RFID

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pages: 229 words: 68,426

Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing by Adam Greenfield

augmented reality, business process, defense in depth, demand response, demographic transition, facts on the ground, game design, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, James Dyson, knowledge worker, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, profit motive, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method

Of course, this limits their range of action to short distances, no more than a few meters at the very outside, while active RFID units, supplied with their own onboard transmitter and power supply, trade greater range for a correspondingly bulkier profile. The onboard memory chip generally encodes a unique numeric identifier and includes as well whatever other information is desired about the item of interest: part number, account number, SKU, color.... Really, the possibilities are endless. And it's this flexibility that accounts for the incredibly wide range of RFID applications we see: In everyday life, you're almost certainly already engaging RFID infrastructures, whether you're aware of it or (more likely) not. Two-dimensional bar codes address some of the same purposes as passive RFID tags, though they require visual scanning (by a laser reader or compatible camera) to return data.

First, RFID, the tiny radio-frequency transponders that are already doing so much to revolutionize logistics. The fundamental characteristic of an RFID tag is cheapness—as of mid-2004, the unit production cost of a standard-issue passive tag stood at about fifty cents, but industry sources are unanimous in predicting a drop below five cents in the next few years. Somewhere around the latter price point, it becomes economic to slap tags onto just about everything: every toothbrush, every replacement windshield wiper and orange-juice carton in existence. And given how incredibly useful the things are—they readily allow the tracking, sorting, and self-identification of items they're appended to, and much more besides—there are likely to be few persuasive arguments against doing so. RFID "wants" to be everywhere and part of everything.

Above all, the proposed bridge should be vanishingly cheap—the better to economically supply all the hundreds of billions of objects in the world with their own identifiers. Such bridges already exist—and are in fact already widely deployed. We'll limit our discussion here to the two most prominent such technologies: RFID tags and two-dimensional bar-codes. The acronym RFID simply means "radio-frequency identification," although in use it has come to connote a whole approach to low-cost, low-impact data-collection. There are two fundamental types of RFID tags, "active" and "passive"; just as you'd assume, active tags broadcast while passive tags require scanning before offering up their payload of information. While both types of tags incorporate a chip and an antenna, passive tags do not require an onboard power supply. This allows them to be extremely cheap, small, and flexible; they can be woven into fabrics, printed onto surfaces, even slapped on in the form of stickers.


pages: 316 words: 90,165

You Are Here: From the Compass to GPS, the History and Future of How We Find Ourselves by Hiawatha Bray

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, digital map, don't be evil, Edmond Halley, Edward Snowden, Firefox, game design, Google Earth, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, license plate recognition, lone genius, openstreetmap, polynesian navigation, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFID, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thales of Miletus, trade route, turn-by-turn navigation, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Zipcar

This device sits inert until it comes within range of a “reader” that broadcasts a radio signal. The incoming signal alerts the RFID chip, which responds by beaming out a serial number. This serial number has already been stored in a database, where it is associated with a particular object or person. So when the RFID reader at a supermarket warehouse picks up the serial number of an RFID chip attached to a box of spaghetti sauce, it notifies the warehouse’s inventory computer that the sauce has arrived. With RFID you do not need warehouse workers typing in the data as new shipments arrive. You just put RFID readers at each loading dock; the merchandise logs itself into inventory as it is brought into the warehouse and logs itself out when it is shipped out to stores. Retailers like Walmart who want to control labor costs depend quite heavily on RFID systems; so do manufacturers like airplane builders Boeing and Airbus, which use RFID tags to track vast inventories of spare parts.17 RFID chips also simplify many everyday human transactions.

Retailers like Walmart who want to control labor costs depend quite heavily on RFID systems; so do manufacturers like airplane builders Boeing and Airbus, which use RFID tags to track vast inventories of spare parts.17 RFID chips also simplify many everyday human transactions. In Boston commuters use cards with embedded RFID chips to pay their fares by simply waving them in front of a detector. Millions of people pay their highway tolls with an RFID-based “EZ Pass” that identifies the driver and sends him a bill each month. And many employers issue RFID-based identification cards to unlock the office door and confirm the worker is on the job. Plainly, RFID enables location tracking at its most granular level, even when it was not deployed for that purpose. EZ Pass toll systems, for example, were designed to speed up traffic and reduce the need for human toll takers. However, every time an EZ Pass–equipped vehicle passes an electronic tollbooth, its passage is recorded in a database.

IBM has not followed through on the idea, at least not yet.19 Some RFID applications are intended to keep track of the holders’ whereabouts. Sometimes it is an imprecise, soft form of tracking. Use an RFID name badge to enter your office or clock in at the factory, and the company has a record that you showed up that day. Still, that probably does not mean your movements inside the building are being constantly monitored. Most RFID tags are “passive.” They are incapable of transmitting radio messages on their own because they do not include a battery to power up the chip. Instead, passive tags come to life only when they are near an RFID reader. As the chip approaches the reader, it scavenges power from the incoming radio signal—enough for it to answer back with the chip’s ID code. Because the reader’s radio signal is weak, passive RFID chips respond only when they are close to the reader—usually within a few yards or a couple of feet.20 Plainly, such tags cannot constantly track your exact location in a large building.


pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

When deciding on which networks to run an M2M solution, we would like to point out the ubiquity versus granularity problem. For example, RFID tags are very low cost, don’t need a battery, and have an infinite life. One can put an RFID tag on almost anything — for instance, every item in a grocery store. That way, RFID provides a high level of granularity for seeing and detecting things. However, for each RFID installation there needs to be RFID readers, which require installation, calibration, and fine-tuning. The RFID does not provide the ubiquity of other networks. Let’s take cellular: Mobile carriers provide access to cellular networks almost everywhere — cellular networks are ubiquitous. However, the cellular devices are costly compared to the RFID tags, they are bulky, and they require batteries to run. Cellular devices do not offer the same level of granularity that RFID provides. To better understand this problem, we spoke with Professor Sanjay Sarma of MIT.

The coffee cup is supposed to know how much it weighs or what shape it is, what is the best way to approach it, and so on. I just ask it instead of trying to recreate all its information. I thought it was a beautiful insight. Kevin Ashton continues: Barcodes at the time were considered a quasi-automatic data capture, but they are not automatic at all. Barcodes are data-capture technology for humans, while RFID is a capture technology for computers. RFID is a way to hack the real world. As things get wirelessly connected, Sanjay Sarma believes in the proliferation of RFID. He thinks RFID readers will become ubiquitous. The economic downturn of 2001 only temporarily slowed the unstoppable development of the Internet of Things. As a matter of fact, things started picking up as early as 2002. In 2004, Nokia published a white paper called Machine to Machine: Let Your Machines Talk, which pointed out: It is not only people who use telecommunication and Internet technologies to communicate, but the machines around us as well.

To better understand this problem, we spoke with Professor Sanjay Sarma of MIT. Sanjay pointed out that the biggest cost in RFID today is in installation and integration. One way to address the issue of ubiquity, he says, would be to wirelessly enable RFID readers with 4G or Wi-Fi and make them ubiquitous. Sanjay says, “Imagine if the reader comes with a standard electric plug, all you need to do is plug it in and you’re good to go.” He envisions the time when so many devices are going to have RFID-reader capability that it will solve the problem of the short range of RFID devices — there will always be a reader in range. On the other side, mobile carriers are just starting to embrace Wi-Fi services as an offering on top of their cellular networks, but it’s possible to imagine a not-too-distant future where mobile carriers will be selling high-bandwidth wireless access to the Internet regardless of technology.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

On the other hand, some tags are battery powered and transmit actively and these can be situated hundreds of meters from the reader. RFID technology is used in many industries to identify and track inventory, people, objects, and animals due to the tag’s versatility and ability to be attached to just about anything. RFID is also used in contactless payment systems using cards or even smartphones to place in close proximity to the RFID reader. However, RFID does not always require such close contact; in some cases even the briefest contact at a distance is all that is required. An example of this is the timing of sports cars lapping a track. Even at those high speeds, RFID works efficiently and reliably and produces accurate timing. Another advantage of RFID is that the tags do not need line of sight or even need to be visible, so they can be easily concealed in packaging and products. RFID tags can be read simultaneously by a reader if they are in range, which is a big advantage over barcodes, which are read one at a time.

This is one of the basis of Smart Manufacturing, because we can reduce waste and inefficiency by identifying products on the production line and determining their status and what is more their history and what specific stage of production they must next pass through. Now how do we do this? We can use RFID tags that are so miniaturized that now they can be embedded into a label or use NFC (near frequency contact) such as in card payment systems. NFC is a bit fragile it requires close proximity to the reader, whereas RFID is astonishingly capable. Take for instance a racing car embedded with an RFID tag and during each lap, an RFID reader counts the number of laps. Incredibly, an RFID reader can count reliably every lap a racing car performs even at speeds of 200 mph and more. Therefore, RFID tags are perfect for Smart Factory applications where the speed of the production process must not be compromised. So let us see how a Smart Factory can work in practice as suggested by DR.

In order to address these inventory control processes, logistic companies sought an automated solution using IIoT techniques and wireless technologies. The solution is to use embedded RFID tags and the associated RFID readers, which can scan entire rows or stacks of pallets queued at the inbound gate simultaneously. This is something a barcode reader had to perform one at a time, which is an improvement in speed and accuracy as every RFID tag in 23 24 Chapter 2 | Industrial Internet Use-Cases radio range on every pallet, whether visible or not, is read by the system. The RFID reader automatically records the RFID tag’s information such as the order ID, the manufacturer, product model, type, and quantity, as well as the condition of the items before automatically recording the delivery in the ERP system.


Smart Grid Standards by Takuro Sato

business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, data acquisition, decarbonisation, demand response, distributed generation, energy security, factory automation, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Iridium satellite, iterative process, knowledge economy, life extension, linear programming, low earth orbit, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, performance metric, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, Thomas Davenport

It utilizes OFDM and modulation techniques up to 4096 QAM Optical ITU-T G.651.1 ITU ITU-T G.652 ITU ITU-T G.959 ITU-T G.693 ITU-T G.692 ITU ITU ITU T1.105.07 ANSI Characteristics of a 50/125 μm multimode graded-index optical fiber cable for the optical access network Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber and cable Optical transport network physical layer interfaces Optical interfaces for intraoffice systems Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Sub-STS-1 Interface Rates and Formats Specification (continued overleaf) Smart Grid Standards 252 Table 6.2 (continued) Standard Body Details ITU-T G.707 ITU ITU-T G.783 ITU ITU-T G.784 ITU ITU-T G.803 ITU ITU-T G.983.x ITU IEEE 802.3ah IEEE ITU-T G.984.x ITU IEEE 802.3av IEEE ITU-T G.987 ITU Recommendation G.707/Y.1322, Network node interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks Management aspects of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) transport network element Architecture of transport networks based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON), a series of recommendations for broadband passive optical networks Also known as “Ethernet in the First Mile;” defines the physical-layer specifications for Ethernet links providing 1000 Mbps over PONs up to at least 10 km (1000BASE-PX10) and up to at least 20 km (1000BASE-PX20) Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON); a series of recommendations for GPON access networks Physical layer specifications and management parameters for 10 Gbps Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (10 GE-PON) 10-Gigabit-capable passive optical network (XG-PON) systems: definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms; a series of recommendations for gigabit passive optical access networks NG-PON2: next-generation passive optical network 2 NG-PON2 FSAN Very short range/contactless ISO 10536 ISO ISO 11784 ISO ISO 11785 ISO ISO 14443 ISO ISO 15693 ISO ISO 15961 ISO ISO RFID standard for close coupled cards ISO RFID standard that defines the way in which data is structured on an RFID tag ISO RFID standard that defines the air interface protocol ISO RFID standard that provides the definitions for the air interface protocol for RFID tags used in proximity systems – aimed for use with payment systems ISO RFID standard for use with what are termed vicinity cards ISO RFID standard for item management (includes application interface (part 1), registration of RFID data constructs (part 2), and RFID data constructs (part 3) Communications in the Smart Grid 253 Table 6.2 (continued) Standard Body Details ISO 18000 ISO ISO 24753 ISO UHF Class 1 Gen 2 EPCglobal EPC Class-1 HF EPCglobal ASTM D7434 ASTM ASTM D7435 ASTM ASTM D7580 ASTM JIS X 6319-4 JIS ISO/IEC 21481 ISO ISO/IEC 18092 ISO ISO RFID standard for the air interface for RFID frequencies around the globe Air interface commands for battery assist and sensor functionality Physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system operating in the 860–960 MHz frequency range Physical and logical requirements fora passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system operating in 13.65 MHz frequency Standard test method for determining the performance of passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders on palletized or unitized loads Standard test method for determining the performance of passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders on loaded containers Standard test method for rotary stretch wrapper method for determining the readability of passive RFID transponders on homogeneous palletized or unitized loads Also known as “Felica,” the Japanese Industrial Standard (or JIS) specifying the physical characteristics, air interface, transmission protocols, file structure, and commands of high-speed contactless proximity integrated circuit cards This standard specifies the communication mode-selection mechanism, which is designed to not interfere with any ongoing communication at 13.56 MHz, for devices implementing ECMA-340, ISO/IEC 14443, or ISO/IEC 15693 Also known as “ECMA-340.”

In Table 6.9, we provide an overview of those technologies in the context of Smart Grid applications. 6.4.2 Wireless Very Short Distance Communication Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is widely used for identifying and tracking assets, because of its simplicity and low cost. In particular, the most common applications of RFID are store/warehouse product identification, production control, livestock identification, and vehicle tracking. The RFID concept recognizes two entities: reader/writer and a tag. The RFID reader/writer communicates with RFID tags and reads/writes the information from/to the tag. There can be three different types of RFID tags: passive, semipassive, and active. The passive RFID tags take the major market share due to the extremely low cost without the need for any battery and with almost limitless lifespan. The passive RFID tag is powered by the antenna of a reader/writer device.

It utilizes OFDM and modulation techniques up to 4096 QAM Optical ITU-T G.651.1 ITU ITU-T G.652 ITU ITU-T G.959 ITU-T G.693 ITU-T G.692 ITU ITU ITU T1.105.07 ANSI Characteristics of a 50/125 μm multimode graded-index optical fiber cable for the optical access network Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber and cable Optical transport network physical layer interfaces Optical interfaces for intraoffice systems Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Sub-STS-1 Interface Rates and Formats Specification (continued overleaf) Smart Grid Standards 252 Table 6.2 (continued) Standard Body Details ITU-T G.707 ITU ITU-T G.783 ITU ITU-T G.784 ITU ITU-T G.803 ITU ITU-T G.983.x ITU IEEE 802.3ah IEEE ITU-T G.984.x ITU IEEE 802.3av IEEE ITU-T G.987 ITU Recommendation G.707/Y.1322, Network node interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks Management aspects of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) transport network element Architecture of transport networks based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON), a series of recommendations for broadband passive optical networks Also known as “Ethernet in the First Mile;” defines the physical-layer specifications for Ethernet links providing 1000 Mbps over PONs up to at least 10 km (1000BASE-PX10) and up to at least 20 km (1000BASE-PX20) Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON); a series of recommendations for GPON access networks Physical layer specifications and management parameters for 10 Gbps Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (10 GE-PON) 10-Gigabit-capable passive optical network (XG-PON) systems: definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms; a series of recommendations for gigabit passive optical access networks NG-PON2: next-generation passive optical network 2 NG-PON2 FSAN Very short range/contactless ISO 10536 ISO ISO 11784 ISO ISO 11785 ISO ISO 14443 ISO ISO 15693 ISO ISO 15961 ISO ISO RFID standard for close coupled cards ISO RFID standard that defines the way in which data is structured on an RFID tag ISO RFID standard that defines the air interface protocol ISO RFID standard that provides the definitions for the air interface protocol for RFID tags used in proximity systems – aimed for use with payment systems ISO RFID standard for use with what are termed vicinity cards ISO RFID standard for item management (includes application interface (part 1), registration of RFID data constructs (part 2), and RFID data constructs (part 3) Communications in the Smart Grid 253 Table 6.2 (continued) Standard Body Details ISO 18000 ISO ISO 24753 ISO UHF Class 1 Gen 2 EPCglobal EPC Class-1 HF EPCglobal ASTM D7434 ASTM ASTM D7435 ASTM ASTM D7580 ASTM JIS X 6319-4 JIS ISO/IEC 21481 ISO ISO/IEC 18092 ISO ISO RFID standard for the air interface for RFID frequencies around the globe Air interface commands for battery assist and sensor functionality Physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system operating in the 860–960 MHz frequency range Physical and logical requirements fora passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system operating in 13.65 MHz frequency Standard test method for determining the performance of passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders on palletized or unitized loads Standard test method for determining the performance of passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders on loaded containers Standard test method for rotary stretch wrapper method for determining the readability of passive RFID transponders on homogeneous palletized or unitized loads Also known as “Felica,” the Japanese Industrial Standard (or JIS) specifying the physical characteristics, air interface, transmission protocols, file structure, and commands of high-speed contactless proximity integrated circuit cards This standard specifies the communication mode-selection mechanism, which is designed to not interfere with any ongoing communication at 13.56 MHz, for devices implementing ECMA-340, ISO/IEC 14443, or ISO/IEC 15693 Also known as “ECMA-340.”


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Even if you are unfamiliar with RFID technology, chances are you have already encountered it in your life, whether it’s the security ID card you use to swipe your way into your office, your “wave and pay” credit card, the key to your hotel room, your subway pass, or the little box you use to pay for highway tolls, such as E-ZPass. Though the convenience of RFID, considered by many the gateway to the Internet of Things, sounds great, there’s one problem: it’s eminently hackable. There have been dozens of exploits against RFID technology, whose electronics can be readily hacked, spoofed, and jammed, and there is an active “RFID underground” continually working on improving its offensive techniques. The overwhelming majority of today’s RFID tags have no effective security, encryption, or privacy protocols in place. These shortcomings have allowed the security hacker Francis Brown to build his own RFID readers for under $400 that can scan, copy, clone, and steal data from your smart cards. As a result, while you’re standing in line at the grocery store, sitting in a crowded subway car, riding the elevator up to your office, or waiting for your morning latte at Starbucks, Brown can conduct a “brush pass” attack.

As he stands there smiling and perhaps even chatting with you, the concealed portable RFID reader in his backpack can query the office key card you have in your wallet, pocket, or purse and abscond with all the details encoded in it. So what? Here’s why it matters. Brown can then plug his RFID reader into his computer at home and use it to clone RFID cards all day long. That means he can get into your office, hotel room, or home anytime he likes. Every Fortune 500 company in America uses RFID in its employees’ badges to control access to its office buildings, and Brown has a 100 percent success rate in cloning the cards. The implications of this for everything from industrial espionage to common burglary to employee safety are enormous. Relying on insecure RFID identity cards as the primary system we use for security and identity in the workplace means the current system is completely broken.

Krco, Initial Report on IoT Applications of Strategic Interest, Internet of Things Initiative, Oct. 8, 2011, 48. 24 There have been dozens: Annalee Newitz, “The RFID Hacking Underground,” Wired, May 2006. 25 These shortcomings have allowed: Francis Brown and Bishop Fox, “RFID Hacking” (paper presented at Black Hat USA, Las Vegas, Nev., Aug. 1, 2013). 26 Every Fortune 500 company: “Hackers Could Clone Your Office Key Card … from Your Pocket,” NBC News, July 25, 2013. 27 Seconds later: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker’s Demo Shows How Easily Credit Cards Can Be Read Through Clothes and Wallets,” Forbes, Jan. 30, 2012. 28 RFID chips can also be infected: Nate Anderson, “RFID Chips Can Carry Viruses,” Ars Technica, March 15, 2006. 29 Another popular: Juniper Research, “1 in 5 Smartphones will have NFC by 2014, Spurred by Recent Breakthroughs: New Juniper Research Report,” April 14, 2011. 30 But like RFID: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Demos Android App That Can Wirelessly Steal and Use Credit Cards’ Data,” Forbes, July 27, 2012. 31 Google Wallet has also been hacked: Lance Whitney, “Latest Google Wallet Hack Picks Your Pocket,” CNET, Feb. 10, 2012; Evan Applegate, “Have Fingers, 30 Seconds?


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Given that the percentage of Muslims in the world’s population is expected to grow from 19% in 2000 to 30% in 2025, I’d expect this sector of investment to grow too. Chapter 5 Money and Financial Services: everyone is a bank Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future. —Niels Bohr J on Merriman is the CEO of an investment bank and is one of 50 people in the US with a radio frequency ID (RFID) tag inserted in his arm. Mr Merriman’s firm is an adviser to VeriChip, a maker of ID implants for pets and RFID-enabled medical bracelets. If Mr Merriman (“Chip” to his friends?) is ever involved in a serious accident, doctors are just a scan away from all the necessary data. The chip contains everything from bank account and social security records to medical information. I’m quite tempted to follow suit myself. According to the research company ACNielsen, by the year 2020 only 10% of financial transactions will be in cash.

“Precision agriculture” is an idea whereby farmland is monitored 182 FUTURE FILES and controlled meter by meter, with seeds sown at exactly the correct time and fertilizers and pesticides applied almost on a plantby-plant basis. Similar techniques exist for cattle, allowing individual herds to be monitored and controlled by satellite and the history of an individual animal to be tracked from paddock to plate. RFID chips are one way to do this, but an even better way is to test for DNA. However, in the future the dining tables will be turned. At present RFID chips are a logistical tool used by supermarkets and their suppliers. In the future customers will tap into these chips to monitor where their food is from and how it was produced. There is already a DNA test available called FoodExpert ID that can check for the presence of 32 common animals (including humans) in foodstuffs.

Others, like me, will guard their privacy jealously using cash — while it’s still available — or fake loyalty cards to dupe the system and remain “off network”. Shops are already intelligent and they are getting more so. In the future, a store might greet you by name and direct you to a loyalty queue for a speedy checkout. Or you may not even have to check out: an RFID reader will scan your shopping bags as you walk out of the store and the bill will be sent automatically to your creditcard company or bank. The Prada store in New York already shows footage of models wearing certain outfits if you hold the clothes up to a nearby screen. RFID technologies will scan your body from all angles and produce 206 FUTURE FILES a 360-degree 3D model to help you find clothes that fit you precisely. Entering the data into a terminal will also instantly tell you whether certain items are in stock, or perhaps inform you of where products were made and under what conditions.


pages: 116 words: 32,712

Making a Killing: The Deadly Implications of the Counterfeit Drug Trade by Roger Bate

global supply chain, interchangeable parts, RFID, Sam Peltzman, supply-chain management

Radio frequency identification appears especially promising. An RFID tag, applied to a shipment of pharmaceuticals, can be read from several feet away using radio waves. In the United States, RFID may prove especially helpful in speeding the passage of drugs through customs, where thousands of drug packages become backlogged every year. Such backlogs can create perverse incentives for customs officials to push shipments through, even if they suspect they may be counterfeit. They have also enabled “return to sender” policies, in which suspected counterfeit shipments are merely returned to the wholesaler, which 68 MAKING A KILLING can then redistribute them back through the system.29 Several private pharmaceutical companies have experimented with RFID in their supply chains, but they are keeping tight-lipped about its relative cost-effectiveness.30 More research must be conducted to determine the best-suited and most cost-effective technologies for tracking drug shipments.

Margaret Kyle, “Strategic Responses to Parallel Trade,” Working Paper 12968 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2007), www.nber.org/papers/w12968. 25. Pharmaceutical Market Access and Drug Safety Act of 2007, S.242, 110th Cong., 1st session. 26. Bert Moore, “RFID, Bar Codes and Pharmaceutical Authenticity,” AIM Global, June 7, 2007. 27. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Counterfeit Drug Task Force Report: 2006 Update,” www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/counterfeit/report6_ 06.html (accessed March 17, 2008). 28. Moore, “RFID, Bar Codes and Pharmaceutical Authenticity.” 29. Representative Steve Buyer, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health, hearing on HR 3610 (Food and Drug Safety Import Act), 110th Cong., 1st session, 2007, http://energycommerce. house.gov/cmte_mtgs/110-he-hrg.092607.Food.Drug.Import.shtml (accessed March 17, 2008).

The GPHF sells its minilabs at relatively low prices (averaging $6,000) to health providers around the world,99 but especially in Africa and Southeast Asia. As of July 2007, it had sold over 240 minilabs in sixty-five countries.100 Pharmaceutical Companies. Individual pharmaceutical firms have also taken steps to resist counterfeit drugs. Many have begun to implement track-and-trace technology on their drugs to provide an effective “e-pedigree” to distributors and consumers. Some have experimented with using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to check the e-pedigrees of drug shipments, although, in the United States, this is not yet required by the FDA.101 To help secure the complex, vulnerable global supply chain, many drug companies have implemented their own security measures. Pfizer announced in December 2003 that all distributors in the United States selling its products would have to purchase them directly from the company or from selected wholesalers.102 In September 2006, Pfizer announced that it would cease selling drugs to eighteen wholesalers in the United Kingdom and instead distribute drugs there only through UniChem.103 These moves are attempts to cut down the size of the secondary wholesale market, which includes sales among wholesalers.104 Other pharmaceutical firms will need to secure their own supply chains and alert the public when they become aware of counterfeit drugs.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Barcodes require line of sight for laser readers, must be read one at a time, and the information they encode cannot be changed dynamically. In the 1980s, researchers started looking at radio frequency identity (RFID) tags as electronic successors to the barcode. RFID tags store, send, and receive information through weak radio signals. Active tags contain tiny batteries and send signals up to more than one hundred feet, depending on power and radio frequency. Because of the batteries, active tags are the more expensive kind and are used today for tracking cattle, merchandise in stores (those bulky plastic anti-theft devices contain small RFID tags, and the gates near store exits are tag readers), and in automatic toll systems for automobiles. It isn’t feasible to put expensive RFID tags on the wide variety of objects that barcodes track. The less expensive passive tag contains a tiny coil of printed conductive ink.

A range of services like news, help wanted listings, discussions, reports of damage or crime, and goods and services for barter or sale could be provided to people while they are present in the space. Entertainment applications, including games, are easy to imagine. Perhaps the most intrusive near-term application of RFID tags would be “smart money” that could record where it came from, who has owned it, and what it has bought. In December 2001, the European Central Bank was reported to be working on embedding RFID tags in currency by 2005.45 Although prevention of counterfeiting is the bank’s overt motivation, the same technology could afford surveillance of individual behaviors at a scale never before imagined. American civil libertarians assert that sentient currency would violate the U.S. constitutional prohibition against unlawful search and seizure.46 In July 2001, Hitachi announced that its mu-chip, a square with sides no larger than four-tenths of a millimeter, with a radio transmitter and 128 bits of read-only memory—small enough to embed in paper money without being damaged by folding—will go on the market at around 20 yen each, or approximately 15 cents.47 After computers disappear into the walls, they might start floating in the air.

“Organic Transistors and the Death of the Bar Code,” Berkeley Engineering Lab Notes 2 (FebruaryMarch 2002), <http://www.coe.berkeley.edu/labnotes/0202/barcode.html > (29 March 2002). 44. Auto-ID Center, <http://www.autoidcenter.org/main.asp> (29 March 2002). 45. Junko Yoshida, “Euro Bank Notes to Embed RFID Chips by 2005,” EE Times, 19 December 2001, <http://www.eet.com/story/OEG20011219S0016> (29 January 2002). 46. Wes Vernon, “Latest Privacy Nightmare: Money That Tracks You,” News- Max.com, 28 July 2001, < http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/7/27/212324.shtml > (3 February 2002). 47. Will Knight, “Tiny Radio Chip Gives Paper an ID,” New Scientist, 4 July 2001, <http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns9999967> (3 February 2002); “Hitachi Announces World’s Smallest RFID IC, the mu-chip,” 5 July 2001, <http://www.hitachi.com/products/electronic/semiconductorcomponent/elecrfid/ >(5 February 2002). 48. Kris Pister, Joe Kahn, and Bernhard Boser, “Smart Dust: Autonomous Sensing and Communication in a Cubic Millimeter,” Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, <http://www-bsac.EECS.Berkeley.EDU/~pister/SmartDust/> (2 February 2002). 49.


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Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

We can see the opportunity this change offers today, thanks to Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) will provide the internet of things with the ability to transact. When we talk about chips inside everything, so that they can wirelessly communicate, those chips in everything will be RFID chips today. RFID can only hold a small amount of intelligence right now, so it needs something to receive the RFID information and that is NFC. Hence, NFC will become the reader mechanism in phones and other devices for RFID in the internet of things. Today, you buy things by taking them to the teller; tomorrow, if you want to buy something, you just read the QR code or hold your phone over its RFID tag. In addition, in the near future, the internet of things will be driven by the mobile internet of things, where everything is geo-located and identified by the network.

Save more than 10% of your earnings per month and we will give you a “Saver King” or “Saver Queen” badge to share with all your friends on Facebook. In fact, the Digital Bank will be the Augmented Bank as it will recognise that anything can transact with anything person-to-person, person-to-machine or even machine-to-machine. Transactions become embedded in everything from underpants to escalators through the placement of RFID chips inside everything. This means that everything will be intelligently and wirelessly communicating with everything through what is now called the internet of things. The internet of things delivers a new wireless augmented world of digital reality where, in the very near future, fifty billion devices will be communicating with each other. The internet of things The internet of things is where internet communication – both wired and wireless – are placed into everyday objects from cars to refrigerators, keys to key rings, jewellery to watches and more.

That service might be offering car loans as you drive by the showroom of the BMW dealership you happened to be Googling last night or mortgages as you drive towards the real estate office of the broker you found. Now that’s all well and good, but it goes further than this as prediction marketing can now be embedded into the internet of things. For example, a few years ago the Metro store in Germany built a prototype of the grocery outlet of a few years ahead using NFC and RFID technologies. The concept store included the idea of dynamic pricing as you walk through the aisles, based upon your loyalty, shopping habits and more. Your smartphone would emanate your preferences and change prices dynamically for you based upon sensing your presence through the mobile network and your smartphone. As the internet of things means that everything has intel inside, intellisense becomes the competitive battleground using predictive, proactive marketing and deep data analysis of the holistic customer relationship for each and every individual customer.


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Getting Started with RStudio by John Verzani

Debian, RFID, web application

However, the data set needs to be cleaned up, as there are some repeated observations. We do this on a per-rat basis. R has several ways to implement the split-apply-combine idiom, as it is one of the most useful patterns for R users. The plyr package is widely used, but for this task we use functions from base R. The split function can be used to divide the data by the grouping variable RFID, returning a list whose components are the records for the individual mole rats: > l <- split(x, x$RFID) The list, l, has a different component for each mole rat. We can check to see if any two rows for a mole rat are identical, using R’s convenient duplicated method. In addition, we add a bit of time to to each time value, so that times recorded with the same second are distinguished. R has several different means to apply a function to pieces of an object.

The point of the exercise is to show how many of RStudio’s features can be used during the process to speed the task along. We will postpone for now an example of the “development” aspect of RStudio. The data set we look at here comes from a colleague, and contains records from a psychology experiment on a colony of naked mole rats. The experimenter is interested in both the behavior of each naked mole rat in time and the social aspect of the colony as a whole. Each rat wears an RFID chip that allows the researcher to track its motion. The experiment consists of 15 chambers (bubbles) in a linear arrangement separated by 14 tubes. Each tube has a gate with a sensor. When a mole rat passes through the tube, the time and gate are recorded. Unfortunately, gates can be missed, and the recording device can erroneously replicate values, so the raw data must be cleaned up. This data comes to us in rich-text format (rtf).

Reading in a Data File Clicking on the data file name in the file browser opens up a system text editor (Figure 2-2), allowing us to edit the file. For many text-based files, the file will open in RStudio’s source-code editor. However, the actual editor employed depends on the extension and MIME type of the file. For rtf files, the underlying operating system’s editor is used, which for Mac OS X is textedit. We can see that the data appears to have one line per record, with the values separated by semicolons. The fields are RFID, date, time, and gate number. This is basically comma-separated-value (CSV) data with a nonstandard separator. Figure 2-2. The rtf file is opened in an editor provided by the system, not by RStudio However, although we rarely see rtf files, we know the textedit program will likely render them using the markup for formatting, so perhaps there are some markup commands that needs to be removed.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Weapons and small arms routinely disappear after conflicts and find their way onto the black market (an estimated $1 billion annual business), later appearing in the hands of militias, gangs and armies in other countries. Radio frequency identification (RFID) chips could represent a solution to this challenge. RFID chips or tags contain electronically stored information and can be as small as a grain of rice. They are ever present today, in everything from our phones and passports to the products we buy. (They’re even in our pets: RFID chips embedded under the skin or on an ear are used to help identify lost animals.) If major states signed treaties that required weapons manufacturers to implant unremovable RFID chips in all of their products, it would make the hunt for arms caches and the interdiction of arms shipments much easier. Given that today’s RFID chips can be easily fried in a microwave, the chips of the future will need a shield that protects them against tampering.

Given that today’s RFID chips can be easily fried in a microwave, the chips of the future will need a shield that protects them against tampering. (We assume there will be a technological cat-and-mouse game between governments who want to track the weapons with RFID chips and arms traffickers who want to deal the weapons off the grid.) When weapons with RFID chips were recovered, it would be possible to trace where they’d been if the chips themselves were designed to store location data. This wouldn’t stop the trafficking of arms but it would put pressure on the larger actors in the arms trade. States that donate weapons to rebel movements often want to know what happens to those arms. With RFID chips, such investments could be tracked. The Libyan revolutionaries were an unknown quantity to almost everyone, so in the absence of any tracking capability, governments that distributed arms to them had to weigh the benefit of a successful revolution with the possible consequences of those weapons going underground.

Electronically traceable arms distribution will have to overcome hurdles. It will cost money to design weapons that include the RFID; arms manufacturers profit from a large illicit market for their products; and states and arms dealers alike rather enjoy the anonymity of weapons distribution today. It’s hard to imagine any superpower willingly sacrificing its ability to have plausible deniability regarding arms caches or covertly supplied arms for some long-term greater good. Moreover, states might claim that falsely planting another country’s weapons in a conflict zone would point to their involvement and lead to even more conflict. But international pressure might make a difference. Luckily, there are myriad other ways the RFID technology can be used in the short term in reconstruction efforts. RFID tags can be used to track aid deliveries and other essential supplies, to verify pharmaceuticals and other products as legitimate, and to generally limit waste or graft in large contracting projects.


pages: 389 words: 87,758

No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar

Free Mobile signed up more than 2.6 million new subscribers in less than three months in 2012 and captured 13 percent market share in one year with no above-the-line budget.57 Luxury retailer Burberry is synonymous with best-in-class multichannel customer experience; its flagship store at 121 Regent Street in London boasts the world’s tallest retail screen, real-life digital feeds, and RFID chips that are sewn into Burberry products. These tiny chips trigger bespoke content in front of RFID-enabled mirrors.58 Nordstrom, the luxury department store, first exploited the marginal cost advantages of digital for internal purposes, to develop shipping and inventory-management facilities. The company then turned its digital investments outward, building a strong e-commerce site, mobile-shopping apps, kiosks, and capabilities for managing customer relationships across channels.

See Research and development Real estate industry, 68, 133, 141, 198 Recession recovery cycles, 149–151 Recycling, 123–125, 196 Reliance Communications, 144 Renault, 124 Renewable energy, 36, 122, 126–127, 199 Repurposed services, 27–28 Research and development (R&D) automotive manufacturing technology, 141–142 facility locations for, 27–28 globalized digital platforms for, 85–86 in oil extraction recovery, 125–126 Resource management, 111–129 adaptation to, 9–10, 120–128 circular economy approach to, 123–125 demand increase and, 114–116, 117 (table) energy efficiency for, 122, 123, 125–127 environmental conservation and, 119–120, 122 globalization and, 118–119 government regulation of, 195–196 intuition reset for, 9–10 overview, 9–10, 112 policy, 190, 195–196, 199 productivity improvement in, 120, 121 (table), 122–123, 141 public-private partnerships for, 198–199 supply challenges and, 116, 117 (table), 118 technological acceleration and, 9, 36, 113–114 volatility resilience design for, 127–128 Retailing industry aging population adaptation of, 69–70 digitization influence on, 39, 46 (fig.) new consumer adaptation of, 105–106 peer-to-peer services in, 85, 158, 160 reuse and recycling in, 124–125 RFID tags in, 48 See also E-commerce Retirement, 62–64, 65, 183, 194–195 Reuse programs, 123–125 RFID. See Radio-frequency identification technology Ricoh, 124 Robotics adoption acceleration and, 42 for aging population, 53–54 automotive manufacturing, 53, 83 current advances in, 36–37 evolution of, 35 (fig.) in Japan, 53–54 Rocket Internet, 79 Russia, 81 (table) Saga, 70 San Francisco, California, 27, 29, 30 See also Silicon Valley Sarkozy, Nicolas, 197 Saudi Arabia, 56, 81 (table), 113 (table), 143 Savings rates, 137–138, 139 Scentsa, 52 Schröder, Gerhard, 181–182 Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), 155, 156, 158, 159 (table) The Second Machine Age (Brynjolfsson and McAfee), 6 Seniors.

Items such as shoes, jewelry, and tools may in the future be sold with the transfer of an electronic file, allowing the buyer to print the object on demand or at the point of consumption. Second, digitization enhances the information content of many of our routine transactions, enriching them and making them more valuable and productive. Examples include the digital tracking of physical shipments with the use of RFID tags and the use of 2-D barcodes to convey information to consumers. Third, digitization is creating online platforms that facilitate production and transaction and allow minnows to compete head-to-head with sharks. Online exchanges and platforms like eBay and Alibaba, two of the linchpins of global e-commerce, allow even the smallest companies and individuals to become micro-multinationals. More than 90 percent of eBay commercial sellers export to other countries, compared with an average of less than 25 percent of traditional small businesses.28 12 The Disruptive Dozen Twelve technologies have massive potential for disruption in the coming decade CHANGING THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF EVERYTHING 1.Next-generation genomics Fast, low-cost gene sequencing, advanced big data analytics, and synthetic biology (“writing” DNA) 2.Advanced materials Materials designed to have superior characteristics (e.g., strength, weight, conductivity) or functionality RETHINKING ENERGY COMES OF AGE 3.Energy storage Devices or systems that store energy for later use, including batteries 4.Advanced oil and gas exploration and recovery Exploration and recovery techniques that make extraction of unconventional oil and gas economical 5.Renewable energy Generation of electricity from renewable sources with reduced harmful climate impact MACHINES WORKING FOR US 6.Advanced robotics Increasingly capable robots with enhanced senses, dexterity, and intelligence used to automate tasks or augment humans 7.Autonomous and near-autonomous vehicles Vehicles that can navigate and operate with reduced or no human intervention 8.3-D printing Additive manufacturing techniques to create objects by printing layers of material based on digital models IT AND HOW WE USE IT 9.Mobile Internet Increasingly inexpensive and capable mobile computing devices and Internet connectivity 10.Internet of things Networks of low-cost sensors and actuators for data collection, monitoring, decision making, and process optimization 11.Cloud technology Use of computer hardware and software resources delivered over a network or the Internet, often as a service 12.Automation of knowledge work Intelligent software systems that can perform knowledge work tasks involving unstructured commands and subtle judgments The data avalanche is set to become more powerful only because of a movement toward “open data,” in which data are freely shared beyond their originating organizations—including governments and businesses—in a machine-readable format at low cost.


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Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

In 2009, Robinson pleaded guilty to unlawfully: Ibid. radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips: “FAQ on RFID and RFID Privacy,” RSA Laboratories, accessed September 8, 2013, http://www.emc.com/emc-plus/rsa-labs/research-areas/faq-on-rfid-and-rfid-privacy.htm#4. in passports: “The U.S. Electronic Passport Frequently Asked Questions,” Travel.State.Gov, A Service of the Bureau of Consular Affairs, accessed July 21, 2013, http://travel.state.gov/passport/passport_2788.html. In 2013, a federal judge in Texas: Steve Hernandez v. Northside Independent School District, SA-12-Ca-1113-OG (W.D. Tex. 2013), https://www.rutherford.org/files_images/general/01-08-2013_Hernandez_Ruling.pdf. California to outlaw: Mandalit Del Barco, “California Law Outlaws RFID Implant Mandate,” National Public Radio, January 1, 2008, http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?

In 2009, Robinson pleaded guilty to unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer, and he was sentenced to three years’ probation. And the day is not far off when real-time tracking will become routine. The United States already embeds radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips that can transmit data over a short range of about ten feet in passports, and schools and employers are starting to embed the chips in ID cards. In 2013, a federal judge in Texas denied a student’s challenge to her school’s requirement that she wear an RFID-enabled ID card. Some employers have even flirted with the idea of implanting the chips under their employees’ skin, which prompted California to outlaw the practice in 2008. Cell phone tracking has already become routine for police departments. In 2011, my colleague at the Wall Street Journal Scott Thurm and I submitted open records requests to the twenty largest state and local police departments in the United States.

When it comes to government surveillance: A good analysis of government dragnets comes from Christopher Slobogin: Christopher Slobogin, “Government Dragnets” (Vanderbilt Public Law research paper number 10–37, July 14, 2010), http://ssrn.com/abstract=1640108. We rejected airport body scanners: Mike M. Ahlers, “TSA Removing ‘Virtual Strip Search’ Body Scanners,” CNN.com, January 19, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/01/18/travel/tsa-body-scanners/index.html. We do not embed tracking microchips: “California Bans Forced RFID Tagging of Humans,” Government Technology, October 17, 2007, http://www.govtech.com/security/California-Bans-Forced-RFID-Tagging-of.html?topic=117688. In 2013, Judge Shira Scheindlin: David Floyd, Lalit Clarkson, Deon Dennis, and David Ourlicht v. the City of New York, 08 Civ. 1034 (SAS) (S.D. N.Y. 2013), http://www.nyclu.org/files/releases/Floyd%20opinion.pdf. In 1944, the Supreme Court ruled: Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/323/214/case.html.


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Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

gait recognition systems: Zhaoxiang Zhang, Maodi Hu, and Yunhong Wang (2011), “A survey of advances in biometric gait recognition,” Biometric Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7098, Springer-Verlag, http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-25449-9_19. contactless RFID chip cards: Katherine Albrecht (2008), “RFID tag: You’re it,” Scientific American (Sep 2008): 72–77, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-rfid-tags-could-be-used. University of Washington College of Engineering (22 Feb 2008), “University launches RFID people tracking experiment,” RFID Journal, http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?6924. Christopher Zara (8 Jan 2013), “Disney World’s RFID tracking bracelets are a slippery slope, warns privacy advocate,” International Business Times, http://www.ibtimes.com/disney-worlds-rfid-tracking-bracelets-are-slippery-slope-warns-privacy-advocate-1001790. Many retail stores are surreptitiously tracking: Quentin Hardy (7 Mar 2013), “Technology turns to tracking people offline,” New York Times, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/07/technology-turns-to-tracking-people-offline.

German consumers opposing: IBM Corporation (16 Dec 2004), “METRO Group’s Future Store takes German public by storm—thanks to wireless technology,” ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/software/solutions/pdfs/10704035_Metro_cs_1b.pdf. Kim Zetter (28 Feb 2004), “Germans protest radio-ID plans,” Wired, http://archive.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2004/02/62472. Jan Libbenga (1 Mar 2004), “German revolt against RFID,” Register, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/03/01/german_revolt_against_rfid. Facebook users objecting: K. C. Jones (17 Feb 2009), “Facebook’s terms of use draw protest,” Information Week, http://www.informationweek.com/software/social/facebooks-terms-of-use-draw-protest/d/d-id/1076697. Bobbie Johnson and Afua Hirsch (18 Feb 2009), “Facebook backtracks after online privacy protest,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2009/feb/19/facebook-personal-data.

Face recognition is the easiest way to identify people on camera, and the technology is getting better every year. In 2014, face recognition algorithms started outperforming people. There are other image identification technologies in development: iris scanners that work at a distance, gait recognition systems, and so on. There’s more hidden surveillance going on in the streets. Those contactless RFID chip cards in your wallet can be used to track people. Many retail stores are surreptitiously tracking people by the MAC addresses and Bluetooth IDs—which are basically identification numbers—broadcast by their smartphones. The goal is to record which aisles they walk down, which products they stop to look at, and so on. People can be tracked at public events by means of both these approaches. In 2014, a senior executive from the Ford Motor Company told an audience at the Consumer Electronics Show, “We know everyone who breaks the law, we know when you’re doing it.


pages: 268 words: 109,447

The Cultural Logic of Computation by David Golumbia

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, American ideology, Benoit Mandelbrot, borderless world, business process, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, future of work, Google Earth, Howard Zinn, IBM and the Holocaust, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

In recent years Wal-Mart has been at the forefront not just of ERP and supply-chain management software, but of a relatively new technology, Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) and the associated Electronic Product Code (EPC) system. Like the intensively computational bar codes before it, RFID identifies products via alphanumeric tagging. Where bar codes identify items by the class to which they belong (or what philosophers would call type identification)—every box of shredded wheat, for example, has the same bar code printed on it, allowing cashiers to retrieve the price for the item from a central computer—RFID specifies tokens of items. Each cereal box now includes a unique RFID chip, allowing the central authority to track precisely when and where it is processed, delivered, and sold. Of course there are manifest benefits to such a system; the benefits are not at issue in the present discussion and RFID would not even be considered if it did not offer benefits to both Wal-Mart and its customers.

Of course there are manifest benefits to such a system; the benefits are not at issue in the present discussion and RFID would not even be considered if it did not offer benefits to both Wal-Mart and its customers. Like similar technologies in the past, RFID and EPC have raised a certain amount of consumer and democratic concern, such that Wal-Mart in particular has been compelled in the name of public relations to contribute to a global effort called EPCGlobal (http://www.epcglobalna.org/) whose job is to promote public awareness of the uses of RFID and EPC and their benefits for consumers. Rather than demonstrating democratic control over this technology, though, the existence of EPCGlobal points more generally to the obvious privacy and surveillance issues raised by technologies like RFID that suggest the provision of worldwide, pinpoint surveillance to centralized authorities. The ethical standards promulgated by EPCGlobal are themselves far less worrying than are the inevitable more secretive applications of similar technologies that are sure to follow on the heels of RFID.

The ethical standards promulgated by EPCGlobal are themselves far less worrying than are the inevitable more secretive applications of similar technologies that are sure to follow on the heels of RFID. Such technologies radically reformulate critical tenets on which concepts like personal privacy and private space, let alone public space, are themselves constituted in a democratic society, and while their explicit use by law enforcement and the government may at least at times be raised for policy dis- Computationalism, Striation, and Cultural Authority p 177 cussion by lawmakers (though perhaps less often than some might wish), their widespread proliferation by multinational corporations is far less subject to democratic investigation and control, and at the same time perhaps more pervasive and constitutive of the contemporary lifeworld than are the surveillance technologies used by government.


pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

There are several technologies that can be employed for this process—active and passive microwave, infrared, and active and passive radio-frequency identification (RFID). Microwave-based systems are common in Europe and Japan, whereas RFID-based systems are popular in the US. Based on the technical merits and costs of different technologies, the committee chose passive RFID as the best solution for India. In this system, the vehicle owner needs to purchase a radio tag and stick it prominently on the windscreen. The tag has an antenna and a circuit printed on the inside; they are activated by the overhead reader, or transceiver, installed in the toll plaza. Such systems are now commonplace and the cost is minimal. In the passive RFID set-up, the main source of energy is the overhead reader, not the sticker. In practical terms, this means that the vehicle owner does not have to bother with changing batteries or ensuring that the tag on his car is charged.

For any system that is likely to be deployed nationwide, the technology component must be robust, tried and tested in the real world, and affordable. Ideally, it should be available from multiple vendors so that the government is not forced into a lock-in with a single vendor. For the RFID-enabled toll collection system, there need to be multiple vendors of tags and transceivers, all developed to a common specification laid down by the government. Once the specifications are met, any tag should be capable of being read by any transceiver and vice versa, irrespective of the vendor. The passive RFID technology satisfies all these criteria, and hence was recommended by the committee as the technology platform on which to build an electronic toll collection system. Zooming out: Electronic toll collection Once you have set in place the method to identify vehicles, you need to design a standardized process for collecting toll.

Even more importantly, automating the tax computation process would eliminate incentives for corruption, resulting in a significant increase in revenues and a gradual improvement in road safety standards as well. Ravi Palekar explains to us, ‘If you integrate the RFID and taxation systems together, every time you read a tag at a check post, you can get the vehicle’s entire history—its origin, destination, what goods it’s carrying, whether the operators have paid tax or not—in a format that’s easily available to the state.’ A separate steering committee is working on integrating the radio tag into the state border check-post system, and he says, ‘A team will shortly be visiting Ahmedabad to consult with the Gujarat government about taking the RFID-border check-post linkage forward.’ Once the government develops ‘electronic toll as a platform’, not only will various government applications that we discussed above be possible, but also, start-ups will come up with all sorts of innovative ideas once they have a method to identify a vehicle and the ability to debit and credit its wallet in the cloud.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Upon entering the building, conventioneers pick up their ID badges, embedded with a “u-chip” (for “ubiquitous” computing), a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag that functions as a wireless bar code. To enter the exhibition hall, one swipes the card across a reader mounted atop each turnstile, much like entering a subway station. It’s a familiar move for Korean city dwellers. For over a decade, they have used local tech giant LG’s rechargeable T-money cards not just to board buses and subways, but to pay for taxis and convenience-store purchases as well. From the earliest planning stages, the nation’s economic planners intended Songdo to be a test bed for RFID and a center for research and development in this crucial ubiquitous computing technology. In 2005 the government announced a $300 million, 20-acre RFID-focused industrial park in Songdo.12 Inside Convensia, your interactions with computers seem far from ubiquitous, broken up into a fragmented series of gestures and glances—swiping your RFID card to enter a room or pressing a button to request that an elevator be dispatched to your location.

In 2005 the government announced a $300 million, 20-acre RFID-focused industrial park in Songdo.12 Inside Convensia, your interactions with computers seem far from ubiquitous, broken up into a fragmented series of gestures and glances—swiping your RFID card to enter a room or pressing a button to request that an elevator be dispatched to your location. As they move through the complex, visitors locate meeting rooms by reading digital displays mounted beside entryways, which draw down the latest events schedule from a central master calendar. Other smart technologies inhabit Convensia’s unseen innards—controls for climate systems, lighting, safety and security systems are there, yet invisible to the average person. Step outside, however, and the street springs to life as a less patient, more proactive set of automated technologies takes over. Songdo is the world’s largest experiment in urban automation, with millions of sensors deployed in its roads, electrical grids, water and waste systems to precisely track, respond to, and even predict the flow of people and material.

Songdo is the world’s largest experiment in urban automation, with millions of sensors deployed in its roads, electrical grids, water and waste systems to precisely track, respond to, and even predict the flow of people and material. According to CEO John Chambers of Cisco Systems, which committed $47 million in 2009 to build out the city’s digital nervous system, it is a place that will “run on information.” 13 Plans call for cameras that detect the presence of pedestrians at night in order to save energy safely by automatically extinguishing street lighting on empty blocks. Passing automobiles with RFID-equipped license plates will be scanned, just the way conventioneers are at Convensia’s main gate, to create a real-time map of vehicle movements and, over time, the ability to predict future traffic patterns based on the trove of past measurements.14 A smart electricity grid will communicate with home appliances, perhaps anticipating the evening drawdown of juice as tens of thousands of programmable rice cookers count down to dinnertime.


Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

Some pointed out that sensors on meters and streets that monitored usage patterns could already be found in some European cities, but this is where the ubiquitous nature of U-Life was driven home. This was technology so deeply embedded in a resident’s environment as to be literally everywhere. As early as 2005, the press had been invited to marvel at Songdo’s services. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology on cars that transmitted geo-location information or home-automation options that could open a front door or select music by way of a smartphone were touted as natural outgrowths of South Korea’s vibrant technological awareness. Many of Songdo’s features (such as RFID cards) had been prototyped by LG CNS in Seoul and other cities; from this perspective, Songdo was the next evolutionary step for a nation on the front line of IT innovation. But while U-Life was South Korean in origin, Cisco had a stake in making it successful.

This, like so many of the projections, was overly optimistic, and it also missed the value of accomplishments that would be more difficult to evaluate in terms of revenue. The components of smart city building are staggering in number. Residential and commercial buildings need to be outfitted with “smart” lighting, power, elevators, and security features. The sea and airports require Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) inventory systems, automated transport, and ruggedized connections. Reliable wireless connectivity is a given and must be available everywhere. Above the infrastructure, communications must be state of the art at inception but open to the upgrades and changes typical of technology subject to constant development. Not only must this infrastructure function, it must generate revenue and be cost-effective as well.

Plus, the city was literally green: 40 percent of the IBD was open space, and its Central Park, located almost dead center of the district, may not have been the busy travel hub that defines an aerotropolis, but to Seoul residents, it was a welcome respite from relentless urban sprawl. Additionally, 40 percent of rooftops would become green space. In all, 75 percent of Songdo’s waste was to be recycled in some shape or form—it was a city that put pedestrians and cyclists before drivers and electric and high-occupancy cars in better parking spaces than standard gas-powered transport. RFID technology could read license plates and detect traffic clusters before they became traffic jams. At its best, Songdo would anticipate the behavior and preferences of residents and visitors alike, staying a step or two ahead of the action and keeping everything clean and under control. At last, a city could serve its masters efficiently. As smart and efficient as these plans were, their promise would be locked down until some primary questions were answered.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

“Cryptographic Puzzles and Distance-bounding Protocols: Practical Tools for RFID Security” Pedro Peris-Lopez, Julio Hernandez-Castro, Juan Tapiador, Esther Palomar and Jan van der Lubbe, IEEE Communications Letters, Vol.14, No.2, (April 2010), p.121. “Design of a Secure Distance-Bounding Channel for RFID”, Gerhard Hancke, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol.34, No.3 (May 2010), p.877. “Optimal Security Limits of RFID Distance Bounding Protocols” Orhun Kara, Süleyman Kardaş, Muhammed Bingöl and Gildas Avoine, Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDSec’10), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.6370, June 2010, p.220. “The Poulidor Distance-Bounding Protocol”, Rolando Rasua, Benjamin Martin and Gildas Avoine, Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDSec’10), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.6370, June 2010, p.239.

“MEED: A Memory-efficient Distance Bounding Protocol with Error Detection”, Wei Xin, Cong Tang, Hu Xiong, Yonggang Wang, Huiping Sun, Zhi Guan and Zhong Chen, Proceedings of the Asia Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDSec’11 Asia), April 2011, p.129. “Design of a Secure Distance-Bounding Channel for RFID”, Gerhard Hancke, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol.34, No.3 (May 2011), p.877. “A Novel RFID Distance Bounding Protocol Based on Physically Unclonable Functions”, Süleyman Kardaş, Mehmet Kiraz, Muhammed Bingöl, and Hüseyin Demirci, Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDSec’11), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.7055, June 2011, p.78. “A secure distance-based RFID identification protocol with an off-line backend database”, Pedro Peris-Lopez, Agustin Orfila, Esther Palomar and Julio Hernandez-Castro, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol.16, No.3 (March 2012), p.351.

It doesn’t even require specialised equipment but can be done with standard RFID-enabled cellphones [421]. Although there exist theoretical defences against this in the form of specialised distance-bounding protocols (discussed earlier in this section) designed for RFID use, in practice implementation issues and problems due to excessive false positives has left these protocols mostly as a lab curiosity. The same types of relay attacks are possible with RFID-enabled credit cards [422][423][420], access control systems [424], keyless car entry systems [425], and a number of other systems employing contactless interfaces that have been rushed out without considering the security implications of the change in interface type. It’s even possible to buy off-the-shelf relay-attack devices for some types of RFID transponders under various euphemisms like “signal boosters” and “range extenders”.


pages: 390 words: 109,870

Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett

Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism

Advocates of ‘open source’ technology, they publish and share all the results of their endeavours.10 Rich Lee—one of the organisers of Grindfest, and the Transhumanist Party’s bio-hacking adviser—estimates that there are around 3,000 grinders in the United States, and many more bio-hackers. Grinders usually meet on the Web forum www.biohack.me. But this weekend was the chance to meet fellow grinders in person and conduct experiments. Several plan to insert microchips and magnets into their body. One has designed a nineteenth-century duelling scar he’d like to run down the front of his face. Zoltan has decided to get a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip implant.11 An RFID chip is smaller than a grain of rice, and stores small amounts of information that can be recognised by other compatible devices if they are programmed to do so. As we park up and jump off the bus, Rich Lee welcomes us and takes us into the ‘lab’ where the experiments are taking place. But it isn’t really much of a lab; it’s just a large double garage of the house. There are sterilised needles, and a big workbench around which several grinders are huddled looking at small cultures of bacteria.

He’s inserted two dozen RFID chips this weekend alone. ‘I’m a little nervous now,’ says Zoltan, as David pulls out a large needle. ‘I told you I wasn’t. I lied.’ ‘I’ve done much worse,’ says David. But the implant is very simple. Zoltan grits his teeth, looks away, looks back at his hand, and we all jostle to get a better view. Jeremiah works the angles with his lens fixed on Zoltan’s worried face. ‘Here goes,’ says David, placing the needle between Zoltan’s thumb and index finger. He pushes the syringe all the way down, which injects the tiny chip under the skin. It’s over in thirty seconds.* ‘Are you feeling more than human now?’ I ask. ‘I feel like I’m about to wake up in the Matrix,’ laughs Zoltan, as he clenches and unclenches his fist. ‘That wasn’t too bad.’ There are millions of RFID chips in all sorts of daily devices already, such as fob keys and pets’ collars.

There are millions of RFID chips in all sorts of daily devices already, such as fob keys and pets’ collars. In 2015 the market in RFID chips was worth around $10 billion, and this is expected to almost double within ten years. But this RFID chip can’t do much because it’s not compatible with iPhones, which is what Zoltan has. So instead, his chip is programmed to say ‘Win 2016’ if someone else hovers their (Samsung) phone over it. Disappointment notwithstanding, he mentions his chip at every opportunity for the rest of the trip. He says he’ll get it upgraded in six months: ‘This is just the start.’ (When I checked back in six months later, he hadn’t upgraded but was still planning to.) In fact, he immediately declares he wants to have a cranium chip implanted, which could connect him to artificial intelligence, ‘so I’d be one of the first to communicate with the machines’.


Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques: Concepts and Techniques by Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei

bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation coefficient, cyber-physical system, database schema, discrete time, distributed generation, finite state, information retrieval, iterative process, knowledge worker, linked data, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Occam's razor, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, supply-chain management, text mining, thinkpad, Thomas Bayes, web application

(d) If you want to drive from A to B starting at a particular time, discuss how a system may use the data in this warehouse to work out a fast route. 4.11 Radio-frequency identification is commonly used to trace object movement and perform inventory control. An RFID reader can successfully read an RFID tag from a limited distance at any scheduled time. Suppose a company wants to design a data warehouse to facilitate the analysis of objects with RFID tags in an online analytical processing manner. The company registers huge amounts of RFID data in the format of (RFID, at_location, time), and also has some information about the objects carrying the RFID tag, for example, (RFID, product_name, product_category, producer, date_produced, price). (a) Design a data warehouse to facilitate effective registration and online analytical processing of such data. (b) The RFID data may contain lots of redundant information. Discuss a method that maximally reduces redundancy during data registration in the RFID data warehouse. (c) The RFID data may contain lots of noise such as missing registration and misread IDs.

(c) The RFID data may contain lots of noise such as missing registration and misread IDs. Discuss a method that effectively cleans up the noisy data in the RFID data warehouse. (d) You may want to perform online analytical processing to determine how many TV sets were shipped from the LA seaport to BestBuy in Champaign, IL, by month, brand, and price_range. Outline how this could be done efficiently if you were to store such RFID data in the warehouse. (e) If a customer returns a jug of milk and complains that is has spoiled before its expiration date, discuss how you can investigate such a case in the warehouse to find out what the problem is, either in shipping or in storage. 4.12 In many applications, new data sets are incrementally added to the existing large data sets. Thus, an important consideration is whether a measure can be computed efficiently in an incremental manner.

Section 5.3.2 explains how ranking cubes can be computed to answer top-k queries, such as “find the top 5 cars,” according to some user-specified criteria. The basic data cube structure has been further extended for various sophisticated data types and new applications. Here we list some examples, such as spatial data cubes for the design and implementation of geospatial data warehouses, and multimedia data cubes for the multidimensional analysis of multimedia data (those containing images and videos). RFID data cubes handle the compression and multidimensional analysis of RFID (i.e., radio-frequency identification) data. Text cubes and topic cubes were developed for the application of vector-space models and generative language models, respectively, in the analysis of multidimensional text databases (which contain both structure attributes and narrative text attributes). 5.3.1. Sampling Cubes: OLAP-Based Mining on Sampling Data When collecting data, we often collect only a subset of the data we would ideally like to gather.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Embedded in each bracelet is a radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip. RFID chips don’t need batteries, and there’s only one way to use them: call-and-response. Provide a little wireless electromagnetic power, and the chip chirps out a unique identifying code. Correlate the code with, say, a Facebook account, and you’re in business. A single chip can cost as little as $.07, and they’ll cost far less in the years to come. Suddenly it’s possible for businesses to track each individual object they make across the globe. Affix a chip to an individual car part, and you can watch as the part travels to the car factory, gets assembled into a car, and makes its way to the show floor and then someone’s garage. No more inventory shrinkage, no more having to recall whole models of products because of the errors of one factory. Conversely, RFID provides a framework by which a home could automatically inventory every object inside it—and track which objects are in which rooms.

Brockton Cops Have an App for That,” Brockton Patriot Ledger, June 15, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.patriotledger.com/news/cops_and_courts/x1602636300/Catching-criminals-Cops-have-an-app-for-that. 195 “other images of you with ninety-five percent accuracy”: Jerome Taylor, “Google Chief: My Fears for Generation Facebook,” Independent, Aug. 18, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/google-chief-my-fears-for-generation-facebook-2055390.html . 197 “The future is already here”: William Gibson, interview on NPR’s Fresh Air, Aug. 31, 1993, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1107153. 197 your identity already tagged: “RFID Bracelet Brings Facebook to the Real World,” Aug. 20, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.psfk.com/2010/08/rfid-bracelet-brings-facebook-to-the-real-world.html. 198 “real world that can be indexed”: Reihan Salam, “Why Amazon Will Win the Internet,” Forbes, July 30, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.forbes.com/2010/07/30/amazon-kindle-economy-environment-opinions-columnists-reihan-salam.html. 198 “some have termed ‘smart dust’ ”: David Wright, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald, Yves Punie, and Elena Vildjiounaite, Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence (Berlin/Dordrecht: Springer Science, 2008): abstract. 199 four-year joint effort: Google/Harvard press release.

Conversely, RFID provides a framework by which a home could automatically inventory every object inside it—and track which objects are in which rooms. With a powerful enough signal, RFID could be a permanent solution to the lost-keys problem—and bring us face-to-face with what Forbes writer Reihan Salam calls “the powerful promise of a real world that can be indexed and organized as cleanly and coherently as Google has indexed and organized the Web.” This phenomenon is called ambient intelligence. It’s based on a simple observation: The items you own, where you put them, and what you do with them is, after all, a great signal about what kind of person you are and what kind of preferences you have. “In the near future,” writes a team of ambient intelligence experts led by David Wright, “every manufactured product—our clothes, money, appliances, the paint on our walls, the carpets on our floors, our cars, everything—will be embedded with intelligence, networks of tiny sensors and actuators, which some have termed ‘smart dust.’”


The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Hitachi uses such sensors to monitor their complex, expensive heavy construction vehicles, and UPS do the same with their fleet of vans and trucks so that they can be serviced to run efficiently and before they break down (Plumridge 2012; Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 2013). By attaching an RFID to products it becomes possible to track and trace the movement of individual units from factory or farm to consumer, reducing theft and wastage. Likewise, toll tags contain RFID chips that communicate with transponders at toll-booth barriers, leading to quicker throughput of vehicles and automatic payment, as well as measuring vehicle flow or parking space availability for traffic management. RFID chips attached to buses and trains communicate with transponders along their routes making it possible to track the location of vehicles in real-time. By distributing many sensors and linking up the data produced by them, a dense sensor network can be created, enabling the monitoring of different conditions across a system or place.

The increase in the resolution of data has been accompanied by the identification of people, products, transactions and territories becoming more indexical in nature (see Chapter 5). For example, most items for sale in a supermarket presently have a barcode. This barcode identifies the product, but not the individual item – all bottles of the same brand and range of shampoo share the same barcode – meaning that they cannot be individually discriminated. In contrast, a bottle of shampoo tagged with a RFID chip is uniquely identifiable because each chip has a unique ID code which can be read at a distance by a radio transponder. Consequently, each bottle can be tracked from the place of manufacture through the supply chain into a store and a customer’s basket, creating a detailed audit trail. In other words, it has become possible to minutely trace the circulation of individual things across time and space, including those who handle each thing along its path.

., e-mail and phone conversations). As well as being more indexical, identification codes have also become increasingly machinereadable (Dodge and Kitchin 2005). For example, a barcode contains an identification code that when scanned by a laser reader is linked to an information system where additional metadata are held that describe the object (e.g. product type/model, date and place of manufacture, price, etc.). RFID chips can be sensed at a distance by a transponder and identified. Vehicles can be recognised by automatic number plate recognition software, and new algorithmic techniques have been developed to recognise and identify faces and gait (how people walk). Elements of the world have thus become open to being automatically captured and identified, massively expanding the amount and resolution of data generated with regard to a system, enabling new forms of regulation and governance (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a) and systems to function in more automated ways (Kitchin and Dodge 2011).


pages: 427 words: 112,549

Freedom by Daniel Suarez

augmented reality, big-box store, British Empire, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, corporate personhood, digital map, game design, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RFID, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the scientific method, young professional

And the resounding theme of the media blitz was unmistakable: you are not safe--you need security. Philips listened to the news as she sat at the dining room table examining the plastic RFID bracelet affixed to her wrist. She held it up to the light to try to see through the thin plastic band. Boynton had said it was tamper-resistant, and she assumed this meant it had a wire antenna braided into its length that would be severed if the bracelet were broken. The whole ranch complex was littered with RFID readers--she'd spotted no less than six here in the bungalow. The sudden loss of a signal would undoubtedly put her unique RFID number into alarm and summon security to investigate. Unless she could slip this digital leash, she wasn't going to be able to escape or do anything else without their knowledge.

It was becoming apparent that she was under house arrest--at least until Operation Exorcist was completed. By then it would be too late. They would have taken over the Daemon and solidified their control. Philips knew an RFID tag was just a circuit attached to an antenna. It used energy from a radio wave to activate the circuit and broadcast its unique ID on a specific frequency. That's how it could broadcast its location to Sky Ranch Security without needing a battery. The ISO 15693 standard common for RFID proximity cards and mobile payment systems meant this bracelet was probably operating at 13.56 MHz--which was a commercial frequency. Philips had attended conferences where hacker groups demonstrated homemade devices able to harvest and spoof RFID tags at will. The question was whether Philips could build something similar with the materials here in the bungalow. If she could make them think she was home when she wasn't, she might be able to trip up their plans.

He fastened it into place with a rivet gun and ran tests on it with an electronic device. Philips looked at it. "You're strapping a transponder on me?" A soldier snapped a digital photograph of her. Boynton held up his hands reassuringly. "RFID tag for tracking purposes. Don't try to remove it." He pointed to the one on his own wrist. "It's your identity while on the ranch. It'll send an alert if it's tampered with. Sensors at the entrances to most buildings will go into alarm if you enter without one. Likewise if you enter restricted areas. And alarms are responded to with lethal force. These RFID tags let the troops know that you're friendly, and we've got quite a few snipers out there--so please wear it at all times." Boynton opened the door to the first limousine and gestured for Philips to get inside. She lingered at the open car door.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

They know, you know Ubiquitous surveillance is often assumed to mean CCTV cameras poking in peoples’ faces and this is indeed true, although in the future the cameras will include those attached to privately owned cell phones featuring face recognition technology. So if you’re lying on a beach somewhere in the future, someone you don’t know might point a phone at you, find out who you are, then work out where you’re from. If you’ve told others about your future plans via social networks, criminals might access this information then tell someone to visit your home and rob you. Looking forward So what might surveillance look like in the future? RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags might allow local councils and authorities to monitor domestic dustbin usage, alerting them when incorrect items are placed in recycling bins. As for CCTV cameras, there is very little evidence that they reduce crime. What they do instead is catch criminals in the act and reassure people looking for certainty and control in an age that is becoming more uncertain and complex.

Or offering tax credits or healthcare points to people who walk around a city rather than drive a car? Home economics And don’t think that the inside of your own home will be immune from such technology either. We’ve already seen digital dashboards that monitor energy use migrating from industrial buildings to private homes and there’s no reason to suspect that automation will stop there. So how about clothing that’s equipped with RFID tags (see page 5) so that your clothes can talk to your washing machine and work out the most efficient time to connect with the water pipes and power grids? Or how about a bathroom mirror (that’s also a TV) which uses facial recognition to identify individual family members and adjust the diary, to-do list or TV channels accordingly? Or what about bathroom scales that can talk to your fridge to stop you opening it if you’ve eaten too much pizza the night before.

the condensed idea Slums the size of cities timeline 2012 Parents hire private security guards to escort teenagers in London 2014 25 percent more helipads in São Paulo than New York due to no-go areas 2022 CEO of General Electric visits outskirts of Nairobi to learn about recycling 2026 Indian rubbish pricing and distribution system copied in USA 2030 Soldiers outnumber police on some city streets 2070 After the collapse of the mines, Western Australia becomes a prison colony 16 An internet of things According to Cisco Systems, there will be 50 billion “things” connected to the Internet by 2020. That’s seven for every man, woman and child on the planet. So what are some of these “things” and what are the consequences of an Internet that’s increasingly made up of physical objects embedded with sensors? In the future your socks will have an IP address and your sock drawer will know how many pairs you’ve got and what color they are. In other words, barcodes and RFID (see page 5) tags were only the first small steps toward a world where information is embedded within everyday objects, which are connected to networks so that they can communicate with each other and with the network as a whole. This will mean that the precise identity, location and status of everything—and possibly everyone—can be identified, and future actions or conditions can be predicted. “I used to tell jokes about Internet-enabled lightbulbs.


pages: 624 words: 180,416

For the Win by Cory Doctorow

anti-globalists, barriers to entry, Burning Man, creative destruction, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, wage slave

The geeks dismissed them as not understanding the technology. Supposedly, an RFID can only be read from a couple inches away—if someone wanted to find out what RFIDs you had on your person, they’d have to wand you, and you’d know about it.” “Yeah, that was bull,” Perry said. “I mean, sure you can’t read an RFID unless it’s been excited with electromagnetic radiation, and sure you can’t do that from a hundred yards without frying everything between you and the target. But if you had a subway turnstile with an exciter built into it, you could snipe all the tag numbers from a distant roof with a directional antenna. If those things had caught on, there’d be exciters everywhere and you’d be able to track anyone you wanted—Christ, they even put RFIDs in the hundred-dollar bill for a while! Pickpockets could have figured out whose purse was worth snatching from half a mile a way!”

“Lester finally found a socially beneficial use for RFIDs. We’re going to get rich!” “I don’t think I understand,” she said. “Come on,” he said. “Let’s get to the junkyard. Lester explains this really well.” He did, too, losing all of the shyness she remembered, his eyes glowing, his sausage-thick fingers dancing. “Have you ever alphabetized your hard drive? I mean, have you ever spent any time concerning yourself with where on your hard drive your files are stored, which sectors contain which files? Computers abstract away the tedious, physical properties of files and leave us with handles that we use to persistently refer to them, regardless of which part of the hard drive currently holds those particular bits. So I thought, with RFIDs, you could do this with the real world, just tag everything and have your furniture keep track of where it is.

“Which brings me to my idea: why not tag everything in a group household, and use the tags to figure out who left the dishes in the sink, who took the hammer out and didn’t put it back, who put the empty milk-carton back in the fridge, and who’s got the TV remote? It won’t solve resource contention, but it will limit the social factors that contribute to it.” He looked around at them. “We can make it fun, you know, make cool RFID sticker designs, mod the little gnome dolls to act as terminals for getting reports.” Suzanne found herself nodding along. She could use this kind of thing, even though she lived alone, just to help her find out where she left her glasses and the TV remote. Perry shook his head, though. “When I was a kid, I had a really bad relationship with my mom. She was really smart, but she didn’t have a lot of time to reason things out with me, so often as not she’d get out of arguing with me by just changing her story.


pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, Joan Didion, John Gruber, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

But instead of a baseball game, we used New York Times news articles as our muse. A mainstream version of this technology doesn’t exist yet, so we had to do a little tinkering and hacking. To start, we took a cell phone, placed an RFID chip inside, and then attached an RFID reader to our computers. An RFID (radio-frequency identification) chip is a tiny electronic chip that can store little pieces of information that can be transferred wirelessly to a RFID reader device that interprets the identity of a chip. Many businesses, mine included, give cards with RFID chips to employees so they can enter their office buildings without using a key. RFID chips are also in some credit cards so that you can wave your card in front of an ATM machine instead of swiping it through a scanner. Using these chips and our mobile phones, Michael and I were able to let a computer know we were there just by placing our phones on the desk.


pages: 95 words: 23,041

Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski

augmented reality, en.wikipedia.org, RFID, Steve Jobs, web application

And additional capabilities may be here soon, including: Direction: from a digital compass Gyroscope: 360 degrees of motion Audio: input from a microphone; output to speaker Video and image: capture and input from a camera Dual cameras: front and back Device connections: through Bluetooth Proximity: device closeness to physical objects Ambient light: light/dark environment awareness NFC: Near Field Communications through RFID readers Starting with mobile puts these capabilities in your hands now so you can rethink how people can interact with your website and the world around them. As mobile web browsers continue to gain access to capabilities currently reserved only for native mobile applications, these opportunities will only increase. Starting mobile first At this point we’ve talked about reasons for designing and developing web experiences for mobile first.

On the other side of the spectrum, Google Goggles uses the video camera on a mobile device to identify products, wines, works of art, and landmarks; to scan in business cards; or to translate foreign languages (fig 6.19). Imagine all the typing you’d have to do in a form to accomplish what Google Goggles does when you simply point your camera at something. Fig 6.19: Google Goggles allows you to use the video camera on a mobile device for input. And near field communications (NFC) can take this even further. Mobile devices that can communicate with radio frequency ID tags (RFID) just need to be near something that broadcasts its identity using one of these tiny “digital barcodes” in order to interact with it. Want to learn more about a product? Just get close enough for it to catch a signal and your mobile can bring up all the information you need. How’s that for going beyond input fields and forms? Once again though, I need to ground us in the current realities of the web.

1193 66http://www.cloudfour.com/on-mobile-context/ 67 http://globalmoxie.com/blog/mobile-web-responsive-design.shtml Index 1024×768 18 $265,000 plane 86 320×480 19, 110 3200 Tigres 114 A A/B testing 16 accelerometer 33-34, 39-42 Adobe 2 Adobe Air 16 American Airlines 93-94 Amazon 24 Android 15-16, 19, 40, 59, 61, 73, 92 Appcache 24 Apple Cinema Display 110-111 Aronowitz, Kate 2 AT&T 9-10 autocapitalize 97 autocorrect 97 B back button 59-62 Bada 15 Bagcheck 57-60, 103 Barnes & Noble 79, 81 Basecamp 50-52, 89-90 Blackberry 13, 16, 59 Bluetooth 43 Boingo 101-102 C Canvas 24 Clark, Josh 50 cell tower 37 Cisco 12 CSS3 24, 110, 112 D data traffic 10-11 device experiences 116-117 device width 110 Dive Into HTML5 96 diving 27-28 E eBay 9, 86 EDGE 9 email 8, 9, 12, 25 ESPN 52-54, 56-57, 64-65, 78 F Facebook 2, 16-17, 27, 53-55 Flickr 21-23, 50-52, 71-72 Fling, Brian 86 :focus 83, 95 G GestureWorks 73 Glympse 38 Gmail 58, 60 Google 2, 9, 15, 24, 40 Google Finance 53-54 Google Goggles 105-106 Google Places 112-113 Gowalla 15 GPS 36-37 graphical user interface (GUI) 75 Grigsby, Jason 15 gyroscope 42 H Hewitt, Joe 17 Hinman, Rachel 27 :hover 78-83, 95 HTML5 24, 88-89, 95, 97, 116 HTTP requests 23 I image sprites 23 input masks 98-100 input types 90-91, 95-97 Instapaper 40-41 iPad 27, 75, 115 iPhone 10-11, 13, 16-17, 26, 36, 42, 62, 91-92, 110, 115 iOS 15, 19, 61-63, 73 iOS Human Interface Guidelines 69 J Java 15 JavaScript 23, 57, 110, 113 Jobs, Steve 10 K Kayak 38, 92, 94-95, 105 Koch, Peter-Paul 97, 109-110 L labels 87-89 location (when using mobile devices) 25-26 location detection 33, 36-39 London Underground 30-35 Lynch, Kevin 2 M MailChimp 88-89 magnetometer 33-34 Marcotte, Ethan 113 media queries 110, 113 meta viewport tag 109-110 Microsoft 15, 24, 69-70 MIT Touch Lab 69 Mobile in Higher Ed 51 Mobile Web Design and Development 86 Motorola 9 N N900 110-111 Nair, Rahul 36 native mobile applications 14-16 natural user interface (NUI) 75-76 navigation 52-59, 62-64 Nearest Tube 33-35 Near Field Communications (NFC) 44, 105-106 Netflix 115-116 Nexus One 110 Nokia 27, 67, 69 O Objective C 15 Olsen, Dave 50 “one eyeball and one thumb” 25-26, 64, 68, 86 OperaMini 13 OS X 73 P Pandora 9 PayPal 9 PC 8 performance 22-24 Pilgrim, Mark 96 pixel density 110-111 Playstation 115 Q Quora 71, 104 R radio frequency ID (RFID) 44, 105-106 RAZR 9 Read It Later 26-29 Research in Motion (RIM) 13, 16 responsive web design 112-117 S Samsung 15 Schmidt, Eric 2 screen size 18-22 select menus 91-92 Silverlight 16 Sketch a Search 43 smart defaults 36, 94 SMS 9, 13, 14 snorkeling 27-28 snow globe 41-42 Southwest Airlines 19-21 spinner control 92, 94 Storm 13 T T9 10 Tapworthy 50 time 26-28 touch 42-43 touch gestures 73-76 Tube see London Underground Twitter 16, 28, 63-64, 77, 79-80, 87-88, 105 U Ubuntu 69 V Verizon 13 Villamor, Craig 73 W Wacom Bamboo 73 WebOS 19, 73 WebWorks 16 WiFi 36-37 Willis, Dan 73 Windows Phone 7 15, 59 Windows Phone 7 Guidelines 69-70, 73 X xkcd 50-51 Yahoo!


Designing Search: UX Strategies for Ecommerce Success by Greg Nudelman, Pabini Gabriel-Petit

access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, augmented reality, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, information retrieval, Internet of things, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, social web, speech recognition, text mining, the map is not the territory, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Interactions of this kind make it possible to establish a unique and natural connection between the real world and the Internet computing cloud. The key is the added meaning the computer provides, based on its understanding and interpretation of the content of an image, combined with other device inputs such as camera, GPS location, RFID reader, and compass direction. Imagine, for example, taking a picture of a CD (or simply picking up a CD and bringing it near to your mobile device to read the RFID tag) to instantly share it with your friends to learn what they think about the music; using the same RFID or picture data to get more information about the artist on the Web—pictures, videos of recent concerts, and a biography; finding out where you can download the songs on this CD at the best price online, or using GPS to find coupons to purchase a physical CD from a local merchant.

Scanning this barcode with a QR code reader app navigates consumers to a mobile Web site where visitors can register to offset 100g of CO2 emissions once per day and get tips for mitigating their own greenhouse gas emissions. Both of these examples demonstrate that we are moving ever faster toward a world populated by smart objects, which Bruce Sterling dubbed spimes—a word made up by combining space and time. We can track spimes’ history of use and interact with them through a mesh of real and virtual worlds created by pervasive RFID and GPS tracking. Mobile picture search is certainly emerging as the input device of choice for connecting the real and the virtual worlds to create the Internet of Things (see sidebar). Internet of Things Internet of Things, also known as Internet of Objects, refers to a self-configuring wireless network connecting regular everyday objects to one another. Internet of things is a term attributed to Auto-ID Center, originally based at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

According to a recent Design4Mobile 2010 report from mobile form guru Luke Wroblewski, users of the Yelp Monocle feature tend to use Yelp 40% more than people not using Monocle. Although Monocle is still somewhat limited because of the tiny iPhone screen, you can’t help but get excited by the enormous potential of near-field computing. With the augmented reality industry working on adding facial recognition and RFID tagging, you will soon be able to obtain near-instant information about people, landmarks, objects, and just about anything else of interest. However, to fully exploit augmented reality, you might need a screen that is slightly larger than that of a typical smart phone. Note—It is hard to see all the richness of the real world additionally augmented with enormous amounts of information already available, all on a tiny screen that severely limits your filtering options.


pages: 362 words: 86,195

Fatal System Error: The Hunt for the New Crime Lords Who Are Bringing Down the Internet by Joseph Menn

Brian Krebs, dumpster diving, fault tolerance, Firefox, John Markoff, Menlo Park, offshore financial centre, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular electronics, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, zero day

As they logged in, Barrett captured their user names and passwords before connecting the employees to the old company portal. Those credentials gave Barrett access to the entire network, right down to the desktop of the chief executive. But Barrett wasn’t through. The company was an early adopter of RFID (radio-frequency identification) badges for employees. The badges included photos and coded authentication that the staff swiped through automated card readers at office entrances. Barrett bought an RFID reader and went to a TGI Friday’s favored as an after-work hangout, where he surreptitiously swiped employees’ badges. Then he bought blank RFID cards, used a picture of himself, and made his own corporate ID. After Barrett’s full report to the customer, one of the target company’s senior technology executives was so impressed that he visited Barrett at his parents’ house, just to see what environment could have produced him.

Blue Security, Inc. and denial-of-service attacks and e-Gold and in Florida founding of Green, Brian and Lyon, Barrett and non-gambling clients of online gambling, federal crackdown on and Proliflik and Rennick, Darren and Richardson, Mickey and Russian mob and Sacco, Ron and sale of SCO Group and UltraDNS Corp. and Proliflik “Proof of concept,” Protx Ltd. Proud, Mat PureGig Putin, Vladimir Pyramid schemes QuickTime Qwest Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Ramzinskiy, Pavel RapidSatellite.com RBN. See Russian Business Network Real Host Red Hacker Alliance Red Hunter Registry of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO) Rennick, Darren FBI and online gambling, federal crackdown on and Prolexic and Reshef, Eran RFID. See Radio-frequency identification Richardson, Mickey background of BetCRIS and online gambling, federal crackdown on and Prolexic and Robbins, Andy Robots (bots) Rock Phish Rodery, Terry Rohozinski, Rafal ROKSO. See Registry of Known Spam Operations Romania Romanov, Mikhail Valentinovich Rose, Kevin Rose, Nelson Ross, Andrew Royal Bank of Scotland Runet Russia corruption in cyber-mafia in denial-of service attacks and international cooperation and mafia in RBN Russian Business Network (RBN) Russian Ministry of the Interior (MVD) Ruthie Ruthless.


pages: 889 words: 433,897

The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey by Emmanuel Goldstein

affirmative action, Apple II, call centre, don't be evil, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, information retrieval, John Markoff, late fees, license plate recognition, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, optical character recognition, packet switching, pirate software, place-making, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RFID, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, undersea cable, Y2K

Again, I take absolutely no responsibility for extra cellular charges you may incur or for any trouble you may get into with your cellular provider if and when you try all of this. That said, have fun and I hope you learned something! RFID: Radio Freak-Me-Out Identification (Spring, 2007) By Kn1ghtl0rd RFID has become something of a hot topic in the hacking world. There have been multiple presentations on security and privacy of RFID and also the technology behind it. This article is designed to be a what-if type scenario on what RFID is potentially capable of and where the technology is heading. RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification, which obviously means identifying objects using radio frequency. Current implementations include asset management, inventory control, inventory tracking, access control, and entity identification.

Since our country is basically run by huge retail outlets it is not too far of a stretch to see product marketing analysis based on human purchase activity that is all based on RFID technology. Picture walking into Wal-Mart and having the racks scan your RFID tags and create some kind of notice to you to point on items that you prefer based on past purchase history. You regularly buy black cotton t-shirts in size large so the rack will recognize this data and highlight the rack with the black cotton t-shirts with little lights attached to all the hangers that flash as you approach. The same can be said about shoes. You wear a size 13 so it shows you only the size 13 shoes in stock. Now take it one step further and say you purchase one of those pairs of shoes. The shoes themselves have an RFID tag imbedded in them so now not only can we see where you are going based on the implanted RFID tag, but we can also see that you bought your shoes from Wal-Mart and produce Wal-Mart advertising on interactive billboards as you pass by. 94192c18.qxd 6/4/08 3:52 AM Page 751 Toys of the 21st Century When you walk into a coffee shop they will already start making your favorite coffee because they got that information from your tag.

The first three are usually implemented in a business environment to track inventory from one location to another or to monitor asset activity to isolate theft situations and problem areas. These implementations of RFID are very efficient and perform a valuable task for a business. The fourth example is not so good. RFID is being changed into a new type of ID for people and animals to be used instead of a hard-copy form of identification. This may seem convenient for people and they don’t see why this is bad. There are 749 94192c18.qxd 6/4/08 3:52 AM Page 750 750 Chapter 18 many possibilities for this technology to turn our world upside down and allow for Big Brother to truly manifest itself. Currently a human being can receive an implanted RFID chip that stores an identification number that associates them with information in a database. This can be anything from personal data such as name, address, and birth date to medical history, financial information, family information, etc.


pages: 523 words: 61,179

Human + Machine: Reimagining Work in the Age of AI by Paul R. Daugherty, H. James Wilson

3D printing, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, friendly AI, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lyft, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, software as a service, speech recognition, telepresence, telepresence robot, text mining, the scientific method, uber lyft

Thanks to such increased efficiencies, the company has been able to offer same-day shipping for customers.a L’Oreal uses radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and machine learning to help prevent forklift accidents in the company’s warehouse in Italy. The tracking system warns forklift operators and pedestrians about other nearby vehicles, cutting down on collisions.b a. Nick Wingfield, “As Amazon Pushes Forward with Robots, Workers Find New Roles,” New York Times, September 10, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/10/technology/amazon-robots-workers.html. b. Claire Swedberg, “L’Oréal Italia Prevents Warehouse Collisions via RTLS,” RFID Journal, August 18, 2014, http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?12083/2. These robots are often sophisticated enough to see where they’re going and understand what they’re doing.

While Coca-Cola has been piloting the use of AI to automate its product-ordering process, other companies are focusing more on improving the customer experience by augmenting the work of floor sales staff. Take, for example, the global fashion company Ralph Lauren, which has partnered with Oak Labs, a San Francisco–based startup, to develop an integrated commerce experience for shoppers.3 A key part of the technology is the connected fitting room, equipped with a smart mirror that relies on RFID to automatically recognize the items that a shopper brings into the room. The mirror, which can translate six languages, can then display details about an item. It can also change the lighting (bright natural light, sunset, club setting, and so on) so shoppers can see how they look in different settings. And the mirror can indicate whether items are available in additional colors or sizes, which a sales associate delivers to the dressing room.

See ethical, moral, legal issues Mori, Masahiro, 131 Murphy, Mike, 23 Nadella, Satya, 203 Nao, 146 NASA, 200–201 natural-language agents, 55–56, 59, 65, 145–146 natural-language processing (NLP), 64 Nettsträter, Andreas, 26 network analysis, 45–46 neural networks, 34 deep, recurrent, and feedforward, 63 definition of, 62 history of, 40–41 neural opportunism, 205–206 Nike, 74–75 Nina, 145–146 Nissan, 113–114 normalizing, responsible, 12, 189–191 Nuance Communications, 145–146 Numerate, 81 Oak Labs, 87–88 observation, 69–72, 157–158 on-demand work environment, 111 operations, reimagining, 29–30 optimization, 63, 77 Orcutt, Mike, 78, 79 outsourcing, 120–121 PAIR (People + AI Research) initiative, 179 Paley, Sean, 199 Papert, Seymour, 40–41 PCSK9 drugs, 74 Penn Medicine, 188 Percolata, 88–89 performance, 3–4, 7, 11–12 personality trainers, 118–119 personalization brands and, 96–97 of cars, 147–149 definition of, 66 marketing and sales, 86, 89–90, 91 product/service design and, 76 theory and practice of, 77–80 ultra-customization, 68 Pew Center, 167 pharmaceutical industry, 81 Philips, 87, 141–143 Pogo, 196 Popper, Nathaniel, 49 Pratt, Gill, 166 Precision Agriculture Service, 35 predictive systems, 63 Predix, 27, 29–30, 75, 183–184 Preferred Networks, 21–22 pricing decisions, 193–194 privacy issues, 90, 164–165 processes, 4 adaptive, 5–6, 16, 108–109 automated, 5, 19 determining which to change, 52–54 discovering and describing, 155–158 experimentation with, 14, 160–165 guardrails in, 168–169 mindset for reimagining, 155–160 reimagining, 50, 105–112, 151–152, 203–205 reimagining, leadership in, 153–181 reimagining around people, 58–59 rewriting, 9 robotic automation of, 50–52 standardized, 5 Procter & Gamble, 34 procurement, 53–54 product design, 74–76 generative design in, 135–137, 139, 141 product development, 29 production, 19–39 in agriculture, 34–37 third wave, 38–39 productivity, 3–4, 135–152 job satisfaction and, 46–47 rehumanizing time and, 188–189 products, intelligent, 66 product support, 87 “quantamental” funds, 122 Quid, 70–72 Quixote, 130 Raccuglia, Paul, 71 radio-frequency identification (RFID), 31, 87–88 Ralph Lauren, 87–88, 100 rating systems, 172 R&D. See research and development (R&D) reciprocal apprenticing, 12, 201–202 recommendation systems, 65, 92, 110–111 recurrent neural networks (RNN), 63 regulations, 213 reimagining, relentless, 12, 203–205 reinforcement learning, 62 repetitive/routine work, 26–27, 29–30, 46–47 process reimagination and, 52–54 in R&D, 69–72 reimagining around people, 58–59 research and development (R&D), 10, 67–83 customization and delivery in, 77–80 ethical/legal issues in, 78–79 hypotheses in, 72–74 MELDS in, 83 observation in, 69–72 risk management and, 80–81 scientific method in, 69–77 testing in, 74–77 resource management, 74–75 retail pricing, 193–194 Rethink Robotics, 22, 24 Reverse Engineering and Forward Simulation (REFS), 72–74 Revionics, 194 Riedl, Mark O., 130 right to explanation, 124 Rio Tinto, 7–8, 109–110 risk management, 80–81 robotic arms, 21–23 learning by, 24–26 robotic process automation (RPA), 50–52 Robotics, Three Laws of (Asimov), 128–129 Robotiq, 23 Roomba, 24 Rosenblatt, Frank, 62 Round Chair, 136–137 routine work.


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The Best Interface Is No Interface: The Simple Path to Brilliant Technology (Voices That Matter) by Golden Krishna

Airbnb, computer vision, crossover SUV, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, impulse control, Inbox Zero, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, QR code, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator, Y2K

v=2zoeiNBdPdo 47 “MasterCard International, which first tested the PayPass in 2003” Sewell Chan, “A Test at 25 Stations: Subway Riding Without the Swiping,” The New York Times, January 31, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/31/nyregion/31fare.html 48 Marc Perton, “Chase to Issue RFID Credit Cards,” Engadget, May 20, 2005. http://www.engadget.com/2005/05/20/chase-to-issue-rfid-credit-cards/ 49 Marc Perton, “Amex to Include RFID in All New Blue Cards,” Engadget, June 7, 2005. http://www.engadget.com/2005/06/07/amex-to-include-rfid-in-all-new-blue-cards/ 50 Sarah Perez, “Visa to Launch Contactless Mobile Payments for iPhone,” ReadWrite, May 6, 2010. http://readwrite.com/2010/05/06/visa_to_launch_contactless_mobile_payments_for_iphone 51 “Launching Google Wallet on Sprint and Working with Visa, American Express, and Discover,” Official Google Blog, September 19, 2011. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/09/launching-google-wallet-on-sprint-and.html 52 “Albertsons LLC, which operates 217 stores in seven Western and Southern states, will eliminate all self-checkout lanes in the 100 stores that have them and will replace them with standard or express lanes, a spokeswoman said.


Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport

Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, commoditize, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining, Thomas Davenport

Chapter_02.indd 51 03/12/13 11:42 AM 52 big data @ work Supply Chain Supply chain processes are among the most likely to be transformed by big data. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices—long discussed as a means of monitoring supply chain movements—are now actually becoming available at a reasonable cost. GPS tracking on trucks and trains means that arrival times for shipments can be more precisely predicted. Transportation companies, including UPS, FedEx, and Schneider National, have already installed tracking devices and are increasingly using them to monitor and optimize their networks. In chapter 8, I describe how UPS, for example, has recently used data from its package cars (brown trucks) to redesign its driving route structure for only the third time in over one hundred years. Other types of sensors are likely to lead to a flood of additional data and opportunities to analyze it. RFID and telematics sensors primarily track location, but so-called ILC (­identification, ­location, ­condition) sensors can monitor the condition of goods in the supply chain as well, on such variables as light, temperature, tilt angle, g-forces, and whether a package has been opened.

Delivering the New But even executives advocating large-scale change have their eye on the shiny, new capabilities promised by big data analytics. One of most aspects of big data is the way it has captured the attention of senior managers like no other technology trend before it. Suddenly, C-level executives are funding headcount for big data projects and using the phrase “data as an asset” in board meetings. New applications for big data are often industry-specific. Think telematics data for auto insurers, vital signs in health care, or RFID tags in manufacturing. All of this data is difficult to capture and ingest, let alone use in a meaningful way. A recent survey found that the highest percentage of respondents—41 percent—reported not having a strategy for big data. The next-largest group reported “Operations/Processing” as being the area of focus for big data projects.5 Clearly, most companies still haven’t transcended their initial ­projects to articulate the full business potential of big data.

See also Windows Azure military, big data use in, 19 Mint website, 142 MIT, 102, 142, 202, 206 modeling, 41, 62, 63–64, 69, 86, 94, 96, 98, 109–110, 113, 115, 118, 124, 129f, 131f, 146, 184, 195, 197, 199–200, 202 motivation of data scientists, 106 Mu Sigma, 104 MyZeo, 12 Naidoo, Allen, 121–122 Narrative Sciences, 126 National Security Agency, 19 natural language processing (NLP), 45, 67, 96, 114t, 181, 184 Netflix, 16, 42, 48–49, 66 Netflix Prize, 16, 22, 66 Neustar, 47, 78–79 Neustar Labs, University of Illinois, 79 Index.indd 224 new product development big data opportunities in, 23–26 big data strategy in, 65–66 data scientists and, 16, 18, 20, 24, 61–62, 65, 66, 71, 79–80, 106, 161 NewVantage Partners, 7, 177 New York Times, 94 New York University, 102 Nike, 12 Nike+ shoe, 12 North Carolina State University, 102 Northwestern University, 102 Norvig, Peter, 23 NoSQL, 98, 181 Novartis, 54, 66 Obama 2012 presidential campaign, 143, 202 objective in big data strategy cost reduction and, 60–63 developing, 60 internal business decision support and, 67–70 large companies and, 178–180 new product development and, 65–66 time reduction and, 63–65 online analytical processing, 10, 10t online firms action plan for managers and, 173 big data usage in, 153–154 lessons for what not to do from, 167–172 lessons learned from, 154–167 open-source computing, 76, 114t, 115, 118, 120–121, 123, 124, 142, 148, 160–161, 163–164, 208 Opera Solutions, 101 Operating Analytics, 170 Optimizely, 165 Optum, 155–156, 181 Oracle, 14, 117 Orange (mobile telecom firm), 168 organizational structure big data technology and, 15 culture for big data in, 147–149 data scientists and, 16, 61, 82, 140, 141, 142, 152, 153, 158, 173, 180, 187, 202, 207, 209 embedding big data culture in, 149–151 enterprise focus in, 138–139 new senior management roles in, 141–143, 202 orientation toward big data in, 18–22, 26 03/12/13 2:04 PM Index  225 ORION project (UPS), 178 overachievers, 42, 42t, 46 Palo Alto Networks, 104 Parks, Roger, 11 Patil, DJ, 92–93 PayPal, 140 Pegasystems, 150, 168, 169 Pentland, Alex (Sandy), 53 People You May Know (PYMK) feature of LinkedIn, 23–24, 140–141, 148, 158 PepsiCo, 46 personal analytics, 12–13, 45 personal monitoring devices, 12–13, 45 pets, data from, 13, 37–38 pharmaceutical industry, 43, 46, 54, 66, 126, 162 Phoenix Suns, 196 phone data, 13, 47, 51, 53, 78, 86, 122, 127, 196 physicians’ notes, 45, 72, 126, 162 Pig scripting language, 89, 114, 114t, 116, 123, 148, 157, 160, 163, 184 Pinterest, 11 Pivotal Chorus, 160 platform infrastructure, in big data stack, 119t, 120–121 PNC Bank, 108–109 point-of-sale systems, 44, 46 Portillo, Dan, 104 Porway, Jake, 89–90 privacy issues, 27, 42, 168 Procter & Gamble (P&G), 42, 46, 54, 182, 200 product development. See new product development production process. See data production process PROS, Inc., 70 Python scripting language, 89, 98, 102, 114t, 116, 123, 160, 184 quantitative analyst traits of data ­scientists, 88, 93–97 Quickbooks, 142 Quid, 54, 105, 157 R (statistical software), 118, 163–164, 183 radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices, 52, 193 Index.indd 225 Rajaram, Anand, 22 Ratzesberger, Oliver, 192 readiness for big data assessment, 205–209 Recorded Future (RF), 21, 54, 68–69, 157, 163, 168, 169–170 Redman, Tom, 71 regulatory environment, 27, 41, 43, 72, 167 relationship skills, 88, 92–93 remote monitoring, 45 responsibility locus, in big data projects, 76–77, 77t retail big data in, 5, 197 future scenario of big data’s impact on, 37–39 multichannel customer relationships in, 51, 67, 177, 186 online businesses for, 182, 183 point-of-sale data in, 46 repricing in, 63 Sears Holdings example of, 192 RetailNext, 46 retention of data scientists, 104–106, 112, 161 return on investment (ROI), 140, 183, 188–189, 190f Riley, Tim, 120, 137–138 risk management, 54–55, 68 sales, 18, 24, 46, 51, 54, 129, 158–159, 192 sandbox, in data discovery, 20, 201 San Diego Gas & Electric, 168 SAP, 13–14, 117 SAS, 63, 98, 109, 113, 118, 163, 176, 183 Schneider National, 52, 177, 182, 198, 199, 202–203 Schwartz, Carey, 10 scientist traits of data scientists, 88, 91–92 scripting languages, 114t, 116 courses in, 102 data scientists’ experience with, 89, 184 open-source, 123 See also Hive scripting language; Pig scripting language; Python scripting language Sears Holdings, 143, 191, 192 self-driving cars, 35, 41, 42, 65, 83, 148 self-monitoring devices, 12–13, 45 03/12/13 2:04 PM 226 Index sensor data, 8t, 11–12, 13, 19, 46, 47, 52, 53, 74, 78, 121, 122, 151, 157, 159, 177, 178, 185, 198, 199 sentiment analysis, 17, 27, 107, 118, 123 Shelley, Phil, 192 Siemens, 83 Signals Intelligence Group, 54 skills of analysts, 145–146 GE experience with multiple, 100–101 for managers, 106–110 small data, 9, 14, 26, 27, 29, 67, 68, 93, 121, 124, 126, 126f, 139–140, 150, 180 smart BPM (business process ­management), 150 smartphones, 13, 51, 86, 127 Snowden, Edward, 19 social media data, 11, 17, 21, 23, 50, 54, 87, 107, 121, 122–123, 126, 127f, 131f software analytics using, 51, 63, 75, 91, 108, 110–111, 114, 114t, 115, 117, 157, 169–170, 180, 183, 194t, 199, 207 automating transactions using, 13 investment in, 129, 148 monitoring using, 13–14, 25, 73, 108–109 open-source, 76, 114t, 115, 118, 120–121, 123, 124, 142, 148, 160–161, 163–164, 208 See also specific applications software vendors, 13–14, 50, 63, 69–70, 108, 155, 166, 172 speed of adoption of big data, 79–84 of decision making, 109–110 of technologies and methods in large companies, 199 sports, 12, 56 Spotfire, 169.


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Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

Banco Santander uses a very cool media wall in its corporate headquarters (along with robot assistants), and Umpqua Bank, Citi and others are also deploying media walls too. In addition to media walls, however, we’re seeing other technologies come into play that assist in the ability to engage customers more seamlessly. YES Bank in India and HSBC Premier in Hong Kong both trialled the use of RFID technology to recognise a customer as they walked into their branch space, accelerating their slot in the “queue” system. RBS allows customers to book a spot in the queue via their smartphone banking app. Incorporating RFID recognition or geolocation mobile triggers into the store experience allows the customer to be recognised, and the store environment to start to be personalised to the needs, behaviours and product footprint of the customer. If he or she is a particularly valuable customer, triggering a rapid personal response from a real human is also critical for service perception.

But they may not have to lose the branding opportunities and client connections that their current ATM network provides. It won’t be long before self-service machines, digital signage and media walls combine into one platform. For the Beijing Olympics, Coca-Cola deployed an interactive touch-screen vending machine from Samsung that they called uVend. And future ATMs might work in a rather similar way. RFID or facial recognition built into the ATM will recognise us and display our bank’s brand as we approach. If not, it cycles through the available brands or paid-for-advertising from the banks that use the network. When we insert our cards or tap our contactless phones to sign in, the ATM becomes a HSBC, Barclays or BofA ATM in schema, branding and interface—the branding proudly displayed, and the touch-screen interface modelled to our bank and/or our most frequent ATM activities.

With augmented-reality smart displays, which will eventually look much like a normal pair of glasses, informative graphics will appear in your field of view, and audio cues will provide information or feedback on whatever you see. Applications of smart glasses could be anything from an equivalent of our current laptop display while we are on the move, to simply a Bluetooth plug in our app phone showing us in real time a virtual HUD (head-up display) with key information from our device (Caller Id, local weather, e-alerts or appointments, etc.). Incorporating image and facial recognition software, along with RFID technology, smart glasses could remind us of the name and details of a key business contact, an old school friend who passes us by while we’re chilling out at the mall or the current price on Amazon of that book we’re looking at through a retailer’s window. The possibilities are far-reaching, and just a little freaky. Figure 10.2: Where’s my nearest NY subway station? (Credit: Apple) Figure 10.3: Augmented reality aims to contextualise data in new ways (Credit: Google) In any case, within just five years, we could have access to such devices married to our app phones, watching a movie or receiving a video phone call.


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The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

For the moment, Goodfriend’s idea is not quite feasible, or at least economically viable, but the time for it might not be far off. Indeed, periodic bouts of consternation have roiled the underground economy on rumors that the government is putting active transmitting radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips into currency, to be able to detect large bags of cash in airports and elsewhere. One can find videos online that show how to put currency in a microwave to fry any embedded chips. The implication is that if an RFID chip is embedded, the microwave might burn a hole in the note, but that is better than getting caught with a big bag of illicit cash. In fact, as of yet there are no embedded chips in US currency, though paper-thin chips are being developed that might make it possible someday, if the government chose to do so.15 Embedded chips (or magnetic strips) may prove unnecessary in any event, given the development of increasingly low-cost cash processors that can scan serial numbers at extremely high speeds.

For a more detailed discussion, see Ilgmann and Menner (2011). 11. Keynes (1936, ch. 23, sec. IV, pp. 357–58). 12. See Fisher (1933), Champ (2008), and Gatch (2009). 13. See Svensson and Westermark (2015). 14. See Goodfriend (2000). Buiter (2003) and Buiter and Panigirtzoglou (2003) were also early advocates of the Gesell solution. 15. “New $100 Bill and RFID Microwave Test,” available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kn5aqb-mN3Q. See also “Are You Ready for RFID Chips Built into Your Money and Documents,” Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, May 7, 2013. 16. If a retail store has a camera monitoring its cash registers and time stamps bills with serial numbers attached, authorities could potentially connect bills and people. 17. Eisler (1933), Davies (2004), Buiter (2005, 2009), and Agarwal and Kimball (2015). 18.

See also seigniorage profits from monopoly on paper currency, 217 proxy notes, 22 public health risks, 78–79 Putin, Vladimir (president, Russia), 72 quantitative easing, 123–24, 132–33; empirics of, 136, 140–42; explained, 137–40; financial crisis of 2008, in response to, 135–36; inflation, lack of impact on, 136–37; in a liquidity trap, 246n26; as a policy instrument, limits of, 144–45; risks associated with, 178; zero bound sand trap, escaping from, 142–44 “Quantitative Easing Explained” (Malekan), 140 quantity theory of money, 26 radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips, 166 RAND Corporation, 49, 69 real-time clearing, 67, 92, 94–95, 102–3, 115 Reifschneider, David L., 133, 244n11, 245n17 Reinhart, Carmen M., 122, 177, 243n3, 245n18, 255n10 Reinhart, Vincent, 243n3 reverse money laundering, 4, 80 Rey, Hélène, 207 Ricardian equivalence, 246n25 Robinson, James, 70 Rockoff, Hugh, 192 Rognlie, Matthew, 250n2 Rogoff, Kenneth S., 233n10, 243nn3–4, 245n14, 245n18, 252n2, 255nn9–10, 255n15 Rolnick, Arthur J., 234n13 Rösl, Gerhard, 236n23 Rubin, Robert, 2 Russell, David O., 71 (director, American Hustle) Russia, 44, 83–84, 191, 203 Sands, Peter, 253n5 Sargent, Thomas J., 19 Sbordone, Argia M., 248n5 Schneider, Friedrich, 62, 239n12, 239n16 Schwartz, Anna, 188 Secret Service: foreign holdings of currency, estimate of, 44–45; founding of to fight counterfeiting, 77 security concerns, 111–14 seigniorage, 80–81; cost of substituting interest-bearing debt for paper currency, 86–90; measures of, 81–85; political economy importance of, central bank independence and, 90–91, 106; revenue as a percentage of GDP, 2006–2015, 84; shrinkage of revenues if currency were phased out, 85–86, 202–4 Seitz, Franz, 45, 236n23 Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA), 200 sexual exploitation in the United States, 74 shadow policy interest rate, 244n5 Shi, Joanna Y.


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Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, Joi Ito, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

Quantitatively, search sites would lose some of the search query information they use to fine-tune the ranking of search results, but the quality would likely improve as less relevant past queries are omitted. Potential application for expiration dates may even go beyond the confines of personal computers or online services, and include emergent technologies. For example, recently the European Union discussed the implications of RFID (radio-frequency identification) chips and similar networked sensing devices that add information to our digital memories. The Council of the European Union concluded to promote “the possibility of deactivating RFID chips or any other way which provides empowerment and user control.”16 Instead of the relatively stark “silencing of the chips” that the Council suggests, perhaps mandated expiration dates might offer a somewhat finer-grained approach. As these cases highlight, introducing an expiration date for information does not require individual users to learn complex new user interfaces.

Berkeley Technology Law Journal 18 (2003): 575–617. Cole, Simon A. Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2002. comScore Media Advisory. “Baidu Ranked Third Largest Worldwide Search Property by comScore in December 2007.” News release. Jan. 24, 2008. http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=2018. Curry, Michael R. “Location and Identity: A Brief History,” in RFID: Applications, Security, and Privacy, S. L. Garfinkel and B. Rosenberg, eds. 149–62. Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. 2005. ———. “Toward a Geography of a World without Maps: Lessons from Ptolemy and Postal Codes.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95 (2005): 680–91. Deering, Michael F. The Limits of Human Vision. http://www.swift.ac.uk/vision.pdf. Dellarocas, Chrysanthos. “Analyzing the Economic Efficiency of eBay-like Online Reputation Reporting Mechanisms,” MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4181–01, Oct. 2001. http://ssrn.com/abstract=289968 or DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.289968.

.), 136 property, 150 Proust, Marcel, 117 Ptolemy, 33 public sphere, 41 purpose limitation principle, 136, 138, 159 Quagliano, Enrique, 195 radio, 44 rating system, 93 reading, 36, 37, 40, 41–42 recall, 22 “Reciprocal Transparency,” 105–8 Reformation, 38–39, 98 religion, 29–30, 37–39, 42 remembering benefits of digital, 93–95 constructive endeavor of human, 27–28, 106–7, 118 cost of, 26 curse of, 13 default of, 68 human, 27–28, 106–7, 114–17 role of, 16–23 shift to, 14 reputation, 106, 142 retrieval, 72–79 decontextualization of digital, 78 digital, 75–79 RFID (radio-frequency identification), 180–81 Ripoli Press, 37–38, 39 Rotenberg, Marc, 150 sample, 54, 56–57 Samuelson, Pamela, 142, 150 Schacter, Daniel, 20–21, 106, 155–56 Schmidt, Eric, 109 Schwartz, Paul, 143, 150 scribes, 36–37 script, 31–42 interpretation of, 34 search engine, 1, 4, 6, 123–25 search query, 6, 76, 175–78 self-censorship, 110–12 server farms, 70 Short Messaging (SMS), 126–27 Snyder, Stacy, 1–2, 4, 5, 102, 109–10, 197 Solove, Daniel, 8, 142 sousveillance, 165 Soviet Union, 103 Spock.com, 104 standardization, 58–60 Starbuck, William, 118 Starr, Paul, 41 storage.


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Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

See personal consumption expenditure (PCE) Peltzman, Sam, 267 Peltzman effect, 267 Penn State, MOOCs and, 136 pensions, 222, 224 people analytics, 93 Perelman, Les, 130–131 per-employee valuations, technology sector and, 175 permanent income hypothesis, 210–211 personal consumption expenditure (PCE), 202n personal robots, 7 pharmacists, 172–173n pharmacy robotics, 153–155 Philippines, income inequality in, 46 Pierson, Paul, 57 Piketty, Thomas, 275 Pinker, Steven, 237 “Piquant” system, 99–100 plagiarism, MOOCs and, 136–137 Player Piano (Vonnegut), 32 PlayStation, 4 plutocracy, 219 plutonomy, 198 polarization, job-market, 50–51 politics advancing technology and, 57–58 financial elite’s influence over, 47–48, 59–60 guaranteed income concept and, 260–261, 278–279 post-scarcity economy, 247 Poterba, James, 222 poverty trap, 262 Prey (Crichton), 244 prices deflation and, 216–217 drug, 170–171 effect of automation on, 215–216 PrimeSense, 4 Princeton University, MOOCs and, 133 Principles of Economics (Frank & Bernanke), 37 Principles of Economics (Taylor & Weerapana), 37 productivity, 206–207 defined, 35n information technology and, 52 recessions and, 207–208 technological progress and, 33 wages and, xi, 33, 35–38, 38n product lifecycles, robots and, 11 professionals, erosion of employment for, xvi–xvi “Professionals Against Machine Scoring of Student Essays in High Stakes Assessment” (petition), 129, 130 progress, lack of broad-based, 64–65 proton beam facilities, 164 public universities, MOOCs and, 142 purchasing power distribution of, 197, 198 guaranteed income and, 265–266 jobs and, xvii “Quill” software, 84–86 Rabkin, Eric, 137 Race Against the Machine (Brynjolfsson & McAfee), 60 Radical Abundance (Drexler), 243, 246 radio-frequency identification (RFID), 154, 157 radiologists, artificial intelligence and, xv, 152 Rand, Ayn, 264 recessions investment and, 227 months for employment to recover, 45 productivity and, 207–208 stagnant income, rising costs, and, 217–218 See also Great Recession recursive improvement, Artificial General Intelligence and, 231–232 Redbox movie rental kiosks, 18–19 regulatory capture, 170 religious overtones of Singularity, 235 “Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution” (King), 29–30 rent seeking, financialization and, 55–56 Republicans, income distribution preferred by, 47n reshoring, 8–12 resource depletion, technology and, xvii, 282–283 restocking, automated, 18–19 retail sector, 16–20, 87, 88. See also online retailing Rethink Robotics, 5, 7, 10 retirement income, 222 Reuther, Walter, 193 reverse engineering the brain, 237 RFID. See radio-frequency identification (RFID) Riegel v. Medtronic, Inc., 150n risk, Peltzman effect and, 267–268 RoboBusiness conference/tradeshow, 7 Robot & Frank (film), 155 robotics, 6–8 cloud, 20–23 See also automation; robots robotic walkers, 157 robots in agriculture, 23–26 box-moving, 1–2, 5–6 consumer, 197n educational, 7 elder-care, 155–158 hospital and pharmacy, 153–155 industrial, 1–5, 10–11 personal, 7 telepresence, 119–120, 157 Rolling Stone (magazine), 56 Romney, Mitt, 272 Roosevelt, Franklin, 279 Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 160, 163 Rosenwald, Michael, 107 ROS (Robot Operating System), 6, 7 Russell, Stuart, 229 Rutter, Brad, 101 Sachs, Jeffrey, 60 Saez, Emmanuel, 46 safety, autonomous cars and, 184–185, 187 Salesforce.com, 134 Samsung Electronics, 70n Samuelson, Paul, x Sand, Benjamin M., 127 San Jose State University, 134 Sankai, Yoshiyuki, 156–157 Santelli, Rick, 170 savings, China’s high rate of, 224–225 SBTC.

., at an annual cost of about $350,000. According to one hospital administrator, paying people to do the same work would have cost over a million dollars per year.15 In early 2013, General Electric announced plans to develop a mobile robot capable of locating, cleaning, sterilizing, and delivering the thousands of surgical tools used in operating rooms. The tools would be tagged with radio-frequency identification (RFID) locator chips, making it easy for the machine to find them.16 Beyond the specific areas of pharmacy and hospital logistics and delivery, autonomous robots have so far made relatively few inroads. Surgical robots are in widespread use, but they are designed to extend the capabilities of surgeons, and robotic surgery actually costs more than traditional methods. There is some preliminary work being done on building more ambitious surgical robots; for example, the I-Sur project is an EU-backed consortium of European researchers who are attempting to automate basic procedures like puncturing, cutting, and suturing.17 Still, for the foreseeable future, it seems inconceivable that any patient would be allowed to undergo an invasive procedure without a doctor being present and ready to intervene, so even if such technology materializes, any cost savings would likely be marginal at best.

The suits lease for just under $2,000 per year and are already in use at over three hundred Japanese hospitals and nursing homes.21 Other near-term developments will probably include robotic walkers to assist in mobility and inexpensive robots capable of bringing medicine, providing a glass of water, or retrieving commonly misplaced items like eyeglasses. (This would likely be done by attaching RFID tags to the items.) Robots that can help track and monitor people with dementia are also appearing. Telepresence robots that allow doctors or caretakers to interact with patients remotely are already in use in some hospitals and care facilities. Devices of this type are relatively easy to develop because they skirt around the challenge of dexterity. The near-term nursing-care robotics story is primarily going to be about machines that assist, monitor, or enable communication.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar

Casinos now have their own global network where they share photos of anyone caught—or suspected of—cheating. More than that, they use contextual technology. Every card and every chip is embedded with a tiny RFID-like chip. Every gaming table has a sensor underneath it to detect flimflams such as a player pulling an extra ace out of his sleeve. That isn’t wearable technology, but the sensors casinos use come from former Swiss watchmaking company NagraID, which has reinvented itself by designing highly secure miniature technology. NagraID chips make credit cards and loyalty cards smart enough to know their owners and their location. That same technology in the form of an RFID (radio-frequency identification) chip is embedded on contextual passes worn by skiers at Aspen Snowmass, the world’s most popular ski resort, and in the Disney’s MagicBands, making transactions for hotels and meals automatic.

Service and convenience are likely to be amplified by a few other technologies we’ve already discussed. Combine NagraID with a VinTank geo-fence and you’ll get a new level of personalized, location-specific services or sales, where payments can be automatically authenticated and processed. VinTank also extracts data from a customer’s previous recommendations, so the restaurant, amusement park or hotel can customize its service and offers to each customer’s preferences. That little RFID chip and a few tiny sensors on a card will generate a very large improvement in personalized service, and with it enhanced customer loyalty. Now, toss in one more piece of technology. Put on a digital eyewear device such as Glass or Oakley Airwave, and you’ll have a contextual, wearable system that knows your location, your current activity, your preferences as well as what you are looking at in real time.


Stacy Mitchell by Big-Box Swindle The True Cost of Mega-Retailers, the Fight for America's Independent Businesses (2006)

big-box store, business climate, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, European colonialism, Haight Ashbury, income inequality, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Ray Oldenburg, RFID, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Blythman, Shopped, 234–35; Wal-Mart, 2004 annual report; Mark O’Neill, NOTES 265 “Retailers under Siege with ‘Wolves’ at the Door,” South China Morning Post, Nov. 24, 2004, 12. 35. Jack Neƒ, “Wal-Marketing: How to Benefit in Bentonville,” Advertising Age, Oct. 6, 2003, 1; Anne D’Innocenzio, “Wal-Mart Suppliers Flocking to Arkansas,” Associated Press, Sept. 21, 2003; Fishman, The Wal-Mart Eƒect. 36. Mary Brandel, “RFID: Smart Tags, High Costs,” Computerworld, Dec. 15, 2003; Christine Spivey Overby, RFID At What Cost? (Cambridge, Mass.: Forrester Research, Mar. 1, 2004). 37. Marc Greenberger and Randi Lass, “A Fundamental Change in Retail: ScanBased Trading, No Inventory Costs for Retailers,” Chain Drug Review, May 19, 2003, 3; Marc Greenberger, “SBT: From Theory to Practice,” Chain Drug Review, June 30, 2003, 3. 38. Anne Zieger, “Retailer Chargebacks: Is There an Upside?”

See community life quality of products and big-box pricing, 132–33 racial diƒerences, corporate manipulation of, 202 radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging, 21–22 Raguski, Steve, 231, 256 Ramos, Paul, 236 raw materials, mega-retailer sourcing of, 25–26 real estate development. See development, land record labels, 148–49 Red Hook, Brooklyn, 91, 202 regional-level planning, 194, 218–21 regional draw of big-box stores, 38–39, 66 Reile, Mike, 236, 238 Reilly, William J., 108–9 Reiner, Leslie, 186–87 relationships at local level: and consumer choice, 153; and economic capital, 41–42, 48–49, 55; and local business satisfaction, 225–26, 244–45; and social capital, 77, 78–80, 87 remodeling contractors’ cooperative, 247 Rendell, Ed, 174 rents, escalation in, 233–34 Reny, John, 133 314 INDEX restaurants, 11–12, 87 retail gravitation, law of, 108–9 Review (East Liverpool, OH), 40–41 RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging, 21–22 Rhode Island: Pawtucket, 89; Providence, 91 Riley, Ken, 158–59 Rite Aid, xii, 89, 90, 134 River Bank Books & Music, 230–31 road networks and sprawl costs, 5, 67, 109–10 Roberts, Bruce, 226 Robinson, Chuck, 144–45, 249, 256, 257 Robinson-Patman Act, 183–84, 188–89 Robnett’s Hardware, 28, 29 Rochefort, David, 154–55 Rockne, Jennifer, 253 Roosevelt, Franklin, 177 rootedness, 71–72, 76, 77, 82–85 Rother, Lisa, 212 Rubbermaid, 23 Rubin, Peter, 31, 243 Ruckelshaus, Cathy, 62 Ruƒ N’ Stuƒ, 232 runoƒ from parking lots, 106–7, 117–19, 218 rural economies, mega-retailers’ impact, 47 safety at work, big-box violations of, 56, 158 sales taxes, 65–66, 69, 169, 176–77 Salzman, Burt, 85 Sam’s Club, 9, 165, 168, 219 Santa Fe Custom Shutters and Doors, 24 Santa Fe Shares card, 254–55 Sather, Don, 204 Savage, Ronald, 67 scale: growth in size of retail stores, 208–210; local government restric- tions on size of retail stores, x, 192–98, 210–13 Schaefer, Gina, 224–25 Schaefer, Mark, 224 Schanen, Bill, 71 Schueler, Tom, 118 Scott, Lee, 14 Sears, Roebuck & Co., 3, 13–14 Seely, Frank, 241 Sekula, Greg, 90 self-reliance, local, xviii, 75, 80–81.

“Every vendor has many people who are really Wal-Mart employees,” explained one executive interviewed by Advertising Age.35 While the media have reported fairly extensively on the harsh methods corporate retailers employ to extract ever lower prices from their suppliers—Wal-Mart famously insists that its vendors reduce their prices year after year, while Target has perfected online reverse-auctions in which competing companies undercut one another’s bids in real time—what has received less attention are the ways chains use their clout to shift some of their own costs onto suppliers. Much of the work done at manufacturers’ Bentonville branch o‰ces benefits Wal-Mart at no cost to the company. Retailers also commonly require vendors to adopt expensive new technologies that are of little benefit to themselves, but that reduce labor costs for the chains. Costco, Target, and Wal-Mart, for example, are beginning to demand that suppliers embed radio frequency identification (RFID) tags in 22 BIG-BOX SWINDLE their merchandise. These tiny microchips, about the size of a grain of sand, emit signals that can be picked up by specialized scanners. They make managing and tracking inventory much easier for retailers. Wal-Mart expects the tags to reduce payroll at its distribution centers by as much as 10 to 20 percent. But the average supplier—Wal-Mart has thousands—will spend an estimated $9 million implementing the technology.36 An even more fundamental and far-reaching cost-shift is now under way as major chains shed ownership of the goods that line their shelves.


RDF Database Systems: Triples Storage and SPARQL Query Processing by Olivier Cure, Guillaume Blin

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, cloud computing, database schema, fault tolerance, full text search, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, linked data, NP-complete, peer-to-peer, performance metric, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, software as a service, SPARQL, web application

See RDF Schema (RDFS) RDF Schema (RDFS), 3, 42 entailment, graphical representation of, 190 minimal, 208 ontology languages, 60, 208 Tboxes, 147 RDF-3X system, 6, 97, 109, 159 Reasoning capabilities, 189 database management systems, 191 first-order logic bottom-up resolution, 200 top-down resolution, 200 materialization vs. query rewriting, 195 object-based approach, 202 consequence-based reasoning procedures, 204 structural subsumption, 202 tableau-based method, 203 in propositional logic, 198 RDF data set, 196 extract, 190 RDFS entailment graphical representation of, 190 RDFS ontology, 195 rule-based approach, 197 SPARQL query language, 189 W3C ontology languages, 189 Reasoning services, 74 Redis, 28 Redland RDF library, 146 Reification, 46 Relational database management system (RDBMS), 2, 9 with ACID properties, 28 benchmarks, 77 evolutions of, 38 Jena SDB system, 126 property-class modeling, 129 property table technique, 128, 129 241 Index RDFJoin project, 127 RDFKB (resource description framework knowledge base), 127 relations, attributes, and tuples, 10 roStore, 132 structured query language (SQL), 52 triples table approach, 125 vertical-partitioning approach, 130, 131 Virtuoso system, 126 Remote procedure call (RPC), 34 Re-Pair, 90 Representational state transfer (REST), 3 Resolvent, 197 Resource description framework (RDF), 1, 43, 44 challenges, 221 data management, 6 data set, graph, 47 expected features, 222 stores, 223 graph representation, 44 HTML serializations, 52 Notation 3 (N3), 50 N-triples, 50 stores, set of dimensions, 7 Turtle, 51 URIs, 45 XML serialization, 48 Resource interchange format (RIF), 42 REST. See Representational state transfer (REST) Reverse primary hash (RPH), 132 Reverse secondary hash (RSH), 132 Rexster, 149 RFID. See Radio-frequency identification device (RFID) Riak, 28 RIF. See Resource interchange format (RIF) roStore, 132 RPC. See Remote procedure call (RPC) RPH. See Reverse primary hash (RPH) RSH. See Reverse secondary hash (RSH) Ruby, 4, 79 Rule-based ontology languages, 76 Rya engine, 140 S SAOR system. See Scalable authoritative OWL reasoning (SAOR) system Scalable authoritative OWL reasoning (SAOR) system, 216 Scalable highly expressive reasoner (SHER), 215 Scalable high-performance, robust, and distributed (SHARD), 180 SDB system, 99 SDSs.

Introduction The Internet of Things (IoT) is another contributor to the Big Data ecosystem, which is just in its infancy but will certainly become a major data provider.This Internet branch is mainly concerned with machine-to-machine (M2M) communications that are evolving on a Web environment using Web standards such as Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and representational state transfer (REST). It focuses on the devices and sensors that are present in our daily lives, and can belong to either the industrial sector or the consumer market. These active devices may correspond but are not limited to smartphones, radio-frequency identification device (RFID) tagged objects, wireless sensor networks, or ambient devices. IoT enables the collection of temporospatial information—that is, regrouping temporal as well as spatial aspects. In 2009, considered an early year of IoT, Jeff Jonas in his blog (Jonas, 2009) was already announcing that 600 billion geospatially tagged transactions were generated per day in North America. This ability to produce enormous volumes of data at a high throughput is already a data management challenge that will expand in the coming years.

See Query parallel inference engine (QueryPie) Query processing overview of, 143 parsing, 145 RDFS/OWL ontology, 144 SPARQL query, 143–145 simplifiable, 147 SPARQL 1.1 W3C recommendation, 163 for update queries, 163 X-RDF-3X extension, 164 Query rewriting, 98 CumulusRDF system, 149 encoding/decoding, 148 RDFS blog ontology, extracts, 147 simplification, 147 translation, 148 QuOnto system, 212 R Radio-frequency identification device (RFID), 3 RAM. See Random access memory (RAM) Random access memory (RAM), 14 RavenDB, 32 RDBMS. See Relational database management system (RDBMS) RDF. See Resource description framework (RDF) RDFa. See RDF in attributes (RDFa) RDFCube system, 112 storage schema, 112 RDF in attributes (RDFa), 3 RDFMatView, 146 RDFPeers, 112 RDFS. See RDF Schema (RDFS) RDF Schema (RDFS), 3, 42 entailment, graphical representation of, 190 minimal, 208 ontology languages, 60, 208 Tboxes, 147 RDF-3X system, 6, 97, 109, 159 Reasoning capabilities, 189 database management systems, 191 first-order logic bottom-up resolution, 200 top-down resolution, 200 materialization vs. query rewriting, 195 object-based approach, 202 consequence-based reasoning procedures, 204 structural subsumption, 202 tableau-based method, 203 in propositional logic, 198 RDF data set, 196 extract, 190 RDFS entailment graphical representation of, 190 RDFS ontology, 195 rule-based approach, 197 SPARQL query language, 189 W3C ontology languages, 189 Reasoning services, 74 Redis, 28 Redland RDF library, 146 Reification, 46 Relational database management system (RDBMS), 2, 9 with ACID properties, 28 benchmarks, 77 evolutions of, 38 Jena SDB system, 126 property-class modeling, 129 property table technique, 128, 129 241 Index RDFJoin project, 127 RDFKB (resource description framework knowledge base), 127 relations, attributes, and tuples, 10 roStore, 132 structured query language (SQL), 52 triples table approach, 125 vertical-partitioning approach, 130, 131 Virtuoso system, 126 Remote procedure call (RPC), 34 Re-Pair, 90 Representational state transfer (REST), 3 Resolvent, 197 Resource description framework (RDF), 1, 43, 44 challenges, 221 data management, 6 data set, graph, 47 expected features, 222 stores, 223 graph representation, 44 HTML serializations, 52 Notation 3 (N3), 50 N-triples, 50 stores, set of dimensions, 7 Turtle, 51 URIs, 45 XML serialization, 48 Resource interchange format (RIF), 42 REST.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

Sensors deployed on street infrastructure such as bins and lampposts or in shops/malls capture and track phone identifiers such as MAC addresses. The IDs of devices which access or try to access a wifi network are captured and tracked between wifi points. Barcodes, magnetic strips or embedded RFID chips are tracked when they are scanned to gain entry to buildings or transportation. Embedded GPS in devices and vehicles communicate location and movement via cellular or satellite networks. Transponders with embedded RFID chips broadcast their IDs and are tracked by scanning receivers, commonly used in automatic road tolling or electronic tagging of people on probation. Such as using ATMs, credit cards or checking a book out of a library that leaves a digital record. 54 R. Kitchin Conclusion We are entering an era where computation is being routinely embedded into urban environments and networked together, and people are moving about with smartphones that ensure always available connectivity and access to information.

Because these data are recorded at the exact time when the smart card or mobile device is linked to the system in question, there is a continuous or at least continual record of activations which represent real-time collection, either accessible in real-time itself or for post hoc analysis. In short, the data are as voluminous as the number of activations. If this is phone calls, then it is the number of calls made from that device per day or over whatever unit of time and space the data are aggregated to. Here, we will use data generated by the Oyster card, a RFID smart card used on all public transport in Greater London. This card stores the money that travellers use to pay for journeys and the system is designed to recognize the category of payer as well as the time and place where the traveller taps in or out of the system. Travellers tap in and out on trains but only tap in on buses. We have several tranches of data from this system. Our largest set is for 86 days in the summer of 2012 where there were 9,902,266,857 (nearly 10 billion) taps.

Index abstraction 17, 90, 91, 93, 114, 117, 128, 142, 143, 160, 165, 166, 173, 179 accountability 48, 62, 64, 67, 68, 113, 120, 122, 144, 220 Actor Network Theory (ANT) 22, 86, 94, 161 Acxiom 75, 76 agency 95, 153, 165, 197, 198, 201, 205, 217 algorithm 1, 19, 20, 27, 31, 51, 53, 54, 102, 117, 143, 159, 160, 161, 172, 177, 179, 203, 205, 214, 216 API 7, 46, 99, 113, 116, 130, 135, 157 apps 23, 48, 130, 138 assemblage 19, 20, 22, 22, 78, 85, 158–60, 162, 163, 164, 192, 193, 213, 216 assemblage theory 7, 157 automation 9, 26, 31, 31, 34, 175, 184, 197, 218 auto-spatialization 162 Batty, M. 1, 2, 3–4, 10, 17, 19, 20, 26, 31, 33, 34, 47, 75, 114, 158, 190 bias 63, 65, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 87, 92, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 117, 118, 195, 196, 197, 198 biopolitics 174 bitcoin, 7, 141–3, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154 black-boxed 11, 22, 24, 45, 51, 53, 75, 76, 119, 156, 214 blockchain, 2, 7, 141–57 Borgmann, A. 214, 215, 216, 221–22 boundary object 86, 88, 93 calibration 1, 35, 50, 77, 102, 116, 117, 142, 147 cameras 17, 46, 52, 53, 113, 127, 213, 214, 219, 220, 221 capital 9, 77, 114, 151, 196 capta 60, 68 Castells, M. 25, 26, 156 census 31, 32, 33, 45, 99, 113, 120, 173 Chicago school 18, 24 CitiStat 121 citizen science 2, 9, 11, 21, 46, 209, 213, 216–19, 222 citizenship 2, 9, 11, 203, 207 city operating systems 1, 46, 47, 48 Clery Act 67, 68 code/space 22, 76–77, 159 Cohen, J. 204, 205 communities of practice 86, 88 community 9, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 63–4, 91, 100, 123, 145, 204, 216, 217, 220, 221, 222 context 5, 6, 8, 21, 22, 23, 50, 51, 60, 63, 67, 68, 72, 73, 79, 80, 92, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103–05, 115, 122, 163, 166, 179, 191–7 contingency 49, 51, 52, 76, 86, 87, 90, 92, 122, 160, 181 control 10, 11, 44, 48, 51, 54, 60, 62, 76, 122, 166, 202, 203, 214, 217 control rooms 1, 7, 17, 46, 47, 111 counter-narrative 6, 9, 68, 120, 122 crime 5, 53, 59–69, 141, 202 critical data studies 72, 75, 80, 81, 91, 173, 179 crowdsourcing 46, 68, 69, 105, 113, 222 culture 18, 24–7, 49, 60, 64, 68, 95, 100, 104, 114, 153, 159, 191, 193 Customer Relationship Management 153 cybernetics 19, 48, 92, 165, 202, 207 cyberspace 158, 160, 201–07 dashboard 2, 6, 7, 17, 47, 111–124, 135, 137, 138, 139, 141, 154, 190, 197, 198 data: access 11, 17, 23, 45, 50, 51, 60, 61, 64, 68, 99, 105, 113, 115–17, 122, 226 Index 123, 131, 138, 139, 158, 174, 190, 205, 207, 208; administration 2, 45, 46, 47, 78, 88, 111, 113, 127; analytics 1, 19, 45, 47, 48, 53, 59, 60, 74, 75, 127, 196, 197; assemblage 4, 6, 11, 50, 51, 53, 86, 181; big 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 32, 33–39, 41, 42, 44, 45–9, 50, 51, 52, 72, 75, 78, 104, 113, 115, 116, 118, 122, 127, 135, 138, 139, 159, 175, 184, 189–91, 213, 216; brokers 1, 9, 10, 46, 53; citizens 9, 10, 11, 201–10; control 4, 45, 51; coverage 4, 45, 50, 103; crime 4, 59–69; cube 4, 32–33; culture 1, 2, 8–9, 10, 11, 189–198; derived 5, 44, 53, 113; determinism 53; encounter 5, 73, 79–81; financial 76, 77; framework 51, 116, 184; friction 2, 6, 93, 99, 101, 103; governance 8, 189, 196; indexical 2; infrastructure 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 77, 78, 85, 156–66, 172, 173, 180, 182, 193; integrity 4, 45, 52, 66, 67, 68, 73, 144; journey 5, 85, 93; lineage 73, 80, 116, 117; linked 184; management 59, 174, 177; minimization 52; mining 31, 38, 42, 47, 114; model 8, 45, 102, 171, 173, 175–77, 178, 179, 180–82; open 1, 4, 10, 47, 48, 59, 60, 61, 64, 66, 67, 69, 77, 99, 113, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124, 193, 196, 198; ownership 4, 45, 51, 80, 202, 208; politics 10, 49–51; portal 7, 99, 123, 139, 193; power 8, 11, 189–98; practice 2, 8, 10, 75, 76, 91, 92, 93, 94, 189, 191, 193–7, 198; protection 4, 45, 64, 207, 208; provenance 2, 5, 72–81, 85, 95, 180, 184, 202; proxies 6, 98, 99, 115, 138, 153; quality 2, 5, 45, 50, 61, 65, 89, 90, 103, 116–18, 194; re-use 66, 116, 128, 134, 190, 193; science 4, 10, 32, 47, 139; security 4, 45, 52; sharing 4, 7, 63, 78, 116, 127, 128, 134, 139; small 4, 32, 33, 41, 46; spatial 32, 72, 73, 79, 80, 117, 118, 131, 175; statistical 47, 61, 64, 113; sticky 6, 98–105; threads 5, 11, 85–95 database 7, 8, 19, 23, 45, 80, 81, 87, 87, 141, 145, 145, 153, 159, 171, 172, 173, 178, 179, 181, 184 data-driven urbanism 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 44, 48, 113 dataveillance 4, 10, 45, 49, 52, 197 democracy 2, 9, 11, 122, 190, 222 demographic 60, 63, 100, 101, 104, 192, 196 device paradigm 9, 214–16, 217, 218 Dodge, M. 21, 22, 46, 48, 49, 52, 76, 79, 157, 159, 175, 204, 205, 214 Dublin Dashboard 6, 113, 117, 118, 120, 122 dynamic nominalism 8, 11, 181, 182–85 efficiency 11, 19, 48, 72, 75, 123, 127, 190, 196, 197, 213, 222 embodiment 92, 159, 203, 209, 210 empowerment 19, 48, 147 epistemology 2, 3, 6, 7, 10–11, 17, 18–21, 22, 27, 59, 77, 78, 85, 113–15, 121, 123, 160, 162, 163, 194, 214 error 5, 88, 89, 99, 117, 118, 120, 154, 180, 217 essentialism 4, 75, 114, 115, 158 ethics 2, 10, 27, 45, 49, 52–3, 95, 122–123, 190, 198 Euclidean space 7, 161, 162, 164 Evans, L. 23 fab lab 219 Facebook 76, 130, 153, 156, 214, 215 feminism 94, 202 focal practice 9, 214–16, 217, 218, 219–221, 222 Foucault, M. 50, 51, 78, 174, 178, 179, 181, 203, 205 Foursquare 46, 77, 78, 156 Fuchs, C. 206, 207 gender 63, 68, 196 geodemographic 19, 53, 76, 78, 123 geoservices 7, 128, 131–4, 135, 136 geosurveillance 49, 52 Github, 164 Google 73, 76, 104, 130, 135, 160, 210, 216, 217, 220 governance 1, 2, 8, 9, 44, 45, 48, 49, 72, 78, 85, 95, 104, 115, 121, 122, 123, 191, 192, 193, 197, 202; algorithmic 48, 54; anticipatory 4, 45, 49, 53; technocratic 9, 49, 78, 121 government, 9, 10, 19, 21, 22, 48, 59, 64, 79, 88, 111, 113, 116, 141, 174, 189, 190, 192, 193, 205, 208, 222 GPS 46, 53, 80, 149, 152, 160, 165, 217, 219 gravity model 36 hacking 4, 45, 48, 49, 52, 105, 219, 221 Hacking, I. 8, 172, 178, 179, 181–83 Hägerstrand, T. 141, 144, 145, 153 HarassMap 68 heterogeneity 19, 27, 39, 50, 160, 179 Index 227 IBM 19, 47, 189, 190, 218 ideology 5, 20, 21, 49, 86, 95, 114, 115, 205, 206, 214 immutable mobile 86, 162, 163 indicators 5, 51, 85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 113, 115, 116, 117, 122, 138, 139, 194 inequality 49, 62, 100, 101, 146, 158 infant mortality 86–9 infrastructure 1, 3, 22, 40, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 66, 72, 77, 85, 86, 91, 92, 111, 127, 136, 157, 158, 159, 162, 172, 179, 184, 184, 189, 192, 195, 205, 214 innovation 48 institution 1, 5, 9, 10, 19, 20, 22, 50, 60, 61–2, 68, 78, 98, 99, 116, 174, 179, 182, 183, 210 instrumentally 2, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 23, 54, 72, 121, 122, 123, 222 intelligent transport systems 2, 48 interface 22, 25, 26, 51, 93, 114, 130, 131, 133, 134, 158, 166 internet of things 46, 127 interoperability 6–7, 45, 127, 129, 130, 131, 134, 135, 136, 139, 184 interpretation 5, 33, 34, 60, 68, 79, 80, 87, 117, 119, 150, 194, 209, 210, 214 ISO 37, 120 51, 89, 90, 91 Judgement 5, 10, 60 Kitchin, R. 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 17, 20, 21, 22, 27, 34, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 60, 74, 75, 76, 78, 85, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 122, 157, 159, 171, 178, 179, 180, 189, 190, 190, 191, 192, 194, 196, 197, 204, 205, 214 labour 10, 100, 153, 190 Latour, B. 22, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 208 ledgers 141–57 Lefebvre, H. 165, 206, 209 Lessig, L. 204, 205 licensing 45, 53, 85, 95, 116, 123 lightings 101–03 literacy 113, 119–20, 123, 158, 194 living labs 21, 148 loose coupling 7, 128, 129, 137 machine learning 3, 19, 42, 47, 145 management 3, 4, 6, 10, 17, 25, 34, 45, 47, 48, 50, 54, 61, 62, 95, 111, 113, 115, 120, 121, 122, 127, 134, 135, 144, 153, 190, 193, 197, 214 Map Knitter 220 mapping 2, 10, 45, 46, 64–66, 116, 119, 135, 172, 174, 210, 216, 217, 220, 222 Marx, K. 141, 142 materiality 5, 7, 8, 85, 91, 93, 95, 157, 158, 159, 163–65 media 22, 26, 31, 44, 45, 66, 100, 116, 156, 159, 160 metadata 5, 6, 7, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 90, 98, 99, 116, 118, 123, 134, 135 metaphysics 27, 94, 114 Microsoft 47, 130, 135, 191 misinterpretation 74 mobile; devices 39, 52, 99, 184; phone 23, 46, 51, 76, 158, 159, 160, 210 model 4, 17, 19, 35–9, 78, 104, 119, 145, 147, 172, 173, 180, 184 modelling 19, 35–9, 40, 47, 100, 114, 118, 120, 132, 172, 180, 181, 184, 213 Modifiable Areal Unit Problem 119 money 39, 40, 141–4, 148, 153, 190, 196 Mumford, L. 24–5 MySpace 26 NASA 102, 103 neoliberalism 63, 65, 78, 196 network 1, 7, 19, 22, 23, 40, 45, 46, 52, 53, 86, 93, 129, 135, 142, 143, 150, 158, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 173, 193, 203, 205; society 26, 156; topology 161 networked; locality 22; urbanism 44, 48, 52, 54 neutrality 4, 5, 8, 10, 22, 48, 49, 51, 54, 60, 78, 79, 86, 87, 114, 115, 134, 135, 166, 179, 202, 214 normative 2, 3, 4, 11–2, 18, 24, 26, 27, 28, 54, 115 objectivity 5, 8, 10, 18, 49, 51, 54, 60, 61, 69, 78, 79, 81, 86, 87, 103, 114, 115, 123, 144, 172, 179, 181, 194, 195, 206, 209 object-oriented model 8, 179 ontology 3, 4, 8, 23, 72, 79, 80, 81, 86, 113, 162, 165, 171, 174, 175, 177, 182, 183, 184, 194, 209, 214 Open Street Map 46, 217 Ordnance Survey Ireland 8, 173, 174–8, 183–5 organizational service layer 136–8 participation 2, 9, 10, 48, 48, 68, 122, 203, 214, 216–19, 221, 222 pavement management system 173 228 Index performance 26, 62, 86, 120, 121, 141, 164; metrics 74, 88–91, 122, 197 performativity, 23, 206, 207, 209 phenomenology 23 planning 18, 34, 47, 54, 60, 72, 74, 78, 89, 90, 184 platform 6, 27, 49, 51, 100, 101, 104, 127, 129, 130, 142, 143, 148, 150, 154, 173, 174, 175, 179, 198, 208, 209, 210, 215; independency 7, 127, 128, 134, 135, 137; society 26 policy 5, 6, 12, 44, 45, 47, 49, 50, 64, 74, 89, 90, 115, 118, 120, 121, 122, 190, 192, 196 political economy 8, 49, 114, 173, 181, 185, 197 politics 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21, 27, 49, 50, 52, 54, 78, 86, 91, 95, 99, 102, 114, 115, 120, 124, 157, 193, 196, 201, 202, 203, 208, 209, 213 post-human 164–5 post-political 12 power 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 49, 73, 143, 144, 160, 161, 166, 189–98, 201–208, 210, 222 power/knowledge 8, 51, 179, 180, 185 prediction 7, 35–7, 47, 52, 53, 76, 100, 102, 104, 114, 139, 153 predictive policing 2, 5, 53, 104 privacy 4, 9, 45, 52, 65, 68, 72, 105, 122, 201, 202, 207, 208 privatization 51, 63, 68, 116 profiling 2, 19, 77 protocols 1, 7, 76, 81, 93, 130, 133, 135, 157, 163, 205 public; good 8, 49, 77, 78; space 26, 27, 100, 152, 205 Public Lab 219, 222 race 63, 64, 67, 196 realism 21, 22, 50, 79, 103, 114, 121, 146, 158, 172, 194, 197, 215, 216, 217, 222 real-time 1, 3, 4, 17, 18, 19, 23, 34, 39–41, 44, 46, 47, 48, 54, 72, 75, 113 regulation 9, 10, 11, 22, 50, 50, 51, 52, 54, 142, 192, 203, 205, 206, 207 relational space 79, 94, 161 relationality 5, 7, 17, 51, 85, 86, 93, 122, 156, 173 representation 23, 25, 42, 59, 60, 68, 72, 75, 76, 89, 92, 92, 93, 98, 105, 114, 117, 141, 142, 143, 145, 149, 153, 158, 184, 195, 197, 206, 216, 217 Research Data Alliance 191 resistance 10, 183, 197 resource allocation 66 RESTful service 7, 128, 129–36, 138 RFID 39, 53 sampling 2, 4, 36, 45, 50, 89, 99, 113, 116, 118 scalable 7, 128, 130, 135, 139 scale 11, 37, 38, 76, 80, 81, 86, 95, 99, 103, 119, 158, 171, 173, 175, 184 science and technology studies 157, 159 security 2, 5, 9, 46, 48, 63, 64, 67, 72, 130, 134, 135, 164, 202, 213 Senseable City Lab 19 sensors 2, 19, 34, 46, 49, 50, 52, 53, 60, 62–3, 102, 103, 113, 116, 127, 213, 214, 216, 219, 221, 222 service orientation principles 7, 128–9 sharing economy 48 simulation 2, 47, 48, 114 smart: card 34, 39, 40, 53, 116; cities, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 18, 19, 20, 21, 42, 44, 45–9, 52, 54, 68, 75, 78, 80, 113, 122, 123, 127–139, 148, 190, 197, 202, 213–222; smartphone 52, 53, 54, 80, 116, 127, 215, 218, 219, 221 social: media 42, 46, 48, 49, 76, 99, 100, 101, 104, 113, 206; network 17, 26, 35, 100, 215; sorting 2, 4, 45, 52, 123, 172 socio-technical: assemblage 4, 7, 8, 10, 49, 49, 50, 161, 172, 178, 179, 184, 185, 202; practices 80 space 25, 52, 65, 79, 92, 93, 94, 100, 115, 144, 145, 153, 157, 158, 162, 163, 165, 183, 191, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206; production of 3, 8, 21, 22, 25, 206 space of flows, 7, 156 spacetime 93, 94, 165 space-time compression, 7, 156 spacetimematter 94, 165 spatial: imaginaries 86, 92–4; interaction 32–3, 42; media 2; sorting 49, 123; structure 95; urban 18, 21–4, 68, 156, 157, 173, 196, 209, 213; video 46 spatiality 7, 24, 85, 91, 92, 93, 94, 143, 161, 163 standards 1, 5, 6, 46, 51, 62, 64, 73, 74, 75, 80, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 116, 117, 118, 123, 129, 130, 134, 173, 184, 195, 195 statistical analysis 47 statistics 33, 44, 45, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 85, 87, 88, 89, 115, 118, 184, 213 subjective 5, 22, 49, 60, 166, 196, 198, 201, 207, 210 Index 229 subjectivity 2, 10, 60, 165, 202, 203, 208 surveillance 2, 9, 10, 46, 52, 78, 100, 102, 144, 202, 210 survey 2, 45, 49, 61, 64, 66, 74, 89, 89, 89, 90, 99, 113, 210 sustainability 11, 48, 122, 123, 127, 148, 197 truth 49, 77, 78, 114, 123, 174, 184 Twitter, 6, 46, 49, 99–101, 103, 113, 218 TCP/IP 93 technicity 159 territory 7, 174 Thrift, N. 144, 158 time-spaces 7, 163, 164, 164–65 topology 7, 11, 157, 160, 161–4, 165, 166, 173, 175, 176, 181, 183, 184 Toyota 147, 154 transduction 8, 22, 159, 162, 171, 173 transparency 20, 48, 60, 64, 66–8, 113, 120, 122, 164, 181, 193, 216, 221 transponder 46, 53, 113, 127 transport 4, 20, 33, 34–41, 45, 46, 48, 51, 53, 76, 90, 184, 215 trust 5, 7, 24, 25–6, 27, 52, 62, 73, 74, 85, 103, 111, 117, 118, 148, 150, 151, 154, 195 values 8, 9, 10, 33, 78, 88, 91, 98, 142, 143, 146, 191, 192, 193, 195–7, 202, 213 veracity 5, 6, 33, 45, 76, 95, 113, 117–19, 120, 123 virtual 142, 157, 158, 159, 201, 204 visualization 4, 6, 33, 34, 35, 38, 42, 44, 47, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 103, 111, 113, 114, 120, 154, 213, 216 volunteer computing 218 volunteered geographic information 1, 46 Uber 26, 76, 156 urban: entrepreneurship 48; informatics 18, 47, 48, 114, 123; modelling 2, 33; science 4, 10, 18, 48, 47, 114 Web Services 7, 128, 129–131, 134, 135, 136, 138 wicked problems 20, 49, 122 wifi 53 World Council on City Data 90–1


pages: 238 words: 46

When Things Start to Think by Neil A. Gershenfeld

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Bretton Woods, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Dynabook, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, invention of movable type, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, low earth orbit, means of production, new economy, Nick Leeson, packet switching, RFID, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush

In retrospect, it's surprising that it has taken so long for such an exquisite biological sense to get used for computer interfaces. There's been an anthropomorphic tendency to assume that a computer's senses should match our own. We had trouble keeping the Fish boards on hand because they would be carried off around the Media Lab by students who wanted to build physical interfaces. More recently, the students have been acquiring as many radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips as they can get their hands on. These are tiny processors, SEEING THROUGH WINDOWS + 145 small enough even to be swallowed, that are powered by an external field that can also exchange data with them. They're currently used in niche applications, such as tracking laboratory animals, or in the key-chain tags that enable us to pump gas without using a credit card. The students use them everywhere else.

It is now acquiring new capabilities, such as a pager, or a GPS receiver, or the Swatch Access watches used as electronic ski-lift tickets. Europe is also leading the way with smart cards, computers the size of a credit card that are used much the same way, but that store electronic cash instead of requiring access to a remote computer. They were first used to eliminate the need for change to use pay phones, and are now spreading to all areas of electronic commerce. Finally, for tens of cents come the RFID chips that are used to tag things with an electronic identity. These are used in the badges that control access to a workplace, and in tracking laboratory animals. And that's where it stops. No one's been able to fabricate, package, and sell chips for less than about ten cents. While that might not appear to be a severe limit, think about what it leaves off: just about everything! One of the most frequent challenges presented to me is finding a way to compute for pennies.

Robert, 179 optical pumping, 162 optical weak localization, 15 Orange County, California, 78 Orth, Maggie, 55 oscilloscope, 205 Oxford University, 158, 159 pagers, wristwatches as, 152 paper: book, 15 carbonless copy paper, 15-16 increasing consumption of, 102 radio, 18 INDEX reusable, 16-17 smart, 15-16 Papert, Seymour, 117, 138, 201-2 Paradiso, Joseph, 169, 180, 206-7 parallel computers, 68, 157 Parsons School of Design, 55 Pascal, Blaise, 131 Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (Babbage), 125-26 Passenger Sensing System, 170-71 patents, 181, 191 PEMS (Printed Electro-Mechanical Systems), 72-74 Penn & Teller, 169-70, 193 pennies, 82 Pentland, Sandy, 55 performance limit of a communications channel, 176 peripherals, computer, 52-53 Personal Area Network (PAN), 50-52 fictional predecessor of, 51-52 personal computers (PCs), 63-64, 151 invention of, 137-39 laptops, see laptop computers proliferation of, 63 Personal Digital Assistant, 151-52 Personal Fabricator, 64-75 physical gestures and logical meaning, Personal Area Network (PAN) and, 51 Piaget, Jean, 106, 137-38, 146 pianos, digital, 41 Picard, Roz, 54 Plymouth University, 158 Poe, Edgar Allan, 124 Poincare, Henri, 114 Popular Mechanics, 199 Post, Rehmi, 55 printers, 17-18, 102, 202 PEMS (Printed Electro-Mechanical Systems), 72-74 3D, 64-65, 70-71 two-dimensional output of, 4-5 privacy, 56-57, 100-1 Things That Think and, 207-10 + 223 probability theory, 120-21 productivity, 7 Pythagoras, 39 quantum computer, 157-63, 177 quantum mechanics, 130-31, 155, 157-59 radar, 171, 172 radio, 10, 99, 212 radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips, 144-45, 152 radio paper, 18 radio spectrum, 50 Raman, C. V., 39-40 Reeves, Byron, 54 Reformation, 95-97, 103 religion, 131, 133 research and development, 169-84 applied research, 172, 177, 178, 185 basic research, 172, 174, 177, 178, 185 government role, 171-74 new way to organize inquiry, 180-84 organization in the U.S., 171-74, 180 presumed pathway of, 177 Resnick, Mitchel, 68-70, 146-47, 206 responsibilities in using new technologies, 104 reusable paper, 16-17 Reynolds, Matt, 196, 197 rights: Bill of Things' Rights, 104 Bill of Things Users' Rights, 102 Rittmueller, Phil, 170, 180 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 171, 172 Santa Fe Institute, 118 Satellites, communications, 99-100 Science-The Endless Frontier, 172 search engines, 134 security versus privacy, 57 224 + semiconductor industry, 72 Sensormatic, 153 Shannon,C~ud~5, 128,176,188-90 shoe, computer in a, 50, 52, 102-3, 179 shoplifting tags, 153 Shor, Peter, 158, 159 Silicon Graphics, 140 Simon, Dan, 158 skepticism about technological advances, 122 Small, David, 22-23 Smalltalk, 138 smart cards, 81, 152 smart money, 77-91 cryptography and, 80-81 as digital information, 80 distinction between atom-dollars and bit-dollars, 83-85 freeing money from legacy as tangible asset, 79, 91 global currency market, 83 linking algorithms with money, 86-88 paying-as-you-go, 82 precedent for, 80 standards for, 88-91 smart name badges, 206 Smith, Joshua, 144, 170-71 sociology of science, 119 software, 7, 53, 156 belief in magic bullets, 121 CAD, 73 for children, 138 remarkable descriptions of, 108-9 upgrades, 98, 108-9 Soviet Union, 121-22 speech recognition, 140 spirit chair, 169-70, 179, 193, 202 spread-spectrum coding techniques, 165, 166 standards: computer, 88-90, 126 smart money, 88-91 Stanford Research Institute, 139 INDEX Stanford University, 54 Starner, Thad, 47, 57-58 Steane, Andy, 159 Steelcase, 202, 203, 204 Stradivarius, designing digital instrument to compete with, 32-33,39-42 Strickon, Joshua, 55 Sumitomo, 77 supercomputers, 151, 177, 199 surveillance, 57 Swatch Access watches, 152 Szilard, Leo, 176 technology: Bill of Things' Rights, 104 Bill of Things Users' Rights, 102 daily use of, 58 freedom of technological expression, 103 imposing on our lives, 95, 100-2 invisible and unobtrusive, 44, 200, 211 jargon, 107-22 mature, 10 musical instruments incorporating available, 38 wisdom in old technologies, 19, 24 telemarketing, 95, 101 telephones, 175 access to phone numbers, 100 invasion in our lives, 95, 101 satellite, 99-100 smart cards, 81 widespread dissemination of, 99 television, 10, 99, 202 high-definition, 6 Termen, Lev, 144 Tetzel, Johann, 96 "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," 161 thermodynamics, 175, 176 Things That Think, 202-7 privacy and, 207-10 stratification of society and, 210-11 INDEX 3D graphics interface, 141-42 3D printer, 64-65, 70-71 3001: The Final Odyssey (Clarke), 51 Toffoli, Tomaso, 132 transistors: invention of the, 175 study of, 179 Turing, Alan, 127-28, 131, 135, 166 Turing test, 128, 131, 133-34, 135 281, 210-11 Underkoffler, John, 145-46 U.S.


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

These WYMIWYM objects obviously figure informationalism in their production process, but as they themselves become linked into larger networks, through the incorporation of sensors, transmitters, and augmentation, they begin to attain autonomy. From mute objects and closed spaces, they become nodes in the network, aware of their place and time, and capable of communication from the minimal to the maximal. The incorporation of radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and microcontrollers into formerly quotidian objects enlivens them in an almost magical way. Like the animated brooms in Walt Disney’s Fantasia that come alive when Mickey Mouse accidentally enchants them as the Sorcerer’s Apprentice, there is a glamour, in its magical rather than fashionable sense, inherent in these new, augmented objects and spaces. The explosion of WYMIWYM objects and spaces will bring about an efflorescence of style, just as WYSIWYG publishing did.

., 109, 109–110 PBS, 68 PDP minicomputer, 71 Peer-to-peer networks, 15, 54, 92, 116, 126 Perot, Ross, 145 Perpetual beta, 36 Personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Petrini, Carlo, 5–6 Photography, 15, 40–42, 46–47, 64, 109, 150, 176 Photoshop, 131 Picasso, Pablo, 93 210 INDEX Pico Swap Mart, 105 Pirate Bay, 92 Pixar, 167 Pizza Hut, 5 Plagiarism, 41 Play, 188n25 bespoke futures and, 110–111, 130–131 culture machine and, 143, 153, 160–163 gaming and, 15, 23, 33–34, 57, 67, 70–74, 72, 188n25 meaningfulness and, 32–34 modders and, 69–70 power and, 32–34 rejuveniles and, 67 running room and, 74–77 stickiness and, 13, 15, 32–34, 70–74 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185n22, 185n23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77 video games and, 15, 23, 33–34, 57, 67, 72, 188n25 Web n.0 and, 85, 88 Play space, 74–77 Plug-in Drug, The (Winn), xii Plutocrats culture machine and, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 description of term, xv Hewlett and, 145, 157 Moore and, 156 Noyce and, 156 Packard and, 145, 157 profit and, xv Watsons and, 144, 153–157, 165–166 Plutopian meliorism, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 Poetry, 14, 18–19, 136, 145 Politics African National Congress and, 113 211 Berlin Wall and, xvi, 85, 97, 99, 104 Communism and, 97–98, 103 copyright and, 88–93 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi fantasies of, 104 New Economy and, 104 propaganda and, 31, 103, 124 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 Slow Food and, 5–7 Soviet Union and, xi, 31, 49–52, 59, 73, 85, 88, 97, 102–107, 146 Tiananmen Square and, 104 Velvet Revolution and, 104 Pong, 71 Popper, Karl, 107 Popular Mechanics magazine, 69 Pop-up ads, 23 Positivism, 10, 125 Postmodernism, 29–30, 39–41, 74, 79, 130, 135 PostScript World, 55–56, 102 Poststructuralism, 29–30 Power, 8 bespoke futures and, 98–103, 112– 116, 119–126, 129–130, 136–137 culture machine and, 143, 147, 150– 151, 155–156, 163, 166, 169, 175 meaningfulness and, 32–34 play and, 32–34 stickiness and, 13, 17, 22, 30–34 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unimodernism and, 39, 49–50, 62, 71–75 Web n.0 and, 81–87, 90–95 PowerBook, 39 Pro bono work, 111 Production appropriation and, 28, 31, 35, 41 balance and, 13 collaborative, 30 INDEX Production (continued) continuous partial, 34 DIY movements and, 67–70 fan culture and, 28–32, 48 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 modders and, 69–70 open source, 36, 61, 69, 74–75, 91–92, 116, 121–126, 144, 170– 173, 177, 189n12 plagiarism and, 41 remixing and, 27, 35, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70, 92–94, 129, 189n12 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unfinish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67, 74, 131 Propaganda, 31, 103, 124 Prosumers, 120–121 Psychology culture machine and, 151, 161 Gestalt, 42–43 Licklider and, 151 propaganda and, 31, 103, 124 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 stickiness and, 16, 21–22 unimodernism and, 42–44, 56 Public domain, 91 Publishing, 31, 190n8 bespoke future and, 109–110, 112 culture machine and, 146, 148–149, 168 DIY movement and, 67–69 Gutenberg press and, 11, 137–138 unimodernism and, 55–65, 68 Puccini, Giacomo, 61 Punk aesthetic, 46, 67–68, 87, 110 Quantum theory, 148 Radio, 8 Radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), 65 Radiohead, 39 Ramayana, 28 Rand, Paul, 43 Raymond, Eric, 172 Raytheon, 149 Rear Window (film), 44 Relativity, 49–50, 186n4 Religion, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 Remixing, 27, 94, 129, 189n12 appropriation and, 28, 31, 35, 41 Creative Commons and, 92 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 unimodernism and, 39, 53–54, 53–55, 62–63, 70 Renaissance, 60 Rent (Larson), 61 Reperceiving, 112–113 Reuters Spectracolor Board, 9 Revivalism, 60 Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles (BBC documentary), 10 Rheingold, Howard, 145 Rick’s Café, 90 Roberts, Alwyn “Lord Kitchener,” 25–27 Robot butlers, xiv Rockefeller, John D., 166 Rolling Stone magazine, 67 Romanticism, 103 Romeo and Juliet (hip-hop version), 61 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 148 Rope (film), 44 Roux, A., 11 Royal Dutch Shell, 112, 112–113 Royal Library of Alexandria, 89 R-PR (Really Public Relations), xvi, 123–127 RSS feeds, xvii Rumsfeld, Donald, 99 Running room, 74–77 Run time, 57 212 INDEX environmental perception and, 16 memes and, 19, 53–54, 76, 87, 91, 98, 113, 143–144, 149–150, 156–162, 165–170, 178, 194n1 mimicry and, xvii MP3s and, 27 participation and, 15–17 stickiness and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 unimodernism and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 Sinatra, Frank, 63 Skype, 15 Skyscrapers, xiv Slow movements, 5–7, 181n7 Slurpees, 4 “Smells Like Teen Spirit” (Nirvana), 62 Smith & Hawken, 113 Snakes on a Plane (film), 30 Snow White (Disney film), 20 Social issues advertisement and, 23, 52, 57, 59, 107, 175–177, 184nn12,15 Aquarians and, xv, 144, 152, 157, 159–169 atomic age and, xi (see also Atomic age) Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 bespoke futures and, xvi, 97–139 blogosphere and, xvii, 30, 34, 49, 68, 80, 92–93, 101, 175, 177, 181n7 capitalism and, 4, 13, 66, 75, 90, 97–100, 103–105 capitulationism and, 7, 24, 182n1 cell phones and, xiii, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 Communism and, 97–98, 103 computers and, xvi, 5, 15–19 (see also Computers) Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi dangers of overabundance and, 7–10 desk jobs and, 3 89/11 and, xvi, 97, 100–102, 105, 130 Enlightenment and, xvi, 129–139 Sacred texts, 28 Saint Laurent, Yves, 60 Saks Fifth Avenue, 31 Samizdat, 59 Scenario planning bespoke futures and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 chaos theory and, 117–119 crafting of, 113–116 Ogilvy and, 113–114 Schwartz and, 113–114 Scènes de la vie Bohème (Murger), 61 Schindler, Rudolph, 45 Schrödinger, Erwin, 49 Schwartz, Peter, 113–115, 119 Scott, Ridley, 107 Scratching, 53 Searchers, 167, 177–178 Brin and, 144, 174–176 description of term, xv–xvi Page and, 144, 174–176 Sears, 103–105 September 11, 2001, xvi–xvii, 99–101, 130 SETI@home, 122 Sex, 7, 19, 88, 129–130, 167 Shakespeare, William, 28, 44 Shannon, Claude, 148 Shockley, William, 156 Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, 156 Silicon Valley, 149, 161, 164 Silly Symphonies (Disney film), 88 Simon, John, Jr., 39 Simulation, xvi, 2, 11 affordances and, 16–17 bespoke futures and, 98, 121, 124, 126–127 buttons/knobs and, 16 communication devices and, 15–16 culture machine and, 143–144, 147– 152, 156–160, 166–168, 175–178 downloading and, 143, 168 emulation and, 183n3 213 INDEX Social issues (continued) figure/ground and, xvi, 42–43, 46, 102 folksonomies and, 80–81 hackers and, 22–23, 54, 67, 69, 162, 170–173 Holocaust and, 107 Hosts and, xv, 144, 167, 175 hypercontexts and, xvi, 7, 48, 76–77 information overload and, 22, 149 MaSAI and, xvi, 112, 120–123, 127, 193nn32 meaningfulness and, xvi, 14, 17, 20, 23–29, 42, 67, 77, 79, 119, 123, 128–129, 133, 173 narrative and, xv, 2, 7–8, 58–59, 67, 71, 76, 108, 110, 130–132, 143– 145, 174, 178, 180n4, 188n25, 193n34 personal grounding and, xiv–xv play and, xvi, 13, 15, 32–34, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77, 85, 88, 110–111, 130–131, 143, 153, 160–163, 185n22, 188n25 Plutocrats and, xv, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 plutopian meliorism and, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 power and, xvi, 8, 13, 17, 22 (see also Power) relationship with data and, 32 religion and, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 R-PR (Really Public Relations) and, xvi, 123–127 Searchers and, xv–xvi, 144, 167, 174–178 suburbs and, 3, 8 television and, xii (see also Television) terrorism and, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 unfinish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 urban planning and, 84–86 utopia and, 36, 73, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 wants vs. needs and, 13, 37, 57 wicked problems and, 158 World War I era and, 21, 107, 123, 146, 190n1 World War II era and, xi, 18, 25, 32, 47, 73, 107–108, 144–150, 157, 170 Socialists, 102–105 Software platforms, 15, 164, 170 Sontag, Susan, 135 Sopranos, The (TV show), 7 Soundscapes, 53–55 Soviet Union, 31, 85, 88, 146 Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 fall of, 104 gulags of, 107 samizdat and, 59 unimodernism and, 49–52, 73 Space Invaders, 71 Spacewar!

, 71 Spielraum (play space), 75 Spin, 124 Stallman, Richard, 170–171 Stanford, 144, 149, 158–159, 162, 175 Stardust@home, 122–123 Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC), 193n33 Sterling, Bruce, 101–102 Stewart, Jimmy, 44 Stickiness defining, 28, 184n15 downloading and, 13–17, 20–23, 27–29, 184n15 duration and, 28 fan culture and, 28–32, 48, 49, 87 gaming and, 70–74 214 INDEX Systems theory, 151 Stickiness (continued) information and, 22–23, 32–35 markets and, 13, 16, 24, 30–33, 37 modernism and, 36 networks and, 16–17, 22, 24, 29–36 obsessiveness and, 28 play and, 32–34, 70–74 power and, 32–34 simulation and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 Teflon objects and, 28–32, 49, 87 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unfinish and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 70–74 uploading and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Web n.0 and, 79, 87 Stock options, 98 Stone, Linda, 34 Storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 Strachey, Christopher, 18–19 Strachey, Lytton, 19 Strange attractors, xvi, 117–120, 192n27 Sturges, Preston, 88 Stutzman, Fred, 22 Stewart, Martha, 49 Suburbs, 3, 8 Suicide bombers, 100–101 Sullivan’s Travels (Sturges), 88 Sun Microsystems, 172, 176 Superflat art, xi, 49 Supersizing, 3–4 Suprematism, 117 Surfing, 20, 80, 180n2 Surrealism, 31 Sutherland, Ivan, 160–161 Swiss Army Knife theory, 17 Symbiosis, 151–152 Synthetism, 117 Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (Jacobs), 85–86 Take-home consumption, 3 Tarantino, Quentin, 49 Taxonomies, 80–83 Technology analog, 18, 53, 150 anticipated, 108–110 bespoke futures and, 98–104, 107–113, 116, 119, 125–127, 131– 133, 136–139 broadband, 9, 57 cell phones, xiii, xvii, 17, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 commercial networks and, 4–5 compact discs (CDs), 2, 48, 53 computer mouse, 158–159 culture machine and, 143–163, 173–174 cyberpunk maxim on, 87 determinism and, 131–132 difference engine, 149 digital video discs (DVDs), 2, 7–8, 15, 58 dot-com bubble and, 79, 174 Dynabook, 161–162, 196n17 Ethernet, 161 Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 film cameras, 15 Gutenberg press, 11, 137–138 hierarchical structures and, 123, 155, 175–176, 189n8 historical perspective on computer, 143–178 hypertext and, 158 information overload and, 22, 149 Jacquard loom, 11 mechanical calculator, 149 Metcalfe’s corollary and, 86–87 microfilm, 149–150 215 INDEX Technology (continued) Moore’s law and, 156, 195n13 New Economy and, 97, 99, 104, 131, 138, 144–145, 190n3 personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Photoshop, 131 progress and, 132 RFID, 65 secular culture and, 133–139 storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 technofabulism and, 99–100 teleconferencing, 158–159 3–D tracking, 39 tweaking and, 32–35, 185nn22,23 videocassette recorders (VCRs), 15, 23 wants vs. needs and, 4 woven books, 10–11 Teflon objects, 28–32, 49, 87 Teleconferencing, 158–159 Television as defining Western culture, 2 aversion to, xii bespoke futures and, 101, 108, 124, 127–129, 133–137 delivery methods for, 2 dominance of, xii, 2–10 downloading and, 2 as drug, xii, 7–9 general audiences and, 8–9 habits of mind and, 9–10 Internet, 9 junk culture and, 5–10 Kennedy and, xi macro, 56–60 marketing fear and, xvii overusage of, 7–9 as pedagogical boon, 14 quality shows and, 7 rejuveniles and, 67 Slow Food and, 6–7 spin-offs and, 48 as time filler, 67 U.S. ownership data on, 180n2 Telnet, 169 “Ten Tips for Successful Scenarios” (Schwartz and Ogilvy), 113 Terrorism, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 Textiles, 11 Text-messaging, 82 3COM, 86 3–D tracking, 39 Tiananmen Square, 104 Timecode (Figgis), 58 Time magazine, xii, 145 Time Warner, 63, 91 Tin Pan Alley, 28, 63 Tintin, 90 Toggling, xvi, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 Tools for Thought (Rheingold), 145 Torvalds, Linus, 144, 167–173 Tracy, Dick, 108 Traitorous Eight, 156 Trilling, Lionel, 79 Turing, Alan, 17–20, 52, 148 Turing Award, 17, 156 Tweaking, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 20,000 Leagues beneath the Sea (Verne), 108 Twins paradox, 49–50 Twitter, 34, 180n2 2001 (film), 107 Ubiquity, xiii bespoke futures and, 125, 128 culture machine and, 144, 166, 177–178 folksonomies and, 80–81 Freedom software and, 22–23 hotspots and, xiv information overload and, 22, 149 isotypes and, 125 stickiness and, 22–23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 57–59, 62, 74 216 INDEX simulation and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 soundscape and, 53–55 stickiness and, 70–74 twins paradox and, 49–50 unconscious and, 43–44 unfinish and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 unimedia and, 39–40 uploading and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67 WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) and, 55–56, 64–65 United States Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi September 11, 2001 and, 99–101, 130 television’s dominance and, 2, 180n2 Universal Resource Locator (URL), 168–169 Universal Turing Machine, 18–19 University of Pennsylvania, 148 University of Utah, 160 UNIX, 170–171 “Untitled (After Walker Evans)” (Levine), 41 Uploading, xiii–xiv, 180nn1,2 activity levels and, 5 animal kingdom and, 1 bespoke futures and, 97, 120–123, 128–129, 132 commercial networks and, 4–5 communication devices and, 15–16 conversation and, 13 cultural hierarchy of, 1–2 culture machine and, 143, 168, 173, 175 disproportionate amount of to downloading, 13 humans and, 1–2 information and, 1, 4, 11 meaningfulness and, xvi, 29 stickiness and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Ubiquity (continued) Web n.0 and, 79–95 Ublopia, 101 Ulysses (Joyce), 94–95 Uncertainty principle, 37 Unfinish, xvi bespoke futures and, 127–129, 136 continuous partical attention and, 34 perpetual beta and, 36 stickiness and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 Web n.0 and, 79, 92 Unimedia, 39–40 Unimodernism Burroughs and, 40–42 common sense and, 44–45 DIY movements and, 67–70 downloading and, 41–42, 49, 54–57, 66–67, 76–77 figure/ground and, 42–43, 46 gaming and, 70–74 hypertextuality and, 51–53 images and, 55–56 information and, 45–49, 55, 60, 65–66, 74 Krikalev and, 50–51 macrotelevision and, 56–60 markets and, 45, 48, 58–59, 71, 75 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 microcinema and, 56–60 modders and, 69–70 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 narrative and, 58–59, 67, 71, 76 networks and, 39, 47–48, 54–57, 60, 64–65, 68–69, 73–74 participation and, 54, 66–67, 74–77 perception pops and, 43–49 play and, 67–77 postmodernism and, 39–41, 74 remixing and, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70 running room and, 74–77 217 INDEX Uploading (continued) unimodernism and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 Web n.0 and, 79–83, 86–87, 91 Urban planning, 84–86 U.S.


pages: 265 words: 70,788

The Wide Lens: What Successful Innovators See That Others Miss by Ron Adner

barriers to entry, call centre, Clayton Christensen, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, minimum viable product, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, RFID, smart grid, smart meter, spectrum auction, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs

The Case for Followership The temptation to grab the leadership torch is powerful. Who wouldn’t want to call the shots so they can win big every time? The leadership prism should help put those urges in perspective. The reality is, no one has pockets deep enough to finance every endeavor. Ask Microsoft in television set-top boxes, Intel in WiMAX mobile communication, and Wal-Mart in radio frequency identification (RFID) chips for consumer packaged goods. Ask every IT player in EHR: only when they chose to follow (and support) the government’s lead was real progress—and money—made. No one will stop you from spending a fortune on a leadership candidacy you can’t win. You can try to lead in every ecosystem where you play, or you can choose to be involved only in leading ecosystems. The latter, smarter, option means that sometimes you will be a follower.

See Exubera; Inhalable insulin Philips Electronics, HDTV blind spot, 3, 53 Pickerill, Ayron, 70 Pilot approach, versus minimum viable ecosystem (MVE), 201–3 Pogue, David, 207 Portable music players, 140–47 development, companies involved, 141–42 iPod, 140, 144–47 SaeHan MPMan, 140–44 Sony Walkman, 140–42 Pre-Scribe, 121 Product Development and Management Association (PDMA), 4–5 Production staff, role of, 61 PROMIS, electronic health record (EHR), 120 Prototype. See Value proposition Publishing industry electronic books. See E-books; E-readers iPad media partners, 219–21 Pulmonary insulin. See Exubera; Inhalable insulin R Raikes, Jeff, 56 Rave, 142 Read, Ian, 111 Reidy, Carolyn, 90 Renault, and Better Place, 184–85, 238, 240 Research in Motion, 211 Resources, and co-innovation, 50 Retailers, role of, 55, 61 RFID (radio frequency ID) chips, 133 Ricci, Dr. Russell, 125 Rio PMP300, 142 Rocket e-reader, 88 S SaeHan MPMan, 140–44 failure, reasons for, 142–44 features, 142 Safaricom, mobile banking joint venture. See M-PESA Samsung, 40, 207 Scaling, pilots, difficulty of, 202–3 Semiconductor lithography, 150–53 functions of, 150–51 goals of, 152 innovation ecosystem for, 151–53 Sensory Science, 142 Sklyer, Dr.

See Value blueprints for leadership prism, 118 and minimum viable ecosystem (MVE) approach, 203–4 Vertical integration, pros/cons of, 8, 177 Veterans Health Administration (VHA), electronic health records (EHRs), 131 Virtual print fee (VPF), 72–73, 76 Vision and co-innovation, 50–51 value proposition as, 85 VISTA electronic record system, 131 Vodafone, mobile banking joint venture. See M-PESA W Wachter, Dr. Robert, 119 Wal-Mart, RFID chips, 133 Weed, Larry, 120 Whitney, William C., 165–66 Wide-lens perspective components of, 7, 158–59, 233 ecosystem and innovation. See entries under Ecosystem necessity of, 229–31 odds for success, creating with, 228–30 potential problems, productive approach to, 228 tool kit, 226–28 WiMAX, 133 * In 2010, at the behest of publishers, Amazon abandoned the fixed retail price model, allowing publishers to set e-book prices directly and receiving a 30 percent commission on each sale


pages: 350 words: 107,834

Halting State by Charles Stross

augmented reality, Boris Johnson, call centre, forensic accounting, game design, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, lifelogging, Necker cube, Potemkin village, RFID, Schrödinger's Cat, Vernor Vinge, zero day

If you could afford to move east you would, but the bits you can afford are all doomed: You’ve seen the flood maps for the Thames Gateway suburbs and know which insurance firms are whistling past the graveyard… Because you’re dead good at your job. Now if only you had a life, too, eh? The office opens its doors and swallows you off the street. Once upon a time it started life as an unassuming Georgian town house; but today, the garden is overgrown with Foster Associates geodesics, the roof is covered in solar tiles, and the door scanned your RFIDs and worked out who you were while you were still halfway up the street. The HQ of Dietrich-Brunner Associates is probably worth more than some Third World countries. You hole up in the ladies’ for a minute to freshen up, then it’s up the lift to the third floor, where the junior associates swelter under the low eaves. After you drop your briefcase you head straight for the coffee station. It’s turning half nine, and there’s a queue of thirsty associates, ordered by pecking order, waiting for Jessica or Esmé or whoever it is from Admin to quit fiddling with the cartridge and get out the way.

There are no contents; the brown stain on the side is a povidone iodine hospital scrub. Meanwhile, over here we have a patch on the work-top where you’ll see there’s a faint outline—matches a microwave oven. Why the hell anyone would leave the electronics in the living room but take the microwave oven is, well, your guess is as good as mine. But that’s what they did: They scrubbed the fridge out and lifted the microwave. Maybe they’d been using it for toasting RFID tags or something. But the whole thing’s been thoroughly sanitized.” “Sanitized?” Verity explodes. “Are you telling us you can’t get anything?” “Yes, I am—at least, so far.” Tweed nods like a dashboard ornament. He starts counting off fingers. “There are no human traces in the place that haven’t been thoroughly cleaned or scrambled. When the LCN results came back, it was a smeared mess—we got a DNA sample alright, one from about three hundred people in parallel.”

And it’s attached to a credit card number, although you’ve only got the last four digits. Gentlemen, start your search engines. Elaine is wandering along behind you with the slightly stunned expression of a Mormon missionary at a Pagan Federation summer camp—it obviously looks like a target-rich environment—but the set of co-ordinates attached to Wu Chen’s badge (which, like all the attendee badges at this shindig is bugged with seven flavours of RFID—you checked your privacy at the door when you filled out that marketing questionnaire, unless you remembered to pack a tinfoil wallet) is moving slowly through the huge auditorium at the back of the building. You lock Wu Chen into the map widget hovering over to the left, then simultaneously log all your Zone IDs on simultaneously, collapsing their various shards into a single mish-mash view. Why stick with a single reality when you can walk through a multiverse?


Programming Android by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura

anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application

Near Field Communication (NFC) Near Field Communication is a short-range (up to 20 cm), high-frequency, wireless communication technology. It is a standard that extends the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) standard by combining the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. This standard is primarily built for mobile phone use, and thus is attracting a lot of attention among vendors that are interested in contactless data transmission (such as credit card sales). The standard enables NFC to be used in three specific ways: Card emulation The device is a contactless card (and thus can be read by other readers). Reader mode The device can read RFID tags. P2P mode Two devices can communicate back and forth and exchange data. In Android 2.3 (API level 9), Google introduced the Reader Mode NFC functionality.

To use NFC functionality in your application, you need to declare the following permission in your manifest: <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.NFC" /> To restrict the installation of the application to devices that can use NFC, add the following to your manifest as well: <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.nfc" /> Reading a Tag Reader mode is for receiving notices when an RFID/NFC tag is scanned. In Android 2.3 (API level 9), the only means to do this is to create an Activity that listens for the android.nfc.action.TAG_DISCOVERED intent, which is broadcast when a tag is read. Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) offers a more comprehensive means to receive this notice, following the process shown in Figure 16-2. Figure 16-2. NFC tag flow in Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) In Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) and later, when an NFC tag is discovered the tag object (a Parcelable) is placed into an Intent as an EXTRA_TAG.

as signing certificates, Creating a self-signed certificate private keyword, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation, Getters and setters projects, Making an Android Project, Making an Android Project, Making an Android Project, The Android Manifest Editor, Projects, Organizing Java Source about, Projects, Organizing Java Source additional information, Making an Android Project creating, Making an Android Project, Making an Android Project manifest files, The Android Manifest Editor protected keyword, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation proximity sensors, Other Sensors public key encryption, Public Key Encryption and Cryptographic Signing, Public Key Encryption and Cryptographic Signing public keyword, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation, Getters and setters publishing, Uploading Applications in the Market, Concurrency in Android Android applications, Uploading Applications in the Market references, Concurrency in Android Q QEMU, QEMU queries, Additional Database Concepts, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler, Account Contacts account contacts, Account Contacts compound, Additional Database Concepts MJAndroid application example, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method networked method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler quotation marks ("), Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 R R class, Resources Radio Frequency Identification, Near Field Communication (NFC) (see RFID) raw directory, Resources RCP (Rich Client Platform), The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) RDBMSs (relational database management systems), Relational Database Overview REAL type (SQLite), SQLite types recording multimedia, Recording Audio and Video, Audio Recording, AudioRecorder audio recording, Video Recording audio methods, Audio Recording, AudioRecorder audio recording life cycle states, Recording Audio and Video video methods, Video Recording RECORD_AUDIO permission, Recording Audio and Video RECORD_VIDEO permission, Recording Audio and Video refactoring, Refactoring, Organizing Java Source relational database management systems (RDBMSs), Relational Database Overview relational databases, Relational Database Overview, Database constraints, Database constraints, Additional Database Concepts, Additional Database Concepts, Additional Database Concepts, Additional Database Concepts, Database Transactions, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, The Android Database Classes, Database Design for Android Applications, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Using the Database API: MJAndroid, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the execSQL method, The simple video database, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Creating the Database about, Relational Database Overview additional information, Additional Database Concepts compound queries, Additional Database Concepts database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, Declaring Column Specification Strings database manipulation example, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 database transactions, Database Transactions design for Android applications, Database Design for Android Applications, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class inner joins, Additional Database Concepts MJAndroid application example, Using the Database API: MJAndroid, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the execSQL method SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider example, The simple video database SimpleVideoDbHelper class example, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class SQLite supported classes, The Android Database Classes triggers, Additional Database Concepts YouTube video example, Creating the Database RelativeLayout class, Creating a Fragment, Layout remote procedure calls, AIDL and, Java Serialization Renderer interface, OpenGL Graphics res directory, Resources, Organizing Java Source resource qualifiers, Resource Qualifiers and Screen Sizes Resources.getDrawable method, Bitmaps ResponseHandler interface, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper, UriRequestTask about, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper handleResponse method, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper, UriRequestTask REST (Representational State Transfer), Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Exploring Content Providers, Developing RESTful Android Applications, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits, Constants and Initialization, Creating the Database, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, File Management: Storing Thumbnails about, Content Providers additional information, Content Providers constants and initialization, Constants and Initialization content providers and, Exploring Content Providers creating database, Creating the Database DELETE operation, Content Providers developing Android applications, Developing RESTful Android Applications file management, File Management: Storing Thumbnails GET operation, Content Providers insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers network MVC and, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits networked query method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler POST operation, Content Providers UPDATE operation, Content Providers RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), Near Field Communication (NFC), Reading a Tag, Reading a Tag about, Near Field Communication (NFC) reading tags, Reading a Tag, Reading a Tag Rich Client Platform (RCP), The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) RotateAnimation class, Animation, Transition animation RotateDrawable class, Drawables rotation vector, Rotation vector Runnable interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading runtime environment, The Android Application Runtime Environment, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, The application runtime, The Android Libraries, The Android Libraries about, The Android Application Runtime Environment, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, The application runtime Android libraries and, The Android Libraries, The Android Libraries RuntimeException, Exceptions, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading S sandboxing, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, Self-signed certificates for Android software ScaleAnimation class, Animation, Transition animation ScaleDrawable class, Drawables ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor class, The Android Libraries scope, Scope, Java Packages, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation about, Scope access modifiers and encapsulation, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation Java packages and, Java Packages SDK and AVD Manager, Adding Build Targets to the SDK, Adding Build Targets to the SDK, Making an Android Virtual Device (AVD), Android Virtual Devices, The SDK and AVD Manager, android, Testing for Screen Size Compatibility, Eclipse and Android about, Adding Build Targets to the SDK, The SDK and AVD Manager configuring AVDs, Android Virtual Devices creating AVDs, Making an Android Virtual Device (AVD) invoking, Adding Build Targets to the SDK, android, Eclipse and Android screen configurations, Testing for Screen Size Compatibility search application example, Step 1: Our UI Collects User Input, Step 2: Our Controller Listens for Events, Step 4: Implementing the RESTful Request, File Management: Storing Thumbnails controller collecting user input, Step 2: Our Controller Listens for Events implementing RESTful request, Step 4: Implementing the RESTful Request, File Management: Storing Thumbnails UI collecting user input, Step 1: Our UI Collects User Input security, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, Self-signed certificates for Android software additional information, Sandboxing: Processes and Users self-signed certificates and, Self-signed certificates for Android software SELECT statement (SQL), SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, Extending ContentProvider about, SQL Data Manipulation Commands ContentProvider class and, Extending ContentProvider FROM clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands GROUP BY clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands HAVING clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands LIMIT clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands ORDER BY clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands WHERE clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands self-signed certificates, Self-signed certificates for Android software, Creating a self-signed certificate, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application about, Self-signed certificates for Android software creating, Creating a self-signed certificate signing applications, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application semicolon (;), SQL Data Definition Commands Sensor.getMaximumRange method, Other Sensors SensorEvent class, Sensors SensorEventListener interface, Sensors, Sensors onAccuracyChanged method, Sensors onSensorChanged method, Sensors SensorManager class, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors about, Sensors getDefaultSensor method, Sensors getSensorList method, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_FASTEST constant, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_GAME constant, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_NORMAL constant, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_UI constant, Sensors sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Position, Linear acceleration, Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Rotation vector, Linear acceleration, Gravity, Other Sensors, Other Sensors, Other Sensors, Other Sensors, Other Sensors about, Sensors, Sensors accelerometers, Accelerometer gravity, Gravity gyroscopes, Gyroscope light, Other Sensors linear acceleration, Linear acceleration magnetic, Other Sensors phone coordinate systems, Position, Linear acceleration pressure, Other Sensors proximity, Other Sensors rotation vector, Rotation vector temperature, Other Sensors Serial Port Protocol (SPP), Bluetooth and related I/O classes Serializable interface, Java Serialization, Java Serialization, Classes That Support Serialization serialization, Serialization, Serialization, Java Serialization, Parcelable, Parcelable, Classes That Support Serialization, Serialization and the Application Life Cycle, Saving and restoring instance state application life cycle and, Serialization and the Application Life Cycle classes supporting, Classes That Support Serialization, Saving and restoring instance state common uses for, Serialization defined, Serialization Java support, Java Serialization Parcelable interface, Parcelable, Parcelable Service class, Other Android Components, Service, Static Application Resources and Context, Application Manifests, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications, Developing RESTful Android Applications about, Other Android Components, Service Context class and, Static Application Resources and Context manifest files and, Application Manifests RESTful applications and, Developing RESTful Android Applications well-behaved applications and, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications Set interface, Collection interface types, The Android Libraries setClickable attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setEnabled attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setSatellite attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setStreetView attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setter methods, Getters and setters setTraffic attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization Shader class, Shadows, Gradients, and Filters shaders (drawing graphics), Shadows, Gradients, and Filters ShadowLayer class, Shadows, Gradients, and Filters shadows (drawing graphics), Shadows, Gradients, and Filters short type, Primitive Types, Conventions on the Native Method Side Show View dialog, Visualizing the Activity Life Cycle signing, application, Application Signing (see application signing) SimpleCursorAdapter class, Account Contacts, Account Contacts SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider example, Browsing Video with Finch, The simple video database, Structure of the simple version of the code, Defining a Provider Public API, Defining the CONTENT_URI, Creating the Column Names, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Extending ContentProvider, Extending ContentProvider, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, Implementing the onCreate Method, Implementing the getType Method, The query method, The query method, The insert method, The update method, The delete method, Determining How Often to Notify Observers about, Browsing Video with Finch, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code column names, Creating the Column Names column specification strings, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Declaring Column Specification Strings creating database, The simple video database defining provider public API, Defining a Provider Public API, Defining the CONTENT_URI extending ContentProvider class, Extending ContentProvider, Extending ContentProvider implementing delete method, The delete method implementing getType method, Implementing the getType Method implementing insert method, The insert method implementing onCreate method, Implementing the onCreate Method implementing query method, The query method, The query method implementing update method, The update method instance variables and, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables notifying observers, Determining How Often to Notify Observers source code structure, Structure of the simple version of the code SimpleVideoDbHelper class (example), Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class skeleton applications, The Android Framework, Visualizing the Activity Life Cycle, Minor life cycle methods of the Activity class, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags, Understanding Content Providers, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Writing and Integrating a Content Provider, File Management and Binary Data, File Management and Binary Data, Android MVC and Content Observation, Android MVC and Content Observation, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code, Determining How Often to Notify Observers, Declaring Your Content Provider, Exploring Content Providers, Developing RESTful Android Applications, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content, File Management: Storing Thumbnails about, The Android Framework Activity class life cycles, Visualizing the Activity Life Cycle, Minor life cycle methods of the Activity class Application class life cycles, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class binary data, File Management and Binary Data building content providers, Understanding Content Providers, Declaring Column Specification Strings content providers and REST, Exploring Content Providers declaring content providers, Declaring Your Content Provider developing RESTful, Developing RESTful Android Applications file management, File Management and Binary Data flowing/intuitive user experience, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags Fragment class life cycles, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle MVC and content observation, Android MVC and Content Observation, Android MVC and Content Observation network MVC and, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider example, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code, Determining How Often to Notify Observers well-behaved, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience writing/integrating content providers, Writing and Integrating a Content Provider YouTube video example, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content, File Management: Storing Thumbnails SmallTalk language, Eclipse Concepts and Terminology social networking, Android and Social Networking software development, Modular Programming in Java (see application development) SPP (Serial Port Protocol), Bluetooth and related I/O classes SQL (Standard Query Language), Relational Database Overview, The SQL Language, The SQL Language, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications about, Relational Database Overview additional information, The SQL Language Android applications and, The SQL Language data definition commands, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints data manipulation commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints MVC model and, SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications SQLite database system, sqlite3, Serialization, SQLite, SQLite, The SQL Language, The SQL Language, SQLite types, Database constraints, Database constraints, Additional Database Concepts, Database Transactions, The Android Database Classes, Declaring Column Specification Strings about, SQLite, The SQL Language additional information, SQLite, The SQL Language compound queries, Additional Database Concepts data types supported, SQLite types database classes, The Android Database Classes database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, Declaring Column Specification Strings database transactions, Database Transactions persistence and, Serialization sqlite3 command, sqlite3 sqlite3 command, sqlite3, SQL Data Definition Commands, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 about, sqlite3 balancing quotes, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 database manipulation example, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 percent sign in, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 period in, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 pipe character in, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 semicolon in, SQL Data Definition Commands SQLiteDatabase class, The Android Database Classes, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method, Using the query method, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Using the insert method, Using the execSQL method, Using the update method, Using the execSQL method, Using the delete method, Using the execSQL method, The query method, The insert method about, The Android Database Classes delete method, Modifying the Database, Using the delete method execSQL method, Modifying the Database, Using the execSQL method, Using the execSQL method, Using the execSQL method insert method, Modifying the Database, Using the insert method, The insert method query method, Using the query method, Modifying the Database, The query method rawQuery method, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database rawQueryWithFactory method, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method update method, Modifying the Database, Using the update method SQLiteOpenHelper class, The Android Database Classes, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database about, The Android Database Classes extending, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database onCreate method, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class onUpgrade method, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class SQLiteQueryBuilder class, The Android Database Classes src directory, Organizing Java Source Standard Query Language, Relational Database Overview (see SQL) static analysis, Static Analyzers, FindBugs, FindBugs, FindBugs, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code, Limitations of Static Analysis about, Static Analyzers, FindBugs applying to Android code, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code FindBugs tool and, FindBugs, FindBugs limitations of, Limitations of Static Analysis static declarations, Final and Static Declarations String class, Final and Static Declarations, Drawing text Canvas class and, Drawing text as final declaration, Final and Static Declarations subclasses, Objects and Classes, Modular Programming in Java, Extending Android classes defined, Objects and Classes programming considerations, Modular Programming in Java, Extending Android classes superclasses, defined, Objects and Classes SurfaceHolder class, Surface view animation, Surface view animation Callback interface, Surface view animation unlockCanvasAndPost method, Surface view animation SurfaceView class, Animation, Surface view animation, OpenGL Graphics about, OpenGL Graphics animation support, Animation, Surface view animation Synaptic Package Manager utility, The Java Development Kit (JDK) synchronization, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Data Structures, Synchronization account data, Synchronization data structures and, Synchronization and Data Structures thread safety and, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety synchronized keyword, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety System.loadLibrary method, Conventions on the Java Side T .table command (SQLite), Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 tables, Relational Database Overview, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints defined, Relational Database Overview SQL data definition commands, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints SQL data manipulation commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands TagTechnology interface, Reading a Tag, Writing to a Tag, Writing to a Tag, Writing to a Tag, Writing to a Tag close method, Writing to a Tag connect method, Writing to a Tag isConnected method, Writing to a Tag reading tags, Reading a Tag writing tags, Writing to a Tag tasks, Multitasking in a Small-Screen Environment, Tasks and Applications, Specifying Launch and Task Behavior, Modifying task behavior with intent flags applications and, Tasks and Applications specifying behavior, Specifying Launch and Task Behavior, Modifying task behavior with intent flags tracking, Multitasking in a Small-Screen Environment temperature sensors, Other Sensors TEXT type (SQLite), SQLite types text, drawing, Drawing text, Drawing text TextToSpeech class, Accessibility, Accessibility, Accessibility about, Accessibility shutdown method, Accessibility speak method, Accessibility TextView class, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Location Without Maps, Connecting to a Location Provider and Getting Location Updates location without maps example, Location Without Maps, Connecting to a Location Provider and Getting Location Updates widgets and, Rolling Your Own Widgets TextWatcher interface, Overrides and callbacks, Overrides and callbacks, Overrides and callbacks afterTextChanged method, Overrides and callbacks beforeTextChanged method, Overrides and callbacks onTextChanged method, Overrides and callbacks Thread class, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java thread confinement, Threads in an Android Process thread safety violations, Synchronization and Thread Safety threads, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Thread Control with wait() and notify() Methods, Concurrency in Android, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, Threads in an Android Process Android GUI and, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, AsyncTask and the UI Thread in Android processes, Threads in an Android Process concurrent, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java, Concurrency in Android monitoring, AsyncTask and the UI Thread Object class support, Thread Control with wait() and notify() Methods spawning, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java synchronization and, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety Threads view (Eclipse), Eclipse and Android Throwable class, Exceptions TimerTask class, The Android Libraries TimeZone class, The Android Libraries touch events, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events, Gesture Input gesture input, Gesture Input listening for, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events trackballs, Listening for Touch Events transactions, Fragment Transactions, Fragment Transactions, Database Transactions database, Database Transactions fragment, Fragment Transactions, Fragment Transactions transformations, matrix, Matrix transformations, Matrix transformations transition animations, Animation, Transition animation TranslateAnimation class, Animation, Transition animation TreeMap class, Collection implementation types triangulation, Location-Based Services triggers, database, Additional Database Concepts troubleshooting, Troubleshooting SDK Problems: No Build Targets, The Menu OnKeyListener interface, The Menu SDK problems, Troubleshooting SDK Problems: No Build Targets try-catch block, Exceptions tweened animations, Animation U Ubuntu Linux environment, The Java Development Kit (JDK), The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) installing Eclipse, The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) installing JDK, The Java Development Kit (JDK) unchecked exceptions, Exceptions UNIQUE constraint, Database constraints unmarshaling data, Serialization unpublishing Android applications, Uploading Applications in the Market UPDATE operation (REST), Content Providers UPDATE statement (SQL), SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, Extending ContentProvider about, SQL Data Manipulation Commands ContentProvider class and, Extending ContentProvider WHERE clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands uploading applications in Android Market, Uploading Applications in the Market, Uploading Applications in the Market UriMatcher class, Using a content provider, Extending ContentProvider, Extending ContentProvider, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables about, Using a content provider, Extending ContentProvider addURI method, Extending ContentProvider initializing, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables NO_MATCH constant, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables URLEncoder.encode method, A Networked Query Method USB, Running a Program on an Android Device, Running a Program on an Android Device accessing Android devices, Running a Program on an Android Device debugging Android devices, Running a Program on an Android Device user experience, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags Activity life cycle and, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience flowing and intuitive, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags uses-sdk attribute, Making an Android Project UUID class, The Android Libraries V values directory, Resources Vector class, The Java Collections Framework, The Android Libraries Vibrator class, Accessibility video, Audio and Video, Video Playback, Video Playback, Video Recording, MediaRecorder video recording, Intent video recording Android supported formats, Audio and Video Intent recording, Intent video recording MediaPlayer playback, Video Playback MediaRecorder recording, MediaRecorder video recording playback methods, Video Playback recording methods, Video Recording VideoView class, Video Playback View class, Using Anonymous Classes, Using Anonymous Classes, Threads in an Android Process, Threads in an Android Process, The Controller, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Wiring Up the Controller, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Key Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, The Menu, The Menu, The Menu, Fragments and Multiplatform Support, Creating a Fragment, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Layout, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Arrangement, Arrangement, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Drawables, Transition animation, Background animation, Background animation, Background animation, Background animation, Background animation (see also widgets) about, Using Anonymous Classes assembling GUI, Assembling a Graphical Interface background animation, Background animation dispatchKeyEvent method, The Controller DispatchKeyEvent method, Alternative Ways to Handle Events dispatchTrackballEvent method, Listening for Touch Events draw method, Canvas Drawing findViewById method, Creating a Fragment getBackground method, Background animation getMeasuredHeight method, Measurement getMeasuredWidth method, Measurement getSuggestedMinimumHeight method, Measurement getSuggestedMinimumWidth method, Measurement handling events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events invalidate method, Canvas Drawing isFocusableInTouchMode method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading isInTouchMode method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading measure method, Measurement OnClickListener interface, Wiring Up the Controller OnCreateContextMenuListener interface, The Menu, Fragments and Multiplatform Support onDraw method, Drawables, Background animation OnFocusChangeListener interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading onKeyDown method, Alternative Ways to Handle Events OnKeyListener interface, Using Anonymous Classes, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, The Menu onLayout method, Arrangement onMeasure method, Measurement, Arrangement onTouchEvent method, Alternative Ways to Handle Events OnTouchListener interface, Listening for Touch Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events onTrackballEvent method, Listening for Touch Events post method, Threads in an Android Process postDelayed method, Threads in an Android Process requestFocus method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading requestLayout method, Layout setBackgroundDrawable method, Background animation setBackgroundResource method, Background animation setFocusable method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading setMeasuredDimensions method, Measurement, Measurement setOnCreateContextMenuListener method, The Menu setOnKeyListener method, Listening for Key Events startAnimation method, Transition animation widgets and, Rolling Your Own Widgets View component (MVC), The View, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets (see also drawing graphics) view model, Canvas Drawing ViewGroup class, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Fragments and Multiplatform Support, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Canvas Drawing container views and, Assembling a Graphical Interface dispatchDraw method, Canvas Drawing Fragment class and, Fragments and Multiplatform Support measureChild method, Measurement measureChildren method, Measurement measureChildWithMargins method, Measurement requestChildFocus method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading requestFocus method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading widgets and, Rolling Your Own Widgets virtual machines, The Dalvik Debug Monitor Server (DDMS) (see Dalvik virtual machines (VMs)) VisualAge tool, Eclipse Concepts and Terminology VMs (virtual machines), The Dalvik Debug Monitor Server (DDMS) (see Dalvik virtual machines (VMs)) W whatami example, JNI, NDK, and SDK: A Sample App widgets, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Layout, Arrangement, Arrangement, Arrangement, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations, Drawables, Drawables, Drawables, Bitmaps, Bling, OpenGL Graphics (see also View class) Bitmap class, Bitmaps canvas drawing, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations defined, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Rolling Your Own Widgets Drawable class, Drawables, Drawables focusable attribute, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading fully functional example, Canvas Drawing graphics effects examples, Bling, OpenGL Graphics layout process, Layout, Arrangement onDraw method, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Arrangement, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations, Drawables onLayout method, Arrangement onMeasure method, Rolling Your Own Widgets Windows environment, The Java Development Kit (JDK), Running a Program on an Android Device, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, Setting Up the NDK Environment installing JDK, The Java Development Kit (JDK) NDK requirements, Setting Up the NDK Environment running programs on Android devices, Running a Program on an Android Device sandboxing and, Sandboxing: Processes and Users workspaces, Making an Android Project, Workspaces, Eclipse Views and Perspectives, Organizing Java Source defined, Making an Android Project, Workspaces depicted, Eclipse Views and Perspectives projects and, Organizing Java Source X XML editors, XML editors for other Android XML files Y YouTube video example, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content, Structure of the Source Code for the Finch YouTube Video Example, Step 1: Our UI Collects User Input, Step 2: Our Controller Listens for Events, Constants and Initialization, Creating the Database, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, File Management: Storing Thumbnails about, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content constants and initialization, Constants and Initialization controller collecting user input, Step 2: Our Controller Listens for Events creating database, Creating the Database file management, File Management: Storing Thumbnails insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers networked query method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler structure of source code, Structure of the Source Code for the Finch YouTube Video Example UI collecting user input, Step 1: Our UI Collects User Input Z Zipalign tool, Zipalign zooming in Android maps, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization Zygote process, Zygote: Forking a New Process About the Authors Zigurd Mednieks is a consultant to leading OEMs, enterprises, and entrepreneurial ventures creating Android-based systems and software.


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Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

Hayes, of the organization Statewatch, argues that the EU’s efforts to establish a continent-wide Security Research Programme is best described as ‘“Big Brother” meets market fundamentalism’.58 The programme’s large development and supply contracts are organized by a network of ‘EU officials and Europe’s biggest arms and IT companies’.59 As in the US, moreover, EU security policy and research are heavily influenced by intensive lobbying by the main corporate-security companies (many of which are recently privatized state operations). Rather than the ethics of massive securitization, the prime EU concern has been how European corporation could take a bigger chunk of booming global markets for a ‘myriad of local and global surveillance systems; the introduction of biometric identifiers; RFID, electronic tagging and satellite monitoring; “less-lethal weapons”; paramilitary equipment for public order and crisis management; and the militarization of border controls’.60 Urban securization may thus become a shop-window for industrial policy within the burgeoning security marketplace. COLONIZING TRANSNATIONAL URBANISM The recalibration of an inside-outside problematique from the point of view of the United States is full of explosive contradictions.61 Our fifth component is this: in a rapidly urbanizing world marked by intensifying transnational migration, transport, capital and media flows, all attempts at constructing a mutually exclusive binary – a securitized ‘inside’ enclosing the urban places of the US homeland, and an urbanizing ‘outside’ where US military power can pre-emptively attack sources of terrorist threats –are inevitably both ambivalent and ridden with contradiction.

Thus, ‘national security, at least in the ports, is conceptualized as almost interchangeable with the security of international trade flows’.171 GLOBAL BIOMETRIC REGIME The globe shrinks for those who own it; for the displaced or the dispossessed, the migrant or refugee, no distance is more awesome than the few feet across borders or frontiers.172 In the airline and airport sectors, US homeland security efforts are meant to ensure that the ‘border guard [is] the last line of defense, not the first, in identifying potential threats’.173 The dream system features interoperable ‘smart’ borders, globalized border control, and pre-emptive risk management.174 To this end, the US has developed the US-VISIT programme – US Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology – for air travel, another application of biometric attempts to ‘objectively’ fix bodies and identities while coercing key US partner nations to adjust their passport systems to biometric standards defined by the US.175 In the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Act of 2002, for example, the US Congress imposed a requirement that the twenty-seven countries within the US Visa Waiver Program (VWP) begin using machine-readable passports that incorporate both biometric and radio-frequency tag (RFID) technology. Nations or blocs that fail to undertake these radical shifts are threatened with losing their coveted status within the VWP. ‘Our leveraging of America’s visa aiver partners, in order to promote the use of the new ID technologies for purposes of national security’, Richard Pruett and Michael Longarzo of the US Army War College write, ‘may prove to be a paradigm for the coming age’.176 The passage-point architectures of overseas airports thus now display symbols of both US and domestic sovereignty (Figure 4.20). 4.20 The ‘global homeland’ orchestrated through the extension of US sovereignty as part of the US visit initiative: Frankfurt airport, Germany.

APPROPRIATION A third strategy for the building of countergeographies involves the very technologies of control that are so central to the new military urbanism and that offer excellent potential for appropriation and reverse engineering. Indeed, a whole universe of experiments in what are called ‘locative’ or ‘ambient’ media seek to challenge contemporary cultures of militarized urbanism by exploring new uses of infrastructures and technologies such as GPS, radio frequency (RFID) chips, unmanned drones, digital mapping, satellite surveillance, video simulation, data mining, Internet communications and wireless communications–all of which more or less originated through military research. The emphasis here is first to demystify and make visible the invisible technologies of control, tracking, and surveillance which now thoroughly permeate everyday objects, architectures, environments and infrastructures, and then to redeploy them in counter-hegemonic ways.


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

It sometimes calls for industry self-regulation rather than direct governmental regulation as a way to vindicate privacy interests, perhaps because such regulation is seen as more efficient or just, or because direct governmental intervention is understood to be politically difficult to achieve. Privacy scholarship also looks to the latest advances in specific technologies that could further weaken day-to-day informational privacy13 One example is the increasing use of radio frequency identifiers (RFIDs) in consumer items, allowing goods to be scanned and tracked at a short distance. One promise of RFID is that a shopper could wheel her shopping cart under an arch at a grocery store and obtain an immediate tally of the price of its contents; one peril is that a stranger could drive by a house with an RFID scanner and instantly inventory its contents, from diapers to bacon to flat-screen TVs, immediately discerning the sort of people who live within. This work on privacy generally hews to the original analytic template of 1973: both the analysis and suggested solutions talk in terms of institutions gathering data, and of developing ways to pressure institutions to better respect their customers’ and clients’ privacy.

Soon, the price of a loaf of bread at the store becomes indeterminate: there is a sticker price, but when the shopper takes the bread up front, the store can announce a special individualized discount based on her relationship with the store. The sticker price then becomes only that, providing little indication of the price that shoppers are actually paying. Merchants can also vary service. Customer cards augmented with RFID tags can serve to identify those undesirable customers who visit a home improvement store, monopolize the attention of the attendants, and exit without having bought so much as a single nail. With these kinds of cards, the store would be able to discern the “good” (profitable) customers from the “bad” (not profitable) ones and appropriately alert the staff to flee from bad customers and approach good ones.

., 18, 29, 57–59; and Internet compatibility, 28–29; lockdown of, 4, 5, 57, 102, 155–56, 164, 165; model of computing, 17; modularization of, 156; PC revolution, 3, 18; potential functionality sold with, 13; regulability of, 106; search across computers, 185; security dilemma of, 241; in sites where users are not owners, 4; and third-party storage, 186–88; “trapped,” 77; unsecured on Internet, 45; users as programmers for, 14, 15; virtual, 156; zombies, 46, 52, 54, 57, 166 personal identity management, 32–33 Pew Internet & American Life Project, 51 phishing, 47, 53, 99 photo recognition, 214–15 physical layer, 67–69 placeholders, 56 plagiarism, 244 plastic, adaptability of, 72 PlayMedia, 104, 108 Pledgebank, 148, 243 pornography, child, 111 Posner, Eric, 213 Post, David, 123 Postel’s Law, 134 post hoc remedies, 122 post hoc scrubs, 116 Postman, Neil, 93 preemption, 108 press conference behavior, 212–13, 229 prime time, being ready for (and the generative Net), 153–54 prior restraints, 115, 122 Privacy Act (1974), 202 privacy: administrative burdens of, 221–22; and captchas, 208; and cheap sensors, 206, 208–9, 210, 216, 221; code-backed norms, 223–28; Constitutional support of, 112, 185–86, 188; and consumer protection law, 177; contextualization, 229–31; data genealogy, 225–28; enforceability of, 112–14; and generation gap, 231–34; and government power, 117–19, 186–88; HEW report (1973) on, 201–5, 222, 233–34; and industry self-regulation, 203; involuntary celebrities, 210–14; “just deal with it,” 111–12; and peer production, 206–16; personal information security, 203–4; Privacy 1.0, 201–5, 208, 215, 216, 222, 232; Privacy 2.0, 205–34; as proxies for other limitations, 112; public vs. private behavior, 212–16; and reputation, 216–21, 228–29; search and seizure, 112; sensitivity identified with, 202; and third-party storage, 185–88; and ubiquitous surveillance, 109–10, 206, 209–16; on Web sites, 203, 226 privacy “tags,” 227 procrastination principle: and Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 119–20; in generative systems, 152, 164, 180, 242, 245; in Internet design, 33, 34; and Morris worm, 39–40; in networks, 31, 33, 99, 164; in operating systems, 69; and Wikipedia, 134, 135; in XO, 237, 240 Prodigy, 7, 23, 24, 81, 157 proprietary rights thickets, 188–92 protocol layer, 39, 67–69 punch card system, 11 QTel, 157 quasi-contracts, 184 Radin, Margaret, 233 radio broadcasts, jamming of, 106 radio frequency identifiers (RFIDs), 203 Radio Shack, 75-in-1 Electronic Project Kit, 14, 73 Rand, Ayn, 143 Raymond, Eric, 137 “Realtime Blackhole List,” 169 reCAPTCHA, 208, 227 Reed, David, 31 Reidenberg, Joel, 104 reputation bankruptcy, 228–29 reputationdefender.com, 230 reputation systems, 216–21; buddy lists, 219–20; correcting or identifying mistakes on, 220; identity systems, 220; search engines, 217, 220–21; user rankings, 146, 217–18, 221; whole-person ratings, 218–19 RFC 1135, “The Helminthiasis of the Internet,” 39 robots, spam messages from, 207–8 robot signaling, 223 robots.txt, 223–25, 227, 243 Rosen, Jeffrey, 216 RSS (really simple syndication), 56 Saltzer, Jerry, 31 Samuelson, Pamela, 225–26 Sanger, Larry, 133, 142–43, 145 Sapphire/Slammer worm, 47 satellite TV, 181, 182 Saudi Arabia, information control in, 113, 180 Scherf, Steve, 145–46 search engines, 220–21, 223, 226, 227; creation of, 224; user rankings, 217 Second Amendment, 117 SEC v.


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The Numerati by Stephen Baker

Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business process, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, full employment, illegal immigration, index card, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, McMansion, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, PageRank, personalized medicine, recommendation engine, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

They can create charts showing each person's migratory patterns, social hubs, and yes, even bathroom visits. Similar analysis could be focused on us as customers. In time, perhaps a store will recognize us by our movements in the aisles as likely butterflies or barnacles, or even potential shoplifters. And as the facial recognition systems improve, they may spot the barnacles among us the moment we enter the store. If cameras don't pick us up, a radio technology known as RFID just might. These are little computer chips fastened to a piece of merchandise, a shopping cart, or even a customer loyalty card. Each chip has a unique number, identifying the item or the shopper. But unlike a bar code, which has to be passed under a scanner, these chips can be read by radio signals sent by an automatic reader in the area. It's great for logistics. Open a huge cargo truck, and instead of piling through it and scanning each bar code, the chips all transmit their data at once.

See Carnegie Mellon University Code-breaking, [>]–[>] Cold War, [>]–[>] Community, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>] Computers and algorithms, [>]–[>] on animals, [>]–[>], [>] brains compared to, [>] chips in, [>]–[>] cookies on, [>] cost of, [>] data produced using, [>]–[>] history of uses of, [>]–[>] speed of calculations by, [>]–[>], [>] teaching, to recognize "tribes," [>]–[>] weaknesses of, [>]–[>] and workers, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] See also Algorithms; Computer scientists; Data; Internet; Machine learning; Mathematical models; Mathematicians; Privacy; RFID Computer scientists competition over hiring of, [>]–[>] as making sense of data, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] and math, [>] myths about, [>]–[>] See also Computers; Numerati comScore (company), [>] Consumers. See Shoppers Cookies (on computers), [>] Corporations electronic résumés for, [>] interest of, in collecting data about people, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] interest of, in collecting data about their employees, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>] marketing research by, [>], [>] See also Names of specific corporations Counterterrorism.

See Medications Privacy not a concern in animal testing, [>] concerns about loss of, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] as issue in Europe, [>] people's voluntary lifting of, [>]–[>], [>] personal details as violating, [>] and phones, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>] policies regarding shoppers', [>] protections for, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>] of workers, [>]–[>], [>] Probability, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] Probst, Katharina, [>] Proxies, [>], [>]–[>], [>] Psychology, [>], [>], [>] Pulleyblank, William, [>] Quantification, [>] See also Mathematical models Quants, [>], [>] Raghavan, Prabhakar, [>]–[>], [>], [>] Remy, Martin, [>] Republican Party, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] "Resourcefuls" tribe, [>], [>] Retail store data, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>] See also Advertisers RFID technology, [>] "Right Clicks" tribe, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] Romantic-movie lovers, i—[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] Root, Mabel, [>] Rosenberger, Larry, [>] Rove, Karl, [>], [>] Sandia National Labs (New Mexico), [>]–[>] Schatz, James, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] Scholes, Myron, [>] The Sea, the Sea (Murdoch), [>] Search engine optimization (SEO), [>] Second Life (virtual world), [>] Sensors in animals, [>]–[>] medical, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] SEO (search engine optimization), [>] Serotonin, [>], [>] [>]-Hour Task Force, [>] Shakespeare, William, [>], [>], [>] Shoppers (consumers) averaging of, [>] bloggers as, [>]–[>], [>] choices available to, [>]—ii, [>], [>] data collected about, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>] lists of, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] targeting of individual, by advertisers, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>] See also Advertisers; Credit Sifry, David, [>]–[>] Silverstein, Craig, [>]–[>] Simplex algorithms, [>]–[>] Simplex triangle, [>]–[>] Singapore, [>], [>] Small Blue search engine, [>] "Smart bombs" (medical), [>] "Smart carts," [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>] Smith, J.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

My favourite alternative name for the IoT is Ambient Intelligence,[cxxxv] which comes nearest to capturing the essence of the idea, which is that so many sensors, chips and transmitters are embedded in objects around us that our environment becomes intelligent – or at least, intelligible. When originally conceived, the IoT was based on Radio Frequency Identification tags (RFID), tiny devices about the size of a grain of rice which can be “read” remotely without being visible to the device which “reads” them. The RFID is a passive device, and this concept does not involve any AI. Later, technologies like Near Field Communication (NFC) were developed, which allow for two-way data exchange. Android phones have been NFC-enabled since 2011, and it powers the Apple Pay system which was launched with the iPhone 6. The IoT is becoming possible because the component parts (sensors, chips, transmitters, batteries) are becoming cheaper and smaller at – yes – an exponential rate.

Once upon a time, what marketers call fast-moving consumer goods (foods, toiletries, etc.) were requested one at a time by the shopper at a counter and fetched individually by the shopkeeper or his assistant. As these general stores firms grew bigger and more sophisticated they built large stores where shoppers fetched their own items, and presented them for processing at checkouts, like components on a car assembly line. Later on, self-service tills were installed, where shoppers could scan the bar codes of their goods themselves, speeding up the process considerably. Soon, RFID tags[xvii] on goods will enable you to wheel your trolley full of items out of the store and to your car without the fuss of unloading and re-loading them at a checkout. At each stage of this evolution, the involvement of the consumer in selecting and transporting each item increases, and the requirement for shop staff involvement reduces. This latter effect is disguised because, as society gets richer, people buy many more items, so the store needs more staff even though their involvement in each individual item is less.


pages: 252 words: 74,167

Thinking Machines: The Inside Story of Artificial Intelligence and Our Race to Build the Future by Luke Dormehl

Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, borderless world, call centre, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, drone strike, Elon Musk, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

CHAPTER 3 Intelligence Is all Around Us IN 1998, THE year in which Apple unveiled its bulbous iMac computer, Harry Potter was introduced to the world and the first portable MP3 player went on sale, a 44-year-old professor from the University of Cybernetics in Reading underwent an unusual operation. The aim of Professor Kevin Warwick’s elective surgery was to have a silicon chip encased in a glass tube inserted under the skin on his left arm. Once implanted, this radio-frequency identification device (RFID) chip then sent radio signals, via antennae located around his laboratory, to a central computer able to control Warwick’s immediate surroundings. ‘At the main entrance [of my lab], a voice box operated by the computer said “Hello” when I entered,’ Kevin Warwick later wrote of his experience. ‘The computer detected my progress through the building, opening the door to my lab for me as I approached it and switching on the lights.

However, in the decades that have passed, our sense of surprise has likely changed somewhat. While it is still easy to balk at the reason someone would willingly undergo such an invasive procedure, the question of why someone should want such a thing has receded into the background. As I write this, I have on my wrist an Apple Watch. It is the 42 mm stainless steel model with Apple’s Milanese Loop band. It cost £599 and can do far, far more than Kevin Warwick ever dreamed his RFID implant would achieve. If I receive a text message or a phone call, or if one of my friends posts a new photo to Instagram, I can view it simply by glancing at my wrist. In supermarkets, I can pay for my groceries by tapping my wrist against the card reader. I can do the same to unlock the door to my room at hundreds of hotels around the world. If I’m out walking, a series of taps and vibrations emitted by my watch tell me which way to turn.

(TV show) 135–9, 162, 189–90, 225, 254 Jobs, Steve 6–7, 32, 35, 108, 113, 181, 193, 231 Jochem, Todd 55–6 judges 153–4 Kasparov, Garry 137, 138–9, 177 Katz, Lawrence 159–60 Keck, George Fred 81–2 Keynes, John Maynard 139–40 Kjellberg, Felix (PewDiePie) 151 ‘knowledge engineers’ 29, 37 Knowledge Narrator 110–11 Kodak 238 Kolibree 67 Koza, John 188–9 Ktesibios of Alexandria 71–2 Kubrick, Stanley 2, 228 Kurzweil, Ray 213–14, 231–3 Landauer, Thomas 201–2 Lanier, Jaron 156, 157 Laorden, Carlos 100, 101 learning 37–9, 41–4, 52–3, 55 Deep 11–2, 56–63, 96–7, 164, 225 and email filters 88 machine 3, 71, 84–6, 88, 100, 112, 154, 158, 197, 215, 233, 237, 239 reinforcement 83, 232 and smart homes 84, 85 supervised 57 unsupervised 57–8 legal profession 145, 188, 192 LegalZoom 145 LG 132 Lickel, Charles 136–7 ‘life logging’ software 200 Linden, David J. 213–14 Loebner, Hugh 102–3, 105 Loebner Prize 102–5 Lohn, Jason 182, 183–5, 186 long-term potentiation 39–40 love 122–4 Lovelace, Ada 185, 189 Lovelace Test 185–6 Lucas, George 110–11 M2M communication 70–71 ‘M’ (AI assistant) 153 Machine Intelligence from Cortical Networks (MICrONS) project 214–15 machine learners 38 machine learning 3, 71, 84–6, 88, 100, 112, 154, 158, 197, 215, 233, 237, 239 Machine Translator 8–9, 11 ‘machine-aided recognition’ 19–20 Manhattan Project 14, 229 MARK 1 (computer) 43–4 Mattersight Corporation 127 McCarthy, John 18, 19, 20, 27, 42, 54, 253 McCulloch, Warren 40–2, 43, 60, 142–3 Mechanical Turk jobs 152–7 medicine 11, 30, 87–8, 92–5, 187–8, 192, 247, 254 memory 13, 14, 16, 38–9, 42, 49 ‘micro-worlds’ 25 Microsoft 62–3, 106–7, 111–12, 114, 118, 129 mind mapping the 210–14, 217, 218 ‘mind clones’ 203 uploads 221 mindfiles 201–2, 207, 212 Minsky, Marvin 18, 21, 24, 32, 42, 44–6, 49, 105, 205–7, 253–4 MIT 19–20, 27, 96–7, 129, 194–5 Mitsuku (chatterbot) 103–6, 108 Modernising Medicine 11 Momentum Machines, Inc. 141 Moore’s Law 209, 220, 231 Moravec’s paradox 26–7 mortgage applications 237–8 MTurk platform 153, 154, 155 music 168, 172–7, 179 Musk, Elon 149–50, 223–4 MYCIN (expert system) 30–1 nanobots 213–14 nanosensors 92 Nara Logics 118 NASA 6, 182, 184–5 natural selection 182–3 navigational aids 90–1, 126, 127, 128, 241 Nazis 15, 17, 227 Negobot 99–102 Nest Labs 67, 96, 254 Netflix 156, 198 NETtalk 51, 52–3, 60 neural networks 11–12, 38–9, 41, 42–3, 97, 118, 164–6, 168, 201, 208–9, 211, 214–15, 218, 220, 224–5, 233, 237–8, 249, 254, 256–7 neurons 40, 41–2, 46, 49–50, 207, 209–13, 216 neuroscience 40–2, 211, 212, 214, 215 New York World’s Fair 1964 5–11 Newell, Alan 19, 226 Newman, Judith 128–9 Nuance Communications 109 offices, smart 90 OpenWorm 210 ‘Optical Scanning and Information Retrieval’ 7–8, 10 paedophile detection 99–102 Page, Larry 6–7, 34, 220 ‘paperclip maximiser’ scenario 235 Papert, Seymour 27, 44, 45–6, 49 Paro (therapeutic robot) 130–1 patents 188–9 Perceiving and Recognising Automation (PARA) 43 perceptrons 43–6 personality capture 200–4 pharmaceuticals 187–8 Pitts, Walter 40–2, 43, 60 politics 119–2 Pomerlau, Dean 54, 55–6, 90 prediction 87, 198–9 Profound Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest 219–20 punch-cards 8 Qualcomm 93 radio-frequency identification device (RFID) 65–6 Ramón y Cajal, Santiago 39–40 Rapidly Adapting Lateral Position Handler (RALPH) 55 ‘recommender system’ 198 refuse collection 142 ‘relational agents’ 130 remote working 238–9 reverse engineering 208, 216, 217 rights for AIs 248–51 risks of AI 223–40 accountability issues 240–4, 246–8 ethics 244–8 rights for AIs 248–51 technological unemployment 139–50, 163, 225, 255 robots 62, 74–7, 89–90, 130–1, 141, 149, 162, 217, 225, 227, 246–7, 255–6 Asimov’s three ethical rules of 244–8 robotic limbs 211–12 Roomba robot vacuum cleaner 75–7, 234, 236 Rosenblatt, Frank 42–6, 61, 220 rules 36–7, 79–80 Rumelhart, David 48, 50–1, 63 Russell, Bertrand 41 Rutter, Brad 138, 139 SAINT program 20 sampling (music) 155, 157 ‘Scheherazade’ (Ai storyteller) 169–70 scikit-learn 239 Scripps Health 92 Sculley, John 110–11 search engines 109–10 Searle, John 24–5 Second Life (video game) 194 Second World War 12–13, 14–15, 17, 72, 227 Sejnowski, Terry 48, 51–3 self-awareness 77, 246–7 self-driving 53–6, 90, 143, 149–50 Semantic Information Retrieval (SIR) 20–2 sensors 75–6, 80, 84–6, 93 SHAKEY robot 23–4, 27–8, 90 Shamir, Lior 172–7, 179, 180 Shannon, Claude 13, 16–18, 28, 253 shipping systems 198 Simon, Herbert 10, 19, 24, 226 Sinclair Oil Corporation 6 Singularity, the 228–3, 251, 256 Siri (AI assistant) 108–11, 113–14, 116, 118–19, 125–30, 132, 225–6, 231, 241, 256 SITU 69, 93 Skynet 231 smart devices 3, 66–7, 69–71, 73–7, 80–8, 92–7, 230–1, 254 and AI assistants 116 and feedback 73–4 problems with 94–7 ubiquitous 92–4 and unemployment 141–2 smartwatches 66, 93, 199 Sony 199–200 Sorto, Erik 211, 212 Space Invaders (video game) 37 spectrometers 93 speech recognition 59, 62, 109, 111, 114, 120 SRI International 28, 89–90, 112–13 StarCraft II (video game) 186–7 story generation 169–70 strategy 36 STUDENT program 20 synapses 209 Synthetic Interview 202–3 Tamagotchis 123–5 Tay (chatbot) 106–7 Taylorism 95–6 Teknowledge 32, 33 Terminator franchise 231, 235 Tetris (video game) 28 Theme Park (video game) 29 thermostats 73, 79, 80 ‘three wise men’ puzzle 246–7 Tojan Room, Cambridge University 69–70 ‘tortoises’ (robots) 74–7 toys 123–5 traffic congestion 90–1 transhumanists 205 transistors 16–17 Transits – Into an abyss (musical composition) 168 translation 8–9, 11, 62–3, 155, 225 Turing, Alan 3, 13–17, 28, 35, 102, 105–6, 227, 232 Turing Test 15, 101–7, 229, 232 tutors, remote 160–1 TV, smart 80, 82 Twitter 153–4 ‘ubiquitous computing’ 91–4 unemployment, technological 139–50, 163, 225, 255 universal micropayment system 156 Universal Turing Machine 15–16 Ursache, Marius 193–7, 203–4, 207 vacuum cleaners, robotic 75–7, 234, 236 video games 28–9, 35–7, 151–2, 186–7, 194, 197 Vinge, Vernor 229–30 virtual assistants 107–32, 225–6, 240–1 characteristics 126–8 falling in love with 122–4 political 119–22 proactive 116–18 therapeutic 128–31 voices 124–126, 127–8 Viv Labs 132 Vladeck, David 242–4 ‘vloggers’ 151–2 von Neumann, John 13–14, 17, 100, 229 Voxta (AI assistant) 119–20 waiter drones 141 ‘Walking Cities’ 89–90 Walter, William Grey 74–7 Warwick, Kevin 65–6 Watson (Blue J) 138–9, 162, 189–92 Waze 90–91, 126 weapons 14, 17, 72, 224–5, 234–5, 247, 255–6 ‘wetware’ 208 Wevorce 145 Wiener, Norbert 72–3, 227 Winston, Patrick 49–50 Wofram Alpha tool 108–9 Wozniak, Steve 35, 114 X.ai 116–17 Xbox 360, Kinect device 114 XCoffee 70 XCON (expert system) 31 Xiaoice 129, 130 YouTube 151 Yudkowsky, Eliezer 237–8 Zuckerberg, Mark 7, 107–8, 230–1, 254–5 Acknowledgments WRITING A BOOK is always a bit of a solitary process.


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Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Laplace demon, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Pareto efficiency, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto

In the (fast-approaching) future, more and more objects will be ITentities able to learn, advise, and communicate with each other. A good example (but it is only an example) is provided by Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags, which can store and remotely retrieve data from an object and give it a unique identity, like a barcode. Tags can measure 0.4 millimetres square and are thinner than paper. Incorporate this tiny microchip in everything, including humans and animals, and you have created ITentities. This is not science fiction. According to a report by market research company InStat, the worldwide production of RFID will have increased more than 25-fold between 2005 and 2010 and reached 33 billion. Imagine networking these 33 billion ITentities together with all the hundreds of millions of PCs, DVDs, iPods, and other ICT devices available and you see that the infosphere is no longer `there' but `here' and it is here to stay.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In the end, of course, the choice of a sponsorship/management model comes down to the purposes for which the platform is being developed and the goals of those designing it. The wireless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used to create smart tags that can be attached by the millions to products for inventory control. In effect, the RFID system is an inventory management platform that retailers can access to interact with the goods they distribute. The RFID platform was sponsored by a huge consortium of retailers, and the tags themselves are now manufactured by many companies which compete on the basis of price as well as design. The shared model of sponsorship and management means that the RFID technology itself doesn’t generate enormous profits for anyone—the tags sell for just a few cents apiece. But this suits the sponsors perfectly, since their goal all along was to make the technology as simple, accessible, and affordable as possible.


pages: 457 words: 112,439

Zero History by William Gibson

augmented reality, business intelligence, dark matter, edge city, hive mind, invisible hand, new economy, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, RFID, too big to fail

He’d pushed the empty white bubble-pack, with its tiny, precisely handwritten notations of date and hour, in purple ink, far down into the seatback pocket. It would remain on the plane, at Heathrow. Nothing to be carried through customs. His passport lay against his chest, beneath his shirt, in a Faraday pouch protecting the information on its resident RFID tag. RFID snooping was an obsession of Sleight’s. Radio-frequency identification tags. They were in lots of things, evidently, and definitely in every recent U.S. passport. Sleight himself was quite fond of RFID snooping, which Milgrim supposed was one reason he worried about it. You could sit in a hotel lobby and remotely collect information from the passports of American businessmen. The Faraday pouch, which blocked all radio signals, made this impossible. Milgrim’s Neo phone was another example of Sleight’s obsession with security or, as Milgrim supposed, control.

Did a brief moment of live voice provide Sleight with the opportunity to manipulate the Neo in some way that he couldn’t, otherwise? If Milgrim spoke now, he wondered for the very first time, would Sleight hear him? It suddenly seemed entirely likely to him that Sleight could. He sat back in his white-enameled aluminum chair, aware again of that emotion he supposed was anger. He could feel the Faraday pouch, containing his passport, slung on its cord, under his shirt. Blocking radio waves. Preventing the RFID in his U.S. passport from being read. He looked at the Neo. Without consciously making any decision, he undid the top button of his shirt, fished the pouch out, opened it, and slid the Neo in with his passport. He tucked it back into his shirt and buttoned up. The pouch was bulkier now, visible under his shirt. He finished his espresso, which had cooled, and was bitter, and left some coins on the small square receipt.


pages: 133 words: 42,254

Big Data Analytics: Turning Big Data Into Big Money by Frank J. Ohlhorst

algorithmic trading, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, DevOps, fault tolerance, linked data, natural language processing, Network effects, pattern recognition, performance metric, personalized medicine, RFID, sentiment analysis, six sigma, smart meter, statistical model, supply-chain management, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application

Furthermore, the increasing volume and detail of information acquired by businesses and government agencies—paired with the rise of multimedia, social media, instant messaging, e-mail, and other Internet-enabled technologies—will fuel exponential growth in data for the foreseeable future. Some of that growth can be attributed to increased compliance requirements, but a key factor in the increase in data volumes is the increasingly sensor-enabled and instrumented world. Examples include RFID tags, vehicles equipped with GPS sensors, low-cost remote sensing devices, instrumented business processes, and instrumented web site interactions. The question may soon arise of whether Big Data is too big, leading to a situation in which determining value may prove more difficult. This will evolve into an argument for the quality of the data over the quantity. Nevertheless, it will be almost impossible to deal with ever-growing data sources if businesses don’t prepare to deal with the management of data head-on.

With companies now turning to creating digital representations of existing data and acquiring everything that is new, data growth rates over the last few years have been nearly infinite, simply because most of the businesses involved started from zero. Many industries fall under the umbrella of new data creation and digitization of existing data, and most are becoming appropriate sources for Big Data resources. Those industries include the following: Transportation, logistics, retail, utilities, and telecommunications. Sensor data are being generated at an accelerating rate from fleet GPS transceivers, RFID (radio-frequency identification) tag readers, smart meters, and cell phones (call data records); these data are used to optimize operations and drive operational BI to realize immediate business opportunities. Health care. The health care industry is quickly moving to electronic medical records and images, which it wants to use for short-term public health monitoring and long-term epidemiological research programs.


pages: 252 words: 78,780

Lab Rats: How Silicon Valley Made Work Miserable for the Rest of Us by Dan Lyons

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, RAND corporation, remote working, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software is eating the world, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, young professional

MarketWatch, May 14, 2018. https://www.marketwatch.com/story/why-one-third-of-american-working-age-men-could-be-displaced-by-robots-2018-05-14. Brookings. “The Future of Work: Robots, AI, and Automation.” Event held May 14, 2018. https://www.brookings.edu/events/the-future-of-work-robots-ai-and-automation. Buchanan, Jeff. “Wisconsin Company Offers to Put RFID Chips in Employees’ Bodies.” Xconomy, July 26, 2017. https://www.xconomy.com/wisconsin/2017/07/26/wisconsin-company-offers-to-put-rfid-chips-in-employees-bodies. Burt, Chris. “Nuance Voice Biometrics Solution Hits Milestone.” Biometric Update.com, January 31, 2018. https://www.biometricupdate.com/201801/nuance-voice-biometrics-solution-hits-milestone. Christoff, Kalina. “Dehumanization in Organizational Settings: Some Scientific and Ethical Considerations.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (2014): 748. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00748.

In 2007, an American Management Association survey found that 40 percent of companies had human beings reading through employee email. Keep that in mind next time you feel the urge to fire off a message bashing your CEO to a work buddy. Companies monitor our social media activity, too. Some even spy on us through the cameras in our computers. They listen to and record our phone calls, and they track our location with ID badges, wristbands, and mobile phones. A Wisconsin company called Three Square Market has put RFID implants into employees’ hands so they can swipe into the building just by waving their hand. Some collect biometric information about workers, like their voiceprints, iris scans, and fingerprints. A common application is requiring fingerprints for “time and attendance” systems, making employees prove when they clock in and clock out. In Illinois, dozens of employers, including Intercontinental Hotels, are facing lawsuits from employees whose fingerprints were gathered and who claim the practice violated an Illinois law about biometric privacy.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

Even when we look at our own homes, we can see the momentum building: personal technology and gadgets, cars, bicycles, televisions, white goods, light globes, thermostats, athletic shoes, clothing, pillows, beds, door locks, toys and wearables — not to mention our phone (the smart hub). Will everything be connected? We know from technology deflation, which was discussed in chapter 7, how cheap the augmentation of technology has become. Many of the widgets used to create this connectivity are cheaper than the packaging they’re sold in. A radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip, for example, is cheaper than the glass bottle Coca-Cola comes in. Other more complex connectivity elements come at the cost of a few dollars. The price of technology is not the issue. If we add to this people’s desire for everything to be connected to the web, there’s no stopping it from becoming a mainstream communications phenomenon that will dwarf the impact of the social web. After all, a web of things has more direct financial implications and monetisation potential because it’s the ultimate in direct marketing.

It’s another form of collective sentience in addition to what we now do with social media. However, this is the physical version. In essence it will become our globally displaced technological assistance system. And it’s already being installed by innovative yet fragmented industries and startups. The ‘smart home’ will be where it first gains wide acceptance. Start making sense The types of sensor we can expect to use include microprocessors, RFIDs, accelerometers, altimeters, gauges, and audio and visual scanners of every type. If you can think of it and measure it, then a sensor can do it. Sensors can measure and record temperature, light, pressure, moisture, water level, movement, proximity, density, patterns, faces, brands and everyday things in the environment. These sensors will be able to perceive the external what, how and who of our world with incredible accuracy.

I catch the train to work. Even though I have a perfectly fine car and a free car space at my office, I do this because the incentive makes it worth the effort. The government of the day has a combined incentive for increased usage of public transport to reduce traffic congestion and to assist in the meeting of their carbon treaty targets. I check in while travelling using my registered smartphone app or RFID-enabled government issue transport card so that I’m tracked and get my tax credits. Local food retail. For my mid-morning coffee I walk past three cafés to get my java fix. The one a little further down the street offers a free coffee for every fifth check-in with my smartphone using a geo-locating app. They know I’ve checked in because my smartphone talks to their register (without me doing anything) when I’m less than 5 metres from it.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

Each company can inquire with the others, but just as banks in a sequence of payment processors maintain separate ledgers that are closed to everyone else, there is no visibility across these different siloes of information. That means that a company like Chipotle has no way to check whether the work records at the Australian slaughterhouse show the staff fulfilling compliance requirements and carrying out mandated procedures. Barcodes and RFID chips have in some respect improved traceability of goods across the world, but the real problem in visibility lies behind the closed doors of each supplier. End-producers, and just as importantly, consumers, are flying blind. Blockchain technology, with its capacity to get groups of potentially mistrusting people to coordinate around a common interest, offers a potential solution to this problem.

Mining giant BHP Billiton is using the technology to track minerals analysis done by outside vendors. The startup Everledger has uploaded unique identifying data on a million individual diamonds to a blockchain ledger system to build quality assurances and help jewelers comply with regulations barring “blood diamond” products. These solutions are also IoT blockchain plays because they are intrinsically linked to the sensors, barcodes, and RFID chips that are increasingly used in manufacturing and shipping to trace goods, trigger actions, and prompt payment. Once again, there will be a need for “know-your-machine” systems that can “identify” these devices and assure they are operating in a trustworthy way. Once smart contracts are added in, signals from these devices can automatically execute pre-established rights and obligations for payment and delivery that all signatories have agreed to.

That way, they can’t be as easily exploited by foreign pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, which have lodged countless patents based on the extraction of materials in such places over the years. The concept is only loosely formed at this stage but we raise it here to point out that the assets a blockchain can register go far beyond land. In fact, other assets may be much easier to quantify, with less politics and less ambiguity over ownership. People are talking about blockchain registries of movable assets such as cars, potentially with signals from embedded RFID chips that record unique serial numbers into a blockchain. Blockchain registries could be built up at the point of sale, with loans collateralized right there and then against the asset, a process that would not need the same level of intervention as an official registry. In yet another project from MIT Media Lab, this one led by Michael Casey’s Digital Currency Initiative colleague Mark Weber, a team is working with Inter-American Development Bank to lay a blockchain-based technical foundation for an open-source public asset registry that could support claims on a variety of assets.


Mastering Blockchain, Second Edition by Imran Bashir

3D printing, altcoin, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, connected car, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, Debian, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, full stack developer, general-purpose programming language, gravity well, interest rate swap, Internet of things, litecoin, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, Network effects, new economy, node package manager, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, prediction markets, QR code, RAND corporation, Real Time Gross Settlement, reversible computing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, single page application, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, web application, x509 certificate

The identity can be a hash of MRZ of the passport or travel document concatenated with the biometric record from the RFID chip. A simple Boolean field can be used to identify blacklisted passports. Once this initial check passes, further detailed biometric verification can be performed by traditional systems and eventually when a decision is made regarding the entry of the passport holder that decision can be propagated back to the blockchain, thus enabling all participants on the network to immediately share the outcome of the decision. A high-level approach to building a blockchain-based border control system can be visualized as shown in the following diagram. In this scenario, the passport is presented for scanning to an RFID and page scanner which reads the data page and extracts machine-readable information along with a hash of the biometric data stored in the RFID chip. At this stage, a live photo and retina scan of the passport holder is also taken.

Physical object layer These include any real-world physical objects. It includes people, animals, cars, trees, fridges, trains, factories, homes, and in fact anything that is required to be monitored and controlled can be connected to the IoT. Device layer This layer contains things that make up the IoT such as sensors, transducers, actuators, smartphones, smart devices, and Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. There can be many categories of sensors such as body sensors, home sensors, and environmental sensors based on the type of work they perform. This layer is the core of an IoT ecosystem where various sensors are used to sense real-world environments. This layer includes sensors that can monitor temperature, humidity, liquid flow, chemicals, air, pressure, and much more. Usually, an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is required on a device to turn the real-world analog signal into a digital signal that a microprocessor can understand.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

AltaVista, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

Science fiction writers aren't the only people in the business of predicting the future. Futurists — consultants, technology columnists, analysts, venture capitalists, and entrepreneurial pitchmen — spill a lot of ink, phosphors, and caffeinated hot air in describing a vision for a future where we'll get more and more of whatever it is they want to sell us or warn us away from. Tomorrow will feature faster, cheaper processors, more Internet users, ubiquitous RFID tags, radically democratic political processes dominated by bloggers, massively multiplayer games whose virtual economies dwarf the physical economy. There's a lovely neologism to describe these visions: "futurismic." Futurismic media is that which depicts futurism, not the future. It is often self-serving — think of the antigrav Nikes in Back to the Future III — and it generally doesn't hold up well to scrutiny.

The East German Stasi also engaged in rampant surveillance, using a network of snitches to assemble secret files on every resident of East Berlin. They knew who was telling subversive jokes—but missed the fact that the Wall was about to come down. When you watch everyone, you watch no one. This seems to have escaped the operators of the digital surveillance technologies that are taking over our cities. In the brave new world of doorbell cams, wi-fi sniffers, RFID passes, bag searches at the subway and photo lookups at office security desks, universal surveillance is seen as the universal solution to all urban ills. But the truth is that ubiquitous cameras only serve to violate the social contract that makes cities work. The key to living in a city and peacefully co-existing as a social animal in tight quarters is to set a delicate balance of seeing and not seeing.


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

Businesses like TCHO and thredUP continually ask: Are there other services or products you’d like us to provide? Are there other brands that you’re keen on? How else can we make your life simpler, less costly, and more enjoyable? from the digital to the physical. Every day, more parts of the physical world join data networks. Increasingly, usage and location information from multiple sources—including embedded chips, mobile GPS, RFID tracking of goods, and UPC codes—can be fused with data collected from the Web to create digital portraits of customer preferences, including what brands they trust. Adding location data is a critical step. The new networks do not manage only strictly digital products, such as e-books; they can now connect you to physical products and services, like a hot meal (which to date can only be digitalized on Star Trek).

Similarly, bike-sharing companies allow members to rent bicycles for any length of time. Other Meshy transportation companies help consumers trade cars and boats, share taxicabs, and gain access to information about public transportation. Interested in starting your own car-sharing service? The Paris-based company Eileo will steer you down the right road. It offers customized tools—including GPS, RFID, full Web-based car-sharing software, and noninvasive hardware installation—to cover all your car-sharing technology needs, from registration to invoicing. Eileo’s team of engineers is available 24/7 to help you continuously improve your car-sharing business. And their complete solutions will enable you to partner with other car-sharing services worldwide. When you expand your network to include partners in the same city or anywhere in the world, members will enjoy the same benefits of car sharing wherever they go.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

“The IEM has two materials which, when they come in contact with stomach fluids, provide power to the IEM. The IEM varies the current flow between the two materials to generate a digital signal which can be detected…The IEM contains no battery, antenna or radio, but rather uses the body to power the device and to pass along the unique, pill-specific signal in a private manner that is far superior to complicated, expensive and privacy-challenged approaches like RFID.” Mark Zdeblick, CTO at Proteus and co-inventor Applying Moore’s Law to implants like this, within five to ten years, this sensor will be reduced to a twentieth of its existing size, injectable and move throughout your bloodstream transmitting health data. Combined with AI, such sensors will be able to anticipate emerging issues and, in tandem with either a wearable device or your personal smartphone, could contact medical authorities to help you in times of distress.

Augmented reality will be a stronger in-store trend looking at the middle of next decade. However, to accomplish that, we will need a new technology infrastructure underpinning store experiences. Third: Augmented by Beacons For smartphones, smart glasses, a personal AI or smart wearables to respond in the retail space, something must be listening. Today, sensors and Bluetooth connected beacons surround us. iBeacons, NFC chips, radio frequency identification tags (RFID) and more sense our presence and communicate with our devices in real time. Most of the time, we’re unaware that this is happening. Connecting to millions of phones in millions of pockets, with their connected location-based services, they signal the opportunity to deliver extremely tightly focused, personalised messages, offers and promotions in real time. Beacons are the fastest-growing retail technology, growing 287 per cent to 5 million beacons8 in the United States within the next four years, with most of them in use by retailers, according to BI Intelligence.

Technology consulting firm Frost & Sullivan forecasts that nearly half a billion people will be using a smartphone equipped with biometrics by 2017. Figure 12.4: Smart changing rooms and mirrors allow a crossover between physical and digital. (Credit: Nordstroms-ebay fitting room) Retailers and brands like Ugg Australia, Uniqlo and Burberry are already using “magic” or “memory” mirror technologies that utilise individual profiles. RFID tags identify the product while cameras capture your image and body shape, enabling you to try on virtual outfits in different colours and styles. Once you’ve had a shopping experience in-store, that profile can then be used at home for you to make sure online goods fit you properly and see how they’ll look in a virtual fitting room experience. More sophisticated in-store displays can even change the context whereby you can try on an overcoat in the rain, a swimsuit in the Caribbean or sports gear on the track.


pages: 181 words: 62,775

Half Empty by David Rakoff

airport security, Buckminster Fuller, dark matter, double helix, global pandemic, Google Earth, phenotype, RFID, twin studies, urban planning, urban renewal, wage slave, Wall-E, Y2K

Like all omniscient machines possessed of benevolent intent but lacking decision-making power, it is a she. “Lillian” (Lillian was the name of Mrs. Disney) can read the radio frequency identification tag on a bag of flour, for example, and suggest recipes. She knows when one has run out of an ingredient and can connect to an online grocer and order more. That seems convenient enough, but does it require that one affix these RFID tags to all of one’s ingredients so that they fall within Lillian’s purview? That seems like a lot more work than writing a shopping list. More likely such items will be purchased already tagged by the supermarket. But will Lillian know, for example, when I’m down to three cloves of garlic? Enough for a sauce but a woefully short supply if I were contemplating making a gazpacho (he worried faggily).

At one point I park myself near one of the control panels and unilaterally select Grandpa’s Andrews Sisters playlist, not giving anyone who approaches even the slimmest of chances of changing the music for a few blessed minutes. This is just one of the many dispiriting aspects of 360 Tomorrowland Way: it would be just as jangling even without visitors, if it was only the family here. Rooms reassemble themselves upon the arrival of a new Elias, responding to RFID tags sewn into their soccer jerseys (although if two people enter the room at the same time, Mom’s preferences prevail, the Peace of the Hearth being of paramount importance). Things chez Elias are both adversarial and negligent, as though a family with shared interests who might agree upon what to hang on the walls of the dining room was somewhat laughable, as though we have all of us, up until now, been living lives of quiet desperation, muffling our desires and personal preferences in ambient music, lighting, cuisine, and artwork.


pages: 230 words: 61,702

The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

Now we have Web 3.0 (the “smart Web”) and, most significantly, the so-called Internet of Things (“Wow! You should check out my smart … watch, refrigerator, lamp, socks!”). In essence, the “Internet of Things” is a way of describing the phenomenon of networked objects—objects that are embedded with data-streaming sensors and software that connect them to the Net. The “things” in question run the gamut from autonomous connected devices like smartphones to the tiny radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips and other sorts of sensors attached to everything from UPS trucks and cargo containers to pets, farm animals, cars, thermostats, and NFL helmets. By 2007 there were already 10 million sensors of all sorts connected to the Internet, and some projections have that number rising to 100 trillion by 2030 if not before.4 These sensors are being used not only for economic purposes but for scientific ones (to track migratory animals, for example), and for security and military purposes (such as tracking human beings).

., 182–83 markets, 122–23 searches, 155, 158–59, 183 prejudices, 72–73 primary qualities, defined, 68, 70, 74 printing press, 35, 134 Internet compared to, xv prisons, 105, 106 fishbowl strategy for, 91 Pritchard, Duncan, 132, 203 privacy: and autonomy, 89–109 as basic to human dignity, 101–9 changing concept of, 73 control and, 94–95, 186 devaluing of, 89–93, 99–100, 105 of information, 94–100 justification for invasion of, 107–9 right to, 89, 101–2 threat to, 4, 6, 89–109, 186 traded for security, 105, 108 U.S. legislation on, 93, 95–96, 108 values of, 93–95, 109 privacy policies, 105–6 prize competitions, 136–37 problem-solving sites, 136–37 procedural knowledge, 167–74 Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics, 84 professors, 152–53 propaganda: Internet as tool for, 66, 81 political, 82–83 property, changing concept of ownership of, 73 Proposition 8 legislation, 53 prosthetics, 191 pro tanto, 198 public life, defined, 63 questioning, skill in, 16–17, 171–72 race, 72, 157, 162 racism, 147 radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips, 7 raft metaphor, for foundation of beliefs, 129 rationalist delusion, 50–55 Rawls, John, 49 reasonableness, 40, 41–63, 90, 125, 179, 196 as anchor for belief, 132, 195 defined, 50, 55 democracy and, 55–63 devaluing of, 147–48 as rationalist’ delusion, 50–55 reasons, reasoning: arbitrary basis for, 47–48 circular, 130–32 common currency for, 50, 63 defined, 39 exchange of, 50–55 fragmentation in, 4, 41–63 Glauconian view of, 54–55, 56–58 individual sensitivity to, 84–85 knowledge based on, 15, 33, 36–40 rules of, 40 shifting the geography of, 147–48 in value judgment, 57 receptive knowledge, 26–31, 37, 48, 60–61, 153–54, 179–80, 187, 194, 203 as anchor for belief, 131–32 in motor skills, 169 reflective vs., 39, 51, 131, 154, 196 Reddit, 24, 116 reflective knowledge, 39, 51, 131, 154, 196 reliability, 14, 27–31, 39–40, 44–45, 114–16, 119–20, 123–25, 130, 194–95 religion: marriage and, 58–59 science vs., 47–49, 66 values of, 44 Republic, The (Plato), 54, 83 Republican Party, 61–62 research sharing, 135–36 responsibility, individual vs. group, 117–19 Rifkin, Jeremy, 7–8, 92, 140–41, 145, 151, 180 ring of invisibility, 54 robots: cyborg, 5–6, 191–92 as socialbots, 81–82 Rogers, Mike, 96 Romney, Mitt, 200 Rorty, Richard, 62 Rove, Karl, 50 Rudder, Christian, 157–60 Russell, Bertrand, ix, xvii–xviii, 186 Ryle, Gilbert, 168 St.


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Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas by Natasha Dow Schüll

airport security, Albert Einstein, Build a better mousetrap, business intelligence, capital controls, cashless society, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, game design, impulse control, information asymmetry, inventory management, iterative process, jitney, large denomination, late capitalism, late fees, longitudinal study, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, statistical model, the built environment, yield curve, zero-sum game

In 1997 the managers at Foxwoods, a sprawling Native American casino in Connecticut, envisioned a “cashless environment wherein patrons use the WC [Wampum Card] as an all-purpose transaction debit card for all expenditures in both the resort and in the local community.”18 This vision of the entire “local community” as a site for the collection of live data extends the reach of player tracking beyond the physical boundaries of the casino.19 Similarly, Harrah’s Total Rewards plan tracks play from coast to coast by pooling information from its national chain of properties into a single centralized database.20 A game developer I spoke with in 2000 speculated that newer tracking cards would not require insertion in machines for recognition to take place; instead, machines would detect card-carrying players as they passed, making it possible to seamlessly track their migration through a given landscape. “Think of the data—it would be fascinating, the stream of people and their flows.” Six years later, during an industry meeting at Station’s Red Rock Casino, Radiofrequency Identification (RFID)—originally devised to monitor the peripatetic movements of criminal offenders and soon thereafter employed by retail operations to trace the purchase of consumer products—was given a trial run among conference participants.21 Applied in casinos, RFID uses tracking tags embedded in player cards to follow patrons as they move through a space, in real time.22 By integrating transactional data and flow of movement, casinos can “analyze their customers’ every move.”23 Yet how, exactly, to make that analysis? How to leverage “the stream of people and their flows” so as to inform strategic modifications to casino games, layout, or marketing campaigns?

Harrah’s Total Rewards website (https://Harrah’s.com/TotalRewards/TotalRewards, accessed November 2010). The Total Rewards program began as Total Gold in 1998 and changed names in 2000 with the addition of “player tiers.” By 2004, 30 million cardholders were signed up in the program, and today the number stands at 40 million. 21. Press release for G2E institute conference, February 7, 2006. 22. See Andrejevic 2007 for a discussion of the use of RFID in the domain of commerce (89–90, 122–23). 23. Barrett and Gallagher 2004. 24. Brock, Fussell, and Corney 1992. 25. Compudigm International website (www.compudigm.com, accessed June 2007). 26. Javier Saenz of Mariposa (who would become vice president of “strategy for network systems” at IGT), panelist for “Increasing Slot Revenue: New Techniques,” G2E 2007. 27. Tracey Chernay of Transact Technologies, panelist for “CRM Part II: Technology and Applications,” G2E 2008. 28.

Reith, Gerda relationship management repeat players research process Responsible Gaming Device responsible gaming: codes of conduct; director of at IGT;; inherent contradiction of; gambling industry’s campaign for; global diffusion of; and individualized risk-management return to player (RTP). See payout percentage. revenue per available customer (REVPAC) Reward and Punishment RadioFrequency Identification (RFID) RGD. See Responsible Gaming Device. Riesman, David risk society. See also Ulrich Beck. risk management: individualized; and choice making; as a logic of gambling regulation. See also actuarial self; harm minimization; self–governance; risk society. Ritzer, George RNG. See random number generator. Robison, John Rocky: on addiction and equilibrium; disillusioned with the world; modulating his medication intake; on tunnel vision of the zone; wanting to lose; withdrawing into machines Roemer, Mick Rose: on becoming a slot machine technician; on the mystery of the RNG Rose, I.


pages: 233 words: 67,596

Competing on Analytics: The New Science of Winning by Thomas H. Davenport, Jeanne G. Harris

always be closing, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, business intelligence, business process, call centre, commoditize, data acquisition, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, global supply chain, high net worth, if you build it, they will come, intangible asset, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, knapsack problem, late fees, linear programming, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Netflix Prize, new economy, performance metric, personalized medicine, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, RFID, search inside the book, shareholder value, six sigma, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method, traveling salesman, yield management

Procter & Gamble, for example, used a variety of analytical techniques before its acquisition of Gillette, including those for logistics and supply chains, drivers of stock market value, and human resources. In a few years, firms that do not employ extensive analytics in making a major acquisition will be considered irresponsible. Indeed, trends point to a more analytical future for virtually every firm. The amount of data available will only continue to increase. Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices will be put on virtually every pallet or carton that moves through the supply chain, generating vast amounts of new data for companies to collect and analyze. In retail, every shopping cart will be intelligent enough to gather data on “pickstreams,” or a record of which products are taken off the shelves in what order. In oil exploration and mining, the amount of data—already massive—will expand geometrically.

Data can also come from the sources popularized in the movies: e-mail, voice applications, images (maps and photos available through the Internet), and biometrics (fingerprints and iris identification). The further the data type is from standard numbers and letters, however, the harder it is to integrate with other data and analyze. More data about the physical world, through sensor technology and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, is becoming available as well. Some packages can communicate their physical condition—for example, a case of wine could be monitored to see whether it is being kept at the proper temperature. It can be difficult and expensive to capture some highly valuable data. (In some cases, it might even be illegal—for example, sensitive customer information or competitor intelligence about new product plans or pricing strategies.)


pages: 398 words: 120,801

Little Brother by Cory Doctorow

airport security, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas Bayes, web of trust, zero day

Dan Kaminsky, a tunneling expert of the first water, published details in 2004 (www.doxpara.com/bo2004.ppt). The guru of "citizen journalism" is Dan Gillmor, who is presently running the Center for Citizen Media at Harvard and UC Berkeley -- he also wrote a hell of a book on the subject, "We, the Media" (O'Reilly, 2004). If you want to learn more about hacking arphids, start with Annalee Newitz's Wired Magazine article "The RFID Hacking Underground" (www.wirednews.com/wired/archive/14.05/rfid.html). Adam Greenfield's "Everyware" (New Riders Press, 2006) is a chilling look at the dangers of a world of arphids. Neal Gershenfeld's Fab Lab at MIT (fab.cba.mit.edu) is hacking out the world's first real, cheap "3D printers" that can pump out any object you can dream of. This is documented in Gershenfeld's excellent book on the subject, "Fab" (Basic Books, 2005).

"Ange, I've never thought more clearly in my whole life." She kissed me then, and I kissed her back, and it was some time before we went out for that burrito. &&& Afterword by Bruce Schneier I'm a security technologist. My job is making people secure. I think about security systems and how to break them. Then, how to make them more secure. Computer security systems. Surveillance systems. Airplane security systems and voting machines and RFID chips and everything else. Cory invited me into the last few pages of his book because he wanted me to tell you that security is fun. It's incredibly fun. It's cat and mouse, who can outsmart whom, hunter versus hunted fun. I think it's the most fun job you can possibly have. If you thought it was fun to read about Marcus outsmarting the gait-recognition cameras with rocks in his shoes, think of how much more fun it would be if you were the first person in the world to think of that.


The Future of Technology by Tom Standage

air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, creative destruction, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, Marc Andreessen, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K

Whether railways, cars or even electricity, all are relatively limited technologies compared with it, which in time is likely to embrace the whole of business and society. Currently, wireless technologies are all the rage, although again nobody knows how much money will be in it for vendors and carriers. Optimists hope that surfers will soon be able to roam around freely and remain continuously connected to the internet. And small radio chips called rfid tags will make it possible to track everything and anything, promising to make supply chains much more efficient. But even a new killer application is unlikely to bring back the good old times. “After a crash, much of the glamour of the new technology is gone,” writes Brian Arthur, an economist at the Santa Fe Institute. The years after the British railway mania, for instance, were “years of build-out rather than novelty, years of confidence and steady growth, years of orderliness.”

A small portion of these wares eventually do end up being used by ordinary humans. Currently, the ces technophiles are excited about two trends in particular. The first is that every single electronic device will soon be connected to the internet. This includes the obvious, such as mobile phones and tv sets, and the less obvious, such as shirts and nappies that carry tiny radio-frequency identification (rfid) tags. Microsoft talks about its “connected-car” project, which conjures up images of drivers rebooting on the motorway. But the direction is clear. In future, most people in rich countries will be “always on”, and will connect to the internet through something other than a pc. The other, and related, big idea concerns what some vendors call “the digital home” and others the “e-home”. This year’s ces was full of mock homes in which the toaster, the refrigerator and the oven talk wirelessly to the computer, where toilet seats warm up at appropriate times and the front door can be unlocked remotely through the internet by the owner on his business trip abroad.

O’Neil, David 73 O’Neil, John 28, 30 OneSaf 197 online banks 37 online shopping viii, 37 open standards 7, 10, 22–7, 31, 38, 43, 85–7, 115, 118–19, 152 operating systems 9, 10, 23–5, 31, 38, 85, 101, 109 operators, mobile phones 157–61, 162–9 Opsware 8, 15 optical-character recognition 121 Oracle 5, 20–2, 33, 38, 39–40, 46, 56, 62, 86, 243 Orange 157–8 organic IT 13–16, 88 original design manufacturers (ODMs), mobile phones 156–7 O’Roarke, Brian 192 O’Roarke, John 96 Orr, Scott 187 orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 212–13, 215–17 INDEX Otellini, Paul 11, 95 outshored developments, software 38, 115, 138–9 outsourcing viii, 9, 19–20, 22, 38, 68–9, 71, 72, 88–92, 112–46, 158–60 see also globalisation barriers 121–2, 143 concepts 112–46 costs 112–24, 131–5, 140–3 cultural issues 122, 142 Europe 140–6 historical background 119–20, 125–6, 133 India 38, 109, 112–15, 119–22, 125–35, 137–8, 140–6 legal agreements 121–4 mobile phones 155–6, 158–60 opportunities 144–6 protectionists 140–6 reasons 123–4, 143 services 113–30 social outsourcing 143 “overshoot” stage, industries 9, 10–11, 109 overview vii–x, 6–7 Ovi, Alessandro 275–6 Oxford GlycoSciences 243 P Pacific Cycle 140 Page, Larry 9 Pait, Rob 207 Palladium 74, 76 Palm Pilot 150 Palmisano, Samuel 22 Paltrow, Gwyneth 173 Panasonic 156 Papadopoulos, Greg 14, 78–9, 83–4, 91 Papadopoulos, Stelios 237 Parker, Andrew 143 Parks Associates 96, 203 Parr, Doug 319 particulate filters 296–7 passwords 53, 58–61, 67, 96–7 patents, nanotechnology 321–6, 329 Patriot Act, America 35 PCs 9–16, 78–81, 82–110, 151, 171–3, 202–18 see also digital homes; hardware commoditisation issues 9–16, 132–5, 203 complexity issues 78–81, 82–110 screen sizes 100–1 UWB 214–18 Wi-Fi 209–18 PDAs see personal digital assistants Peck, Art 203 PentaSafe Security 60 Pentium chips 199–200 PeopleSoft 39, 86, 119, 126, 132 Perez, Carlota 5–6, 134 performance issues see also processing power; returns cars 291–8 Cell chips 198–200 cost links 29–30 Perlegen 244 personal digital assistants (PDAs) 151, 277, 279 see also handheld computers personal video recorders (PVRs) 203, 205–6 perverse incentives, security issues 61–2 Pescatore, John 55 Pfizer 69, 240, 247, 312, 315 pharmaceutical companies 239–40, 241–50, 312 PHAs 260 Philippines 130 Philips 120, 217 “phishing” 76, 89 phonograph 82, 84 photo-voltaic cells 280 photos ix, 78, 95, 101, 179–83 Physiome 248 Picardi, Tony 79 Pick, Adam 156 Pink Floyd 225 Piper, H. 292 Pittsburgh convention centre 304 Pivotal 187 plasma screens 230–2 plastics 238–9, 259–64 PlayStation 191–2, 199–200, 206–7 plug-and-play devices 78 plug-in hybrid cars 295–6 Poland 120 police involvement, security breaches 72 polio 265 politics 32–5 see also governments Pollard, John 157 pollution 275, 296–7, 299–304, 319 Pop Idol (TV show) 225 Pope, Alexander 267 Porsche 292 “post-technology” period, IT industry vii, 5–7 Powell, Michael 98, 206 power grids 233, 285–90 PowerPoint presentations 4–5, 107 Predictive Networks 337 Presley, Elvis 225 prices, downward trends viii, 4–7 PricewaterhouseCoopers 38 printers 78, 96 privacy issues 27, 34, 42–8, 179–83 see also security... mobile phones 179–83 processing power see also computer chips 353 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY exponential growth 4–7, 8–14 Proctor, Donald 106 Prodi, Romano 274–5 profits, future prospects 7, 17–18, 37–40 proprietary technology 24, 26, 80, 86 protectionists, outsourcing 140–6 proteins, biotechnology 241–64 protocols, complexity issues 86 Proxim 210 Prozac 315 PSA Peugeot Citroën 293, 296–7 PSP, Sony 191–3 public accounts 44 Pullin, Graham 177–8 PVRs see personal video recorders Q Qualcomm 164 quantum dots 312, 317, 322, 325 R radiation fears, mobile phones 176 radio 34–5, 36, 39, 94–5, 108, 155–61, 164, 209–18, 223 see also wireless... chips 155–61, 164 “garbage bands” 209–10, 215 music industry 223 spectrum 34–5, 94–5, 209–18 UWB 96–7, 214–19 Radjou, Navi 333–4 railway age vii, 5, 7, 23, 36, 39, 134 Raleigh, Greg 211 RAND 195 rationalisation exercises 31 RCA 108–9, 206, 208, 220, 315 real-world skills, gaming comparisons 194–7 RealNetworks 203 rechargeable batteries 280–4 Recourse Technologies 62–3 Reed, Philip 177 regulations 35, 44, 209–10, 326–9 see also legal issues relational databases 101–2 reliability needs viii, 42–8 religion 19 renewable energy 275–6, 286, 289, 300, 310, 315 ReplayTV 205 Research in Motion (RIM) 152–3 resistance problems, employees 31 return on investment (ROI) 30–1 returns 20, 29–31, 329 see also performance issues risk 20, 30, 329 revenue streams biotechnology 237–8, 241–2 354 gaming 189–90, 191 GM 251–2 mobile phones 151, 154–5, 157, 162–3, 165–6, 174 nanotechnology 321–6 revolutionary ideas vii–viii, 5–7, 13–14, 36–40, 80–4, 107–10, 116, 134, 151–3, 198–200, 236–40, 326–9 RFID radio tags 39, 94–5 Rhapsody 203 Ricardo 296–7 Riley, James, Lieutenant-Colonel 195–7 RIM see Research in Motion ringtones 165–6 RISC chips 200 risk assessments 70–4, 76 attitudes 18 handling methods 71 insurance policies 71–3 management 70–4 mitigation 71–3 outsourced risk 71, 72, 88–92 returns 20, 30, 329 security issues 42–8, 49–69, 70–4 RNA molecules 241–2, 249–50, 265 Robinson, Shane 15–16 robotics x, 233, 316, 332–5 Roco, Mihail 309 Rodgers, T.J. 32 Rofheart, Martin 216–17 Rogers, Richard 300 ROI see return on investment Rolls, Steve 121 Romm, Joseph 298 Roomba 332, 334–5 “root kit” software 51 Rose, John 226 Roslin Institute 256 Roy, Raman 125–8 Russia 115, 130, 140, 142, 145, 319 Ryan, John 312 S S700 mobile phone 171 Saffo, Paul 83–4, 103, 182 Salesforce.com 19, 20, 84, 91–2, 109 Samsung 158–60, 181, 208, 217, 231, 277 Santa Fe Institute 39 SAP 22, 38, 86, 119, 126, 132 satellite television 205 Saudi Arabia 180 scandals 28 scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) 306 SCC see Sustainable Computing Consortium Schadler, Ted 95, 97 Schainker, Robert 285, 289 INDEX Scherf, Kurt 96–7 Schmelzer, Robert 91 Schmidt, Eric 9, 35, 36–8 Schmidt, Nathan 66 Schneider National 29–31 Schneier, Bruce 43, 58, 61–2, 65, 70, 73–4 schools, surveillance technology 181 Schwartz, John 46 Schwinn 140, 143 Scott, Tony 43, 68–9 screen sizes 100–1 screws 23–4 Seagate Technology 207 seamless computing 96–7 Sears, Roebuck & Co 36 Securities and Exchange Commission 321 security issues viii, 25–7, 32–5, 42–8, 49–74, 86–7 see also privacy... airport approach 68–9 anti-virus software 50–1, 60, 67–8 biometric systems 60, 64–5, 71, 74 breaches 43–4, 46, 49–52, 62, 72–3 civil liberties 74 concepts 42–74, 86–7 costs 45–6, 50–1, 62, 70–4 employees 58–63, 69 encryption 53–4 firewalls 51–3, 58, 60, 62, 66–8, 71, 86–7 hackers 4, 43, 47, 49, 51–3, 58–63 handheld computers 67–8 honeypot decoys 62–3 human factors 57–63, 69 identity management 69 IDSs 51, 53–4, 62, 87 impact assessments 70–1, 76 insider attacks 62–3 insurance policies 71–3 internet 35, 42–8, 49–57, 61–2, 66, 66–7, 71, 73–6, 179–83 job vacancies 46 joint ventures 67 major threats 35, 42, 43, 47, 49–63, 66–9 management approaches 60–3, 69 Microsoft 54–6, 72, 74, 76 misconceptions 46–8 networks 42–8, 49–65, 66–9 passwords 53, 58–61, 67, 96–7 patches 56–7, 76 perverse incentives 61–2 police involvement 72 risk assessments 70–4, 76 standards 71–3 terrorism 35, 42, 43, 50, 65, 74, 75–6, 265–6 tools 49–63, 86–7 viruses 45, 47, 49–56, 59–60, 67–8, 74, 86, 89 Wi-Fi 66–7, 93 sedimentation factors 8–9, 84 segmentation issues, mobile phones 167–9 self-configuration concepts 88–9 Sellers, William 23 Seminis 254 Sendo 160 Senegal 182 September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks 35, 42, 43, 50, 65, 75 servers 9–16, 37–8, 62–3, 85–7, 132–3, 203 services industry 14, 17–22, 25–7, 31, 36–40, 80, 88–92, 109, 113–35, 203 see also web services outsourcing 113–46 session initiation protocol (SIP) 104–6 sewing machines 82, 84 SG Cowen 237 shapes, mobile phones 170–6 Shapiro, Carl 24 Sharp 156, 231, 326 shelfware phenomenon 20 Shelley, Mary 267, 269 shipping costs 121 sick building syndrome 302 Siebel 86 Siemens 120, 130, 142, 156, 159, 170, 172, 174 SightSpeed 84, 98, 103 SilentRunner 62 Silicon Valley 9, 32–40, 45–6, 54, 69, 79, 96, 98, 101, 103, 152, 313–14, 321 silk 263, 269 Simon, Herbert 336 simplicity needs 78–81, 84, 87, 88–92, 98–110 SIP see session initiation protocol Sircam virus 45, 49 Sirkin, Hal 120, 140 “six sigma” methods 128 SK 169 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill 302 Sky 205 Skype 103–4, 110 Sloan School of Management, MIT 30 Slovakia 120 small screens 100 Smalley, Richard 311 smallpox 265–6 smart power grids 233, 285–90 smartcards 64, 69 smartphones 150–3, 157–61 see also mobile phones SMES devices 289 Smith Barney 37 Smith, George 307–8 Smith, Lamar 75 Smith, Vernon 17 SNP 243–4 SOAP 25–7 355 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY social issues mobile phones 177–8, 182–3 music players 220–1 social outsourcing 143 software see also information technology ASPs 19–20, 91–2, 109 bugs 20–1, 54–6 Cell chips 198–200 commoditisation issues 10–16, 25, 132–5, 159, 203 complexity issues 14–15, 78–81, 82–110, 117–22 firewalls 52–3, 58, 86–7 hackers 51–3, 58–63 Java programming language 21–2, 25, 86 management software 13–16, 21–2, 88, 117–18 mobile phones 158–9 natural-language search software 339–40 operating systems 9, 10, 23–5, 31, 38, 85, 101, 109 outsourcing 38, 115, 138–9 patches 56–7, 76 premature releases 20–1 shelfware phenomenon 20 viruses 45, 47, 49–56, 59–60, 67, 74, 89 solar power 275–6, 286, 289, 301–2, 310, 315, 325 Solectron 112–13, 119 solid-state storage media 204, 207, 219 SOMO... project, mobile phones 177–8 Sony 95, 108, 156, 191–3, 198–200, 203, 206–7, 217, 228, 231, 282–4, 332, 334, 338 Sony Ericsson 156, 158, 159–60, 171 Sony/BMG 222–3, 227, 229 Sood, Rahul 38 Sorrent 187 South Africa 309, 319, 334 South Korea 156, 158, 163–5, 167–9, 170–1, 181, 319 soyabean crops 252–4 spam 76, 89, 118 Spar, Debora 32–3 speculation vii speech recognition 102, 121, 336 SPH-V5400 mobile phone 208 Spider-Man 189–90 Spinks, David 60–1, 63 Spitzer, Eliot 223 Sprint 167–8, 180–1 SQL 53 @Stake 54 Standage, Ella 316 standards green buildings 300–4 open standards 7, 10, 22–7, 31, 38, 43, 85–7, 115, 118–19, 152 356 security issues 71–3 W-CDMA standard 163–4, 168 web services 90–1 Wi-Fi 210–13 Stanford University 82, 137 Star Wars (movie) 186 steam power ix, 5, 134 steel industry 134 steering committees 31 stem cells 268–9 Steven Winter Associates 302 Stewart, Martha 249 STM see scanning tunnelling microscope stop-start hybrid cars 293–4 storage problems, electricity 275–6, 289–90 StorageTek 85 strategy 30 stress-resistance, biotechnology 254 Studio Daniel Libeskind 302 Sturiale, Nick 45 Sun Microsystems 9, 13–15, 21–2, 25, 27, 37–8, 43, 56, 58, 78–9, 83, 85, 87, 91, 102 supercomputers 199–200 Superdome machines 21 supply chains 8, 37–40, 155 surveillance technology 35, 74, 179–83, 309 Sussex University 5, 220, 310 Sustainable Computing Consortium (SCC) 27 Sweden 109 Swiss Army-knife design, mobile phones 171–2 Swiss Re Tower, 30 St Mary Axe 299, 301–2, 304 swivel design, mobile phones 171 Symantec 39, 46, 50, 62–3, 67 Symbian 158 Symbol 210 synthetic materials 258–64, 317 systems analysts 137 T T-Mobile 167–8 Taiwan 156–7, 160 Talwar, Vikram 144 Taylor, Andy 226 Taylor, Carson 287 TCP/IP 25 TCS 132–5, 145–6 Teague, Clayton 314 TechNet 33 techniques, technology 17–18 techno-jewellery design, mobile phones 172–4 technology see also individual technologies concepts vii–x, 4–7, 17–18, 23–7, 32–3, 82–4, 134, 326–9 cultural issues 93–4, 142 INDEX geekiness problems 83–4 government links 7, 18, 27, 31–5, 43–8, 123–4, 179–83, 209–10 Luddites 327 surveillance technology 35, 74, 179–83, 309 Tehrani, Rich 105 telecommunications viii, 23, 26, 103–6, 134, 164–5 telegraph 32–3, 108 telephone systems 84, 103–6, 109–10, 212–13, 214 Telia 109 terrorism 35, 42, 43, 50, 65, 74, 75–6, 265–6 Tesco 168 Tetris 12 Texas Energy Centre 287 Texas Instruments 125–6, 217 text-messaging facilities 165, 167 Thelands, Mike 164 therapeutic antibodies 249–50, 256–7 Thiercy, Max 339–40 thin clients 102 third-generation mobile phone networks (3G) 151, 162–9, 212 Thomas, Jim 318 Thomson, Ken 59 Thornley, Tony 164 3G networks see third-generation mobile phone networks TIA see Total Information Awareness TiVo 203, 205–6 Tomb Raider (game/movie) 187–8 Toshiba 156, 198–200, 203 Total Information Awareness (TIA) 35 toxicity issues, nanotechnology 316–17, 319, 328–9 Toyota 291–5, 297, 300–1, 334 toys see also gaming robotics 334 transatlantic cable 36, 39 transistors 4–7, 8–12, 85–7, 109 see also computer chips Transmeta 313 Treat, Brad 84, 98 Tredennick, Nick 10–11 Treo 150, 153 “Trojan horse” software 51–2 True Crime (game) 187 TruSecure 52, 60, 63 TTPCom 155–6 Tuch, Bruce 210 TVs see also video recorders flat-panel displays ix, 94, 147, 202–3, 230–2, 311 hard disks 204–8 screens 202–3, 230–2 set-top boxes 203, 205–6 UWB 214–18 Wi-Fi 212–18 U UBS Warburg 31, 45, 80–1, 89, 170, 174 UDDI 25–7 ultrawideband (UWB) 96–7, 214–19 UMTS see W-CDMA standard “undershoot” stage, industries 9, 109 UNECE 332–4 Ungerman, Jerry 52 Unimate 332–3 United Airlines 27 Universal Music 222–3, 226–7 Unix 9, 25, 85, 108 USB ports 78 usernames 59 USGBC 300–2 utility companies, cyber-terrorism threats 75–6 utility factors 7, 16, 17, 19–22, 42–8 UWB see ultrawideband V V500 mobile phone 157 vaccines 265–6 Vadasz, Les 33 Vail, Tim 290 value added 5–7, 37–40, 133, 138–9 value transistors 11 van Nee, Richard 211 Varian, Hal 24 VC see venture capital Veeco Instruments 324 vendors complexity issues 84–110 consumer needs 94–7 Venter, Craig 262–3, 271 venture capital (VC) 12, 31, 45, 79, 92, 107, 126–7, 238, 308, 321–6 Verdia 254–5, 261 Veritas 39, 85 Vertex 247 vertical integration, mobile phones 156–61 Vertu brand 173–4 Viacom 224 video phone calls 84, 103–6, 164–5, 167–8 video recorders see also TVs DVRs 205–6 handheld video players 206 hard disks 204–8 PVRs 203, 205–6 Wi-Fi 212–13 video searches, Google 11 357 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY Video Voyeurism Prevention Act, America 180 video-game consoles see gaming Virgin 95, 160, 167–8 Virgin Mobile 160, 167–8 virtual private networks (VPNs) 54, 68, 86–7 virtual tissue, biotechnology 248 virtualisation concepts 15–16, 88–92 viruses 45, 47, 49–56, 59–60, 67–8, 74, 86, 89 anti-virus software 50–1, 60, 67–8 concepts 49–56, 59–60, 74 costs 50–1 double-clicking dangers 59–60 Vista Research 46, 62, 67 Vodafone 164–5 voice conversations internet 103–6 mobile phones 165–9, 171 voice mail 104–6 voice-over-internet protocol (VOIP) 103–6, 167 Vonage 104, 110 VPNs see virtual private networks W W3C see World Wide Web Consortium W-CDMA standard 163–4, 168 Waksal, Sam 249 Wal-Mart 95, 114–15, 131–2, 140, 224, 228 Walkman 192 warfare AI 338 biotechnology 265–6 gaming comparisons 195–7, 339 nanotechnology 319 Warner Music 222–3, 226–7 Watson, James 236, 247, 271 web services 21–2, 25–7, 31, 80, 88–92, 109, 203 see also internet; services... complexity issues 88–92, 109 standards 90–1 Webster, Mark 211 WECA see Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance Weill, Peter 30 Welland, Mark 318 Western Union 33, 108 Westinghouse Electric 332 wheat 253 white page 99–100 Wi-Fi 34–5, 66–7, 93, 95–7, 153, 203, 209–18 concepts 209–18 forecasts 209, 212–13 historical background 209–13 hotspots 211–12 mobile phones 212 standards 210–13 358 threats 212–13 UWB 214–18 Wilkerson, John 237 Williams, Robbie 222, 226 Wilsdon, James 318 WiMax 212–13 WiMedia 213 Wimmer, Eckard 265 wind power 275–6, 286, 289–90, 302 Windows 15, 24–5, 55–6, 96, 101, 108, 152, 203 Windows Media Center 203 WinFS 101 Wipro 112, 115, 120–1, 125–9, 131–5, 138, 145–6 Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) 211 wireless technology ix, 11, 34–5, 39, 66–7, 93, 95–7, 109–10, 147, 150–3, 167, 168–9, 171–3, 203, 209–13, 334 see also Wi-Fi Bluetooth wireless links 171–2, 173, 214–15, 218 concepts 209–13, 334 historical background 209–13 Wladawsky-Berger, Irving vii, 5, 19, 22, 25, 38–9 Wolfe, Josh 323 Wong, Leonard 195 Wood, Ben 156–7, 160, 174 Woodcock, Steven 338–9 Word 84, 107 work-life balance 80–1, 94 see also employees World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) 25 worm viruses 49–50, 59, 86, 89 Wright, Myles 118 “ws splat” 90–1 WSDL 25–7 X x-ray crystallography 247–8 Xbox 189, 206–7 Xelibri mobile phones 170, 172, 174 Xerox 108–9 XML see extensible markup language XtremeSpectrum 216 Y Y2K crisis 76, 126, 128 Yagan, Sam 229 Yanagi, Soetsu 84 Yurek, Greg 288 Z ZapThink 91


pages: 410 words: 119,823

Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

But they are not the processes that are relentlessly and progressively reducing the scope of human labor. Behind the wheel, the learning algorithm and the multispectral sensor do for the human driver, moving vehicles across the land more swiftly, more reliably, and more safely than the most responsible flesh-and-blood operator, whether they are charged with the transportation of freight or of passengers. In the warehouse and the loading dock, the standardized container, the RFID tag, the autonomous pallet sled, and the development of sprawling big-box distribution centers that are very little other than enormous robotic systems in themselves—all these things sooner or later settle a quietus onto the prospect of unskilled employment in the fulfillment and logistics sector. At retail, “seamless” point-of-sale processes and the displacement of responsibility onto the shopper themselves via self-checkout slash the number of personnel it takes to run a storefront operation, though some staff will always be required to smooth out the inevitable fiascos; perhaps a few high-end boutiques performatively, conspicuously retain a significant floor presence.

It is the skeletal, 3D-printed drone that supervises her eviction, and the gait-recognition and station-keeping algorithms that keep it locked on her until she’s safely offsite; the augmented reality interface that allows a security guard eight thousand miles away to watch her through that drone’s eyes, and the fact that he’ll do that work for fifty US cents an hour, grateful to have any job at all in the charnelhouse of his domestic economy. It’s the high-resolution immersive VR that keeps the neighbors twitching in their flats next door, docilized, politically decorticated and completely uninterested in what’s happening. It is the RFID tags ensuring that any moveable property belonging to her landlord remains on the premises. It is even the landlord itself—an autonomous parastatal enterprise without human shareholders, whose portfolio operates at such a narrow margin of profitability that her flat is already rented to a new tenant by the time she’s a metro stop away. In this world all is aimed at the ruthless extraction of advantage precisely because everything is falling apart.

., 195 Ostrom, Elinor, 171 output neuron, 215 overtransparency, 240–1, 243 Pai, Sidhant, 98 Pandora music service, 220 Panmunjom Truce Village, 65 Pareto optimality, 55, 59 Paris, 1–6, 292 Pasquale, Frank, 244, 253 path dependence, 232, 299 PayPal, 120, 136, 220 PCWorld, 45 People Analytics, 198, 226, 232 perceptron, 214 Père Lachaise cemetery, 2, 5, 26 persoonskaart, Dutch identity card, 60 Pew Research Center, 41, 193 Pinellas County, Florida, 256 Placemeter, 51 polylactic acid plastic filament (PLA), 94, 98, 101 Pokémon Go, 63–5, 76, 79 Polari, 311 policy network, 264 Pollock, Jackson, 261 Pony Express, 256 porosity, 28, 173 POSIWID, 155, 302 Postcapitalism (Paul Mason), 88 power/knowledge, 62 predictive policing, 227, 230, 232, 235 PredPol, 229, 231, 236, 244, 254 proof-of-work, 128–30, 140–1, 143, 290 prosopagnosia. See faceblindness Protoprint, 99–100, 102 provisioning of mobile phone service, 17, 56 Průša, Josef, 105 psychogeography, 40, 51 Quantified Self movement, 33–6, 40 Radical Networks conference, 314 radio frequency identification (RFID), 200, 296 Radiohead, 35 RAND Corporation, 56–8 RATP, 5 recall, 217, 234–5 redboxing, 229–30 regtech, 157 Reich, Robert, 196 Relentless (AN and Omerod), 265 Rensi, Ed, 195 RepRap 3D printer, 86–7, 93, 104–5, 306 RER, 2, 5 Richelieu, Cardinal, 62 Rifkin, Jeremy, 88, 205, 312 RiteAid, 197 Riverton, Wyoming, 63 Royal Dutch Shell Long-Term Studies Group, 287 Samsung, 285–6 Sandvig, Christian, 252 “Satoshi Nakamoto,” 115, 118, 147, 303 scenario planning, 287 Schneier, Bruce, 45, 243 Scott, James C., 311 SCUM Manifesto (Valerie Solanas), 191 Seoul, 6, 18, 54, 264–5, 284 Metro, 54 Sennett, Richard, 111 sentiment analysis, 198 Serra, Richard, 70 SHA–256 hashing algorithm, 123 Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, 18–19, 43 Shodan search engine, 43 Shoreditch, London neighborhood, 136 Shteyngart, Gary, 246 Sidewalk Labs.


pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, lifelogging, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

All we need is a little more software that can understand such things as milk being available at grocery stores. In addition to giving you all the right reminders, it will not be too long before your e-memories will fill in your other absentminded gaps. Your increasingly location-aware cell phone will remind you where you parked your car. You will track where you have left things like your glasses, either by noting where your devices last detected their RFID tag, or by taking pictures of them. When your mind is absent, your e-memory will always be there. Having too much on my mind doesn’t just make me absentminded; it can make me feel mentally cluttered, impeding my productivity. David Allen’s popular book and seminar series Getting Things Done stands on the central premise that we are hindered by mental clutter: First of all, if it’s on your mind, your mind isn’t clear.

Their father, John, lies down in his bed, and a wireless unit underneath the mattress communicates with his pacemaker, downloading the story of his heart for the day. Almost every month, his medication is slightly adjusted based on pacemaker data. Several times, a trend of his weight combined with heart activity leads to messages from his e-Nurse. The e-Nurse remarks that these episodes seem to follow times the RFID sensor in the fridge has tracked chocolate ice-cream purchases. John has believed he could get away with a “little bit” of his favorite dessert, and is chagrined to learn he cannot. Our health care has been built on limited, spotty data. It reminds me of the guy building a house mostly by “eyeballing” it, with only rare use of his tape measure, level, or square. Health care with Total Recall is like a house that is built right.


Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman

23andMe, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

But today things seem different—in degree if not always in kind—now that every click, every move has the potential to count for something, for someone somewhere somehow. Is data about you yours, or should it be, now that data collection has become an always-everywhere proposition? Try to spend a day “off the grid” and you’d better leave your credit and debit cards, transit pass, school or work ID, passport, and cell phone at home—basically, anything with a barcode, magnetic strip, RFID, or GPS receiver.2 In short, if World War II helped to usher in the era of so-called Big Science, the new millennium has arrived as the era of Big Data.3 For this reason, we think a book like “Raw Data” Is an Oxymoron is particularly timely. Its title may sound like an argument or a thesis, but we want it to work instead as a friendly reminder and a prompt. Despite the ubiquity of the phrase raw data—over seventeen million hits on Google as of this writing—we think a few moments of reflection will be enough to see its selfcontradiction, to see, as Bowker suggests, that data are always already “cooked” and never entirely “raw.”

It is at this point then that the interpellation argument falters because the processes of subjectification at the heart of the “panoptic sort” have been transformed. Along the same lines, Matthew Fuller argues that surveillance is no longer about visual apprehension but is instead a “socio-algorithmic process” that captures and calculates “flecks of identity,” the data trails of our everyday actions, such as our browsing history, financial transactions, and our movements as they are recorded by GPS coordinates on our mobile devices and RFID tags in passports and identity cards.30 The “flecks” concept emerges in some respect from Gilles Deleuze’s outline of the emergence of the “dividual” in the context of the control society; if the individuated self was both product and figure of modernity, “dividuals” are rather fragmented and dispersed data bodies. They are, as Tiziana Terranova explains, “what results from the decomposition of individuals into data clouds subject to automated integration and disintegration.”31 Put another way, they are the CDOs (collateralized debt obligations) of the data market, in which bits and pieces of a supposed composite profile, which is itself an operative fiction, are sliced and diced into different tranches, such that a stable referential link to a singular entity becomes lost in a sea of user intent data.


pages: 252 words: 79,452

To Be a Machine: Adventures Among Cyborgs, Utopians, Hackers, and the Futurists Solving the Modest Problem of Death by Mark O'Connell

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, brain emulation, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer age, cosmological principle, dark matter, disruptive innovation, double helix, Edward Snowden, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Extropian, friendly AI, global pandemic, impulse control, income inequality, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mars Rover, means of production, Norbert Wiener, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge

“This guy’s like some kind of quote-generating machine,” I said to Marlo, as we waited for the panel to start. I was kneading my wrist, massaging its crude technology of ligament and cartilage, the seized carpal machinery beneath its casing of skin. “My writing hand’s fucked already,” I said. “Maybe you guys could fix me up with some kind of transcription upgrade.” Marlo chuckled, and showed me an RFID chip he’d implanted in the back of his own hand, probing it back and forth through the thin layer of flesh with an index finger. It was roughly the size and shape of a paracetamol capsule. In theory, it enabled him to wave his hand and unlock the front door of HackPittsburgh, the laboratory space downtown where they sometimes worked when they needed more high-grade equipment, but as a new employee he didn’t have clearance, so it basically just sat there, a dormant cell of technology awaiting its commands.

Such a policy, he claimed, would enable the government to track their movements, to determine whether they were plotting terrorist atrocities, and “monitor whether they were contributing to the system, paying taxes or causing strife.” He was aware of the extent to which people found this idea repugnant, but again seemed basically untroubled. His response to concerns about this advocation of unprecedented intrusion of government into the lives—into the very bodies—of human beings was to say that “maybe Big Brother isn’t the bad guy, if he protects us from ISIS.” Besides, he himself had had an RFID chip implanted at a grinder event earlier in his campaign tour, and the procedure had been much less painful than you’d think. Once the refugees were deemed not to be a threat to public safety—after a probationary period of, say, three years—they might even choose not to have their microchips removed, given that the technology would soon enable them to pay for coffee in Starbucks by waving their hands at a chip reader.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

When snow covers the city, the bikes and docks can be packed up and moved. Real-time information about bike availability and station location is accessible from smart phones and on the Internet. BIXI also seems to be avoiding some of the theft and vandalism that have plagued other networks. The bikes are designed with sealed components to resist abuse and each bike contains a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip. If rented and not returned, the bike will slow down and the brakes will lock automatically. The design and planning team estimated that three thousand bikes were the “critical mass” necessary to persuade enough people to switch from cars (and taxis) to bikes at first, enabling the city government to provide more bikes to get more people to switch. Within four months after the launch, BIXI had attracted more than seventy-seven thousand resident users, and more than 2.2 million miles had been traveled on the bikes, more than eighty-seven times the circumference of the earth.

A key to a product service system’s success is its ability to satisfy our deep-seated need to feel like an owner for at least the time the product is in our care. Companies achieve this feeling of ownership through discreet branding of the service on the product itself (the Bag Borrow or Steal logo is never visible on the outside of the bag) or building common ownership quirks into the brand. Zipcar gives its cars affectionate names such as “Simpson” the Volvo or “Munselle” the Mazda. Technologies such as RFID (radio-frequency identification) membership cards that open the door to “your” car also help reconfigure the relationship between products and services and destigmatize the notion of sharing. People are realizing that ownership for the sake of exclusive possession is less important than the sense of belonging that ownership imparts. In other words, ownership is becoming less about title and lease and more about the experience of autonomy and control.


pages: 485 words: 149,337

The Last Dance by Martin L. Shoemaker

gravity well, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, RFID, stem cell

Nick broke back in. “Maybe he was correct. Motivations, that’s what we’re after here. Was it perhaps the woman scorned? And that brings us back to this cable.” Nick held up the cable for us all to see. “I had Bosun Smith bring me this cable from the lab because there was one piece of information missing from our earlier report: the RFID tag woven into the cable end. And guess what? It’s not one that Professor Azevedo packed in his gear.” “What do you mean?” “Ms. Wells, the RFID tag is clear, and your meticulous inventory is equally clear: this cable came from your personal supplies. You had it stowed in your tent each night before the climb. Oh, and Bosun Smith also searched the rest of the expedition’s supplies very carefully; and the professor’s cable is nowhere to be found. She checked the tag on every cable.

The office door opened, and Bosun Smith came in. She carried another coil of S3 cable. “Well?” Nick looked from Smith to the cable. Smith nodded. “It was in his cabin, sir, just like you said it would be. I found it coiled up in his pillowcase, crammed in between the bunk and the wall. You’d never notice it without a search. Well, you might, Captain, but not the average person.” She handed the cable to Nick. “The RFID tag confirms that it’s Professor Azevedo’s cable.” Nick stood slowly, came around his desk, and stood nose to nose with Riggs. He didn’t yell. That’s when I know Nick is really angry, not just domineering. He gets very calm. He looked at Riggs and said, “Get off my ship.” Riggs swallowed. “Sir?” “You lied to me, Mr. Riggs.” “Captain, I—” “Don’t bother denying or explaining. We may be inside the gravipause; but when it comes to my crew, I am still judge, jury, and lord high executioner.


pages: 363 words: 94,139

Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products by Leander Kahney

Apple II, banking crisis, British Empire, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Computer Numeric Control, Dynabook, global supply chain, interchangeable parts, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, race to the bottom, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the built environment, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple

I took one look at him and figured that our work was gonna get a lot better, fast.”9 De Iuliis was able to imbue his designs with strong personality, a skill that served him well later on. One of his early projects was the Macintosh Color Classic, an update of the original Mac that exuded character and was avidly collected by fans for years. He would later work on the MacBook Pro and the iPhones 4 and 5. His name appears on more than 560 patents. They’re vast and varied in scope, including innovations in 3-D cameras, multi-touch displays, location tracking, RFID transponders, nitriding stainless steel, magsafe charging mechanisms, the iPod and improved speaker enclosures. Later in his career, De Iuliis would receive top design awards for his work. Once Jony joined the team, the two developed a strong relationship. De Iuliis and Jony lived close to each other in San Francisco, and commuted together for more than twenty years. In 1992, Brunner recruited Bartley K.

He would emerge as one of the top five patent holders in the United States on a year-to-year basis (thanks to his last name, he is listed on all of Apple’s major patents in the title: “United States Patent Application Andre et al.”). By 2013, Andre had more patents to his name than any other Apple designer, including Jony. In 2009 alone, he received 92 patents; in 2010, his 114 set a record for an Apple designer. Most of the patent awards were for innovations on the phone, tablet and laptop lines. Andre worked on everything at ID, from circuit modules to RFID systems. He was credited with the design of Apple’s 035 design prototype of the first iPad, according to information released during the Apple v. Samsung trial in 2012. Along with other members of the team, he several times received the prestigious Red Dot Award, from Germany’s Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen institute. Daniel J. Coster joined the team after Jony, arriving in June 1994. Described as “tall, goofy [and] super-talented,” Coster had earned an ID degree from the Wellington Polytechnic School in New Zealand in 1986.


pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

The state-of-the-art for theme parks that incorporate a strong technological element is the Live Park in South Korea, still under development, with plans for new versions of Live Park in China, Singapore, and a site as yet to be selected in the United States. The Live Park is designed to envelop visitors in a completely immersive virtual reality experience from the moment that they enter the gates. Visitors are fitted with an RFID tag—a small and inexpensive device that allows the visitors’ movements and location to be tracked throughout the space—and they are invited to create an avatar for themselves in which they can customize their own appearance. From this point, it is actually the avatar that engages in the themed activities of the park. Visitors to a giant immersive theater with building-sized screens showing 3D images and booming surroundsound can watch their avatars perform and interact on the screens, where the movements of the visitors themselves set the script (and the ending) of the virtual reality performance that they experience.

Chapter 3 1Jack Katz, Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil (Basic Book, New York, 1990). 2The Chromo11 website can be found at: http://www.chromo11.com/ 3Brendan Walker’s The Taxonomy of Thrill was published by Aerial Publishing, London, 2005. 4Rem Koolhaas’s provocative book Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, was published by Monacelli Press, New York, 1994. 5A short account of Seoul’s Live Park can be found online in the e-zine The Verge (January 26, 2012) Available at: http://www.theverge.com/2012/1/26/2736462/south-korea-live-park-kinect-rfid-interactive-attractions 6A celebrated condemnation of the Disney empire can be found in James Howard Kunstler’s polemic The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made Landscape (Free Press, New York, 1994). 7A journalistic account of Celebration’s dark side can be found in the Daily Mail online article by Tom Leonard, titled “The Dark Heart of Disney’s Dream Town: Celebration Has Wife-Swapping, Suicide, Vandals . . . and Now Even a Brutal Murder,” published on December 9, 2010.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

For example, SAS business analytics allow utilities such as Brazilian utility Cemig to precisely forecast electrical demand in both the long and very short term. Cemig can even predict how demand will change when a World Cup soccer game starts or ends and televisions are turned on or off. Others, like IBM, are piloting schemes to monitor entire systems such as supply chains and transportation networks. The company has developed sensors and RFID tags that can track foodstuffs such as meat or other horticultural products from the producer all the way to the supermarket shelf.16 Armed with this data, retailers can ensure the quality of supply while customers can make smarter purchasing decisions. The drive to make all things “smarter” by connecting electrified objects to the Internet will, within a few years, result in a flood of new data that can be aggregated and analyzed, providing a powerful engine for energy dashboards and trading platforms that help households and businesses optimize their consumption.

City officials shutdown the plant immediately and issue a text alert to calm nervous residents who fear that some form of chemical attack had been unleashed. This account may be fictional, but it is not far-fetched. Like Paulos, technologists and science fiction writers have long envisioned a world where a seamless global network of Internet-connected sensors could capture every event, action, and change on earth. With the proliferation of radio-frequency identification (RFID), satellite imagery, cheap personal video recorders, powerful mobile computing devices, and an array of Internet-connected sensors, that vision of millions of New Yorkers participating (perhaps unwittingly) in an act of civic regulation is increasingly plausible. Indeed, the question raised in this chapter is whether a combination of new technologies and citizen participation could unleash an era of participatory regulation, where citizens and other stakeholder groups play an active role in designing and enforcing regulations.

The FDA may not require manufacturers of processed foods to label where a product came from, whether it contains genetically modified organisms, or was produced using synthetic hormones, antibiotics, and pesticides. But retailers like Tesco and a legion of online product guides are making this information available anyway. Why? Because customers are demanding transparency! Now imagine the FDA was to extend a similar level of openness to realtime product recalls. Indeed, why not set up an open-source platform where a combination of RFID technologies and historical sales data would enable retailers to alert anyone who has purchased a recalled product. We bet hundreds of programmers would vie for the opportunity if the retailers agreed to open up a series of data feeds. The FDA should also consider open sourcing risk assessment (they call it Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) for the same reasons we argued that it’s time for opening up risk assessment in the financial sector.


pages: 134 words: 29,488

Python Requests Essentials by Rakesh Vidya Chandra, Bala Subrahmanyam Varanasi

create, read, update, delete, en.wikipedia.org, Kickstarter, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, natural language processing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, supply-chain management, web application

About the Reviewers Yves Dorfsman is a system administrator and a developer with experience in oil and gas, financial, and software industries. He has extensive experience in Python, both in sysadmin tasks and automation, and in software development. Ilsu Park is an entrepreneur and software engineer currently living in Seoul, South Korea. He studied computer science from KAIST and was a member of the hacking and security group in college. He has a research experience in RFID security, and his interests are decentralized networks, concurrency handling, and highly scalable architecture. He also has contributed to various open source projects, including Python requests and the tornado web server. He is most passionate about building a great company. Kirk Strauser is a software architect from San Francisco Bay Area and has used Python personally and professionally for over 15 years.


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

“For the better part of a century,” writes Howard Rheingold in Smart Mobs, “people have lived among invisible electric motors and thought nothing of it. The time has come to consider the consequences of computers disappearing into the background the way motors did.” The consequences are what some people are referring to as “the Internet of things.” This is a world where objects are connected via tiny but widely distributed computers, such as radio-frequency identification chips (RFID), which cost less than 5 cents each and are already being used in products by Wal-Mart, Target, and Tesco to track goods. They are being used in passports, money, car keys, credit and travel cards, and are being embedded in livestock and even people. Aside from uses in the military, some nightclubs in Barcelona and Rotterdam have implanted chips into their VIP clientele, which verifies who they are and even lets them pay for drinks.

Diddy, 2, 172–74, 176, 182, 188, 193–94, 200, 220 Peel, John, 43 Perry, Lee “Scratch,” 75 personal computers (PCs), 7, 56, 92, 143–45, 164–65 Phantom Menace, The, 86 Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), 63 Philosophy of Punk, The (O’Hara), 229 PillowFight Club, 202, 205 Pink Floyd, 16, 160 piracy, 2–4 as a business model, 8, 38, 59 creative freedom vs. regulation in, 36–39, 45, 56, 141 illegality of, 6, 35, 36, 37, 43, 47, 48, 57, 60–61, 69 inefficient systems replaced by, 67 national, 33, 34–36, 43, 57, 64, 65, 67 political and legal change through, 55–65, 66–67 response to, 232–40 self-empowerment and, 6, 35, 47, 48 social and economic change through, 27–31, 35, 36, 37–39, 43, 65 three effective habits of, 66–67 war on, 39, 43–44, 48, 53–54, 57, 69–70, 97–102 “Piracy Paradox, The: Innovation and Intellectual Property in Fashion Design” (Raustiala and Sprigman), 95–96 Pirate Bay, 55–57, 60 Pirate Party, 56–57 pirate ships, 39, 42 Pixo, 70 “Planet Rock,” 80, 82–83 PlayStation 3, 165 pop culture, 11, 14, 15, 42, 69, 72, 108 pop-up stores, 222 pornography, 25, 35, 48, 188 Positive Nation, 63 Post-Autistic Economics (PAE) movement, 197–98 Presley, Elvis, 76 print-on-demand publishing, 27–28 Prisoner’s Dilemma game, 232–33, 236, 238 Procter & Gamble, 221–22 Product Red campaign, 7 public domain, 59–60 defense of, 38, 99–100 generic drugs in, 62–64, 65, 236 pirate culture and, 38, 39 Public Enemy, 99, 108, 157, 187, 200 public space manipulation, 3, 103–33, 141 Pump Up the Volume, 41n punk, 10–22, 141, 176, 201, 206, 212, 227, 231 bands of, 8, 10–14, 16–18, 19–20, 32 British, 11, 13, 14, 16–17 establishment co-option of, 21–22, 31–32 first wave of, 10–11, 13, 15–17 hairstyles and clothes of, 8, 10–11, 12, 16, 22, 208, 229 incarnations of, 12, 19–26 indy-, 6 influences on, 10, 15, 27 innovative ideas of, 17, 19 interaction of fans and bands in, 18 negative reaction to, 13, 16, 17 New York, 10–11, 15–16 rejection of authority in, 11, 12, 13–14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 25, 26, 31, 110 Punk: The Definitive Record of a Revolution (Colegrave and Sullivan), 14 Punk Capitalism, 12, 19–32, 72, 191, 199 agents of change in, 7–8, 12, 23–25, 28–32 philanthropy and altruism in, 7, 8, 22–23, 24–25, 31, 231 relationship of production to consumption in, 8, 12, 22, 24–25, 29, 31 roots of, 8, 25 see also D.I.Y. ethic Qur’an, 70 radio, 154–155, 206, 207 AM, 40–41, 46 commercial, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 50, 53, 66 digital, 43, 45 early, 39–41 FM, 1–2, 43–45, 48, 66 ham, 40, 41 jamming of, 1–3 licensing of, 40, 41n, 45, 47, 48, 66 military and political use of, 41n, 45–46 pirate, 1–3, 34, 35, 39–48, 54, 208–13, 215 podcasts of, 54, 55 Radio Caroline, 42, 43 Radio Cell, 41n Radio Essex, 34 Radio Free Harlem, 41n radio-frequency identification chips (RFID), 131 Radio London, 42–43 Radio Luxembourg, 42 Radio Nordsee, 43n Radio Normandie, 42 Radio 1, 43, 48 Radio Paris, 42 Radio Sutch, 42 Index | 275 Radio Swan, 45–46 Ramones, 6, 11, 15, 16, 22 R&B, 72, 75, 98, 139, 140, 213 rap, 6, 80, 88, 97–99, 175, 178–79, 181, 185–88, 201, 203, 219 Rather, Dan, 50 Raustiala, Kal, 95–96 raves, 44, 140, 146–47, 154, 168, 169, 205–6, 231 R∆MM:∑LL:Z∑∑, 114, 116, 117, 130 Realism, 15 Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 69n, 158 record labels, 14, 17, 21n, 44n, 74, 84n, 94, 99, 145, 152–53, 154–55, 219 records, 37, 56, 142, 158 bootleg, 32, 36, 37 45 rpm, 73, 74 remix, 71–80, 97, 98–99, 208–10 see also DJs Redwood, Ruddy, 74 Reebok, 182–83, 184n, 192 Regency TR-1 transistor radio, 70–71 reggae, 72–75, 77, 80, 209 reggaeton, 195 Reid, Arthur “Duke,” 73–75, 78, 79, 80, 209 Reid, Lucille, 73 remix culture, 3, 8, 15n, 69–102, 141, 176, 208–10, 240 cut-’n’-paste in, 76–77, 89–93, 101 essence of, 81–84 Machinima, 92 quick mix theory of, 79–80, 81–84 sampling in, 80, 85, 88, 95, 97–99 see also records, remix; tapes, remix Replicating Rapid Prototyper, “RepRap,” 162 Reservoir Dogs, 85 Reverend Run, 187 REVS, 118–19 Rheingold, Howard, 131 Rhymes, Busta, 178, 181 Rise of the Creative Class, The (Florida), 27 Roan, Dan, 53 Rock ’n’ roll, 34, 139, 175n, 185, 190 broadcasting of, 41, 42–43, 52 clothes and haircuts of, 10, 16, 18 decline of, 14, 76, 201 stadium concerts of, 10, 17–18 stars of, 7, 14 Roh Moo-hyun, 51–52, 66–67 Rolling Stone, 144 Rolling Stones, 42 Romanchuk, Rob, 89 Romero, John, 91 Rotten, Jonny, 11, 13, 16, 17, 21, 26 Rough Guide to Reggae, The (Barrow and Dalton), 74 Rough Guide to Rock, The (Buckley), 16 Royal, 6 Rubin, Rick, 186–87 Rules for Radicals (Alinsky), 175 Run-D.M.C., 178, 186–87, 192 Rush Philanthropic Arts Foundation, 194 Russell, Richard, 226 RWD, 215–18, 219–20 Samples, Jim, 124 San Francisco Chronicle, 205 Saturday Night Fever, 76 Savile, Jimmy, 43 Schumacher, E.


pages: 372 words: 101,678

Lessons from the Titans: What Companies in the New Economy Can Learn from the Great Industrial Giants to Drive Sustainable Success by Scott Davis, Carter Copeland, Rob Wertheimer

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, airport security, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, clean water, commoditize, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, Covid-19, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, factory automation, global pandemic, hydraulic fracturing, Internet of things, iterative process, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, megacity, Network effects, new economy, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, random walk, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, skunkworks, software is eating the world, strikebreaker, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy

The growth did materialize, and to this day, water companies continue to change out old meters that require in-person reading with wireless ones that are run off radio frequency identification (RFID). Neptune was a big bet. Its cash flow was three times larger in size than the cash flow Roper was producing—and far larger than what most board members were comfortable with. Had that first deal not been a success from day one, there likely would not have been a second. For Jellison, Neptune was the most important bet of his career. And though he was always comfortable with the math, it paid off well more than anyone had expected. Just a year later in 2004, and encouraged by the success of Neptune, Jellison closed another game-changing acquisition called TransCore. Better known as the backbone behind much of the US highway electronic tolling system, it uses RFID to read vehicle tags and charge a toll accordingly. It was another high-margin, noncyclical, high-cash-generating asset.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

Industrial Platforms As data collection, storage, and analysis have become increasingly cheaper, more and more companies have attempted to bring platforms into the field of traditional manufacturing. The most significant of these attempts goes under the rubric of ‘the industrial internet of things’, or simply ‘the industrial internet’. At the most basic level, the industrial internet involves the embedding of sensors and computer chips into the production process and of trackers (e.g. RFID) into the logistics process, all linked together through connections over the internet. In Germany, this process is being heralded as ‘Industry 4.0’. The idea is that each component in the production process becomes able to communicate with assembly machines and other components, without the guidance of workers or managers. Data about the position and state of these components are constantly shared with other elements in the production process.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

For savvy urban designers, equally adept with physical and virtual envelopes, it's not difficult to make up long lists of possible projects: augmented reality Apps for ambulance paramedics and open-air surgical theaters; a mash-up of post-Twitter microblog Apps linked to post-Siri voice-control interfaces and trans-Google translation software, together posting anything you want to say to anyone anywhere always; citizen activists using GIS, mass-market geobrowsers, and modified drones to streaming real-time C3 video to 3D-printed phones; mining composite crowd-sourced behavioral data to optimize the recycling of post-purchase prosaic junk; real-time flu outbreak visualization and private microgovernance of microbiopolitical swarms (a premium upgrade only for club members); traffic control sensor and smart tollbooth hacks; individually reconfigurable robotic building interiors collapsing rooms and even floors serving different programs in morning and at night; anonymized parking markets based on bitcoin and namecoin; building exteriors featuring networked cinema, not on thirty-second loops but on eighteen-month lunar cycles; lifelong syncing of car-phone-home-Clouds platform allegiance chosen at birth like football team fandom; Google Office per-minute commercial office leasing apps; personal RFID managers; rock star privacy consultants—all driven by (at least partially) open APIs enabling other applications to build further on their existing traces. Insert your own schemes and nightmares here. Regarding the experiment suggested above, for two groups of architects assigned to tackle the virtual as well as the physical envelope, it's certain that even this is fraught with risk, not only because of what it would leave behind but because of what it might accomplish and quickly lose the ability to control.

The physical object becomes the exemplary noncitizen User of the City layer, as the most intensive impact of algorithmic capital into the physical realm of The Stack is in the molecular reassemblage of standardized matter, its global redistribution as manufactured objects, and the computational optimization of their itineraries through supply chains. All of these enjoy their own kinds of megastructural theater. At the City layer, this object-oriented economy of molecular logistics is expressed in “planetary supersurfaces” such as warehouses that are so large that their floors have been laser-leveled against the curvature of the Earth. Instead of walls and windows, these spaces are programmed by bar codes, RFID chips, and scanners and populated by robotic platforms, shelves, and stockers that can easily lift over a ton of goods at once.72 From the perspective of The Stack looking out at the Earth, these architectures of and for things are perhaps even more essential than those rendered for the benefit of human appreciation (as discussed in more detail in the User chapter). Taken as a whole, these Cloud platform megastructures concentrate the City layer by drawing economies of flesh, information, energy, and symbolization into a web of settlement and displacement as vast as it is uneven and asymmetrical.

The design problematics of planetary-scale computation push up against the expansion of infrastructure at urban and transcontinental scales but also draw on the dilution of small-scale objects into something like a universal solvent of synthetic computation. By comparison, we are no longer so impressed by the prospect of “smart objects,” interactive habitats, and reflexive architectures. Now projects seek “networked matter,” the hybridizing of digital bits and pieces of the physical world, both above and below anthropometric scale, into an ambient field of systematic intercommunication and assembly. Joining the battalions of RFID-enabled objects would be smart dust, robotic insects, transistors inside of living cells, and programmable clay filled with zillions of nanometric machines that can take on any animated form. Research programs such as Hewlett-Packard's Central Nervous System of the Earth (CeNSE), work toward the trillion-sensor world in which bridges, trains, warehouses, earthquake faults, trees, flowers and animals, and even internal organs are filled with tiny sensors, each transmitting data directly to one another or to the Cloud.4 The promise (or threat) of designing with a computation that is so deeply laced into the structures and behaviors of matter is an ambition for addressing platforms of comprehensive transparency and the remote interaction with the world at a chemical and atomic scale.


pages: 118 words: 35,663

Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing (Columbia Business School Publishing) by John E. Kelly Iii

AI winter, call centre, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, demand response, discovery of DNA, disruptive innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, global supply chain, Internet of things, John von Neumann, Mars Rover, natural language processing, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Feynman, smart grid, smart meter, speech recognition, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Today, we are witnessing the emergence of a new force in society and business: big data. Organizations and individuals are faced with a torrent of data, everything from structured information such as transaction records to a wide variety of unstructured information—still images, video, audio, and sensor data. The biggest new source of data is the so-called Internet of things, data produced by sensors and harvested via the Internet. The sensors involved range from the RFID tags that retailers use to track merchandise to video cameras that capture the flow of traffic. Every day, as a group, human beings generate about 3 exabytes of computer data—a prodigious output that is expected to produce a data universe of 40 zettabytes of digital stuff by 2020.2 A zettabyte is a decidedly big number: a 1 followed by 21 zeros. One zettabyte of storage would hold 250 billion two-hour HD movies.


pages: 431 words: 107,868

The Great Race: The Global Quest for the Car of the Future by Levi Tillemann

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, car-free, carbon footprint, cleantech, creative destruction, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demand response, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, factory automation, global value chain, hydrogen economy, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, market design, megacity, Nixon shock, obamacare, oil shock, Ralph Nader, RFID, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Unsafe at Any Speed, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Both of the aforementioned services strategically park their vehicles in high-density residential neighborhoods and operate off automated radio frequency identification–based (RFID) rental and entry systems. In the case of Zipcar, members can use their computer or smartphone to reserve a car for an hour or a day according to their needs. When a customer is done, he or she simply returns the car to its designated spot for the next user. Daimler’s Car2Go is a slightly more radical concept. It uses the company’s pint-size Smart cars plus a GPS tracking system to execute a minute-by-minute, point-to-point rental system. Using a smartphone application users can see a map of hundreds of vehicles available for use in their city and can locate the vehicle that is closest to their current position. They enter the car using an individualized RFID-embedded swipe card. When they arrive at their desired location, they simply end the reservation—making the car available for another user.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

The computer manufacturer Cisco estimates that there will be 50 billion devices on the internet by 2020, in addition to tens of billions of screens. The electronics industry expects a billion wearable devices in five years, tracking our activities, feeding data into the stream. We can expect another 13 billion appliances, like the Nest thermostat, animating our smarthomes. There will be 3 billion devices built into connected cars. And 100 billion dumb RFID chips embedded into goods on the shelves of Walmart. This is the internet of things, the emerging dreamland of everything we manufacture that is the new platform for the improbable. It is built with data. Knowledge, which is related, but not identical, to information, is exploding at the same rate as information, doubling every two years. The number of scientific articles published each year has been accelerating even faster than this for decades.

See also books; ebooks and readers realism, 211–14, 216 real time, 66, 88, 104, 114–17, 131, 145 recommendation engines, 169 Red Dead Redemption, 227–30 Reddit, 136, 140, 143, 149, 264 Red Hat, 69 reference transactions, 285 relationship network analysis, 187 relativity theory, 288 remixing of ideas, 193–210 and economic growth, 193–95 and intellectual property issues, 207–10 legal issues associated with, 207–10 and reduced cost of creating content, 196–97 and rewindability, 204–7 and visual media, 197–203 remixing video, 197–98 renting, 117–18 replication of media, 206–9 Rethink Robotics, 51 revert functions, 270 reviews by users/readers, 21, 72–73, 139, 266 rewindability, 204–7, 247–48, 270 RFID chips, 283 Rheingold, Howard, 148–49 ride-share taxis, 252 ring tones, 250 Ripley’s Believe It or Not, 278 robots ability to think differently, 51–52 Baxter, 51–52 categories of jobs for, 54–59, 60 and digital storage capacity, 265 dolls, 36 emergence of, 49 industrial robots, 52–53 and mass customization, 173 new jobs related to, 57–58 and personal success, 58–59 personal workbots, 58–59 stages of robot replacement, 59–60 training, 52–53 trust in, 54 Romer, Paul, 193, 209 Rosedale, Phil, 219 Rowling, J.


pages: 519 words: 104,396

Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (And How to Take Advantage of It) by William Poundstone

availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equal pay for equal work, experimental economics, experimental subject, feminist movement, game design, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index card, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Potemkin village, price anchoring, price discrimination, psychological pricing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, social intelligence, starchitect, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, working poor

Supermarket consultants leave few stones unturned in determining what boosts consumers’ willingness to pay. One of the more intriguing of recent findings is that shoppers open their wallets wider when moving through a store in a counterclockwise direction. On average, these shoppers spend $2 more a trip than clockwise shoppers. This was determined in studies of shopping cart movements. Herb Sorensen of Sorensen Associates has fitted carts with RFID tags emitting a radio ping every five seconds. This PathTracker technology allows sensors to triangulate each cart’s location, map its motion, and tally what was bought and at what price. No one is quite sure why counterclockwise shoppers buy more. Paco Underhill, CEO of Envirosell, mentions one popular guess, that North Americans see shopping carts as “cars” to be driven on the right. “If you want to get my attention,” Underhill said, “it better be to my right.”

., 53 Psychological Bulletin, 54, 55, 86 psychophysics, 8–9, 26–27, 29–36, 39– 40, 53, 146; definition of, 31; experiments in, 26–27, 35, 40; of jury awards, 276–79; luxury trade and, 155; magnitude scales of, 194; of money, 42–45 origins of, 29–32; of pain, 136; perceptual illusion demonstrations of, 36–37, 84–85; power curve rule in, 32–33; prospect theory and, 98; of rebates, 178 Psychophysics (Stevens), 34 Puffs tissues, 5 Puto, Christopher, 151–53, 156 Quarterly Journal of Economics, The, 138 Quattrone, George, 12–13 Quilted Northern toilet paper, 5 racial discrimination, 245, 283; in car sales, 241–44 Rand, Ayn, 108 RAND Corporation, 71 Rapp, Gregg, 162–64 rationality: bounded, 52; cult of, 77–78 Ravikovich, Dahlia, 82 Reagan, Ronald, 56, 256 real estate market, 196–206, 211; alcohol and deal-making in, 219; anchoring in, 196–201, 203–205; bargaining in, 115; bubbles in, 101, 264; charm prices in, 186; framing of gains and losses in, 107; incentives in, 176; money illusion in, 229 rebates, 176–78 reference points, 98, 101, 132 reference pricing, 204–206 Remington Rand, Inc., 224 Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, 223 restaurants, 143–45, 159–64; charm pricing by, 186, 190 Revionics, Inc., 6, 148 RFID tags, 150 Richelieu, Duc de, 219 Riding, Alan, 266–67 Ritov, Ilana, 209–10 Ritty, James, 186 Riviera Casino (Las Vegas), 49 Robb Report, 156 Roberts, Gilbert, 283 Robertson, Leslie, 27 Rockefeller, J. Sterling, 49 Rockefeller, Nelson, 116 Rodriguez, Alex, 258–59 Roider, Andreas, 213 Rolex watches, 44 Rolling Stones, 202 Rolodex, 224 Romano, Ray, 255 Romans, ancient, 109–10 Rope, The (Plautus), 109–10 Rosenblum, Paula, 177 Russell Sage Foundation, 104 Ruth, Babe, 258–59 Ryan, Nolan, 259 Saatchi, Charles, 266 Saatchi, Diane, 201 Sage, Russell, 104 salaries, 211–12, 218, 287; beauty premium in, 239–40; cuts in, fairness of, 107; gender and, 237–38, 240; psychophysics and, 42–43; of top earners, 235, 255–59 Salary.com, 211 Sam’s Club, 151 Samuelson, Paul, 51, 77 S&H Green Stamps, 176–77 Sanfey, Alan, 168 Saturn cars, 243 Savage, Leonard “Jimmie,” 56–59, 78, 125, 146 scanners, 147–48 Schiff, Arthur, 169 Schkade, David, 276–77, 279 Schmittberger, Rolf, 113 Schmitz, Patrick, 213 Schutte, Nicola, 17 Schwarze, Bernd, 113 Schweitzer, Maurice, 239–40 Science, 12, 88, 90, 125 Scientific American, 127, 147 Scion cars, 243 Scotland, Church of, 270 Scott, Robert, 4 Seaney, Rick, 183 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 257 Seinfeld, Jerry, 255 Seinfeld (television show), 3, 255 Sensory Logic, Inc., 156 sensory perceptions, study of, see psychophysics September 11 terrorist attacks, 258 Shafir, Eldar, 227, 228, 230–32, 245–47 Shakespeare, William, 127 Shampanier, Kristina, 193 Shiller, Robert, 262–63 Siegelman, Peter, 241–44 Simester, Duncan, 188–91 Simon, Herbert, 51–52 Simon, Hermann, 6, 145–48, 173, 175 Simon Fraser University, 105 Simon-Kucher & Partners (SKP), 4, 6–7, 16, 148, 157–58, 165, 172, 173, 181 Simonson, Itamar, 156–58 Simpsons, The (television show), 143 Sinai war (1956), 81 Sizzler restaurant chain, 160 Skinner, B.


pages: 354 words: 105,322

The Road to Ruin: The Global Elites' Secret Plan for the Next Financial Crisis by James Rickards

"Robert Solow", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, cellular automata, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, jitney, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, Pierre-Simon Laplace, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, price anchoring, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, reserve currency, RFID, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, stocks for the long run, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transfer pricing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

Drivers like the convenience of E-ZPass automated toll systems, but may not realize that every tollbooth is now a digital surveillance and interdiction point. E-ZPass surveillance uses radio frequency identification technology (RFID). Your E-ZPass tag has a transmitter that broadcasts information about you that is read by a scanner installed overhead at a tollbooth. Now governments are installing scanners and cameras on roads everywhere to collect the same information. The New York Civil Liberties Union recently discovered that New York City and State installed scanners in diverse locations to track the whereabouts of citizens. These scanners are not collecting tolls. They are the unacceptable face of the ubiquitous surveillance state. Continuous surveillance is not confined to video cameras and E-ZPass tags. Smartphones and credit cards use an RFID variant called near field communication (NFC) to broadcast your activities to scanners.


pages: 363 words: 105,039

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers by Andy Greenberg

air freight, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, clean water, data acquisition, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global supply chain, hive mind, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, pirate software, pre–internet, profit motive, ransomware, RFID, speech recognition, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

It was the first sign of an unfolding attack. He needed to get to his technology operations center. As Oh made his way out of the press section toward the exits, reporters around him had already begun complaining that the Wi-Fi seemed to have suddenly stopped working. Thousands of internet-linked TVs showing the ceremony at the stadium and twelve other Olympic facilities had gone black. Every RFID-based security gate leading into every Olympic building was down. The Olympics’ official app was broken, too, reaching out for data from back-end servers that suddenly had none to offer. That meant some unknown number of audience members had been unable to load their tickets to their phones, locking them out of the performance. The feeling, for Oh, was both infuriating and surreal. The Pyeongchang organizing committee had prepared for this: Their cybersecurity advisory group had met twenty times since 2015.

Once Oh made his way through the crowd, he ran to one of the stadium’s exits, out into the freezing air of the Pyeongchang winter night and across the parking lot, now joined by two other IT staffers. They jumped into a Hyundai SUV and began the forty-minute drive east, down through the mountains to the coastal city of Gangneung, where the Olympics’ technology operation center was located. From the car, Oh immediately made calls to tell staffers at the stadium to start distributing Wi-Fi hot spots to reporters and to tell security to check badges manually, because all RFID systems were down. But he knew that in just over two hours the opening ceremony would end, and all of the tens of thousands of athletes, visiting dignitaries, and spectators at the event would find that they had no Wi-Fi connections and no access to the Olympic app full of schedules, hotel information, and maps. The result would be a humiliating confusion. And if they couldn’t recover the servers by the next morning, the entire IT back end of the organizing committee—responsible for everything from meals to hotel reservations to event ticketing—would remain off-line.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This will radically alter the way in which we manage supply chains by enabling us to monitor and optimize assets and activities to a very granular level. In the process, it will have transformative impact across all industries, from manufacturing to infrastructure to healthcare. Consider remote monitoring – a widespread application of the IoT. Any package, pallet or container can now be equipped with a sensor, transmitter or radio frequency identification (RFID) tag that allows a company to track where it is as it moves through the supply chain – how it is performing, how it is being used, and so on. Similarly, customers can continuously track (practically in real time) the progress of the package or document they are expecting. For companies that are in the business of operating long and complex supply chains, this is transformative. In the near future, similar monitoring systems will also be applied to the movement and tracking of people.


Confronting Gun Violence in America by Thomas Gabor

Columbine, demand response, Ferguson, Missouri, income inequality, mandatory minimum, More Guns, Less Crime, RFID, Silicon Valley, urban sprawl

Stephen Teret and Adam Mernit of Johns Hopkins University have argued that the impressive reductions in highway fatalities have been attributable more to design changes in cars than to changes in driver behavior.98 They make the case that the same result can be achieved through altering the design 306 Confronting Gun Violence in America of firearms. A number of options are being developed with regard to personalized or smart guns99: 1. One approach uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, whereby “tags,” which can be objects (e.g., wristwatches, bracelets) containing tiny electromagnetic transmitters, communicate with “readers,” which are embedded in a gun. RFID is widely used for controlled building access and in library book theft prevention, among other uses. When the reader detects the tag, a mechanical device in the gun can move a blocking mechanism so the gun can be fired. Without the tag being in close proximity to the reader on the gun (e.g., the gun is in the possession of an unauthorized user), the blocking mechanism remains in place and the gun is inoperable. 2.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

., 58-59; Foot, Milan Since the Miracle, 113. 237 also made Milan’s population plummet: “Milan,” Encyclopædia Britannica. 238 population increased between 2000 and 2008: Istat, Demography in Figures. 238 Milan’s per capita productivity is the highest: In this case, I am using productivity to mean value added per capita. Author’s calculations using Istat, Regional Accounts and National Economic Accounts. 238 three quarters of Milan’s workers are in services: Author’s calculations using Istat, Regional Accounts. 238 Miuccia Prada and Patrizio Bertelli: Galloni, “Miuccia and Me”; “Learning from Prada,” RFID Journal, June 24, 2002, www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/272/1; and for Pocone, “Prada, Miuccia,” Britannica Book of the Year, 2003, Encyclopædia Britannica. 238 The Versaces: Spindler, “Gianni Versace.” 238 A quarter of the Vancouver area’s residents: Canada: Statistics Canada, Population 15 Years and Over; and Canada: Statistics Canada, Greater Vancouver. 239 top of global quality-of-life rankings: For instance, Mercer’s Quality of Living Worldwide City Rankings, www.mercer.com/qualityoflivingpr#City_Ranking_Tables, or the Economist Intelligence Unit, Global Liveability Report, www.eiu.com/site_info.asp?

Tearing Down the Walls: How Sandy Weill Fought His Way to the Top of the Financial World . . . and Then Nearly Lost It All. New York: Free Press, 2003. Lay, Maxwell Gordon. Ways of the World: A History of the World’s Roads and of the Vehicles That Used Them. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992. Leape, Jonathan. “The London Congestion Charge.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20, no. 4 (Autumn 2006): 157-76. “Learning from Prada.” RFID Journal, June 24, 2002, www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/272/1. Lee, Sidney. A Life of William Shakespeare. London: Smith Elder, 1898. Levick, Barbara. Vespasian. New York: Routledge, 1999. Levine, Robert M. The History of Brazil. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. ———. Vale of Tears: Revisiting the Canudos Massacre in Northeastern Brazil, 1893-1897. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.


pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game

This works with things like bathrobes, but it's too easy for the hotel to lose track of how many towels a guest has in his room, especially if piles of them are available at the pool or can easily be taken from a housekeeper's cart in the hallway. A newer system, still not widespread, is to embed washable computer chips into the towels and track their movement around the hotel electronically. One anonymous Hawaii hotel claims they've reduced towel theft from 4,000 a month to 750, saving $16,000 monthly in replacement costs. Assuming the RFID tags are inexpensive and don't wear out too quickly, that's a pretty good security system. Let's go back to our two prisoners. They are morally inclined not to betray each other. Their reputation in the underworld depends on them not betraying their fellow criminal. And the criminal organization they're part of has unwritten but very real sanctions against betraying other criminals to the police.

To make defection harder, think of obfuscation and misdirection measures, security cameras in casinos, guard patrols, and authentication systems. To make cooperation easier, think of automatic face-recognition systems, uniforms, those automatic road-sign radar guns that tell you what speed you're going, and road signs that inform you of the rules. Detection/response systems. These include burglar alarms, sensors in smokestacks to detect pollutants, RFID tags attached to store merchandise—or hotel towels—and detectors at the doorways, intrusion-detection systems in computer networks, and a UV light to detect if your hotel's bed sheets are clean. Audit/forensic systems. These are primarily enhancements to institutional societal pressure. They include fingerprint- and DNA-matching technology and the expert systems that analyze credit card spending, looking for patterns of fraud.


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

I’m not sure how to manage this trickster, but I do know we must shift from self-justification to self-awareness to move ahead. The secular myth of disruptive innovation isn’t new, but it is effective. We’re so busy searching for dinosaurs, we forget to look where we’re going. In 2004 when Bruce Sterling first spoke of spime – speculative objects precisely located in space and time – the vision he painted was bright green. Transfigured from passive consumers into heroic wranglers, we would mash products, sensors, RFID, and GPS into sustainable spime to reduce, reuse, and recycle like never before. It’s possible to live in a cleaner way. We live in debris and detritus because of our ignorance. That ignorance is no longer technically necessary…Our capacities are tremendous. Eventually, it is within our technical ability to create factories that clean the air as they work, cars that give off drinkable water, industry that creates parks instead of dumps, or even monitoring systems that allow nature to thrive in our cities, neighborhoods, lawns and homes.


pages: 797 words: 227,399

Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

Navy) Professional, Educated, Trained, and Empowered (PETE) electronic assistant Project Alpha Pugwash movement Pulsed Energy Projectile Purple (supercomputer) al-Qaeda technology and al-Qaeda in Iraq Qiao Liang QinetiQ Quantico (Bear) QuickTime (software program) Quinn, Robert radio control devices radio-frequency identification(RFID) radio-frequency weapons (e-bombs) Raduege, Harry Rainbows End: A Novel with One Foot in the Future (Vinge) Ramirez, Louis Ramona (AI program) RAND Raven (unmanned aerial vehicle) Raytheon RCA Reagan, Ronald Real-Time Adversarial Intelligence and Decision-making (RAID) Reaper (unmanned aerial vehicle) Record, Jeffrey Reed, Lou Rees, Martin Reid, John Reid, Steve Remotec Remote Environmental Monitoring Unit (REMUS) remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) Repliee (android) Republican Guard, Iraqi REV (Robotic Evacuation Vehicle) REX (Robotic Extraction Vehicle) Reynolds, Craig RFID (radio-frequency identification) RHEX (robot) Ribich, William Rice, Condoleezza Richards, Russ Richtofen, Manfred von Rifkin, Jeremy RMA (revolution in military affairs) hybrid technology and network-centric warfare and Robb, John Robert Heinlein, U.S.S.

Today, more than eleven million cosmetic surgeries happen each year in the United States alone, ranging from breast augmentation to butt implants. While the full force is still a few decades out, a similar trend is already starting to appear with voluntary technologic implants. These don’t merely replace something lost, but add something more. The Florida-based VeriChip company, for instance, has sold human-implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips to over five thousand security, government, and industrial installations. Even the Baja Beach Club, one of Barcelona’s hottest nightclubs, is a buyer. In 2006, the club implanted its VIP customers, including the entire cast of Grand Hermano (the Spanish version of the reality show Big Brother), with the tiny microchips, so that they would not have to wait in line or need to carry cash or credit cards.


pages: 234 words: 57,267

Python Network Programming Cookbook by M. Omar Faruque Sarker

business intelligence, cloud computing, Debian, DevOps, Firefox, inflight wifi, RFID, web application

Vasudeva Varma on topics related to Cloud Computing, Distributed Systems, Big Data, and Software Defined Networks. I would like to thank my advisors, Dr. Venkatesh Choppella and Dr. Vasudeva Varma, who showed me the direction in my work and helped me a lot. I would also like to thank my Google Summer of Code mentor, Patirica Tressel. Tom Stephens has worked in software development for nearly 10 years and is currently working in embedded development dealing with smartcards, cryptography, and RFID in the Denver metro area. His diverse background includes experience ranging from embedded virtual machines to web UX/UI design to enterprise Business Intelligence. He is most passionate about good software design, including intelligent testing and constantly evolving practices to produce a better product with minimal effort. Deepak Thukral is a polyglot who is also a contributor to various open source Python projects.


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, longitudinal study, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

Wilson, “Global Production and Distribution: Wal-Mart’s Global Logistics Empire (with Special Reference to the China/ Southern California Connection),” in Wal-Mart World: The World’s Biggest Corporation in the Global Economy, ed. Stanley D. Brunn (New York: Routledge, 2006), 227–42; Charles Fishman, The Wal-Mart Effect: How the World’s Most Powerful Company Really Works—and How It’s Transforming the American Economy (New York: Penguin, 2006); ATKearney, “Meeting the Retail RFID Mandate: A Discussion of the Issues Facing CPG Companies,” (2003), www. atkearney.com/shared_res/pdf/Retail_RFID_S.pdf. 74. James Hoopes, “Growth Through Knowledge: Wal-Mart, High Technology, and the Ever Less Visible Hand of the Manager,” in Wal-Mart: The Face of Twenty-First Century Capitalism, ed. Nelson Lichtenstein (New York: New Press, 2006), 83–104; on supply chains, see Bonacich and Wilson, “Global Production and Distribution.” 5. Service Work and the Service Ethos 1.


pages: 526 words: 155,174

Sixty Days and Counting by Kim Stanley Robinson

different worldview, dumpster diving, energy security, full employment, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, off grid, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, urban decay, Works Progress Administration

They called it in and waited uneasily for the zoo staff to arrive with the dart guns and nets and slings. They had a bad history together on this front, having lost a gibbon that fell to its death after Frank hit it with a trank dart. Neither mentioned this now, but they spoke little until the staffers arrived and one of them shot the tapir. At that the other animals bolted, and the humans approached. The big RFID chip was inserted under the tapir’s thick skin. The animal’s vital signs seemed good. Then they decided to take it in anyway. Too many tapirs had died. Nick and Frank helped hoist the animal onto a gurney big enough for all of them to get a hand on. They carried the unconscious beast through the snow like its pallbearers. From a distant ridge, the aurochs looked down on the procession. After that, the two of them hiked down the streambed to the zoo itself.

Leaves covered the surrounding hillsides to ankle depth everywhere they could see. Cutter gestured at the view with the can of beer in his hand: “Ain’t it pretty? All these leaves, and nobody’s gonna have to leaf-blow them away.” Fedpage did join him on a dawn patrol one morning, massaging his face to wake up. The two of them wandered slowly up the ravine, peering through the trees, pinging animals they saw with their FOG RFID readers. Fedpage talked under his breath most of the time. Perhaps obsessive-compulsive, with huge systems in his mind which made better sense to him than he could convey to other people. He was not unlike Anna in this intense regard for systems, but did not have Anna’s ability to assign them their proper importance, to prioritize and see a path through a pattern, which was what made Anna so good at NSF.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

And there are vast quantities of data, including much of what we do on social media, that are simply public, out there for the taking, whether by an intelligence agency or a small company conducting sentiment analysis. These digital bread crumbs, the tiny leavings that we produce on a daily basis, have spawned a new term: dataveillance. Dataveillance is surveillance enabled by the data produced by credit cards, E-ZPass devices and toll booths, RFID pass cards, transit cards, browser histories, and on and on. Often, they are not important for the actual data they contain—such as what you bought with your credit card—but for their metadata—the time and location you made a purchase, where you went to next, the route you took. (Metadata is data about data, data that describes other data.) This information would be as useful for an intelligence agency as it would be for a smartphone app trying to develop a pattern of your daily commute and your buying habits, the better to target you with ads that fit your profile.

While we enjoy the pleasures of connection, these workers are undergoing experiences that often leave them depressed, traumatized, and angry. For this nascent market, dispensing with human labor may prove more lucrative than the current arrangement. Strangely, it may also prove more humane. One could imagine a movement forming in which labor rights advocates say that micro-work is so unsustainable and dehumanizing that it must be automated. Add RFID chips to all packaged food and grocery products and you can track their movement through supply chains and stores without human assistance. Perhaps companies can partner with stores to help utilize their surveillance systems to monitor the placement of goods. Firm up sentiment analysis, trending-topic algorithms, and optical-character-recognition scanning so that humans aren’t forced to do such drudgery.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

Increasingly, cities are depending on technology as the key to sustainability, economic vitality, and commercial and cultural exchange. They hope to be able to turn the abstract notion of flows into concrete interconnectivity. To be sure, cities know technology per se is only a means, and as such, carries its own baggage (which we will unpack below). Yet cyber-zealotry is infectious. As one proponent of smart cities has noted, “we can collect and access data now from an astonishing variety of sources: there are 30 billion RFID tags [the new tech barcodes] embedded into our world . . . we have 1 billion cell phones with cameras able to capture and share images and events; and everything from domestic appliances to vehicles to buildings is increasingly able to monitor its location, condition and performance and communicate that information to the outside world.”5 Cities have always been interdependent: the digital revolution has simply rendered that interdependence palpable—putatively both efficient and concrete.

., 229 Prison population racial differences, 185 Privacy International, 258 Problem solving, 13, 70–71, 90 P2P (peer-to-peer) technology, 266 Public sector jobs, 199–201 Public spaces, 44–48, 71; and culture, 273, 274–280 Public transportation inequality, 195–197 “Push” technology, 253, 257 Race and inequality, 182, 185, 186 Rama, Edi, 86 Rape in India, 181, 201, 204, 382n69 “Rebel towns,” 324 Redlining, 198 Refugee camps, 16 Regional representation, 345–347 Representation, 342–348; challenges of, 342–344; of commuters, 345; and electoral district, 346; and failure of nationality, 156; and opt-in/opt-out rights, 346; on parliament of mayors, 346–347, 352–355; of regions, 345–347; as trusteeship, 347–348 Republican class in U.S., 34–35 413 RFID tags, 243 Rio Conventions, 134 Rio de Janeiro, inequalities in transportation, 195–196 Romney, Mitt, 218, 322 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 7, 32–34, 161, 283, 299 Ruble, Blair, 173 Rural life. See Virtues and vices of cities vs. countryside Rustbelt cities, 186, 223 Sandig, Jochen, 278–279 San Francisco and gay marriage, 167 Santa Monica as rebel town, 324 Santander, Spain, smart sensors in, 261 São Paulo business revival, 223 Sassen, Saskia, 10, 16, 65–66, 116, 248 Scavengers, 231 Schmidt, Eric, 241 Scholz, Olaf, 109 Schuster, Wolfgang: on democracy, 8, 84; on jobs, 213; on networks, 169; on parliament of mayors, 337, 338, 344, 353; profile, 103–105 Sea level rise, 130 Seastead, 16 Seattle, plastic grocery bag ban, 149 “Seaworlds,” 16 Second Life (video game), 261, 391n39 Secularism, 70 Security, 121–130, 160, 202–204 Segregation, 187–192 Selebi, Jackie, 126 “Self-driving cars,” 261 Self-sufficiency, 60, 63–64, 321–325 Self-Sufficient City Contest, 18 Seoul.


pages: 207 words: 59,298

The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction by Jamie Woodcock, Mark Graham

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, global value chain, informal economy, information asymmetry, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, Lyft, mass immigration, means of production, Network effects, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, precariat, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Gig work is particularly susceptible to attempts at automation. Transport is an area that is the focus of substantial investment in automation technologies, and many of the sorts of jobs on microwork platforms have already been automated by some companies. With delivery work, some parts of the labour process have already been automated, through the use of GPS-assisted route planning and barcodes or radio-frequency identification (RFID) tagging for inventory management. The second is that in all of these cases, workers are contributing to datasets being used to train artificial replacements. The data generated by drivers contributes to the training sets for self-driving cars, while microwork allows for a much wider range of training data. Often workers will not be aware of the role they are playing, as the tasks are fractured and stripped of their meaning.


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Researchers at Georgia Tech developed a version of “smart skin” that sucks energy from radio waves and other energy sources, eliminating the need for batteries. Smart skin, described as “the ultimate sensing tool that could potentially allow for the mass implementation of perpetual wireless networks,”18 can cognize, sense, analyze, wirelessly communicate, and “modify parameters” using simple radio frequency (RFID) technology.19 As in the case of Paradiso’s “sensor tape,” the researchers stress that it can also “be applied everywhere” to “monitor, sense, and interact with the world around us in a perpetual way, thus significantly enhancing ambient intelligence,” all of it as inconspicuous as a “decal sticker.” They suggest, for example, the shelves of grocery stores, where revenue opportunities are plentiful.20 Rendition has become a surveillance capitalist project shaped by its imperatives and directed toward its objectives.

Roland Kays et al., “Terrestrial Animal Tracking as an Eye on Life and Planet,” Science 348, no. 6240 (2015), https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa2478. 11. P. Ramesh Kumar, Ch. Srikanth, and K. L. Sailaja, “Location Identification of the Individual Based on Image Metadata,” Procedia Computer Science 85 (2016): 451–54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.05.191; Anuradha Vishwakarma et al., “GPS and RFID Based Intelligent Bus Tracking and Management System,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 3, no. 3 (2016); Nirali Panchal, “GPS Based Vehicle Tracking System and Using Analytics to Improve the Performance,” ResearchGate, June 2016, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304129283_GPS_Based_Vehicle_Tracking_System_and_Using_Analytics_to_Improve_The_Performance. 12. Mark Prigg, “Software That Can Track People as They Walk from Camera to Camera,” Mail Online, November 18, 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2838633/Software-track-people-walk-camera-camera-say-tracked-Boston-bombers-hours.html. 13.

Gershon Dublon and Joseph A. Paradiso, “Extra Sensory Perception,” Scientific American, June 17, 2014. 17. Paradiso, “Our Extended Sensoria” (italics mine). 18. Dublon and Paradiso, “Extra Sensory Perception.” 19. Kevin Ashton, a former Procter and Gamble brand manager who pioneered the marriage of radio-enabled microchips and physical products, birthed the term “internet of things,” and helped drive RFID innovation at MIT’s Media Lab, criticizes the US government for its lack of a comprehensive vision for the “internet of things” and the leadership of private firms in this domain. See Kevin Ashton, “America Last?” Politico, June 29, 2015, http://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2015/06/kevin-ashton-internet-of-things-in-the-us-000102. 20. See Nick Statt, “What the Volkswagen Scandal Means for the Future of Connected Devices,” Verge, October 21, 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/10/21/9556153/internet-of-things-privacy-paranoia-data-volkswagen-scandal. 21.


Demystifying Smart Cities by Anders Lisdorf

3D printing, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital twin, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Google Glasses, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Masdar, microservices, Minecraft, platform as a service, ransomware, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, self-driving car, smart cities, smart meter, software as a service, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

The standard focuses on machine-to-machine communication and goes into some detail about specifying the different components, like gateways, network, and management functions. The ITU is the United Nations’ agency for information and communication technology. The particular focus of this organization is to improve access for people and communities that are currently underserved. Their approach is to focus on the ubiquity of technology. They categorize different types of devices:Tagging things – Are RFID devices. These are historically the oldest types of IoT devices. Feeling things – Are the sensors that measure signals from the environment. Thinking things – Are things that somehow act intelligently and autonomously to stimuli. Shrinking things – Are nanotechnologies that produce devices at nanoscale. These suffice to show that many organizations have an interest in devices and the Internet of Things.


pages: 261 words: 70,584

Retirementology: Rethinking the American Dream in a New Economy by Gregory Brandon Salsbury

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, buy and hold, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, estate planning, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, hindsight bias, housing crisis, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mass affluent, Maui Hawaii, mental accounting, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, new economy, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the rule of 72, Yogi Berra

Cheese,” July 23, 2008. 24 What It Costs, “Top Ten Most Expensive Parties Ever Thrown,” 2009. 25 Answers.com, “Jackie Mason,” 2009. 26 MetLife, “The American Dream has been revised not reversed, pragmatism is replacing consumerism as the bar stops rising/buyer’s remorse sets in, according to third annual MetLife study,” March 9, 2009. 27 The New York Times, “Given a Shovel, Americans Dig Deeper Into Debt,” July 20, 2008. 28 The New York Times, “Given a Shovel, Americans Dig Deeper Into Debt,” July 20, 2008. 29 Fare Magazine, “Consumers Cut Back on Coffee Spending,” January 30, 2009. 30 Ventura County Star, “Stores out to tempt TV buyers this week,” January 25, 2009. 31 The New York Times, “Hummer’s Decline Puts Dealers at Risk,” March 31, 2009. 32 The New York Times, “Hummer’s Decline Puts Dealers at Risk,” March 31, 2009. 33 San Diego Union-Tribune, “Parents scale back luxuries for children,” June 14, 2009. 34 Pew Research Center Publications, “Luxury or Necessity? The Public Makes a U-Turn,” April 23, 2009. 35 CreditCards.com, “Implantable credit card RFID chips: convenient, but creepy,” August 5, 2009. 36 Notable Quotes, Quotes on Las Vegas, from The Joker Is Wild, 1957. 37 Encyclopedia definition of Ruml, Beardsley, 2009. 38 Thaler, Richard, and Shlomo Benartzi, “Save More Tomorrow: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving,” November 2000. 39 WebCPA, “Automatic 401(k) Enrollment Is Not for Everyone,” October 27, 2009. 40 The New York Times, “Target-Date Funds: Seven Questions to Ask Before Jumping In,” June 29, 2009. 41 Pensions & Investments, “Special Report: The Looming Retirement Disaster,” April 18, 2005. 42 Hewitt, “Hewitt Study Shows Nearly Half of U.S.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

You can search for items, filter them by categories, and get information on each single product; not just nutritional elements, but you can trace the production process, the companies behind it, and dynamically compare products based on your search criteria. You can also read reviews from other people about these products, just like on Amazon.com today. You get all that you need, put in the basket, then before going out you stop for a few seconds on a gateway, which receives signals from all of the items you would like to purchase through RFID chips, and you are good to go. Swipe in your credit card, or even pay by just accepting the payment request on your cell phone. The whole process, the time between you decide to leave the store and the moment you can actually walk out, takes less than 10 seconds. No human was involved in this, no human was required. No queues, no waiting time, no screaming and shouting, no cutting of lines. Sounds futuristic?


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Flipping the box demands human intervention, however, as the software is helpless until it can see the label. Every package entering the sort passes under a camera and infrared sensor capable of reading characters and correctly estimating dimensions and weight. In the future, even that won’t be necessary once radio frequency identification chips are embedded in their sides, broadcasting the vital signs of what’s within. For now, these RFID tags still cost more money than they save, and until that flips around, any labels missing a key piece of information—a scrawled digit in the zip code, perhaps—have their pictures flashed to a room full of PCs where human operators are required to fill in the blanks. At two in the morning, it is typically filled with college-age men and women slumped in silence, iPod earbuds firmly in place, clicking and dragging over and over as they zoom in to see what’s the matter.

“E-commerce is express mail,” Gladwell concluded. The real revolution had taken place twenty years before, with the widespread adoption of bar codes. Lands’ End could retire hunt-and-peck picking methods and switch to more efficient methods, quadrupling productivity from 175 items picked per hour to 600 or 700. Zappos’ carousel picker tripled their pace; Kiva’s robots doubled it again. Kasarda believes the next doubling will come when RFID chips replace bar codes, and then again when “intelligent agents” embedded in those chips guide packages, robots, and belts to their final destinations, with no humans necessary. The Internet arm of Zappos could physically be located anywhere, and Tony Hsieh knows it. He moved his headquarters from San Francisco to Las Vegas several years ago in pursuit of cheaper labor. But he wouldn’t dream of touching the warehouse, because “we’re within a fifteen-minute drive from the hub.


pages: 280 words: 74,559

Fully Automated Luxury Communism by Aaron Bastani

"Robert Solow", autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, computer vision, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, G4S, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kuiper Belt, land reform, liberal capitalism, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post scarcity, post-work, price mechanism, price stability, private space industry, Productivity paradox, profit motive, race to the bottom, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, working-age population

On finding the shirt Federica places it into her bag and immediately begins to leave the store. As she does, another figure walks onto the screen – or rather in front of her. ‘Do you have everything you need today Ms Antonietta? How was the tracksuit you bought in February? We have something similar for winter – would you like me to send it to Alex for you to look at?’ ‘Please, that would be wonderful,’ Federica says. ‘I don’t want to be late.’ She leaves the store, and the RFID tag on the shirt automatically debits her account. In the production, warehousing, distribution and sale of the item, not one human was employed. Indeed, the store she visited could have delivered it by drone to her nephew later that day, but she preferred giving it to him herself – the old-fashioned way. After all, it’s a birthday present from his favourite aunt. Doug Doug had both known this would happen and prayed that it wouldn’t.


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

Not that all transactions have worked out for Alibaba. One Chinese deal that looks like a loser is Alibaba’s $1.5 billion investment in cash-burning, bike-sharing startup Ofo, once a star at the height of China’s shared-bicycling craze. Ofo’s key rival Mobike, backed by Tencent, was absorbed into Meituan as Meituan Bike in an acquisition. Table 2-4 Alibaba Investments in US Tech Startups Company Inv. Type Inv. Amt Market Year Smartrac Inv. Und. RFID, IoT 2018 OpenSky Acq. Und. B2B e-commerce 2018 NVXL Technology Inv. $20 million machine learning 2017 EyeVerify Acq. $100 million security 2016 Snap Inv. $200 million photo app 2015 Lyft Co-inv. $250 million ride-sharing 2014 Quixey Co-inv. $110 million mobile search 2013–15 Tango.me Co-inv. $280 million messaging app 2014 Kabam Inv. $120 million gaming 2014 Alibaba Investments in China Tech Startups Cainiao Lead Co-inv. $1.4 billion smart logistics 2018 Ele.me Acq. $9.5 billion food delivery 2018 Ele.me / Koubei Merger 2018 Koubei Acq. $1 billion local commerce 2017 Xiaohongshu Lead Co-inv. $300 million social e-commerce 2018 Ofo Inv. $866 million bike sharing 2018 SenseTime Inv. $600 million facial recognition 2018 Ofo Inv. $700 million bike sharing 2017 Youku Tudou Acq. $4 billion video sharing 2016 Weibo Inv. $720 million micro-blogging 2016 AutoNavi Acq. $1.5 billion digital mapping 2014 * Note–Inv. is investment; Co-inv. is co-investment; Acq. is acquisition; Lead Inv. is lead investment; Lead Co-inv. is lead co-investment; Und. is undisclosed Sources: Silicon Dragon research, S&P Global Intelligence, annual reports, news releases In the United States, Alibaba has had a mixed record of M&A deals.


pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Where there once was a gap between the professional and the amateur scientist—a gap defined and maintained by the credentialing process—the Net is putting out tendrils to find every way across the divide. The first Maker Faire was held at the San Mateo Fairgrounds near San Francisco in 2005. Twenty thousand people showed up to see “self-balancing two-wheeled vehicles, computer-controlled Etch-A-Sketches, biodiesel processing units, biologically-inspired multiprocessors, scratch-built RFID readers, wind-powered generators, networked citizen weather stations, ornithology research systems, flying pterosaur replicas, and hundreds of other projects,” in the words of Mark Frauenfelder, the editor of Make magazine, which inspired the event.22 In 2008, three times that number attended. Frauenfelder does not attribute this growth in interest to the Web directly. Rather, he says, in the past few years, “some of the folks who had been spending all their time creating the Web, and everything on it, looked up from their monitors and realized that the world itself was the ultimate hackable platform.”


pages: 303 words: 81,071

Infinite Detail by Tim Maughan

3D printing, augmented reality, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, friendly fire, global supply chain, Internet of things, Mason jar, off grid, Panamax, post-Panamax, ransomware, RFID, security theater, self-driving car, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning

Both plastic and glass. Gotta take ’em to fucking Chinatown to be recycled.” “Really? You can’t do that in Brooklyn?” “Nah, all the machines are fucked in Brooklyn.” “Machines?” “Yeah. The depositing machines. They all fucked. Take your cans but don’t give you the money back. They’re fucked.” Rush looks at him, looks at the cart. Blinking through menus in his periphery, he pulls up a home-brewed RFID-reading tool. Suddenly the cart is covered in hundreds of little labels, tiny floating tags, one for each can and bottle. Each has two numbers, twelve digits long, that he can’t understand but knows the city can. He guesses the first one is written on the can’s chip when it’s bought, the second when it’s tossed. Cross-reference those with the city’s database of NYC app users and bingo, instant tracking of every can bought from shop to being recycled.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Regularly take your senior leadership through a personal transformation program. Examine your own leadership skill sets. Remove anyone who puts his or her own career ahead of the success of the enterprise. 2. Partner with, Invest in or Acquire ExOs From 1990 to about 2005, there were at least five major disruptions in the retail or CPG industry. Three of them—EPOS systems with point-of-sale transactions, RFID tags for supply chain management, and customer loyalty cards—produced a significant amount of new data that fundamentally changed the industry. Marcus Shingles, a principal at Deloitte Consulting, and his research team spent most of 2012 helping the Grocery Manufacturer’s Association (GMA) analyze the CPG industry for potential Big Data innovation disruptions of the same magnitude. To his surprise, he and his team identified hundreds of startups with industry-specific solutions, of which eighty had leveraged emerging technologies.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs,