting, 187 Aufderheide, Patricia, 230 Augmentation Research Center (ARC), 61, 106, 107– 8, 109, 110 Autodesk, 163 automaton, 21 Baba, Meher, 75 back-to-the-land movement, 73, 76, 244, 245 Baer, Steve, 81, 95, 96, 97, 109; Dome Cookbook, 94 Baldwin, Jay, 94 Barayón, Ramón Sender, 65, 146 Barbrook, Richard, 208, 259, 279n43 Bardini, Thierry, 105, 274n1 Barlow, John Perry: and Aspen conference, 223; and computational metaphor, 16; conference on bionomics, 224; contributions to Wired, 217, 218; “Crime and Puzzlement,” 171, 172 –74, 195; “Declaration of [ 313 ] [ 314 ] Index Barlow, John Perry (continued) the Independence of Cyberspace,” 13 –14; and Electronic Frontier Foundation, 172, 218, 220; experiences with mysticism and LSD, 165; forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; and Grateful Dead, 166; and Kapor, 172; linked hacking and free speech as central components of “cyberspace,” 171; linking of virtual reality to LSD, 163, 165; longing to return to an egalitarian world, 248; notion of cyberspace as an electronic frontier, 162, 172 –74; shift from agricultural work to information work, 166; and the WELL, 3, 142, 155, 167; and the Whole Earth network, 7 Barnett, Steve, 191 Basch, Reva, 154, 155 BASIC programming language, 113, 114 Bateson, Gregory, 121–25; attacked mechanistic visions of the social and natural worlds, 126; bridged high technology and communitarian idealism, 124; Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry, 53; on ecological crisis, 276n42; intellectual influence on CQ, 124; and Macy Conferences, 26; rejection of transcendence, 123; and second-generation cybernetics, 123, 148; Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 123, 124, 165; theory of immanent mind, 123 –24; and “the pattern that connects,” 243; transformed cybernetic principles into communication-based theories of alcoholism, schizophrenia, and learning, 123; vision of material world as information system, 104 Bateson, Mary Catherine, 182, 189, 191 Battelle, John, 209, 216 Baxter, Richard, 171 Bay area computer programmers, 103 Beach, Scott, 102 Beat movement, 62 “Behavior, Purpose, and Teleology” (Rosenblueth, Wiener, and Bigelow), 22 “be-in,” 51–52, 269n20 Bell, Daniel, 32, 228, 245; The Coming of PostIndustrial Society, 241– 42 Berkeley Barb (magazine), 80, 114 Berners-Lee, Tim, 213 Berry, Wendell, 126 –27 Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 265n43 Best, Eric, 221 Bevirt, Ron, 81 Big Brother & the Holding Company, 66 Bigelow, Alice, 226 Bigelow, Julian, 20, 21, 22, 122, 226 Big Rock Candy Mountain publishers, 70 Biondi, Frank, 208 bionomics, 224, 225 Biosphere, 176, 182, 190 Black Mountain College, 47 Black Panthers, 97 Black Power, 34 Blanchard, Chuck, 172 Boczkowski, Pablo, 271n7 Bolt, Baranek, and Newman, 134 Bonestell, Chesley, The Conquest of Space, 42 Bonner, Jay, 99 Borsook, Paulina, 226 “boundary object,” 72 Bourdieu, Pierre, 157 Bowker, Geoffrey, 25 –26, 84 Brand, Lois, 71, 74, 76, 113 Brand, Stewart, 3, 223; aimed to imitate the goals and tactics of American research culture, 78; at Alloy, 97; America Needs Indians, 66, 69, 270n49; analytical framework drawn from ecology and evolutionary biology, 44 – 45; argument that personal computer revolution and Internet grew out of counterculture, 103; and “Aspen Summit,” 231; association of cybernetics with alternative forms of communal organization, 43; authority across technological, economic, and cultural eras, 250 –51; brought together representatives of the technical world and former New Communalists, 109 –10, 116, 132, 216, 246, 247, 250, 255; buttons, 69; celebrated as a socio-technical visionary, 101; and coevolution, 121; coverage of Alloy, 96; crossing of disciplinary and professional boundaries, 249; cybernetic notion of organization-as-organism, 90; cybernetics as social and rhetorical resources for entrepreneurship, 5; definition of purpose of Catalog, 82 – 83; “Demise Party,” 101–2; depicted Media Lab as living demonstration of an alternative society, 179 – 81; description of Whole Earth as a “research organization,” 96; drew on systems theory to design the Catalog, 78; on Dyson, 227; editorial tactics, 79, 273n43; Index and Electronic Frontier Foundation, 172, 218; enthusiasm for computer-conferencing, 130; on faculty of School of Management and Strategic Studies, 129 –30; fear of living in a hyperrationalized world, 42 – 43; fear of Soviet attack in 1950s, 41– 42; first experience with LSD, 61; forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; and Global Business Network, 176, 184, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193; and Hackers’ Conference, 139 – 40, 254; helped computers to be seen as “personal” technology, 105, 238; and Herman Kahn, 186; How Buildings Learn, 205; idealized vision of Native Americans, 59; idea that information-based products embodied an economic paradox, 136; imagined world as a series of overlapping information systems, 250; influence of Fuller on, 57; influence of Kesey on, 60; integration of ideas and people of Whole Earth into world of networked computing, 132; interview with Newsweek in 1980, 128 –29; introduction to Signal, 196; issues facing hackers to the themes of countercultural work and the Whole Earth group, 139; Kesey as role model, 65; and Learning Conferences, 181– 83; linking of information technologies to New Communalist politics, 216; Long Now Foundation, 206, 285n67; as a manager, 79, 89 –90; The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT, 178 – 81; and the Merry Pranksters, 61– 62; military service, 46; mirror logic of cybernetics, 259; at MIT’s Media Lab, 177; modeled the synthesis of counterculture and research culture, 253; multimedia pieces, 270n49; networked cultural entrepreneurship, 251– 55; network forums, 239, 249 –50; “New Games Tournament,” 120; in New York art scene, 46; on outer space, 127; Point Foundation, 120; at Portola Institute, 70; portrayal of Nicholas Negroponte, 179 – 80; principle of juxtaposition, 84; private online conference for software reviewers, 131; reaction to the libertarianism of the mid-1990s, 287n49; reconfigured the cultural status of information and information technologies, 8, 238 –39, 249; repudiated the Catalog’s New Communalist origins, 121; response to criticism of Catalog’s poli- [ 315 ] tics, 99 –100; return to the Whole Earth Catalog, 120; search for individual freedom, 45; search for new, flexible modes of living, 59; and Software Catalog, 130 –31; “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” 116 –18; “Sticking Your Head in Cyberspace,” 195; “Transcendental planning,” 90 –91; transcript of the Hacker Ethic forum, 138; travels after discharge from the army, 48; and Trips Festival, 65 – 68; turn back toward the computer industry, 104; visit to Drop City, 74; and the WELL, 141, 142 – 43, 145 – 46; work with USCO, 49, 51; writing for Wired, 217; and Xerox PARC, 246 – 47 Branwyn, Gareth, 81 Brautigan, Richard, “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,” 38 –39 Breines, Wini, 267n80 Briarpatch Society, 70 Brilliant, Larry, 141, 142 Britton, Lois, 273n44 Brockman, John, 129, 130, 290n24 Broderbund Software Inc., 135 Bronson, Po, 225 Brown, Jerry, 186 Browning, Page, 61 Budge, Bill, 135 bulletin board system (BBS), 144, 247 Burnham, Jack, 268n13 Burroughs, William, 62 Burstein, Daniel, 287n37 Burt, Ronald, 5, 135 Bush, Vannevar, 17, 20, 24, 229; “As We May Think,” 106 –7 Business 2.0 (magazine), 207 butterfly ecology, 43 Byte (magazine), 137 Cage, John, 43, 46 – 47, 67; Theatre Piece No. 1, 47– 48 “Californian Ideology,” 208, 285n4 Callahan, Michael, 48, 51, 66 Callon, Michelle, 277n71 Calvert, Greg, 35 Calvin, William, 191 Cameron, Andy, 208, 259 Carlston, Doug, 135 Carpenter, Edmund, 53 Carroll, Jon, 143, 155 [ 316 ] Index Castañeda, Carlos, 92 Castells, Manuel, 149, 242, 278n23 Center for Linear Studies, 198 Centre Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), 213 Ceruzzi, Paul, 105 – 6, 129 “Cheerful Robot,” 29 Christian right, 215 CIA, MK-ULTRA program, 60 Citibank/Citicorp, 198 Citizens’ Band radio, 144 civil rights movement, 31, 34, 35 Clinton, Bill, 215 closed informational system, 17 Club of Rome, The Limits to Growth, 120 Coate, John, 146 – 47, 148, 155, 159 “coevolution,” 121 CoEvolution Quarterly, 97, 120 –22, 131, 132, 176, 186, 194 cold war era: artistic process, 47; engagement of universities with, 12; mechanistic world, 62.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Many people read all or parts of the manuscript: Ross Anderson, Steve Bass, Caspar Bowden, Cody Charette, David Campbell, Karen Cooper, Dorothy Denning, Cory Doctorow, Ryan Ellis, Addison Fischer, Camille François, Naomi Gilens, John Gilmore, Jack Goldsmith, Bob Gourley, Bill Herdle, Deborah Hurley, Chrisma Jackson, Reynol Junco, John Kelsey, Alexander Klimburg, David Levari, Stephen Leigh, Harry Lewis, Jun Li, Ken Liu, Alex Loomis, Sascha Meinrath, Aleecia M. McDonald, Pablo Molina, Ramez Naam, Peter Neumann, Joseph Nye, Cirsten Paine, David M. Perry, Leah Plunkett, David Prentiss, Barath Raghavan, Marc Rotenberg, Martin Schneier, Seth David Schoen, Adam Shostack, Peter Swire, Kit Walsh, Sara M. Watson, David Weinberger, Dustin Wenzel, Marcy Wheeler, Richard Willey, Ben Wizner, Josephine Wolff, Jonathan Zittrain, and Shoshana Zuboff. Every one of these people gave me suggestions that I incorporated into the book. A few people were invaluable in writing this book. Kathleen Seidel is the best researcher I have ever found, and I can no longer imagine writing a book without her help. Same with Rebecca Kessler, who edited the book twice during my writing process and gave me critical suggestions each time. Beth Friedman, who has copyedited everything I have written for over a decade, continues to be irreplaceable.


pages: 549 words: 147,112

The Lost Bank: The Story of Washington Mutual-The Biggest Bank Failure in American History by Kirsten Grind

asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, big-box store, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, fixed income, housing crisis, Maui Hawaii, money market fund, mortgage debt, naked short selling, NetJets, shareholder value, short selling, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, too big to fail, Y2K

Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: The Role of High Risk Home Loans, April 13, 2010, Exhibit 1h, p. 26. (Hereafter cited as Senate Investigations Subcommittee.) 26. Kirsten Grind, “Insiders Detail Reasons for WaMu’s Failure,” Puget Sound Business Journal, Jan. 23, 2009. 27. Melissa Allison, “Less Office, More Space for WaMu,” Seattle Times, Mar. 10, 2006. 28. Robert Slater, Jack Welch and the GE Way (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999). 29. Shoshana Zuboff, “The New Adulthood,” Fast Company, Aug. 1, 2004. 30. Senate Investigations Subcommittee, Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: The Role of High Risk Loans, Steve Rotella interview. 31. Stephanie Anderson Forest, “Is This Any Way to Run a Bank?” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Oct. 13, 2003. 32. Bill Virgin, “Class-Action Bid in WaMu Lawsuit Will Be Argued at Court Hearing,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 9, 2002. 33.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K

“Computer models need”: Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski, and David Stillwell, “Computer-Based Personality Judgments Are More Accurate Than Those Made by Humans,” PNAS 112, no. 4, January 27, 2015: 1037. had gotten a patent: Facebook, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (US) got patent No. US 8,825,764 B2 with Michael Nowak, San Francisco, CA (US); Dean Eckles, Palo Alto, CA (US) as inventors. The date of patent is September 2, 2014. While it’s unclear how this specific technique was employed, a detailed discussion of Facebook’s data mining is found in Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019). “Entity Graph”: This was described to me by Cameron Marlow, who was once head of Facebook’s Data Science team. the most controversial study: Adam D. I. Kramer, Jamie E. Guillory, and Jeff T. Hancock, “Experimental Evidence of Massive Scale Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks,” PNAS 111, no. 24, June 17: 8788–90.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

Porup: “‘Internet of Things’ Security Is Hilariously Broken and Getting Worse,” arstechnica.com, January 23, 2016. [96] Bruce Schneier: Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World. W. W. Norton, 2015. ISBN: 978-0-393-35217-7 [97] The Grugq: “Nothing to Hide,” grugq.tumblr.com, April 15, 2016. [98] Tony Beltramelli: “Deep-Spying: Spying Using Smartwatch and Deep Learning,” Masters Thesis, IT University of Copenhagen, December 2015. Available at arxiv.org/abs/1512.05616 [99] Shoshana Zuboff: “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, volume 30, number 1, pages 75–89, April 2015. doi:10.1057/jit.2015.5 [100] Carina C. Zona: “Consequences of an Insightful Algorithm,” at GOTO Berlin, November 2016. [101] Bruce Schneier: “Data Is a Toxic Asset, So Why Not Throw It Out?,” schne‐ ier.com, March 1, 2016. [102] John E.


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

[96] Bruce Schneier: Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World. W. W. Norton, 2015. ISBN: 978-0-393-35217-7 [97] The Grugq: “Nothing to Hide,” grugq.tumblr.com, April 15, 2016. [98] Tony Beltramelli: “Deep-Spying: Spying Using Smartwatch and Deep Learning,” Masters Thesis, IT University of Copenhagen, December 2015. Available at arxiv.org/abs/1512.05616 [99] Shoshana Zuboff: “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, volume 30, number 1, pages 75–89, April 2015. doi:10.1057/jit.2015.5 [100] Carina C. Zona: “Consequences of an Insightful Algorithm,” at GOTO Berlin, November 2016. [101] Bruce Schneier: “Data Is a Toxic Asset, So Why Not Throw It Out?,” schneier.com, March 1, 2016. [102] John E.