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Designing for the Social Web by Joshua Porter

barriers to entry, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Howard Rheingold, late fees, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Milgram experiment, Paul Buchheit, Ralph Waldo Emerson, recommendation engine, social software, social web, Steve Jobs, web application, zero-sum game

See also Del.icio.us social circles, 143 social conduits, 143 social cues, 80 social design, 5–6 social environment, 8 social features, Amazon, 36–39 social funnels, 169–171 social influence study, 136–139 social interaction, 31 social metrics, 176 social network fade, 104 social network sites. See also social web applications managing online content with, 153 most popular, 16 why people join, 10, 13 social news sites, 17, 153. See also Digg social objects embedding, 148–149 giving unique URL to, 33–34 successful web sites built around, 32 social proof, 79, 80, 87 social psychology, father of, 8 social psychology research, viii, 13, 88, 107 social software. See also social web accelerating growth of, 6, 13–19 challenge of, 9 components of marketing plan for, 48 as forced move, 10–13 and human psychology, viii mobile access to, 91 social web. See also social software; social web applications and personal vs. network value, 24 reasons behind rise of, 5–20 and usage lifecycle, ix–xi social web applications barriers to entry in, 130–131 estimated time spent on, 18 getting people to talk about, 144 growth of, 17–18 most popular, 16–17 new and noteworthy, 17 prioritization scheme for designing, 23.

v Table of Contents Introduction vii Part Interface Design, Part Psychology ..............................................viii What’s in the Book ................................................................................ ix One Goal: Better Design ...................................................................... xii Chapter 1: The Rise of the Social Web 1 The Amazon Effect . ................................................................................2 The Social Web . .....................................................................................5 Conclusion . ..........................................................................................20 Chapter 2: A Framework for Social Web Design 21 The AOF Method . .................................................................................23 Focus on the Primary Activity . ............................................................24 Identify Your Social Objects . ...............................................................31 Choose a Core Feature Set . ................................................................34 Conclusion. ...........................................................................................40 Chapter 3: Authentic Conversations 41 The Growing Alienation. .......................................................................43 What Could it Look Like?

But even though I have tried to share many important and interesting ideas, I have barely begun to uncover an amazing wealth of research. We are just at the beginning of knowing how to design for a networked world. ix INTRODUCTION What’s in the Book I start off in Chapter 1, The Rise of the Social Web, with a discussion of the scale and significance of the social web phenomenon. Chapter 2, A Framework for Social Design, describes a prioritization scheme called the AOF method that helps designers make early decisions about what features their software should have. The rest of the book examines the series of design problems that correspond to increasing involvement—the Usage Lifecycle—and the strategies social web design can offer. The concept of the usage lifecycle is central to understanding the book. The Usage Lifecycle There is a common set of hurdles that every web site faces. No matter if a site is selling books or providing a tool to manage contacts or supporting a social network, there is a general lifecycle people go through in order to use its software.


pages: 123 words: 32,382

Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web by Paul Adams

Airbnb, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, information retrieval, invention of the telegraph, planetary scale, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, sentiment analysis, social web, statistical model, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, white flight

* * * Summary Experiences are better when businesses are built around people. Many new businesses are using the social web as a platform to change established industries and incumbent companies. The web is being fundamentally rebuilt around people, and this will change how businesses operate. Almost everything we do revolves around other people, and the social web will reach us all. This rebuilding of the web is happening because our online life is catching up with our offline life. We’re social creatures, and social networks have been around for 10,000 years. The social behavior we’ve evolved over those thousands of years will be what motivates us to act on the social web. Businesses will need to understand those behavior patterns to be successful. The social web will change how we think about marketing. What we’ve already learned from the ability to observe and quantify human relationships has moved us away from the myth of the “influential” and toward understanding how groups of friends talk about businesses, brands, and products.

This was social behavior being bolted on. We are now entering the third phase (right), where websites are being rebuilt around people. Social behavior is the key feature. It is not bolted on. * * * Quick Tips Don’t think about the social web as a set of features to add on to your existing site. The social web is not about adding a “like” button or a “share” button to your web pages. Bolting on social features will not work, because we don’t bolt on social behavior offline. We’ve seen how Zynga, Facebook Photos, and Etsy reinvented businesses by designing around people. Think of the social web like you think of electricity. It’s always there, powering everything else. Social behavior is the same: always there, motivating us to act. It should be placed in the center of the development process. * * * Why the web is changing Social networks are not new For thousands of years, people have formed into groups, built strong and weak relationships with others, formed allegiances, and spread rumor and gossip.

Grouped How small groups of friends are the key to influence on the social web Paul Adams For Jenny. Thank you. Grouped: How small groups of friends are the key to influence on the social web Paul Adams New Riders 1249 Eighth Street Berkeley, CA 94710 510/524-2178 510/524-2221 (fax) Find us on the Web at: www.newriders.com To report errors, please send a note to errata@peachpit.com New Riders is an imprint of Peachpit, a division of Pearson Education. Copyright © 2012 by Paul Adams Project Editor: Michael J. Nolan Development Editor: Rose Weisburd Production Editor: Becky Chapman-Winter Copyeditor/Proofreader: Jan Seymour Book Designer: Mimi Heft Compositor: Danielle Foster Indexer: James Minkin Notice of Rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.


pages: 541 words: 109,698

Mining the Social Web: Finding Needles in the Social Haystack by Matthew A. Russell

Climategate, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, full text search, Georg Cantor, Google Earth, information retrieval, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, NP-complete, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, traveling salesman, Turing test, web application

Mining the Social Web Matthew A. Russell Editor Mike Loukides Copyright © 2011 Matthew Russell This book uses RepKover™, a durable and flexible lay-flat binding. O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles (http://my.safaribooksonline.com). For more information, contact our corporate/institutional sales department: (800) 998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Mining the Social Web, the image of a groundhog, and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks.

Whether the fullness of Tim Berners-Lee’s original vision will ever be realized remains to be seen, but the Web as we know it is getting richer and richer with social data all the time. When we look back years from now, it may well seem obvious that the second- and third-level effects created by an inherently social web were necessary enablers for the realization of a truly semantic web. The gap between the two seems to be closing. * * * [1] See the opening paragraph of Chapter 9. [2] Mark Zuckerberg, the creator of Facebook, was named Person of the Year for 2010 by Time magazine (http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2036683_2037183_2037185,00.html) [3] See http://journal.planetwork.net/article.php?lab=reed0704 for another perspective on the social web that focuses on digital identities. Or Not to Read This Book? Activities such as building your own natural language processor from scratch, venturing far beyond the typical usage of visualization libraries, and constructing just about anything state-of-the-art are not within the scope of this book.

For example, a tweet of “RT @SocialWebMining Justin Bieber is on SNL 2nite. w00t?!?” would indicate that the sender is retweeting information gained via the user @SocialWebMining. An equivalent form of the retweet would be “Justin Bieber is on SNL 2nite. w00t?!? Ummm…(via @SocialWebMining)”. Extracting relationships from the tweets Because the social web is first and foremost about the linkages between people in the real world, one highly convenient format for storing social web data is a graph. Let’s use NetworkX to build out a graph connecting Twitterers who have retweeted information. We’ll include directionality in the graph to indicate the direction that information is flowing, so it’s more precisely called a digraph. Although the Twitter APIs do offer some capabilities for determining and analyzing statuses that have been retweeted, these APIs are not a great fit for our current use case because we’d have to make a lot of API calls back and forth to the server, which would be a waste of the API calls included in our quota.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

After a London Fashion Week campaign, Twitter, using metrics from Topsy, said that Burberry had received 245,762 “mentions”—one of the social-web metrics du jour. Later, that number changed to 10,000, as the Twitter company blog post about the campaign underwent several revisions. These mentions also don’t get at some other important questions: How many people saw these tweets? How many people follow people who mentioned Burberry? How many of those people were logged on, and how many are fake or inactive accounts? How many people actually clicked on something or decided to make a purchase? These statistics turn out to be profoundly important for how advertising dollars are apportioned out (as well as, in some cases, bonuses for writers and others in the industry). They also influence what you read online and how you read it—a tremendous amount of journalism on the social web is built on a kind of feedback loop, inspired by what is already trending and what might soon trend.

For many users, the site’s rivers of mindless content are exactly what they’re designed to be: enjoyable trifles to be idly digested and shared during slow periods in the white-collar workday. As one monolith in the new-media landscape, then, BuzzFeed isn’t so menacing. But as a prominent example of how a news organization can be built, ground up, for the social web, it is troubling, all the more so because its occasional quality content is hidden in thickets of dreck. (BuzzFeed, like some other digital organizations, believes that home pages don’t matter much anymore—referrals through the social web are much more important—which is one reason why the home page of BuzzFeed.com is a mass of links, none of them communicating their relative importance.) More than that, the site is based on a patronizing and infantilizing view of users, who are seen as easily manipulatable totems—target the crazies!

And why not, when the individual’s voice is supposed to have the power to start a movement or sink a political campaign? The opinion is the prototypical expression of the social web: everyone has them, and yet there are never enough. Web sites, apps, purchases, restaurants, books, TV shows and films streamed on Netflix—everything and every place is open to being summarized in a few sentences and a one-to-five star rating. Even prisons are now reviewed, however cheekily, on Yelp. Sometimes we review as a favor to a friend, in return for a discount, or because our disappointment with the last season of True Blood forced us to act (strong opinions play well on the social web). Despite the widespread belief that many ratings sites are inaccurate or skewed—about 14 percent are fake, according to a 2012 Gartner study—reviewing continues apace.


pages: 680 words: 157,865

Beautiful Architecture: Leading Thinkers Reveal the Hidden Beauty in Software Design by Diomidis Spinellis, Georgios Gousios

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, continuous integration, corporate governance, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, iterative process, linked data, locality of reference, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, smart cities, social graph, social web, SPARQL, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, web application, zero-coupon bond

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, Brick and Mortar Architecture migrations, Database Migrations databases in Lifetouch, Database Migrations MIR (Machine-level Intermediate Representation), MIR Jikes RVM, MIR MMOs (massively multiplayer online games), Introduction, The Game World about, The Game World MMTk (Memory Management Toolkit), Garbage Collection Jikes RVM, Garbage Collection Model-View-Controller pattern, Emacs’s Architecture GNU Emacs, Emacs’s Architecture models, Good Architectures, First Steps into Design Town, Facebook’s Application Platform, Applications on Facebook: Directly Rendering HTML, CSS, and JS, Applications on Facebook: iframes, Applications on Facebook: FBML As Data-Driven Execution Markup application-as-service model, Applications on Facebook: FBML As Data-Driven Execution Markup architecture evaluation, Good Architectures conceptual models, First Steps into Design Town iframe model, Applications on Facebook: iframes n-tier architecture model, Facebook’s Application Platform, Applications on Facebook: Directly Rendering HTML, CSS, and JS modularity, Assessing the Modularity of Functional Solutions, State Intervention, Extendibility Criteria, The Modularization Policy, Assessing and Improving OO Modularity, Extendibility: Adding Operations, An Agent-Based Library to Make the Visitor Pattern Unnecessary distribution of knowledge criterion, An Agent-Based Library to Make the Visitor Pattern Unnecessary extendibility criteria, Extendibility Criteria of functional solutions, Assessing the Modularity of Functional Solutions, State Intervention reusability and extendibility, Assessing and Improving OO Modularity, Extendibility: Adding Operations types and modules, The Modularization Policy modules, Principles, Properties, and Structures, Module dependencies, The Modularization Policy defined, Principles, Properties, and Structures dependencies in Lifetouch, Module dependencies and types, The Modularization Policy monads, State Intervention functional languages, State Intervention monitoring, Task Portability loads, Task Portability Moore’s law, Context chips and scaling, Context multicore processors, Context use in MMOs and virtual worlds, Context multithreading, Betting on the Future, Message System in Project Darkstar, Betting on the Future Tandem computers, Message System music composition, The Role of Architect N n-tier architecture model, Facebook’s Application Platform, Applications on Facebook: Directly Rendering HTML, CSS, and JS Facebook, Facebook’s Application Platform, Applications on Facebook: Directly Rendering HTML, CSS, and JS names, The Web, The Web, File Naming files and processes, File Naming as a human construct, The Web on Web, The Web native code, Native Interface Jikes RVM, Native Interface Nepomuk project, The Akonadi Architecture KDE, The Akonadi Architecture NetKernel, The Web, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture memoization, The Web, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture using, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture networking, Networking: EXPAND and FOX Guardian operating system, Networking: EXPAND and FOX NIO image transfer, NIO image transfer Lifetouch, NIO image transfer “NonStop” computers, Guardian: A Fault-Tolerant Operating System Environment, Input/Output notifications, Acknowledgments (see asynchronous notifications) O object-oriented languages, Software Architecture: Object-Oriented Versus Functional versus functional, Software Architecture: Object-Oriented Versus Functional object-oriented programming, Rereading the Classics paradigm for, Rereading the Classics objects, Properties, Java Performance Tips, Fighting A Losing Battle, Object Layout, Combinators Are Good, Types Are Better, Everything Is an Object, Everything Is an Object churn, Fighting A Losing Battle defining types of, Combinators Are Good, Types Are Better instantiation and performance, Java Performance Tips layout in Jikes RVM, Object Layout in object-oriented languages, Everything Is an Object, Everything Is an Object properties in Lifetouch, Properties On-Stack Replacement (OSR), On-stack replacement Jikes RVM, On-stack replacement online games, Introduction scaling, Introduction online profiling, Unlimited Analysis in a Static Compiler Must Mean Better Performance open source development, Open Source Development Xen project, Open Source Development operating systems, Xenoservers, The Challenges of Virtualization, Paravirtualization paravirtualization, Paravirtualization versus xenoservers, Xenoservers virtual machines, The Challenges of Virtualization operations, The Functional Advantage, Reusing Operations, Extendibility: Adding Operations adding, Extendibility: Adding Operations as data, The Functional Advantage reusing, Reusing Operations optimal traversal order, Simple code generation acyclic graphs in JPC, Simple code generation optimization, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen, Java Performance Tips, Microcoding: Less Is More or More Is Less, As Runtime Compilers Must Be Fast, They Must Be Simple, Adaptive Optimization System, Optimizing Compilation, Summary, The First Release and Beyond Adaptive Optimization System in Jikes RVM, Adaptive Optimization System compilation in Jikes RVM, Optimizing Compilation, Summary emulated instruction set, Microcoding: Less Is More or More Is Less IOMMU for virtualization, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen Java performance, Java Performance Tips KDE, The First Release and Beyond selective optimization, As Runtime Compilers Must Be Fast, They Must Be Simple OSGi framework, Launcher Lifetouch, Launcher OSR (On-Stack Replacement), On-stack replacement Jikes RVM, On-stack replacement overheads, Four in Four: It Just Won’t Go JPC, Four in Four: It Just Won’t Go overlays, The Model: Buffers GNU Emacs, The Model: Buffers P parallelism, Creating a Software Architecture, Parallelism and Latency, Declarative Concurrency: A Thumbnail Viewer Example in Project Darkstar, Parallelism and Latency ThreadWeaver, Declarative Concurrency: A Thumbnail Viewer Example workflow, Creating a Software Architecture paravirtualization, Introduction, Paravirtualization, Paravirtualization Xen project, Introduction, Paravirtualization, Paravirtualization partial evaluations, Partial evaluation Jikes RVM, Partial evaluation PC architecture, The PC Architecture PCAL instructions, Action of the PCAL and SCAL Instructions Tandem computers, Action of the PCAL and SCAL Instructions PEIs (Potentially Exceptioning Instructions), Factored control flow graph RVM, Factored control flow graph performance, Context, Thoughts on the Architecture, Performance, Introduction, Proof of Concept, Potential Processor Performance Tests, Java Performance Tips, Java Performance Tips, Microcoding: Less Is More or More Is Less, Hijacking the JVM, Codeblock replacement, Ultimate Security, Unlimited Analysis in a Static Compiler Must Mean Better Performance, Dynamic Class Loading Inhibits Performance compilers, Unlimited Analysis in a Static Compiler Must Mean Better Performance dynamic class loading in runtime environments, Dynamic Class Loading Inhibits Performance Guardian operating system, Performance JPC, Proof of Concept, Ultimate Security JVM, Hijacking the JVM, Codeblock replacement measuring in MMOs and virtual worlds, Thoughts on the Architecture optimization in Java, Java Performance Tips processors, Context, Potential Processor Performance Tests switch statements, Java Performance Tips, Microcoding: Less Is More or More Is Less virtualization, Introduction performance isolation, Xenoservers operating systems versus xenoservers, Xenoservers Persistent URL system, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture personal information management (PIM) applications, Background KDE, Background “pillars”, Akonadi KDE, Akonadi PIM applications, Background KDE, Background pipelines, First Steps into Design Town, Render pipeline audio architecture, First Steps into Design Town render pipelines, Render pipeline polymorphism, Polymorphism, Polymorphic Containers, and Dynamic Binding, Types Are Defined Implicitly portability, Task Portability tasks in Project Darkstar, Task Portability portals, Acknowledgments (see social web portals) Potentially Exceptioning Instructions (PEIs), Factored control flow graph RVM, Factored control flow graph primordials, Compiling the Primordials and Filling in the JTOC compiling in Jikes RVM, Compiling the Primordials and Filling in the JTOC principles, Principles, Properties, and Structures of architecture, Principles, Properties, and Structures priorities, Core Concepts and Features ThreadWeaver, Core Concepts and Features privacy, Some Facebook Core Data, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake Facebook data, Some Facebook Core Data, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake procedure calls, Procedure Calls Tandem computers, Procedure Calls process pairs, Process Pairs, Revisited Guardian operating system, Process Pairs, Revisited processes, Principles, Properties, and Structures, The Process Structures, Process contained in module, Summary of Structures, Process Structure, File Naming defined, Principles, Properties, and Structures Guardian operating system, Process Structure in modules, Process contained in module naming, File Naming structures, The Process Structures, Summary of Structures processors, Context, Processor Architecture, Action of the PCAL and SCAL Instructions, Potential Processor Performance Tests architecture of Tandem computers, Processor Architecture, Action of the PCAL and SCAL Instructions performance tests in JPC, Potential Processor Performance Tests speed and scaling, Context producibility, Creating a Software Architecture as an architectural concern, Creating a Software Architecture Project Darkstar, Context, Simplifying the Programmer’s Job properties, Principles, Properties, and Structures, Properties, The Model: Buffers, Assessing the Functional Approach of architecture, Principles, Properties, and Structures forms in Lifetouch, Properties reusability, Assessing the Functional Approach text in GNU Emacs, The Model: Buffers protected mode, The Perils of Protected Mode, The Perils of Protected Mode JPC, The Perils of Protected Mode, The Perils of Protected Mode protocols, Acknowledgments (see file transfer protocols) proxy class, Problems Smalltalk, Problems public inheritance, Problems, Problems puddings, The Functional Examples metaphor for financial contracts, The Functional Examples PURL, Acknowledgments (see Persistent URL system) Q Qt, History and Structure of the KDE Project GUI programming, History and Structure of the KDE Project quality, Creating a Software Architecture, Maintaining quality, History and Structure of the KDE Project in Free Software community, History and Structure of the KDE Project maintaining in Design Town project, Maintaining quality in relation to functionality, Creating a Software Architecture queueing, Core Concepts and Features ThreadWeaver, Core Concepts and Features R Rand, Paul, Brick and Mortar Architecture RDF (Resource Description Framework), The Web redisplay engine, The View: Emacs’s Redisplay Engine GNU Emacs, The View: Emacs’s Redisplay Engine refactoring, Creating a Software Architecture, Launcher, Conway’s Law, applied defined, Creating a Software Architecture Lifetouch, Launcher, Conway’s Law, applied references, References, References, Further Reading, Further Reading, References, References, References on architecture, References enterprise application architecture, References languages, References, References systems architecture, Further Reading, Further Reading, References referential transparency, State Intervention expressions, State Intervention relations, Acknowledgments (see uses relations) reliability, Overview defined, Overview render pipelines, Render pipeline Lifetouch, Render pipeline rendering HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, Applications on Facebook: Directly Rendering HTML, CSS, and JS replication schemes, The Macro Structure in Project Darkstar, The Macro Structure repositories, Image repositories images, Image repositories requestors, Message System multithreading in Tandem computers, Message System requests, Resource-Oriented Architectures for named resources, Resource-Oriented Architectures requirements, Clear requirements in Messy Metropolis project, Clear requirements resource allocation, Acknowledgments (see dynamic resource allocation) Resource Description Framework (RDF), The Web REST (REpresentational State Transfer), The Web, Resource-Oriented Architectures semantics, The Web URLs, Resource-Oriented Architectures reusability, Overview, Assessing the Functional Approach, Reusing Operations defined, Overview functional languages, Assessing the Functional Approach operations, Reusing Operations ROA (resource-oriented architectures), Resource-Oriented Architectures: Being “In the Web”, Conclusion, Conventional Web Services, The Web, Resource-Oriented Architectures, Resource-Oriented Architectures, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture about, Resource-Oriented Architectures, Resource-Oriented Architectures Persistent URL system, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture, Applied Resource-Oriented Architecture Web, The Web web services, Conventional Web Services roadmaps, for change, Architectural Structures runtime analysis, Runtime Analysis Uses a Lot of Resources resources used, Runtime Analysis Uses a Lot of Resources runtime compilers, As Runtime Compilers Must Be Fast, They Must Be Simple Jikes RVM, As Runtime Compilers Must Be Fast, They Must Be Simple runtime components, Runtime Components, Summary Jikes RVM, Runtime Components, Summary runtime environments, Background, Myths Surrounding Runtime Environments myths about, Myths Surrounding Runtime Environments self-hosting, Background runtime memory layout, Runtime Memory Layout Jikes RVM, Runtime Memory Layout runtime structures, The Process Structures processes, The Process Structures runtimes, Bootstrapping a Self-Hosting Runtime self-hosting, Bootstrapping a Self-Hosting Runtime RVM, Acknowledgments (see Jikes RVM) S Salginatobel Bridge, Brick and Mortar Architecture SCAL instructions, Action of the PCAL and SCAL Instructions Tandem computers, Action of the PCAL and SCAL Instructions scaling, Introduction, Simplifying the Programmer’s Job, Scale out, The Web Project Darkstar, Introduction, Simplifying the Programmer’s Job render engines in Lifetouch, Scale out REST, The Web scheduling, The Basic Services simultaneous tasks in Project Darkstar, The Basic Services Scylla, Assessing the Functional Approach reusability, Assessing the Functional Approach Seagram building, Brick and Mortar Architecture security, Security, Introduction, Introduction, Ultimate Security emulation and, Introduction Guardian operating system, Security JPC, Introduction, Ultimate Security selective optimization, As Runtime Compilers Must Be Fast, They Must Be Simple virtual machines, As Runtime Compilers Must Be Fast, They Must Be Simple self-hosting, Background, Bootstrapping a Self-Hosting Runtime, The Boot Image Runner and VM.boot bootstrapping runtimes, Bootstrapping a Self-Hosting Runtime, The Boot Image Runner and VM.boot programming languages, Background semantics, Acknowledgments (see transactional semantics) servers, The Game World, The Macro Structure, Interchangeable Workstations, Xenoservers, Flexible Computing Anywhere, The Evolution of Akonadi, The Evolution of Akonadi data servers, The Evolution of Akonadi JPC, Flexible Computing Anywhere Lifetouch, Interchangeable Workstations role in MMOs architecture, The Game World role of in Project Darkstar, The Macro Structure shared PIM servers, The Evolution of Akonadi xenoservers, Xenoservers service decomposition, The Architecture in Project Darkstar, The Architecture services, The Basic Services stack-level services in Project Darkstar, The Basic Services session keys, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake Facebook, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake Session Service, Communication Services Project Darkstar, Communication Services sets, Types Are Defined Implicitly defining, Types Are Defined Implicitly shadow page tables, Paravirtualization virtual memory, Paravirtualization Shapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH), Rereading the Classics sharding, Latency Is the Enemy in MMOs and virtual worlds, Latency Is the Enemy shared memory, Hardware Tandem computers, Hardware shared PIM servers, The Evolution of Akonadi KDE and GNOME, The Evolution of Akonadi sharing, Process shares resources with resources, Process shares resources with sink by sink depth-first parsing, Simple code generation JPC, Simple code generation Smalltalk, Rereading the Classics, Types Are Defined Implicitly, Problems, Problems environment, Problems proxy class, Problems success of as an object-oriented language, Rereading the Classics, Types Are Defined Implicitly SOAP, Conventional Web Services, The Web, Resource-Oriented Architectures about, Conventional Web Services compared to REST, The Web, Resource-Oriented Architectures social context, Facebook’s Application Platform, Data: Creating an XML Web Service Facebook, Facebook’s Application Platform, Data: Creating an XML Web Service social data query services, Creating a Social Data Query Service, Architecture of FQL Facebook Platform, Creating a Social Data Query Service, Architecture of FQL social web portals, Creating a Social Web Portal: FBML, Putting it all together Facebook Platform, Creating a Social Web Portal: FBML, Putting it all together social web services, Creating a Social Web Service, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake Facebook, Creating a Social Web Service, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake software architects, The Role of the Software Architect role of, The Role of the Software Architect software architecture, What Constitutes a Software Architecture?, Creating a Software Architecture, Creating a Software Architecture about, What Constitutes a Software Architecture?

in architecture, So What? failure, Diagnosis diagnosing, Diagnosis failure modes, Fail fast Fallingwater house, Frank Lloyd Wright, Brick and Mortar Architecture fault-tolerance, Task Portability in distributed systems, Task Portability FBJS (Facebook JavaScript), FBJS, FBJS FBML (Facebook Markup Language), Creating a Social Web Portal: FBML, Putting it all together, FBML Architecture architecture of, FBML Architecture social web portals, Creating a Social Web Portal: FBML, Putting it all together file structure, Modules and Launcher Lifetouch, Modules and Launcher file systems, File System, File Access Security Guardian operating system, File System, File Access Security file transfer protocols, NIO image transfer Lifetouch, NIO image transfer files, File Access Security, Emacs in Use access security in Tandem computers, File Access Security GNU Emacs, Emacs in Use filesystems, The First Release and Beyond optimization in KDE, The First Release and Beyond financial contracts, The Functional Examples handling with object technology, The Functional Examples Firefox, Firefox “first-order citizens”, The Functional Advantage operations, The Functional Advantage fork bombs, Xenoservers performance isolation, Xenoservers forms, Forms Lifetouch, Forms FQL (Facebook Query Language), Creating a Social Data Query Service, FQL, Architecture of FQL frames, Emacs in Use GNU Emacs, Emacs in Use Free Software community, History and Structure of the KDE Project quality of software, History and Structure of the KDE Project functional languages, Software Architecture: Object-Oriented Versus Functional versus object oriented, Software Architecture: Object-Oriented Versus Functional functional programming, Software Architecture: Object-Oriented Versus Functional modular design, Software Architecture: Object-Oriented Versus Functional functional solutions, Assessing the Modularity of Functional Solutions, State Intervention modularity, Assessing the Modularity of Functional Solutions, State Intervention functionality, Creating a Software Architecture, Lack of cohesion, Locating functionality locating in Design Town project, Locating functionality location of in Messy Metropolis project, Lack of cohesion in relation to architecture, Creating a Software Architecture “functionality package” tags, “Functionality package” tags functions, The Modularization Policy and types, The Modularization Policy G games, Introduction scaling, Introduction “Gang of Four” book, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Rereading the Classics garbage collection, Fighting A Losing Battle, Class Loading and Unloading, but on a Big Scale, Garbage Collection Is Slower Than Explicit Memory Management, Garbage Collection Jikes RVM, Garbage Collection JPC, Fighting A Losing Battle JVM, Class Loading and Unloading, but on a Big Scale versus explicit memory management in runtime environments, Garbage Collection Is Slower Than Explicit Memory Management genericity, Using Software Contracts and Genericity Globally Unique IDentifiers (GUIDs), Immutable Data and Ubiquitous GUIDs Lifetouch, Immutable Data and Ubiquitous GUIDs GNU Emacs, GNU Emacs: Creeping Featurism Is a Strength, Firefox grant tables, The Changing Shape of Xen Xen, The Changing Shape of Xen graphical user interfaces, Acknowledgments (see GUIs) grid computing, Xenoservers, Xenoservers compared to xenoservers, Xenoservers virtualization influence on, Xenoservers growth accommodation, Principles, Properties, and Structures defined, Principles, Properties, and Structures Guardian operating system, Guardian: A Fault-Tolerant Operating System Environment, Further Reading GUIDs (Globally Unique IDentifiers), Immutable Data and Ubiquitous GUIDs Lifetouch, Immutable Data and Ubiquitous GUIDs GUIs (graphical user interfaces), Kiosk-Style GUI, A Crazy Idea, Extendibility Criteria extendibility criteria, Extendibility Criteria Lifetouch, Kiosk-Style GUI ThreadWeaver, A Crazy Idea H Hagia Sophia, The Role of the Software Architect handling, Handling exceptions exceptions, Handling exceptions handshake, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake user-controlled authentication in Facebook, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake hardware, The Game World, The Macro Structure, Interchangeable Workstations, The Challenges of Virtualization, Hardware, Diagnosis, Mechanical Layout, Hardware Limitations, Flexible Computing Anywhere detecting failure of, Diagnosis servers, The Game World, The Macro Structure, Interchangeable Workstations, Flexible Computing Anywhere Tandem computers, Hardware, Mechanical Layout, Hardware Limitations virtualization, The Challenges of Virtualization hardware virtual machines, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen Xen project, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen hiding, The Information Hiding Structures, The First Goal distribution and concurrency in Project Darkstar, The First Goal information, The Information Hiding Structures hierarchy, What Constitutes a Software Architecture?

uses structures, The Uses Structures, Summary of Structures substitutivity of equals for equals, State Intervention functional programming, State Intervention SWH (Shapir-Whorf hypothesis), Rereading the Classics switch statements, Java Performance Tips, Microcoding: Less Is More or More Is Less performance, Java Performance Tips, Microcoding: Less Is More or More Is Less synchronization, Synchronization, Java Performance Tips Guardian operating system, Synchronization performance and, Java Performance Tips SysCalls, Native Interface RVM, Native Interface system messages, System Messages Guardian operating system, System Messages system-of-systems, Creating a Software Architecture conceptual integrity, Creating a Software Architecture systems architecture, Introduction, Further Reading, Guardian: A Fault-Tolerant Operating System Environment, Further Reading, JPC: An x86 PC Emulator in Pure Java, It Feels Better the Second Time Around, The Strength of Metacircular Virtual Machines: Jikes RVM, References Guardian operating system, Guardian: A Fault-Tolerant Operating System Environment, Further Reading JPC, JPC: An x86 PC Emulator in Pure Java, It Feels Better the Second Time Around RVM, The Strength of Metacircular Virtual Machines: Jikes RVM, References Xen project, Introduction, Further Reading T T/16 processor architecture, Posterity emulating on Tandem computers, Posterity tags, Direct HTML tags, “Functionality package” tags, Implementing direct HTML tags in FBML, Data-execution tags in FBML FBML, Direct HTML tags, “Functionality package” tags, Implementing direct HTML tags in FBML, Data-execution tags in FBML Tandem computers, Guardian: A Fault-Tolerant Operating System Environment, Input/Output Task Service, The Basic Services Project Darkstar, The Basic Services tasks, The Basic Services, Communication Services, Task Portability portability in Project Darkstar, Task Portability scheduling in Project Darkstar, The Basic Services transaction semantics in Project Darkstar, Communication Services teams, Acknowledgments (see development teams) technical debt, Managing technical debt managing in Design Town project, Managing technical debt testing, Unnecessary coupling, Unit tests shape design, NIO image transfer, Potential Processor Performance Tests, Types Are Defined Implicitly effect of coupling on, Unnecessary coupling processor performance, Potential Processor Performance Tests Smalltalk, Types Are Defined Implicitly unit testing, Unit tests shape design, NIO image transfer text properties, The Model: Buffers GNU Emacs, The Model: Buffers “the last responsible moment”, Modules and Launcher Lifetouch, Modules and Launcher third-party support, Problems outside the code in Messy Metropolis project, Problems outside the code threads, The Process Structures, The First Goal, Thread Model Jikes RVM, Thread Model as processes, The Process Structures in Project Darkstar, The First Goal ThreadWeaver library, ThreadWeaver, A Crazy Idea KDE, ThreadWeaver, A Crazy Idea Thrift, Data: Creating an XML Web Service benefits of, Data: Creating an XML Web Service thumbnail viewer, Declarative Concurrency: A Thumbnail Viewer Example ThreadWeaver, Declarative Concurrency: A Thumbnail Viewer Example TIB (Type Information Block), Object Layout RVM, Object Layout tightly coupled multiprocessors, Acknowledgments (see shared memory) time, Time for design allotted for design in Design Town project, Time for design “Toy” processor, Potential Processor Performance Tests JPC, Potential Processor Performance Tests transactional semantics, Communication Services tasks in Project Darkstar, Communication Services transactions, The Basic Services scheduling in Project Darkstar, The Basic Services transparency, Acknowledgments (see referential transparency) Trolltech, History and Structure of the KDE Project Qt, History and Structure of the KDE Project trust, Xenoservers and distrust, Xenoservers Type Information Block (TIB), Object Layout RVM, Object Layout types, Combinators Are Good, Types Are Better, The Modularization Policy, The Modularization Policy, Extendibility: Adding Types, Types Are Defined Implicitly, Types Are Defined Implicitly adding, Extendibility: Adding Types defining implicitly, Types Are Defined Implicitly, Types Are Defined Implicitly and functions, The Modularization Policy and modules, The Modularization Policy versus combinators, Combinators Are Good, Types Are Better U UIs (user interfaces), Kiosk-Style GUI, UI and UI Model, Application facade, Creeping Featurism and User Interface Complexity creeping featurism in GNU Emacs, Creeping Featurism and User Interface Complexity Lifetouch, Kiosk-Style GUI, UI and UI Model, Application facade unit testing, Unit tests shape design, NIO image transfer in Design Town project, Unit tests shape design Lifetouch, NIO image transfer updates, Database Migrations, Updates as objects database migrations, Database Migrations as objects, Updates as objects uses relations, The Uses Structures uses structures, The Uses Structures, Summary of Structures about, The Uses Structures summary, Summary of Structures V versatility, Principles, Properties, and Structures defined, Principles, Properties, and Structures Villa Savoye, Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, Brick and Mortar Architecture virtual drivers, Paravirtualization Xen, Paravirtualization virtual interrupts, The Changing Shape of Xen event channels in Xen, The Changing Shape of Xen virtual memory, Paravirtualization, Paravirtualization paravirtualization, Paravirtualization shadow page tables, Paravirtualization virtual organizations, Xenoservers compared to xenoservers, Xenoservers virtual worlds, Introduction scaling, Introduction virtualization, Introduction, Further Reading, Introduction, Xenoservers, The Challenges of Virtualization, Paravirtualization, The Changing Shape of Xen, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen, Paravirtualization, Introduction about, The Challenges of Virtualization, Introduction history of, Xenoservers hosted virtualization, The Changing Shape of Xen paravirtualization, Introduction, Paravirtualization, Paravirtualization versus emulation, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen Xen project, Introduction, Further Reading VM Magic library, Magic, Annotations, and Making Things Go Smoothly VM.boot, The Boot Image Runner and VM.boot boot image runner, The Boot Image Runner and VM.boot W Web, Introduction, The Web as a model for data access and sharing, Introduction resource-oriented architectures, The Web Web 2.0, Some Facebook Core Data role of data, Some Facebook Core Data web services, Conventional Web Services, Creating a Social Web Service, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake, Data: Creating an XML Web Service building in Facebook, Data: Creating an XML Web Service resource-oriented architectures, Conventional Web Services social web services, Creating a Social Web Service, A Simple Web Service Authentication Handshake Web Services Description Language, Acknowledgments (see WSDL) widgets, Bindings GUI in Lifetouch, Bindings windows, Emacs in Use GNU Emacs, Emacs in Use workflow, Workflow, Conventional Web Services Lifetouch, Workflow Web services and data, Conventional Web Services workstations, Interchangeable Workstations, Fast and robust Lifetouch, Interchangeable Workstations, Fast and robust wrapping, The Basic Services tasks in Project Darkstar, The Basic Services Wright, Frank Lloyd, Brick and Mortar Architecture Fallingwater house, Brick and Mortar Architecture WSDL (Web Services Description Language), Conventional Web Services, The Web about, Conventional Web Services compare to REST, The Web X x86 architecture, Paravirtualization, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen, JPC: An x86 PC Emulator in Pure Java, It Feels Better the Second Time Around emulation of, Changing Hardware, Changing Xen, JPC: An x86 PC Emulator in Pure Java, It Feels Better the Second Time Around paravirtualization, Paravirtualization Xen project, Introduction, Further Reading xenoservers, Xenoservers XML, Modules and Launcher, Kiosk-Style GUI, Data: Creating an XML Web Service, Creating a Social Web Service beans files in Lifetouch, Modules and Launcher UI in Lifetouch, Kiosk-Style GUI web services, Data: Creating an XML Web Service, Creating a Social Web Service XP (eXtreme Programming), Design Town in Design Town project, Design Town Y YAGNI (You Aren’t Going to Need It), Deferring design decisions in Design Town project, Deferring design decisions About the Authors Diomidis Spinellis is an Associate Professor in the Department of Management Science and Technology at the Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece.


pages: 518 words: 49,555

Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Advance Praise for Designing Social Interfaces “A fabulous resource for companies looking to take advantage of the powers of the social web! This is a must-read for engineers and designers new to developing for social media, and an excellent reference for the seasoned designer.” —Abby Kirigin, Interaction design consultant/Product strategy advisor “Erin and Christian have put together an astounding collection of the most important social design patterns in use today. I recommend it for anybody building a social website or application... I wish I had this book three years ago!” —Joshua Porter, Founder of Bokardo Design and author of Designing for the Social Web (New Riders) “Christian and Erin have pulled together the current thinking on social design into a common language for driving interactions via usable open standards, open source, open processes, and interoperability.”

It can help you design contextual help within your application or help you put together materials for enabling people to learn about and get started using your software. If we’re lucky, people will move through this lifecycle relatively quickly and with confidence. If that happens, they’ll be much more likely to share their enthusiasm with others. This is the ultimate goal: a virtuous cycle of sharing. —Josh Porter, Bokardo Design and author of Designing for the Social Web Download at WoweBook.Com 58 Chapter 3: You’re Invited! Invitations Invitations, both sending and acting upon them once received, are core to the viral nature of social web experiences. Receive Invitation What A user receives an invitation from a friend or connection to join a site (Figure 3-14). Figure 3-14. Invitation to join Twine.com. Download at WoweBook.Com Invitations 59 Use when Use this pattern when: • The user experience is enhanced by building a network of user connections. • Growth of the service is dependent on friends of friends. • You want to supplement traditional user acquisition with user-based referrals.

To danah boyd, for encouraging Erin to go foraging through her wonderful thesis document and allowing us to excerpt it in our section on Youth. To Billie Mandel, for crafting thoughtful guidance for those designing in the Mobile space. To Stuart French, for his expertise in social knowledge management in the enterprise environment. To Joshua Porter, for paving the way with his book, Designing for the Social Web, and for graciously adding his thoughts to our book. To Thomas Vander Wal, for thinking about the future in his essay on social metadata. To Chris Fahey, skeptic, coach, and friend, for his essay distinguishing patterns from cliches. To Tom Hughes-Croucher, YDN evangelist colleague and deep thinker on social application design, for his thoughts on users’ mental models. To Matt Jones, inspiring pioneer and gifted communicator, for his elaboration on the intriguing palimpsest metaphor he contributed to this body of thought.


pages: 71 words: 14,237

21 Recipes for Mining Twitter by Matthew A. Russell

en.wikipedia.org, Google Earth, natural language processing, NP-complete, social web, web application

ISBN: 978-1-449-30316-7 [LSI] 1296485191 Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii The Recipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 Using OAuth to Access Twitter APIs Looking Up the Trending Topics Extracting Tweet Entities Searching for Tweets Extracting a Retweet’s Origins Creating a Graph of Retweet Relationships Visualizing a Graph of Retweet Relationships Capturing Tweets in Real-time with the Streaming API Making Robust Twitter Requests Harvesting Tweets Creating a Tag Cloud from Tweet Entities Summarizing Link Targets Harvesting Friends and Followers Performing Setwise Operations on Friendship Data Resolving User Profile Information Crawling Followers to Approximate Potential Influence Analyzing Friendship Relationships such as Friends of Friends Analyzing Friendship Cliques Analyzing the Authors of Tweets that Appear in Search Results Visualizing Geodata with a Dorling Cartogram Geocoding Locations from Profiles (or Elsewhere) 1 3 5 7 10 13 15 20 22 25 29 34 37 39 43 45 48 50 52 54 58 v Preface Introduction This intentionally terse recipe collection provides you with 21 easily adaptable Twitter mining recipes and is a spin-off of Mining the Social Web (O'Reilly), a more comprehensive work that covers a much larger cross-section of the social web and related analysis. Think of this ebook as the jetpack that you can strap onto that great Twitter mining idea you've been noodling on—whether it’s as simple as running some disposible scripts to crunch some numbers, or as extensive as creating a full-blown interactive web application. All of the recipes in this book are written in Python, and if you are reasonably confident with any other programming language, you’ll be able to quickly get up to speed and become productive with virtually no trouble at all.

All of the recipes in this book are written in Python, and if you are reasonably confident with any other programming language, you’ll be able to quickly get up to speed and become productive with virtually no trouble at all. Beyond the Python language itself, you’ll also want to be familiar with easy_install (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setup tools) so that you can get third-party packages that we'll be using along the way. A great warmup for this ebook is Chapter 1 (Hacking on Twitter Data) from Mining the Social Web. It walks you through tools like easy_install and discusses specific environment issues that might be helpful—and the best news is that you can download a full resolution copy, absolutely free! One other thing you should consider doing up front, if you haven’t already, is quickly skimming through the official Twitter API documentation and related development documents linked on that page. Twitter has a very easy-to-use API with a lot of degrees of freedom, and twitter (http://github.com/sixohsix/twitter), a third-party package we’ll use extensively, is a beautiful wrapper around the API.

Twitter has a very easy-to-use API with a lot of degrees of freedom, and twitter (http://github.com/sixohsix/twitter), a third-party package we’ll use extensively, is a beautiful wrapper around the API. Once you know a little bit about the API, it’ll quickly become obvious how to interact with it using twitter. Finally—enjoy! And be sure to follow @SocialWebMining on Twitter or “like” the Mining the Social Web Facebook page to stay up to date with the latest updates, news, additional content, and more. vii Conventions Used in This Book The following typographical conventions are used in this book: Italic Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, and file extensions. Constant width Used for program listings, as well as within paragraphs to refer to program elements such as variable or function names, databases, data types, environment variables, statements, and keywords.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

It will be a bit like walking in the fog: we won’t be able to see the end of the trail, but as we move forward more of the path will become clear. It will take a non-predictive mindset, one that’s curious to unknown possibilities. As the people shaping the connected world (entrepreneurs and corporations alike), we now have a chance to invent the commercial implications of the inevitable web of things. The social web has now connected us and introduced a new era for startups, so we should take the lead and create physical-goods mash-ups and value equations that couldn’t exist in a world without connectivity. And as for the social web, we’ll only ever know what people want to track, share and do when the tools are put in their hands. When people are able to track something, they start keeping score. We can’t help but turn things into a game. While it’s true that business is already a game, the gaming mechanics of industry are about to enter an entirely new era.

The thing we need to be careful about is that these facts point to the reality of how isolated we’ve become from those we care most about. If you’re a hard-working industrial participant, then it’s true that your co-workers have both a higher frequency and a higher proximity than any of your family members. We can only hope there are some people in the group we really enjoy being with. It’s probably why a lot of people take jobs — and leave bosses. Digital clustering In recent years, since the social web arrived, we’ve started escaping our geographic realities. Facilitated by these tools, there has been a classic emergence of digital cohorts based around shared value systems and interest. We can now choose the people we want to increase our frequency with even if we’re geographically constrained. Our permanent and daily digital connections enable us to circumvent our geography. We do a form of border hopping to connect with those we enjoy collaborating with, rather than collaborating with those who are merely profitable.

It’s collaborative in nature: human first, commercial second. Sometimes we have to remind ourselves of how dramatic these changes really are. So many of the things we’re seeing are counter intuitive to what we’d expect from large corporations. Let’s take the simple example of the two biggest global social-media competitors, Facebook and Twitter. Both of them have cross-platform sharing. The entire social web has this. This means that users can choose to publish on one platform and have it automatically posted on the other platform. It’s very hard to imagine a six-pack of cola coming with three cans of Pepsi and three cans of Coca-Cola. But in the new world, there tends to be more focus on coopetition than there is on competition. Not only does it put the user’s needs first, it also populates the social-media ecosystem to benefit both brands.


pages: 788 words: 223,004

Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson

23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

CHAPTER FIVE: BUZZFEED II On most summer afternoons: Alyson Shontell, “Inside BuzzFeed: The Story of How Jonah Peretti Built the Web’s Most Beloved New Media Brand,” Business Insider, December 11, 2012, https://www.businessinsider.com/buzzfeed-jonah-peretti-interview-2012-12. “Media and content: Erin Griffith, “Peretti: Human Curation Beats SEO in the Social Web,” Pando, September 19, 2012, https://pando.com/2012/09/19/peretti-human-curation-beats-seo-in-the-social-web/. At HuffPo he had focused: David Rowan, “How BuzzFeed Mastered Social Sharing to Become a Media Giant for a New Era,” Wired, January 2, 2014, https://www.wired.co.uk/article/buzzfeed. Moving into position: Kenneth Lerer, interviewed by Jill Abramson, New York, December 2, 2015. He wrote to his staff: Jonah Peretti, “BuzzFeed’s Strategy,” Cdixon (blog), July 24, 2012, http://cdixon.org/2012/07/24/buzzfeeds-strategy/.

,” New York, April 7, 2013, http://nymag.com/nymag/features/buzzfeed-2013-4/index4.html; “BuzzFeed Reaches More Than 130 Million Unique Visitors in November,” BuzzFeedPress, December 2, 2013, https://www.buzzfeed.com/buzzfeedpress/buzzfeed-reaches-more-than-130-million-unique-visitors-in-no?utm_term=.xnLjMyQOP#.iv3VEbLPo. To keep them happy: Charlie Warzel, “BuzzFeed Report to Publishing Partners Demonstrates Power of Social Web,” Adweek, August 29, 2012, https://www.adweek.com/digital/buzzfeed-report-publishing-partners-demonstrates-power-social-web-143194/. In the aftermath of the tragedy: Matt Stopera, “10 Reasons Everyone Should Be Furious about Trayvon Martin’s Murder,” BuzzFeed, March 22, 2012, https://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/10-reasons-everyone-should-be-furious-about-trayvo?utm_term=.ljpAYDy06#.mk0BlNqD7. Another Stopera post: Matt Stopera, “Florida Representative Frederica Wilson’s Emotional Speech about Trayvon Martin’s Shooting,” BuzzFeed, March 22, 2012, https://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/florida-representative-frederica-wilsons-emotiona?

They were effective means to the end Peretti had in mind: the “social reproduction” of content. To get himself oriented, he roped in his old friend Duncan Watts and signed him to a contract that obliged him, every so often, to talk shop with Peretti over a beer. He dubbed it “the beer clause.” Together they devised a sort of litmus test that would be used to determine how well BuzzFeed’s content reproduced across the social web, expressed in the form of a quotient called Viral Rank—essentially the distillation of how likely a reader was to share the post with friends. If the post on “Interspecies Friends” mustered a higher Viral Rank than the post on a novelty line of lingerie made out of bacon, that was a hint to pivot toward animals and away from edible XXX nightclothes. Shareability was the beginning and end of BuzzFeed’s model, as well as its organizing logic.


Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean

4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

Vascellaro, “Facebook’s About-Face on Data,” Wall Street Journal, 19 February 2009; available at http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB123494484088908625.html#ixzz1dCjqZGSk. Facebook’s Terms of Service are available at http://www.facebook.com/legal/terms. 91. Bauwens, “The Social Web and Its Social Contracts.” 92. See Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Economy of Business (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001). 93. The figures are taken from the Financial Times, 6 January 2011, and from Facebook’s publicity material. Both are quoted in Adam Avidsson and Elanor Colleoni, “Value in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet: A Reply to Christian Fuchs,” Social Science Research Network, 28 February 2011; available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1772975. 94. Bauwens, “The Social Web and Its Social Contracts.” 95. Maurizio Lazzarato, “Immaterial Labor,” in Paolo Virno and Michael Hardt, eds., Radical Thought in Italy: A Potential Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 142. 96.

Purification Responding to paradoxes of this kind, the Museum of Ordure is a “self-institution” that has a special interest in the management of human waste and its impact on the concept of the public sphere and civil society.23 Its early policies on preservation included running a server-based script that accelerated the process of decay of its digital objects, resulting in unpredictable and often sudden glitches appearing in the images and captions that constituted its public collection.24 Since the identification of “ordure” (such as rubbish, waste, anything unclean, or shit)25 indicates value judgment, issues related to the social web have further inspired the development of the museum’s website, in taking the detritus of communications and cataloguing it as empty speech acts. A dynamic collection of images and captions is currently produced with feeds from sites like 4chan, mixing diverse contents (from popular trivia such as images of cats to news reports on contemporary protest movements); its Twitter feed @museumofordure, although since suspended, used the hashtag #ordure and retweeted various others (like #revolution and #insurrection).26 Using techniques similar to other cultural institutions’ addressing the issue of public engagement, the museum’s aim is to reveal the excess of capitalist production.27 Its core purpose is further explained, in the About section of the website.28 Inspiration also derives from Dominique Laporte’s History of Shit (first published in French in 1978), which verified modern power to be founded on the aesthetics of the public sphere and in the agency of its citizen-subjects, but that these are conditions of the management of human waste.

The duplicity is evident in the way those deemed to be a danger to national security can be taken into custody and detained in ways that erase their individual human rights, turning them into what Agamben calls “noncitizens.”88 If the sovereignty-in-networks is exceptional too, it is also demonstrated in online platforms that offer the promise of democracy yet in practice are only served through centralized ownership and control. For instance, the social web mediates social relations in this manner, offering the freedom to communicate but through the exception that relates to both state and market principles, in parallel to what has already been said about the conditional aspects of freedom of expression more generally. Facebook regularly shares information with government agencies and purges activist’s accounts, such as those of campaigners trying to organize antiausterity protests in 2011, including the UK Uncut and Occupy movements.89 A closer look at the terms of service of these platforms confirms ways that ownership is carefully managed, parodied by a consumer advocacy blog with the suggestion for new terms: “We can do anything we want with your content.


pages: 286 words: 82,065

Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, post-work, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra

Someone whose job it is not to create more content, but to make sense of all the content that others are creating. To find the best and most relevant content and bring it forward. The people who choose to take on this role will be known as Content Curators. the future of the social web will be driven by these Content Curators, who take it upon themselves to collect and share the best content online for others to consume and take on the role of citizen editors, publishing highly valuable compilations of content created by others. In time, these curators will bring more utility and order to the social web. In doing so, they will help to add a voice and point of view to organizations and companies that can connect them with customers—creating an entirely new dialogue based on valued content rather than just brand created marketing messages.

It doesn’t all have to be original. It does all have to be useful and relevant to the brand experience.” So you can see that the PR folks and the advertising folks don’t look at the world the same way. Maheu points to campaigns like the Old Spice Man, which was done by a competitive agency, as evidence that broadcast television still drives buzz and starts consumer conversations. But no one denies that the social Web was a massive accelerant for Mr. Spice. While Rubel talks about raindrops, Maheu still wants to seed the clouds. There’s a difference in worldview. “I think marketing has evolved into two tiers … one which means you still need a campaign, you need points of view,” Maheu says. “You need brand to have the courage to say something and to engage with consumers on something that’s going to be interesting.”

When I first met her, she was already something of a curator, although she probably didn’t use that word back in 2004. What she did was bring together a remarkable mix of speakers, guests, and attendees at what was perhaps the most groundbreaking technology conference of its time: PC Forum. Now Dyson is focused, mostly, on two areas of interest: space exploration and in the related fields of health care and genetics. But she remains one of the most thoughtful participants in the emerging social Web. “There will be so much content that people will need it filtered: by topic, by whether their friends liked it, by popularity,” Dyson says. She is seeing the innovation shifting from searching to filtering: “Overall, there will be some recognition that filtering by humans—they used to be called editors—can be a useful function. “Journalists, the best of the best, will be recognized because they do more than filter content,” Dyson explains.


pages: 226 words: 69,893

The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook: A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius and Betrayal by Ben Mezrich

different worldview, Mark Zuckerberg, old-boy network, Peter Thiel, rolodex, side project, Silicon Valley, social web

The Winklevosses were accusing Mark of stealing their idea? Their dating Web site? They wanted to shut thefacebook down? Could they even do that? Sure, Mark had met with them, had e-mailed with them, had led them on. But he hadn’t signed any contracts, and hadn’t written any code. And to Eduardo, thefacebook seemed so different. Well, it was also a social Web site—but there were dozens—if not hundreds—of social Web sites. Hell, every computer science major on campus had a social Web site under development. That Aaron Greenspan kid had even called part of his networking portal “the facebook,” or something like that. Did that mean they could all sue one another? Just for having similar ideas? “I talked to a three-one at the law school,” Mark said. “I sent a letter back. And another one to the school. Under that next book.”

He said that he anticipated that 900 students would have joined the site by this morning.’” Holy shit. That couldn’t be true. Nine hundred students had signed up to his Web site in four days? How was that possible? Zuckerberg didn’t know nine hundred people. He didn’t know four people, as far as Tyler could tell. In Tyler’s view, the kid had no friends. He had no social life. How the hell had he launched a social Web site and gotten that kind of response in four days? “I checked the site out as soon as I read this. It’s true, the thing is really exploding. You have to have a Harvard e-mail, and then you get to upload your picture, and personal and academic info. You can search for people according to interests, and then when you find your friends, you make a network out of them.” Tyler felt his hands tightening.

Tyler gave him the background of their relationship with Zuckerberg, then told him what he’d read in the Crimson—and what he, Cameron, and Divya had seen for themselves, logging into thefacebook.com. “There are things that seem real similar, Dad.” The key, to Tyler, was the setting, the exclusivity of it, that really separated what Mark had made from social network sites like Friendster. You had to have a Harvard e-mail to enter Mark’s site—and that had been their idea, too, to launch a Harvard-centric social Web site. The very idea of making everyone who joined have an .edu e-mail address was completely innovative, and potentially very important to the initial success of the site. It was sort of a screening process that kept the thing exclusive and safe. Maybe a lot of the features Mark had put in thefacebook.com were different—but the overall concept, to Tyler, seemed too similar. Mark had met with them three times.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Another way to see continuity in technology’s evolution is by depicting the various phases of the Web’s evolution, and seeing that the blockchain is yet another new phase, focused on peer-to-peer, trust-based asset transactions. Let us remember the key mini-revolutions that the Internet brought us since 1994: Personal Communications, Self-Publishing, E-Commerce, and the Social Web. In hindsight, each of these four phases was defined by the functions they disrupted: the post-office, print media, supply chains/physical stores, and the real world. PHASE GOAL DISRUPTING OUTCOME Communications Reach anyone in the world Post office Personal Communications Publishing Spread ideas Print media Self-publishing Commerce Trade Supply chains and physical stores E-Commerce Social Interactions Connect with friends Real world Social Web Asset Transactions Manage what you own Existing custodians Trust-based Services The irony of this situation is that blockchain-based applications can replace any Web application.

This gets us to the next nugget in this emerging puzzle: how do we create new value? You create value by running services on the blockchain. Blockchain services will succeed by creating a new ecosystem (just like the Web did), and it will get stronger on its own over time. There is a precedent to what has already happened in cyberspace. With the Internet, we had e-commerce, e-business, e-services, e-markets, and later the social web arrived in the form of large-scale social networks. Each one of these segments created its own wealth. Thus far, there is no clear segmentation in the emerging field of “blockchain services,” but they will be in the form of services where a trust component is stored on the blockchain (identity, rights, membership, ownership, voting, time stamping, content attribution), services where a contractual component is executed on the blockchain (wagers, family trusts, escrow, proof of work delivery, bounties, proof of bets, proof of compliance), decentralized peer-to-peer marketplaces (such as OpenBazaar or La’Zooz), and Distributed Autonomous Organizations (DAO) whose governance and operations run on the blockchain.

Special Address of CFTC Commissioner Before the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation. Blockchain Symposium. March 29, 2016. Hammer, Michael, and James Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, & the Economic World. New York: Basic Books, 1995. Mougayar, William, and David Cohen. “After the Social Web, Here Comes the Trust Web.” TechCrunch. 2015. http://startupmanagement.org/2014/04/10the-bitcoin-and-cryptocurrency-investment-landscape/. Mougayar, William. Opening Digital Markets: Battle Plans and Business Strategies for Internet Commerce. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. ———. “How the Cryptoconomy Will Be Created.” Forbes. 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/valleyvoices/2015/01/20/how-the-cryptoconomy-will-be-created/#388906916787. ———.


pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

In fact, the Japanese government actually called off the whaling expedition. Everyone who creates something online has lost control of their message but in the process has gained access to a global audience. Mister Splashy Pants is a story about the democratization of content online—starring a whale—and it demonstrated how little control we have over our brands. It turns out we never had control, only now we realize it. Before the social web, we had little idea of what people actually thought about us—now we know, and when like-minded people band together, they wield a really big stick. The talk is over. Applause. Even a few “Woo!”s from the crowd. Nailed it. I’d given a few non-CompUSA talks before then, but once the video of my TED talk hit a million views and was front-paged on reddit,4 I became a known “public speaker.” I have a lecture agent now and get paid more for a speaking gig than I did for an entire year’s work at Pizza Hut.

The first week was slow, and we’d only raised $10,000 of Lester’s budgeted $39,000 goal, which would cover the entire production of the album, payment for band members, and fulfillment of the various rewards, such as T-shirts and even signed cowbells. Turns out I’d forgotten to upload the trailer to YouTube: I’d only uploaded it to Kickstarter, where it couldn’t be as easily shared. My bad. As soon as my foolishness was corrected, we raised more than $18,000 in a single day as the video blazed around the social web. This buzz triggered attention from bloggers, who covered the story, which eventually connected us to a writer at CNN, who wanted to write an article for the website. We still had five thousand dollars to go when that story hit the front page of CNN.com and stayed there for most of Christmas Eve—Dylan and Lester grinning for all the world to see. The next morning father and son were interviewed on the CNN show Starting Point.

When the project ended, we’d nearly doubled our goal, and Lester had $61,084—minus a few percentage points in fees to Kickstarter and credit card companies—to make his record and reward his fans. And this time, it was all going to belong to him. It made me so proud to finally say, “Lester, your time has come today.” The industry of art, like other industries, is dramatically changing, thanks to the open Internet. For some time, only a few fortunate individuals who had wealthy patrons were able to produce art. But today, the social web has made it possible for any artist with a good idea and an Internet connection to create, publicize, and monetize his art. As power shifts from incumbents trying to preserve outdated business models to newly empowered artists, it’s bound to make former gatekeepers uncomfortable, even scared. That’s usually a positive sign. We’ll be able to enjoy the work of comedians, cartoonists, and musicians who otherwise would’ve come and gone without ever sharing their genius with the world.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

But it wasn’t until the 1990s that personal mobility came to so dominate and define our lives and demand a telecommunications infrastructure that could keep up. By freeing us to gather where we wish, our mobiles are a catalyst for density; the most robust cellular networks are those that blanket stadiums in bandwidth so spectators can share every score by talking, texting, and photos sent to the social web. But these same networks can be a substrate for sprawl, a metropolitan nervous system conveniently connecting our cars to the cloud. They may be our most critical infrastructure, and seem to be our highest priority. Even as we struggle to find the public will to fund basic maintenance for crumbling roads and bridges, we gladly line up to hand over hard-earned cash to our wireless carriers. Flush with funds, the US wireless industry pumps some $20 billion a year into network construction.14 While the capital stock invested in the century-old power grid is estimated at $1 trillion in North America alone, nearly $350 billion has been spent in the last twenty-five years on the 285,000 towers that blanket American cities with wireless bandwidth.15 The transition away from wires is almost complete.

But cleverly, it was also a way of soliciting updates and corrections about the real world from the app’s users, whom Vindigo recruited to report when someplace went out of business, for instance. For Crowley, it was an adroit solution to the lack of wireless connectivity, and an important lesson in hacking around gaps in the city’s still-incomplete digital infrastructure. After hours, Crowley continued to work on Dodgeball, which was starting to show the serious potential of the social web. By the end of 2000, the site had hundreds of users who had contributed over sixteen hundred reviews of restaurants and bars in Manhattan and four other cities.16 But it remained a hobby. As Crowley recalls his days at Vindigo, “I was trying to get them to pull social in, but there was just no concept of social at the time.”17 But before he could get anything started, he was laid off once again as the venture sputtered out.

Tweets and check-in alerts percolated through the air like cricket chirps as the staff slowly recovered from the Foursquare-fueled night before. Being your own lead user is always hard work, but when your product gives you an easy way to find a place to drink and meet new people, it takes its toll. Surrounded by this fast-growing band of coders and designers, Crowley was well on his way to joining the ranks of Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook and Jack Dorsey of Twitter, the princelings of the social web. On a screen mounted by the elevator, Foursquare’s torrent of check-ins unfolded in real time. An animated globe spun slowly, revealing hot spots of check-ins flaring up in a self-service census of the creative class. Berlin, Stockholm, and Amsterdam burned bright as smart young things and their smartphones set out for dinner, drinks, and dancing. With each check-in, they furthered their quest to unlock the app’s “badges,” a kind of symbolic reward doled out for, say, checking in at four different bars in one night (“Crunked”) or at a health club ten times in a month (“Gym Rat”).


pages: 136 words: 20,501

Introduction to Tornado by Michael Dory, Adam Parrish, Brendan Berg

don't repeat yourself, Firefox, social web, web application, WebSocket

Apache assigns each HTTP connection to one of those threads, spawning a new thread if all existing threads are busy and more memory is available. Although it varies from system to system, most Linux distributions have an 8 MB default thread stack size. Apache’s architecture scales unpredictably under load, and maintaining a large pool of open connections that are each waiting for data can easily consume all the free memory available to a server. Most social web applications display real-time updates for new messages, status changes, and user notifications, which require the client keep an open connection waiting for any server responses. These HTTP keep-alive or Comet requests can quickly saturate Apache’s maximum thread pool. Once the thread pool is depleted of available workers, the server is unable to respond to new requests. Asynchronous servers are relatively new to the scene, but they are designed to alleviate the limitations of thread-based web servers.

SSL Decryption with Nginx Developers of applications that transfer personal information between the browser and client need to take special care to protect that information from falling into the wrong hands. With unsecured WiFi access as common as it is, users are susceptible to cookie hijacking attacks that compromise their accounts on popular social networking sites. In response, most major social web applications have made their sites either use encrypted protocols by default or as a user-configurable option. Coincidentally, we can use for Nginx to decrypt SSL encryption on incoming requests and distribute the decoded HTTP requests to the upstream servers. Example 8-2 shows a server block that decrypts incoming HTTPS requests and forwards the decrypted traffic using the proxy directives we saw in Example 8-1.


pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

As Director of the WELL I spent considerable time trying to understand how ad hoc groups worked things out in cyberspace, and how people attempted to achieve their purposes through monitors and keyboards. There is still no bright line separating casual from professional conversation on the Web. The answer to the question, “Who IS a journalist?” only gets hazier every day. Every day millions of false rumors are intentionally planted on the web. Tools are being invented to help support the social web’s ability to self-correct. Given that the WELL was founded by optimistic hippies, I assumed these geeks on the forefront of technology would have high hopes for their hobby, but I was surprised to find the opposite. “I had no idea the Internet would expand to the scale it is today. Absolutely no idea,” says Figallo. The Eternal September Throughout the late ’80s and early ’90s, universities granted their students access to Usenet and other BBSes.

We focused on making great things and using what tools we had at the time—email, IM, traditional PR and maybe a little LiveJournal—to get it in front of people and get it to spread. But for those who wanted to pay to catalyze a meme, it was generally pretty sketchy. Lots of pretending to be enthusiasts on message boards. Webb spends a lot of time coming up with memes for clients. Today he doesn’t have to start from square one every time because the social web allows the Barbarian Group to maintain a constant identity on Twitter, Facebook, and the blogs of its employees. And they don’t just blog about marketing stuff. Webb himself maintains a Tumblr blog dedicated mostly to the indie rock of his youth. His followers recognize that he represents an ad agency, but he’s also a real human being. People who have no interest in “the biz” follow him because he’s interesting, and he doesn’t use his various platforms to jam marketing messaging down their throats.

And it’s not just advertising. Publishing, show business, media, art and design too. 4chan shows us that there are enough creative people out there doing for free, and for zero recognition, what professionals have been paid to do for centuries. Furthermore, we have learned that what separated professional creatives from the amateurs wasn’t so much a level of talent, but access to distribution channels. Now that the social web has provided so many amateurs with a way to reach millions, they’re outshining the pros everwhere. Chapter 7 * * * The Meme Life Cycle THROUGHOUT 2010 I wrote for an Internet culture blog called Urlesque. Our stated goal was to “uncover bits of the web.” We reported most memes that came along, but for me the most interesting assignments allowed me to cover the way memes spread.


pages: 326 words: 74,433

Do More Faster: TechStars Lessons to Accelerate Your Startup by Brad Feld, David Cohen

augmented reality, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software as a service, Steve Jobs

I came up with the idea of a thing I called the “Zenie Bottle”—a beautiful, collectible physical object (similar to a Lava Lamp) linked to a social web site mash-up. I pulled the plug on the project a year later. Here is where I went wrong. I built the business for my ego, not the market. The idea I started with was very simple: sell a novelty item that was fun to collect. The Zenie Bottle was a pretty glass bottle filled with a colorful substance that, when shaken, looked like a genie was living inside. But I didn't feel like selling a novelty item was a big enough idea, so I added elements to the business to make it more complex and hip. I attached a social web site mash-up in which the owner of a Zenie Bottle would have a virtual bottle on the Web where they could put pictures, music, and video into it so they could share it with their friends.

I was embarrassed to tell people what I was doing. In hindsight, the idea was silly and didn't fit my personality. I told myself that I would be proud of my accomplishment if we had tremendous success. But that wasn't enough—I needed to be proud of what I was working on every single minute of every single day. Ultimately, we were underfunded for the scope of our effort. We weren't sure of our identity. Were we a novelty item, a social web site mash-up, or an entertainment property? Nope—we were all three! In each category, someone other than us was already the winner. While combining all three may have worked, it would require Herculean efforts to rise above the din of other more focused companies. We were hoping to become a fad—with very little effort. While this would have been nice, it was a fantasy. Any one of the mistakes mentioned could have been overcome, but the combination of all of them did us in.


pages: 299 words: 91,839

What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis

23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, commoditize, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, different worldview, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, G4S, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The key to offering elegant organization to individuals or groups—the key to all platforms—is to enable others to use the tool as they wish. They know their needs. Such openness and flexibility also enables more groups to form. Each one may be small, but altogether, they add up to a larger network of groups—a mass of niches. There is an ongoing debate about who will win the social space, what company will own the social web. That’s a wrong-headed view of the opportunity. The internet already is a social network. So is life. The internet merely provides more means to make more connections. The winner is not the company that gets us to come in and be social inside a wall: the social AOL or MySpace or, for that matter, Facebook. The winner will be the one that figures out how to bring elegant organization to the disorganized social network that the internet already is.

I’ll bet they will be smart enough to do it. Politics is at last learning the skills of self-organization. In 2004, Howard Dean’s presidential campaign used blogs and discussion as well as in-person Meetups to organize volunteers and raise money. Barack Obama’s 2008 campaign made brilliant use of social tools, including Facebook and the iPhone, to organize rallies and rake in donations. More profound, it used the social web to organize a movement. It also took advantage of the fact that other communities—such as that inside the DailyKos blog—had gathered around Obama. It didn’t hurt that one of Facebook’s founders, Chris Hughes, was an adviser to Obama’s campaign. We want to be connected. In the internet age, we have gained a reputation for being antisocial, for sitting on our couches, laptops on laps, earphones on ears, never talking to anyone.

See search-engine optimization Sequoia Capital, 189 Shardanand, Upendra, 35 Shirky, Clay, 50, 60, 151, 191–92, 197, 235–36, 237 Silverman, Dwight, 13 simplicity, 114–16, 236 SimplyHired.com, 39 Sirius Satellite Radio, 131 Skype, 31, 50 Smart Mobs (Rheingold), 106 Smith, Quincy, 38 Smolan, Rick, 140 social business, 158 social graph, 49 socialization, 211–12 social-media, 172–73 social responsibility, 47 social web, 51 Sorrell, Martin, 42 Sourcetool.com, 100 specialization, 26–27, 154 speed, 103–4, 105–6 Spitzer, Eliot, 96 splogs, 43 Starbucks, 60–62 Stern, Howard, 95, 131–32 Stewart, Jon, 95–96 StudieVZ, 50 Supreme Court, 225 Surowiecki, James, 88 talent, 146, 240 Tapscott, Don, 113, 151, 225 targeting, 151, 179–80 teaching, 193, 214–15 teamwork, 217 TechCrunch, 107, 192 Technorati, 15, 20 TechTV, 132 telecommunications, 165–71 Telegraph Media Group, 123 television, 84 cable, 167 decline of, 65–66 listings, 109–10 networks, 135 Television Without Pity, 135 Tesco, 179 Tesla Motors, 175 testing, 214 Threadbanger, 180 Threadless, 57 TimesSelect, 78 Time Warner, 80–81 Tobaccowala, Rishad, 114, 121–22, 145–48, 151, 177 on Apple, 228 toilet paper, 180–81 TomEvslin.com, 31 Toto, 181 Toyota, 174–75 transparency, 83, 97–98 journalism and, 92 PR and, 223 Tribune Company, 129 Trippi, Joe, 238 trust, 74, 170 control v., 82–83 in customers, 83–84 Tumblr, 192 Turner, Ted, 134 TV Guide, 109–10 20 percent rule, 111, 114 23andMe, 205 Twitter, 20, 126 Dell and, 46 mobs and, 107 real time and, 105–6 Tyndall, Andrew, 220 Union Square Ventures, 30 University of Phoenix, 217 Updike, John, 138 The Vanishing Newspaper (Meyer), 125 Vardi, Yossi, 31–32 Vaynerchuk, Gary, 107, 157–61 VC.


pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

As soon as this plan is signed into law, Recovery.gov goes live and you’ll be able to see precisely where your tax dollars are going. Because this is your democracy, and as I said throughout the campaign, change never begins from the top down. It begins from the bottom up.6 A day later, on February 9, 2009, selling his recovery plan at a town-hall meeting in economically devastated Elkhart, Indiana, he went further in explaining his vision for using the social web to involve the public in the watchdogging of government spending: We’re actually going to set up something called Recovery.gov—this is going to be a special website we set up, that gives you a report on where the money is going in your community, how it’s being spent, how many jobs it’s created so that all of you can be the eyes and ears. And if you see that a project is not working the way it’s supposed to, 111 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY you’ll be able to get on that website and say, “You know, I thought this was supposed to be going to school construction but I haven’t noticed any changes being made.”

All the real work is done by a sophisticated “Recovery Operations Center” where traditional law enforcement authorities use data-mining tools to uncover potential fraud. In no way has a community of citizen inspectors general been formed, and it’s not surprising that Recovery.gov has had no discernible effect on public trust in Obama. Over on Inspector General Devaney’s “Chairman’s Corner” blog, a handful of posts (less than one per month!) demonstrate further how out of touch he is with how to engage the social web. In his March 2010 post, he lambasted “gratuitous criticism from some journalists and Internet grouches”9 who pointed out problems with Recovery.gov’s public data, instead of embracing their comments as constructive. My colleague Clay Johnson, then director of Sunlight Labs, chided Devaney for how poorly he dealt with online criticism, writing: “You could have created a spirit of civil openness and participation like no other in an incredibly charged political environment.


pages: 25 words: 5,789

Data for the Public Good by Alex Howard

23andMe, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Network effects, openstreetmap, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, social software, social web, web application

It empowers citizens to collaboratively create solutions. It’s not just the consumption but the co-production of government services and democracy.” The Promise of Data Journalism The ascendance of data journalism in media and government will continue to gather force in the years ahead. Journalists and citizens are confronted by unprecedented amounts of data and an expanded number of news sources, including a social web populated by our friends, family and colleagues. Newsrooms, the traditional hosts for information gathering and dissemination, are now part of a flattened environment for news. Developments often break first on social networks, and that information is then curated by a combination of professionals and amateurs. News is then analyzed and synthesized into contextualized journalism. Data is being scraped by journalists, generated from citizen reporting, or gleaned from massive information dumps — such as with the Guardian’s formidable data journalism, as detailed in a recent ebook.


pages: 268 words: 109,447

The Cultural Logic of Computation by David Golumbia

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, American ideology, Benoit Mandelbrot, borderless world, business process, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, future of work, Google Earth, Howard Zinn, IBM and the Holocaust, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

This critique is often dismissed due to its first and best-known presentation in Birkerts (1994), where computerization is associated with a tendency to privilege the visual (a real worry, on my account), a decline in the ability to read (a real but more complex worry), and a decline in cultural standards that resembles the Keen (2007) attack on “amateurization” and lack of “expert oversight” of cultural production—phenomena that I would in fact find salutary if they were as widespread or as powerful as their advocates and their critics claim. Put simply, such critiques are elitist. But Birkerts also points to a line of critique that must be taken more seriously, which goes something like this: how do we guarantee that computers and other cultural products are not so pleasurable that they discourage us from engaging in absolutely necessary forms of social interaction? I see the current emphasis on the “social web” as not so much an account of a real phenomenon as it is a reaction to what we all know inside—that computers are pulling us away from face-to-face social interactions and in so doing removing something critical from our lived experience. While I am more skeptical about the implicit value of reading per se than Birkerts, the question of what that activity is being replaced with, raised more pointedly in Bauerlein (2008), must give anyone pause.

Clearly the engineering presumption is that they are hierarchical, and this presumption emerges from engineers who are somewhat familiar with texts and language; one can only imagine the presumptions of engineers who do not work at all closely with texts. Closely allied to the emphasis on hierarchy is an emphasis on categorization. Every in contemporary computing one sees a profound attention to categories—one might even call it a mania for classification. In the contemporary so-called “Web 2.0” and “social web,” one of the main technologies is an XML-fueled insistence on “taxonomy,” “folksonomy,” and “ontology.” These words cover an engineering presumption that we would be much better off if the data on the web was collected into hierarchically arranged categories—categories that are ultimately meant for machine processing more than for human processing. Currently, almost every major website has implemented one kind of tagging function or another—from the keyword tags on Amazon.com to the large-scale tagging function on sites like Digg .com.

See Individualism Postal, Paul, 43, 49, 54–55, 60, 70; on Mohawk language, 43 Postcolonialism, 131, 145, 203 Posthuman, 2 Programming, 41, 101, 123, 164, 198, 202, 209–211 Programming languages, 19, 48, 84, 93, 117–121 Prototype theory, 115 Psychoanalysis, 33n1, 78, 110, 185–187, 224 Putnam, Hilary, 6, 36, 42, 55, 59–79, 84, 109, 185, 192, 195, and philosophical functionalism, 59–64 Quine, Willard van Orman, 36, 50, 55, 57, 60–61, 63–64, 69, 74, 76 Race, 20, 41, 68, 78, 133–134, 137–144, 201–203 Racialism, 51n9, 131–133, 143, defined, 131n1 Racism, 51, 133 RAND corporation, 32, 193, 195 Rand, Ayn, 51, 78 Rationalism, 1, 8, 10, 13–14, 27, 31–33, 46–58, 67, 70, 109–111, 189–196, 202, 218–219 Relativism, 64, 69, 76–78 Representational Theory of Mind (RTM), 63 Responsibility, 32, 119, 156, 164, 173–174, 194, 224 Revolution, 43, 129, 152, 154, 163, 215–216 RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device), 176 Rhizomes, 23, 52, 153 Robbin, Jonathan, 131 RTS (Real-Time Strategy) games, 135–144, 167–168 de Saussure, Ferdinand, 45, 50 Savoir, 10, 202, 205–206 Schumpeter, Joseph, 129, 147 Screen-present, 213 p 256 Searle, John, 54–55, 64, 67, 92, 98 Semantic Web, 105, 112–119, 124–125, 208 Service economy, 130, 173 SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), 106–108, 111, 113, 115 Shannon, Claude, 32, 36, 83, 86, 90, 222 SHRDLU, 98–103 Simon, Herb, 36, 202 Skinner, B. F., 36, 41, 55, 57 Slavery, 12, 26, 188–189 Simulation, 12, 22, 36, 69, 75, 99–101, 136, 167, 204–205, 216–217 Smoothness (vs. striation), 11, 22–24, 134, 149, 156–162, 175, 217 Soar, 202 Social web, 6, 211 Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, 14, 16, 121–122 Spreadsheets, 157–161, 198, 201, 212 Standard languages, 92, 95, 119–121 Standardization, 115, 118–122, 124, 150 Standards, 6, 107, 113–115, 176 Star Trek, 78, 85 State philosophy, 8–11, 76 Strauss, Leo, 192–194 Striation, 11, 33, 52, 62, 72, 129–134, 140–144, 151–177, 208, 213, 217, 219; defined, 22–24 Strong AI, 84, 98, 106n2, 201–202 Subject-Oriented Programming, 210–211 Supply chains, 146–147, 170, 175–176 Supply-Chain Management (SCM), 164, 172, 175–176 Surveillance, 4, 13, 60, 149–152, 161–162, 176–177, 182, 213 Sweezy, Paul, 129 Syntax, 34, 37, 40, 42, 47, 66–67, 70, 94, 189–192, 195 Taylor, Frederick, 158, 161–162 Territorialization, 23–24, 153–154 Text encoding, 107–108 Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), 111–112 Text-to-speech (TTS) systems, 93–97 Turing, Alan, 12, 32, 37, 39–40, 62, 70, 83–84, 86, 89, 216 Turing Machine, 7, 19, 35–37, 40, 47, 59, 62, 75, 166, 201, 216 Turing Test, 84–85, 98, 136 Turkle, Sherry, 185–186, 207 Turner, Fred, 5, 152, 219 Index Unicode, 124 Virtuality, 22–23 Voice recognition, 94–95, 97 von Neumann, John, 12, 32, 35, 37, 83, 195, W3C (World Wide Web consortium), 113, 117–118 Wal-Mart, 79, 147, 174–176 Wark, McKenzie, 5, 23, 25, 143–144, 151, 221 Weaver, Warren, 86–94, 98 p 257 Web 2.0, 208, 211 Weizenbaum, Joseph, 4, 53, 71, 207 Wiener, Norbert, 4, 87–92, 97 Wikipedia, 5, 26, 124, 208, 219 Winograd, Terry, 5, 71, 98–103 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 14–15, 37, 55–56, 62, 64, 68, 71, 74–80, 108–109 Word processors, 112, 116, 157 XML, 111–119, 211 Zinn, Howard, 143 Žižek, Slavoj, 187, 224


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Breaking News: The Remaking of Journalism and Why It Matters Now by Alan Rusbridger

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Filter Bubble, forensic accounting, Frank Gehry, future of journalism, G4S, high net worth, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks

Emily had been right about Web 2.0 – as no one was now calling it. It was all anyone in the US was interested in. The social web, social media. None of the terms being used to name or describe it captured the dramatic upheaval of the revolution we were now entering. It was as if someone had tried to summarise the effects of Gutenberg as ‘distributed publishing’. Social media was where the users, the money, the technology and the energy were swarming. And it left us quite confused about where a newspaper fitted in. Web 1.0 was ‘I look’. Web 2.0 was ‘I participate’. Newspapers were comfortable with ‘I look’. They got that. It was new, but it was old. But ‘I participate’ was something entirely different. Most editors wanted to be in control. The one obvious thing about the social web was that no one was in control. Anyone could do, or say, anything.

Anyone could do, or say, anything. That might please free speech fundamentalists or anarchists, but was hardly cheering news to most journalists. If you had assembled a hundred journalists back in the office and discussed with them the nature of the social web. It might have looked a little like this: • 10 per cent: Habitual users in their personal and professional lives. ‘It’s so obviously the future, why can’t we go faster?’ • 30 per cent: Know a little about it and have played with it a bit personally, or have children who do. ‘I’m quite excited about the possibilities, but can’t really see the relevance to what we do.’ • 20 per cent: Aware of it, but have not personally tried it much. ‘Open to persuasion, but can’t see where the money’s going to come from.’ • 30 per cent: Hostile to the idea. ‘It’s stupid, dumbing down.

Only by going for reach could you make up for what Enders called the ‘frightening disparity’ between the yields in traditional and online media. It was still difficult to see how you could build a big enough online audience while simultaneously asking them to pay for the privilege. Quite a bit of print would follow that logic – with a mushrooming of give-away titles. For the moment, for general news, the online future looked as though it was bound to be free. So many consultants, so much to keep abreast of. The social web was the focus of the 2006 report by Mary Meeker, a Morgan Stanley venture capitalist whose annual pronouncements on digital media were treated as close to holy writ. Murdoch’s MySpace was singled out as a company of extraordinary growth. Mobile was a glimmer in the eye (8 per cent of global phone subscribers were on 3G). The fastest growing companies were the Web 2.0 websites. Wikipedia was up 100 per cent year on year; YouTube up more than 2,000 per cent.


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The Start-Up of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career by Reid Hoffman, Ben Casnocha

Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Black Swan, business intelligence, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, follow your passion, future of work, game design, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, late fees, lateral thinking, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, out of africa, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, rolodex, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs

Trade-offs are inevitable when you’re balancing different considerations such as the market realities of employment and your own natural interests. Even as I have developed a career in the technology industry I have not relinquished my original aspirations. In fact, the issues of personal identity and community incentives that I researched in academia are relevant to my current entrepreneurial passion for the social Web, online networks, and marketplaces. My longstanding interests in these themes have helped me develop industry skills and differentiation around the creation of massive Internet platforms. Recently, I made a career move to start doing venture investing at Greylock. Again, I built on my assets and pursued my aspirations in the local environment in which I found myself. My significant operating experience at scale differentiates me from other VCs with finance backgrounds or limited operational backgrounds.

Land on CNN.com and you can pull up articles your Facebook friends have shared. Browse Fortune magazine’s “100 Best Companies to Work For” list, and next to each company is a list of your LinkedIn connections out to the third degree who work there—making it easy to focus on companies where you already have a foot in the door. Instead of an anonymous editor or algorithm telling millions of readers what’s important or relevant, the rise of a social web allows trusted connections to act as information curators. Finally, pushing interesting information out to your network increases your chances of serendipitous intelligence. Post an article, email a quote, forward along a job offer, and in other ways share small gifts to your network. Your friends will appreciate it, and you will increase the chances that those same people respond in kind and send you intelligence later on.


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Natural Language Annotation for Machine Learning by James Pustejovsky, Amber Stubbs

Amazon Mechanical Turk, bioinformatics, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, easy for humans, difficult for computers, finite state, game design, information retrieval, iterative process, natural language processing, pattern recognition, performance metric, sentiment analysis, social web, speech recognition, statistical model, text mining

If you are interested in taking the raw text from an HTML page, the NLTK includes a package that will clean that input for you: >>> url = "http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-18963939" >>> html = urlopen(url).read() >>> raw = nltk.clean_html(html) Chapter 11 of Natural Language Processing with Python provides information and resources for compiling data from other sources, such as from word processor files, databases, and spreadsheets. In terms of mining information from other web sources, such as Twitter and blogs, Mining the Social Web by Matthew A. Russell (O’Reilly) provides detailed information for using the Twitter API, as well as resources for mining information from email, LinkedIn, and blogs. Eliciting Data from People So far we have assumed you will be annotating texts or recordings that already exist. But for some tasks, the data just isn’t there, or at least it doesn’t exist in a form that’s going to be of any use.

.), Proceedings of the 3rd International 905 Conference on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, San Mateo, CA: pp. 165–176. Reichenbach, Hans. 1947. Elements of Symbolic Logic. New York: Macmillan Co.; New York: Dover Publications, 1980 (reprint). Rumshisky, Anna. 2008. Verbal Polysemy Resolution through Contextualized Clustering of Arguments. PhD Dissertation, Brandeis University. Russell, David A. 2011. Mining the Social Web. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly. Saquete, Estela. 2010. “ID 392:TERSEO + T2T3 Transducer. A System for Recognizing and Normalizing TIMEX3.” In Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation. Saurí, Roser, Robert Knippen, Marc Verhagen, and James Pustejovsky. 2005. “Evita: A Robust Event Recognizer for QA Systems.” In Proceedings of HLT/EMNLP 2005. Saurí, Roser, Marc Verhagen, and James Pustejovsky. 2006.

., Maximum Entropy Classifiers Maximum Entropy Markov Models (MEMMs), Structured Pattern Induction, Sequence Induction Algorithms Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Language Models (see MLE (maximum likelihood estimation)) Message Understanding Conference (MUC), Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities Message Understanding Conferences (MUCs), Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity Metacritic.com, Unique Labels: Movie Reviews, Example 1: Single Labels—Movie Reviews metadata, The Importance of Language Annotation metadata annotation, Metadata Annotation: Document Classification–Multiple Labels: Film Genres, Unique Labels: Movie Reviews, Multiple Labels: Film Genres, Multiple Labels: Film Genres multiple lables, Multiple Labels: Film Genres unique lables, Unique Labels: Movie Reviews XML and, Multiple Labels: Film Genres micro-averaging, Other Classifiers to Know About Mining the Social Web (Russell), Collecting Data from the Internet Mitchell, Tom, Defining Our Learning Task MLE (maximum likelihood estimation), Language Models, Naïve Bayes Learning model(s), Model the Phenomenon, Building Your Model and Specification–Other Standards Affecting Annotation, Building Your Model and Specification, Some Example Models and Specs, Adding Named Entities, Semantic Roles, Semantic Roles, Adopting (or Not Adopting) Existing Models–Using Models Without Specifications, Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity–Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity, Using Existing Models and Specifications–Using Existing Models and Specifications, Using Models Without Specifications, Model and Specification, About Your Model and Specifications, Model: Preliminary Specifications–Links, Model: The TimeML Specification Used in TimeBank–Confidence, Modeling the Future: Directions for TimeML–Event Structures arity, Some Example Models and Specs creating new vs. using existing, Adopting (or Not Adopting) Existing Models–Using Models Without Specifications creating, advantages/disadvantages of, Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity–Creating Your Own Model and Specification: Generality Versus Specificity defined, Model the Phenomenon, Building Your Model and Specification existing, advantages/disadvantages of, Using Existing Models and Specifications–Using Existing Models and Specifications multimodel annotations, Semantic Roles Named Entities, adding to, Adding Named Entities planning for the future with, Modeling the Future: Directions for TimeML–Event Structures reporting on, About Your Model and Specifications revising, Model and Specification semantic roles and, Semantic Roles specifications, using without, Using Models Without Specifications TimeML, defining and evolution of, Model: Preliminary Specifications–Links TimeML, results of MAMA cycle, Model: The TimeML Specification Used in TimeBank–Confidence Model-Annotate-Model-Annotate (MAMA) cycle, Annotate with the Specification (see MAMA cycle) Model-based sequence classification, Sequence Induction Algorithms Movie Review Corpus (MRC), Example 1: Single Labels—Movie Reviews MPQA Opinion Corpus, Sentiment classification Multidocument Adjudication Interface, MAI User Guide (see MAI (Multidocument Adjudication Interface)) multimodel annotation, Model the Phenomenon, Semantic Roles Multipurpose Annotation Environment, Multiple Labels: Film Genres (see MAE (Multipurpose Annotation Environment)) N n-grams, Corpora Today, N-grams defined, Corpora Today and lexical statistics, N-grams Naïve Bayes learning, Classification, Joint Probability Distributions, Naïve Bayes Learning–Sentiment classification, Naïve Bayes Learning, Sentiment classification, Maximum Entropy Classifiers Classifier, Joint Probability Distributions MaxEnt vs., Maximum Entropy Classifiers maximum a posteriori (MAP) hypothesis, Naïve Bayes Learning sentiment classification, Sentiment classification Named Entities (NEs), The Annotation Development Cycle, Adding Named Entities, Inline Annotation, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities as extent tags, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities and inline tagging, Inline Annotation and models, Adding Named Entities Simple Named Entity Guidelines V6.5, Example 3: Extent Annotations—Named Entities Narrative Containers, Narrative Containers–Narrative Containers natural language processing, What Is Natural Language Processing?


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Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps by Gabe Zichermann, Christopher Cunningham

airport security, future of work, game design, lateral thinking, minimum viable product, pattern recognition, Ruby on Rails, social graph, social web, urban planning, web application

Next-generation analytics isn’t based on page views, it’s built using an engaging layer of people playing, enjoying, and sharing their experiences. Critical Elements of an Online Rewards Experience A social-rewards program grows loyalty by making a significant behavior-changing connection with the player. Several key elements increase your chance of making this connection. An effective online rewards experience must be contextual, use real-time feedback, leverage the social web, and be a vehicle for accomplishment. Relevant context is important because visitors and members have unconsciously and consciously trained themselves to ignore information that isn’t interesting or relevant to them. A better gamification platform will allow you to learn about your users and then customize their online experience based on their actions and interests. The necessity of real-time feedback is obvious: a player enjoys and appreciates instant gratification.

nickname=Test User&embed_id=widget_id" type="text/javascript"></script> In this example, you call the comment microwidget by using the widget’s endpoint. You then specify the comment widget and the ID of the widget in the page where the comment will appear. The comment widget contains a level image, points total, and level name. Enabling social-sharing A modern rewards program leverages the social web. Here is an example of tracking Facebook-sharing by associating the Badgeville bvCredit function with the onClick event. You can use API calls or JavaScript to track sharing as long as the sharing button is not in an iFrame: <a href='example' onclick='bvCredit("Share");'>Facebook Share!</a> You can give credit for multiple behaviors in one call: <a href='#' onclick='bvCredit("Share"); bvCredit("FBLike");'>Share!


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Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, lifelogging, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Your computer chat program ought to have this as a feature; for example, with Windows Live Messenger, I simply use the setting “Automatically keep a history of my conversations.” Getting SMS messages off your cell phone might require a little more effort. If you have a smartphone, you can get programs like SMS Exporter or SMS Cool! It is really a shame that more and more communication is being buried inside social Web sites like Facebook. I don’t believe you will want to make the effort presently required to save every single communication in your social Web sites. However, you should be sure to save some favorites, and occasionally just grab the look of your home page for your e-memory. Hopefully these sites will wise up soon and release our data from captivity. I spoke above about receiving all of your bills and statements electronically. With financial transactions, you should take this even further.


Designing Search: UX Strategies for Ecommerce Success by Greg Nudelman, Pabini Gabriel-Petit

access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, augmented reality, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, information retrieval, Internet of things, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, social web, speech recognition, text mining, the map is not the territory, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Figure 14-2: Google Images search results for iPhone with filters Large, Clipart and Green applied Folksonomy Folksonomy is a term coined by Thomas Vander Wal in 2004 using a combination of two words, folks and taxonomy. Folksonomy refers to a system of classification based on the practice of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate digital content. It has also been called collaborative tagging, social indexing, or social tagging. As Gene Smith describes in his book, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web, folksonomies and tagging usually work well—in most cases adequately resolving the auto-indexing issues that occur in the context of Google Images, as described earlier. Unfortunately, the human element also introduces its own quirks along the way. Take a look at the example of a Flickr image shown in Figure 14-3. Figure 14-3: One of the Most Interesting Flickr images tagged with iPhone Among almost 2 million Flickr images tagged iPhone, this image is considered by Flickr as one of the most interesting, with 785 favorites and 37 comments.

Morville, Peter. Ambient Findability. Sebastopol, California: O’Reilly, 2005. Nudelman, Greg. “Making $10,000 a Pixel: Optimizing Thumbnail Images in Search Results.” UXmatters, May 11, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2009. Riflet, Guillaume. “Semapedia, or How to Link the Real World to Wikipedia.” Webtop Mania, August 26, 2008. Retrieved July 26, 2009. Smith, Gene. Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web. Berkeley: Peachpit Press, 2008. Smolski, Roger. “Beer, Carbon Offset, and a QR Code Campaign.” 2d code, July 27, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2010. Smolski, Roger. “QRCity Claimed by Senigallia.” 2d code, July 29, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2011. Sterling, Bruce. Shaping Things. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2005. Photosynth of the Obama inauguration, CNN, 2009. Vander Wal, Thomas. “Folksonomy: coinage and definition.”


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Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

What services like Klout reinforce is the need to be aware of your online social comings and goings, because these ratings are public and available for the world to see (and this includes your boss, your employees, your customers, and your potential clients and employers). Consumer Reports rates and grades products and services. The Internet allowed anybody to comment on any company or service. Now the social web has brought this scoring and grading down to you and me. Here’s a personal story about influence and social grading: I spent close to fifteen years in the music industry. Along with that, I spend more time than I care to admit on airplanes. Those worlds never collided… until recently. Like most people, I buy cheap flights, and if things need to be changed, I approach the customer service staff at the gate with a smile and a prayer, and hope that I won’t be charged the price of a small condo in Florida.

Beyond that, are we asking even more of those who aren’t even our consumers yet? This is what happens in a world where anyone can publish their thoughts in text, images, audio, and video instantly. It becomes a game where brands are jumping in the pool simply because every other brand is jumping in the pool. What does that get you? Mediocrity at best, but junk is the more likely outcome. Prior to the social web, how many advertorials did you read that were so captivating, you could not help but rip them out of the magazine (or newspaper) and share them with friends and colleagues? Admit it—it’s not easy to recall a scenario like that. There are so few companies that will admit that the quality of their content can’t match the quantity that they are producing. Have you ever walked to the back of a conference hall and seen the bags and dumpsters of corporate white papers, testimonials, and articles that are left shortly after the trade show floor shuts down?


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The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

If you don’t recognize his name, you may remember some of the New York Times headlines about work done by him and his longtime collaborator James Fowler: “Are Your Friends Making You Fat?”; “Find Yourself Packing It On? Blame Friends”; “Study Finds Big Social Factor in Quitting Smoking”; “Strangers May Cheer You Up, Study Says.” What these researchers have found, in study after study, is that our actions have consequences that ripple across our social web to our friends, our friends’ friends, and even our friends’ friends’ friends. But just as health behaviors spread, so do facts and bits of knowledge. Since information spreads through social rather than physical space, it is vital that we understand social networks and how they operate. In this globalized age, where we can be anywhere on the planet within a day or so, the ties we have to those we know, rather than where we are, take on greater meaning.

In addition to simplifying reference importation, synchronizing one’s bibliography online, and many other wonderful features, it has another: social networking. Instead of the scientist simply working with the set of references they use to write their papers in isolation, it allows them to see their friends’ references; it acts as a sort of social network for scientists. As Mendeley grows in popularity—and it seems that it’s hitting the critical mass that’s necessary for any social Web site to thrive—it allows for the collaborative exposure of knowledge that each of us individually hasn’t been aware of. But it provides another important feature: It allows scientists to see articles that are related to ones that they’re already looking at. By automatically finding topic relationships between papers, Mendeley brings undiscovered public knowledge to the scientific masses. Scientists can now find a paper on psychology that can shed light onto network science or a math paper that can help with X-ray crystallography.


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Uncanny Valley: A Memoir by Anna Wiener

autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Extropian, future of work, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, means of production, medical residency, new economy, New Urbanism, passive income, pull request, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, union organizing, universal basic income, unpaid internship, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

I skimmed recruiter emails and job listings like horoscopes, skidding down to the perks: competitive salary, dental and vision, 401(k), free gym membership, catered lunch, bike storage, ski trips to Tahoe, off-sites to Napa, summits in Vegas, beer on tap, craft beer on tap, kombucha on tap, wine tastings, Whiskey Wednesdays, Open Bar Fridays, massage on-site, yoga on-site, pool table, Ping-Pong table, Ping-Pong robot, ball pit, game night, movie night, go-karts, zip line. Job listings were an excellent place to get sprayed with HR’s idea of fun and a twenty-three-year-old’s idea of work-life balance. Sometimes I forgot I wasn’t applying to summer camp. Customized setup: design your ultimate workstation with the latest hardware. Change the world around you. We work hard, we laugh hard, we give great high fives. We’re not just another social web app. We’re not just another project-management tool. We’re not just another delivery service. I got a haircut. I took personal time. I shrugged off the salespeople’s knowing looks whenever I came into the office wearing anything dressier than a T-shirt and jeans. I knew, from visiting my accounts, that startup offices tended to look the same—faux-midcentury-modern furniture, brick walls, snack bar, bar cart.

I did this in part because the work could be sensitive, with the potential to upset people whose digital currency was cruelty; I wasn’t the only person on the team using a fake name. But using male pseudonyms wasn’t just useful for defusing or de-escalating tense exchanges. It was useful for even the most harmless support requests. I was most effective when I removed myself. Men, I saw, simply responded differently to men. My male pseudonyms had more authority than I did. * * * It was still the era of the social web. Everyone in the pool. Alone, together. Social networks, claimed the social networks’ founders, were tools for connection and the free circulation of information. Social would build communities and break down barriers. Pay no attention to that ad tech behind the curtain: social would make people kinder, fairer, more empathetic. Social was a public utility for a global economy that was rapidly becoming borderless, unbounded—or would be, if anyone in Silicon Valley could figure out how to win China.


pages: 269 words: 77,876

Brilliant, Crazy, Cocky: How the Top 1% of Entrepreneurs Profit From Global Chaos by Sarah Lacy

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, BRICs, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, income per capita, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, megacity, Network effects, paypal mafia, QWERTY keyboard, risk tolerance, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

MyHeritage’s goal is to be the third leg of the social networking stool. Facebook organizes people’s school and personal life, LinkedIn organizes people’s professional life, and MyHeritage—and its competitors—want to organize far-flung, sometimes undiscovered family members. MyHeritage was started at a time when only old people and hobbyists cared about genealogy, but several different trends have changed that. Not only has the connection-based social Web exploded, but whole databases of ancestry links have come online. The amount of family media has exploded thanks to digital cameras and video cameras being embedded in nearly every device, and technology for facial recognition software and other discovery tools for mediums like photo and video have emerged as wel . Smartphones, laptops, and tablets have made it so that nearly every member of the modern family is connected al the time.

It was possible, because it was Sacks, a wel -connected member of the so-cal ed PayPal mafia. The former founders and executives from PayPal had their fingerprints al over the burgeoning U.S. Web 2.0 movement. They had founded LinkedIn, Slide, Yelp, YouTube, and now Geni, and they had invested in Facebook, Digg, and others. Sacks had two big advantages—he knew how to turn the wonky academic science of genealogy into a sexy social Web application, and he knew how to play the venture game. He told me at the time of the deal, “Charles River Ventures invested $10 mil ion with a double liquidation preference.” That meant CRV got the first $20 mil ion out of any exit. “Do you real y think we won’t even be worth $20 mil ion? Worst case they double their money.” It was an argument Japhet could barely make sense of, much less make to potential investors.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

The boulders still employ a lot of people, but the dynamic growing business is with the pebbles. Of course, the information and media businesses are right at the forefront of the transition from boulders to pebbles because the web so directly affects them. Yet even more traditional sectors will feel the pull of the pebbles in time, not least because the consumers and workforce of the near future will have grown up using the social web to search for and share ideas with one another. They will bring with them the web’s culture of lateral, semi-structured free association. This new organisational landscape is taking shape all around us. Scientific research is becoming ever more a question of organising a vast number of pebbles. Young scientists especially in emerging fields like bioinformatics draw on hundreds of data banks; use electronic lab notebooks to record and then share their results daily, often through blogs and wikis; work in multi-disciplinary teams threaded around the world organised by social networks; they publish their results, including open source versions of the software used in their experiments and their raw data, in open access online journals.

That is why We-Think culture is so powerful: the communities and social networks that the web is spawning are a vital way for people to obtain recognition from their peers for what they do, especially if that involves ideas. These communities meet a basic human need that will get stronger as we become materially richer.5 Ideas are animated when they are shared, and people are driven to share because recognition and regard can be reliably earned only from communities, networks, clans, families, religious groups, movements that are not animated by money. The social web provides people with a new way to win recognition for being a good player, programmer, film-maker, singer, composer, citizen, writer, scientist, researcher and so on. Our well-being depends on our being esteemed by people we ourselves hold in high esteem. So long as the web continues to provide a way for people to earn recognition it will continue to grow. However, this sets up a further potential conflict, however, relating to the terms on which people will be allowed to participate in these activities and how.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

It’s almost the stream of all human consciousness and communication, and the products we build are just different views of that.”93 One ominous 2009 Facebook project was thus the Gross Happiness Index, a classically utilitarian attempt to measure the mood of its users by analyzing the words and phrases that they publish on their Facebook page. Another was the even creepier 2012 company study that altered the news feeds of 700,000 Facebook users to experiment with their mood swings.94 Sergey Brin’s “big circle” of data is, for Mark Zuckerberg, the recursive loop of the social Web. The more people who join Facebook, the more valuable—culturally, economically, and, above all, morally—Zuckerberg believes Facebook will become to us all. He even came up with what has become known as Zuckerberg’s law, a social variation of Moore’s law, and which suggests that each year our personal data on the network will grow exponentially. In ten years’ time, Zuckerberg told Kirkpatrick, “a thousand times more data about Facebook users will flow through the social network. . . .

Labeled the Internet’s public enemy number one for her stupid tweet, Sacco lost her job and was even accused of being a “f****** idiot” by her own father.36 Sacco will now forever be associated with this insensitive but hardly criminal tweet. Such is the nature and power of the Internet. “When you only have a small number of followers, Twitter can feel like an intimate group of pub friends,” Sophie Gadd notes about a social Web that is both unforgetting and unforgiving.37 “But it’s not. It’s no more private than shouting your conversations through a megaphone in the high street.” The dangers of the crystal republic predate George Orwell’s 1984 and twentieth-century totalitarianism. They go back to the enlightened despotism of Catherine II of Russia, the subject of Johann Baptist Lampi’s portrait hanging in Berlin’s Deutsches Historisches Museum, the David Cameron look-alike painting that had landed Sophie Gadd on page 3 of the Daily Mail.


pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

4chan, Airbus A320, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

It was mid-July 2006, and the Valley had the feel of an amusement park that had just reopened for business. Exciting new social rides were being built on the plots that had once belonged to pet-food Web sites and other pedestrian ideas from the late nineties. And now admission was free. You simply paid in privacy by giving up your personal information for access. The new Valley had a new name too. Web 2.0! New and improved: the social Web. MySpace and Friendster were the chatter of the late-teen world, and this nascent thing called Facebook was spreading around college dorm rooms with the velocity of a common cold. Flickr, the social photo site, had recently been purchased by Yahoo! for almost forty million dollars, a small gold mine in those days. Like children mesmerized by an enigmatic snow globe, people outside the Valley were once again peering in, wondering how they could become part of this wonderland, how they could own a snow globe that, if shaken properly, would send not snowflakes but money fluttering down to land neatly in their hands.

Ev saw this and his throat tightened; he quickly pushed Oprah aside and grabbed the keyboard, frantically typing the same exact tweet in all caps and hitting “send,” his heart pounding as he heard the cameraman yell: “And we’re back in five, four, three …” At one point in the show Kutcher appeared on the screen, sitting in the same office he had been in a few hours earlier when he beat CNN to a million followers. “Congratulations!” Oprah said to him. “This is a commentary on the state of media,” Kutcher said to Oprah and the audience. “I believe that we’re at a place now with social media where one person’s voice can be as powerful as a media network. That is the power of the social Web.” He went on to explain that Twitter allowed him to control the type of images and videos that were shared about him online, specifically beating the paparazzi: He could now usurp the Us Weeklys of the world by posting pictures he had preapproved before the tabloids could. As the show went on, Oprah’s viewers started signing up for the site in droves. From Chicago to Clearwater, Modesto to Miami, Seattle to Statesboro, more people joined Twitter on that day than on any single day in the site’s history—nearly half a million people in the first twenty-four hours—and although the servers were battered, they managed to survive.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

If the Quantified Self movement allows us to establish our authenticity with numbers, social networking allows us to accomplish that in subtler, seemingly more creative ways: by curating the timeline of our life, by uploading our favorite photos, by using the coolest apps on the block, by maintaining a unique social graph (Facebook speak for a set of human connections that each user has). If only one looks closely enough, one can discern how the themes of fakeness and authenticity shape Facebook’s own self-presentation. So Mark Zuckerberg claims that “the social web can’t exist until you are your real self online.” Peter Thiel, the first private investor in Facebook, contrasts the authenticity offered by Facebook—where no pseudonyms are allowed—with that of its former rival, MySpace, where everything goes. “MySpace is about being someone fake on the internet; everyone could be a movie star. [It is] very healthy that the real people have won out over the fake people,” he notes.

Video is available at http://allfacebook.com/mark-zuckerberg-sarah-lacy-interview-video_b1063. 111 “outdated and antiquated”: Steven Overly, “Web Start-Up Ruck.us Aims to Engage the Politically Independent,” Washington Post, March 12, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/web-start-up-ruckus-aims-to-engage-the-politically-independent/2012/03/09/gIQAKvU55R_story.html . 112 “the word comes from rugby”: Ruck.us, “FAQs,” http://blog.ruck.us/faqs. 112 “Whereas 30 years ago we were blissfully ignorant”: Nathan Daschle, “How to Pick Your Presidential Candidate Online,” CNN.com, April 19, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/04/19/opinion/daschle-elect/index.html. 113 “the Americans Elect innovation is so exciting”: ibid. 113 “The trends are undeniable”: ibid. 113 “Politics is the last sector”: Alex Fitzpatrick, “Ruck.Us Breaks Up Party Politics on the Social Web,” Mashable, May 11, 2012, http://mashable.com/2012/05/11/ruckus. 114 “Plots to disrupt the two-party system”: Steve Freiss, “Son of Democratic Party Royalty Creates a Ruck.us,” Politico, June 26, 2012, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0612/77847.html. 114 “our two-party system doesn’t form”: ibid. 114 “the creativity of party politics”: Nancy L. Rosenblum, On the Side of the Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010), 7. 115 Partisanship. . .

Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115483. 313 “A despot in a sorcerer’s hat”: Ian Bogost, “Shit Crayons,” Ian Bogost’s blog, undated, http://www.bogost.com/writing/shit_crayons.shtml. 314 “Behind the allure of the quantified self”: Gary Wolf, “The Data-Driven Life,” New York Times, April 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/02/magazine/02self-measurement-t.html. 314 “We don’t have a pedometer in our feet”: ibid. 315 “the social web can’t exist”: quoted in Julianne Pepitone, “Facebook Is Now Too Big to Buy,” CNNMoney, November 8, 2011, http://money.cnn.com/2011/11/08/technology/zuckerberg_charlie_rose/index.htm. 315 “MySpace is about being someone fake”: quoted in Holman Jenkins, “Technology = Salvation,” Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704696304575537882643165738.html. 315 “Expressing our authentic identity”: “United States: Sharing to the Power of 2012,” The Economist, November 17, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21537000. 315 “Profiles will no longer be outlines”: ibid. 315 as Lionel Trilling showed: Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972). 315 as Trilling correctly noted: Trilling et al., “Sincerity and Authenticity: A Symposium,” Salmagundi 41 (1978): 87–110. 315 “of proving ourselves not merely good”: ibid., 98. 316 “with a kind of dress, with faded denims”: ibid., 96. 316 “in the name of contemporary authenticity”: Theodor Adorno, The Jargon of Authenticity (Oxford: Psychology Press, 2006), 102. 316 “What is crucial about authenticity”: Charles Guignon, On Being Authentic (Oxford: Psychology Press, 2004), 81. 317 “the unique American individual”: Abigail Cheever, Real Phonies: Cultures of Authenticity in Post–World War II America.


pages: 416 words: 100,130

New Power: How Power Works in Our Hyperconnected World--And How to Make It Work for You by Jeremy Heimans, Henry Timms

"side hustle", 3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, battle of ideas, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Chris Wanstrath, Columbine, Corn Laws, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, future of work, game design, gig economy, hiring and firing, IKEA effect, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, Kibera, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, profit motive, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Snapchat, social web, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, web application, WikiLeaks

As Ben Smith, editor in chief, puts it: “If your goal—as is ours at BuzzFeed—is to deliver the reader something so new, funny, revelatory, or delightful that they feel compelled to share it, you have to do work that delivers on the headline’s promise, and more. This is a very high bar. It’s one thing to enjoy reading something, and quite another to make the active choice to share it with your friends. This is a core fact of sharing and the social web of Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and other platforms.” It is easy to think of this as trivial behavior, and in many ways it is. But BuzzFeed has triumphed by taking it so seriously. Its data-driven and analytical approach to understanding its audience, what makes them tick and how to activate them, is key to its success. Old media is cottoning on. In 2013, the single most popular piece of content produced by the New York Times was not a groundbreaking piece of investigative journalism, but a twenty-five-question quiz that allowed readers to find their “personal dialect map,” the place in the United States where people used language and phrases most similarly to them.

As former BuzzFeed president Jon Steinberg and Jack Krawczyk noted in AdAge, “Our data show that online sharing, even at viral scale, takes place through many small groups, not via the single status post or tweet of a few influencers. While influential people may be able to reach a wide audience, their impact is short-lived. Content goes viral when it spreads beyond a particular sphere of influence and spreads across the social web via…people sharing with their friends.” The good news here? You probably have much more influence over your friends than Kim Kardashian does. Connectivity can be supercharged when it links someone, along with her peers, to a larger belief or philosophy. This effect explains the wild popularity of Humans of New York, a blog turned best-selling book by the street photographer Brandon Stanton.


pages: 413 words: 106,479

Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language by Gretchen McCulloch

4chan, book scanning, British Empire, citation needed, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flynn Effect, Google Hangouts, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, moral panic, multicultural london english, natural language processing, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

I call this group Old Internet People, because they’re the people who remember the old internet, and it’s the closest thing to a unified name that they have for themselves. Searching for “old internet people” brings me to a hand-coded HTML website (first created 1998, last updated 2006) defending the idea of building your own site without using graphics or templates (“some explanation from us ‘old Internet people’”), a forum thread from 2011 (“us old Internet people need to get used to a social web”), and a tweet agreeing with a 2018 New York magazine article on the decline of typing memorized urls to get to websites directly, rather than go through a search engine or social media (“Looks like it’s really hitting a note with us “old” internet people”). The self-conscious quotation marks suggest that users of this term often feel themselves to be coining it spontaneously, but the fact that several people have done so means that it’s an emerging norm that I’m picking up on.

Other accounts simply became inactive: Eshwar Chandrasekharan, Umashanthi Pavalanathan, Anirudh Srinivasan, Adam Glynn, Jacob Eisenstein, and Eric Gilbert. 2017. “You Can’t Stay Here: The Efficacy of Reddit’s 2015 Ban Examined Through Hate Speech.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 1(2). pp. 31–53. Researchers asked soccer fans: Leonie Rösner and Nicole C. Krämer. 2016. “Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments.” Social Media + Society 2(3). Anil Dash. July 20, 2011. “If Your Website’s Full of Assholes, It’s Your Fault.” Anil Dash: A blog about making culture. Since 1999. anildash.com/2011/07/20/if_your_websites_full_of_assholes_its_your_fault-2/. Chapter 7. Memes and Internet Culture A lot of people will declare: Bert Vaux and Scott Golder. 2003.


pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, business cycle, butter production in bangladesh, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, intangible asset, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, negative equity, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra, your tax dollars at work

It raised over $30 million from some of the biggest names in venture capital, and had one of the slickest social web sites seen up to that time. The home page from that site, www.iexchange.com, on June 20, 2000, is shown in Figure 10.1. The business model was that the first few tastes were free, and then investor users (like H.V., J.P., and I.G. over on the right) could pay analyst users (like “The Visionary,” “Big Jim,” and “Biotech Believer” in the middle pane) a modest fee, usually just a few dollars, for new research. iExchange got a piece of every transaction. There were $25,000 monthly prizes for the best stock picks, which was supposed to keep everyone honest. The Epinions.com rating site for social web sites gave iExchange four stars, “a good place to make money.” The anonymous successful investors on the right are minting money.


pages: 298 words: 43,745

Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information asymmetry, information retrieval, intangible asset, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, longitudinal study, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

It will increase the move away from advertisers talking to consumers directly and more to a two-way communication channel between a brand and its consumers. Searchers no longer have the sole expectation of searching to find information for a specific outcome when they go on the Internet, as the growth of interactions with social media shows [10]. As people spend more and more time connecting, sharing, and interacting with the social Web, they expect to interact with what they find in the search results. Time spent with the social Web involves many types of interactions with like-minded individuals in a community or network, one of which is looking for and sharing recommendations. This will be an exciting and challenging venue for sponsored search. Also, the blending with social media may introduce more push aspects to sponsored search. Keyword advertising is extremely good for converting people who are searching for information into consumers wanting to buy something.


Designing Interfaces by Jenifer Tidwell

A Pattern Language, business intelligence, crowdsourcing, Firefox, longitudinal study, school vouchers, social software, social web, sorting algorithm, Tony Hsieh, web application

When a user posts a link to her Facebook or Twitter stream, that carries other implications: “I thought this was cool, and it represents something about who I am.” Followers are still likely to read these links, especially if they trust that the poster has good taste. Furthermore, followers may repost or retweet it themselves, as will their followers, ad infinitum. This is how memes start, content goes viral, and the social web rolls on. Chapter 2. Organizing the Content: Information Architecture and Application Structure At this point, you know what your users want out of your application or site. You’re targeting a chosen platform: the Web, the desktop, a mobile device, or some combination. You know which idiom or interface type to use—a form, an e-commerce site, an image viewer, or something else—or you may realize that you need to combine several of them.

Tufte (Graphics Press, 1997) Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data by Stephen Few (O’Reilly, 2006) Now You See It: Simple Visualization Techniques for Quantitative Analysis by Stephen Few (Analytics Press, 2009) Designing Social Interfaces: Principles, Patterns, and Practices for Improving the User Experience by Christian Crumlish and Erin Malone (O’Reilly and Yahoo! Press, 2009) Designing for the Social Web by Joshua Porter (New Riders Press, 2008) Search Patterns: Design for Discovery by Peter Morville and Jeffery Callender (O’Reilly, 2010) And finally, here are the classic patterns books that started the whole concept: The Timeless Way of Building by Christopher Alexander (Oxford University Press, 1979) A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, Max Jacobson, Ingrid Fiksdahl-King, and Shlomo Angel (Oxford University Press, 1977) Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John M.


pages: 559 words: 155,372

Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez

Airbnb, airport security, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, drone strike, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, source of truth, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, undersea cable, urban renewal, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, éminence grise

It was the taste of the Oprah-like celebrity, something to justify the taxi ride to the Upper West Side from Midtown. Sheryl was followed by the relative noncelebrity Paul Adams, a product manager on the Ads team. Adams was making a name for himself as a Malcolm Gladwell of the brave new social media world, having published a book called Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web. Like Gladwell, he had cherry-picked a few seminovel conclusions from sociological research around relationship networks, and had woven it into a grand, overarching story about the future of media and consumption, doled out in bite-size morsels that fit inside a media buyer’s brain. The net of it was that new ideas and products propagated via ever-changing social-influencer networks, and that figuring out the network, and exploiting the mutual influence of friends on one another, was the key to making your voice heard or product sold.

See also investors; venture capitalists (VCs) AdGrok, 113, 140–48 startups, 96, 154–55 VCs, 121 Game of Thrones, 324, 382 Gartrell, Alex, 476 Gates, Bill, 148–49, 151 Ge, Hong, 322–23 geeks, 29, 100, 107–8, 198, 268, 396 General Motors, 14, 25–26, 82 geographic data, 301 Getaround, 241–45 Gil, Elad, 192 Gladwell, Malcolm, 367 Gleit, Naomi, 356, 378 Gmail, 78, 103, 286, 324 go-big-or-go-home ethos, 206, 300 go-big-or-go-home strategy, 206 Golding, William, 444–45 Goldman Sachs credit crash, 425 credit derivatives, 26–27 departing, 29–31 ICE and, 492 joining, 15–16 partnership management structure, 16 post, 102 pricing quant, 16–18, 24, 29, 141, 207 traders’ contests, 21–24 trading credit indices, 14 Google acquisitions, 155 Ads, 85, 164 AdSense, 186, 275 AdWords, 106, 186, 222, 286, 300, 364 AdX, 461 alerts, 228 auction of keywords, 80–83 campus, 290 clickthrough rates, 451 employee pampering, 264 Facebook war, 492–93 Google Plus, 286–90, 308, 431–33, 492–93 Google Ventures, 78, 83 joining, 346 logo, 124 monetization, 186 PMs, 192 as publisher, 39 RTB, 41 scheming, 382 shuttle, 339 TGIF, 348 graffiti office art, 332–35 Graham, Paul (“PG”) advice, 231 essay, 46–47, 52–53 first meeting, 90 genius guru, 98 meeting with, 60–62 mythologies, 99 offer from, 63–64 on saying no, 187, 203 on startups, 87 startups and, 157–60 tsunami, 102 Graham, Robin Lee, 496 greed, 44, 74 Grindr, 487 GrokBar, 84–85, 184 GrokPad, 95, 100 Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web (Adams), 367 Groupon, 78 Growth team, 373–79, 395 Guevara, Che, 354 Gundotra, Vic, 433, 493 H-1B visas, 70 hackers black-hat, 314 culture, 284 ethos, 284 hackathons, 262, 364 hacker way, 408 kludge and, 47 lingo, 84 multipurpose, 92 N00b and, 269 roles, 91 Zuckerberg and, 270 hacking all night, 406 building AdGrok, 123 configuration files, 92 defined, 47 on demo, 48 experience, 186 mobile, 229 people and products, 8 harassment, 66–68 Hart, Camille, 4–5 hashing, 387 hate speech, 315 Hemingway, Ernest, 106 Herodotus, 421 Herzl, Theodor, 496 Hoffman, Reid, 88 hogrammers, 400 home-brewing, 406 Houston, Drew, 175 HTC, 282 hybridizing, 341 Hykes, Solomon, 119 IBM, 20, 70, 148–49, 325 ID for Advertising (IDFA), 485 identity consumption patterns and, 385 Facebook, 382, 440 hashing and, 387 matching, 434, 438, 442, 466 name and, 381–82 online, 265, 477 PII, 395 work, 285 immigrant workers, 68–72 initial public offering (IPO) drawn out process, 247 Facebook, 284, 309, 342, 358, 371, 378, 399 lockout period, 409, 495 reevaluation, 417–20 on Wall Street, 124 Zuckerberg and, 342 Instacart, 50 Instagram product department, 493 user growth curve, 490 Intel, 70, 122 intellectual property, 134–35, 204, 252, 471 InterContinental Exchange (ICE), 492 intermodal container, 447–48 Internet advertising Airbnb, 25 characteristics, 36–37 digital advertising, 448 effectiveness, 386 Facebook, 3–4, 8, 279–81, 299, 309, 317, 362–63, 368–69, 393–403, 460 Google Ads, 85, 164 IAB, 448 mobile, 484, 487 multipronged, 39–40 News Feed, 482–84, 488, 492 opting out, 485 programmatic, 396, 435 stack, 439 technologies, 429, 446, 454 Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), 448 Internet Explorer, 286 Internet Retailer, 173 investors Adchemy, 163 AdGrok, 110–19, 142, 145–47, 161 advertising, 83 angel, 110–13, 115, 117, 154, 206 choosing, 156 common, 397 early stage, 49 money and time, 74 nature of, 115 New York, 101–2 ownership and, 143 pitching to, 53 potential, 140 running game on, 255 YC, 157, 160 iPhones, 74, 198 Irish Data Privacy Audit, 278, 320–23 Islam, 356 Israeli Psychologist, 458, 476 Jacobs, Josh, 438 Java, 181 Jesuits, 456 Jin, Kang-Xing (KX), 209–10, 398 job offers, 252 Jobs, Steve, 112, 149–51, 428 advertising and, 485 genius, 282 Johnson, Mick, 202, 229–31, 332 Johnson, Samuel, 330 Johnston, John, 154 Kayak, 124 Kennedy, John F., 107 Kenshoo, 125 Kesey, Ken, 404 Keyani, Pedram, 262–64, 410 Keys, Alicia, 370 keywords, 80–83, 293 Kildall, Gary, 148–49 Kile, Chris, 145 Kitten initiative, 291–92 launch, 294–95 sausage grinder, 296 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB), 110–11 kludge, 47 Kobayashi, Takeru, 21 Koum, Jan, 491 Lady Gaga, 189, 228 Land of Stateless Machines, 231–32, 237, 481 Laraki, Othman, 192 The Last Judgment, 334 lawsuits Adchemy, 133–39, 141–42, 152, 167–68, 203–4 class-action, 81 expensive feints, 74 legal problems, 317 Lessin, Sam, 1, 444 Lewis, Michael, 16, 199, 422 Lexity, 83 Liar’s Poker (Lewis), 16, 199 lifetime value (LTV), 486–87 Likes, 6, 208–14, 451 limited partners (LPs), 155 Lindsay, Roddy, 335 LinkedIn, 43, 78, 124, 162, 279 Linux, 337 liquidity event, 45 LiveRamp, 386 Livingston, Jessica, 60 localhost, 95 lockdown, 287–88 Logout Experience (LOX), 376–77 Loopt, 160–61, 178 Lord of the Flies (Golding), 444–45 Losse, Katherine, 445 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 271 machine-learning models, 310 Madoff scandal, 16 Mai, Susi, 126–27 MaiTai kiteboarding camp, 126 major life event (MLE), 411 mallet finger, 45 Manifest Destiny, 356 Manikarnika, Shreehari (“Hari”), 389, 400–401 Mann, Jonathan (JMann), 14 mapping, 291, 398, 490 Marcus Aurelius, 42 marimbero, 304–5 Marine Corps Scout Snipers, 298 marketing digital, 388–89 duplicity, 443 marketers, 37, 74 MMA, 448 PMM, 277, 366 Martin, Dorothy, 360–61 Marxism, 359 Match.com, 54, 387 Mathur, Nipun, 210 Maugham, W.


We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory by Christine Lagorio-Chafkin

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, East Village, game design, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technoutopianism, uber lyft, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Among the boldface names were Kate Upton, Kim Kardashian, Eva Longoria, and Cara Delevingne. There were pop stars, models, Academy Award–winning actresses, athletes, reality stars, and, shockingly, two minors: gold-medal-winning American gymnast McKayla Maroney and MTV reality star Liz Lee. The dissemination of private nude photos—perhaps by a jilted ex-boyfriend with a phone full of sexts—had already become sufficiently common in the age of the social web that it had been made a crime in several states and had earned a cringeworthy name: “revenge porn.” In a cover story in Vanity Fair, the actress Jennifer Lawrence, one of the victims of the hack, said, “It’s not a scandal; it’s a sex crime.” Although there was plenty of condemnation like this from victims and the press, it didn’t stop hundreds of millions of individuals around the globe from sneaking a look.

Trump was elected forty-fifth president of the United States on November 8, 2016. Huffman said he should have seen it coming. When asked at the end of November whether he believed Reddit had a role in the election’s outcome, Huffman was open to the possibility, saying, “It’s hard to say.” He said The_Donald, specifically, was a reflection of the conversation that was happening nationwide—only amplified, thanks to the nature of the see-what-you-want-to-see social web. “I think that’s one of the challenges you see when you democratize media and news consumption,” he said. “The feedback loop gets louder and louder and louder.” Within a week of the election, both Facebook and Google came under intense scrutiny for having allowed the propagation of blatantly false articles, videos, and stories about political candidates and polarizing issues that may have influenced how the American electorate voted.


The Art of SEO by Eric Enge, Stephan Spencer, Jessie Stricchiola, Rand Fishkin

AltaVista, barriers to entry, bounce rate, Build a better mousetrap, business intelligence, cloud computing, dark matter, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, optical character recognition, PageRank, performance metric, risk tolerance, search engine result page, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, social web, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Steven Levy, text mining, web application, wikimedia commons

Since these signals require less effort to implement and may come from less authoritative sources, they may carry lower weight, but there are still votes. These signals become a voting system for the masses. In addition, the search engines believe that these signals are harder to spam. At SMX Munich in April 2011, Bing’s Stefan Weitz and Google’s Maile Ohye both indicated that it was comparatively simple to find social media spam because the behavior pattern matching is more predictable on the social web than it is with the link graph. Similarly, user behavior on the Web provides many potential signals that search engines can use. Consider the example of bounce rate, which is a measurement of the percentage of visitors to a site that visit only one page. If one site has a 47% bounce rate, and another site that competes with it has a 60% bounce rate, you could consider the site with the 47% bounce rate a better page to show in response to a user’s search query.

These are likely worth some investment on the metrics and effort front, and if small quantities of contribution/participation yield large returns, more investment is likely warranted. Blogs and forums The world of online social networking started out as one where discussion sites (forums, Q+As, bulletin boards, and the like) and the blogosphere reigned supreme. Eventually, consolidation and massive adoption of the major networks (those mentioned above) took over the hearts and minds of the press, but the social web is still very much alive in the blogosphere and forums. Marketers have massive opportunities in these spaces, too. For example, SEOmoz receives tens of thousands of visits each week from blogs and discussion sites of all sizes, and participation/interaction with those sources often yields fantastic results in referral traffic, mindshare, and links. Many brands have observed similar results, and have hired community managers or evangelists to engage in the sites where industry topics are discussed and build up strong, recognizable profiles that help bring awareness and produce traffic and links.

Raven Tools A toolset that offers both search and social tracking functionality, Raven can help you track many of the basic metrics from Twitter, Facebook, StumbleUpon, YouTube, and blogs, and will likely expand into other networks in the future. Converseon A very impressive social and web monitoring tool that, like Radian6, is geared toward enterprises. Converseon offers human-reviewed sentiment classification and analysis—a very powerful tool for those seeking insight into their brand perception on the social web. PageLever Specifically focused on tracking Facebook interactions and pages, PageLever provides more depth and data than the native Insights functionality. Twitter Counter A phenomenal tool for monitoring the growth of Twitter accounts over time (it tracks latently, offering historical data for many accounts even if you haven’t used it before). If you upgrade to “premium” membership, it provides analytics on mentions and retweets as well.


pages: 272 words: 52,204

Android 3. 0 Application Development Cookbook by Kyle Merrifield Mew

Google Chrome, QWERTY keyboard, social web, web application

He's a Zend Certified Engineer and an expert in Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter, Twilio API, and mashup application development. Beside his full time freelance work, he blogs at http://thinkdiff.net and writes articles on different technologies, especially Facebook application development. For the past year he's been developing iOS applications as a hobby and also developed some android applications. He lives in Bangladesh with his wife Jinat. Currently he's working as a Freelancer, managing and developing social web applications and iOS applications. He publishes his own iOS applications at http://ithinkdiff.net. He was a technical reviewer for the titles Zend Framework 1.8 Web Application Development and PHP jQuery Cookbook by Packt. I'm very grateful to my father who bought a computer for me in 2001, since then I have loved programming and working with various technologies. Dr. Frank Grützmacher has spent some years in the research of distributed electronic design tools and worked for several German blue chip companies such as Deutsche Post and AEG.


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

But if you don’t find an appealing Meetup group, you can start one yourself. The Web site will help you pick a theme, find members, make plans, and schedule your first Meetup. Fotolog: Social networking site for photo bloggers. http://www.fotolog.com Green Drinks: Meetups for people in the environmental field. http://www.greendrinks.org inCampus: Social networking service for students. http://www.incampus.com Klout: Measures influence across the social Web and allows you to track the impact of your opinions, links, and recommendations. http://klout.com LinkedIn: Service for colleagues, former colleagues, and friends to network. http://www.linkedin.com Meetup: Network of local interest groups that meet face-to-face. Users organize groups or join them. http://www.meetup.com Schoolwires: Provides online communication, Web site, and community management tools to schools.


Digital Transformation at Scale: Why the Strategy Is Delivery by Andrew Greenway,Ben Terrett,Mike Bracken,Tom Loosemore

Airbnb, bitcoin, blockchain, butterfly effect, call centre, chief data officer, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, Diane Coyle, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, loose coupling, M-Pesa, minimum viable product, nudge unit, performance metric, ransomware, Silicon Valley, social web, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds

Investing the time building relationships with journalists built on trust and reciprocity will pay dividends later, alerting you to risks and pitfalls before the team unwittingly stumbles into them. Others in your organisation will notice the benefits, and look to copy the digital team’s methods. As Emer Coleman, the GDS’s first Head of Communications, wrote in 2012, ‘Many more of my government communication colleagues across Whitehall will begin to explore how different relationships can be built through the behaviours we manifest in the social web, and how ultimately that just might be a good thing for government.’ Openness is about what you say as much as where you say it. Having part of a large corporate or government talk candidly about what it is doing and what it plans to do next is still unusual. Having those same organisations openly and humbly admitting failings and missteps is radical. You should do as much of this as you can get away with.


pages: 218 words: 65,422

Better Living Through Criticism: How to Think About Art, Pleasure, Beauty, and Truth by A. O. Scott

barriers to entry, citizen journalism, conceptual framework, death of newspapers, hive mind, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sexual politics, sharing economy, social web, the scientific method

Writers and editors have begun to feel like blacksmiths and buggy-whip dealers contemplating the ascendance of the automobile. Nostalgia and artisanal pride may keep us around for a while, but nothing will ever really be the same. We must adapt or die, replacing old idioms and practices, rooted in the materialism of paper and ink, with the more abstract language of the virtual domain. We bid farewell to proofs and slugs, endnotes and front matter, and embrace feeds, hyperlinks, search engine optimization, social Web audience development, and whatever new catchphrase or concept promises to save us. We learn the vernacular of clicks and uniques and try to find a home and a voice in publications that are also publishing platforms. From one perspective—on some days—this upheaval can feel tragic, even apocalyptic. A cosmos that has existed more or less since the eighteenth century—the age of London wits and Paris philosophes—teeters on the brink of obsolescence.


Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society by Nicholas A. Christakis

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, assortative mating, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, iterative process, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, joint-stock company, land tenure, Laplace demon, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, out of africa, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replication crisis, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

Creating Social Worlds The examples of interindividual, indirect genetic effects discussed above require something else before we can consider them exophenotypes. They must also affect the survival or reproduction of the individual expressing them. In the chicken experiment, if the Darwinian fitness of the pecking hen depended on the feather quality of the hen she threatened, then we would say it was an exophenotype. In the case of our species, if your genes predispose you to introduce your friends to one another, and if this social web you weave affects your survival, then it is a social exophenotype. Humans make social networks as reproducibly as bowerbirds make bowers. To properly analyze these social exophenotypes, we would ideally need a set of different hominid species—as in the examples of the oldfield and deer mice or the different species of spiders—and compare across species to show how social structure varied. But an illustration within our own species can still shed light on this topic by demonstrating the role of genes in social exophenotypes.

But people might analogously engage in niche construction by manipulating the social world around them just like other animals manipulate the physical world. Returning to our spider example, some webs are better for catching flies than others, and the spiders with genes that programmed them to make those webs are more likely to survive and pass on those genes. Similarly, some ancestral humans may have been better able to shape the social webs around them and engage in collective activities like hunting large game or warding off competing groups. Humans with genes that helped them do that would have been more likely to survive as well. Eventually, genes and alleles predisposing humans to make beneficial sorts of social arrangements would arise and expand. This behavior could affect individual survival, not just compared with other individuals but also compared with related species that do not form such networks.


pages: 631 words: 177,227

The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter by Joseph Henrich

agricultural Revolution, capital asset pricing model, Climategate, cognitive bias, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demographic transition, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Flynn Effect, impulse control, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Nash equilibrium, out of africa, phenotype, placebo effect, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, side project, social intelligence, social web, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, ultimatum game

Not only are individual ritual relationships more important than genetic relatedness, but individuals have three times as many ritual partners as they do close blood relations.49 Taken together, ritual and affinal relationships, both of which are culturally constructed and nonexistent in primates or other animals, explain much more about the patterns of association, cooperation, helping, and sharing than blood ties. Elsewhere, in southern Africa, the Ju/'hoansi achieve the same end as the Hadza and Aché, a vast interconnected social web that threads through many bands. They too also rely on affinal connections and communal rituals, but they also have the hxaro exchange relationships. Hxaro partnerships are special, culturally defined, relationships that come with obligations and are sustained by ongoing exchanges of goods. Since people form and inherit many such relationships, goods given as gifts between partners pulse constantly through this broad network.

By combining all the available evidence, two linguists, Nick Evans and Patrick McConvell, have proposed that the Pama-Nyungan speakers spread because of new (1) patrilineal kinship institutions, (2) marriage rules that prescribed unions outside the local group and possibly outside the dialect group, (3) multigroup ritual gatherings or ceremonies supported by seed processing and storage capabilities, (4) intensive initiation rites for adolescents (as we saw among the Arunta), and (5) more encompassing cosmologies, conveyed through song cycles, that established sacred group identities (which saved Paralji’s band in chapter 8). These kinship, marriage, and ritual institutions involved social norms that tightly bound males from different residential groups in interdependent social webs. The marriage norms of “dialect exogamy” meant that men had to seek wives from groups speaking different languages or dialects. This created an incentive to build relationships with other groups and forced local groups to remain integrated into larger populations. As discussed in chapter 9, the emotional impact of these new rites might have fostered solidarity among local bands and, especially, bound male adolescents together for life.


The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History by Greg Woolf

agricultural Revolution, capital controls, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, endogenous growth, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, global village, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, joint-stock company, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, social web, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl

The surpluses produced by villagers did not just sustain their urban rulers but were used by them as the base of vast webs of exchange. Later chapters will introduce the exchange networks that linked Bronze Age Mesopotamia to Afghanistan, northwest India, and Anatolia, and that connected Mexican Teotihuacan to the jungles of the Yucatan peninsular and the steppe of the American Southwest. The complex social web most densely woven in city centres stretches out across the countryside, linking one city to another and enmeshing everyone else within it. Cities were not only nodes in this network: they were also key components of the hardware through which information, as well as people and their possessions, were moved. Cities were hubs that accumulated all kinds of centrality—administrative, religious, economic.

But primate groups are organized in a different way to theirs. All primate societies are held together by a web of one-to-one relationships, meaning that each member potentially has some sort of relationship with every other. Moreover, these relationships change over the relatively long lives of the members as new pair bonds are formed, as authority is challenged, lost, or reaffirmed, and as individuals die and younger ones take their places in the social web. Managing these relationships takes primates a lot more work than bees undertake in their simpler eusocial universes, where a drone is a drone is a drone. Each member of a primate society has to create, and then maintain a social map. Updating it requires observational and interpretative work by every individual, and the neocortex is where this work is done. The most compelling evidence in support of this is the demonstration that if we compared primate species today we find a very strong correlation between the size of the neocortex and the size of the typical social group.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

For months afterward, Sally’s life is far more prominent than your actual relationship would indicate. She’s a “local maximum”: Though there are people whose posts you’re far more interested in, it’s her posts that you see. In part, this feedback effect is due to what early Facebook employee and venture capitalist Matt Cohler calls the local-maximum problem. Cohler was an early employee at Facebook, and he’s widely considered one of Silicon Valley’s smartest thinkers on the social Web. The local-maximum problem, he explains to me, shows up any time you’re trying to optimize something. Say you’re trying to write a simple set of instructions to help a blind person who’s lost in the Sierra Nevadas find his way to the highest peak. “Feel around you to see if you’re surrounded by downward-sloping land,” you say. “If you’re not, move in a direction that’s higher, and repeat.” Programmers face problems like this all the time.


pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

Phil appeared on the program, speaking with Cooper about the particular lasting power of cyberbullying, which does not disappear the way a moment of “real-life bullying” might: “This person thinks, ‘I am damaged, irreparably, forever.’ And that’s the kind of desperation that leads to an act of suicide. . . . The thought of the victim is that everybody in the world has seen this. And that everybody in the world is going to respond to it like the mean-spirited person that created it.” Dinakar watched the program, figuring there must be a way to stem such cruelty, to monitor and manage unacceptable online behavior. Most social Web sites leave it to the public. Facebook, Twitter, and the like incorporate a button that allows users to “flag this as inappropriate” when they see something they disapprove of. In the age of crowdsourced knowledge like Wikipedia’s, such user-driven moderation sounds like common sense, and perhaps it is.8 “But what happens,” Dinakar explains, “is that all flagging goes into a stream where a moderation team has to look at it.


pages: 255 words: 76,495

The Facebook era: tapping online social networks to build better products, reach new audiences, and sell more stuff by Clara Shih

business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, glass ceiling, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, pets.com, pre–internet, rolodex, semantic web, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social web, software as a service, Tony Hsieh, web application

Thanks to Ning’s Web site tools and ready-made templates, high school administrators were able to get a site up and running in a fraction of the time. The school’s private social network has been especially important for the Kennedy community after Hurricane Katrina forced students to evacuate at the beginning of the 2005–2006 academic year. The site allowed parents and administrators to support one another, share information, and help facilitate transfers to other schools. iDraw&Paint, shown in Figure 1.4, is another example of a social Web site on Ning. The site features tips and tricks, discussion forums, special interest groups, news, and an artwork showcase for amateur artists. Today, Ning hosts hundreds of thousands of specialized networks on its free, adsupported version. But despite the low barriers to starting a network on Ning, growth of new Ning sites appears to have slowed while the number of applications and audiences of Facebook continues to soar.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

_r=1 &scp=4&sq=lending&st=nyt 26. http://stateofthemedia.org/2011/cable-essay/data-page-2/ 27. http://www.stevenberlinjohnson.com/2009/03/the-following-is-a-speech-i-gave-yesterday-at-the-south-by-southwest-interactive-festival-in-austiniif-you-happened-to-being.html 28. Alex S. Jones, Losing the News (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 4. 29. http://digitalhks.pbworks.com/w/page/50872581/Media%3A%20Texas%20Tribune 30. http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/06/four-crowdsourcing-lessons-from-the-guardians-spectacular-expenses-scandal-experiment/ 31. http://mashable.com/2010/11/24/investigative-journalism-social-web/ 32. Amanda Michel, “Get Off the Bus: The Future of Pro-Am Journalism,” Columbia Journalism Review, Mar.-Apr. 2009: http://www.cjr.org/feature/get_off_the_bus.php. 33. Michel, “Get Off the Bus.” 34. http://www.propublica.org/special/reportingnetwork-signup 35. http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/03/1000_true_fans.php 36. http://www.cjr.org/feature/the_josh_marshall_plan.php 37. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-cohen/josh-marshall-on-the-grow_b_131571.html 38. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-cohen/josh-marshall-on-the-grow_b_131571.html 39. http://www.niemanlab.org/encyclo/talking-points-memo/ 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars 41. http://blog.oregonlive.com/mapesonpolitics/2010/04/kitzhaber_opponent_of_gorge_ca.html 42. http://storify.com/acarvin/rep-gifford 43. http://storify.com/jcstearns/tracking-journalist-arrests-during-the-occupy-prot 3.


pages: 324 words: 80,217

The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K

This combination of small families and social disarray feeds a grim vision of the future, in which, after you’ve passed, your few kids and fewer grandkids will be beset, isolated, and alone. Sudden crises can have a profound effect: if you have just one child or grandchild (or your neighbor or friend has just one), and he or she dies or gets wounded in a foreign war, gets knocked into bankruptcy or foreclosure by a major recession, or ends up addicted, jailed, or dead during the opioid epidemic, your perspective on the future can be altered more dramatically than someone whose social web is larger, whose ties to the future expand instead of narrow. Another story from the Times in 2017 featured Roger Winemiller, a farmer who lost two adult children to opioid overdoses within nine months. The article focused on inheritance and loss, illustrated by the farmer’s doubts that his remaining son, who has also struggled with addiction, can inherit the farm that Winemiller inherited from his uncle twenty years earlier.


pages: 302 words: 84,881

The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo

Airbnb, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, centre right, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, gig economy, industrial robot, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, post-industrial society, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, software studies, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, WikiLeaks

Digital democracy has been defined as ‘a collection of attempts to practise democracy without the limits of time, space and other physical conditions’.135 Alongside similar terms – online democracy, e-democracy, cyber-democracy, e-government, e-voting or open government and teledemocracy – it has been used to capture the way digital technology can enhance political participation by: lowering barriers to information and discussion; extending the ways citizens can intervene on policy-making and allowing citizens to follow policymaking more closely.136 This notion operates with a rather concise and intuitive techno-deterministic narrative: digital technology offers the opportunity to go beyond the process of representation to develop a more participatory politics, tapping into the participatory architecture and culture of the social web. Although for many years this idea appeared as a vapourware, with little impact on politics and society, digital parties have turned it into a key plank of their new politics and enacted it in the creation of decision-making platforms often involving hundreds of thousands of people. The ambition behind the idea of online democracy is making citizens’ involvement in the political process more direct and authentic.


pages: 297 words: 89,820

The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness by Steven Levy

Apple II, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, en.wikipedia.org, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technology bubble, Thomas L Friedman

On Apples iPod downloading headquarters, you can find more than a hundred celebrity playlists, not just those of musicians—Avril Lavigne digs Lesley Gore; Barry Manilow confesses that "Tom Waits is my favorite male singer"— but movie stars and athletes such as Sharon Stone ("Just Like a Woman") and Dale Earnhardt Jr. ("A Horse with No Name"). Elsewhere on the Net, it's common for bloggers to list favorite tunes, and on social Web sites like MySpace.com, your song preferences are the Unk that potentially binds you to new friends. On iPods themselves, this practice has been ground down to the nub. Simply handing over your iPod to a friend, your blind date, or the total stranger sitting next to you on the plane opens you up like a book. All someone needs to do is scroll through your library on that click wheel, and, musically speaking, you're naked.


pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Vannevar Bush

If time, money, family, and circumstances didn’t matter, I would rather have learned about the secret of life in person in Cambridge, Massachusetts. But all of those things do matter, a lot, and I was still able to get an 87 percent. Moreover, no one is alone on the Internet if they don’t want to be. In addition to faster connections and cheaper, more powerful computers, the last decade has seen the rise of the social Web. People form deep and lasting connections with others in virtual environments. They become part of authentic communities. And as technology improves, the nature of those interactions will more closely approximate actual face-to-face meetings. The person sitting at a chair, staring at a monitor, is a cramped and increasingly archaic vision of human-computer interaction. Right now, talking to a life-size virtual image of a real person is the kind of experience you see only in the cafeteria at MIT.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

The pathway towards a postcapitalist society requires a shift away from the proletarianisation of humanity and towards a transformed and newly mutable subject. This subject cannot be determined in advance; it can only be elaborated in the unfolding of practical and conceptual ramifications. There is no ‘true’ essence to humanity that could be discovered beyond our enmeshments in technological, natural and social webs.18 The idea that a post-work society would simply inculcate further mindless consumption neglects humanity’s capacity for novelty and creativity, and invokes a pessimism based upon current capitalist subjectivity.19 Likewise, the development of new needs must be distinguished from their commodification. Whereas the latter locks new desires into a profit-seeking framework that constrains human flourishing, the former denotes a real form of progress.


pages: 294 words: 89,406

Lying for Money: How Fraud Makes the World Go Round by Daniel Davies

bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, collapse of Lehman Brothers, compound rate of return, cryptocurrency, financial deregulation, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, illegal immigration, index arbitrage, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, railway mania, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, short selling, social web, South Sea Bubble, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, web of trust

They also owned rights to take future ownership of land, which is not the same thing as owning a forest, but which is clearly something of value. Land is physical and tangible and hard to steal, but an inheritance right is something different; you can’t always tell whether it’s been stolen from you and promised to someone else. As soon as the concept of a property right was invented, as soon as ownership got more complicated than simply the ability to control things by fighting anyone else who wanted them, there is a need for a social web of trust that the rights will be respected and not misused. And where there’s trust, there’s the opportunity for fraud. Inheritances also have another important property when we look at them as potential locuses of fraud; they were one of the few ways in which abstract property rights over large and valuable things could come to be owned by women. We’ve noted at various points during this book that the overwhelming majority of commercial fraudsters are men,* and this was even more the case when we look back into the past.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

The fifth privacy interface is poorly understood and has only recently gained notice, although Nathaniel Hawthorne explained it well in The Scarlet Letter. It’s what I call “person to public.” At this interface, which is now located largely online, people have found their lives exposed, their names and faces ridiculed, and their well-being harmed immeasurably by the rapid proliferation of images, the asocial nature of much ostensibly “social” Web behavior, and the permanence of the digital record. Whereas in our real social lives we have learned to manage our reputations, the online environments in which we work and play have broken down the barriers that separate the different social contexts in which we move. On Facebook, MySpace, or YouTube, a coworker may be an online friend, fan, or critic. A supervisor could be a stalker. A parent could be a lurker.


pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

Imagine completely open source approaches to doing research. Imagine a connected online web of scientific knowledge that integrates and connects data, computer code, chains of scientific reasoning, descriptions of open problems, and beyond. That web of scientific knowledge could incorporate video, virtual worlds, and augmented reality, as well as more conventional media, such as papers. And it would be tightly integrated with a scientific social web that directs scientists’ attention where it is most valuable, releasing enormous collaborative potential. In part 2 of this book we’ll explore, in concrete terms, how the era of networked science is coming about today. We’ll see, for example, how vast databases containing much of the world’s knowledge are being mined for discoveries that would elude any unaided human. We’ll see how online tools enable us to build new institutions that act as bridges between science and the rest of society in new ways, and that can help redefine the relationship between science and society.


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, business cycle, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

Hence our theme for this year: Web Squared. 1990–2004 was the match being struck; 2005–2009 was the fuse; and 2010 will be the explosion. Ever since we first introduced the term “Web 2.0,” people have been asking, “What’s next?” Assuming that Web 2.0 was meant to be a kind of software version number (rather than a statement about the second coming of the Web after the dot-com bust), we’re constantly asked about “Web 3.0.” Is it the semantic web? The sentient web? Is it the social web? The mobile web? Is it some form of virtual reality? It is all of those, and more. The Web is no longer a collection of static pages of HTML that describe something in the world. Increasingly, the Web is the world—everything and everyone in the world casts an “information shadow,” an aura of data which, when captured and processed intelligently, offers extraordinary opportunity and mind-bending implications.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

In effect, it could mean that new people can be added that aren’t as well known to everyone as in traditional ROSCAs. Unlike the KYC solution, which seeks smarter ways for people to prove who they are, this one lowers the barrier to entry by finding efficiencies in the system itself so that it’s less important to “know your customer.” Whether WeTrust’s model works or not, it may help us learn a lot about how these new systems of algorithmic, distributed trust can interface with those old, deeply embedded social webs of trust. We think it’s important that solutions to the challenges faced by the poor aren’t just imposed in some cookie-cutter manner by Silicon Valley venture capitalists who insist they know best. Solutions must be informed by and tailored to the underlying cultural structures of the communities in question. And while we should be seeking solutions like WeTrust’s, which focuses on reducing the identification burden to achieve financial inclusion, the reality is that every culture has an identity system at its core.


pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

Over the years, as the stakes of hacking grew, new pressures descended on the programmers who’d lived so easily in the Hack-Tic days. Postel’s motto to Be liberal in what you accept had been a byword for most of them, and it had helped the networks grow at an incredible pace, but at the price of vulnerability. Now most everyone has something to protect. No one wants to be too liberal in what they accept—the opposite, in fact. The brutal, inarguable, profitable demands of this kind of power cracked apart the unique social webs of the Hack-Tic era. The openness that we loved in so many areas of life, from our minds to our markets, has now become a liability. “I remember what the Internet was like before it was being watched, and there has never been anything in the history of man that is like it,” Edward Snowden once observed, nostalgic for the datascape he saw melt away during his time at the NSA. There is a whole new generation of young programmers who won’t ever know the original, generous ethos of a publication like Hack-Tic.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Annually, in the dry season, bands congregated at the permanent waters that dotted eastern and southern Africa. Here as many as five hundred men, women, and children would mingle, chat, dine, dance, perhaps even worship together. And although a pubescent girl who saw a cute boy at the next campfire might not know him personally, her mother probably knew his aunt, or her older brother had hunted with his cousin. All were part of the same broad social web. Moreover, in the ever present gossip circles a young girl could easily collect data on a potential suitor’s hunting skills, even on whether he was amusing, kind, smart. We think it’s natural to court a totally unknown person in a bar or club. But it’s far more natural to know a few basic things about an individual before meeting him or her. Internet dating sites, chat rooms, and social networking sites provide these details, enabling the modern human brain to pursue more comfortably its ancestral mating dance.


pages: 335 words: 107,779

Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson

airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize

When a schmo’s paycheck is delivered over the I-way, the number on the bottom line is plotted in his Profile, and if that schmo got it by telecommuting we know about that too—the length of his coffee breaks and the size of his bladder are an open book to us. When a schmo buys something on the I-way it goes into his Profile, and if it happens to be something that he recently saw advertised there, we call that interesting, and when he uses the I-way to phone his friends and family, we Profile Auditors can navigate his social web out to a gazillion fractal iterations, the friends of his friends of his friends of his friends, what they buy and what they watch and if there’s a correlation. So now it’s a year later. I have logged many a megaparsec across the Demosphere, I can pick out an anomalous Profile at a glance and notify my superiors. I am dimly aware of two things: (1) that my yearly Polysurf test looms, and (2) I’ve a decent chance of being promoted to Profile Auditor 2 and getting a cubicle some 25 percent larger and with my choice from among three different color schemes and four pre-approved decor configurations.


pages: 416 words: 106,532

Cryptoassets: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond by Chris Burniske, Jack Tatar

Airbnb, altcoin, asset allocation, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Network effects, packet switching, passive investing, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Sharpe ratio, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, smart contracts, social web, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X, Vanguard fund, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Since then, people have downloaded the open-source software that is Bitcoin, studied its blockchain, and released different blockchains that go far beyond Bitcoin. Blockchain technology can now be thought of as a general purpose technology, on par with that of the steam engine, electricity, and machine learning. To quote a May 2016 article in Harvard Business Review by Don and Alex Tapscott: “The technology most likely to change the next decade of business is not the social web, big data, the cloud, robotics, or even artificial intelligence. It’s the blockchain, the technology behind digital currencies like bitcoin.”7 Incumbents are sensing the inherent creative destruction, especially within the financial services sector, understanding that winners will grow new markets and feast off the disintermediated. Many startups are eyeing these middlemen with the oft-flickering thought that has been credited to Amazon’s Jeff Bezos: “Your fat margins are my opportunity.”8 If financial incumbents don’t embrace the technology themselves, Bitcoin and blockchain technology could do to banks what cell phones did to telephone poles.


pages: 397 words: 102,910

The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters

4chan, activist lawyer, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Bayesian statistics, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Lean Startup, moral panic, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Despite the tensions between Swartz and his colleagues, Reddit attracted roughly five hundred thousand unique visitors per month.37 Although most of the site’s users probably didn’t realize it, they were Reddit’s product. Their attention and loyalty could be sold to advertisers eager to promote their goods on the site; their browsing and sharing histories could conceivably be mined for a wealth of personal information that could also be sold off. Content producers could, theoretically, even pay to have Reddit show users their stories. If attention was currency on the nascent social Web, then Reddit seemed primed for riches. The prospective acquisition presented Swartz with an existential quandary. Though he claimed to not care about money, he didn’t object to having or making it. But he wondered whether he and his colleagues actually deserved the sums under discussion. On his blog, Swartz openly questioned Reddit’s real value, recounting a conversation with an author who was astounded at the site’s popularity: “So it’s just a list of links?”


pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joan Didion, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Web 2.0, writes Grossman, provides “a chance for people to look at a computer screen and really, genuinely wonder who’s out there looking back at them.” The cover gives Grossman’s words a wry twist, offering a much darker view of the radical personalization of culture. Peer into the cover’s computer screen and all you see looking back at you is you. In a solipsistic world, every Lonely Girl is a Great Man. DIGITAL SHARECROPPING December 19, 2006 STRIP THE HAPPY-FACE EMOTICONS from the social web, and you’re left with a sad-face truth: By putting the means of production into the hands of the masses but withholding from those same masses any ownership over the products of their work, the internet provides an incredibly efficient mechanism for harvesting the economic value of the free labor provided by the very many and concentrating it into the hands of the very few. A new analysis of web traffic, published by the blog Read Write Web, underscores the point.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Call this difference zillionics. A zillion neurons give you a smartness a million won’t. A zillion data points will give you insight that a mere hundred thousand don’t. A zillion chips connected to the internet create a pulsating, vibrating unity that 10 million chips can’t. A zillion hyperlinks will give you information and behavior you could never expect from a hundred thousand links. The social web runs in the land of zillionics. Artificial intelligence, robotics, and virtual realities all require mastery of zillionics. But the skills needed to manage zillionics are daunting. The usual tools for managing big data don’t work very well in this territory. A statistical prediction technique such as a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) breaks down because in the realm of zillionics the maximum likely estimate becomes improbable.


pages: 539 words: 139,378

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt

affirmative action, Black Swan, cognitive bias, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, invisible hand, lateral thinking, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Necker cube, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, ultimatum game

I was welcomed at the local university by Professor Biranchi Puhan, an old friend of Shweder’s, who gave me an office and introduced me to the rest of the psychology department, from which I recruited a research team of eager students. Within a week I was ready to begin my work, which was supposed to be a series of experiments on moral judgment, particularly violations of the ethics of divinity. But these experiments taught me little in comparison to what I learned just from stumbling around the complex social web of a small Indian city and then talking with my hosts and advisors about my confusion. One cause of confusion was that I had brought with me two incompatible identities. On one hand, I was a twenty-nine-year-old liberal atheist with very definite views about right and wrong. On the other hand, I wanted to be like those open-minded anthropologists I had read so much about and had studied with, such as Alan Fiske and Richard Shweder.


pages: 457 words: 128,640

Servants: A Downstairs History of Britain From the Nineteenth Century to Modern Times by Lucy Lethbridge

Ada Lovelace, British Empire, decarbonisation, garden city movement, high net worth, invisible hand, Louis Pasteur, new economy, period drama, Ralph Waldo Emerson, social web, Thorstein Veblen, traveling salesman, women in the workforce

Alice Osbourn’s diaries give us only partial and inconclusive glimpses of her life with the Baldwins and her relationship to them is as difficult to pin down as any intimacy. Yet the uncategorisable nature of the servant-master bond, so convenient for the master, was beginning by the turn of the century to chafe; many servants felt bitterly their exclusion from the social changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution. The idea that English society was bound by a complex and essentially benevolent social web that held the classes together in mutual co-dependency was one of the most potent myths of Edwardian England, at a time when inequalities were in real life stark. The upper and middle classes enjoyed improvements in diet, sanitation and medicine and a concomitant rise in life expectancy. At the turn of the century they could expect to live for nearly sixty years, while the life expectancy of the poorest of the working classes, whose diet chiefly consisted of tea, bread, and dripping, had not risen at all for three centuries, and remained at just thirty years.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, young professional

Bleacher Report, a blog written by 2,000 sports fans, now has 22 million unique users each month, enough to rival Yahoo and CNN sports.204 Global Voices, an online network of 1,200 writers and editors, who are largely volunteers, scrape through the Internet to find, curate, and translate pieces (into thirty languages) that are written outside the mainstream press (what they call the ‘citizen and social web’). Scott Gant captures this new spirit in the title of his book, We’re All Journalists Now.205 New ‘digital-only’ institutions have also emerged, often with non-traditional business models. The Huffington Post is a for-profit online news platform on which anyone can submit an article, alongside paid writers. Set up in 2005, within six years it had overtaken the New York Times website in unique monthly visitors.206 ProPublica is an independent, not-for-profit online newsroom, financed by the charitable Sandler Foundation, which only conducts investigative journalism.


pages: 475 words: 134,707

The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy, and Our Health--And How We Must Adapt by Sinan Aral

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, computer vision, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, COVID-19, Covid-19, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, hive mind, illegal immigration, income inequality, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, performance metric, phenotype, recommendation engine, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social software, social web, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra

Our ventral striatum, a key component of the dopamine reward system, is activated when we receive social rewards in our romantic relationships, our cooperative relationships, in social comparisons, and when we are being altruistic. We are mentally wired—in fact, we are evolutionarily bound by our neurophysiology—to communicate, connect, and coordinate with one another. Then we invented the Hype Machine. The Hype Machine is designed to facilitate the rapid diffusion of the social information that our brains have evolved to process, on a scale we have never witnessed. Unlike television or the Internet, the social web puts us directly in touch with the real-time, searchable social streams of millions of people every day. The ten-second Vine loops, the split-second scans of Instagram images—sometimes we don’t even notice its influence. But the Hype Machine delivers social information in incredibly rich detail and at unprecedented scale. As it does so, it stimulates our brains in ways that we have evolved to crave, which keeps us coming back for more.


pages: 455 words: 133,322

The Facebook Effect by David Kirkpatrick

Andy Kessler, Burning Man, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, Peter Thiel, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Whole Earth Review, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

Click: What Millions of People Are Doing Online and Why It Matters. New York: Hyperion, 2008. Tapscott, Don. Grown Up Digital: How the Net Generation Is Changing the World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone, 1995. Vander Veer, E. A. Facebook: The Missing Manual. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 2008. Weber, Larry. Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009. Winograd, M., M. Hais. Millenial Makeover: MySpace, YouTube & the Future of American Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press: 2008. Wright, Robert. Non-Zero: The Logic of Human Destiny. New York: Pantheon Books, 2000. Zuniga, Markos Moulitsas. Taking On the System: Rules for Radical Change in a Digital Era.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

This is a different kind of economy—one far more dependent on social capital than market capital. And it’s an economy that lives more on social trust rather than on anonymous market forces. Rachel Botsman, an Oxford- and Harvard-educated former consultant to GE and IBM who abandoned her career to join the new sharing economy, describes the path that led up to collaborative consumption. She notes that the social Web has passed through three phases—the first enabled programmers to freely share code; Facebook and Twitter allowed people to share their lives; and YouTube and Flickr allowed people to share their creative content. “Now we’re going into the fourth phase,” Botsman says, “where people are saying, ‘I can apply the same technology to share all kinds of assets offline, from the real world.’”29 Let me add an amplifier at this juncture: while the Communications Internet is an enabler, as it merges with the Energy Internet and the Logistics Internet in the years ahead, establishing an integrated and sharable communication, energy, and logistics infrastructure—an Internet of Things—that can operate at near zero marginal cost, it dramatically boosts the potential of the other sharable sectors, including rentals, redistribution networks, cultural exchanges, and exchanges of professional and technical skills.


Data Wrangling With Python: Tips and Tools to Make Your Life Easier by Jacqueline Kazil

Amazon Web Services, bash_history, cloud computing, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, database schema, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, job automation, Nate Silver, natural language processing, pull request, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, selection bias, social web, statistical model, web application, WikiLeaks

Using an API Pros Cons Immediate access to data you can use Unreliability of mass API system (selection bias) Vast quantities of data Data overload You don’t have to worry about storage; you can just access the data from Reliability and dependence on access—API the service’s storage limitations or downtime As you can see, there are benefits and compromises. If you find an API you want to use, create a few rules around how you will use it and what to do if it is not accessible (you may want to store responses locally to avoid downtime issues). Collecting enough responses over time can also help eliminate some selection bias in your research. Outside of social web services, there are a variety of sites where you can post your own questions and ideas and ask for a crowdsourced reply. Whether you want to go to an expert forum related to the topic or post a survey and circulate it though your own channels is up to you, but be aware when using your own research questions and methods that you must account for whatever size and sampling errors arise. For a more detailed introduction to writing your own survey along with citations for more information, the University of Wisconsin’s survey guide can be a good starting point.


pages: 519 words: 142,646

Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum

active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking

Structur and Alpha are one-of-a-kind writing instruments created in a single author’s image: to know the software is to know something of the mind of the writer, however obliquely. When tens of thousands of people shared, tweeted, or embedded the clip from George R. R. Martin’s Conan interview, it was doubtless with the sense of casual novelty—“get-a-load-of-this”—that characterizes so much of the social Web. But there was also something more at work—the sense, however intuitive or instinctive, that this was something worth knowing, specifically worth knowing about this author and his writing. Not that WordStar explained anything, exactly. But the contrast between the inaccessible recesses of Martin’s mind—knowable only to him, at best only in partial and fragmentary form—and the banality of the instrument through which he channels its expression is, I believe, a large measure of what accounts for the fascination with the technical details of his computer system.


pages: 554 words: 149,489

The Content Trap: A Strategist's Guide to Digital Change by Bharat Anand

Airbnb, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Minecraft, multi-sided market, Network effects, post-work, price discrimination, publish or perish, QR code, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, two-sided market, ubercab, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

We signal our relational identity through what we wear (Armani or Abercrombie), where we eat (French or Ethiopian), what we read (Grisham or Gladwell), what we watch (dramas or documentaries), and what we hear (punk rock or funk pop), to name just a few. It was initially thought that one of the Internet’s greatest benefits was anonymity. Users could communicate without others knowing who they were. Expressing opinions, sending customer complaints, or seeding grassroots movements could all be done without fear of reprisal or retribution. But as interpersonal communication and the social Web grew, a funny thing happened: Relational identity became as important online as in the real world. Tencent’s first stroke of genius was in recognizing this early on. As the users on Tencent’s IM platform grew in number, so did their desire to differentiate themselves from millions of others. To allow users to stand out from the pack, Tencent tapped still more alternatives. Users could supplement their avatars with various features—a happier face, a different hairstyle, a more colorful hat, a Gucci bag—for a small charge each, less than $1.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Fans can contribute money, suggestions to improve the film, or both. Rather than the filmmaker looking for a small number of wealthy investors, IndieGoGo promotes the idea of many investors providing a small amount of money each—much like the crowd funding of the Obama campaign. And much like Obama supporters, once fans donate money, they are much more committed to seeing the project succeed. They can use social Web technologies to build online buzz for the film they’ve just invested in. SnagFilms.com makes it much easier for independent documentary films to find an audience. The site currently offers for free viewing 850 full-length documentaries, from established heavyweights to first-timers.15 By streaming films worldwide, on-demand, 24-7 and with no software installation or downloading required, SnagFilms’ potential audience is huge.


pages: 561 words: 157,589

WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us by Tim O'Reilly

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, deskilling, DevOps, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, gravity well, greed is good, Guido van Rossum, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Lean Startup, Leonard Kleinrock, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, microbiome, microservices, minimum viable product, mortgage tax deduction, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Oculus Rift, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Sam Altman, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, software as a service, software patent, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The Future of Employment, the map is not the territory, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, VA Linux, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, yellow journalism, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, we were exposed to the “barn raising” style of collaborative software development of the early Unix community—what we later came to call open source software. 2. In developing our first books, we practiced a version of this kind of crowdsourcing ourselves. In 1987, I wrote a book called Managing UUCP and Usenet, which described how to use a program called the Unix-to-Unix Copy Program (UUCP) to connect to Usenet, a distributed dial-up precursor to today’s social web. It was on Usenet that the world’s software developers conversed about their work, shared tips and advice, and, increasingly, talked about everything from sex to politics. At first the book was based on my own experience connecting systems to Usenet, but that experience was limited. Readers sent me information about how to use additional equipment that I didn’t have access to and the fine points of geekery (“Here’s the ‘chat script’ for calling in through a Develcon switch,” or “Here are the pins you need to connect in an RS-232 cable” for some particular brand of modem.)


pages: 604 words: 161,455

The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life by Robert Wright

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, fault tolerance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, global village, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, invention of writing, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Norbert Wiener, planetary scale, pre–internet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, social web, Steven Pinker, talking drums, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, your tax dollars at work, zero-sum game

In the realm of primitive warfare, this unifying effect can go beyond the people of a single village. One great way for a village to fend off assault, or to conduct assault, is to ally with another village, a standard tactic among the Northwest Coast Indians. And, once this alliance exists, any enemies have good cause to themselves find allies. And so on: an “arms race” of organization that expands the social web outward, weaving more and more villages together. The speed with which hostility can thus move to higher levels of social organization, leaving harmony in its wake, has been much noted by anthropologists. The Nuer of Sudan, as studied by E. E. Evans-Pritchard early this century, were an especially vivid case. A Bor tribesman explained, “We fight against the Rengyan, but when either of us is fighting a third party we combine.”


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

He also had a second slogan for the approach that Google had to take when competing in the social world: “Ready, fire, aim.” It sounded like a postmortem for a lost battle, he would later admit, but it was the Google way. Google set about organizing many of the web’s socially oriented companies into a major initiative that it called OpenSocial. The idea was to build a shared infrastructure where multiple websites could participate in a more social web. A user’s identity would be portable; a profile formed on one site could be used on other sites or services. While Google bore the burden of much of the programming and organization, it was careful not to label the effort as solely its own: the party line was that this was an open-source group effort that would benefit all. But as some of the major participants—MySpace, Ning, hi5, Bebo, AOL—fell into line, the biggest social site sat out the effort.


pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, David Heinemeier Hansson, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, Guido van Rossum, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, Perl 6, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, Ruby on Rails, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

In our implementation, when the VisTrails object is activated, we load the VisTrails application and allow users to open, interact with and select a pipeline that they want to insert. After they close VisTrails, the pipeline result will be shown in PowerPoint. Pipeline information is also stored with the OLE object. To enable users to freely share their results together with the associated provenance, we have created crowdLabs.7 crowdLabs is a social Web site that integrates a set of usable tools and a scalable infrastructure to provide an environment for scientists to collaboratively analyze and visualize data. crowdLabs is tightly integrated with VisTrails. If a user wants to share any results derived in VisTrails, she can connect to the crowdLabs server directly from VisTrails to upload the information. Once the information is uploaded, users can interact with and execute the workflows through a Web browser—these workflows are executed by a VisTrails server that powers crowdLabs.


pages: 611 words: 188,732

Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator

The brogrammer ’tude was a joke… or was it? Sean Parker: The dot-com era sort of ended with Napster, then there’s the dot-com bust, which leads to the social media era. Steven Johnson: At the time, the web was fundamentally a literary metaphor: “pages”—and then these hypertext links between pages. There was no concept of the user; that was not part of the metaphor at all. Mark Pincus: I mark Napster as the beginning of the social web—people, not pages. For me that was the breakthrough moment, because I saw that the internet could be this completely distributed peer-to-peer network. We could disintermediate those big media companies and all be connected to each other. Steven Johnson: To me it really started with blogging in the early 2000s. You started to have these sites that were oriented around a single person’s point of view.


In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff

affirmative action, American ideology, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, demand response, deskilling, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, fudge factor, future of work, industrial robot, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, job automation, lateral thinking, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, old-boy network, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Shoshana Zuboff, social web, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, zero-sum game

Consider the case of Britain at the brink of industrialization during the second half of the eighteenth century. For all the bone-crushing labor demanded of the agricultural worker or the cottage weaver, the traditional rhythms of exertion and play were a world removed from the behavioral demands of industrial production. Work patterns were irregular, alternating between intense effort and idleness. Most work activities emanated from the home, and the distractions of the family, the taverns, and the social web of the community limited any undivided commitment to work. Cottage workers, upon whom most textile production depended, were relatively impervious to the middleman's demand for heightened productivity. Their inclination to physical exertion was guided more by their own immediate needs than by acquisitive ambitions. Throughout the eighteenth century, the British Parliament passed legislation requir- ing ever-shorter turnaround times for finished goods from domestic workers and imposing increasingly severe sanctions on those who did not comply.


pages: 1,294 words: 210,361

The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee

Barry Marshall: ulcers, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, experimental subject, iterative process, Joan Didion, life extension, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, New Journalism, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Robert Mercer, scientific mainstream, Silicon Valley, social web, statistical model, stem cell, women in the workforce, Year of Magical Thinking, éminence grise

First, Fowler and Christakis plotted a diagram of all known relationships in Framingham—friends, neighbors, and relatives, siblings, ex-wives, uncles, aunts—as a densely interconnected web. Viewed abstractly, the network began to assume familiar and intuitive patterns. A few men and women (call them “socializers”) stood at the epicenter of these networks, densely connected to each other through multiple ties. In contrast, others lingered on the outskirts of the social web—“loners”—with few and fleeting contacts. When the epidemiologists juxtaposed smoking behavior onto this network and followed the pattern of smoking over decades, a notable phenomenon emerged: circles of relationships were found to be more powerful predictors of the dynamics of smoking than nearly any other factor. Entire networks stopped smoking concordantly, like whole circuits flickering off.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

.: “Impala: A Modern, Open-Source SQL Engine for Hadoop,” at 7th Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research (CIDR), January 2015. [42] Matthieu Monsch: “Open-Sourcing PalDB, a Lightweight Companion for Stor‐ ing Side Data,” engineering.linkedin.com, October 26, 2015. [43] Daniel Peng and Frank Dabek: “Large-Scale Incremental Processing Using Dis‐ tributed Transactions and Notifications,” at 9th USENIX conference on Operating Sys‐ tems Design and Implementation (OSDI), October 2010. [44] ““Cloudera Search User Guide,” Cloudera, Inc., September 2015. [45] Lili Wu, Sam Shah, Sean Choi, et al.: “The Browsemaps: Collaborative Filtering at LinkedIn,” at 6th Workshop on Recommender Systems and the Social Web (RSWeb), October 2014. [46] Roshan Sumbaly, Jay Kreps, Lei Gao, et al.: “Serving Large-Scale Batch Compu‐ ted Data with Project Voldemort,” at 10th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST), February 2012. [47] Varun Sharma: “Open-Sourcing Terrapin: A Serving System for Batch Gener‐ ated Data,” engineering.pinterest.com, September 14, 2015. Summary | 433 [48] Nathan Marz: “ElephantDB,” slideshare.net, May 30, 2011. [49] Jean-Daniel (JD) Cryans: “How-to: Use HBase Bulk Loading, and Why,” blog.cloudera.com, September 27, 2013. [50] Nathan Marz: “How to Beat the CAP Theorem,” nathanmarz.com, October 13, 2011. [51] Molly Bartlett Dishman and Martin Fowler: “Agile Architecture,” at O’Reilly Software Architecture Conference, March 2015. [52] David J.


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

[43] Daniel Peng and Frank Dabek: “Large-Scale Incremental Processing Using Distributed Transactions and Notifications,” at 9th USENIX conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), October 2010. [44] ““Cloudera Search User Guide,” Cloudera, Inc., September 2015. [45] Lili Wu, Sam Shah, Sean Choi, et al.: “The Browsemaps: Collaborative Filtering at LinkedIn,” at 6th Workshop on Recommender Systems and the Social Web (RSWeb), October 2014. [46] Roshan Sumbaly, Jay Kreps, Lei Gao, et al.: “Serving Large-Scale Batch Computed Data with Project Voldemort,” at 10th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST), February 2012. [47] Varun Sharma: “Open-Sourcing Terrapin: A Serving System for Batch Generated Data,” engineering.pinterest.com, September 14, 2015. [48] Nathan Marz: “ElephantDB,” slideshare.net, May 30, 2011


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Instead, Instagram’s analytics are drawn from behavioral surplus: the shadow text. As one manager describes it, “You base predictions off an action, and then you do stuff around that action.” Actions are signals like “following,” “liking,” and “sharing,” now and in the past. The circle widens from there. With whom did you share? Who do they follow, like, and share with? “Instagram is mining the multilayered social web between users,” but that mining is based on observable, measurable behaviors moving through time: the dynamic surplus of the shadow text drawn from its own caches as well as Facebook’s, not the content displayed in the public text.35 In the end, the photos you see resonate with strange relevance for your life. More begets more. On the demand side, Facebook’s “likes” were quickly coveted and craved, morphing into a universal reward system or what one young app designer called “our generation’s crack cocaine.”


pages: 1,535 words: 337,071

Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World by David Easley, Jon Kleinberg

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, clean water, conceptual framework, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Douglas Hofstadter, Erdős number, experimental subject, first-price auction, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Gödel, Escher, Bach, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, information retrieval, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, longitudinal study, market clearing, market microstructure, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Pareto efficiency, Paul Erdős, planetary scale, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Simon Singh, slashdot, social web, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vannevar Bush, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

APPLICATIONS OF STRUCTURAL BALANCE 139 set V mutual set W friends set X inside V mutual friends inside X mutual friends inside W mutual antagonism between all sets mutual friends mutual inside Z friends inside Y set Z set Y Figure 5.6: A complete graph is weakly balanced precisely when it can be divided into multiple sets of mutual friends, with complete mutual antagonism between each pair of sets. so forth). In such a case, if A distrusts B and B distrusts C, we might conclude that A is far more expert than C, and so should distrust C as well. Ultimately, understanding how these positive and negative relationships work is important for understanding the role they play on social Web sites where users register subjective evaluations of each other. Although the questions raised here are fundamental ones, there is not yet enough empirical evidence to clearly resolve them; it remains a topic of active research. 140 CHAPTER 5. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIPS 5.4 A Weaker Form of Structural Balance In studying models of positive and negative relationships on networks, researchers have also formulated alternate notions of structural balance, by revisiting the original assumptions we used to motivate the framework.


The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World by Iain McGilchrist

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, Donald Trump, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, Georg Cantor, hedonic treadmill, Henri Poincaré, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, music of the spheres, Necker cube, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, randomized controlled trial, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Schrödinger's Cat, social intelligence, social web, source of truth, stem cell, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind

This would suggest that the nature of the modern Western urban environment may be exaggerating the tendencies that the left hemisphere has projected there, as well as suggesting one reason why the natural environment is felt to have such a healing influence. Eastern cultures, and in particular the Japanese, have been characterised as ‘interdependent’; in other words, individuals are less seen in isolation than they are in the West, instead forming part of an interconnected social web. For them, the sense of the self (as we saw for the right hemisphere) develops through understanding its influence on others. Self-improvement in such cultures has far less to do with getting what one wants, and far more to do with confronting one’s own shortcomings, in the interests of harmony, at home, at work, and amongst friends.75 Westerners perform better on tasks with independent demands than on tasks with interdependent demands.76 East Asians make stronger efforts to justify their choices if they have been made on behalf of a friend, Westerners if made for themselves.77 The Japanese word for self, jibun, implies a share of something which is both separate and not separate, individual and yet still shared.