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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
(Koolhaas) “Where the Neon Lights Are Bright—and Drivers Are No Longer Welcome” (Summers) “White Men’s Roads Through Black Men’s Homes” Slogan Whitman, Walt Whyte, William Williams, Robin Wilson, Charles Erwin Wolverine World Wide World War I Wynkoop Brewing Company Yale University Yamasaki, Minoru Yelp website Young, Brigham Zeilinski, Susan Zipcar zoning; inclusionary Zynga ALSO BY JEFF SPECK Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream (coauthor with Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk) The Smart Growth Manual (coauthor with Andres Duany) PRAISE FOR WALKABLE CITY “Brilliant and companionable … Walkable City is at once entertaining and enraging, its pages dotted with jaw-dropping statistics.” —Carlin Rosengarten, The Post and Courier (Charleston, S.C.) “Cities are the future of the human race, and Jeff Speck knows how to make them work.” —David Owen, staff writer at The New Yorker and author of Green Metropolis “It’s time to add a new name to the roll call of the city gang[,] Jeff Speck … It turns out to be exactly the right time for a down-and-dirty, step-by-step seminar on city repair—especially one conducted by as genial a presenter as Speck.” —Taras Grescoe, The Globe and Mail (Toronto) “Walkable City is an eloquent ode to the livable city and to the values behind it.”
—Paul Goldberger, Pulitzer Prize–winning architecture critic and author of Why Architecture Matters “Jeff Speck is one of the few practitioners and writers in the field who can make a 312-page book on a basic planning concept seem too short … For getting planning ideas into the thinking and the daily life of U.S. cities, this is the book.” —Planning magazine “If you’re a professional planner or advocate, Walkable City is a new, essential reference. If you’re new to the subject, there’s no better introduction.” —Angie Schmitt, Streetsblog “Jeff Speck’s brilliant and entertaining book reminds us that, in America, the exception could easily become the rule. Mayors, planners, and citizens need look no further for a powerful and achievable vision of how to make our ordinary cities great again.” —Joseph P. Riley, mayor of Charleston, S.C. “Walkable City … is a civic how-to for mayors, planners, architects, and anyone interested in the urban future … Full of insight, humor, and common sense.” —Martin C. Pedersen, Metropolis magazine “Companionable and disarmingly candid, Jeff Speck perches on your shoulder and gets you to see your community with fresh eyes.
Walking, the Urban Advantage Why Johnny Can’t Walk The Wrong Color Green II: THE TEN STEPS OF WALKABILITY The Useful Walk Step 1: Put Cars in Their Place Step 2: Mix the Uses Step 3: Get the Parking Right Step 4: Let Transit Work The Safe Walk Step 5: Protect the Pedestrian Step 6: Welcome Bikes The Comfortable Walk Step 7: Shape the Spaces Step 8: Plant Trees The Interesting Walk Step 9: Make Friendly and Unique Faces Step 10: Pick Your Winners Acknowledgments Notes Works Cited Geographic Index General Index Also by Jeff Speck Praise for Walkable City Copyright PROLOGUE This is not the next great book on American cities. That book is not needed. An intellectual revolution is no longer necessary. What characterizes the discussion on cities these days is not a wrongheadedness or a lack of awareness about what needs to be done, but rather a complete disconnect between that awareness and the actions of those responsible for the physical form of our communities.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
I made the mistake of trading in my ’60 Chevy for a very cool ’64 Pontiac Grand Prix with white bucket seats. Turns out I wasn’t the only one who thought it was cool. Within a year, it was stolen off the streets of Bensonhurst and I was reduced to riding a bike: in 1969, the opposite of cool. My stupidity, by the way, wasn’t limited to making trade-in decisions. My embrace of driving—while I had a car to drive, that is—was contributing to the demise of something smart—walkable city streets—though I didn’t realize it for years. I did attend classes, too. In New York State high schools, students take standardized tests, known as Regents Exams, in a variety of subjects, and at Brooklyn Tech I had scored the highest grade in the school on the physics exam. I wasn’t particularly interested in physics, but I thought it was my calling, so when the time came to choose a major, physics was it.
It’s remarkable to me how many of my Millennial employees who grew up in suburbs subsequently opted out of a driving-dependent life. And, since they were the demographic cohort most likely to drive as adults—way more than city kids, anyway—their defection counted twice, the same way that a second-place team’s victory over the team they’re chasing adds a half game to the team behind and takes a half game away from the team ahead. By moving not to another suburb but to a walkable city, a suburban young adult electing not to drive isn’t quite a “man bites dog” newsflash, but it is certainly a snap at what had been a routine rite of passage since the end of World War II. After fifty years of mistaken decisions about America’s built environment, a lot of Millennials are looking for something different. It’s also not a coincidence that Millennials were far likelier to grow up with two parents commuting.
c For more about the importance of information-rich transportation systems for Millennials and everyone, see Chapter 7. d There’s something perverse about using bike riding to sell cars. e Actually, everyone likes the sound of that kind of place. Though the percentages are highest among the young, more than half of forty- and fifty-year-olds reported a preference for living in mixed-use communities. f One consequence is that supply and demand are increasingly out of whack in desirable—that is, walkable—cities and neighborhoods. This leads inevitably to higher housing costs, and more and more stratification among Millennials: as prices get bid up, fewer and fewer low-earning families stay, which leads to a self-reinforcing cycle. Prices that go up tend to keep going up. One perverse result is that the highest-earning families end up with the lowest transportation costs. Households in drivable suburban neighborhoods spend, on average, 20 percent of their family incomes on transportation.
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city
In my own work and in this book, I apply my own materialist understanding of what tools are effective—and therefore called for—to land use and human behavior. And despite a major theme of the book—that transportation drives (or deter-mines) land use—I am a professional planning practitioner. Therefore I elaborate more thoroughly the details of urban design than the details of transportation engineering. I love healthy, walkable cities—their energy, vitality, and rich diversity. I wrote this book in large part because I have seen the equivalent of too many monuments like my neighborhood street marker toppled, and because I fear that we are allowing cars to destroy the joys of the traditional city by dissipating their energy, sapping their vitality, and homogenizing their fascinating diversity.If we are to have the full use of automobiles, cities must be remade.
For public retail and office buildings, a feature that plays an important role for walkers is an entrance on the street. Buildings that have only a rear or side entrance (usually, an entrance oriented toward a parking lot) not only make travel highly inconvenient for pedestrians and public transit users but also cut the building off from street life—the building turns its back on the public and reduces urban vibrancy.36 As walkers in a walkable city, we want not only convenient, welcoming entrances on the sidewalk but also windows. What is more boring, deadly, and impersonal than a long expanse of blank wall? Homogenized, banal “icon architecture“ (also known as “cookie cutter” or “franchise” architecture), which immediately conveys a corporate image to the passerby—McDonald’s golden arches, Kentucky Fried Chicken’s red-and-white stripes—diminishes a city’s unique identity and creates what Jim Kunstler calls the “geography of nowhere.”37 A WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING We should be on guard not to allow projects touted as New Urbanist that deliver New Urbanism‘s principles only in a skin-deep way, such as those that perpetuate car dependence, or that fail to provide a mix of housing affordability, even if the houses have front porches or other forms of window dressing.
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
When the buildings or houses that line the street are set far back and spaced wide apart, it creates an atmosphere of more open road—less “lateral friction,” in transportation engineerspeak—which encourages speed; when buildings or homes are built closer to the road and closer to one another, it creates a sense of “spatial enclosure” and encourages drivers to go slower. “The wider the street and the less lateral friction a motorist has, the faster a motorist is going to go,” says Dumbaugh. Jeff Speck, a renowned city planner and author of Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time, puts it another way: “Most motorists drive the speed at which they feel comfortable, which is the speed to which the road has been engineered.” Some of the most dangerous roads in all of suburbia are the arterial roads, the faster-moving commercial thoroughfares that connect suburbs to one another. Because these roads combine fast-moving through traffic—the cars whizzing from town to town at forty miles an hour or more—with slow-moving “access traffic”—the cars that slow down and put on their blinker to turn left or right into the Best Buy or Home Depot—they can easily cause pileup accidents.
Norton, 2011); John Pulcher, “Public Transportation,” in Susan Hanson and Genevieve Giuliano, The Geography of Urban Transportation, 3rd ed. (Guilford Press, 2004). We have the highest per capita: World Bank statistics. One study found a nearly 500 percent: Peter Swift, “Residential Street Typology and Injury Accident Frequency,” June 1997; updated 2002, 2006. Jeff Speck, a renowned city planner: Jeff Speck, Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012), p. 172. Specifically, Dumbaugh found: Eric Dumbaugh and Robert Rae, “Safe Urban Form: Revisiting the Relationship Between Community Design and Traffic Safety,” Journal of the American Planning Association 75, no. 3 (Summer 2009): 309–29. A recent report authored by experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found: Richard J.
The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky
Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar
When there are more people nearby to easily access and share cars, clothes, or bikes, the service is more cost-effective and profitable. Partnerships are easier to find and execute. Share platforms such as restaurants, taxis, broadband wireless, apartment buildings, airports, and hotels are more profitable to expand in a denser municipal environment. No wonder that, even in the United States, walkable cities and neighborhoods designed along the lines of European “café society” have become more desirable. Real estate listings feature “walk scores.” There’s even a noticeable reverse migration from American suburbs back to the cities. Urban areas with greater density are also fertile ground for clusters of related Mesh businesses to take root and grow. Michael Porter at Harvard studies industry clusters, such as shoes in Milan, publishing in New York, film in Mumbai, and technology in Silicon Valley.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
As an adult I have lived in a broad range of urban, suburban, and exurban locations. We first settled in cities and then in classic suburban locations P R E FAC E | x i when my children were born. As my children were growing, we moved to an exurban location with plenty of land, though the children’s grade school and the country store and post office were all across the road within walking distance. Today, as empty-nesters, my wife and I live in a dense walkable city, able to walk or take transit to just about everything. We use the one car in the household about once a week. My family has experienced just about all forms of metropolitan living possible and has enjoyed each one. Attempting to answer that question I first posed to myself on Market Street in Center City, Philadelphia eventually led me to my first career as a real estate consultant. As the managing director and co-owner of Robert Charles Lesser & Co., the nation’s largest independent real estate advisory firm, I focused on how metropolitan areas grew, writing extensively about this topic for national magazines, academic journals, and real estate industry publications.
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
But one can choose at least some of them. In any case, the best designers know that the choice of who not to work with is as often more important than who one does choose (or is forced to accept, simply to pay the rent). In a moment when sustainability is gaining more and more traction in design discourse, this future-as-client model moves designers past the defaults of nontoxic inks, recyclable consumables, and walkable cities into deep issues of sustainability, or the very future of design as a human activity. This is all well and good, but how to adopt the future as a client, what methods are available, and how can these methods function beyond the scope of traditional design and interest those of us who are not designers? One methodology worth exploring is scenario planning, or as will be explained later, the crafting of bespoke futures.18 Remember that not only have corporations not forgotten the future, they have developed measures to plan for it.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city
The city, belatedly, is building an ultramodern, fully automated subway and rail system, called Dubai Metro, but this attempt to graft transit onto a city like Dubai, even though the project is backed by what occasionally appears to be all the money in the world, is an enterprise destined to disappoint. People who use the new trains will still face the challenge of getting themselves from their metro stop to their final destination, since Dubai must be one of the least walkable cities in the world. I stayed in one small hotel and two big ones—including the Burj Al Arab—and there was no plausible destination to which I could have traveled on foot from any of them. Going from virtually anywhere in Dubai to virtually anywhere else means getting into a car and plunging into the permanent traffic jam that hogties the central city. Traffic during my visit was snarled not only by the huge number of cars but also by Dubai’s Sisyphean efforts to make room for still more drivers: existing expressways and interchanges, whose concrete had scarcely had time to harden, were being torn apart and widened, necessitating detours and delays.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
And yet if the grid doesn’t happen, Tysons may never be a vibrant city or any kind of city at all. It may just be a collection of tall buildings arranged a little more compactly than the ones that are there now. In the summer of 2010, Tysons Corner was a jumble of construction activity, but it was all subway. The residential, retail, and office developers had all delayed their plans for the new walkable city, a casualty of the national bank lending crunch and a glut of suburban office space. But the county board had just reaffirmed its support for the entire project, residential towers, gridded streets, and all. The developers insisted they remained committed to it. All seemed convinced that when the transit line opens, New Urbanist development fervor will rise again. Macerich said officially that it would continue to take its time and “would be guided by market demand.”
To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton
affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration
The mostly white forces against Wal-Mart saw their challenge to a subsidized big-box store as a stand for the common good. The data was in: Wal-Mart Â�didn’t add jobs, it cannibalized existing ones. It drove locally owned businesses under, homogenized communities, and degraded the landscape—and all with help from the public purse. With the government contracting out its public housing to for-Â�profit developers, the tenants became loss leaders in a slick real-estate deal. Did residents of this famously walkable city really want to hike across acres of hot asphalt as Red Lobsters and Home Depots followed in the big blue wake of Wal-Mart? Was nothing sacred, demanded preservationists?4 But many of the store’s backers understood the sacred somewhat differently, as several of the prominent African-American ministers in their ranks attested. Earlier in the year, they had taken part in a conference to train local congregations in the entrepreneurial arts of federal grantwriting, construction partnerships, and tax credits.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
This, he noted excitedly, was precisely the diameter of cities in antiquity—they were just wide enough to walk from the edge to the center and back in an hour’s time. Drawing on the empirical work of the economist Yakov Zahavi, he demonstrated that this pattern is fixed in history. The time we spend commuting has never changed, only our modes of transportation have. The Berlin of 1800 was a compact, walkable city. But as horse trams came along, followed by electric trams, then subways, and finally cars, the city’s periphery raced away from its Enlightenment-era core. Berlin’s diameter was effectively ten times wider in 1950 than it was 150 years earlier, yet it still took only an hour to traverse. The rule has since been dubbed Marchetti’s Constant. Marchetti contended that transportation, not communications, was the “unifying principle of the world.”
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
“If we are ever to cope with climate change in any fundamental way, radical solutions on the social side are where we must focus, though. The relative efficiency of the next generation of solar cells is trivial by comparison.”31 This book is about those radical changes on the social side, as well as on the political, economic, and cultural sides. What concerns me is less the mechanics of the transition—the shift from brown to green energy, from sole-rider cars to mass transit, from sprawling exurbs to dense and walkable cities—than the power and ideological roadblocks that have so far prevented any of these long understood solutions from taking hold on anything close to the scale required. It seems to me that our problem has a lot less to do with the mechanics of solar power than the politics of human power—specifically whether there can be a shift in who wields it, a shift away from corporations and toward communities, which in turn depends on whether or not the great many people who are getting a rotten deal under our current system can build a determined and diverse enough social force to change the balance of power.
Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington
airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War
Worst-case scenario is a driver who decides to terminate the ride, in which case you can pick up the next black-and-white that comes along. All that has ever happened to me with this stunt is a somewhat sullen driver. 08_259290-ch05.qxp 80 7/22/08 12:29 AM Page 80 CHAPTER 5 . CAIRO ON FOOT At first glance, Cairo looks chaotic and terribly crowded with cars, donkeys, buses, and people, but it’s actually a surprisingly walkable city for the reasonably fit. Safety is a very minor concern in Cairo, with random violent crime virtually unheard of and pickpocketing rare. What is fairly common, however, is general hassling. In a car or on a bus, you’ll be cut off from the street, but walking through town there will be a lot of people who want to talk to you and get a tip. Downtown, particularly around the museum area, and out by the pyramids in Giza, this takes the form of touts (khertee in the local street Arabic) who will use any ploy to strike up a conversation and then try to entice you into a range of commercial transactions, all of which are designed to fleece you.