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pages: 123 words: 32,382

Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web by Paul Adams

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Airbnb, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, information retrieval, invention of the telegraph, planetary scale, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, sentiment analysis, social web, statistical model, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, white flight

* * * Summary Experiences are better when businesses are built around people. Many new businesses are using the social web as a platform to change established industries and incumbent companies. The web is being fundamentally rebuilt around people, and this will change how businesses operate. Almost everything we do revolves around other people, and the social web will reach us all. This rebuilding of the web is happening because our online life is catching up with our offline life. We’re social creatures, and social networks have been around for 10,000 years. The social behavior we’ve evolved over those thousands of years will be what motivates us to act on the social web. Businesses will need to understand those behavior patterns to be successful. The social web will change how we think about marketing. What we’ve already learned from the ability to observe and quantify human relationships has moved us away from the myth of the “influential” and toward understanding how groups of friends talk about businesses, brands, and products.

This was social behavior being bolted on. We are now entering the third phase (right), where websites are being rebuilt around people. Social behavior is the key feature. It is not bolted on. * * * Quick Tips Don’t think about the social web as a set of features to add on to your existing site. The social web is not about adding a “like” button or a “share” button to your web pages. Bolting on social features will not work, because we don’t bolt on social behavior offline. We’ve seen how Zynga, Facebook Photos, and Etsy reinvented businesses by designing around people. Think of the social web like you think of electricity. It’s always there, powering everything else. Social behavior is the same: always there, motivating us to act. It should be placed in the center of the development process. * * * Why the web is changing Social networks are not new For thousands of years, people have formed into groups, built strong and weak relationships with others, formed allegiances, and spread rumor and gossip.

Grouped How small groups of friends are the key to influence on the social web Paul Adams For Jenny. Thank you. Grouped: How small groups of friends are the key to influence on the social web Paul Adams New Riders 1249 Eighth Street Berkeley, CA 94710 510/524-2178 510/524-2221 (fax) Find us on the Web at: www.newriders.com To report errors, please send a note to errata@peachpit.com New Riders is an imprint of Peachpit, a division of Pearson Education. Copyright © 2012 by Paul Adams Project Editor: Michael J. Nolan Development Editor: Rose Weisburd Production Editor: Becky Chapman-Winter Copyeditor/Proofreader: Jan Seymour Book Designer: Mimi Heft Compositor: Danielle Foster Indexer: James Minkin Notice of Rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

 

pages: 541 words: 109,698

Mining the Social Web: Finding Needles in the Social Haystack by Matthew A. Russell

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Climategate, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, full text search, Georg Cantor, Google Earth, information retrieval, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, NP-complete, profit motive, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, traveling salesman, Turing test, web application

In fact, this observation is the basis of our next analysis. Tip The token RT can be prepended to a message to indicate that it is being relayed, or “retweeted” in Twitter parlance. For example, a tweet of “RT @SocialWebMining Justin Bieber is on SNL 2nite. w00t?!?” would indicate that the sender is retweeting information gained via the user @SocialWebMining. An equivalent form of the retweet would be “Justin Bieber is on SNL 2nite. w00t?!? Ummm…(via @SocialWebMining)”. Extracting relationships from the tweets Because the social web is first and foremost about the linkages between people in the real world, one highly convenient format for storing social web data is a graph. Let’s use NetworkX to build out a graph connecting Twitterers who have retweeted information. We’ll include directionality in the graph to indicate the direction that information is flowing, so it’s more precisely called a digraph.

Thus, given the conventions for retweeting, we only have to search for the following patterns: RT followed by a username via followed by a username Although Chapter 5 introduces a module specifically designed to parse entities out of tweets, Example 1-10 demonstrates that you can use the re module to compile[8] a pattern and extract the originator of a tweet in a lightweight fashion, without any special libraries. Example 1-10. Using regular expressions to find retweets >>> import re >>> rt_patterns = re.compile(r"(RT|via)((?:\b\W*@\w+)+)", re.IGNORECASE) >>> example_tweets = ["RT @SocialWebMining Justin Bieber is on SNL 2nite. w00t?!?", ... "Justin Bieber is on SNL 2nite. w00t?!? (via @SocialWebMining)"] >>> for t in example_tweets: ... rt_patterns.findall(t) ... [('RT', ' @SocialWebMining')] [('via', ' @SocialWebMining')] In case it’s not obvious, the call to findall returns a list of tuples in which each tuple contains either the matching text or an empty string for each group in the pattern; note that the regex does leave a leading space on the extracted entities, but that’s easily fixed with a call to strip(), as demonstrated in Example 1-11.

Mining the Social Web Matthew A. Russell Editor Mike Loukides Copyright © 2011 Matthew Russell This book uses RepKover™, a durable and flexible lay-flat binding. O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles (http://my.safaribooksonline.com). For more information, contact our corporate/institutional sales department: (800) 998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Mining the Social Web, the image of a groundhog, and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks.

 

pages: 71 words: 14,237

21 Recipes for Mining Twitter by Matthew A. Russell

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en.wikipedia.org, Google Earth, natural language processing, NP-complete, social web, web application

. # See API resources that offer the include_entities parameter for details. entities = {} entities['user_mentions'] = [] for um in extractor.extract_mentioned_screen_names_with_indices(): entities['user_mentions'].append(um) entities['hashtags'] = [] for ht in extractor.extract_hashtags_with_indices(): 1.3 Extracting Tweet Entities | 5 # Massage field name to match production twitter api ht['text'] = ht['hashtag'] del ht['hashtag'] entities['hashtags'].append(ht) entities['urls'] = [] for url in extractor.extract_urls_with_indices(): entities['urls'].append(url) return entities if __name__ == '__main__': # A mocked up array of tweets for purposes of illustration. # Assume tweets have been fetched from the /search resource or elsewhere. tweets = \ [ { 'text' : 'Get @SocialWebMining example code at http://bit.ly/biais2 #w00t' # ... more tweet fields ... }, # ... more tweets ... ] for tweet in tweets: tweet['entities'] = get_entities(tweet) print json.dumps(tweets, indent=1) Sample results follow in Example 1-7. Example 1-7. Sample extracted Tweet entities [ { "text": "Get @SocialWebMining example code at http://bit.ly/biais2 #w00t", "entities": { "user_mentions": [ { "indices": [ 4, 20 ], "screen_name": "SocialWebMining" } ], 6 | The Recipes "hashtags": [ { "indices": [ 58, 63 ], "text": "w00t" } ], "urls": [ { "url": "http://bit.ly/biais2", "indices": [ 37, 57 ] } ] } } ] Whenever possible, use the include_entities parameter in requests to have Twitter automatically extract tweet entities for you.

ISBN: 978-1-449-30316-7 [LSI] 1296485191 Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii The Recipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 Using OAuth to Access Twitter APIs Looking Up the Trending Topics Extracting Tweet Entities Searching for Tweets Extracting a Retweet’s Origins Creating a Graph of Retweet Relationships Visualizing a Graph of Retweet Relationships Capturing Tweets in Real-time with the Streaming API Making Robust Twitter Requests Harvesting Tweets Creating a Tag Cloud from Tweet Entities Summarizing Link Targets Harvesting Friends and Followers Performing Setwise Operations on Friendship Data Resolving User Profile Information Crawling Followers to Approximate Potential Influence Analyzing Friendship Relationships such as Friends of Friends Analyzing Friendship Cliques Analyzing the Authors of Tweets that Appear in Search Results Visualizing Geodata with a Dorling Cartogram Geocoding Locations from Profiles (or Elsewhere) 1 3 5 7 10 13 15 20 22 25 29 34 37 39 43 45 48 50 52 54 58 v Preface Introduction This intentionally terse recipe collection provides you with 21 easily adaptable Twitter mining recipes and is a spin-off of Mining the Social Web (O'Reilly), a more comprehensive work that covers a much larger cross-section of the social web and related analysis. Think of this ebook as the jetpack that you can strap onto that great Twitter mining idea you've been noodling on—whether it’s as simple as running some disposible scripts to crunch some numbers, or as extensive as creating a full-blown interactive web application. All of the recipes in this book are written in Python, and if you are reasonably confident with any other programming language, you’ll be able to quickly get up to speed and become productive with virtually no trouble at all.

A great warmup for this ebook is Chapter 1 (Hacking on Twitter Data) from Mining the Social Web. It walks you through tools like easy_install and discusses specific environment issues that might be helpful—and the best news is that you can download a full resolution copy, absolutely free! One other thing you should consider doing up front, if you haven’t already, is quickly skimming through the official Twitter API documentation and related development documents linked on that page. Twitter has a very easy-to-use API with a lot of degrees of freedom, and twitter (http://github.com/sixohsix/twitter), a third-party package we’ll use extensively, is a beautiful wrapper around the API. Once you know a little bit about the API, it’ll quickly become obvious how to interact with it using twitter. Finally—enjoy! And be sure to follow @SocialWebMining on Twitter or “like” the Mining the Social Web Facebook page to stay up to date with the latest updates, news, additional content, and more.

 

pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

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23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

After a London Fashion Week campaign, Twitter, using metrics from Topsy, said that Burberry had received 245,762 “mentions”—one of the social-web metrics du jour. Later, that number changed to 10,000, as the Twitter company blog post about the campaign underwent several revisions. These mentions also don’t get at some other important questions: How many people saw these tweets? How many people follow people who mentioned Burberry? How many of those people were logged on, and how many are fake or inactive accounts? How many people actually clicked on something or decided to make a purchase? These statistics turn out to be profoundly important for how advertising dollars are apportioned out (as well as, in some cases, bonuses for writers and others in the industry). They also influence what you read online and how you read it—a tremendous amount of journalism on the social web is built on a kind of feedback loop, inspired by what is already trending and what might soon trend.

For many users, the site’s rivers of mindless content are exactly what they’re designed to be: enjoyable trifles to be idly digested and shared during slow periods in the white-collar workday. As one monolith in the new-media landscape, then, BuzzFeed isn’t so menacing. But as a prominent example of how a news organization can be built, ground up, for the social web, it is troubling, all the more so because its occasional quality content is hidden in thickets of dreck. (BuzzFeed, like some other digital organizations, believes that home pages don’t matter much anymore—referrals through the social web are much more important—which is one reason why the home page of BuzzFeed.com is a mass of links, none of them communicating their relative importance.) More than that, the site is based on a patronizing and infantilizing view of users, who are seen as easily manipulatable totems—target the crazies!

And why not, when the individual’s voice is supposed to have the power to start a movement or sink a political campaign? The opinion is the prototypical expression of the social web: everyone has them, and yet there are never enough. Web sites, apps, purchases, restaurants, books, TV shows and films streamed on Netflix—everything and every place is open to being summarized in a few sentences and a one-to-five star rating. Even prisons are now reviewed, however cheekily, on Yelp. Sometimes we review as a favor to a friend, in return for a discount, or because our disappointment with the last season of True Blood forced us to act (strong opinions play well on the social web). Despite the widespread belief that many ratings sites are inaccurate or skewed—about 14 percent are fake, according to a 2012 Gartner study—reviewing continues apace.

 

pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, web application

It will be a bit like walking in the fog: we won’t be able to see the end of the trail, but as we move forward more of the path will become clear. It will take a non-predictive mindset, one that’s curious to unknown possibilities. As the people shaping the connected world (entrepreneurs and corporations alike), we now have a chance to invent the commercial implications of the inevitable web of things. The social web has now connected us and introduced a new era for startups, so we should take the lead and create physical-goods mash-ups and value equations that couldn’t exist in a world without connectivity. And as for the social web, we’ll only ever know what people want to track, share and do when the tools are put in their hands. When people are able to track something, they start keeping score. We can’t help but turn things into a game. While it’s true that business is already a game, the gaming mechanics of industry are about to enter an entirely new era.

The thing we need to be careful about is that these facts point to the reality of how isolated we’ve become from those we care most about. If you’re a hard-working industrial participant, then it’s true that your co-workers have both a higher frequency and a higher proximity than any of your family members. We can only hope there are some people in the group we really enjoy being with. It’s probably why a lot of people take jobs — and leave bosses. Digital clustering In recent years, since the social web arrived, we’ve started escaping our geographic realities. Facilitated by these tools, there has been a classic emergence of digital cohorts based around shared value systems and interest. We can now choose the people we want to increase our frequency with even if we’re geographically constrained. Our permanent and daily digital connections enable us to circumvent our geography. We do a form of border hopping to connect with those we enjoy collaborating with, rather than collaborating with those who are merely profitable.

It’s collaborative in nature: human first, commercial second. Sometimes we have to remind ourselves of how dramatic these changes really are. So many of the things we’re seeing are counter intuitive to what we’d expect from large corporations. Let’s take the simple example of the two biggest global social-media competitors, Facebook and Twitter. Both of them have cross-platform sharing. The entire social web has this. This means that users can choose to publish on one platform and have it automatically posted on the other platform. It’s very hard to imagine a six-pack of cola coming with three cans of Pepsi and three cans of Coca-Cola. But in the new world, there tends to be more focus on coopetition than there is on competition. Not only does it put the user’s needs first, it also populates the social-media ecosystem to benefit both brands.

 

pages: 226 words: 69,893

The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook: A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius and Betrayal by Ben Mezrich

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Mark Zuckerberg, Peter Thiel, rolodex, side project, Silicon Valley, social web

The Winklevosses were accusing Mark of stealing their idea? Their dating Web site? They wanted to shut thefacebook down? Could they even do that? Sure, Mark had met with them, had e-mailed with them, had led them on. But he hadn’t signed any contracts, and hadn’t written any code. And to Eduardo, thefacebook seemed so different. Well, it was also a social Web site—but there were dozens—if not hundreds—of social Web sites. Hell, every computer science major on campus had a social Web site under development. That Aaron Greenspan kid had even called part of his networking portal “the facebook,” or something like that. Did that mean they could all sue one another? Just for having similar ideas? “I talked to a three-one at the law school,” Mark said. “I sent a letter back. And another one to the school. Under that next book.”

He said that he anticipated that 900 students would have joined the site by this morning.’” Holy shit. That couldn’t be true. Nine hundred students had signed up to his Web site in four days? How was that possible? Zuckerberg didn’t know nine hundred people. He didn’t know four people, as far as Tyler could tell. In Tyler’s view, the kid had no friends. He had no social life. How the hell had he launched a social Web site and gotten that kind of response in four days? “I checked the site out as soon as I read this. It’s true, the thing is really exploding. You have to have a Harvard e-mail, and then you get to upload your picture, and personal and academic info. You can search for people according to interests, and then when you find your friends, you make a network out of them.” Tyler felt his hands tightening.

Tyler gave him the background of their relationship with Zuckerberg, then told him what he’d read in the Crimson—and what he, Cameron, and Divya had seen for themselves, logging into thefacebook.com. “There are things that seem real similar, Dad.” The key, to Tyler, was the setting, the exclusivity of it, that really separated what Mark had made from social network sites like Friendster. You had to have a Harvard e-mail to enter Mark’s site—and that had been their idea, too, to launch a Harvard-centric social Web site. The very idea of making everyone who joined have an .edu e-mail address was completely innovative, and potentially very important to the initial success of the site. It was sort of a screening process that kept the thing exclusive and safe. Maybe a lot of the features Mark had put in thefacebook.com were different—but the overall concept, to Tyler, seemed too similar. Mark had met with them three times.

 

pages: 286 words: 82,065

Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra

Someone whose job it is not to create more content, but to make sense of all the content that others are creating. To find the best and most relevant content and bring it forward. The people who choose to take on this role will be known as Content Curators. the future of the social web will be driven by these Content Curators, who take it upon themselves to collect and share the best content online for others to consume and take on the role of citizen editors, publishing highly valuable compilations of content created by others. In time, these curators will bring more utility and order to the social web. In doing so, they will help to add a voice and point of view to organizations and companies that can connect them with customers—creating an entirely new dialogue based on valued content rather than just brand created marketing messages.

It doesn’t all have to be original. It does all have to be useful and relevant to the brand experience.” So you can see that the PR folks and the advertising folks don’t look at the world the same way. Maheu points to campaigns like the Old Spice Man, which was done by a competitive agency, as evidence that broadcast television still drives buzz and starts consumer conversations. But no one denies that the social Web was a massive accelerant for Mr. Spice. While Rubel talks about raindrops, Maheu still wants to seed the clouds. There’s a difference in worldview. “I think marketing has evolved into two tiers … one which means you still need a campaign, you need points of view,” Maheu says. “You need brand to have the courage to say something and to engage with consumers on something that’s going to be interesting.”

When I first met her, she was already something of a curator, although she probably didn’t use that word back in 2004. What she did was bring together a remarkable mix of speakers, guests, and attendees at what was perhaps the most groundbreaking technology conference of its time: PC Forum. Now Dyson is focused, mostly, on two areas of interest: space exploration and in the related fields of health care and genetics. But she remains one of the most thoughtful participants in the emerging social Web. “There will be so much content that people will need it filtered: by topic, by whether their friends liked it, by popularity,” Dyson says. She is seeing the innovation shifting from searching to filtering: “Overall, there will be some recognition that filtering by humans—they used to be called editors—can be a useful function. “Journalists, the best of the best, will be recognized because they do more than filter content,” Dyson explains.

 

pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

In fact, the Japanese government actually called off the whaling expedition. Everyone who creates something online has lost control of their message but in the process has gained access to a global audience. Mister Splashy Pants is a story about the democratization of content online—starring a whale—and it demonstrated how little control we have over our brands. It turns out we never had control, only now we realize it. Before the social web, we had little idea of what people actually thought about us—now we know, and when like-minded people band together, they wield a really big stick. The talk is over. Applause. Even a few “Woo!”s from the crowd. Nailed it. I’d given a few non-CompUSA talks before then, but once the video of my TED talk hit a million views and was front-paged on reddit,4 I became a known “public speaker.” I have a lecture agent now and get paid more for a speaking gig than I did for an entire year’s work at Pizza Hut.

The first week was slow, and we’d only raised $10,000 of Lester’s budgeted $39,000 goal, which would cover the entire production of the album, payment for band members, and fulfillment of the various rewards, such as T-shirts and even signed cowbells. Turns out I’d forgotten to upload the trailer to YouTube: I’d only uploaded it to Kickstarter, where it couldn’t be as easily shared. My bad. As soon as my foolishness was corrected, we raised more than $18,000 in a single day as the video blazed around the social web. This buzz triggered attention from bloggers, who covered the story, which eventually connected us to a writer at CNN, who wanted to write an article for the website. We still had five thousand dollars to go when that story hit the front page of CNN.com and stayed there for most of Christmas Eve—Dylan and Lester grinning for all the world to see. The next morning father and son were interviewed on the CNN show Starting Point.

When the project ended, we’d nearly doubled our goal, and Lester had $61,084—minus a few percentage points in fees to Kickstarter and credit card companies—to make his record and reward his fans. And this time, it was all going to belong to him. It made me so proud to finally say, “Lester, your time has come today.” The industry of art, like other industries, is dramatically changing, thanks to the open Internet. For some time, only a few fortunate individuals who had wealthy patrons were able to produce art. But today, the social web has made it possible for any artist with a good idea and an Internet connection to create, publicize, and monetize his art. As power shifts from incumbents trying to preserve outdated business models to newly empowered artists, it’s bound to make former gatekeepers uncomfortable, even scared. That’s usually a positive sign. We’ll be able to enjoy the work of comedians, cartoonists, and musicians who otherwise would’ve come and gone without ever sharing their genius with the world.

 

pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Another way to see continuity in technology’s evolution is by depicting the various phases of the Web’s evolution, and seeing that the blockchain is yet another new phase, focused on peer-to-peer, trust-based asset transactions. Let us remember the key mini-revolutions that the Internet brought us since 1994: Personal Communications, Self-Publishing, E-Commerce, and the Social Web. In hindsight, each of these four phases was defined by the functions they disrupted: the post-office, print media, supply chains/physical stores, and the real world. PHASE GOAL DISRUPTING OUTCOME Communications Reach anyone in the world Post office Personal Communications Publishing Spread ideas Print media Self-publishing Commerce Trade Supply chains and physical stores E-Commerce Social Interactions Connect with friends Real world Social Web Asset Transactions Manage what you own Existing custodians Trust-based Services The irony of this situation is that blockchain-based applications can replace any Web application.

This gets us to the next nugget in this emerging puzzle: how do we create new value? You create value by running services on the blockchain. Blockchain services will succeed by creating a new ecosystem (just like the Web did), and it will get stronger on its own over time. There is a precedent to what has already happened in cyberspace. With the Internet, we had e-commerce, e-business, e-services, e-markets, and later the social web arrived in the form of large-scale social networks. Each one of these segments created its own wealth. Thus far, there is no clear segmentation in the emerging field of “blockchain services,” but they will be in the form of services where a trust component is stored on the blockchain (identity, rights, membership, ownership, voting, time stamping, content attribution), services where a contractual component is executed on the blockchain (wagers, family trusts, escrow, proof of work delivery, bounties, proof of bets, proof of compliance), decentralized peer-to-peer marketplaces (such as OpenBazaar or La’Zooz), and Distributed Autonomous Organizations (DAO) whose governance and operations run on the blockchain.

Special Address of CFTC Commissioner Before the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation. Blockchain Symposium. March 29, 2016. Hammer, Michael, and James Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, & the Economic World. New York: Basic Books, 1995. Mougayar, William, and David Cohen. “After the Social Web, Here Comes the Trust Web.” TechCrunch. 2015. http://startupmanagement.org/2014/04/10the-bitcoin-and-cryptocurrency-investment-landscape/. Mougayar, William. Opening Digital Markets: Battle Plans and Business Strategies for Internet Commerce. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ———. “How the Cryptoconomy Will Be Created.” Forbes. 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/valleyvoices/2015/01/20/how-the-cryptoconomy-will-be-created/#388906916787. ———.

 

pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

But it wasn’t until the 1990s that personal mobility came to so dominate and define our lives and demand a telecommunications infrastructure that could keep up. By freeing us to gather where we wish, our mobiles are a catalyst for density; the most robust cellular networks are those that blanket stadiums in bandwidth so spectators can share every score by talking, texting, and photos sent to the social web. But these same networks can be a substrate for sprawl, a metropolitan nervous system conveniently connecting our cars to the cloud. They may be our most critical infrastructure, and seem to be our highest priority. Even as we struggle to find the public will to fund basic maintenance for crumbling roads and bridges, we gladly line up to hand over hard-earned cash to our wireless carriers. Flush with funds, the US wireless industry pumps some $20 billion a year into network construction.14 While the capital stock invested in the century-old power grid is estimated at $1 trillion in North America alone, nearly $350 billion has been spent in the last twenty-five years on the 285,000 towers that blanket American cities with wireless bandwidth.15 The transition away from wires is almost complete.

But cleverly, it was also a way of soliciting updates and corrections about the real world from the app’s users, whom Vindigo recruited to report when someplace went out of business, for instance. For Crowley, it was an adroit solution to the lack of wireless connectivity, and an important lesson in hacking around gaps in the city’s still-incomplete digital infrastructure. After hours, Crowley continued to work on Dodgeball, which was starting to show the serious potential of the social web. By the end of 2000, the site had hundreds of users who had contributed over sixteen hundred reviews of restaurants and bars in Manhattan and four other cities.16 But it remained a hobby. As Crowley recalls his days at Vindigo, “I was trying to get them to pull social in, but there was just no concept of social at the time.”17 But before he could get anything started, he was laid off once again as the venture sputtered out.

Tweets and check-in alerts percolated through the air like cricket chirps as the staff slowly recovered from the Foursquare-fueled night before. Being your own lead user is always hard work, but when your product gives you an easy way to find a place to drink and meet new people, it takes its toll. Surrounded by this fast-growing band of coders and designers, Crowley was well on his way to joining the ranks of Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook and Jack Dorsey of Twitter, the princelings of the social web. On a screen mounted by the elevator, Foursquare’s torrent of check-ins unfolded in real time. An animated globe spun slowly, revealing hot spots of check-ins flaring up in a self-service census of the creative class. Berlin, Stockholm, and Amsterdam burned bright as smart young things and their smartphones set out for dinner, drinks, and dancing. With each check-in, they furthered their quest to unlock the app’s “badges,” a kind of symbolic reward doled out for, say, checking in at four different bars in one night (“Crunked”) or at a health club ten times in a month (“Gym Rat”).

 

pages: 136 words: 20,501

Introduction to Tornado by Michael Dory, Adam Parrish, Brendan Berg

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Firefox, social web, web application, WebSocket

Apache assigns each HTTP connection to one of those threads, spawning a new thread if all existing threads are busy and more memory is available. Although it varies from system to system, most Linux distributions have an 8 MB default thread stack size. Apache’s architecture scales unpredictably under load, and maintaining a large pool of open connections that are each waiting for data can easily consume all the free memory available to a server. Most social web applications display real-time updates for new messages, status changes, and user notifications, which require the client keep an open connection waiting for any server responses. These HTTP keep-alive or Comet requests can quickly saturate Apache’s maximum thread pool. Once the thread pool is depleted of available workers, the server is unable to respond to new requests. Asynchronous servers are relatively new to the scene, but they are designed to alleviate the limitations of thread-based web servers.

SSL Decryption with Nginx Developers of applications that transfer personal information between the browser and client need to take special care to protect that information from falling into the wrong hands. With unsecured WiFi access as common as it is, users are susceptible to cookie hijacking attacks that compromise their accounts on popular social networking sites. In response, most major social web applications have made their sites either use encrypted protocols by default or as a user-configurable option. Coincidentally, we can use for Nginx to decrypt SSL encryption on incoming requests and distribute the decoded HTTP requests to the upstream servers. Example 8-2 shows a server block that decrypts incoming HTTPS requests and forwards the decrypted traffic using the proxy directives we saw in Example 8-1.

 

pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

As Director of the WELL I spent considerable time trying to understand how ad hoc groups worked things out in cyberspace, and how people attempted to achieve their purposes through monitors and keyboards. There is still no bright line separating casual from professional conversation on the Web. The answer to the question, “Who IS a journalist?” only gets hazier every day. Every day millions of false rumors are intentionally planted on the web. Tools are being invented to help support the social web’s ability to self-correct. Given that the WELL was founded by optimistic hippies, I assumed these geeks on the forefront of technology would have high hopes for their hobby, but I was surprised to find the opposite. “I had no idea the Internet would expand to the scale it is today. Absolutely no idea,” says Figallo. The Eternal September Throughout the late ’80s and early ’90s, universities granted their students access to Usenet and other BBSes.

We focused on making great things and using what tools we had at the time—email, IM, traditional PR and maybe a little LiveJournal—to get it in front of people and get it to spread. But for those who wanted to pay to catalyze a meme, it was generally pretty sketchy. Lots of pretending to be enthusiasts on message boards. Webb spends a lot of time coming up with memes for clients. Today he doesn’t have to start from square one every time because the social web allows the Barbarian Group to maintain a constant identity on Twitter, Facebook, and the blogs of its employees. And they don’t just blog about marketing stuff. Webb himself maintains a Tumblr blog dedicated mostly to the indie rock of his youth. His followers recognize that he represents an ad agency, but he’s also a real human being. People who have no interest in “the biz” follow him because he’s interesting, and he doesn’t use his various platforms to jam marketing messaging down their throats.

And it’s not just advertising. Publishing, show business, media, art and design too. 4chan shows us that there are enough creative people out there doing for free, and for zero recognition, what professionals have been paid to do for centuries. Furthermore, we have learned that what separated professional creatives from the amateurs wasn’t so much a level of talent, but access to distribution channels. Now that the social web has provided so many amateurs with a way to reach millions, they’re outshining the pros everwhere. Chapter 7 * * * The Meme Life Cycle THROUGHOUT 2010 I wrote for an Internet culture blog called Urlesque. Our stated goal was to “uncover bits of the web.” We reported most memes that came along, but for me the most interesting assignments allowed me to cover the way memes spread.

 

pages: 326 words: 74,433

Do More Faster: TechStars Lessons to Accelerate Your Startup by Brad Feld, David Cohen

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augmented reality, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software as a service, Steve Jobs

I came up with the idea of a thing I called the “Zenie Bottle”—a beautiful, collectible physical object (similar to a Lava Lamp) linked to a social web site mash-up. I pulled the plug on the project a year later. Here is where I went wrong. I built the business for my ego, not the market. The idea I started with was very simple: sell a novelty item that was fun to collect. The Zenie Bottle was a pretty glass bottle filled with a colorful substance that, when shaken, looked like a genie was living inside. But I didn't feel like selling a novelty item was a big enough idea, so I added elements to the business to make it more complex and hip. I attached a social web site mash-up in which the owner of a Zenie Bottle would have a virtual bottle on the Web where they could put pictures, music, and video into it so they could share it with their friends.

I was embarrassed to tell people what I was doing. In hindsight, the idea was silly and didn't fit my personality. I told myself that I would be proud of my accomplishment if we had tremendous success. But that wasn't enough—I needed to be proud of what I was working on every single minute of every single day. Ultimately, we were underfunded for the scope of our effort. We weren't sure of our identity. Were we a novelty item, a social web site mash-up, or an entertainment property? Nope—we were all three! In each category, someone other than us was already the winner. While combining all three may have worked, it would require Herculean efforts to rise above the din of other more focused companies. We were hoping to become a fad—with very little effort. While this would have been nice, it was a fantasy. Any one of the mistakes mentioned could have been overcome, but the combination of all of them did us in.

 

pages: 25 words: 5,789

Data for the Public Good by Alex Howard

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23andMe, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, Network effects, openstreetmap, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, social web, web application

It empowers citizens to collaboratively create solutions. It’s not just the consumption but the co-production of government services and democracy.” The Promise of Data Journalism The ascendance of data journalism in media and government will continue to gather force in the years ahead. Journalists and citizens are confronted by unprecedented amounts of data and an expanded number of news sources, including a social web populated by our friends, family and colleagues. Newsrooms, the traditional hosts for information gathering and dissemination, are now part of a flattened environment for news. Developments often break first on social networks, and that information is then curated by a combination of professionals and amateurs. News is then analyzed and synthesized into contextualized journalism. Data is being scraped by journalists, generated from citizen reporting, or gleaned from massive information dumps — such as with the Guardian’s formidable data journalism, as detailed in a recent ebook.

 

pages: 299 words: 91,839

What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis

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23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The key to offering elegant organization to individuals or groups—the key to all platforms—is to enable others to use the tool as they wish. They know their needs. Such openness and flexibility also enables more groups to form. Each one may be small, but altogether, they add up to a larger network of groups—a mass of niches. There is an ongoing debate about who will win the social space, what company will own the social web. That’s a wrong-headed view of the opportunity. The internet already is a social network. So is life. The internet merely provides more means to make more connections. The winner is not the company that gets us to come in and be social inside a wall: the social AOL or MySpace or, for that matter, Facebook. The winner will be the one that figures out how to bring elegant organization to the disorganized social network that the internet already is.

I’ll bet they will be smart enough to do it. Politics is at last learning the skills of self-organization. In 2004, Howard Dean’s presidential campaign used blogs and discussion as well as in-person Meetups to organize volunteers and raise money. Barack Obama’s 2008 campaign made brilliant use of social tools, including Facebook and the iPhone, to organize rallies and rake in donations. More profound, it used the social web to organize a movement. It also took advantage of the fact that other communities—such as that inside the DailyKos blog—had gathered around Obama. It didn’t hurt that one of Facebook’s founders, Chris Hughes, was an adviser to Obama’s campaign. We want to be connected. In the internet age, we have gained a reputation for being antisocial, for sitting on our couches, laptops on laps, earphones on ears, never talking to anyone.

See search-engine optimization Sequoia Capital, 189 Shardanand, Upendra, 35 Shirky, Clay, 50, 60, 151, 191–92, 197, 235–36, 237 Silverman, Dwight, 13 simplicity, 114–16, 236 SimplyHired.com, 39 Sirius Satellite Radio, 131 Skype, 31, 50 Smart Mobs (Rheingold), 106 Smith, Quincy, 38 Smolan, Rick, 140 social business, 158 social graph, 49 socialization, 211–12 social-media, 172–73 social responsibility, 47 social web, 51 Sorrell, Martin, 42 Sourcetool.com, 100 specialization, 26–27, 154 speed, 103–4, 105–6 Spitzer, Eliot, 96 splogs, 43 Starbucks, 60–62 Stern, Howard, 95, 131–32 Stewart, Jon, 95–96 StudieVZ, 50 Supreme Court, 225 Surowiecki, James, 88 talent, 146, 240 Tapscott, Don, 113, 151, 225 targeting, 151, 179–80 teaching, 193, 214–15 teamwork, 217 TechCrunch, 107, 192 Technorati, 15, 20 TechTV, 132 telecommunications, 165–71 Telegraph Media Group, 123 television, 84 cable, 167 decline of, 65–66 listings, 109–10 networks, 135 Television Without Pity, 135 Tesco, 179 Tesla Motors, 175 testing, 214 Threadbanger, 180 Threadless, 57 TimesSelect, 78 Time Warner, 80–81 Tobaccowala, Rishad, 114, 121–22, 145–48, 151, 177 on Apple, 228 toilet paper, 180–81 TomEvslin.com, 31 Toto, 181 Toyota, 174–75 transparency, 83, 97–98 journalism and, 92 PR and, 223 Tribune Company, 129 Trippi, Joe, 238 trust, 74, 170 control v., 82–83 in customers, 83–84 Tumblr, 192 Turner, Ted, 134 TV Guide, 109–10 20 percent rule, 111, 114 23andMe, 205 Twitter, 20, 126 Dell and, 46 mobs and, 107 real time and, 105–6 Tyndall, Andrew, 220 Union Square Ventures, 30 University of Phoenix, 217 Updike, John, 138 The Vanishing Newspaper (Meyer), 125 Vardi, Yossi, 31–32 Vaynerchuk, Gary, 107, 157–61 VC.

 

pages: 502 words: 107,510

Natural Language Annotation for Machine Learning by James Pustejovsky, Amber Stubbs

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, bioinformatics, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, easy for humans, difficult for computers, finite state, game design, information retrieval, iterative process, natural language processing, pattern recognition, performance metric, sentiment analysis, social web, speech recognition, statistical model, text mining

If you are interested in taking the raw text from an HTML page, the NLTK includes a package that will clean that input for you: >>> url = "http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-18963939" >>> html = urlopen(url).read() >>> raw = nltk.clean_html(html) Chapter 11 of Natural Language Processing with Python provides information and resources for compiling data from other sources, such as from word processor files, databases, and spreadsheets. In terms of mining information from other web sources, such as Twitter and blogs, Mining the Social Web by Matthew A. Russell (O’Reilly) provides detailed information for using the Twitter API, as well as resources for mining information from email, LinkedIn, and blogs. Eliciting Data from People So far we have assumed you will be annotating texts or recordings that already exist. But for some tasks, the data just isn’t there, or at least it doesn’t exist in a form that’s going to be of any use.

.), Proceedings of the 3rd International 905 Conference on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, San Mateo, CA: pp. 165–176. Reichenbach, Hans. 1947. Elements of Symbolic Logic. New York: Macmillan Co.; New York: Dover Publications, 1980 (reprint). Rumshisky, Anna. 2008. Verbal Polysemy Resolution through Contextualized Clustering of Arguments. PhD Dissertation, Brandeis University. Russell, David A. 2011. Mining the Social Web. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly. Saquete, Estela. 2010. “ID 392:TERSEO + T2T3 Transducer. A System for Recognizing and Normalizing TIMEX3.” In Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation. Saurí, Roser, Robert Knippen, Marc Verhagen, and James Pustejovsky. 2005. “Evita: A Robust Event Recognizer for QA Systems.” In Proceedings of HLT/EMNLP 2005. Saurí, Roser, Marc Verhagen, and James Pustejovsky. 2006.

., Maximum Entropy Classifiers Maximum Entropy Markov Models (MEMMs), Structured Pattern Induction, Sequence Induction Algorithms Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Language Models (see MLE (maximum likelihood estimation)) Message Understanding Conference (MUC), Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities Message Understanding Conferences (MUCs), Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity Metacritic.com, Unique Labels: Movie Reviews, Example 1: Single Labels—Movie Reviews metadata, The Importance of Language Annotation metadata annotation, Metadata Annotation: Document Classification–Multiple Labels: Film Genres, Unique Labels: Movie Reviews, Multiple Labels: Film Genres, Multiple Labels: Film Genres multiple lables, Multiple Labels: Film Genres unique lables, Unique Labels: Movie Reviews XML and, Multiple Labels: Film Genres micro-averaging, Other Classifiers to Know About Mining the Social Web (Russell), Collecting Data from the Internet Mitchell, Tom, Defining Our Learning Task MLE (maximum likelihood estimation), Language Models, Naïve Bayes Learning model(s), Model the Phenomenon, Building Your Model and Specification–Other Standards Affecting Annotation, Building Your Model and Specification, Some Example Models and Specs, Adding Named Entities, Semantic Roles, Semantic Roles, Adopting (or Not Adopting) Existing Models–Using Models Without Specifications, Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity–Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity, Using Existing Models and Specifications–Using Existing Models and Specifications, Using Models Without Specifications, Model and Specification, About Your Model and Specifications, Model: Preliminary Specifications–Links, Model: The TimeML Specification Used in TimeBank–Confidence, Modeling the Future: Directions for TimeML–Event Structures arity, Some Example Models and Specs creating new vs. using existing, Adopting (or Not Adopting) Existing Models–Using Models Without Specifications creating, advantages/disadvantages of, Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity–Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity defined, Model the Phenomenon, Building Your Model and Specification existing, advantages/disadvantages of, Using Existing Models and Specifications–Using Existing Models and Specifications multimodel annotations, Semantic Roles Named Entities, adding to, Adding Named Entities planning for the future with, Modeling the Future: Directions for TimeML–Event Structures reporting on, About Your Model and Specifications revising, Model and Specification semantic roles and, Semantic Roles specifications, using without, Using Models Without Specifications TimeML, defining and evolution of, Model: Preliminary Specifications–Links TimeML, results of MAMA cycle, Model: The TimeML Specification Used in TimeBank–Confidence Model-Annotate-Model-Annotate (MAMA) cycle, Annotate with the Specification (see MAMA cycle) Model-based sequence classification, Sequence Induction Algorithms Movie Review Corpus (MRC), Example 1: Single Labels—Movie Reviews MPQA Opinion Corpus, Sentiment classification Multidocument Adjudication Interface, MAI User Guide (see MAI (Multidocument Adjudication Interface)) multimodel annotation, Model the Phenomenon, Semantic Roles Multipurpose Annotation Environment, Multiple Labels: Film Genres (see MAE (Multipurpose Annotation Environment)) N n-grams, Corpora Today, N-grams defined, Corpora Today and lexical statistics, N-grams Naïve Bayes learning, Classification, Joint Probability Distributions, Naïve Bayes Learning–Sentiment classification, Naïve Bayes Learning, Sentiment classification, Maximum Entropy Classifiers Classifier, Joint Probability Distributions MaxEnt vs., Maximum Entropy Classifiers maximum a posteriori (MAP) hypothesis, Naïve Bayes Learning sentiment classification, Sentiment classification Named Entities (NEs), The Annotation Development Cycle, Adding Named Entities, Inline Annotation, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities as extent tags, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities and inline tagging, Inline Annotation and models, Adding Named Entities Simple Named Entity Guidelines V6.5, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities Narrative Containers, Narrative Containers–Narrative Containers natural language processing, What Is Natural Language Processing?

 

pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

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1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

As soon as this plan is signed into law, Recovery.gov goes live and you’ll be able to see precisely where your tax dollars are going. Because this is your democracy, and as I said throughout the campaign, change never begins from the top down. It begins from the bottom up.6 A day later, on February 9, 2009, selling his recovery plan at a town-hall meeting in economically devastated Elkhart, Indiana, he went further in explaining his vision for using the social web to involve the public in the watchdogging of government spending: We’re actually going to set up something called Recovery.gov—this is going to be a special website we set up, that gives you a report on where the money is going in your community, how it’s being spent, how many jobs it’s created so that all of you can be the eyes and ears. And if you see that a project is not working the way it’s supposed to, 111 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY you’ll be able to get on that website and say, “You know, I thought this was supposed to be going to school construction but I haven’t noticed any changes being made.”

All the real work is done by a sophisticated “Recovery Operations Center” where traditional law enforcement authorities use data-mining tools to uncover potential fraud. In no way has a community of citizen inspectors general been formed, and it’s not surprising that Recovery.gov has had no discernible effect on public trust in Obama. Over on Inspector General Devaney’s “Chairman’s Corner” blog, a handful of posts (less than one per month!) demonstrate further how out of touch he is with how to engage the social web. In his March 2010 post, he lambasted “gratuitous criticism from some journalists and Internet grouches”9 who pointed out problems with Recovery.gov’s public data, instead of embracing their comments as constructive. My colleague Clay Johnson, then director of Sunlight Labs, chided Devaney for how poorly he dealt with online criticism, writing: “You could have created a spirit of civil openness and participation like no other in an incredibly charged political environment.

 

pages: 176 words: 55,819

The Start-Up of You by Reid Hoffman

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Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Black Swan, business intelligence, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, follow your passion, future of work, game design, Jeff Bezos, job automation, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, out of africa, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, rolodex, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs

Trade-offs are inevitable when you’re balancing different considerations such as the market realities of employment and your own natural interests. Even as I have developed a career in the technology industry I have not relinquished my original aspirations. In fact, the issues of personal identity and community incentives that I researched in academia are relevant to my current entrepreneurial passion for the social Web, online networks, and marketplaces. My longstanding interests in these themes have helped me develop industry skills and differentiation around the creation of massive Internet platforms. Recently, I made a career move to start doing venture investing at Greylock. Again, I built on my assets and pursued my aspirations in the local environment in which I found myself. My significant operating experience at scale differentiates me from other VCs with finance backgrounds or limited operational backgrounds.

Land on CNN.com and you can pull up articles your Facebook friends have shared. Browse Fortune magazine’s “100 Best Companies to Work For” list, and next to each company is a list of your LinkedIn connections out to the third degree who work there—making it easy to focus on companies where you already have a foot in the door. Instead of an anonymous editor or algorithm telling millions of readers what’s important or relevant, the rise of a social web allows trusted connections to act as information curators. Finally, pushing interesting information out to your network increases your chances of serendipitous intelligence. Post an article, email a quote, forward along a job offer, and in other ways share small gifts to your network. Your friends will appreciate it, and you will increase the chances that those same people respond in kind and send you intelligence later on.

 

pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by C. Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

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airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Your computer chat program ought to have this as a feature; for example, with Windows Live Messenger, I simply use the setting “Automatically keep a history of my conversations.” Getting SMS messages off your cell phone might require a little more effort. If you have a smartphone, you can get programs like SMS Exporter or SMS Cool! It is really a shame that more and more communication is being buried inside social Web sites like Facebook. I don’t believe you will want to make the effort presently required to save every single communication in your social Web sites. However, you should be sure to save some favorites, and occasionally just grab the look of your home page for your e-memory. Hopefully these sites will wise up soon and release our data from captivity. I spoke above about receiving all of your bills and statements electronically. With financial transactions, you should take this even further.

 

pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

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3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, WikiLeaks

What services like Klout reinforce is the need to be aware of your online social comings and goings, because these ratings are public and available for the world to see (and this includes your boss, your employees, your customers, and your potential clients and employers). Consumer Reports rates and grades products and services. The Internet allowed anybody to comment on any company or service. Now the social web has brought this scoring and grading down to you and me. Here’s a personal story about influence and social grading: I spent close to fifteen years in the music industry. Along with that, I spend more time than I care to admit on airplanes. Those worlds never collided… until recently. Like most people, I buy cheap flights, and if things need to be changed, I approach the customer service staff at the gate with a smile and a prayer, and hope that I won’t be charged the price of a small condo in Florida.

Beyond that, are we asking even more of those who aren’t even our consumers yet? This is what happens in a world where anyone can publish their thoughts in text, images, audio, and video instantly. It becomes a game where brands are jumping in the pool simply because every other brand is jumping in the pool. What does that get you? Mediocrity at best, but junk is the more likely outcome. Prior to the social web, how many advertorials did you read that were so captivating, you could not help but rip them out of the magazine (or newspaper) and share them with friends and colleagues? Admit it—it’s not easy to recall a scenario like that. There are so few companies that will admit that the quality of their content can’t match the quantity that they are producing. Have you ever walked to the back of a conference hall and seen the bags and dumpsters of corporate white papers, testimonials, and articles that are left shortly after the trade show floor shuts down?

 

pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

If you don’t recognize his name, you may remember some of the New York Times headlines about work done by him and his longtime collaborator James Fowler: “Are Your Friends Making You Fat?”; “Find Yourself Packing It On? Blame Friends”; “Study Finds Big Social Factor in Quitting Smoking”; “Strangers May Cheer You Up, Study Says.” What these researchers have found, in study after study, is that our actions have consequences that ripple across our social web to our friends, our friends’ friends, and even our friends’ friends’ friends. But just as health behaviors spread, so do facts and bits of knowledge. Since information spreads through social rather than physical space, it is vital that we understand social networks and how they operate. In this globalized age, where we can be anywhere on the planet within a day or so, the ties we have to those we know, rather than where we are, take on greater meaning.

In addition to simplifying reference importation, synchronizing one’s bibliography online, and many other wonderful features, it has another: social networking. Instead of the scientist simply working with the set of references they use to write their papers in isolation, it allows them to see their friends’ references; it acts as a sort of social network for scientists. As Mendeley grows in popularity—and it seems that it’s hitting the critical mass that’s necessary for any social Web site to thrive—it allows for the collaborative exposure of knowledge that each of us individually hasn’t been aware of. But it provides another important feature: It allows scientists to see articles that are related to ones that they’re already looking at. By automatically finding topic relationships between papers, Mendeley brings undiscovered public knowledge to the scientific masses. Scientists can now find a paper on psychology that can shed light onto network science or a math paper that can help with X-ray crystallography.

 

pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

If the Quantified Self movement allows us to establish our authenticity with numbers, social networking allows us to accomplish that in subtler, seemingly more creative ways: by curating the timeline of our life, by uploading our favorite photos, by using the coolest apps on the block, by maintaining a unique social graph (Facebook speak for a set of human connections that each user has). If only one looks closely enough, one can discern how the themes of fakeness and authenticity shape Facebook’s own self-presentation. So Mark Zuckerberg claims that “the social web can’t exist until you are your real self online.” Peter Thiel, the first private investor in Facebook, contrasts the authenticity offered by Facebook—where no pseudonyms are allowed—with that of its former rival, MySpace, where everything goes. “MySpace is about being someone fake on the internet; everyone could be a movie star. [It is] very healthy that the real people have won out over the fake people,” he notes.

Video is available at http://allfacebook.com/mark-zuckerberg-sarah-lacy-interview-video_b1063. 111 “outdated and antiquated”: Steven Overly, “Web Start-Up Ruck.us Aims to Engage the Politically Independent,” Washington Post, March 12, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/web-start-up-ruckus-aims-to-engage-the-politically-independent/2012/03/09/gIQAKvU55R_story.html . 112 “the word comes from rugby”: Ruck.us, “FAQs,” http://blog.ruck.us/faqs. 112 “Whereas 30 years ago we were blissfully ignorant”: Nathan Daschle, “How to Pick Your Presidential Candidate Online,” CNN.com, April 19, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/04/19/opinion/daschle-elect/index.html. 113 “the Americans Elect innovation is so exciting”: ibid. 113 “The trends are undeniable”: ibid. 113 “Politics is the last sector”: Alex Fitzpatrick, “Ruck.Us Breaks Up Party Politics on the Social Web,” Mashable, May 11, 2012, http://mashable.com/2012/05/11/ruckus. 114 “Plots to disrupt the two-party system”: Steve Freiss, “Son of Democratic Party Royalty Creates a Ruck.us,” Politico, June 26, 2012, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0612/77847.html. 114 “our two-party system doesn’t form”: ibid. 114 “the creativity of party politics”: Nancy L. Rosenblum, On the Side of the Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010), 7. 115 Partisanship. . .

Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115483. 313 “A despot in a sorcerer’s hat”: Ian Bogost, “Shit Crayons,” Ian Bogost’s blog, undated, http://www.bogost.com/writing/shit_crayons.shtml. 314 “Behind the allure of the quantified self”: Gary Wolf, “The Data-Driven Life,” New York Times, April 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/02/magazine/02self-measurement-t.html. 314 “We don’t have a pedometer in our feet”: ibid. 315 “the social web can’t exist”: quoted in Julianne Pepitone, “Facebook Is Now Too Big to Buy,” CNNMoney, November 8, 2011, http://money.cnn.com/2011/11/08/technology/zuckerberg_charlie_rose/index.htm. 315 “MySpace is about being someone fake”: quoted in Holman Jenkins, “Technology = Salvation,” Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704696304575537882643165738.html. 315 “Expressing our authentic identity”: “United States: Sharing to the Power of 2012,” The Economist, November 17, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21537000. 315 “Profiles will no longer be outlines”: ibid. 315 as Lionel Trilling showed: Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972). 315 as Trilling correctly noted: Trilling et al., “Sincerity and Authenticity: A Symposium,” Salmagundi 41 (1978): 87–110. 315 “of proving ourselves not merely good”: ibid., 98. 316 “with a kind of dress, with faded denims”: ibid., 96. 316 “in the name of contemporary authenticity”: Theodor Adorno, The Jargon of Authenticity (Oxford: Psychology Press, 2006), 102. 316 “What is crucial about authenticity”: Charles Guignon, On Being Authentic (Oxford: Psychology Press, 2004), 81. 317 “the unique American individual”: Abigail Cheever, Real Phonies: Cultures of Authenticity in Post–World War II America.

 

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

It’s almost the stream of all human consciousness and communication, and the products we build are just different views of that.”93 One ominous 2009 Facebook project was thus the Gross Happiness Index, a classically utilitarian attempt to measure the mood of its users by analyzing the words and phrases that they publish on their Facebook page. Another was the even creepier 2012 company study that altered the news feeds of 700,000 Facebook users to experiment with their mood swings.94 Sergey Brin’s “big circle” of data is, for Mark Zuckerberg, the recursive loop of the social Web. The more people who join Facebook, the more valuable—culturally, economically, and, above all, morally—Zuckerberg believes Facebook will become to us all. He even came up with what has become known as Zuckerberg’s law, a social variation of Moore’s law, and which suggests that each year our personal data on the network will grow exponentially. In ten years’ time, Zuckerberg told Kirkpatrick, “a thousand times more data about Facebook users will flow through the social network. . . .

Labeled the Internet’s public enemy number one for her stupid tweet, Sacco lost her job and was even accused of being a “f****** idiot” by her own father.36 Sacco will now forever be associated with this insensitive but hardly criminal tweet. Such is the nature and power of the Internet. “When you only have a small number of followers, Twitter can feel like an intimate group of pub friends,” Sophie Gadd notes about a social Web that is both unforgetting and unforgiving.37 “But it’s not. It’s no more private than shouting your conversations through a megaphone in the high street.” The dangers of the crystal republic predate George Orwell’s 1984 and twentieth-century totalitarianism. They go back to the enlightened despotism of Catherine II of Russia, the subject of Johann Baptist Lampi’s portrait hanging in Berlin’s Deutsches Historisches Museum, the David Cameron look-alike painting that had landed Sophie Gadd on page 3 of the Daily Mail.

 

pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

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1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

The boulders still employ a lot of people, but the dynamic growing business is with the pebbles. Of course, the information and media businesses are right at the forefront of the transition from boulders to pebbles because the web so directly affects them. Yet even more traditional sectors will feel the pull of the pebbles in time, not least because the consumers and workforce of the near future will have grown up using the social web to search for and share ideas with one another. They will bring with them the web’s culture of lateral, semi-structured free association. This new organisational landscape is taking shape all around us. Scientific research is becoming ever more a question of organising a vast number of pebbles. Young scientists especially in emerging fields like bioinformatics draw on hundreds of data banks; use electronic lab notebooks to record and then share their results daily, often through blogs and wikis; work in multi-disciplinary teams threaded around the world organised by social networks; they publish their results, including open source versions of the software used in their experiments and their raw data, in open access online journals.

That is why We-Think culture is so powerful: the communities and social networks that the web is spawning are a vital way for people to obtain recognition from their peers for what they do, especially if that involves ideas. These communities meet a basic human need that will get stronger as we become materially richer.5 Ideas are animated when they are shared, and people are driven to share because recognition and regard can be reliably earned only from communities, networks, clans, families, religious groups, movements that are not animated by money. The social web provides people with a new way to win recognition for being a good player, programmer, film-maker, singer, composer, citizen, writer, scientist, researcher and so on. Our well-being depends on our being esteemed by people we ourselves hold in high esteem. So long as the web continues to provide a way for people to earn recognition it will continue to grow. However, this sets up a further potential conflict, however, relating to the terms on which people will be allowed to participate in these activities and how.

 

pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

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4chan, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

It was mid-July 2006, and the Valley had the feel of an amusement park that had just reopened for business. Exciting new social rides were being built on the plots that had once belonged to pet-food Web sites and other pedestrian ideas from the late nineties. And now admission was free. You simply paid in privacy by giving up your personal information for access. The new Valley had a new name too. Web 2.0! New and improved: the social Web. MySpace and Friendster were the chatter of the late-teen world, and this nascent thing called Facebook was spreading around college dorm rooms with the velocity of a common cold. Flickr, the social photo site, had recently been purchased by Yahoo! for almost forty million dollars, a small gold mine in those days. Like children mesmerized by an enigmatic snow globe, people outside the Valley were once again peering in, wondering how they could become part of this wonderland, how they could own a snow globe that, if shaken properly, would send not snowflakes but money fluttering down to land neatly in their hands.

Ev saw this and his throat tightened; he quickly pushed Oprah aside and grabbed the keyboard, frantically typing the same exact tweet in all caps and hitting “send,” his heart pounding as he heard the cameraman yell: “And we’re back in five, four, three …” At one point in the show Kutcher appeared on the screen, sitting in the same office he had been in a few hours earlier when he beat CNN to a million followers. “Congratulations!” Oprah said to him. “This is a commentary on the state of media,” Kutcher said to Oprah and the audience. “I believe that we’re at a place now with social media where one person’s voice can be as powerful as a media network. That is the power of the social Web.” He went on to explain that Twitter allowed him to control the type of images and videos that were shared about him online, specifically beating the paparazzi: He could now usurp the Us Weeklys of the world by posting pictures he had preapproved before the tabloids could. As the show went on, Oprah’s viewers started signing up for the site in droves. From Chicago to Clearwater, Modesto to Miami, Seattle to Statesboro, more people joined Twitter on that day than on any single day in the site’s history—nearly half a million people in the first twenty-four hours—and although the servers were battered, they managed to survive.

 

pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

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AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Khan Academy, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra

It raised over $30 million from some of the biggest names in venture capital, and had one of the slickest social web sites seen up to that time. The home page from that site, www.iexchange.com, on June 20, 2000, is shown in Figure 10.1. The business model was that the first few tastes were free, and then investor users (like H.V., J.P., and I.G. over on the right) could pay analyst users (like “The Visionary,” “Big Jim,” and “Biotech Believer” in the middle pane) a modest fee, usually just a few dollars, for new research. iExchange got a piece of every transaction. There were $25,000 monthly prizes for the best stock picks, which was supposed to keep everyone honest. The Epinions.com rating site for social web sites gave iExchange four stars, “a good place to make money.” The anonymous successful investors on the right are minting money.

 

pages: 298 words: 43,745

Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

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AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information retrieval, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, yield management

It will increase the move away from advertisers talking to consumers directly and more to a two-way communication channel between a brand and its consumers. Searchers no longer have the sole expectation of searching to find information for a specific outcome when they go on the Internet, as the growth of interactions with social media shows [10]. As people spend more and more time connecting, sharing, and interacting with the social Web, they expect to interact with what they find in the search results. Time spent with the social Web involves many types of interactions with like-minded individuals in a community or network, one of which is looking for and sharing recommendations. This will be an exciting and challenging venue for sponsored search. Also, the blending with social media may introduce more push aspects to sponsored search. Keyword advertising is extremely good for converting people who are searching for information into consumers wanting to buy something.

 

pages: 559 words: 155,372

Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez

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Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, éminence grise

It was the taste of the Oprah-like celebrity, something to justify the taxi ride to the Upper West Side from Midtown. Sheryl was followed by the relative noncelebrity Paul Adams, a product manager on the Ads team. Adams was making a name for himself as a Malcolm Gladwell of the brave new social media world, having published a book called Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web. Like Gladwell, he had cherry-picked a few seminovel conclusions from sociological research around relationship networks, and had woven it into a grand, overarching story about the future of media and consumption, doled out in bite-size morsels that fit inside a media buyer’s brain. The net of it was that new ideas and products propagated via ever-changing social-influencer networks, and that figuring out the network, and exploiting the mutual influence of friends on one another, was the key to making your voice heard or product sold.

See also investors; venture capitalists (VCs) AdGrok, 113, 140–48 startups, 96, 154–55 VCs, 121 Game of Thrones, 324, 382 Gartrell, Alex, 476 Gates, Bill, 148–49, 151 Ge, Hong, 322–23 geeks, 29, 100, 107–8, 198, 268, 396 General Motors, 14, 25–26, 82 geographic data, 301 Getaround, 241–45 Gil, Elad, 192 Gladwell, Malcolm, 367 Gleit, Naomi, 356, 378 Gmail, 78, 103, 286, 324 go-big-or-go-home ethos, 206, 300 go-big-or-go-home strategy, 206 Golding, William, 444–45 Goldman Sachs credit crash, 425 credit derivatives, 26–27 departing, 29–31 ICE and, 492 joining, 15–16 partnership management structure, 16 post, 102 pricing quant, 16–18, 24, 29, 141, 207 traders’ contests, 21–24 trading credit indices, 14 Google acquisitions, 155 Ads, 85, 164 AdSense, 186, 275 AdWords, 106, 186, 222, 286, 300, 364 AdX, 461 alerts, 228 auction of keywords, 80–83 campus, 290 clickthrough rates, 451 employee pampering, 264 Facebook war, 492–93 Google Plus, 286–90, 308, 431–33, 492–93 Google Ventures, 78, 83 joining, 346 logo, 124 monetization, 186 PMs, 192 as publisher, 39 RTB, 41 scheming, 382 shuttle, 339 TGIF, 348 graffiti office art, 332–35 Graham, Paul (“PG”) advice, 231 essay, 46–47, 52–53 first meeting, 90 genius guru, 98 meeting with, 60–62 mythologies, 99 offer from, 63–64 on saying no, 187, 203 on startups, 87 startups and, 157–60 tsunami, 102 Graham, Robin Lee, 496 greed, 44, 74 Grindr, 487 GrokBar, 84–85, 184 GrokPad, 95, 100 Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web (Adams), 367 Groupon, 78 Growth team, 373–79, 395 Guevara, Che, 354 Gundotra, Vic, 433, 493 H-1B visas, 70 hackers black-hat, 314 culture, 284 ethos, 284 hackathons, 262, 364 hacker way, 408 kludge and, 47 lingo, 84 multipurpose, 92 N00b and, 269 roles, 91 Zuckerberg and, 270 hacking all night, 406 building AdGrok, 123 configuration files, 92 defined, 47 on demo, 48 experience, 186 mobile, 229 people and products, 8 harassment, 66–68 Hart, Camille, 4–5 hashing, 387 hate speech, 315 Hemingway, Ernest, 106 Herodotus, 421 Herzl, Theodor, 496 Hoffman, Reid, 88 hogrammers, 400 home-brewing, 406 Houston, Drew, 175 HTC, 282 hybridizing, 341 Hykes, Solomon, 119 IBM, 20, 70, 148–49, 325 ID for Advertising (IDFA), 485 identity consumption patterns and, 385 Facebook, 382, 440 hashing and, 387 matching, 434, 438, 442, 466 name and, 381–82 online, 265, 477 PII, 395 work, 285 immigrant workers, 68–72 initial public offering (IPO) drawn out process, 247 Facebook, 284, 309, 342, 358, 371, 378, 399 lockout period, 409, 495 reevaluation, 417–20 on Wall Street, 124 Zuckerberg and, 342 Instacart, 50 Instagram product department, 493 user growth curve, 490 Intel, 70, 122 intellectual property, 134–35, 204, 252, 471 InterContinental Exchange (ICE), 492 intermodal container, 447–48 Internet advertising Airbnb, 25 characteristics, 36–37 digital advertising, 448 effectiveness, 386 Facebook, 3–4, 8, 279–81, 299, 309, 317, 362–63, 368–69, 393–403, 460 Google Ads, 85, 164 IAB, 448 mobile, 484, 487 multipronged, 39–40 News Feed, 482–84, 488, 492 opting out, 485 programmatic, 396, 435 stack, 439 technologies, 429, 446, 454 Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), 448 Internet Explorer, 286 Internet Retailer, 173 investors Adchemy, 163 AdGrok, 110–19, 142, 145–47, 161 advertising, 83 angel, 110–13, 115, 117, 154, 206 choosing, 156 common, 397 early stage, 49 money and time, 74 nature of, 115 New York, 101–2 ownership and, 143 pitching to, 53 potential, 140 running game on, 255 YC, 157, 160 iPhones, 74, 198 Irish Data Privacy Audit, 278, 320–23 Islam, 356 Israeli Psychologist, 458, 476 Jacobs, Josh, 438 Java, 181 Jesuits, 456 Jin, Kang-Xing (KX), 209–10, 398 job offers, 252 Jobs, Steve, 112, 149–51, 428 advertising and, 485 genius, 282 Johnson, Mick, 202, 229–31, 332 Johnson, Samuel, 330 Johnston, John, 154 Kayak, 124 Kennedy, John F., 107 Kenshoo, 125 Kesey, Ken, 404 Keyani, Pedram, 262–64, 410 Keys, Alicia, 370 keywords, 80–83, 293 Kildall, Gary, 148–49 Kile, Chris, 145 Kitten initiative, 291–92 launch, 294–95 sausage grinder, 296 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB), 110–11 kludge, 47 Kobayashi, Takeru, 21 Koum, Jan, 491 Lady Gaga, 189, 228 Land of Stateless Machines, 231–32, 237, 481 Laraki, Othman, 192 The Last Judgment, 334 lawsuits Adchemy, 133–39, 141–42, 152, 167–68, 203–4 class-action, 81 expensive feints, 74 legal problems, 317 Lessin, Sam, 1, 444 Lewis, Michael, 16, 199, 422 Lexity, 83 Liar’s Poker (Lewis), 16, 199 lifetime value (LTV), 486–87 Likes, 6, 208–14, 451 limited partners (LPs), 155 Lindsay, Roddy, 335 LinkedIn, 43, 78, 124, 162, 279 Linux, 337 liquidity event, 45 LiveRamp, 386 Livingston, Jessica, 60 localhost, 95 lockdown, 287–88 Logout Experience (LOX), 376–77 Loopt, 160–61, 178 Lord of the Flies (Golding), 444–45 Losse, Katherine, 445 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 271 machine-learning models, 310 Madoff scandal, 16 Mai, Susi, 126–27 MaiTai kiteboarding camp, 126 major life event (MLE), 411 mallet finger, 45 Manifest Destiny, 356 Manikarnika, Shreehari (“Hari”), 389, 400–401 Mann, Jonathan (JMann), 14 mapping, 291, 398, 490 Marcus Aurelius, 42 marimbero, 304–5 Marine Corps Scout Snipers, 298 marketing digital, 388–89 duplicity, 443 marketers, 37, 74 MMA, 448 PMM, 277, 366 Martin, Dorothy, 360–61 Marxism, 359 Match.com, 54, 387 Mathur, Nipun, 210 Maugham, W.

 

pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

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Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

But if you don’t find an appealing Meetup group, you can start one yourself. The Web site will help you pick a theme, find members, make plans, and schedule your first Meetup. Fotolog: Social networking site for photo bloggers. http://www.fotolog.com Green Drinks: Meetups for people in the environmental field. http://www.greendrinks.org inCampus: Social networking service for students. http://www.incampus.com Klout: Measures influence across the social Web and allows you to track the impact of your opinions, links, and recommendations. http://klout.com LinkedIn: Service for colleagues, former colleagues, and friends to network. http://www.linkedin.com Meetup: Network of local interest groups that meet face-to-face. Users organize groups or join them. http://www.meetup.com Schoolwires: Provides online communication, Web site, and community management tools to schools.

 

pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

For months afterward, Sally’s life is far more prominent than your actual relationship would indicate. She’s a “local maximum”: Though there are people whose posts you’re far more interested in, it’s her posts that you see. In part, this feedback effect is due to what early Facebook employee and venture capitalist Matt Cohler calls the local-maximum problem. Cohler was an early employee at Facebook, and he’s widely considered one of Silicon Valley’s smartest thinkers on the social Web. The local-maximum problem, he explains to me, shows up any time you’re trying to optimize something. Say you’re trying to write a simple set of instructions to help a blind person who’s lost in the Sierra Nevadas find his way to the highest peak. “Feel around you to see if you’re surrounded by downward-sloping land,” you say. “If you’re not, move in a direction that’s higher, and repeat.” Programmers face problems like this all the time.

 

pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

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4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

Phil appeared on the program, speaking with Cooper about the particular lasting power of cyberbullying, which does not disappear the way a moment of “real-life bullying” might: “This person thinks, ‘I am damaged, irreparably, forever.’ And that’s the kind of desperation that leads to an act of suicide. . . . The thought of the victim is that everybody in the world has seen this. And that everybody in the world is going to respond to it like the mean-spirited person that created it.” Dinakar watched the program, figuring there must be a way to stem such cruelty, to monitor and manage unacceptable online behavior. Most social Web sites leave it to the public. Facebook, Twitter, and the like incorporate a button that allows users to “flag this as inappropriate” when they see something they disapprove of. In the age of crowdsourced knowledge like Wikipedia’s, such user-driven moderation sounds like common sense, and perhaps it is.8 “But what happens,” Dinakar explains, “is that all flagging goes into a stream where a moderation team has to look at it.

 

pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

_r=1 &scp=4&sq=lending&st=nyt 26. http://stateofthemedia.org/2011/cable-essay/data-page-2/ 27. http://www.stevenberlinjohnson.com/2009/03/the-following-is-a-speech-i-gave-yesterday-at-the-south-by-southwest-interactive-festival-in-austiniif-you-happened-to-being.html 28. Alex S. Jones, Losing the News (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 4. 29. http://digitalhks.pbworks.com/w/page/50872581/Media%3A%20Texas%20Tribune 30. http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/06/four-crowdsourcing-lessons-from-the-guardians-spectacular-expenses-scandal-experiment/ 31. http://mashable.com/2010/11/24/investigative-journalism-social-web/ 32. Amanda Michel, “Get Off the Bus: The Future of Pro-Am Journalism,” Columbia Journalism Review, Mar.-Apr. 2009: http://www.cjr.org/feature/get_off_the_bus.php. 33. Michel, “Get Off the Bus.” 34. http://www.propublica.org/special/reportingnetwork-signup 35. http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/03/1000_true_fans.php 36. http://www.cjr.org/feature/the_josh_marshall_plan.php 37. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-cohen/josh-marshall-on-the-grow_b_131571.html 38. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-cohen/josh-marshall-on-the-grow_b_131571.html 39. http://www.niemanlab.org/encyclo/talking-points-memo/ 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars 41. http://blog.oregonlive.com/mapesonpolitics/2010/04/kitzhaber_opponent_of_gorge_ca.html 42. http://storify.com/acarvin/rep-gifford 43. http://storify.com/jcstearns/tracking-journalist-arrests-during-the-occupy-prot 3.

 

pages: 218 words: 65,422

Better Living Through Criticism: How to Think About Art, Pleasure, Beauty, and Truth by A. O. Scott

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barriers to entry, citizen journalism, conceptual framework, death of newspapers, hive mind, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sharing economy, social web, the scientific method

Writers and editors have begun to feel like blacksmiths and buggy-whip dealers contemplating the ascendance of the automobile. Nostalgia and artisanal pride may keep us around for a while, but nothing will ever really be the same. We must adapt or die, replacing old idioms and practices, rooted in the materialism of paper and ink, with the more abstract language of the virtual domain. We bid farewell to proofs and slugs, endnotes and front matter, and embrace feeds, hyperlinks, search engine optimization, social Web audience development, and whatever new catchphrase or concept promises to save us. We learn the vernacular of clicks and uniques and try to find a home and a voice in publications that are also publishing platforms. From one perspective—on some days—this upheaval can feel tragic, even apocalyptic. A cosmos that has existed more or less since the eighteenth century—the age of London wits and Paris philosophes—teeters on the brink of obsolescence.

 

pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

Imagine completely open source approaches to doing research. Imagine a connected online web of scientific knowledge that integrates and connects data, computer code, chains of scientific reasoning, descriptions of open problems, and beyond. That web of scientific knowledge could incorporate video, virtual worlds, and augmented reality, as well as more conventional media, such as papers. And it would be tightly integrated with a scientific social web that directs scientists’ attention where it is most valuable, releasing enormous collaborative potential. In part 2 of this book we’ll explore, in concrete terms, how the era of networked science is coming about today. We’ll see, for example, how vast databases containing much of the world’s knowledge are being mined for discoveries that would elude any unaided human. We’ll see how online tools enable us to build new institutions that act as bridges between science and the rest of society in new ways, and that can help redefine the relationship between science and society.

 

pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

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1960s counterculture, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application

The fifth privacy interface is poorly understood and has only recently gained notice, although Nathaniel Hawthorne explained it well in The Scarlet Letter. It’s what I call “person to public.” At this interface, which is now located largely online, people have found their lives exposed, their names and faces ridiculed, and their well-being harmed immeasurably by the rapid proliferation of images, the asocial nature of much ostensibly “social” Web behavior, and the permanence of the digital record. Whereas in our real social lives we have learned to manage our reputations, the online environments in which we work and play have broken down the barriers that separate the different social contexts in which we move. On Facebook, MySpace, or YouTube, a coworker may be an online friend, fan, or critic. A supervisor could be a stalker. A parent could be a lurker.

 

pages: 297 words: 89,820

The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness by Steven Levy

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Apple II, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, en.wikipedia.org, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technology bubble, Thomas L Friedman

On Apples iPod downloading headquarters, you can find more than a hundred celebrity playlists, not just those of musicians—Avril Lavigne digs Lesley Gore; Barry Manilow confesses that "Tom Waits is my favorite male singer"— but movie stars and athletes such as Sharon Stone ("Just Like a Woman") and Dale Earnhardt Jr. ("A Horse with No Name"). Elsewhere on the Net, it's common for bloggers to list favorite tunes, and on social Web sites like MySpace.com, your song preferences are the Unk that potentially binds you to new friends. On iPods themselves, this practice has been ground down to the nub. Simply handing over your iPod to a friend, your blind date, or the total stranger sitting next to you on the plane opens you up like a book. All someone needs to do is scroll through your library on that click wheel, and, musically speaking, you're naked.

 

pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Annually, in the dry season, bands congregated at the permanent waters that dotted eastern and southern Africa. Here as many as five hundred men, women, and children would mingle, chat, dine, dance, perhaps even worship together. And although a pubescent girl who saw a cute boy at the next campfire might not know him personally, her mother probably knew his aunt, or her older brother had hunted with his cousin. All were part of the same broad social web. Moreover, in the ever present gossip circles a young girl could easily collect data on a potential suitor’s hunting skills, even on whether he was amusing, kind, smart. We think it’s natural to court a totally unknown person in a bar or club. But it’s far more natural to know a few basic things about an individual before meeting him or her. Internet dating sites, chat rooms, and social networking sites provide these details, enabling the modern human brain to pursue more comfortably its ancestral mating dance.

 

pages: 335 words: 107,779

Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson

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airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize

When a schmo’s paycheck is delivered over the I-way, the number on the bottom line is plotted in his Profile, and if that schmo got it by telecommuting we know about that too—the length of his coffee breaks and the size of his bladder are an open book to us. When a schmo buys something on the I-way it goes into his Profile, and if it happens to be something that he recently saw advertised there, we call that interesting, and when he uses the I-way to phone his friends and family, we Profile Auditors can navigate his social web out to a gazillion fractal iterations, the friends of his friends of his friends of his friends, what they buy and what they watch and if there’s a correlation. So now it’s a year later. I have logged many a megaparsec across the Demosphere, I can pick out an anomalous Profile at a glance and notify my superiors. I am dimly aware of two things: (1) that my yearly Polysurf test looms, and (2) I’ve a decent chance of being promoted to Profile Auditor 2 and getting a cubicle some 25 percent larger and with my choice from among three different color schemes and four pre-approved decor configurations.

 

pages: 397 words: 102,910

The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters

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4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Lean Startup, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Despite the tensions between Swartz and his colleagues, Reddit attracted roughly five hundred thousand unique visitors per month.37 Although most of the site’s users probably didn’t realize it, they were Reddit’s product. Their attention and loyalty could be sold to advertisers eager to promote their goods on the site; their browsing and sharing histories could conceivably be mined for a wealth of personal information that could also be sold off. Content producers could, theoretically, even pay to have Reddit show users their stories. If attention was currency on the nascent social Web, then Reddit seemed primed for riches. The prospective acquisition presented Swartz with an existential quandary. Though he claimed to not care about money, he didn’t object to having or making it. But he wondered whether he and his colleagues actually deserved the sums under discussion. On his blog, Swartz openly questioned Reddit’s real value, recounting a conversation with an author who was astounded at the site’s popularity: “So it’s just a list of links?”

 

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

The pathway towards a postcapitalist society requires a shift away from the proletarianisation of humanity and towards a transformed and newly mutable subject. This subject cannot be determined in advance; it can only be elaborated in the unfolding of practical and conceptual ramifications. There is no ‘true’ essence to humanity that could be discovered beyond our enmeshments in technological, natural and social webs.18 The idea that a post-work society would simply inculcate further mindless consumption neglects humanity’s capacity for novelty and creativity, and invokes a pessimism based upon current capitalist subjectivity.19 Likewise, the development of new needs must be distinguished from their commodification. Whereas the latter locks new desires into a profit-seeking framework that constrains human flourishing, the former denotes a real form of progress.

 

pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

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Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Web 2.0, writes Grossman, provides “a chance for people to look at a computer screen and really, genuinely wonder who’s out there looking back at them.” The cover gives Grossman’s words a wry twist, offering a much darker view of the radical personalization of culture. Peer into the cover’s computer screen and all you see looking back at you is you. In a solipsistic world, every Lonely Girl is a Great Man. DIGITAL SHARECROPPING December 19, 2006 STRIP THE HAPPY-FACE EMOTICONS from the social web, and you’re left with a sad-face truth: By putting the means of production into the hands of the masses but withholding from those same masses any ownership over the products of their work, the internet provides an incredibly efficient mechanism for harvesting the economic value of the free labor provided by the very many and concentrating it into the hands of the very few. A new analysis of web traffic, published by the blog Read Write Web, underscores the point.

 

pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

Call this difference zillionics. A zillion neurons give you a smartness a million won’t. A zillion data points will give you insight that a mere hundred thousand don’t. A zillion chips connected to the internet create a pulsating, vibrating unity that 10 million chips can’t. A zillion hyperlinks will give you information and behavior you could never expect from a hundred thousand links. The social web runs in the land of zillionics. Artificial intelligence, robotics, and virtual realities all require mastery of zillionics. But the skills needed to manage zillionics are daunting. The usual tools for managing big data don’t work very well in this territory. A statistical prediction technique such as a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) breaks down because in the realm of zillionics the maximum likely estimate becomes improbable.

 

pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo

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Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, market bubble, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

Over the years, as the stakes of hacking grew, new pressures descended on the programmers who’d lived so easily in the Hack-Tic days. Postel’s motto to Be liberal in what you accept had been a byword for most of them, and it had helped the networks grow at an incredible pace, but at the price of vulnerability. Now most everyone has something to protect. No one wants to be too liberal in what they accept—the opposite, in fact. The brutal, inarguable, profitable demands of this kind of power cracked apart the unique social webs of the Hack-Tic era. The openness that we loved in so many areas of life, from our minds to our markets, has now become a liability. “I remember what the Internet was like before it was being watched, and there has never been anything in the history of man that is like it,” Edward Snowden once observed, nostalgic for the datascape he saw melt away during his time at the NSA. There is a whole new generation of young programmers who won’t ever know the original, generous ethos of a publication like Hack-Tic.

 

pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

Hence our theme for this year: Web Squared. 1990–2004 was the match being struck; 2005–2009 was the fuse; and 2010 will be the explosion. Ever since we first introduced the term “Web 2.0,” people have been asking, “What’s next?” Assuming that Web 2.0 was meant to be a kind of software version number (rather than a statement about the second coming of the Web after the dot-com bust), we’re constantly asked about “Web 3.0.” Is it the semantic web? The sentient web? Is it the social web? The mobile web? Is it some form of virtual reality? It is all of those, and more. The Web is no longer a collection of static pages of HTML that describe something in the world. Increasingly, the Web is the world—everything and everyone in the world casts an “information shadow,” an aura of data which, when captured and processed intelligently, offers extraordinary opportunity and mind-bending implications.

 

pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, Vannevar Bush

If time, money, family, and circumstances didn’t matter, I would rather have learned about the secret of life in person in Cambridge, Massachusetts. But all of those things do matter, a lot, and I was still able to get an 87 percent. Moreover, no one is alone on the Internet if they don’t want to be. In addition to faster connections and cheaper, more powerful computers, the last decade has seen the rise of the social Web. People form deep and lasting connections with others in virtual environments. They become part of authentic communities. And as technology improves, the nature of those interactions will more closely approximate actual face-to-face meetings. The person sitting at a chair, staring at a monitor, is a cramped and increasingly archaic vision of human-computer interaction. Right now, talking to a life-size virtual image of a real person is the kind of experience you see only in the cafeteria at MIT.

 

pages: 455 words: 133,322

The Facebook Effect by David Kirkpatrick

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Andy Kessler, Burning Man, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, Peter Thiel, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Whole Earth Review, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

Click: What Millions of People Are Doing Online and Why It Matters. New York: Hyperion, 2008. Tapscott, Don. Grown Up Digital: How the Net Generation Is Changing the World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone, 1995. Vander Veer, E. A. Facebook: The Missing Manual. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 2008. Weber, Larry. Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009. Winograd, M., M. Hais. Millenial Makeover: MySpace, YouTube & the Future of American Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press: 2008. Wright, Robert. Non-Zero: The Logic of Human Destiny. New York: Pantheon Books, 2000. Zuniga, Markos Moulitsas. Taking On the System: Rules for Radical Change in a Digital Era.

 

pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

This is a different kind of economy—one far more dependent on social capital than market capital. And it’s an economy that lives more on social trust rather than on anonymous market forces. Rachel Botsman, an Oxford- and Harvard-educated former consultant to GE and IBM who abandoned her career to join the new sharing economy, describes the path that led up to collaborative consumption. She notes that the social Web has passed through three phases—the first enabled programmers to freely share code; Facebook and Twitter allowed people to share their lives; and YouTube and Flickr allowed people to share their creative content. “Now we’re going into the fourth phase,” Botsman says, “where people are saying, ‘I can apply the same technology to share all kinds of assets offline, from the real world.’”29 Let me add an amplifier at this juncture: while the Communications Internet is an enabler, as it merges with the Energy Internet and the Logistics Internet in the years ahead, establishing an integrated and sharable communication, energy, and logistics infrastructure—an Internet of Things—that can operate at near zero marginal cost, it dramatically boosts the potential of the other sharable sectors, including rentals, redistribution networks, cultural exchanges, and exchanges of professional and technical skills.

 

pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

Bleacher Report, a blog written by 2,000 sports fans, now has 22 million unique users each month, enough to rival Yahoo and CNN sports.204 Global Voices, an online network of 1,200 writers and editors, who are largely volunteers, scrape through the Internet to find, curate, and translate pieces (into thirty languages) that are written outside the mainstream press (what they call the ‘citizen and social web’). Scott Gant captures this new spirit in the title of his book, We’re All Journalists Now.205 New ‘digital-only’ institutions have also emerged, often with non-traditional business models. The Huffington Post is a for-profit online news platform on which anyone can submit an article, alongside paid writers. Set up in 2005, within six years it had overtaken the New York Times website in unique monthly visitors.206 ProPublica is an independent, not-for-profit online newsroom, financed by the charitable Sandler Foundation, which only conducts investigative journalism.

 

pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

He also had a second slogan for the approach that Google had to take when competing in the social world: “Ready, fire, aim.” It sounded like a postmortem for a lost battle, he would later admit, but it was the Google way. Google set about organizing many of the web’s socially oriented companies into a major initiative that it called OpenSocial. The idea was to build a shared infrastructure where multiple websites could participate in a more social web. A user’s identity would be portable; a profile formed on one site could be used on other sites or services. While Google bore the burden of much of the programming and organization, it was careful not to label the effort as solely its own: the party line was that this was an open-source group effort that would benefit all. But as some of the major participants—MySpace, Ning, hi5, Bebo, AOL—fell into line, the biggest social site sat out the effort.

 

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Fans can contribute money, suggestions to improve the film, or both. Rather than the filmmaker looking for a small number of wealthy investors, IndieGoGo promotes the idea of many investors providing a small amount of money each—much like the crowd funding of the Obama campaign. And much like Obama supporters, once fans donate money, they are much more committed to seeing the project succeed. They can use social Web technologies to build online buzz for the film they’ve just invested in. SnagFilms.com makes it much easier for independent documentary films to find an audience. The site currently offers for free viewing 850 full-length documentaries, from established heavyweights to first-timers.15 By streaming films worldwide, on-demand, 24-7 and with no software installation or downloading required, SnagFilms’ potential audience is huge.

 

pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

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8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MVC pattern, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

In our implementation, when the VisTrails object is activated, we load the VisTrails application and allow users to open, interact with and select a pipeline that they want to insert. After they close VisTrails, the pipeline result will be shown in PowerPoint. Pipeline information is also stored with the OLE object. To enable users to freely share their results together with the associated provenance, we have created crowdLabs.7 crowdLabs is a social Web site that integrates a set of usable tools and a scalable infrastructure to provide an environment for scientists to collaboratively analyze and visualize data. crowdLabs is tightly integrated with VisTrails. If a user wants to share any results derived in VisTrails, she can connect to the crowdLabs server directly from VisTrails to upload the information. Once the information is uploaded, users can interact with and execute the workflows through a Web browser—these workflows are executed by a VisTrails server that powers crowdLabs.

 

pages: 1,294 words: 210,361

The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee

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Barry Marshall: ulcers, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, experimental subject, iterative process, life extension, Louis Pasteur, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, New Journalism, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, scientific mainstream, Silicon Valley, social web, statistical model, stem cell, women in the workforce, éminence grise

First, Fowler and Christakis plotted a diagram of all known relationships in Framingham—friends, neighbors, and relatives, siblings, ex-wives, uncles, aunts—as a densely interconnected web. Viewed abstractly, the network began to assume familiar and intuitive patterns. A few men and women (call them “socializers”) stood at the epicenter of these networks, densely connected to each other through multiple ties. In contrast, others lingered on the outskirts of the social web—“loners”—with few and fleeting contacts. When the epidemiologists juxtaposed smoking behavior onto this network and followed the pattern of smoking over decades, a notable phenomenon emerged: circles of relationships were found to be more powerful predictors of the dynamics of smoking than nearly any other factor. Entire networks stopped smoking concordantly, like whole circuits flickering off.