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One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
which coordinated bike blocs at the event, they can give protesters a wider range of flexibility with their demonstrations and can provide logistical support to demonstrators on foot.118 Moreover, the incorporation of bikes into street protests contributes to a festive atmosphere that not only “softens” the image of protesters but also “conveys an environmental message without a placard.”119 The most obvious impact that Critical Mass has as a strategic action is to create, or in some cases rejuvenate, people’s interest in bicycles as vehicles for public expression. a new wave of creative bike demonstrations, protest rides, and celebrations ensued since Critical Mass gained popularity in the 1990s, including the somber memorial rides used to pay tribute to cyclists killed by automobiles, as well as the playful World naked Bike ride, started by activist/artist Conrad Schmidt as a protest against the indecency of oil.120 By presenting bicycling as something other than a competitive activity, an amalgamation of cliquey subcultures, or an Über-rational utilitarian mode of transportation, Critical Mass has at times successfully attracted new people to bicycling who are otherwise disinterested in the identity of being a bike rider. Charles Komanoff highlights the importance of this shift in a speech delivered to Bike Summer attendees in 2005: Critical Mass is generating new energy for cycling.
For example, bicycle industry analyst Jay Townley observes that the number of cyclists riding bicycles worth more than $4,000 increased from about 20,000 to 90,000 between 2000 and 2005, while the number of high-end road bikes sold in the United States—priced at roughly $1,100 a piece—increased fourfold in the same time frame (from 145,000 to 498,0000): these high-end bikes accounted for 15 percent of all sales and nearly 40 percent of the retail dollars spent on bicycles in 2005.81 in addition to the emergence of a $10,000 bicycle market, guided winery tours, and leisure events with entry fees, even some of the most common cycling activities require specialized and somewhat expensive equipment (bikes, clothing, and/or accessories) as well as—ironically enough—an automobile for transporting bicycles to specific destinations, whether a road race, a Cyclocross course, a vélodrome, a BMX ramp, or a mountain bike trail in the woods. My point in calling attention to these examples is that with so many cyclists staking a claim to the bicycle as a symbol of nonconformity, voluntary simplicity, and even liberation, it is important to recognize that the bicycle is still firmly embedded within a market economy that not only valorizes unsustainable consumption but also recuperates and depoliticizes some of the very ideas and practices that propel bike advocacy.
active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl
This is what it would look like: The Vision A zero carbon transport future will provide better access for more people to more things than is currently the case. Traffic congestion and time wasted stuck in jams will be a thing of the past and time currently wasted on commuter trips will be spent on rewarding and enriching activities. By 2050 all urban and rural areas will have significantly enhanced public transport and cycling facilities bringing high quality and low-cost transport choices within everyone’s reach. Those who opt not to use a car will save thousands of pounds a year by avoiding the fixed and variable costs of car ownership and use, and will also avoid the uncertainties and potential disruption of oil price shocks as the world adjusts to shortages of supply and increased demand from developing countries and the rapidly growing economies of China and India.
We cannot accommodate an annual average percentage increase in distance travelled for all 7 billion of us so we may as well start explaining, designing and delivering a low mobility alternative. It could not be clearer that most governmental statements in the UK about new urban design or so-called “active” transport (this means walking and cycling) are meaningless unless we engineer this paradigm shift from high mobility to low mobility. Such a paradigm shift also involves a shift in language. The phrase “low mobility” whilst accurately describing a world characterized by fewer kilometres travelled per person per annum fails to convey the richness of a world characterised by many more destinations opportunities within a much smaller physical area and a world where enormous amounts of time and money (and pollution) are not devoted to the business of accessing distant places.
There is a significant positive association between the density of traffic around children’s homes and obesity, as measured by the Body Mass Index (Jerrett et al, 2010). A research project carried out in Atlanta (USA) found that each additional hour spent in a car per day is associated with a 6% increase in the risk of obesity (Frank et al, 2004). The relationship between declining levels of active transport (walking and cycling) and obesity has been explored in detail by Roberts and Edwards (2010) and very clearly summarised by Pucher (2010) and Bassett et al (2008) and this is reproduced as Figure 8.1. Woodcock et al (2009) estimated the health effects of transport policies that would meet greenhouse gas emission reduction targets.
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
But history—and Houston—show that bigger projects succeed better, both in getting built and in serving emerging needs. A bigger vision leaves room for negotiation; a compromise on a large proposal is still better than full funding of a tiny one. The federal government only began spending money on active transportation—that is, infrastructure that supports transit, bicycling, and walking—in 1991. An increasing amount of cycling improvements have been paid for in this way in recent years, but the amount spent on nonmotorized travel still adds up to less than 2% of the federal transportation budget.43 Still, this small amount of money has done great things.
Reaching the 2% mark of federal transportation funding was seen as a major victory by advocates. The 1% mark—or $1 per U.S. resident per year spent on cycling and walking projects—was reached in 2000. For perspective, the federal transportation budget is itself less than 2% of the total U.S. budget. See Gotschi and Mills, “Active Transportation for America: The Case for Increased Federal Investment in Bicycling and Walking, 2008. This paper is a thorough overview of the economics of bicycling and I am indebted to its authors for their framing and research. 44 Figures courtesy of Transportation Alternatives. 45 Snyder, T. “Federal Funding Means More Bike Commuting.”
Portland, Oregon removed parking minimums in the 1980s in areas with frequent transit service, with good success (it has very recently reinstituted them after neighbors of a planned new development feared that on-street parking in that area, which is free, would become hard to find). 98 Gotschi, T., and Mills, K., “Active Transportation For America,” Rails to Trails Conservancy. 2008 99 Pucher, Handy, and Dill, “Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review,” Preventive Medicine. online September 16, 2009 100 Lee and March (2010), Recognising the Economic Role of Bikes: Sharing Parking in Lygon Street, Carlton, Australian Planner Findings are per square meter of parking on retail heavy Lygon Street; 99% of parking space was for cars, 1% for bikes. 101 Ligeti, Eva “Bike Lanes, On Street Parking, and Business” Clean Air Partnership. 2009 102 Clifton, K “Business Cycles: Catering to the Bicycling Market,” OTREC 2012 103 Buck, Darren, “Bikeshare Equity Framework,” (bikepedantic.wordpress.com) November 29, 2012 104 .
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
In addition, while “only” 15 percent of all trips are intermodal (that is, involving two or more modes for the same trip), nearly 60 percent of the city’s residents are multimodal (that is, they use different modes for different trips depending on their daily needs and schedules). And they haven’t forgotten active transportation, either: 36 percent of all trips in Zurich are made on foot, and another 6 percent are by bicycle. It would be easy to conclude that Zurich’s extraordinary transportation network was the residue of historical good luck. Because of its size and age—some of the city’s streets were laid out by the Romans in the first century CE—Zurich never had to cope with the auto-centric design of newer American cities.
If the first chapters of this book are descriptive, a history of the first decades of the automobile age and the mistakes that accompanied it, the next chapters are prescriptive; that is, they outline what forty years of practice as a working transportation engineer have taught me are the best solutions to our existing transportation challenges. This latter part of the book examines each of four key aspects of sustainable and useful urban transportation systems: •Enough density and connectivity to make active transportation—mobility that comes from muscle power: walking and biking—a practical choice for significant numbers of people. (Chapter 5) •Multiple methods of transportation (or what engineers call multimodality) and many points where they intersect (multinodality), such that transit networks don’t depend on a single form of transportation or a dominant core to which all routes lead.
Which is a problem, but also an opportunity. By definition, only a few neighborhoods can be the coolest places to live. But that doesn’t mean that we can’t make everywhere cooler. All we have to do is change the way we think about streets. Portland, Oregon, is the poster child for what has become known as active transportation in America—not just walking but bicycle commuting or even rollerblading, any kind of mobility that depends on human muscle power. This can make Portland’s residents a little smug about the Rose City, but they’ve earned the right. Vehicle miles traveled have fallen 20 percent further in Portland than the US average, and the typical Portlander drives four miles less and eleven minutes less than the average American daily.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
Gary Buiso, “Marty’s Lane Pain Is Fodder for His Christmas Card.” 30. Ibid. 31. Andrea Bernstein, “NYC Biking Is Up 14% from 2010; Overall Support Rises.” 32. Lord. 33. Hurst, 81. 34. Ibid., 175. 35. Bernstein. 36. Thomas Gotschi and Kevin Mills, “Active Transportation for America,” 28. 37. Ibid., 24. 38. Ibid., 225. 39. Children’s Safety Network, “Promoting Bicycle Safety for Children.” 40. John Forester, Bicycle Transportation, 2nd ed., 3. 41. Hurst, 90. 42. John Pucher and Ralph Buehler, “Cycling for Few or for Everyone,” 62–63. 43. Mapes, 40. 44. Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic, 199. 45. Hurst, 94. 46.
The Boston Globe, February 10, 2011. Goodman, Christy. “Expanded Bike-Sharing Program to Link D.C., Arlington.” The Washington Post, May 23, 2010. Gordon, Rachel. “Parking: S.F. Releases Details on Flexible Pricing.” sfgate.com, April 2, 2011. Gotschi, Thomas, and Kevin Mills. “Active Transportation for America: The Case for Increased Federal Investment in Bicycling and Walking.” railstotrails.org, October 20, 2008. Gros, Daniel. “Coal vs. Oil: Pure Carbon vs. Hydrocarbon.” achangeinthewind.com, December 28, 2007. Groves, Martha. “He Put Parking in Its Place.” The Los Angeles Times, October 16, 2010. Grynbaum, Michael.
Lawrence Frank, Lecture to the 18th Congress for the New Urbanism. 5. Molly Farmer, “South Jordan Mom Cited for Neglect for Allowing Child to Walk to School.” 6. Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health, xii. 7. Thomas Gotschi and Kevin Mills, “Active Transportation for America,” 27. 8. Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 111. 9. Neal Peirce, “Biking and Walking: Our Secret Weapon?” 10. Gotschi and Mills, 44. 11. Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution, 230. 12. Elizabeth Kolbert, “XXXL: Why Are We So Fat?” 13. Christopher B. Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism, 76. 14. Catherine Lutz and Anne Lutz Fernandez, Carjacked, 165. 15.
The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus
3D printing, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons
The Rough Guide to Prague by Humphreys, Rob
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, clean water, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile
If you’re staying outside the centre, you’ll have no problems; if you’re at a hotel in the centre, they’ll probably have a few parking spaces reserved for guests, though whether you’ll ﬁnd one vacant is another matter. Cycling Cycling is seen as more of a leisure activity in the Czech Republic than a means of transport. Prague has a handful of brave cycle couriers but the combination of hills, cobbled streets, tram lines and sulphurous air is enough to put most people off. Facilities for bike rental are still not that widespread, but if you’re determined to cycle, head for City Bike, Králodvorská 5, Staré Město (T776 180 284 Wwww.citybike-prague.com; metro Náměstí Republiky) or Praha Bike, Dlouhá 24, Staré Město (T732 388 880, Wwww .prahabike.cz; metro Náměstí Republiky); both outﬁts also organize group rides through Prague.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city
Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
England by David Else
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Early Retirement Extreme by Jacob Lund Fisker
8-hour work day, active transport: walking or cycling, barriers to entry, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, diversification, don't be evil, dumpster diving, financial independence, game design, index fund, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, loose coupling, market bubble, McMansion, passive income, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, psychological pricing, the scientific method, time value of money, transaction costs, wage slave, working poor
The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor
The image of a toff on a bicycle is not far from what the evidence shows: the higher the social position, the more likely are people to have used a bicycle in the previous week. People at the top make more trips of all types than those at the bottom and more by walking and cycling.40 Happily, some in urban planning are putting their talents to designing cities with a view to walkability and active transport. I want to highlight two issues. First is the safe journey to school – taking steps to encourage children to walk or cycle to school. To achieve this will take concentration on the second issue: making cycling and walking safe. In Copenhagen, 36 per cent of the journeys to work or education are by bicycle.41 Cycle travel is relatively safe because of the separation of cars, pedestrians and cycles.
Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Bali & Lombok Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, first-past-the-post, global village, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism
France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams
active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket
In chapter subsections and city listings, details appear either under Tours or under Activities. The Association of British Travel Organisers to France (www.holidayfrance.org.uk) has an online list of UK-based companies offering trips to France – click ‘ABTOF Members’ under ‘Directory’. A multitude of companies run activities-based tours, usually including accommodation, meals and transport. ATG Oxford (www.atg-oxford.co.uk) Cycling and rambling holidays for independent travellers. Butterfield & Robinson (www.butterfield.com) Canada-based upmarket walking and biking holidays. CBT Tours (www.biketrip.net) Cycling tours are the speciality of this US-based outfit. Classic Bike Provence (www.classicbikeprovence.com) Motorcycling tours in Provence and beyond astride classic bikes from the ’50s to the ’80s.