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Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing by Adam Greenfield
augmented reality, business process, defense in depth, demand response, demographic transition, facts on the ground, game design, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, James Dyson, knowledge worker, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, profit motive, recommendation engine, RFID, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method
Of course, this limits their range of action to short distances, no more than a few meters at the very outside, while active RFID units, supplied with their own onboard transmitter and power supply, trade greater range for a correspondingly bulkier profile. The onboard memory chip generally encodes a unique numeric identifier and includes as well whatever other information is desired about the item of interest: part number, account number, SKU, color.... Really, the possibilities are endless. And it's this flexibility that accounts for the incredibly wide range of RFID applications we see: In everyday life, you're almost certainly already engaging RFID infrastructures, whether you're aware of it or (more likely) not. Two-dimensional bar codes address some of the same purposes as passive RFID tags, though they require visual scanning (by a laser reader or compatible camera) to return data.
First, RFID, the tiny radio-frequency transponders that are already doing so much to revolutionize logistics. The fundamental characteristic of an RFID tag is cheapness—as of mid-2004, the unit production cost of a standard-issue passive tag stood at about fifty cents, but industry sources are unanimous in predicting a drop below five cents in the next few years. Somewhere around the latter price point, it becomes economic to slap tags onto just about everything: every toothbrush, every replacement windshield wiper and orange-juice carton in existence. And given how incredibly useful the things are—they readily allow the tracking, sorting, and self-identification of items they're appended to, and much more besides—there are likely to be few persuasive arguments against doing so. RFID "wants" to be everywhere and part of everything.
Above all, the proposed bridge should be vanishingly cheap—the better to economically supply all the hundreds of billions of objects in the world with their own identifiers. Such bridges already exist—and are in fact already widely deployed. We'll limit our discussion here to the two most prominent such technologies: RFID tags and two-dimensional bar-codes. The acronym RFID simply means "radio-frequency identification," although in use it has come to connote a whole approach to low-cost, low-impact data-collection. There are two fundamental types of RFID tags, "active" and "passive"; just as you'd assume, active tags broadcast while passive tags require scanning before offering up their payload of information. While both types of tags incorporate a chip and an antenna, passive tags do not require an onboard power supply. This allows them to be extremely cheap, small, and flexible; they can be woven into fabrics, printed onto surfaces, even slapped on in the form of stickers.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
On the other hand, some tags are battery powered and transmit actively and these can be situated hundreds of meters from the reader. RFID technology is used in many industries to identify and track inventory, people, objects, and animals due to the tag’s versatility and ability to be attached to just about anything. RFID is also used in contactless payment systems using cards or even smartphones to place in close proximity to the RFID reader. However, RFID does not always require such close contact; in some cases even the briefest contact at a distance is all that is required. An example of this is the timing of sports cars lapping a track. Even at those high speeds, RFID works efficiently and reliably and produces accurate timing. Another advantage of RFID is that the tags do not need line of sight or even need to be visible, so they can be easily concealed in packaging and products. RFID tags can be read simultaneously by a reader if they are in range, which is a big advantage over barcodes, which are read one at a time.
This is one of the basis of Smart Manufacturing, because we can reduce waste and inefficiency by identifying products on the production line and determining their status and what is more their history and what specific stage of production they must next pass through. Now how do we do this? We can use RFID tags that are so miniaturized that now they can be embedded into a label or use NFC (near frequency contact) such as in card payment systems. NFC is a bit fragile it requires close proximity to the reader, whereas RFID is astonishingly capable. Take for instance a racing car embedded with an RFID tag and during each lap, an RFID reader counts the number of laps. Incredibly, an RFID reader can count reliably every lap a racing car performs even at speeds of 200 mph and more. Therefore, RFID tags are perfect for Smart Factory applications where the speed of the production process must not be compromised. So let us see how a Smart Factory can work in practice as suggested by DR.
In order to address these inventory control processes, logistic companies sought an automated solution using IIoT techniques and wireless technologies. The solution is to use embedded RFID tags and the associated RFID readers, which can scan entire rows or stacks of pallets queued at the inbound gate simultaneously. This is something a barcode reader had to perform one at a time, which is an improvement in speed and accuracy as every RFID tag in 23 24 Chapter 2 | Industrial Internet Use-Cases radio range on every pallet, whether visible or not, is read by the system. The RFID reader automatically records the RFID tag’s information such as the order ID, the manufacturer, product model, type, and quantity, as well as the condition of the items before automatically recording the delivery in the ERP system.
The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management
When deciding on which networks to run an M2M solution, we would like to point out the ubiquity versus granularity problem. For example, RFID tags are very low cost, don’t need a battery, and have an infinite life. One can put an RFID tag on almost anything — for instance, every item in a grocery store. That way, RFID provides a high level of granularity for seeing and detecting things. However, for each RFID installation there needs to be RFID readers, which require installation, calibration, and fine-tuning. The RFID does not provide the ubiquity of other networks. Let’s take cellular: Mobile carriers provide access to cellular networks almost everywhere — cellular networks are ubiquitous. However, the cellular devices are costly compared to the RFID tags, they are bulky, and they require batteries to run. Cellular devices do not offer the same level of granularity that RFID provides. To better understand this problem, we spoke with Professor Sanjay Sarma of MIT.
The coffee cup is supposed to know how much it weighs or what shape it is, what is the best way to approach it, and so on. I just ask it instead of trying to recreate all its information. I thought it was a beautiful insight. Kevin Ashton continues: Barcodes at the time were considered a quasi-automatic data capture, but they are not automatic at all. Barcodes are data-capture technology for humans, while RFID is a capture technology for computers. RFID is a way to hack the real world. As things get wirelessly connected, Sanjay Sarma believes in the proliferation of RFID. He thinks RFID readers will become ubiquitous. The economic downturn of 2001 only temporarily slowed the unstoppable development of the Internet of Things. As a matter of fact, things started picking up as early as 2002. In 2004, Nokia published a white paper called Machine to Machine: Let Your Machines Talk, which pointed out: It is not only people who use telecommunication and Internet technologies to communicate, but the machines around us as well.
To better understand this problem, we spoke with Professor Sanjay Sarma of MIT. Sanjay pointed out that the biggest cost in RFID today is in installation and integration. One way to address the issue of ubiquity, he says, would be to wirelessly enable RFID readers with 4G or Wi-Fi and make them ubiquitous. Sanjay says, “Imagine if the reader comes with a standard electric plug, all you need to do is plug it in and you’re good to go.” He envisions the time when so many devices are going to have RFID-reader capability that it will solve the problem of the short range of RFID devices — there will always be a reader in range. On the other side, mobile carriers are just starting to embrace Wi-Fi services as an offering on top of their cellular networks, but it’s possible to imagine a not-too-distant future where mobile carriers will be selling high-bandwidth wireless access to the Internet regardless of technology.
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
Even if you are unfamiliar with RFID technology, chances are you have already encountered it in your life, whether it’s the security ID card you use to swipe your way into your office, your “wave and pay” credit card, the key to your hotel room, your subway pass, or the little box you use to pay for highway tolls, such as E-ZPass. Though the convenience of RFID, considered by many the gateway to the Internet of Things, sounds great, there’s one problem: it’s eminently hackable. There have been dozens of exploits against RFID technology, whose electronics can be readily hacked, spoofed, and jammed, and there is an active “RFID underground” continually working on improving its offensive techniques. The overwhelming majority of today’s RFID tags have no effective security, encryption, or privacy protocols in place. These shortcomings have allowed the security hacker Francis Brown to build his own RFID readers for under $400 that can scan, copy, clone, and steal data from your smart cards. As a result, while you’re standing in line at the grocery store, sitting in a crowded subway car, riding the elevator up to your office, or waiting for your morning latte at Starbucks, Brown can conduct a “brush pass” attack.
As he stands there smiling and perhaps even chatting with you, the concealed portable RFID reader in his backpack can query the office key card you have in your wallet, pocket, or purse and abscond with all the details encoded in it. So what? Here’s why it matters. Brown can then plug his RFID reader into his computer at home and use it to clone RFID cards all day long. That means he can get into your office, hotel room, or home anytime he likes. Every Fortune 500 company in America uses RFID in its employees’ badges to control access to its office buildings, and Brown has a 100 percent success rate in cloning the cards. The implications of this for everything from industrial espionage to common burglary to employee safety are enormous. Relying on insecure RFID identity cards as the primary system we use for security and identity in the workplace means the current system is completely broken.
Krco, Initial Report on IoT Applications of Strategic Interest, Internet of Things Initiative, Oct. 8, 2011, 48. 24 There have been dozens: Annalee Newitz, “The RFID Hacking Underground,” Wired, May 2006. 25 These shortcomings have allowed: Francis Brown and Bishop Fox, “RFID Hacking” (paper presented at Black Hat USA, Las Vegas, Nev., Aug. 1, 2013). 26 Every Fortune 500 company: “Hackers Could Clone Your Office Key Card … from Your Pocket,” NBC News, July 25, 2013. 27 Seconds later: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker’s Demo Shows How Easily Credit Cards Can Be Read Through Clothes and Wallets,” Forbes, Jan. 30, 2012. 28 RFID chips can also be infected: Nate Anderson, “RFID Chips Can Carry Viruses,” Ars Technica, March 15, 2006. 29 Another popular: Juniper Research, “1 in 5 Smartphones will have NFC by 2014, Spurred by Recent Breakthroughs: New Juniper Research Report,” April 14, 2011. 30 But like RFID: Andy Greenberg, “Hacker Demos Android App That Can Wirelessly Steal and Use Credit Cards’ Data,” Forbes, July 27, 2012. 31 Google Wallet has also been hacked: Lance Whitney, “Latest Google Wallet Hack Picks Your Pocket,” CNET, Feb. 10, 2012; Evan Applegate, “Have Fingers, 30 Seconds?
Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson
Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar
Given that the percentage of Muslims in the world’s population is expected to grow from 19% in 2000 to 30% in 2025, I’d expect this sector of investment to grow too. Chapter 5 Money and Financial Services: everyone is a bank Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future. —Niels Bohr J on Merriman is the CEO of an investment bank and is one of 50 people in the US with a radio frequency ID (RFID) tag inserted in his arm. Mr Merriman’s firm is an adviser to VeriChip, a maker of ID implants for pets and RFID-enabled medical bracelets. If Mr Merriman (“Chip” to his friends?) is ever involved in a serious accident, doctors are just a scan away from all the necessary data. The chip contains everything from bank account and social security records to medical information. I’m quite tempted to follow suit myself. According to the research company ACNielsen, by the year 2020 only 10% of financial transactions will be in cash.
“Precision agriculture” is an idea whereby farmland is monitored 182 FUTURE FILES and controlled meter by meter, with seeds sown at exactly the correct time and fertilizers and pesticides applied almost on a plantby-plant basis. Similar techniques exist for cattle, allowing individual herds to be monitored and controlled by satellite and the history of an individual animal to be tracked from paddock to plate. RFID chips are one way to do this, but an even better way is to test for DNA. However, in the future the dining tables will be turned. At present RFID chips are a logistical tool used by supermarkets and their suppliers. In the future customers will tap into these chips to monitor where their food is from and how it was produced. There is already a DNA test available called FoodExpert ID that can check for the presence of 32 common animals (including humans) in foodstuffs.
Others, like me, will guard their privacy jealously using cash — while it’s still available — or fake loyalty cards to dupe the system and remain “off network”. Shops are already intelligent and they are getting more so. In the future, a store might greet you by name and direct you to a loyalty queue for a speedy checkout. Or you may not even have to check out: an RFID reader will scan your shopping bags as you walk out of the store and the bill will be sent automatically to your creditcard company or bank. The Prada store in New York already shows footage of models wearing certain outfits if you hold the clothes up to a nearby screen. RFID technologies will scan your body from all angles and produce 206 FUTURE FILES a 360-degree 3D model to help you find clothes that fit you precisely. Entering the data into a terminal will also instantly tell you whether certain items are in stock, or perhaps inform you of where products were made and under what conditions.
Radio frequency identification appears especially promising. An RFID tag, applied to a shipment of pharmaceuticals, can be read from several feet away using radio waves. In the United States, RFID may prove especially helpful in speeding the passage of drugs through customs, where thousands of drug packages become backlogged every year. Such backlogs can create perverse incentives for customs officials to push shipments through, even if they suspect they may be counterfeit. They have also enabled “return to sender” policies, in which suspected counterfeit shipments are merely returned to the wholesaler, which 68 MAKING A KILLING can then redistribute them back through the system.29 Several private pharmaceutical companies have experimented with RFID in their supply chains, but they are keeping tight-lipped about its relative cost-effectiveness.30 More research must be conducted to determine the best-suited and most cost-effective technologies for tracking drug shipments.
Margaret Kyle, “Strategic Responses to Parallel Trade,” Working Paper 12968 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2007), www.nber.org/papers/w12968. 25. Pharmaceutical Market Access and Drug Safety Act of 2007, S.242, 110th Cong., 1st session. 26. Bert Moore, “RFID, Bar Codes and Pharmaceutical Authenticity,” AIM Global, June 7, 2007. 27. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Counterfeit Drug Task Force Report: 2006 Update,” www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/counterfeit/report6_ 06.html (accessed March 17, 2008). 28. Moore, “RFID, Bar Codes and Pharmaceutical Authenticity.” 29. Representative Steve Buyer, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health, hearing on HR 3610 (Food and Drug Safety Import Act), 110th Cong., 1st session, 2007, http://energycommerce. house.gov/cmte_mtgs/110-he-hrg.092607.Food.Drug.Import.shtml (accessed March 17, 2008).
The GPHF sells its minilabs at relatively low prices (averaging $6,000) to health providers around the world,99 but especially in Africa and Southeast Asia. As of July 2007, it had sold over 240 minilabs in sixty-five countries.100 Pharmaceutical Companies. Individual pharmaceutical firms have also taken steps to resist counterfeit drugs. Many have begun to implement track-and-trace technology on their drugs to provide an effective “e-pedigree” to distributors and consumers. Some have experimented with using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to check the e-pedigrees of drug shipments, although, in the United States, this is not yet required by the FDA.101 To help secure the complex, vulnerable global supply chain, many drug companies have implemented their own security measures. Pfizer announced in December 2003 that all distributors in the United States selling its products would have to purchase them directly from the company or from selected wholesalers.102 In September 2006, Pfizer announced that it would cease selling drugs to eighteen wholesalers in the United Kingdom and instead distribute drugs there only through UniChem.103 These moves are attempts to cut down the size of the secondary wholesale market, which includes sales among wholesalers.104 Other pharmaceutical firms will need to secure their own supply chains and alert the public when they become aware of counterfeit drugs.
Getting Started with RStudio by John Verzani
However, the data set needs to be cleaned up, as there are some repeated observations. We do this on a per-rat basis. R has several ways to implement the split-apply-combine idiom, as it is one of the most useful patterns for R users. The plyr package is widely used, but for this task we use functions from base R. The split function can be used to divide the data by the grouping variable RFID, returning a list whose components are the records for the individual mole rats: > l <- split(x, x$RFID) The list, l, has a different component for each mole rat. We can check to see if any two rows for a mole rat are identical, using R’s convenient duplicated method. In addition, we add a bit of time to to each time value, so that times recorded with the same second are distinguished. R has several different means to apply a function to pieces of an object.
The point of the exercise is to show how many of RStudio’s features can be used during the process to speed the task along. We will postpone for now an example of the “development” aspect of RStudio. The data set we look at here comes from a colleague, and contains records from a psychology experiment on a colony of naked mole rats. The experimenter is interested in both the behavior of each naked mole rat in time and the social aspect of the colony as a whole. Each rat wears an RFID chip that allows the researcher to track its motion. The experiment consists of 15 chambers (bubbles) in a linear arrangement separated by 14 tubes. Each tube has a gate with a sensor. When a mole rat passes through the tube, the time and gate are recorded. Unfortunately, gates can be missed, and the recording device can erroneously replicate values, so the raw data must be cleaned up. This data comes to us in rich-text format (rtf).
Reading in a Data File Clicking on the data file name in the file browser opens up a system text editor (Figure 2-2), allowing us to edit the file. For many text-based files, the file will open in RStudio’s source-code editor. However, the actual editor employed depends on the extension and MIME type of the file. For rtf files, the underlying operating system’s editor is used, which for Mac OS X is textedit. We can see that the data appears to have one line per record, with the values separated by semicolons. The fields are RFID, date, time, and gate number. This is basically comma-separated-value (CSV) data with a nonstandard separator. Figure 2-2. The rtf file is opened in an editor provided by the system, not by RStudio However, although we rarely see rtf files, we know the textedit program will likely render them using the markup for formatting, so perhaps there are some markup commands that needs to be removed.
AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP
In 2009, Robinson pleaded guilty to unlawfully: Ibid. radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips: “FAQ on RFID and RFID Privacy,” RSA Laboratories, accessed September 8, 2013, http://www.emc.com/emc-plus/rsa-labs/research-areas/faq-on-rfid-and-rfid-privacy.htm#4. in passports: “The U.S. Electronic Passport Frequently Asked Questions,” Travel.State.Gov, A Service of the Bureau of Consular Affairs, accessed July 21, 2013, http://travel.state.gov/passport/passport_2788.html. In 2013, a federal judge in Texas: Steve Hernandez v. Northside Independent School District, SA-12-Ca-1113-OG (W.D. Tex. 2013), https://www.rutherford.org/files_images/general/01-08-2013_Hernandez_Ruling.pdf. California to outlaw: Mandalit Del Barco, “California Law Outlaws RFID Implant Mandate,” National Public Radio, January 1, 2008, http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?
In 2009, Robinson pleaded guilty to unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer, and he was sentenced to three years’ probation. And the day is not far off when real-time tracking will become routine. The United States already embeds radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips that can transmit data over a short range of about ten feet in passports, and schools and employers are starting to embed the chips in ID cards. In 2013, a federal judge in Texas denied a student’s challenge to her school’s requirement that she wear an RFID-enabled ID card. Some employers have even flirted with the idea of implanting the chips under their employees’ skin, which prompted California to outlaw the practice in 2008. Cell phone tracking has already become routine for police departments. In 2011, my colleague at the Wall Street Journal Scott Thurm and I submitted open records requests to the twenty largest state and local police departments in the United States.
When it comes to government surveillance: A good analysis of government dragnets comes from Christopher Slobogin: Christopher Slobogin, “Government Dragnets” (Vanderbilt Public Law research paper number 10–37, July 14, 2010), http://ssrn.com/abstract=1640108. We rejected airport body scanners: Mike M. Ahlers, “TSA Removing ‘Virtual Strip Search’ Body Scanners,” CNN.com, January 19, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/01/18/travel/tsa-body-scanners/index.html. We do not embed tracking microchips: “California Bans Forced RFID Tagging of Humans,” Government Technology, October 17, 2007, http://www.govtech.com/security/California-Bans-Forced-RFID-Tagging-of.html?topic=117688. In 2013, Judge Shira Scheindlin: David Floyd, Lalit Clarkson, Deon Dennis, and David Ourlicht v. the City of New York, 08 Civ. 1034 (SAS) (S.D. N.Y. 2013), http://www.nyclu.org/files/releases/Floyd%20opinion.pdf. In 1944, the Supreme Court ruled: Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/323/214/case.html.
Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner
algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K
We can see the opportunity this change offers today, thanks to Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) will provide the internet of things with the ability to transact. When we talk about chips inside everything, so that they can wirelessly communicate, those chips in everything will be RFID chips today. RFID can only hold a small amount of intelligence right now, so it needs something to receive the RFID information and that is NFC. Hence, NFC will become the reader mechanism in phones and other devices for RFID in the internet of things. Today, you buy things by taking them to the teller; tomorrow, if you want to buy something, you just read the QR code or hold your phone over its RFID tag. In addition, in the near future, the internet of things will be driven by the mobile internet of things, where everything is geo-located and identified by the network.
Save more than 10% of your earnings per month and we will give you a “Saver King” or “Saver Queen” badge to share with all your friends on Facebook. In fact, the Digital Bank will be the Augmented Bank as it will recognise that anything can transact with anything person-to-person, person-to-machine or even machine-to-machine. Transactions become embedded in everything from underpants to escalators through the placement of RFID chips inside everything. This means that everything will be intelligently and wirelessly communicating with everything through what is now called the internet of things. The internet of things delivers a new wireless augmented world of digital reality where, in the very near future, fifty billion devices will be communicating with each other. The internet of things The internet of things is where internet communication – both wired and wireless – are placed into everyday objects from cars to refrigerators, keys to key rings, jewellery to watches and more.
That service might be offering car loans as you drive by the showroom of the BMW dealership you happened to be Googling last night or mortgages as you drive towards the real estate office of the broker you found. Now that’s all well and good, but it goes further than this as prediction marketing can now be embedded into the internet of things. For example, a few years ago the Metro store in Germany built a prototype of the grocery outlet of a few years ahead using NFC and RFID technologies. The concept store included the idea of dynamic pricing as you walk through the aisles, based upon your loyalty, shopping habits and more. Your smartphone would emanate your preferences and change prices dynamically for you based upon sensing your presence through the mobile network and your smartphone. As the internet of things means that everything has intel inside, intellisense becomes the competitive battleground using predictive, proactive marketing and deep data analysis of the holistic customer relationship for each and every individual customer.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
gait recognition systems: Zhaoxiang Zhang, Maodi Hu, and Yunhong Wang (2011), “A survey of advances in biometric gait recognition,” Biometric Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7098, Springer-Verlag, http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-25449-9_19. contactless RFID chip cards: Katherine Albrecht (2008), “RFID tag: You’re it,” Scientific American (Sep 2008): 72–77, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-rfid-tags-could-be-used. University of Washington College of Engineering (22 Feb 2008), “University launches RFID people tracking experiment,” RFID Journal, http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?6924. Christopher Zara (8 Jan 2013), “Disney World’s RFID tracking bracelets are a slippery slope, warns privacy advocate,” International Business Times, http://www.ibtimes.com/disney-worlds-rfid-tracking-bracelets-are-slippery-slope-warns-privacy-advocate-1001790. Many retail stores are surreptitiously tracking: Quentin Hardy (7 Mar 2013), “Technology turns to tracking people offline,” New York Times, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/07/technology-turns-to-tracking-people-offline.
Face recognition is the easiest way to identify people on camera, and the technology is getting better every year. In 2014, face recognition algorithms started outperforming people. There are other image identification technologies in development: iris scanners that work at a distance, gait recognition systems, and so on. There’s more hidden surveillance going on in the streets. Those contactless RFID chip cards in your wallet can be used to track people. Many retail stores are surreptitiously tracking people by the MAC addresses and Bluetooth IDs—which are basically identification numbers—broadcast by their smartphones. The goal is to record which aisles they walk down, which products they stop to look at, and so on. People can be tracked at public events by means of both these approaches. In 2014, a senior executive from the Ford Motor Company told an audience at the Consumer Electronics Show, “We know everyone who breaks the law, we know when you’re doing it.
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Weapons and small arms routinely disappear after conflicts and find their way onto the black market (an estimated $1 billion annual business), later appearing in the hands of militias, gangs and armies in other countries. Radio frequency identification (RFID) chips could represent a solution to this challenge. RFID chips or tags contain electronically stored information and can be as small as a grain of rice. They are ever present today, in everything from our phones and passports to the products we buy. (They’re even in our pets: RFID chips embedded under the skin or on an ear are used to help identify lost animals.) If major states signed treaties that required weapons manufacturers to implant unremovable RFID chips in all of their products, it would make the hunt for arms caches and the interdiction of arms shipments much easier. Given that today’s RFID chips can be easily fried in a microwave, the chips of the future will need a shield that protects them against tampering.
Given that today’s RFID chips can be easily fried in a microwave, the chips of the future will need a shield that protects them against tampering. (We assume there will be a technological cat-and-mouse game between governments who want to track the weapons with RFID chips and arms traffickers who want to deal the weapons off the grid.) When weapons with RFID chips were recovered, it would be possible to trace where they’d been if the chips themselves were designed to store location data. This wouldn’t stop the trafficking of arms but it would put pressure on the larger actors in the arms trade. States that donate weapons to rebel movements often want to know what happens to those arms. With RFID chips, such investments could be tracked. The Libyan revolutionaries were an unknown quantity to almost everyone, so in the absence of any tracking capability, governments that distributed arms to them had to weigh the benefit of a successful revolution with the possible consequences of those weapons going underground.
Electronically traceable arms distribution will have to overcome hurdles. It will cost money to design weapons that include the RFID; arms manufacturers profit from a large illicit market for their products; and states and arms dealers alike rather enjoy the anonymity of weapons distribution today. It’s hard to imagine any superpower willingly sacrificing its ability to have plausible deniability regarding arms caches or covertly supplied arms for some long-term greater good. Moreover, states might claim that falsely planting another country’s weapons in a conflict zone would point to their involvement and lead to even more conflict. But international pressure might make a difference. Luckily, there are myriad other ways the RFID technology can be used in the short term in reconstruction efforts. RFID tags can be used to track aid deliveries and other essential supplies, to verify pharmaceuticals and other products as legitimate, and to generally limit waste or graft in large contracting projects.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
Upon entering the building, conventioneers pick up their ID badges, embedded with a “u-chip” (for “ubiquitous” computing), a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag that functions as a wireless bar code. To enter the exhibition hall, one swipes the card across a reader mounted atop each turnstile, much like entering a subway station. It’s a familiar move for Korean city dwellers. For over a decade, they have used local tech giant LG’s rechargeable T-money cards not just to board buses and subways, but to pay for taxis and convenience-store purchases as well. From the earliest planning stages, the nation’s economic planners intended Songdo to be a test bed for RFID and a center for research and development in this crucial ubiquitous computing technology. In 2005 the government announced a $300 million, 20-acre RFID-focused industrial park in Songdo.12 Inside Convensia, your interactions with computers seem far from ubiquitous, broken up into a fragmented series of gestures and glances—swiping your RFID card to enter a room or pressing a button to request that an elevator be dispatched to your location.
In 2005 the government announced a $300 million, 20-acre RFID-focused industrial park in Songdo.12 Inside Convensia, your interactions with computers seem far from ubiquitous, broken up into a fragmented series of gestures and glances—swiping your RFID card to enter a room or pressing a button to request that an elevator be dispatched to your location. As they move through the complex, visitors locate meeting rooms by reading digital displays mounted beside entryways, which draw down the latest events schedule from a central master calendar. Other smart technologies inhabit Convensia’s unseen innards—controls for climate systems, lighting, safety and security systems are there, yet invisible to the average person. Step outside, however, and the street springs to life as a less patient, more proactive set of automated technologies takes over. Songdo is the world’s largest experiment in urban automation, with millions of sensors deployed in its roads, electrical grids, water and waste systems to precisely track, respond to, and even predict the flow of people and material.
Songdo is the world’s largest experiment in urban automation, with millions of sensors deployed in its roads, electrical grids, water and waste systems to precisely track, respond to, and even predict the flow of people and material. According to CEO John Chambers of Cisco Systems, which committed $47 million in 2009 to build out the city’s digital nervous system, it is a place that will “run on information.” 13 Plans call for cameras that detect the presence of pedestrians at night in order to save energy safely by automatically extinguishing street lighting on empty blocks. Passing automobiles with RFID-equipped license plates will be scanned, just the way conventioneers are at Convensia’s main gate, to create a real-time map of vehicle movements and, over time, the ability to predict future traffic patterns based on the trove of past measurements.14 A smart electricity grid will communicate with home appliances, perhaps anticipating the evening drawdown of juice as tens of thousands of programmable rice cookers count down to dinnertime.
50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson
23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional
They know, you know Ubiquitous surveillance is often assumed to mean CCTV cameras poking in peoples’ faces and this is indeed true, although in the future the cameras will include those attached to privately owned cell phones featuring face recognition technology. So if you’re lying on a beach somewhere in the future, someone you don’t know might point a phone at you, find out who you are, then work out where you’re from. If you’ve told others about your future plans via social networks, criminals might access this information then tell someone to visit your home and rob you. Looking forward So what might surveillance look like in the future? RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags might allow local councils and authorities to monitor domestic dustbin usage, alerting them when incorrect items are placed in recycling bins. As for CCTV cameras, there is very little evidence that they reduce crime. What they do instead is catch criminals in the act and reassure people looking for certainty and control in an age that is becoming more uncertain and complex.
Or offering tax credits or healthcare points to people who walk around a city rather than drive a car? Home economics And don’t think that the inside of your own home will be immune from such technology either. We’ve already seen digital dashboards that monitor energy use migrating from industrial buildings to private homes and there’s no reason to suspect that automation will stop there. So how about clothing that’s equipped with RFID tags (see page 5) so that your clothes can talk to your washing machine and work out the most efficient time to connect with the water pipes and power grids? Or how about a bathroom mirror (that’s also a TV) which uses facial recognition to identify individual family members and adjust the diary, to-do list or TV channels accordingly? Or what about bathroom scales that can talk to your fridge to stop you opening it if you’ve eaten too much pizza the night before.
the condensed idea Slums the size of cities timeline 2012 Parents hire private security guards to escort teenagers in London 2014 25 percent more helipads in São Paulo than New York due to no-go areas 2022 CEO of General Electric visits outskirts of Nairobi to learn about recycling 2026 Indian rubbish pricing and distribution system copied in USA 2030 Soldiers outnumber police on some city streets 2070 After the collapse of the mines, Western Australia becomes a prison colony 16 An internet of things According to Cisco Systems, there will be 50 billion “things” connected to the Internet by 2020. That’s seven for every man, woman and child on the planet. So what are some of these “things” and what are the consequences of an Internet that’s increasingly made up of physical objects embedded with sensors? In the future your socks will have an IP address and your sock drawer will know how many pairs you’ve got and what color they are. In other words, barcodes and RFID (see page 5) tags were only the first small steps toward a world where information is embedded within everyday objects, which are connected to networks so that they can communicate with each other and with the network as a whole. This will mean that the precise identity, location and status of everything—and possibly everyone—can be identified, and future actions or conditions can be predicted. “I used to tell jokes about Internet-enabled lightbulbs.
The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator
Embedded in each bracelet is a radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip. RFID chips don’t need batteries, and there’s only one way to use them: call-and-response. Provide a little wireless electromagnetic power, and the chip chirps out a unique identifying code. Correlate the code with, say, a Facebook account, and you’re in business. A single chip can cost as little as $.07, and they’ll cost far less in the years to come. Suddenly it’s possible for businesses to track each individual object they make across the globe. Affix a chip to an individual car part, and you can watch as the part travels to the car factory, gets assembled into a car, and makes its way to the show floor and then someone’s garage. No more inventory shrinkage, no more having to recall whole models of products because of the errors of one factory. Conversely, RFID provides a framework by which a home could automatically inventory every object inside it—and track which objects are in which rooms.
Brockton Cops Have an App for That,” Brockton Patriot Ledger, June 15, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.patriotledger.com/news/cops_and_courts/x1602636300/Catching-criminals-Cops-have-an-app-for-that. 195 “other images of you with ninety-five percent accuracy”: Jerome Taylor, “Google Chief: My Fears for Generation Facebook,” Independent, Aug. 18, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/google-chief-my-fears-for-generation-facebook-2055390.html . 197 “The future is already here”: William Gibson, interview on NPR’s Fresh Air, Aug. 31, 1993, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1107153. 197 your identity already tagged: “RFID Bracelet Brings Facebook to the Real World,” Aug. 20, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.psfk.com/2010/08/rfid-bracelet-brings-facebook-to-the-real-world.html. 198 “real world that can be indexed”: Reihan Salam, “Why Amazon Will Win the Internet,” Forbes, July 30, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.forbes.com/2010/07/30/amazon-kindle-economy-environment-opinions-columnists-reihan-salam.html. 198 “some have termed ‘smart dust’ ”: David Wright, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald, Yves Punie, and Elena Vildjiounaite, Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence (Berlin/Dordrecht: Springer Science, 2008): abstract. 199 four-year joint effort: Google/Harvard press release.
Conversely, RFID provides a framework by which a home could automatically inventory every object inside it—and track which objects are in which rooms. With a powerful enough signal, RFID could be a permanent solution to the lost-keys problem—and bring us face-to-face with what Forbes writer Reihan Salam calls “the powerful promise of a real world that can be indexed and organized as cleanly and coherently as Google has indexed and organized the Web.” This phenomenon is called ambient intelligence. It’s based on a simple observation: The items you own, where you put them, and what you do with them is, after all, a great signal about what kind of person you are and what kind of preferences you have. “In the near future,” writes a team of ambient intelligence experts led by David Wright, “every manufactured product—our clothes, money, appliances, the paint on our walls, the carpets on our floors, our cars, everything—will be embedded with intelligence, networks of tiny sensors and actuators, which some have termed ‘smart dust.’”
business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs
Hitachi uses such sensors to monitor their complex, expensive heavy construction vehicles, and UPS do the same with their fleet of vans and trucks so that they can be serviced to run efficiently and before they break down (Plumridge 2012; Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 2013). By attaching an RFID to products it becomes possible to track and trace the movement of individual units from factory or farm to consumer, reducing theft and wastage. Likewise, toll tags contain RFID chips that communicate with transponders at toll-booth barriers, leading to quicker throughput of vehicles and automatic payment, as well as measuring vehicle flow or parking space availability for traffic management. RFID chips attached to buses and trains communicate with transponders along their routes making it possible to track the location of vehicles in real-time. By distributing many sensors and linking up the data produced by them, a dense sensor network can be created, enabling the monitoring of different conditions across a system or place.
The increase in the resolution of data has been accompanied by the identification of people, products, transactions and territories becoming more indexical in nature (see Chapter 5). For example, most items for sale in a supermarket presently have a barcode. This barcode identifies the product, but not the individual item – all bottles of the same brand and range of shampoo share the same barcode – meaning that they cannot be individually discriminated. In contrast, a bottle of shampoo tagged with a RFID chip is uniquely identifiable because each chip has a unique ID code which can be read at a distance by a radio transponder. Consequently, each bottle can be tracked from the place of manufacture through the supply chain into a store and a customer’s basket, creating a detailed audit trail. In other words, it has become possible to minutely trace the circulation of individual things across time and space, including those who handle each thing along its path.
., e-mail and phone conversations). As well as being more indexical, identification codes have also become increasingly machinereadable (Dodge and Kitchin 2005). For example, a barcode contains an identification code that when scanned by a laser reader is linked to an information system where additional metadata are held that describe the object (e.g. product type/model, date and place of manufacture, price, etc.). RFID chips can be sensed at a distance by a transponder and identified. Vehicles can be recognised by automatic number plate recognition software, and new algorithmic techniques have been developed to recognise and identify faces and gait (how people walk). Elements of the world have thus become open to being automatically captured and identified, massively expanding the amount and resolution of data generated with regard to a system, enabling new forms of regulation and governance (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a) and systems to function in more automated ways (Kitchin and Dodge 2011).
Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques: Concepts and Techniques by Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei
bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation coefficient, cyber-physical system, database schema, discrete time, distributed generation, finite state, information retrieval, iterative process, knowledge worker, linked data, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Occam's razor, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, supply-chain management, text mining, thinkpad, web application
(d) If you want to drive from A to B starting at a particular time, discuss how a system may use the data in this warehouse to work out a fast route. 4.11 Radio-frequency identification is commonly used to trace object movement and perform inventory control. An RFID reader can successfully read an RFID tag from a limited distance at any scheduled time. Suppose a company wants to design a data warehouse to facilitate the analysis of objects with RFID tags in an online analytical processing manner. The company registers huge amounts of RFID data in the format of (RFID, at_location, time), and also has some information about the objects carrying the RFID tag, for example, (RFID, product_name, product_category, producer, date_produced, price). (a) Design a data warehouse to facilitate effective registration and online analytical processing of such data. (b) The RFID data may contain lots of redundant information. Discuss a method that maximally reduces redundancy during data registration in the RFID data warehouse. (c) The RFID data may contain lots of noise such as missing registration and misread IDs.
(c) The RFID data may contain lots of noise such as missing registration and misread IDs. Discuss a method that effectively cleans up the noisy data in the RFID data warehouse. (d) You may want to perform online analytical processing to determine how many TV sets were shipped from the LA seaport to BestBuy in Champaign, IL, by month, brand, and price_range. Outline how this could be done efficiently if you were to store such RFID data in the warehouse. (e) If a customer returns a jug of milk and complains that is has spoiled before its expiration date, discuss how you can investigate such a case in the warehouse to find out what the problem is, either in shipping or in storage. 4.12 In many applications, new data sets are incrementally added to the existing large data sets. Thus, an important consideration is whether a measure can be computed efficiently in an incremental manner.
Section 5.3.2 explains how ranking cubes can be computed to answer top-k queries, such as “find the top 5 cars,” according to some user-specified criteria. The basic data cube structure has been further extended for various sophisticated data types and new applications. Here we list some examples, such as spatial data cubes for the design and implementation of geospatial data warehouses, and multimedia data cubes for the multidimensional analysis of multimedia data (those containing images and videos). RFID data cubes handle the compression and multidimensional analysis of RFID (i.e., radio-frequency identification) data. Text cubes and topic cubes were developed for the application of vector-space models and generative language models, respectively, in the analysis of multidimensional text databases (which contain both structure attributes and narrative text attributes). 5.3.1. Sampling Cubes: OLAP-Based Mining on Sampling Data When collecting data, we often collect only a subset of the data we would ideally like to gather.
3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, John Gruber, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand
But instead of a baseball game, we used New York Times news articles as our muse. A mainstream version of this technology doesn’t exist yet, so we had to do a little tinkering and hacking. To start, we took a cell phone, placed an RFID chip inside, and then attached an RFID reader to our computers. An RFID (radio-frequency identification) chip is a tiny electronic chip that can store little pieces of information that can be transferred wirelessly to a RFID reader device that interprets the identity of a chip. Many businesses, mine included, give cards with RFID chips to employees so they can enter their office buildings without using a key. RFID chips are also in some credit cards so that you can wave your card in front of an ATM machine instead of swiping it through a scanner. Using these chips and our mobile phones, Michael and I were able to let a computer know we were there just by placing our phones on the desk.
Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski
And additional capabilities may be here soon, including: Direction: from a digital compass Gyroscope: 360 degrees of motion Audio: input from a microphone; output to speaker Video and image: capture and input from a camera Dual cameras: front and back Device connections: through Bluetooth Proximity: device closeness to physical objects Ambient light: light/dark environment awareness NFC: Near Field Communications through RFID readers Starting with mobile puts these capabilities in your hands now so you can rethink how people can interact with your website and the world around them. As mobile web browsers continue to gain access to capabilities currently reserved only for native mobile applications, these opportunities will only increase. Starting mobile first At this point we’ve talked about reasons for designing and developing web experiences for mobile first.
On the other side of the spectrum, Google Goggles uses the video camera on a mobile device to identify products, wines, works of art, and landmarks; to scan in business cards; or to translate foreign languages (fig 6.19). Imagine all the typing you’d have to do in a form to accomplish what Google Goggles does when you simply point your camera at something. Fig 6.19: Google Goggles allows you to use the video camera on a mobile device for input. And near field communications (NFC) can take this even further. Mobile devices that can communicate with radio frequency ID tags (RFID) just need to be near something that broadcasts its identity using one of these tiny “digital barcodes” in order to interact with it. Want to learn more about a product? Just get close enough for it to catch a signal and your mobile can bring up all the information you need. How’s that for going beyond input fields and forms? Once again though, I need to ground us in the current realities of the web.
For the Win by Cory Doctorow
barriers to entry, Burning Man, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave
The geeks dismissed them as not understanding the technology. Supposedly, an RFID can only be read from a couple inches away—if someone wanted to find out what RFIDs you had on your person, they’d have to wand you, and you’d know about it.” “Yeah, that was bull,” Perry said. “I mean, sure you can’t read an RFID unless it’s been excited with electromagnetic radiation, and sure you can’t do that from a hundred yards without frying everything between you and the target. But if you had a subway turnstile with an exciter built into it, you could snipe all the tag numbers from a distant roof with a directional antenna. If those things had caught on, there’d be exciters everywhere and you’d be able to track anyone you wanted—Christ, they even put RFIDs in the hundred-dollar bill for a while! Pickpockets could have figured out whose purse was worth snatching from half a mile a way!”
“Lester finally found a socially beneficial use for RFIDs. We’re going to get rich!” “I don’t think I understand,” she said. “Come on,” he said. “Let’s get to the junkyard. Lester explains this really well.” He did, too, losing all of the shyness she remembered, his eyes glowing, his sausage-thick fingers dancing. “Have you ever alphabetized your hard drive? I mean, have you ever spent any time concerning yourself with where on your hard drive your files are stored, which sectors contain which files? Computers abstract away the tedious, physical properties of files and leave us with handles that we use to persistently refer to them, regardless of which part of the hard drive currently holds those particular bits. So I thought, with RFIDs, you could do this with the real world, just tag everything and have your furniture keep track of where it is.
“Which brings me to my idea: why not tag everything in a group household, and use the tags to figure out who left the dishes in the sink, who took the hammer out and didn’t put it back, who put the empty milk-carton back in the fridge, and who’s got the TV remote? It won’t solve resource contention, but it will limit the social factors that contribute to it.” He looked around at them. “We can make it fun, you know, make cool RFID sticker designs, mod the little gnome dolls to act as terminals for getting reports.” Suzanne found herself nodding along. She could use this kind of thing, even though she lived alone, just to help her find out where she left her glasses and the TV remote. Perry shook his head, though. “When I was a kid, I had a really bad relationship with my mom. She was really smart, but she didn’t have a lot of time to reason things out with me, so often as not she’d get out of arguing with me by just changing her story.
The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey by Emmanuel Goldstein
affirmative action, Apple II, call centre, don't be evil, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, information retrieval, late fees, license plate recognition, optical character recognition, packet switching, pirate software, place-making, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RFID, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, Y2K
Again, I take absolutely no responsibility for extra cellular charges you may incur or for any trouble you may get into with your cellular provider if and when you try all of this. That said, have fun and I hope you learned something! RFID: Radio Freak-Me-Out Identification (Spring, 2007) By Kn1ghtl0rd RFID has become something of a hot topic in the hacking world. There have been multiple presentations on security and privacy of RFID and also the technology behind it. This article is designed to be a what-if type scenario on what RFID is potentially capable of and where the technology is heading. RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification, which obviously means identifying objects using radio frequency. Current implementations include asset management, inventory control, inventory tracking, access control, and entity identification.
Since our country is basically run by huge retail outlets it is not too far of a stretch to see product marketing analysis based on human purchase activity that is all based on RFID technology. Picture walking into Wal-Mart and having the racks scan your RFID tags and create some kind of notice to you to point on items that you prefer based on past purchase history. You regularly buy black cotton t-shirts in size large so the rack will recognize this data and highlight the rack with the black cotton t-shirts with little lights attached to all the hangers that flash as you approach. The same can be said about shoes. You wear a size 13 so it shows you only the size 13 shoes in stock. Now take it one step further and say you purchase one of those pairs of shoes. The shoes themselves have an RFID tag imbedded in them so now not only can we see where you are going based on the implanted RFID tag, but we can also see that you bought your shoes from Wal-Mart and produce Wal-Mart advertising on interactive billboards as you pass by. 94192c18.qxd 6/4/08 3:52 AM Page 751 Toys of the 21st Century When you walk into a coffee shop they will already start making your favorite coffee because they got that information from your tag.
The first three are usually implemented in a business environment to track inventory from one location to another or to monitor asset activity to isolate theft situations and problem areas. These implementations of RFID are very efficient and perform a valuable task for a business. The fourth example is not so good. RFID is being changed into a new type of ID for people and animals to be used instead of a hard-copy form of identification. This may seem convenient for people and they don’t see why this is bad. There are 749 94192c18.qxd 6/4/08 3:52 AM Page 750 750 Chapter 18 many possibilities for this technology to turn our world upside down and allow for Big Brother to truly manifest itself. Currently a human being can receive an implanted RFID chip that stores an identification number that associates them with information in a database. This can be anything from personal data such as name, address, and birth date to medical history, financial information, family information, etc.
Brian Krebs, dumpster diving, fault tolerance, Firefox, Menlo Park, offshore financial centre, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular electronics, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, zero day
As they logged in, Barrett captured their user names and passwords before connecting the employees to the old company portal. Those credentials gave Barrett access to the entire network, right down to the desktop of the chief executive. But Barrett wasn’t through. The company was an early adopter of RFID (radio-frequency identification) badges for employees. The badges included photos and coded authentication that the staff swiped through automated card readers at office entrances. Barrett bought an RFID reader and went to a TGI Friday’s favored as an after-work hangout, where he surreptitiously swiped employees’ badges. Then he bought blank RFID cards, used a picture of himself, and made his own corporate ID. After Barrett’s full report to the customer, one of the target company’s senior technology executives was so impressed that he visited Barrett at his parents’ house, just to see what environment could have produced him.
Blue Security, Inc. and denial-of-service attacks and e-Gold and in Florida founding of Green, Brian and Lyon, Barrett and non-gambling clients of online gambling, federal crackdown on and Proliflik and Rennick, Darren and Richardson, Mickey and Russian mob and Sacco, Ron and sale of SCO Group and UltraDNS Corp. and Proliflik “Proof of concept,” Protx Ltd. Proud, Mat PureGig Putin, Vladimir Pyramid schemes QuickTime Qwest Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Ramzinskiy, Pavel RapidSatellite.com RBN. See Russian Business Network Real Host Red Hacker Alliance Red Hunter Registry of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO) Rennick, Darren FBI and online gambling, federal crackdown on and Prolexic and Reshef, Eran RFID. See Radio-frequency identification Richardson, Mickey background of BetCRIS and online gambling, federal crackdown on and Prolexic and Robbins, Andy Robots (bots) Rock Phish Rodery, Terry Rohozinski, Rafal ROKSO. See Registry of Known Spam Operations Romania Romanov, Mikhail Valentinovich Rose, Kevin Rose, Nelson Ross, Andrew Royal Bank of Scotland Runet Russia corruption in cyber-mafia in denial-of service attacks and international cooperation and mafia in RBN Russian Business Network (RBN) Russian Ministry of the Interior (MVD) Ruthie Ruthless.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, debt deflation, deskilling, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce
See personal consumption expenditure (PCE) Peltzman, Sam, 267 Peltzman effect, 267 Penn State, MOOCs and, 136 pensions, 222, 224 people analytics, 93 Perelman, Les, 130–131 per-employee valuations, technology sector and, 175 permanent income hypothesis, 210–211 personal consumption expenditure (PCE), 202n personal robots, 7 pharmacists, 172–173n pharmacy robotics, 153–155 Philippines, income inequality in, 46 Pierson, Paul, 57 Piketty, Thomas, 275 Pinker, Steven, 237 “Piquant” system, 99–100 plagiarism, MOOCs and, 136–137 Player Piano (Vonnegut), 32 PlayStation, 4 plutocracy, 219 plutonomy, 198 polarization, job-market, 50–51 politics advancing technology and, 57–58 financial elite’s influence over, 47–48, 59–60 guaranteed income concept and, 260–261, 278–279 post-scarcity economy, 247 Poterba, James, 222 poverty trap, 262 Prey (Crichton), 244 prices deflation and, 216–217 drug, 170–171 effect of automation on, 215–216 PrimeSense, 4 Princeton University, MOOCs and, 133 Principles of Economics (Frank & Bernanke), 37 Principles of Economics (Taylor & Weerapana), 37 productivity, 206–207 defined, 35n information technology and, 52 recessions and, 207–208 technological progress and, 33 wages and, xi, 33, 35–38, 38n product lifecycles, robots and, 11 professionals, erosion of employment for, xvi–xvi “Professionals Against Machine Scoring of Student Essays in High Stakes Assessment” (petition), 129, 130 progress, lack of broad-based, 64–65 proton beam facilities, 164 public universities, MOOCs and, 142 purchasing power distribution of, 197, 198 guaranteed income and, 265–266 jobs and, xvii “Quill” software, 84–86 Rabkin, Eric, 137 Race Against the Machine (Brynjolfsson & McAfee), 60 Radical Abundance (Drexler), 243, 246 radio-frequency identification (RFID), 154, 157 radiologists, artificial intelligence and, xv, 152 Rand, Ayn, 264 recessions investment and, 227 months for employment to recover, 45 productivity and, 207–208 stagnant income, rising costs, and, 217–218 See also Great Recession recursive improvement, Artificial General Intelligence and, 231–232 Redbox movie rental kiosks, 18–19 regulatory capture, 170 religious overtones of Singularity, 235 “Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution” (King), 29–30 rent seeking, financialization and, 55–56 Republicans, income distribution preferred by, 47n reshoring, 8–12 resource depletion, technology and, xvii, 282–283 restocking, automated, 18–19 retail sector, 16–20, 87, 88. See also online retailing Rethink Robotics, 5, 7, 10 retirement income, 222 Reuther, Walter, 193 reverse engineering the brain, 237 RFID. See radio-frequency identification (RFID) Riegel v. Medtronic, Inc., 150n risk, Peltzman effect and, 267–268 RoboBusiness conference/tradeshow, 7 Robot & Frank (film), 155 robotics, 6–8 cloud, 20–23 See also automation; robots robotic walkers, 157 robots in agriculture, 23–26 box-moving, 1–2, 5–6 consumer, 197n educational, 7 elder-care, 155–158 hospital and pharmacy, 153–155 industrial, 1–5, 10–11 personal, 7 telepresence, 119–120, 157 Rolling Stone (magazine), 56 Romney, Mitt, 272 Roosevelt, Franklin, 279 Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 160, 163 Rosenwald, Michael, 107 ROS (Robot Operating System), 6, 7 Russell, Stuart, 229 Rutter, Brad, 101 Sachs, Jeffrey, 60 Saez, Emmanuel, 46 safety, autonomous cars and, 184–185, 187 Salesforce.com, 134 Samsung Electronics, 70n Samuelson, Paul, x Sand, Benjamin M., 127 San Jose State University, 134 Sankai, Yoshiyuki, 156–157 Santelli, Rick, 170 savings, China’s high rate of, 224–225 SBTC.
., at an annual cost of about $350,000. According to one hospital administrator, paying people to do the same work would have cost over a million dollars per year.15 In early 2013, General Electric announced plans to develop a mobile robot capable of locating, cleaning, sterilizing, and delivering the thousands of surgical tools used in operating rooms. The tools would be tagged with radio-frequency identification (RFID) locator chips, making it easy for the machine to find them.16 Beyond the specific areas of pharmacy and hospital logistics and delivery, autonomous robots have so far made relatively few inroads. Surgical robots are in widespread use, but they are designed to extend the capabilities of surgeons, and robotic surgery actually costs more than traditional methods. There is some preliminary work being done on building more ambitious surgical robots; for example, the I-Sur project is an EU-backed consortium of European researchers who are attempting to automate basic procedures like puncturing, cutting, and suturing.17 Still, for the foreseeable future, it seems inconceivable that any patient would be allowed to undergo an invasive procedure without a doctor being present and ready to intervene, so even if such technology materializes, any cost savings would likely be marginal at best.
The suits lease for just under $2,000 per year and are already in use at over three hundred Japanese hospitals and nursing homes.21 Other near-term developments will probably include robotic walkers to assist in mobility and inexpensive robots capable of bringing medicine, providing a glass of water, or retrieving commonly misplaced items like eyeglasses. (This would likely be done by attaching RFID tags to the items.) Robots that can help track and monitor people with dementia are also appearing. Telepresence robots that allow doctors or caretakers to interact with patients remotely are already in use in some hospitals and care facilities. Devices of this type are relatively easy to develop because they skirt around the challenge of dexterity. The near-term nursing-care robotics story is primarily going to be about machines that assist, monitor, or enable communication.
The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff
Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve
For the moment, Goodfriend’s idea is not quite feasible, or at least economically viable, but the time for it might not be far off. Indeed, periodic bouts of consternation have roiled the underground economy on rumors that the government is putting active transmitting radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips into currency, to be able to detect large bags of cash in airports and elsewhere. One can find videos online that show how to put currency in a microwave to fry any embedded chips. The implication is that if an RFID chip is embedded, the microwave might burn a hole in the note, but that is better than getting caught with a big bag of illicit cash. In fact, as of yet there are no embedded chips in US currency, though paper-thin chips are being developed that might make it possible someday, if the government chose to do so.15 Embedded chips (or magnetic strips) may prove unnecessary in any event, given the development of increasingly low-cost cash processors that can scan serial numbers at extremely high speeds.
For a more detailed discussion, see Ilgmann and Menner (2011). 11. Keynes (1936, ch. 23, sec. IV, pp. 357–58). 12. See Fisher (1933), Champ (2008), and Gatch (2009). 13. See Svensson and Westermark (2015). 14. See Goodfriend (2000). Buiter (2003) and Buiter and Panigirtzoglou (2003) were also early advocates of the Gesell solution. 15. “New $100 Bill and RFID Microwave Test,” available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kn5aqb-mN3Q. See also “Are You Ready for RFID Chips Built into Your Money and Documents,” Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, May 7, 2013. 16. If a retail store has a camera monitoring its cash registers and time stamps bills with serial numbers attached, authorities could potentially connect bills and people. 17. Eisler (1933), Davies (2004), Buiter (2005, 2009), and Agarwal and Kimball (2015). 18.
See also seigniorage profits from monopoly on paper currency, 217 proxy notes, 22 public health risks, 78–79 Putin, Vladimir (president, Russia), 72 quantitative easing, 123–24, 132–33; empirics of, 136, 140–42; explained, 137–40; financial crisis of 2008, in response to, 135–36; inflation, lack of impact on, 136–37; in a liquidity trap, 246n26; as a policy instrument, limits of, 144–45; risks associated with, 178; zero bound sand trap, escaping from, 142–44 “Quantitative Easing Explained” (Malekan), 140 quantity theory of money, 26 radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips, 166 RAND Corporation, 49, 69 real-time clearing, 67, 92, 94–95, 102–3, 115 Reifschneider, David L., 133, 244n11, 245n17 Reinhart, Carmen M., 122, 177, 243n3, 245n18, 255n10 Reinhart, Vincent, 243n3 reverse money laundering, 4, 80 Rey, Hélène, 207 Ricardian equivalence, 246n25 Robinson, James, 70 Rockoff, Hugh, 192 Rognlie, Matthew, 250n2 Rogoff, Kenneth S., 233n10, 243nn3–4, 245n14, 245n18, 252n2, 255nn9–10, 255n15 Rolnick, Arthur J., 234n13 Rösl, Gerhard, 236n23 Rubin, Robert, 2 Russell, David O., 71 (director, American Hustle) Russia, 44, 83–84, 191, 203 Sands, Peter, 253n5 Sargent, Thomas J., 19 Sbordone, Argia M., 248n5 Schneider, Friedrich, 62, 239n12, 239n16 Schwartz, Anna, 188 Secret Service: foreign holdings of currency, estimate of, 44–45; founding of to fight counterfeiting, 77 security concerns, 111–14 seigniorage, 80–81; cost of substituting interest-bearing debt for paper currency, 86–90; measures of, 81–85; political economy importance of, central bank independence and, 90–91, 106; revenue as a percentage of GDP, 2006–2015, 84; shrinkage of revenues if currency were phased out, 85–86, 202–4 Seitz, Franz, 45, 236n23 Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA), 200 sexual exploitation in the United States, 74 shadow policy interest rate, 244n5 Shi, Joanna Y.
Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport
Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining
Chapter_02.indd 51 03/12/13 11:42 AM 52 big data @ work Supply Chain Supply chain processes are among the most likely to be transformed by big data. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices—long discussed as a means of monitoring supply chain movements—are now actually becoming available at a reasonable cost. GPS tracking on trucks and trains means that arrival times for shipments can be more precisely predicted. Transportation companies, including UPS, FedEx, and Schneider National, have already installed tracking devices and are increasingly using them to monitor and optimize their networks. In chapter 8, I describe how UPS, for example, has recently used data from its package cars (brown trucks) to redesign its driving route structure for only the third time in over one hundred years. Other types of sensors are likely to lead to a flood of additional data and opportunities to analyze it. RFID and telematics sensors primarily track location, but so-called ILC (identification, location, condition) sensors can monitor the condition of goods in the supply chain as well, on such variables as light, temperature, tilt angle, g-forces, and whether a package has been opened.
Delivering the New But even executives advocating large-scale change have their eye on the shiny, new capabilities promised by big data analytics. One of most aspects of big data is the way it has captured the attention of senior managers like no other technology trend before it. Suddenly, C-level executives are funding headcount for big data projects and using the phrase “data as an asset” in board meetings. New applications for big data are often industry-specific. Think telematics data for auto insurers, vital signs in health care, or RFID tags in manufacturing. All of this data is difficult to capture and ingest, let alone use in a meaningful way. A recent survey found that the highest percentage of respondents—41 percent—reported not having a strategy for big data. The next-largest group reported “Operations/Processing” as being the area of focus for big data projects.5 Clearly, most companies still haven’t transcended their initial projects to articulate the full business potential of big data.
See also Windows Azure military, big data use in, 19 Mint website, 142 MIT, 102, 142, 202, 206 modeling, 41, 62, 63–64, 69, 86, 94, 96, 98, 109–110, 113, 115, 118, 124, 129f, 131f, 146, 184, 195, 197, 199–200, 202 motivation of data scientists, 106 Mu Sigma, 104 MyZeo, 12 Naidoo, Allen, 121–122 Narrative Sciences, 126 National Security Agency, 19 natural language processing (NLP), 45, 67, 96, 114t, 181, 184 Netflix, 16, 42, 48–49, 66 Netflix Prize, 16, 22, 66 Neustar, 47, 78–79 Neustar Labs, University of Illinois, 79 Index.indd 224 new product development big data opportunities in, 23–26 big data strategy in, 65–66 data scientists and, 16, 18, 20, 24, 61–62, 65, 66, 71, 79–80, 106, 161 NewVantage Partners, 7, 177 New York Times, 94 New York University, 102 Nike, 12 Nike+ shoe, 12 North Carolina State University, 102 Northwestern University, 102 Norvig, Peter, 23 NoSQL, 98, 181 Novartis, 54, 66 Obama 2012 presidential campaign, 143, 202 objective in big data strategy cost reduction and, 60–63 developing, 60 internal business decision support and, 67–70 large companies and, 178–180 new product development and, 65–66 time reduction and, 63–65 online analytical processing, 10, 10t online firms action plan for managers and, 173 big data usage in, 153–154 lessons for what not to do from, 167–172 lessons learned from, 154–167 open-source computing, 76, 114t, 115, 118, 120–121, 123, 124, 142, 148, 160–161, 163–164, 208 Opera Solutions, 101 Operating Analytics, 170 Optimizely, 165 Optum, 155–156, 181 Oracle, 14, 117 Orange (mobile telecom firm), 168 organizational structure big data technology and, 15 culture for big data in, 147–149 data scientists and, 16, 61, 82, 140, 141, 142, 152, 153, 158, 173, 180, 187, 202, 207, 209 embedding big data culture in, 149–151 enterprise focus in, 138–139 new senior management roles in, 141–143, 202 orientation toward big data in, 18–22, 26 03/12/13 2:04 PM Index 225 ORION project (UPS), 178 overachievers, 42, 42t, 46 Palo Alto Networks, 104 Parks, Roger, 11 Patil, DJ, 92–93 PayPal, 140 Pegasystems, 150, 168, 169 Pentland, Alex (Sandy), 53 People You May Know (PYMK) feature of LinkedIn, 23–24, 140–141, 148, 158 PepsiCo, 46 personal analytics, 12–13, 45 personal monitoring devices, 12–13, 45 pets, data from, 13, 37–38 pharmaceutical industry, 43, 46, 54, 66, 126, 162 Phoenix Suns, 196 phone data, 13, 47, 51, 53, 78, 86, 122, 127, 196 physicians’ notes, 45, 72, 126, 162 Pig scripting language, 89, 114, 114t, 116, 123, 148, 157, 160, 163, 184 Pinterest, 11 Pivotal Chorus, 160 platform infrastructure, in big data stack, 119t, 120–121 PNC Bank, 108–109 point-of-sale systems, 44, 46 Portillo, Dan, 104 Porway, Jake, 89–90 privacy issues, 27, 42, 168 Procter & Gamble (P&G), 42, 46, 54, 182, 200 product development. See new product development production process. See data production process PROS, Inc., 70 Python scripting language, 89, 98, 102, 114t, 116, 123, 160, 184 quantitative analyst traits of data scientists, 88, 93–97 Quickbooks, 142 Quid, 54, 105, 157 R (statistical software), 118, 163–164, 183 radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices, 52, 193 Index.indd 225 Rajaram, Anand, 22 Ratzesberger, Oliver, 192 readiness for big data assessment, 205–209 Recorded Future (RF), 21, 54, 68–69, 157, 163, 168, 169–170 Redman, Tom, 71 regulatory environment, 27, 41, 43, 72, 167 relationship skills, 88, 92–93 remote monitoring, 45 responsibility locus, in big data projects, 76–77, 77t retail big data in, 5, 197 future scenario of big data’s impact on, 37–39 multichannel customer relationships in, 51, 67, 177, 186 online businesses for, 182, 183 point-of-sale data in, 46 repricing in, 63 Sears Holdings example of, 192 RetailNext, 46 retention of data scientists, 104–106, 112, 161 return on investment (ROI), 140, 183, 188–189, 190f Riley, Tim, 120, 137–138 risk management, 54–55, 68 sales, 18, 24, 46, 51, 54, 129, 158–159, 192 sandbox, in data discovery, 20, 201 San Diego Gas & Electric, 168 SAP, 13–14, 117 SAS, 63, 98, 109, 113, 118, 163, 176, 183 Schneider National, 52, 177, 182, 198, 199, 202–203 Schwartz, Carey, 10 scientist traits of data scientists, 88, 91–92 scripting languages, 114t, 116 courses in, 102 data scientists’ experience with, 89, 184 open-source, 123 See also Hive scripting language; Pig scripting language; Python scripting language Sears Holdings, 143, 191, 192 self-driving cars, 35, 41, 42, 65, 83, 148 self-monitoring devices, 12–13, 45 03/12/13 2:04 PM 226 Index sensor data, 8t, 11–12, 13, 19, 46, 47, 52, 53, 74, 78, 121, 122, 151, 157, 159, 177, 178, 185, 198, 199 sentiment analysis, 17, 27, 107, 118, 123 Shelley, Phil, 192 Siemens, 83 Signals Intelligence Group, 54 skills of analysts, 145–146 GE experience with multiple, 100–101 for managers, 106–110 small data, 9, 14, 26, 27, 29, 67, 68, 93, 121, 124, 126, 126f, 139–140, 150, 180 smart BPM (business process management), 150 smartphones, 13, 51, 86, 127 Snowden, Edward, 19 social media data, 11, 17, 21, 23, 50, 54, 87, 107, 121, 122–123, 126, 127f, 131f software analytics using, 51, 63, 75, 91, 108, 110–111, 114, 114t, 115, 117, 157, 169–170, 180, 183, 194t, 199, 207 automating transactions using, 13 investment in, 129, 148 monitoring using, 13–14, 25, 73, 108–109 open-source, 76, 114t, 115, 118, 120–121, 123, 124, 142, 148, 160–161, 163–164, 208 See also specific applications software vendors, 13–14, 50, 63, 69–70, 108, 155, 166, 172 speed of adoption of big data, 79–84 of decision making, 109–110 of technologies and methods in large companies, 199 sports, 12, 56 Spotfire, 169.
Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger
en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush
Quantitatively, search sites would lose some of the search query information they use to fine-tune the ranking of search results, but the quality would likely improve as less relevant past queries are omitted. Potential application for expiration dates may even go beyond the confines of personal computers or online services, and include emergent technologies. For example, recently the European Union discussed the implications of RFID (radio-frequency identification) chips and similar networked sensing devices that add information to our digital memories. The Council of the European Union concluded to promote “the possibility of deactivating RFID chips or any other way which provides empowerment and user control.”16 Instead of the relatively stark “silencing of the chips” that the Council suggests, perhaps mandated expiration dates might offer a somewhat finer-grained approach. As these cases highlight, introducing an expiration date for information does not require individual users to learn complex new user interfaces.
Berkeley Technology Law Journal 18 (2003): 575–617. Cole, Simon A. Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2002. comScore Media Advisory. “Baidu Ranked Third Largest Worldwide Search Property by comScore in December 2007.” News release. Jan. 24, 2008. http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=2018. Curry, Michael R. “Location and Identity: A Brief History,” in RFID: Applications, Security, and Privacy, S. L. Garfinkel and B. Rosenberg, eds. 149–62. Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. 2005. ———. “Toward a Geography of a World without Maps: Lessons from Ptolemy and Postal Codes.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95 (2005): 680–91. Deering, Michael F. The Limits of Human Vision. http://www.swift.ac.uk/vision.pdf. Dellarocas, Chrysanthos. “Analyzing the Economic Efficiency of eBay-like Online Reputation Reporting Mechanisms,” MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4181–01, Oct. 2001. http://ssrn.com/abstract=289968 or DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.289968.
.), 136 property, 150 Proust, Marcel, 117 Ptolemy, 33 public sphere, 41 purpose limitation principle, 136, 138, 159 Quagliano, Enrique, 195 radio, 44 rating system, 93 reading, 36, 37, 40, 41–42 recall, 22 “Reciprocal Transparency,” 105–8 Reformation, 38–39, 98 religion, 29–30, 37–39, 42 remembering benefits of digital, 93–95 constructive endeavor of human, 27–28, 106–7, 118 cost of, 26 curse of, 13 default of, 68 human, 27–28, 106–7, 114–17 role of, 16–23 shift to, 14 reputation, 106, 142 retrieval, 72–79 decontextualization of digital, 78 digital, 75–79 RFID (radio-frequency identification), 180–81 Ripoli Press, 37–38, 39 Rotenberg, Marc, 150 sample, 54, 56–57 Samuelson, Pamela, 142, 150 Schacter, Daniel, 20–21, 106, 155–56 Schmidt, Eric, 109 Schwartz, Paul, 143, 150 scribes, 36–37 script, 31–42 interpretation of, 34 search engine, 1, 4, 6, 123–25 search query, 6, 76, 175–78 self-censorship, 110–12 server farms, 70 Short Messaging (SMS), 126–27 Snyder, Stacy, 1–2, 4, 5, 102, 109–10, 197 Solove, Daniel, 8, 142 sousveillance, 165 Soviet Union, 103 Spock.com, 104 standardization, 58–60 Starbuck, William, 118 Starr, Paul, 41 storage.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, performance metric, platform as a service, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, web application
Banco Santander uses a very cool media wall in its corporate headquarters (along with robot assistants), and Umpqua Bank, Citi and others are also deploying media walls too. In addition to media walls, however, we’re seeing other technologies come into play that assist in the ability to engage customers more seamlessly. YES Bank in India and HSBC Premier in Hong Kong both trialled the use of RFID technology to recognise a customer as they walked into their branch space, accelerating their slot in the “queue” system. RBS allows customers to book a spot in the queue via their smartphone banking app. Incorporating RFID recognition or geolocation mobile triggers into the store experience allows the customer to be recognised, and the store environment to start to be personalised to the needs, behaviours and product footprint of the customer. If he or she is a particularly valuable customer, triggering a rapid personal response from a real human is also critical for service perception.
But they may not have to lose the branding opportunities and client connections that their current ATM network provides. It won’t be long before self-service machines, digital signage and media walls combine into one platform. For the Beijing Olympics, Coca-Cola deployed an interactive touch-screen vending machine from Samsung that they called uVend. And future ATMs might work in a rather similar way. RFID or facial recognition built into the ATM will recognise us and display our bank’s brand as we approach. If not, it cycles through the available brands or paid-for-advertising from the banks that use the network. When we insert our cards or tap our contactless phones to sign in, the ATM becomes a HSBC, Barclays or BofA ATM in schema, branding and interface—the branding proudly displayed, and the touch-screen interface modelled to our bank and/or our most frequent ATM activities.
With augmented-reality smart displays, which will eventually look much like a normal pair of glasses, informative graphics will appear in your field of view, and audio cues will provide information or feedback on whatever you see. Applications of smart glasses could be anything from an equivalent of our current laptop display while we are on the move, to simply a Bluetooth plug in our app phone showing us in real time a virtual HUD (head-up display) with key information from our device (Caller Id, local weather, e-alerts or appointments, etc.). Incorporating image and facial recognition software, along with RFID technology, smart glasses could remind us of the name and details of a key business contact, an old school friend who passes us by while we’re chilling out at the mall or the current price on Amazon of that book we’re looking at through a retailer’s window. The possibilities are far-reaching, and just a little freaky. Figure 10.2: Where’s my nearest NY subway station? (Credit: Apple) Figure 10.3: Augmented reality aims to contextualise data in new ways (Credit: Google) In any case, within just five years, we could have access to such devices married to our app phones, watching a movie or receiving a video phone call.
Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel
Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar
Casinos now have their own global network where they share photos of anyone caught—or suspected of—cheating. More than that, they use contextual technology. Every card and every chip is embedded with a tiny RFID-like chip. Every gaming table has a sensor underneath it to detect flimflams such as a player pulling an extra ace out of his sleeve. That isn’t wearable technology, but the sensors casinos use come from former Swiss watchmaking company NagraID, which has reinvented itself by designing highly secure miniature technology. NagraID chips make credit cards and loyalty cards smart enough to know their owners and their location. That same technology in the form of an RFID (radio-frequency identification) chip is embedded on contextual passes worn by skiers at Aspen Snowmass, the world’s most popular ski resort, and in the Disney’s MagicBands, making transactions for hotels and meals automatic.
Service and convenience are likely to be amplified by a few other technologies we’ve already discussed. Combine NagraID with a VinTank geo-fence and you’ll get a new level of personalized, location-specific services or sales, where payments can be automatically authenticated and processed. VinTank also extracts data from a customer’s previous recommendations, so the restaurant, amusement park or hotel can customize its service and offers to each customer’s preferences. That little RFID chip and a few tiny sensors on a card will generate a very large improvement in personalized service, and with it enhanced customer loyalty. Now, toss in one more piece of technology. Put on a digital eyewear device such as Glass or Oakley Airwave, and you’ll have a contextual, wearable system that knows your location, your current activity, your preferences as well as what you are looking at in real time.
Halting State by Charles Stross
augmented reality, call centre, forensic accounting, game design, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, indoor plumbing, invention of the steam engine, Necker cube, Potemkin village, RFID, Schrödinger's Cat, Vernor Vinge, zero day
If you could afford to move east you would, but the bits you can afford are all doomed: You’ve seen the flood maps for the Thames Gateway suburbs and know which insurance firms are whistling past the graveyard… Because you’re dead good at your job. Now if only you had a life, too, eh? The office opens its doors and swallows you off the street. Once upon a time it started life as an unassuming Georgian town house; but today, the garden is overgrown with Foster Associates geodesics, the roof is covered in solar tiles, and the door scanned your RFIDs and worked out who you were while you were still halfway up the street. The HQ of Dietrich-Brunner Associates is probably worth more than some Third World countries. You hole up in the ladies’ for a minute to freshen up, then it’s up the lift to the third floor, where the junior associates swelter under the low eaves. After you drop your briefcase you head straight for the coffee station. It’s turning half nine, and there’s a queue of thirsty associates, ordered by pecking order, waiting for Jessica or Esmé or whoever it is from Admin to quit fiddling with the cartridge and get out the way.
There are no contents; the brown stain on the side is a povidone iodine hospital scrub. Meanwhile, over here we have a patch on the work-top where you’ll see there’s a faint outline—matches a microwave oven. Why the hell anyone would leave the electronics in the living room but take the microwave oven is, well, your guess is as good as mine. But that’s what they did: They scrubbed the fridge out and lifted the microwave. Maybe they’d been using it for toasting RFID tags or something. But the whole thing’s been thoroughly sanitized.” “Sanitized?” Verity explodes. “Are you telling us you can’t get anything?” “Yes, I am—at least, so far.” Tweed nods like a dashboard ornament. He starts counting off fingers. “There are no human traces in the place that haven’t been thoroughly cleaned or scrambled. When the LCN results came back, it was a smeared mess—we got a DNA sample alright, one from about three hundred people in parallel.”
And it’s attached to a credit card number, although you’ve only got the last four digits. Gentlemen, start your search engines. Elaine is wandering along behind you with the slightly stunned expression of a Mormon missionary at a Pagan Federation summer camp—it obviously looks like a target-rich environment—but the set of co-ordinates attached to Wu Chen’s badge (which, like all the attendee badges at this shindig is bugged with seven flavours of RFID—you checked your privacy at the door when you filled out that marketing questionnaire, unless you remembered to pack a tinfoil wallet) is moving slowly through the huge auditorium at the back of the building. You lock Wu Chen into the map widget hovering over to the left, then simultaneously log all your Zone IDs on simultaneously, collapsing their various shards into a single mish-mash view. Why stick with a single reality when you can walk through a multiverse?
Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar
In the end, of course, the choice of a sponsorship/management model comes down to the purposes for which the platform is being developed and the goals of those designing it. The wireless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used to create smart tags that can be attached by the millions to products for inventory control. In effect, the RFID system is an inventory management platform that retailers can access to interact with the goods they distribute. The RFID platform was sponsored by a huge consortium of retailers, and the tags themselves are now manufactured by many companies which compete on the basis of price as well as design. The shared model of sponsorship and management means that the RFID technology itself doesn’t generate enormous profits for anyone—the tags sell for just a few cents apiece. But this suits the sponsors perfectly, since their goal all along was to make the technology as simple, accessible, and affordable as possible.
Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Turing machine
In the (fast-approaching) future, more and more objects will be ITentities able to learn, advise, and communicate with each other. A good example (but it is only an example) is provided by Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags, which can store and remotely retrieve data from an object and give it a unique identity, like a barcode. Tags can measure 0.4 millimetres square and are thinner than paper. Incorporate this tiny microchip in everything, including humans and animals, and you have created ITentities. This is not science fiction. According to a report by market research company InStat, the worldwide production of RFID will have increased more than 25-fold between 2005 and 2010 and reached 33 billion. Imagine networking these 33 billion ITentities together with all the hundreds of millions of PCs, DVDs, iPods, and other ICT devices available and you see that the infosphere is no longer `there' but `here' and it is here to stay.
The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, packet switching, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons
It sometimes calls for industry self-regulation rather than direct governmental regulation as a way to vindicate privacy interests, perhaps because such regulation is seen as more efficient or just, or because direct governmental intervention is understood to be politically difficult to achieve. Privacy scholarship also looks to the latest advances in specific technologies that could further weaken day-to-day informational privacy13 One example is the increasing use of radio frequency identifiers (RFIDs) in consumer items, allowing goods to be scanned and tracked at a short distance. One promise of RFID is that a shopper could wheel her shopping cart under an arch at a grocery store and obtain an immediate tally of the price of its contents; one peril is that a stranger could drive by a house with an RFID scanner and instantly inventory its contents, from diapers to bacon to flat-screen TVs, immediately discerning the sort of people who live within. This work on privacy generally hews to the original analytic template of 1973: both the analysis and suggested solutions talk in terms of institutions gathering data, and of developing ways to pressure institutions to better respect their customers’ and clients’ privacy.
Soon, the price of a loaf of bread at the store becomes indeterminate: there is a sticker price, but when the shopper takes the bread up front, the store can announce a special individualized discount based on her relationship with the store. The sticker price then becomes only that, providing little indication of the price that shoppers are actually paying. Merchants can also vary service. Customer cards augmented with RFID tags can serve to identify those undesirable customers who visit a home improvement store, monopolize the attention of the attendants, and exit without having bought so much as a single nail. With these kinds of cards, the store would be able to discern the “good” (profitable) customers from the “bad” (not profitable) ones and appropriately alert the staff to flee from bad customers and approach good ones.
., 18, 29, 57–59; and Internet compatibility, 28–29; lockdown of, 4, 5, 57, 102, 155–56, 164, 165; model of computing, 17; modularization of, 156; PC revolution, 3, 18; potential functionality sold with, 13; regulability of, 106; search across computers, 185; security dilemma of, 241; in sites where users are not owners, 4; and third-party storage, 186–88; “trapped,” 77; unsecured on Internet, 45; users as programmers for, 14, 15; virtual, 156; zombies, 46, 52, 54, 57, 166 personal identity management, 32–33 Pew Internet & American Life Project, 51 phishing, 47, 53, 99 photo recognition, 214–15 physical layer, 67–69 placeholders, 56 plagiarism, 244 plastic, adaptability of, 72 PlayMedia, 104, 108 Pledgebank, 148, 243 pornography, child, 111 Posner, Eric, 213 Post, David, 123 Postel’s Law, 134 post hoc remedies, 122 post hoc scrubs, 116 Postman, Neil, 93 preemption, 108 press conference behavior, 212–13, 229 prime time, being ready for (and the generative Net), 153–54 prior restraints, 115, 122 Privacy Act (1974), 202 privacy: administrative burdens of, 221–22; and captchas, 208; and cheap sensors, 206, 208–9, 210, 216, 221; code-backed norms, 223–28; Constitutional support of, 112, 185–86, 188; and consumer protection law, 177; contextualization, 229–31; data genealogy, 225–28; enforceability of, 112–14; and generation gap, 231–34; and government power, 117–19, 186–88; HEW report (1973) on, 201–5, 222, 233–34; and industry self-regulation, 203; involuntary celebrities, 210–14; “just deal with it,” 111–12; and peer production, 206–16; personal information security, 203–4; Privacy 1.0, 201–5, 208, 215, 216, 222, 232; Privacy 2.0, 205–34; as proxies for other limitations, 112; public vs. private behavior, 212–16; and reputation, 216–21, 228–29; search and seizure, 112; sensitivity identified with, 202; and third-party storage, 185–88; and ubiquitous surveillance, 109–10, 206, 209–16; on Web sites, 203, 226 privacy “tags,” 227 procrastination principle: and Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 119–20; in generative systems, 152, 164, 180, 242, 245; in Internet design, 33, 34; and Morris worm, 39–40; in networks, 31, 33, 99, 164; in operating systems, 69; and Wikipedia, 134, 135; in XO, 237, 240 Prodigy, 7, 23, 24, 81, 157 proprietary rights thickets, 188–92 protocol layer, 39, 67–69 punch card system, 11 QTel, 157 quasi-contracts, 184 Radin, Margaret, 233 radio broadcasts, jamming of, 106 radio frequency identifiers (RFIDs), 203 Radio Shack, 75-in-1 Electronic Project Kit, 14, 73 Rand, Ayn, 143 Raymond, Eric, 137 “Realtime Blackhole List,” 169 reCAPTCHA, 208, 227 Reed, David, 31 Reidenberg, Joel, 104 reputation bankruptcy, 228–29 reputationdefender.com, 230 reputation systems, 216–21; buddy lists, 219–20; correcting or identifying mistakes on, 220; identity systems, 220; search engines, 217, 220–21; user rankings, 146, 217–18, 221; whole-person ratings, 218–19 RFC 1135, “The Helminthiasis of the Internet,” 39 robots, spam messages from, 207–8 robot signaling, 223 robots.txt, 223–25, 227, 243 Rosen, Jeffrey, 216 RSS (really simple syndication), 56 Saltzer, Jerry, 31 Samuelson, Pamela, 225–26 Sanger, Larry, 133, 142–43, 145 Sapphire/Slammer worm, 47 satellite TV, 181, 182 Saudi Arabia, information control in, 113, 180 Scherf, Steve, 145–46 search engines, 220–21, 223, 226, 227; creation of, 224; user rankings, 217 Second Amendment, 117 SEC v.
Programming Android by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura
anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application
Near Field Communication (NFC) Near Field Communication is a short-range (up to 20 cm), high-frequency, wireless communication technology. It is a standard that extends the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) standard by combining the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. This standard is primarily built for mobile phone use, and thus is attracting a lot of attention among vendors that are interested in contactless data transmission (such as credit card sales). The standard enables NFC to be used in three specific ways: Card emulation The device is a contactless card (and thus can be read by other readers). Reader mode The device can read RFID tags. P2P mode Two devices can communicate back and forth and exchange data. In Android 2.3 (API level 9), Google introduced the Reader Mode NFC functionality.
To use NFC functionality in your application, you need to declare the following permission in your manifest: <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.NFC" /> To restrict the installation of the application to devices that can use NFC, add the following to your manifest as well: <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.nfc" /> Reading a Tag Reader mode is for receiving notices when an RFID/NFC tag is scanned. In Android 2.3 (API level 9), the only means to do this is to create an Activity that listens for the android.nfc.action.TAG_DISCOVERED intent, which is broadcast when a tag is read. Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) offers a more comprehensive means to receive this notice, following the process shown in Figure 16-2. Figure 16-2. NFC tag flow in Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) In Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) and later, when an NFC tag is discovered the tag object (a Parcelable) is placed into an Intent as an EXTRA_TAG.
as signing certificates, Creating a self-signed certificate private keyword, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation, Getters and setters projects, Making an Android Project, Making an Android Project, Making an Android Project, The Android Manifest Editor, Projects, Organizing Java Source about, Projects, Organizing Java Source additional information, Making an Android Project creating, Making an Android Project, Making an Android Project manifest files, The Android Manifest Editor protected keyword, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation proximity sensors, Other Sensors public key encryption, Public Key Encryption and Cryptographic Signing, Public Key Encryption and Cryptographic Signing public keyword, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation, Getters and setters publishing, Uploading Applications in the Market, Concurrency in Android Android applications, Uploading Applications in the Market references, Concurrency in Android Q QEMU, QEMU queries, Additional Database Concepts, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler, Account Contacts account contacts, Account Contacts compound, Additional Database Concepts MJAndroid application example, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method networked method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler quotation marks ("), Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 R R class, Resources Radio Frequency Identification, Near Field Communication (NFC) (see RFID) raw directory, Resources RCP (Rich Client Platform), The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) RDBMSs (relational database management systems), Relational Database Overview REAL type (SQLite), SQLite types recording multimedia, Recording Audio and Video, Audio Recording, AudioRecorder audio recording, Video Recording audio methods, Audio Recording, AudioRecorder audio recording life cycle states, Recording Audio and Video video methods, Video Recording RECORD_AUDIO permission, Recording Audio and Video RECORD_VIDEO permission, Recording Audio and Video refactoring, Refactoring, Organizing Java Source relational database management systems (RDBMSs), Relational Database Overview relational databases, Relational Database Overview, Database constraints, Database constraints, Additional Database Concepts, Additional Database Concepts, Additional Database Concepts, Additional Database Concepts, Database Transactions, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, The Android Database Classes, Database Design for Android Applications, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Using the Database API: MJAndroid, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the execSQL method, The simple video database, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Creating the Database about, Relational Database Overview additional information, Additional Database Concepts compound queries, Additional Database Concepts database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, Declaring Column Specification Strings database manipulation example, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 database transactions, Database Transactions design for Android applications, Database Design for Android Applications, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class inner joins, Additional Database Concepts MJAndroid application example, Using the Database API: MJAndroid, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the execSQL method SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider example, The simple video database SimpleVideoDbHelper class example, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class SQLite supported classes, The Android Database Classes triggers, Additional Database Concepts YouTube video example, Creating the Database RelativeLayout class, Creating a Fragment, Layout remote procedure calls, AIDL and, Java Serialization Renderer interface, OpenGL Graphics res directory, Resources, Organizing Java Source resource qualifiers, Resource Qualifiers and Screen Sizes Resources.getDrawable method, Bitmaps ResponseHandler interface, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper, UriRequestTask about, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper handleResponse method, RESTfulContentProvider: A REST helper, UriRequestTask REST (Representational State Transfer), Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Content Providers, Exploring Content Providers, Developing RESTful Android Applications, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits, Constants and Initialization, Creating the Database, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, File Management: Storing Thumbnails about, Content Providers additional information, Content Providers constants and initialization, Constants and Initialization content providers and, Exploring Content Providers creating database, Creating the Database DELETE operation, Content Providers developing Android applications, Developing RESTful Android Applications file management, File Management: Storing Thumbnails GET operation, Content Providers insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers network MVC and, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits networked query method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler POST operation, Content Providers UPDATE operation, Content Providers RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), Near Field Communication (NFC), Reading a Tag, Reading a Tag about, Near Field Communication (NFC) reading tags, Reading a Tag, Reading a Tag Rich Client Platform (RCP), The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) RotateAnimation class, Animation, Transition animation RotateDrawable class, Drawables rotation vector, Rotation vector Runnable interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading runtime environment, The Android Application Runtime Environment, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, The application runtime, The Android Libraries, The Android Libraries about, The Android Application Runtime Environment, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, The application runtime Android libraries and, The Android Libraries, The Android Libraries RuntimeException, Exceptions, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading S sandboxing, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, Self-signed certificates for Android software ScaleAnimation class, Animation, Transition animation ScaleDrawable class, Drawables ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor class, The Android Libraries scope, Scope, Java Packages, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation about, Scope access modifiers and encapsulation, Access Modifiers and Encapsulation Java packages and, Java Packages SDK and AVD Manager, Adding 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certificates for Android software additional information, Sandboxing: Processes and Users self-signed certificates and, Self-signed certificates for Android software SELECT statement (SQL), SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, Extending ContentProvider about, SQL Data Manipulation Commands ContentProvider class and, Extending ContentProvider FROM clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands GROUP BY clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands HAVING clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands LIMIT clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands ORDER BY clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands WHERE clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands self-signed certificates, Self-signed certificates for Android software, Creating a self-signed certificate, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application about, Self-signed certificates for Android software creating, Creating a self-signed certificate signing applications, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application, Using a self-signed certificate to sign an application semicolon (;), SQL Data Definition Commands Sensor.getMaximumRange method, Other Sensors SensorEvent class, Sensors SensorEventListener interface, Sensors, Sensors onAccuracyChanged method, Sensors onSensorChanged method, Sensors SensorManager class, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Sensors about, Sensors getDefaultSensor method, Sensors getSensorList method, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_FASTEST constant, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_GAME constant, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_NORMAL constant, Sensors SENSOR_DELAY_UI constant, Sensors sensors, Sensors, Sensors, Position, Linear acceleration, Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Rotation vector, Linear acceleration, Gravity, Other Sensors, Other Sensors, Other Sensors, Other Sensors, Other Sensors about, Sensors, Sensors accelerometers, Accelerometer gravity, Gravity gyroscopes, Gyroscope light, Other Sensors linear acceleration, Linear acceleration magnetic, Other Sensors phone coordinate systems, Position, Linear acceleration pressure, Other Sensors proximity, Other Sensors rotation vector, Rotation vector temperature, Other Sensors Serial Port Protocol (SPP), Bluetooth and related I/O classes Serializable interface, Java Serialization, Java Serialization, Classes That Support Serialization serialization, Serialization, Serialization, Java Serialization, Parcelable, Parcelable, Classes That Support Serialization, Serialization and the Application Life Cycle, Saving and restoring instance state application life cycle and, Serialization and the Application Life Cycle classes supporting, Classes That Support Serialization, Saving and restoring instance state common uses for, Serialization defined, Serialization Java support, Java Serialization Parcelable interface, Parcelable, Parcelable Service class, Other Android Components, Service, Static Application Resources and Context, Application Manifests, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications, Developing RESTful Android Applications about, Other Android Components, Service Context class and, Static Application Resources and Context manifest files and, Application Manifests RESTful applications and, Developing RESTful Android Applications well-behaved applications and, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications Set interface, Collection interface types, The Android Libraries setClickable attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setEnabled attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setSatellite attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setStreetView attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization setter methods, Getters and setters setTraffic attribute, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization Shader class, Shadows, Gradients, and Filters shaders (drawing graphics), Shadows, Gradients, and Filters ShadowLayer class, Shadows, Gradients, and Filters shadows (drawing graphics), Shadows, Gradients, and Filters short type, Primitive Types, Conventions on the Native Method Side Show View dialog, Visualizing the Activity Life Cycle signing, application, Application Signing (see application signing) SimpleCursorAdapter class, Account Contacts, Account Contacts SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider example, Browsing Video with Finch, The simple video database, Structure of the simple version of the code, Defining a Provider Public API, Defining the CONTENT_URI, Creating the Column Names, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Extending ContentProvider, Extending ContentProvider, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, Implementing the onCreate Method, Implementing the getType Method, The query method, The query method, The insert method, The update method, The delete method, Determining How Often to Notify Observers about, Browsing Video with Finch, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code column names, Creating the Column Names column specification strings, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Declaring Column Specification Strings creating database, The simple video database defining provider public API, Defining a Provider Public API, Defining the CONTENT_URI extending ContentProvider class, Extending ContentProvider, Extending ContentProvider implementing delete method, The delete method implementing getType method, Implementing the getType Method implementing insert method, The insert method implementing onCreate method, Implementing the onCreate Method implementing query method, The query method, The query method implementing update method, The update method instance variables and, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables notifying observers, Determining How Often to Notify Observers source code structure, Structure of the simple version of the code SimpleVideoDbHelper class (example), Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class skeleton applications, The Android Framework, Visualizing the Activity Life Cycle, Minor life cycle methods of the Activity class, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags, Understanding Content Providers, Declaring Column Specification Strings, Writing and Integrating a Content Provider, File Management and Binary Data, File Management and Binary Data, Android MVC and Content Observation, Android MVC and Content Observation, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code, Determining How Often to Notify Observers, Declaring Your Content Provider, Exploring Content Providers, Developing RESTful Android Applications, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content, File Management: Storing Thumbnails about, The Android Framework Activity class life cycles, Visualizing the Activity Life Cycle, Minor life cycle methods of the Activity class Application class life cycles, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class, Life Cycle Methods of the Application Class binary data, File Management and Binary Data building content providers, Understanding Content Providers, Declaring Column Specification Strings content providers and REST, Exploring Content Providers declaring content providers, Declaring Your Content Provider developing RESTful, Developing RESTful Android Applications file management, File Management and Binary Data flowing/intuitive user experience, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags Fragment class life cycles, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle, Visualizing the Fragment Life Cycle MVC and content observation, Android MVC and Content Observation, Android MVC and Content Observation network MVC and, A “Network MVC”, Summary of Benefits SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider example, A Complete Content Provider: The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Code, Determining How Often to Notify Observers well-behaved, The Activity Class and Well-Behaved Applications, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience writing/integrating content providers, Writing and Integrating a Content Provider YouTube video example, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content, File Management: Storing Thumbnails SmallTalk language, Eclipse Concepts and Terminology social networking, Android and Social Networking software development, Modular Programming in Java (see application development) SPP (Serial Port Protocol), Bluetooth and related I/O classes SQL (Standard Query Language), Relational Database Overview, The SQL Language, The SQL Language, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications about, Relational Database Overview additional information, The SQL Language Android applications and, The SQL Language data definition commands, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints data manipulation commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints MVC model and, SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications SQLite database system, sqlite3, Serialization, SQLite, SQLite, The SQL Language, The SQL Language, SQLite types, Database constraints, Database constraints, Additional Database Concepts, Database Transactions, The Android Database Classes, Declaring Column Specification Strings about, SQLite, The SQL Language additional information, SQLite, The SQL Language compound queries, Additional Database Concepts data types supported, SQLite types database classes, The Android Database Classes database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, Declaring Column Specification Strings database transactions, Database Transactions persistence and, Serialization sqlite3 command, sqlite3 sqlite3 command, sqlite3, SQL Data Definition Commands, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 about, sqlite3 balancing quotes, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 database manipulation example, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 percent sign in, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 period in, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 pipe character in, Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 semicolon in, SQL Data Definition Commands SQLiteDatabase class, The Android Database Classes, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method, Using the query method, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Modifying the Database, Using the insert method, Using the execSQL method, Using the update method, Using the execSQL method, Using the delete method, Using the execSQL method, The query method, The insert method about, The Android Database Classes delete method, Modifying the Database, Using the delete method execSQL method, Modifying the Database, Using the execSQL method, Using the execSQL method, Using the execSQL method insert method, Modifying the Database, Using the insert method, The insert method query method, Using the query method, Modifying the Database, The query method rawQuery method, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database rawQueryWithFactory method, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database, Using the query method update method, Modifying the Database, Using the update method SQLiteOpenHelper class, The Android Database Classes, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database about, The Android Database Classes extending, Database Queries and Reading Data from the Database onCreate method, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class onUpgrade method, Basic Structure of the SimpleVideoDbHelper Class SQLiteQueryBuilder class, The Android Database Classes src directory, Organizing Java Source Standard Query Language, Relational Database Overview (see SQL) static analysis, Static Analyzers, FindBugs, FindBugs, FindBugs, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code, Limitations of Static Analysis about, Static Analyzers, FindBugs applying to Android code, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code, Applying Static Analysis to Android Code FindBugs tool and, FindBugs, FindBugs limitations of, Limitations of Static Analysis static declarations, Final and Static Declarations String class, Final and Static Declarations, Drawing text Canvas class and, Drawing text as final declaration, Final and Static Declarations subclasses, Objects and Classes, Modular Programming in Java, Extending Android classes defined, Objects and Classes programming considerations, Modular Programming in Java, Extending Android classes superclasses, defined, Objects and Classes SurfaceHolder class, Surface view animation, Surface view animation Callback interface, Surface view animation unlockCanvasAndPost method, Surface view animation SurfaceView class, Animation, Surface view animation, OpenGL Graphics about, OpenGL Graphics animation support, Animation, Surface view animation Synaptic Package Manager utility, The Java Development Kit (JDK) synchronization, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Data Structures, Synchronization account data, Synchronization data structures and, Synchronization and Data Structures thread safety and, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety synchronized keyword, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety System.loadLibrary method, Conventions on the Java Side T .table command (SQLite), Example Database Manipulation Using sqlite3 tables, Relational Database Overview, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands database constraints, Database constraints, Database constraints defined, Relational Database Overview SQL data definition commands, SQL Data Definition Commands, Database constraints SQL data manipulation commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands TagTechnology interface, Reading a Tag, Writing to a Tag, Writing to a Tag, Writing to a Tag, Writing to a Tag close method, Writing to a Tag connect method, Writing to a Tag isConnected method, Writing to a Tag reading tags, Reading a Tag writing tags, Writing to a Tag tasks, Multitasking in a Small-Screen Environment, Tasks and Applications, Specifying Launch and Task Behavior, Modifying task behavior with intent flags applications and, Tasks and Applications specifying behavior, Specifying Launch and Task Behavior, Modifying task behavior with intent flags tracking, Multitasking in a Small-Screen Environment temperature sensors, Other Sensors TEXT type (SQLite), SQLite types text, drawing, Drawing text, Drawing text TextToSpeech class, Accessibility, Accessibility, Accessibility about, Accessibility shutdown method, Accessibility speak method, Accessibility TextView class, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Location Without Maps, Connecting to a Location Provider and Getting Location Updates location without maps example, Location Without Maps, Connecting to a Location Provider and Getting Location Updates widgets and, Rolling Your Own Widgets TextWatcher interface, Overrides and callbacks, Overrides and callbacks, Overrides and callbacks afterTextChanged method, Overrides and callbacks beforeTextChanged method, Overrides and callbacks onTextChanged method, Overrides and callbacks Thread class, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java thread confinement, Threads in an Android Process thread safety violations, Synchronization and Thread Safety threads, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Thread Control with wait() and notify() Methods, Concurrency in Android, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, Threads in an Android Process Android GUI and, AsyncTask and the UI Thread, AsyncTask and the UI Thread in Android processes, Threads in an Android Process concurrent, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java, Concurrency in Android monitoring, AsyncTask and the UI Thread Object class support, Thread Control with wait() and notify() Methods spawning, Basic Multithreaded Concurrent Programming in Java synchronization and, Synchronization and Thread Safety, Synchronization and Thread Safety Threads view (Eclipse), Eclipse and Android Throwable class, Exceptions TimerTask class, The Android Libraries TimeZone class, The Android Libraries touch events, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events, Gesture Input gesture input, Gesture Input listening for, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events trackballs, Listening for Touch Events transactions, Fragment Transactions, Fragment Transactions, Database Transactions database, Database Transactions fragment, Fragment Transactions, Fragment Transactions transformations, matrix, Matrix transformations, Matrix transformations transition animations, Animation, Transition animation TranslateAnimation class, Animation, Transition animation TreeMap class, Collection implementation types triangulation, Location-Based Services triggers, database, Additional Database Concepts troubleshooting, Troubleshooting SDK Problems: No Build Targets, The Menu OnKeyListener interface, The Menu SDK problems, Troubleshooting SDK Problems: No Build Targets try-catch block, Exceptions tweened animations, Animation U Ubuntu Linux environment, The Java Development Kit (JDK), The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) installing Eclipse, The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) installing JDK, The Java Development Kit (JDK) unchecked exceptions, Exceptions UNIQUE constraint, Database constraints unmarshaling data, Serialization unpublishing Android applications, Uploading Applications in the Market UPDATE operation (REST), Content Providers UPDATE statement (SQL), SQL Data Manipulation Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands, Extending ContentProvider about, SQL Data Manipulation Commands ContentProvider class and, Extending ContentProvider WHERE clause, SQL Data Manipulation Commands uploading applications in Android Market, Uploading Applications in the Market, Uploading Applications in the Market UriMatcher class, Using a content provider, Extending ContentProvider, Extending ContentProvider, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables about, Using a content provider, Extending ContentProvider addURI method, Extending ContentProvider initializing, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables NO_MATCH constant, The SimpleFinchVideoContentProvider Class and Instance Variables URLEncoder.encode method, A Networked Query Method USB, Running a Program on an Android Device, Running a Program on an Android Device accessing Android devices, Running a Program on an Android Device debugging Android devices, Running a Program on an Android Device user experience, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags Activity life cycle and, The Activity Life Cycle and the User Experience flowing and intuitive, A Flowing and Intuitive User Experience Across Activities, Modifying task behavior with intent flags uses-sdk attribute, Making an Android Project UUID class, The Android Libraries V values directory, Resources Vector class, The Java Collections Framework, The Android Libraries Vibrator class, Accessibility video, Audio and Video, Video Playback, Video Playback, Video Recording, MediaRecorder video recording, Intent video recording Android supported formats, Audio and Video Intent recording, Intent video recording MediaPlayer playback, Video Playback MediaRecorder recording, MediaRecorder video recording playback methods, Video Playback recording methods, Video Recording VideoView class, Video Playback View class, Using Anonymous Classes, Using Anonymous Classes, Threads in an Android Process, Threads in an Android Process, The Controller, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Wiring Up the Controller, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Touch Events, Listening for Key Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, The Menu, The Menu, The Menu, Fragments and Multiplatform Support, Creating a Fragment, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Layout, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Arrangement, Arrangement, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Drawables, Transition animation, Background animation, Background animation, Background animation, Background animation, Background animation (see also widgets) about, Using Anonymous Classes assembling GUI, Assembling a Graphical Interface background animation, Background animation dispatchKeyEvent method, The Controller DispatchKeyEvent method, Alternative Ways to Handle Events dispatchTrackballEvent method, Listening for Touch Events draw method, Canvas Drawing findViewById method, Creating a Fragment getBackground method, Background animation getMeasuredHeight method, Measurement getMeasuredWidth method, Measurement getSuggestedMinimumHeight method, Measurement getSuggestedMinimumWidth method, Measurement handling events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events invalidate method, Canvas Drawing isFocusableInTouchMode method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading isInTouchMode method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading measure method, Measurement OnClickListener interface, Wiring Up the Controller OnCreateContextMenuListener interface, The Menu, Fragments and Multiplatform Support onDraw method, Drawables, Background animation OnFocusChangeListener interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading onKeyDown method, Alternative Ways to Handle Events OnKeyListener interface, Using Anonymous Classes, Alternative Ways to Handle Events, The Menu onLayout method, Arrangement onMeasure method, Measurement, Arrangement onTouchEvent method, Alternative Ways to Handle Events OnTouchListener interface, Listening for Touch Events, Alternative Ways to Handle Events onTrackballEvent method, Listening for Touch Events post method, Threads in an Android Process postDelayed method, Threads in an Android Process requestFocus method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading requestLayout method, Layout setBackgroundDrawable method, Background animation setBackgroundResource method, Background animation setFocusable method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading setMeasuredDimensions method, Measurement, Measurement setOnCreateContextMenuListener method, The Menu setOnKeyListener method, Listening for Key Events startAnimation method, Transition animation widgets and, Rolling Your Own Widgets View component (MVC), The View, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets (see also drawing graphics) view model, Canvas Drawing ViewGroup class, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Fragments and Multiplatform Support, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Measurement, Measurement, Measurement, Canvas Drawing container views and, Assembling a Graphical Interface dispatchDraw method, Canvas Drawing Fragment class and, Fragments and Multiplatform Support measureChild method, Measurement measureChildren method, Measurement measureChildWithMargins method, Measurement requestChildFocus method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading requestFocus method, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading widgets and, Rolling Your Own Widgets virtual machines, The Dalvik Debug Monitor Server (DDMS) (see Dalvik virtual machines (VMs)) VisualAge tool, Eclipse Concepts and Terminology VMs (virtual machines), The Dalvik Debug Monitor Server (DDMS) (see Dalvik virtual machines (VMs)) W whatami example, JNI, NDK, and SDK: A Sample App widgets, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Layout, Arrangement, Arrangement, Arrangement, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations, Drawables, Drawables, Drawables, Bitmaps, Bling, OpenGL Graphics (see also View class) Bitmap class, Bitmaps canvas drawing, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations defined, Assembling a Graphical Interface, Rolling Your Own Widgets Drawable class, Drawables, Drawables focusable attribute, Advanced Wiring: Focus and Threading fully functional example, Canvas Drawing graphics effects examples, Bling, OpenGL Graphics layout process, Layout, Arrangement onDraw method, Rolling Your Own Widgets, Arrangement, Canvas Drawing, Canvas Drawing, Matrix transformations, Drawables onLayout method, Arrangement onMeasure method, Rolling Your Own Widgets Windows environment, The Java Development Kit (JDK), Running a Program on an Android Device, Sandboxing: Processes and Users, Setting Up the NDK Environment installing JDK, The Java Development Kit (JDK) NDK requirements, Setting Up the NDK Environment running programs on Android devices, Running a Program on an Android Device sandboxing and, Sandboxing: Processes and Users workspaces, Making an Android Project, Workspaces, Eclipse Views and Perspectives, Organizing Java Source defined, Making an Android Project, Workspaces depicted, Eclipse Views and Perspectives projects and, Organizing Java Source X XML editors, XML editors for other Android XML files Y YouTube video example, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content, Structure of the Source Code for the Finch YouTube Video Example, Step 1: Our UI Collects User Input, Step 2: Our Controller Listens for Events, Constants and Initialization, Creating the Database, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, File Management: Storing Thumbnails about, Code Example: Dynamically Listing and Caching YouTube Video Content constants and initialization, Constants and Initialization controller collecting user input, Step 2: Our Controller Listens for Events creating database, Creating the Database file management, File Management: Storing Thumbnails insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers, insert and ResponseHandlers networked query method, A Networked Query Method, YouTubeHandler structure of source code, Structure of the Source Code for the Finch YouTube Video Example UI collecting user input, Step 1: Our UI Collects User Input Z Zipalign tool, Zipalign zooming in Android maps, MapView and MyLocationOverlay Initialization Zygote process, Zygote: Forking a New Process About the Authors Zigurd Mednieks is a consultant to leading OEMs, enterprises, and entrepreneurial ventures creating Android-based systems and software.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
Hayes, of the organization Statewatch, argues that the EU’s efforts to establish a continent-wide Security Research Programme is best described as ‘“Big Brother” meets market fundamentalism’.58 The programme’s large development and supply contracts are organized by a network of ‘EU officials and Europe’s biggest arms and IT companies’.59 As in the US, moreover, EU security policy and research are heavily influenced by intensive lobbying by the main corporate-security companies (many of which are recently privatized state operations). Rather than the ethics of massive securitization, the prime EU concern has been how European corporation could take a bigger chunk of booming global markets for a ‘myriad of local and global surveillance systems; the introduction of biometric identifiers; RFID, electronic tagging and satellite monitoring; “less-lethal weapons”; paramilitary equipment for public order and crisis management; and the militarization of border controls’.60 Urban securization may thus become a shop-window for industrial policy within the burgeoning security marketplace. COLONIZING TRANSNATIONAL URBANISM The recalibration of an inside-outside problematique from the point of view of the United States is full of explosive contradictions.61 Our fifth component is this: in a rapidly urbanizing world marked by intensifying transnational migration, transport, capital and media flows, all attempts at constructing a mutually exclusive binary – a securitized ‘inside’ enclosing the urban places of the US homeland, and an urbanizing ‘outside’ where US military power can pre-emptively attack sources of terrorist threats –are inevitably both ambivalent and ridden with contradiction.
Thus, ‘national security, at least in the ports, is conceptualized as almost interchangeable with the security of international trade flows’.171 GLOBAL BIOMETRIC REGIME The globe shrinks for those who own it; for the displaced or the dispossessed, the migrant or refugee, no distance is more awesome than the few feet across borders or frontiers.172 In the airline and airport sectors, US homeland security efforts are meant to ensure that the ‘border guard [is] the last line of defense, not the first, in identifying potential threats’.173 The dream system features interoperable ‘smart’ borders, globalized border control, and pre-emptive risk management.174 To this end, the US has developed the US-VISIT programme – US Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology – for air travel, another application of biometric attempts to ‘objectively’ fix bodies and identities while coercing key US partner nations to adjust their passport systems to biometric standards defined by the US.175 In the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Act of 2002, for example, the US Congress imposed a requirement that the twenty-seven countries within the US Visa Waiver Program (VWP) begin using machine-readable passports that incorporate both biometric and radio-frequency tag (RFID) technology. Nations or blocs that fail to undertake these radical shifts are threatened with losing their coveted status within the VWP. ‘Our leveraging of America’s visa aiver partners, in order to promote the use of the new ID technologies for purposes of national security’, Richard Pruett and Michael Longarzo of the US Army War College write, ‘may prove to be a paradigm for the coming age’.176 The passage-point architectures of overseas airports thus now display symbols of both US and domestic sovereignty (Figure 4.20). 4.20 The ‘global homeland’ orchestrated through the extension of US sovereignty as part of the US visit initiative: Frankfurt airport, Germany.
APPROPRIATION A third strategy for the building of countergeographies involves the very technologies of control that are so central to the new military urbanism and that offer excellent potential for appropriation and reverse engineering. Indeed, a whole universe of experiments in what are called ‘locative’ or ‘ambient’ media seek to challenge contemporary cultures of militarized urbanism by exploring new uses of infrastructures and technologies such as GPS, radio frequency (RFID) chips, unmanned drones, digital mapping, satellite surveillance, video simulation, data mining, Internet communications and wireless communications–all of which more or less originated through military research. The emphasis here is first to demystify and make visible the invisible technologies of control, tracking, and surveillance which now thoroughly permeate everyday objects, architectures, environments and infrastructures, and then to redeploy them in counter-hegemonic ways.
When Things Start to Think by Neil A. Gershenfeld
3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Bretton Woods, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Dynabook, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, invention of movable type, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, means of production, new economy, Nick Leeson, packet switching, RFID, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush
In retrospect, it's surprising that it has taken so long for such an exquisite biological sense to get used for computer interfaces. There's been an anthropomorphic tendency to assume that a computer's senses should match our own. We had trouble keeping the Fish boards on hand because they would be carried off around the Media Lab by students who wanted to build physical interfaces. More recently, the students have been acquiring as many radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips as they can get their hands on. These are tiny processors, SEEING THROUGH WINDOWS + 145 small enough even to be swallowed, that are powered by an external field that can also exchange data with them. They're currently used in niche applications, such as tracking laboratory animals, or in the key-chain tags that enable us to pump gas without using a credit card. The students use them everywhere else.
It is now acquiring new capabilities, such as a pager, or a GPS receiver, or the Swatch Access watches used as electronic ski-lift tickets. Europe is also leading the way with smart cards, computers the size of a credit card that are used much the same way, but that store electronic cash instead of requiring access to a remote computer. They were first used to eliminate the need for change to use pay phones, and are now spreading to all areas of electronic commerce. Finally, for tens of cents come the RFID chips that are used to tag things with an electronic identity. These are used in the badges that control access to a workplace, and in tracking laboratory animals. And that's where it stops. No one's been able to fabricate, package, and sell chips for less than about ten cents. While that might not appear to be a severe limit, think about what it leaves off: just about everything! One of the most frequent challenges presented to me is finding a way to compute for pennies.
Robert, 179 optical pumping, 162 optical weak localization, 15 Orange County, California, 78 Orth, Maggie, 55 oscilloscope, 205 Oxford University, 158, 159 pagers, wristwatches as, 152 paper: book, 15 carbonless copy paper, 15-16 increasing consumption of, 102 radio, 18 INDEX reusable, 16-17 smart, 15-16 Papert, Seymour, 117, 138, 201-2 Paradiso, Joseph, 169, 180, 206-7 parallel computers, 68, 157 Parsons School of Design, 55 Pascal, Blaise, 131 Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (Babbage), 125-26 Passenger Sensing System, 170-71 patents, 181, 191 PEMS (Printed Electro-Mechanical Systems), 72-74 Penn & Teller, 169-70, 193 pennies, 82 Pentland, Sandy, 55 performance limit of a communications channel, 176 peripherals, computer, 52-53 Personal Area Network (PAN), 50-52 fictional predecessor of, 51-52 personal computers (PCs), 63-64, 151 invention of, 137-39 laptops, see laptop computers proliferation of, 63 Personal Digital Assistant, 151-52 Personal Fabricator, 64-75 physical gestures and logical meaning, Personal Area Network (PAN) and, 51 Piaget, Jean, 106, 137-38, 146 pianos, digital, 41 Picard, Roz, 54 Plymouth University, 158 Poe, Edgar Allan, 124 Poincare, Henri, 114 Popular Mechanics, 199 Post, Rehmi, 55 printers, 17-18, 102, 202 PEMS (Printed Electro-Mechanical Systems), 72-74 3D, 64-65, 70-71 two-dimensional output of, 4-5 privacy, 56-57, 100-1 Things That Think and, 207-10 + 223 probability theory, 120-21 productivity, 7 Pythagoras, 39 quantum computer, 157-63, 177 quantum mechanics, 130-31, 155, 157-59 radar, 171, 172 radio, 10, 99, 212 radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips, 144-45, 152 radio paper, 18 radio spectrum, 50 Raman, C. V., 39-40 Reeves, Byron, 54 Reformation, 95-97, 103 religion, 131, 133 research and development, 169-84 applied research, 172, 177, 178, 185 basic research, 172, 174, 177, 178, 185 government role, 171-74 new way to organize inquiry, 180-84 organization in the U.S., 171-74, 180 presumed pathway of, 177 Resnick, Mitchel, 68-70, 146-47, 206 responsibilities in using new technologies, 104 reusable paper, 16-17 Reynolds, Matt, 196, 197 rights: Bill of Things' Rights, 104 Bill of Things Users' Rights, 102 Rittmueller, Phil, 170, 180 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 171, 172 Santa Fe Institute, 118 Satellites, communications, 99-100 Science-The Endless Frontier, 172 search engines, 134 security versus privacy, 57 224 + semiconductor industry, 72 Sensormatic, 153 Shannon,C~ud~5, 128,176,188-90 shoe, computer in a, 50, 52, 102-3, 179 shoplifting tags, 153 Shor, Peter, 158, 159 Silicon Graphics, 140 Simon, Dan, 158 skepticism about technological advances, 122 Small, David, 22-23 Smalltalk, 138 smart cards, 81, 152 smart money, 77-91 cryptography and, 80-81 as digital information, 80 distinction between atom-dollars and bit-dollars, 83-85 freeing money from legacy as tangible asset, 79, 91 global currency market, 83 linking algorithms with money, 86-88 paying-as-you-go, 82 precedent for, 80 standards for, 88-91 smart name badges, 206 Smith, Joshua, 144, 170-71 sociology of science, 119 software, 7, 53, 156 belief in magic bullets, 121 CAD, 73 for children, 138 remarkable descriptions of, 108-9 upgrades, 98, 108-9 Soviet Union, 121-22 speech recognition, 140 spirit chair, 169-70, 179, 193, 202 spread-spectrum coding techniques, 165, 166 standards: computer, 88-90, 126 smart money, 88-91 Stanford Research Institute, 139 INDEX Stanford University, 54 Starner, Thad, 47, 57-58 Steane, Andy, 159 Steelcase, 202, 203, 204 Stradivarius, designing digital instrument to compete with, 32-33,39-42 Strickon, Joshua, 55 Sumitomo, 77 supercomputers, 151, 177, 199 surveillance, 57 Swatch Access watches, 152 Szilard, Leo, 176 technology: Bill of Things' Rights, 104 Bill of Things Users' Rights, 102 daily use of, 58 freedom of technological expression, 103 imposing on our lives, 95, 100-2 invisible and unobtrusive, 44, 200, 211 jargon, 107-22 mature, 10 musical instruments incorporating available, 38 wisdom in old technologies, 19, 24 telemarketing, 95, 101 telephones, 175 access to phone numbers, 100 invasion in our lives, 95, 101 satellite, 99-100 smart cards, 81 widespread dissemination of, 99 television, 10, 99, 202 high-definition, 6 Termen, Lev, 144 Tetzel, Johann, 96 "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," 161 thermodynamics, 175, 176 Things That Think, 202-7 privacy and, 207-10 stratification of society and, 210-11 INDEX 3D graphics interface, 141-42 3D printer, 64-65, 70-71 3001: The Final Odyssey (Clarke), 51 Toffoli, Tomaso, 132 transistors: invention of the, 175 study of, 179 Turing, Alan, 127-28, 131, 135, 166 Turing test, 128, 131, 133-34, 135 281, 210-11 Underkoffler, John, 145-46 U.S.
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
These WYMIWYM objects obviously ﬁgure informationalism in their production process, but as they themselves become linked into larger networks, through the incorporation of sensors, transmitters, and augmentation, they begin to attain autonomy. From mute objects and closed spaces, they become nodes in the network, aware of their place and time, and capable of communication from the minimal to the maximal. The incorporation of radio frequency identiﬁcation devices (RFIDs) and microcontrollers into formerly quotidian objects enlivens them in an almost magical way. Like the animated brooms in Walt Disney’s Fantasia that come alive when Mickey Mouse accidentally enchants them as the Sorcerer’s Apprentice, there is a glamour, in its magical rather than fashionable sense, inherent in these new, augmented objects and spaces. The explosion of WYMIWYM objects and spaces will bring about an efﬂorescence of style, just as WYSIWYG publishing did.
., 109, 109–110 PBS, 68 PDP minicomputer, 71 Peer-to-peer networks, 15, 54, 92, 116, 126 Perot, Ross, 145 Perpetual beta, 36 Personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Petrini, Carlo, 5–6 Photography, 15, 40–42, 46–47, 64, 109, 150, 176 Photoshop, 131 Picasso, Pablo, 93 210 INDEX Pico Swap Mart, 105 Pirate Bay, 92 Pixar, 167 Pizza Hut, 5 Plagiarism, 41 Play, 188n25 bespoke futures and, 110–111, 130–131 culture machine and, 143, 153, 160–163 gaming and, 15, 23, 33–34, 57, 67, 70–74, 72, 188n25 meaningfulness and, 32–34 modders and, 69–70 power and, 32–34 rejuveniles and, 67 running room and, 74–77 stickiness and, 13, 15, 32–34, 70–74 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185n22, 185n23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77 video games and, 15, 23, 33–34, 57, 67, 72, 188n25 Web n.0 and, 85, 88 Play space, 74–77 Plug-in Drug, The (Winn), xii Plutocrats culture machine and, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 description of term, xv Hewlett and, 145, 157 Moore and, 156 Noyce and, 156 Packard and, 145, 157 proﬁt and, xv Watsons and, 144, 153–157, 165–166 Plutopian meliorism, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 Poetry, 14, 18–19, 136, 145 Politics African National Congress and, 113 211 Berlin Wall and, xvi, 85, 97, 99, 104 Communism and, 97–98, 103 copyright and, 88–93 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi fantasies of, 104 New Economy and, 104 propaganda and, 31, 103, 124 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 Slow Food and, 5–7 Soviet Union and, xi, 31, 49–52, 59, 73, 85, 88, 97, 102–107, 146 Tiananmen Square and, 104 Velvet Revolution and, 104 Pong, 71 Popper, Karl, 107 Popular Mechanics magazine, 69 Pop-up ads, 23 Positivism, 10, 125 Postmodernism, 29–30, 39–41, 74, 79, 130, 135 PostScript World, 55–56, 102 Poststructuralism, 29–30 Power, 8 bespoke futures and, 98–103, 112– 116, 119–126, 129–130, 136–137 culture machine and, 143, 147, 150– 151, 155–156, 163, 166, 169, 175 meaningfulness and, 32–34 play and, 32–34 stickiness and, 13, 17, 22, 30–34 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unimodernism and, 39, 49–50, 62, 71–75 Web n.0 and, 81–87, 90–95 PowerBook, 39 Pro bono work, 111 Production appropriation and, 28, 31, 35, 41 balance and, 13 collaborative, 30 INDEX Production (continued) continuous partial, 34 DIY movements and, 67–70 fan culture and, 28–32, 48 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 modders and, 69–70 open source, 36, 61, 69, 74–75, 91–92, 116, 121–126, 144, 170– 173, 177, 189n12 plagiarism and, 41 remixing and, 27, 35, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70, 92–94, 129, 189n12 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unﬁnish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67, 74, 131 Propaganda, 31, 103, 124 Prosumers, 120–121 Psychology culture machine and, 151, 161 Gestalt, 42–43 Licklider and, 151 propaganda and, 31, 103, 124 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 stickiness and, 16, 21–22 unimodernism and, 42–44, 56 Public domain, 91 Publishing, 31, 190n8 bespoke future and, 109–110, 112 culture machine and, 146, 148–149, 168 DIY movement and, 67–69 Gutenberg press and, 11, 137–138 unimodernism and, 55–65, 68 Puccini, Giacomo, 61 Punk aesthetic, 46, 67–68, 87, 110 Quantum theory, 148 Radio, 8 Radio frequency identiﬁcation devices (RFIDs), 65 Radiohead, 39 Ramayana, 28 Rand, Paul, 43 Raymond, Eric, 172 Raytheon, 149 Rear Window (ﬁlm), 44 Relativity, 49–50, 186n4 Religion, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 Remixing, 27, 94, 129, 189n12 appropriation and, 28, 31, 35, 41 Creative Commons and, 92 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 unimodernism and, 39, 53–54, 53–55, 62–63, 70 Renaissance, 60 Rent (Larson), 61 Reperceiving, 112–113 Reuters Spectracolor Board, 9 Revivalism, 60 Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles (BBC documentary), 10 Rheingold, Howard, 145 Rick’s Café, 90 Roberts, Alwyn “Lord Kitchener,” 25–27 Robot butlers, xiv Rockefeller, John D., 166 Rolling Stone magazine, 67 Romanticism, 103 Romeo and Juliet (hip-hop version), 61 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 148 Rope (ﬁlm), 44 Roux, A., 11 Royal Dutch Shell, 112, 112–113 Royal Library of Alexandria, 89 R-PR (Really Public Relations), xvi, 123–127 RSS feeds, xvii Rumsfeld, Donald, 99 Running room, 74–77 Run time, 57 212 INDEX environmental perception and, 16 memes and, 19, 53–54, 76, 87, 91, 98, 113, 143–144, 149–150, 156–162, 165–170, 178, 194n1 mimicry and, xvii MP3s and, 27 participation and, 15–17 stickiness and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 unimodernism and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 Sinatra, Frank, 63 Skype, 15 Skyscrapers, xiv Slow movements, 5–7, 181n7 Slurpees, 4 “Smells Like Teen Spirit” (Nirvana), 62 Smith & Hawken, 113 Snakes on a Plane (ﬁlm), 30 Snow White (Disney ﬁlm), 20 Social issues advertisement and, 23, 52, 57, 59, 107, 175–177, 184nn12,15 Aquarians and, xv, 144, 152, 157, 159–169 atomic age and, xi (see also Atomic age) Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 bespoke futures and, xvi, 97–139 blogosphere and, xvii, 30, 34, 49, 68, 80, 92–93, 101, 175, 177, 181n7 capitalism and, 4, 13, 66, 75, 90, 97–100, 103–105 capitulationism and, 7, 24, 182n1 cell phones and, xiii, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 Communism and, 97–98, 103 computers and, xvi, 5, 15–19 (see also Computers) Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi dangers of overabundance and, 7–10 desk jobs and, 3 89/11 and, xvi, 97, 100–102, 105, 130 Enlightenment and, xvi, 129–139 Sacred texts, 28 Saint Laurent, Yves, 60 Saks Fifth Avenue, 31 Samizdat, 59 Scenario planning bespoke futures and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 chaos theory and, 117–119 crafting of, 113–116 Ogilvy and, 113–114 Schwartz and, 113–114 Scènes de la vie Bohème (Murger), 61 Schindler, Rudolph, 45 Schrödinger, Erwin, 49 Schwartz, Peter, 113–115, 119 Scott, Ridley, 107 Scratching, 53 Searchers, 167, 177–178 Brin and, 144, 174–176 description of term, xv–xvi Page and, 144, 174–176 Sears, 103–105 September 11, 2001, xvi–xvii, 99–101, 130 SETI@home, 122 Sex, 7, 19, 88, 129–130, 167 Shakespeare, William, 28, 44 Shannon, Claude, 148 Shockley, William, 156 Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, 156 Silicon Valley, 149, 161, 164 Silly Symphonies (Disney ﬁlm), 88 Simon, John, Jr., 39 Simulation, xvi, 2, 11 affordances and, 16–17 bespoke futures and, 98, 121, 124, 126–127 buttons/knobs and, 16 communication devices and, 15–16 culture machine and, 143–144, 147– 152, 156–160, 166–168, 175–178 downloading and, 143, 168 emulation and, 183n3 213 INDEX Social issues (continued) ﬁgure/ground and, xvi, 42–43, 46, 102 folksonomies and, 80–81 hackers and, 22–23, 54, 67, 69, 162, 170–173 Holocaust and, 107 Hosts and, xv, 144, 167, 175 hypercontexts and, xvi, 7, 48, 76–77 information overload and, 22, 149 MaSAI and, xvi, 112, 120–123, 127, 193nn32 meaningfulness and, xvi, 14, 17, 20, 23–29, 42, 67, 77, 79, 119, 123, 128–129, 133, 173 narrative and, xv, 2, 7–8, 58–59, 67, 71, 76, 108, 110, 130–132, 143– 145, 174, 178, 180n4, 188n25, 193n34 personal grounding and, xiv–xv play and, xvi, 13, 15, 32–34, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77, 85, 88, 110–111, 130–131, 143, 153, 160–163, 185n22, 188n25 Plutocrats and, xv, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 plutopian meliorism and, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 power and, xvi, 8, 13, 17, 22 (see also Power) relationship with data and, 32 religion and, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 R-PR (Really Public Relations) and, xvi, 123–127 Searchers and, xv–xvi, 144, 167, 174–178 suburbs and, 3, 8 television and, xii (see also Television) terrorism and, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 unﬁnish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 urban planning and, 84–86 utopia and, 36, 73, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 wants vs. needs and, 13, 37, 57 wicked problems and, 158 World War I era and, 21, 107, 123, 146, 190n1 World War II era and, xi, 18, 25, 32, 47, 73, 107–108, 144–150, 157, 170 Socialists, 102–105 Software platforms, 15, 164, 170 Sontag, Susan, 135 Sopranos, The (TV show), 7 Soundscapes, 53–55 Soviet Union, 31, 85, 88, 146 Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 fall of, 104 gulags of, 107 samizdat and, 59 unimodernism and, 49–52, 73 Space Invaders, 71 Spacewar!
, 71 Spielraum (play space), 75 Spin, 124 Stallman, Richard, 170–171 Stanford, 144, 149, 158–159, 162, 175 Stardust@home, 122–123 Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC), 193n33 Sterling, Bruce, 101–102 Stewart, Jimmy, 44 Stickiness deﬁning, 28, 184n15 downloading and, 13–17, 20–23, 27–29, 184n15 duration and, 28 fan culture and, 28–32, 48, 49, 87 gaming and, 70–74 214 INDEX Systems theory, 151 Stickiness (continued) information and, 22–23, 32–35 markets and, 13, 16, 24, 30–33, 37 modernism and, 36 networks and, 16–17, 22, 24, 29–36 obsessiveness and, 28 play and, 32–34, 70–74 power and, 32–34 simulation and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 Teﬂon objects and, 28–32, 49, 87 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unﬁnish and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 70–74 uploading and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Web n.0 and, 79, 87 Stock options, 98 Stone, Linda, 34 Storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 Strachey, Christopher, 18–19 Strachey, Lytton, 19 Strange attractors, xvi, 117–120, 192n27 Sturges, Preston, 88 Stutzman, Fred, 22 Stewart, Martha, 49 Suburbs, 3, 8 Suicide bombers, 100–101 Sullivan’s Travels (Sturges), 88 Sun Microsystems, 172, 176 Superﬂat art, xi, 49 Supersizing, 3–4 Suprematism, 117 Surﬁng, 20, 80, 180n2 Surrealism, 31 Sutherland, Ivan, 160–161 Swiss Army Knife theory, 17 Symbiosis, 151–152 Synthetism, 117 Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (Jacobs), 85–86 Take-home consumption, 3 Tarantino, Quentin, 49 Taxonomies, 80–83 Technology analog, 18, 53, 150 anticipated, 108–110 bespoke futures and, 98–104, 107–113, 116, 119, 125–127, 131– 133, 136–139 broadband, 9, 57 cell phones, xiii, xvii, 17, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 commercial networks and, 4–5 compact discs (CDs), 2, 48, 53 computer mouse, 158–159 culture machine and, 143–163, 173–174 cyberpunk maxim on, 87 determinism and, 131–132 difference engine, 149 digital video discs (DVDs), 2, 7–8, 15, 58 dot-com bubble and, 79, 174 Dynabook, 161–162, 196n17 Ethernet, 161 Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 ﬁlm cameras, 15 Gutenberg press, 11, 137–138 hierarchical structures and, 123, 155, 175–176, 189n8 historical perspective on computer, 143–178 hypertext and, 158 information overload and, 22, 149 Jacquard loom, 11 mechanical calculator, 149 Metcalfe’s corollary and, 86–87 microﬁlm, 149–150 215 INDEX Technology (continued) Moore’s law and, 156, 195n13 New Economy and, 97, 99, 104, 131, 138, 144–145, 190n3 personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Photoshop, 131 progress and, 132 RFID, 65 secular culture and, 133–139 storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 technofabulism and, 99–100 teleconferencing, 158–159 3–D tracking, 39 tweaking and, 32–35, 185nn22,23 videocassette recorders (VCRs), 15, 23 wants vs. needs and, 4 woven books, 10–11 Teﬂon objects, 28–32, 49, 87 Teleconferencing, 158–159 Television as deﬁning Western culture, 2 aversion to, xii bespoke futures and, 101, 108, 124, 127–129, 133–137 delivery methods for, 2 dominance of, xii, 2–10 downloading and, 2 as drug, xii, 7–9 general audiences and, 8–9 habits of mind and, 9–10 Internet, 9 junk culture and, 5–10 Kennedy and, xi macro, 56–60 marketing fear and, xvii overusage of, 7–9 as pedagogical boon, 14 quality shows and, 7 rejuveniles and, 67 Slow Food and, 6–7 spin-offs and, 48 as time ﬁller, 67 U.S. ownership data on, 180n2 Telnet, 169 “Ten Tips for Successful Scenarios” (Schwartz and Ogilvy), 113 Terrorism, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 Textiles, 11 Text-messaging, 82 3COM, 86 3–D tracking, 39 Tiananmen Square, 104 Timecode (Figgis), 58 Time magazine, xii, 145 Time Warner, 63, 91 Tin Pan Alley, 28, 63 Tintin, 90 Toggling, xvi, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 Tools for Thought (Rheingold), 145 Torvalds, Linus, 144, 167–173 Tracy, Dick, 108 Traitorous Eight, 156 Trilling, Lionel, 79 Turing, Alan, 17–20, 52, 148 Turing Award, 17, 156 Tweaking, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 20,000 Leagues beneath the Sea (Verne), 108 Twins paradox, 49–50 Twitter, 34, 180n2 2001 (ﬁlm), 107 Ubiquity, xiii bespoke futures and, 125, 128 culture machine and, 144, 166, 177–178 folksonomies and, 80–81 Freedom software and, 22–23 hotspots and, xiv information overload and, 22, 149 isotypes and, 125 stickiness and, 22–23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 57–59, 62, 74 216 INDEX simulation and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 soundscape and, 53–55 stickiness and, 70–74 twins paradox and, 49–50 unconscious and, 43–44 unﬁnish and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 unimedia and, 39–40 uploading and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67 WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) and, 55–56, 64–65 United States Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi September 11, 2001 and, 99–101, 130 television’s dominance and, 2, 180n2 Universal Resource Locator (URL), 168–169 Universal Turing Machine, 18–19 University of Pennsylvania, 148 University of Utah, 160 UNIX, 170–171 “Untitled (After Walker Evans)” (Levine), 41 Uploading, xiii–xiv, 180nn1,2 activity levels and, 5 animal kingdom and, 1 bespoke futures and, 97, 120–123, 128–129, 132 commercial networks and, 4–5 communication devices and, 15–16 conversation and, 13 cultural hierarchy of, 1–2 culture machine and, 143, 168, 173, 175 disproportionate amount of to downloading, 13 humans and, 1–2 information and, 1, 4, 11 meaningfulness and, xvi, 29 stickiness and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Ubiquity (continued) Web n.0 and, 79–95 Ublopia, 101 Ulysses (Joyce), 94–95 Uncertainty principle, 37 Unﬁnish, xvi bespoke futures and, 127–129, 136 continuous partical attention and, 34 perpetual beta and, 36 stickiness and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 Web n.0 and, 79, 92 Unimedia, 39–40 Unimodernism Burroughs and, 40–42 common sense and, 44–45 DIY movements and, 67–70 downloading and, 41–42, 49, 54–57, 66–67, 76–77 ﬁgure/ground and, 42–43, 46 gaming and, 70–74 hypertextuality and, 51–53 images and, 55–56 information and, 45–49, 55, 60, 65–66, 74 Krikalev and, 50–51 macrotelevision and, 56–60 markets and, 45, 48, 58–59, 71, 75 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 microcinema and, 56–60 modders and, 69–70 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 narrative and, 58–59, 67, 71, 76 networks and, 39, 47–48, 54–57, 60, 64–65, 68–69, 73–74 participation and, 54, 66–67, 74–77 perception pops and, 43–49 play and, 67–77 postmodernism and, 39–41, 74 remixing and, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70 running room and, 74–77 217 INDEX Uploading (continued) unimodernism and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 Web n.0 and, 79–83, 86–87, 91 Urban planning, 84–86 U.S.
The Numerati by Stephen Baker
Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business process, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, full employment, illegal immigration, index card, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, McMansion, natural language processing, PageRank, personalized medicine, recommendation engine, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
They can create charts showing each person's migratory patterns, social hubs, and yes, even bathroom visits. Similar analysis could be focused on us as customers. In time, perhaps a store will recognize us by our movements in the aisles as likely butterflies or barnacles, or even potential shoplifters. And as the facial recognition systems improve, they may spot the barnacles among us the moment we enter the store. If cameras don't pick us up, a radio technology known as RFID just might. These are little computer chips fastened to a piece of merchandise, a shopping cart, or even a customer loyalty card. Each chip has a unique number, identifying the item or the shopper. But unlike a bar code, which has to be passed under a scanner, these chips can be read by radio signals sent by an automatic reader in the area. It's great for logistics. Open a huge cargo truck, and instead of piling through it and scanning each bar code, the chips all transmit their data at once.
See Carnegie Mellon University Code-breaking, [>]–[>] Cold War, [>]–[>] Community, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>] Computers and algorithms, [>]–[>] on animals, [>]–[>], [>] brains compared to, [>] chips in, [>]–[>] cookies on, [>] cost of, [>] data produced using, [>]–[>] history of uses of, [>]–[>] speed of calculations by, [>]–[>], [>] teaching, to recognize "tribes," [>]–[>] weaknesses of, [>]–[>] and workers, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] See also Algorithms; Computer scientists; Data; Internet; Machine learning; Mathematical models; Mathematicians; Privacy; RFID Computer scientists competition over hiring of, [>]–[>] as making sense of data, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] and math, [>] myths about, [>]–[>] See also Computers; Numerati comScore (company), [>] Consumers. See Shoppers Cookies (on computers), [>] Corporations electronic résumés for, [>] interest of, in collecting data about people, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] interest of, in collecting data about their employees, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>] marketing research by, [>], [>] See also Names of specific corporations Counterterrorism.
See Medications Privacy not a concern in animal testing, [>] concerns about loss of, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] as issue in Europe, [>] people's voluntary lifting of, [>]–[>], [>] personal details as violating, [>] and phones, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>] policies regarding shoppers', [>] protections for, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>] of workers, [>]–[>], [>] Probability, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] Probst, Katharina, [>] Proxies, [>], [>]–[>], [>] Psychology, [>], [>], [>] Pulleyblank, William, [>] Quantification, [>] See also Mathematical models Quants, [>], [>] Raghavan, Prabhakar, [>]–[>], [>], [>] Remy, Martin, [>] Republican Party, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] "Resourcefuls" tribe, [>], [>] Retail store data, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>] See also Advertisers RFID technology, [>] "Right Clicks" tribe, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] Romantic-movie lovers, i—[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] Root, Mabel, [>] Rosenberger, Larry, [>] Rove, Karl, [>], [>] Sandia National Labs (New Mexico), [>]–[>] Schatz, James, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] Scholes, Myron, [>] The Sea, the Sea (Murdoch), [>] Search engine optimization (SEO), [>] Second Life (virtual world), [>] Sensors in animals, [>]–[>] medical, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] SEO (search engine optimization), [>] Serotonin, [>], [>] [>]-Hour Task Force, [>] Shakespeare, William, [>], [>], [>] Shoppers (consumers) averaging of, [>] bloggers as, [>]–[>], [>] choices available to, [>]—ii, [>], [>] data collected about, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>] lists of, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>] targeting of individual, by advertisers, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>] See also Advertisers; Credit Sifry, David, [>]–[>] Silverstein, Craig, [>]–[>] Simplex algorithms, [>]–[>] Simplex triangle, [>]–[>] Singapore, [>], [>] Small Blue search engine, [>] "Smart bombs" (medical), [>] "Smart carts," [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>] Smith, J.
The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, web application
Even when we look at our own homes, we can see the momentum building: personal technology and gadgets, cars, bicycles, televisions, white goods, light globes, thermostats, athletic shoes, clothing, pillows, beds, door locks, toys and wearables — not to mention our phone (the smart hub). Will everything be connected? We know from technology deflation, which was discussed in chapter 7, how cheap the augmentation of technology has become. Many of the widgets used to create this connectivity are cheaper than the packaging they’re sold in. A radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip, for example, is cheaper than the glass bottle Coca-Cola comes in. Other more complex connectivity elements come at the cost of a few dollars. The price of technology is not the issue. If we add to this people’s desire for everything to be connected to the web, there’s no stopping it from becoming a mainstream communications phenomenon that will dwarf the impact of the social web. After all, a web of things has more direct financial implications and monetisation potential because it’s the ultimate in direct marketing.
It’s another form of collective sentience in addition to what we now do with social media. However, this is the physical version. In essence it will become our globally displaced technological assistance system. And it’s already being installed by innovative yet fragmented industries and startups. The ‘smart home’ will be where it first gains wide acceptance. Start making sense The types of sensor we can expect to use include microprocessors, RFIDs, accelerometers, altimeters, gauges, and audio and visual scanners of every type. If you can think of it and measure it, then a sensor can do it. Sensors can measure and record temperature, light, pressure, moisture, water level, movement, proximity, density, patterns, faces, brands and everyday things in the environment. These sensors will be able to perceive the external what, how and who of our world with incredible accuracy.
I catch the train to work. Even though I have a perfectly fine car and a free car space at my office, I do this because the incentive makes it worth the effort. The government of the day has a combined incentive for increased usage of public transport to reduce traffic congestion and to assist in the meeting of their carbon treaty targets. I check in while travelling using my registered smartphone app or RFID-enabled government issue transport card so that I’m tracked and get my tax credits. Local food retail. For my mid-morning coffee I walk past three cafés to get my java fix. The one a little further down the street offers a free coffee for every fifth check-in with my smartphone using a geo-locating app. They know I’ve checked in because my smartphone talks to their register (without me doing anything) when I’m less than 5 metres from it.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional
My favourite alternative name for the IoT is Ambient Intelligence,[cxxxv] which comes nearest to capturing the essence of the idea, which is that so many sensors, chips and transmitters are embedded in objects around us that our environment becomes intelligent – or at least, intelligible. When originally conceived, the IoT was based on Radio Frequency Identification tags (RFID), tiny devices about the size of a grain of rice which can be “read” remotely without being visible to the device which “reads” them. The RFID is a passive device, and this concept does not involve any AI. Later, technologies like Near Field Communication (NFC) were developed, which allow for two-way data exchange. Android phones have been NFC-enabled since 2011, and it powers the Apple Pay system which was launched with the iPhone 6. The IoT is becoming possible because the component parts (sensors, chips, transmitters, batteries) are becoming cheaper and smaller at – yes – an exponential rate.
Once upon a time, what marketers call fast-moving consumer goods (foods, toiletries, etc.) were requested one at a time by the shopper at a counter and fetched individually by the shopkeeper or his assistant. As these general stores firms grew bigger and more sophisticated they built large stores where shoppers fetched their own items, and presented them for processing at checkouts, like components on a car assembly line. Later on, self-service tills were installed, where shoppers could scan the bar codes of their goods themselves, speeding up the process considerably. Soon, RFID tags[xvii] on goods will enable you to wheel your trolley full of items out of the store and to your car without the fuss of unloading and re-loading them at a checkout. At each stage of this evolution, the involvement of the consumer in selecting and transporting each item increases, and the requirement for shop staff involvement reduces. This latter effect is disguised because, as society gets richer, people buy many more items, so the store needs more staff even though their involvement in each individual item is less.
book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Vernor Vinge
Science fiction writers aren't the only people in the business of predicting the future. Futurists — consultants, technology columnists, analysts, venture capitalists, and entrepreneurial pitchmen — spill a lot of ink, phosphors, and caffeinated hot air in describing a vision for a future where we'll get more and more of whatever it is they want to sell us or warn us away from. Tomorrow will feature faster, cheaper processors, more Internet users, ubiquitous RFID tags, radically democratic political processes dominated by bloggers, massively multiplayer games whose virtual economies dwarf the physical economy. There's a lovely neologism to describe these visions: "futurismic." Futurismic media is that which depicts futurism, not the future. It is often self-serving — think of the antigrav Nikes in Back to the Future III — and it generally doesn't hold up well to scrutiny.
The East German Stasi also engaged in rampant surveillance, using a network of snitches to assemble secret files on every resident of East Berlin. They knew who was telling subversive jokes—but missed the fact that the Wall was about to come down. When you watch everyone, you watch no one. This seems to have escaped the operators of the digital surveillance technologies that are taking over our cities. In the brave new world of doorbell cams, wi-fi sniffers, RFID passes, bag searches at the subway and photo lookups at office security desks, universal surveillance is seen as the universal solution to all urban ills. But the truth is that ubiquitous cameras only serve to violate the social contract that makes cities work. The key to living in a city and peacefully co-existing as a social animal in tight quarters is to set a delicate balance of seeing and not seeing.
The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky
Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar
Businesses like TCHO and thredUP continually ask: Are there other services or products you’d like us to provide? Are there other brands that you’re keen on? How else can we make your life simpler, less costly, and more enjoyable? from the digital to the physical. Every day, more parts of the physical world join data networks. Increasingly, usage and location information from multiple sources—including embedded chips, mobile GPS, RFID tracking of goods, and UPC codes—can be fused with data collected from the Web to create digital portraits of customer preferences, including what brands they trust. Adding location data is a critical step. The new networks do not manage only strictly digital products, such as e-books; they can now connect you to physical products and services, like a hot meal (which to date can only be digitalized on Star Trek).
Similarly, bike-sharing companies allow members to rent bicycles for any length of time. Other Meshy transportation companies help consumers trade cars and boats, share taxicabs, and gain access to information about public transportation. Interested in starting your own car-sharing service? The Paris-based company Eileo will steer you down the right road. It offers customized tools—including GPS, RFID, full Web-based car-sharing software, and noninvasive hardware installation—to cover all your car-sharing technology needs, from registration to invoicing. Eileo’s team of engineers is available 24/7 to help you continuously improve your car-sharing business. And their complete solutions will enable you to partner with other car-sharing services worldwide. When you expand your network to include partners in the same city or anywhere in the world, members will enjoy the same benefits of car sharing wherever they go.
Half Empty by David Rakoff
Like all omniscient machines possessed of benevolent intent but lacking decision-making power, it is a she. “Lillian” (Lillian was the name of Mrs. Disney) can read the radio frequency identification tag on a bag of flour, for example, and suggest recipes. She knows when one has run out of an ingredient and can connect to an online grocer and order more. That seems convenient enough, but does it require that one affix these RFID tags to all of one’s ingredients so that they fall within Lillian’s purview? That seems like a lot more work than writing a shopping list. More likely such items will be purchased already tagged by the supermarket. But will Lillian know, for example, when I’m down to three cloves of garlic? Enough for a sauce but a woefully short supply if I were contemplating making a gazpacho (he worried faggily).
At one point I park myself near one of the control panels and unilaterally select Grandpa’s Andrews Sisters playlist, not giving anyone who approaches even the slimmest of chances of changing the music for a few blessed minutes. This is just one of the many dispiriting aspects of 360 Tomorrowland Way: it would be just as jangling even without visitors, if it was only the family here. Rooms reassemble themselves upon the arrival of a new Elias, responding to RFID tags sewn into their soccer jerseys (although if two people enter the room at the same time, Mom’s preferences prevail, the Peace of the Hearth being of paramount importance). Things chez Elias are both adversarial and negligent, as though a family with shared interests who might agree upon what to hang on the walls of the dining room was somewhat laughable, as though we have all of us, up until now, been living lives of quiet desperation, muffling our desires and personal preferences in ambient music, lighting, cuisine, and artwork.
Big Data Analytics: Turning Big Data Into Big Money by Frank J. Ohlhorst
algorithmic trading, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, DevOps, fault tolerance, linked data, natural language processing, Network effects, pattern recognition, performance metric, personalized medicine, RFID, sentiment analysis, six sigma, smart meter, statistical model, supply-chain management, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application
Furthermore, the increasing volume and detail of information acquired by businesses and government agencies—paired with the rise of multimedia, social media, instant messaging, e-mail, and other Internet-enabled technologies—will fuel exponential growth in data for the foreseeable future. Some of that growth can be attributed to increased compliance requirements, but a key factor in the increase in data volumes is the increasingly sensor-enabled and instrumented world. Examples include RFID tags, vehicles equipped with GPS sensors, low-cost remote sensing devices, instrumented business processes, and instrumented web site interactions. The question may soon arise of whether Big Data is too big, leading to a situation in which determining value may prove more difficult. This will evolve into an argument for the quality of the data over the quantity. Nevertheless, it will be almost impossible to deal with ever-growing data sources if businesses don’t prepare to deal with the management of data head-on.
With companies now turning to creating digital representations of existing data and acquiring everything that is new, data growth rates over the last few years have been nearly infinite, simply because most of the businesses involved started from zero. Many industries fall under the umbrella of new data creation and digitization of existing data, and most are becoming appropriate sources for Big Data resources. Those industries include the following: Transportation, logistics, retail, utilities, and telecommunications. Sensor data are being generated at an accelerating rate from fleet GPS transceivers, RFID (radio-frequency identification) tag readers, smart meters, and cell phones (call data records); these data are used to optimize operations and drive operational BI to realize immediate business opportunities. Health care. The health care industry is quickly moving to electronic medical records and images, which it wants to use for short-term public health monitoring and long-term epidemiological research programs.
The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks
Now we have Web 3.0 (the “smart Web”) and, most significantly, the so-called Internet of Things (“Wow! You should check out my smart … watch, refrigerator, lamp, socks!”). In essence, the “Internet of Things” is a way of describing the phenomenon of networked objects—objects that are embedded with data-streaming sensors and software that connect them to the Net. The “things” in question run the gamut from autonomous connected devices like smartphones to the tiny radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips and other sorts of sensors attached to everything from UPS trucks and cargo containers to pets, farm animals, cars, thermostats, and NFL helmets. By 2007 there were already 10 million sensors of all sorts connected to the Internet, and some projections have that number rising to 100 trillion by 2030 if not before.4 These sensors are being used not only for economic purposes but for scientific ones (to track migratory animals, for example), and for security and military purposes (such as tracking human beings).
., 182–83 markets, 122–23 searches, 155, 158–59, 183 prejudices, 72–73 primary qualities, defined, 68, 70, 74 printing press, 35, 134 Internet compared to, xv prisons, 105, 106 fishbowl strategy for, 91 Pritchard, Duncan, 132, 203 privacy: and autonomy, 89–109 as basic to human dignity, 101–9 changing concept of, 73 control and, 94–95, 186 devaluing of, 89–93, 99–100, 105 of information, 94–100 justification for invasion of, 107–9 right to, 89, 101–2 threat to, 4, 6, 89–109, 186 traded for security, 105, 108 U.S. legislation on, 93, 95–96, 108 values of, 93–95, 109 privacy policies, 105–6 prize competitions, 136–37 problem-solving sites, 136–37 procedural knowledge, 167–74 Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics, 84 professors, 152–53 propaganda: Internet as tool for, 66, 81 political, 82–83 property, changing concept of ownership of, 73 Proposition 8 legislation, 53 prosthetics, 191 pro tanto, 198 public life, defined, 63 questioning, skill in, 16–17, 171–72 race, 72, 157, 162 racism, 147 radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips, 7 raft metaphor, for foundation of beliefs, 129 rationalist delusion, 50–55 Rawls, John, 49 reasonableness, 40, 41–63, 90, 125, 179, 196 as anchor for belief, 132, 195 defined, 50, 55 democracy and, 55–63 devaluing of, 147–48 as rationalist’ delusion, 50–55 reasons, reasoning: arbitrary basis for, 47–48 circular, 130–32 common currency for, 50, 63 defined, 39 exchange of, 50–55 fragmentation in, 4, 41–63 Glauconian view of, 54–55, 56–58 individual sensitivity to, 84–85 knowledge based on, 15, 33, 36–40 rules of, 40 shifting the geography of, 147–48 in value judgment, 57 receptive knowledge, 26–31, 37, 48, 60–61, 153–54, 179–80, 187, 194, 203 as anchor for belief, 131–32 in motor skills, 169 reflective vs., 39, 51, 131, 154, 196 Reddit, 24, 116 reflective knowledge, 39, 51, 131, 154, 196 reliability, 14, 27–31, 39–40, 44–45, 114–16, 119–20, 123–25, 130, 194–95 religion: marriage and, 58–59 science vs., 47–49, 66 values of, 44 Republic, The (Plato), 54, 83 Republican Party, 61–62 research sharing, 135–36 responsibility, individual vs. group, 117–19 Rifkin, Jeremy, 7–8, 92, 140–41, 145, 151, 180 ring of invisibility, 54 robots: cyborg, 5–6, 191–92 as socialbots, 81–82 Rogers, Mike, 96 Romney, Mitt, 200 Rorty, Richard, 62 Rove, Karl, 50 Rudder, Christian, 157–60 Russell, Bertrand, ix, xvii–xviii, 186 Ryle, Gilbert, 168 St.
Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by C. Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell
airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application
All we need is a little more software that can understand such things as milk being available at grocery stores. In addition to giving you all the right reminders, it will not be too long before your e-memories will fill in your other absentminded gaps. Your increasingly location-aware cell phone will remind you where you parked your car. You will track where you have left things like your glasses, either by noting where your devices last detected their RFID tag, or by taking pictures of them. When your mind is absent, your e-memory will always be there. Having too much on my mind doesn’t just make me absentminded; it can make me feel mentally cluttered, impeding my productivity. David Allen’s popular book and seminar series Getting Things Done stands on the central premise that we are hindered by mental clutter: First of all, if it’s on your mind, your mind isn’t clear.
Their father, John, lies down in his bed, and a wireless unit underneath the mattress communicates with his pacemaker, downloading the story of his heart for the day. Almost every month, his medication is slightly adjusted based on pacemaker data. Several times, a trend of his weight combined with heart activity leads to messages from his e-Nurse. The e-Nurse remarks that these episodes seem to follow times the RFID sensor in the fridge has tracked chocolate ice-cream purchases. John has believed he could get away with a “little bit” of his favorite dessert, and is chagrined to learn he cannot. Our health care has been built on limited, spotty data. It reminds me of the guy building a house mostly by “eyeballing” it, with only rare use of his tape measure, level, or square. Health care with Total Recall is like a house that is built right.
What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers
Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar
When snow covers the city, the bikes and docks can be packed up and moved. Real-time information about bike availability and station location is accessible from smart phones and on the Internet. BIXI also seems to be avoiding some of the theft and vandalism that have plagued other networks. The bikes are designed with sealed components to resist abuse and each bike contains a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip. If rented and not returned, the bike will slow down and the brakes will lock automatically. The design and planning team estimated that three thousand bikes were the “critical mass” necessary to persuade enough people to switch from cars (and taxis) to bikes at first, enabling the city government to provide more bikes to get more people to switch. Within four months after the launch, BIXI had attracted more than seventy-seven thousand resident users, and more than 2.2 million miles had been traveled on the bikes, more than eighty-seven times the circumference of the earth.
A key to a product service system’s success is its ability to satisfy our deep-seated need to feel like an owner for at least the time the product is in our care. Companies achieve this feeling of ownership through discreet branding of the service on the product itself (the Bag Borrow or Steal logo is never visible on the outside of the bag) or building common ownership quirks into the brand. Zipcar gives its cars affectionate names such as “Simpson” the Volvo or “Munselle” the Mazda. Technologies such as RFID (radio-frequency identification) membership cards that open the door to “your” car also help reconfigure the relationship between products and services and destigmatize the notion of sharing. People are realizing that ownership for the sake of exclusive possession is less important than the sense of belonging that ownership imparts. In other words, ownership is becoming less about title and lease and more about the experience of autonomy and control.
Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman
collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush
But today things seem different—in degree if not always in kind—now that every click, every move has the potential to count for something, for someone somewhere somehow. Is data about you yours, or should it be, now that data collection has become an always-everywhere proposition? Try to spend a day “off the grid” and you’d better leave your credit and debit cards, transit pass, school or work ID, passport, and cell phone at home—basically, anything with a barcode, magnetic strip, RFID, or GPS receiver.2 In short, if World War II helped to usher in the era of so-called Big Science, the new millennium has arrived as the era of Big Data.3 For this reason, we think a book like “Raw Data” Is an Oxymoron is particularly timely. Its title may sound like an argument or a thesis, but we want it to work instead as a friendly reminder and a prompt. Despite the ubiquity of the phrase raw data—over seventeen million hits on Google as of this writing—we think a few moments of reflection will be enough to see its selfcontradiction, to see, as Bowker suggests, that data are always already “cooked” and never entirely “raw.”
It is at this point then that the interpellation argument falters because the processes of subjectification at the heart of the “panoptic sort” have been transformed. Along the same lines, Matthew Fuller argues that surveillance is no longer about visual apprehension but is instead a “socio-algorithmic process” that captures and calculates “flecks of identity,” the data trails of our everyday actions, such as our browsing history, financial transactions, and our movements as they are recorded by GPS coordinates on our mobile devices and RFID tags in passports and identity cards.30 The “flecks” concept emerges in some respect from Gilles Deleuze’s outline of the emergence of the “dividual” in the context of the control society; if the individuated self was both product and figure of modernity, “dividuals” are rather fragmented and dispersed data bodies. They are, as Tiziana Terranova explains, “what results from the decomposition of individuals into data clouds subject to automated integration and disintegration.”31 Put another way, they are the CDOs (collateralized debt obligations) of the data market, in which bits and pieces of a supposed composite profile, which is itself an operative fiction, are sliced and diced into different tranches, such that a stable referential link to a singular entity becomes lost in a sea of user intent data.
Little Brother by Cory Doctorow
airport security, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web of trust, zero day
Dan Kaminsky, a tunneling expert of the first water, published details in 2004 (www.doxpara.com/bo2004.ppt). The guru of "citizen journalism" is Dan Gillmor, who is presently running the Center for Citizen Media at Harvard and UC Berkeley -- he also wrote a hell of a book on the subject, "We, the Media" (O'Reilly, 2004). If you want to learn more about hacking arphids, start with Annalee Newitz's Wired Magazine article "The RFID Hacking Underground" (www.wirednews.com/wired/archive/14.05/rfid.html). Adam Greenfield's "Everyware" (New Riders Press, 2006) is a chilling look at the dangers of a world of arphids. Neal Gershenfeld's Fab Lab at MIT (fab.cba.mit.edu) is hacking out the world's first real, cheap "3D printers" that can pump out any object you can dream of. This is documented in Gershenfeld's excellent book on the subject, "Fab" (Basic Books, 2005).
"Ange, I've never thought more clearly in my whole life." She kissed me then, and I kissed her back, and it was some time before we went out for that burrito. &&& Afterword by Bruce Schneier I'm a security technologist. My job is making people secure. I think about security systems and how to break them. Then, how to make them more secure. Computer security systems. Surveillance systems. Airplane security systems and voting machines and RFID chips and everything else. Cory invited me into the last few pages of his book because he wanted me to tell you that security is fun. It's incredibly fun. It's cat and mouse, who can outsmart whom, hunter versus hunted fun. I think it's the most fun job you can possibly have. If you thought it was fun to read about Marcus outsmarting the gait-recognition cameras with rocks in his shoes, think of how much more fun it would be if you were the first person in the world to think of that.
Programming Android: Java Programming for the New Generation of Mobile Devices by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura
anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application
Near Field Communication (NFC) Near Field Communication is a short-range (up to 20 cm), high-frequency, wireless communication technology. It is a standard that extends the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) standard by combining the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. This standard is primarily built for mobile phone use, and thus is attracting a lot of attention among vendors that are interested in contactless data transmission (such as credit card sales). The standard enables NFC to be used in three specific ways: Card emulation The device is a contactless card (and thus can be read by other readers). Reader mode The device can read RFID tags. P2P mode Two devices can communicate back and forth and exchange data. In Android 2.3 (API level 9), Google introduced the Reader Mode NFC functionality.
To use NFC functionality in your application, you need to declare the following permission in your manifest: <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.NFC" /> To restrict the installation of the application to devices that can use NFC, add the following to your manifest as well: <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.nfc" /> Reading a Tag Reader mode is for receiving notices when an RFID/NFC tag is scanned. In Android 2.3 (API level 9), the only means to do this is to create an Activity that listens for the android.nfc.action.TAG_DISCOVERED intent, which is broadcast when a tag is read. Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) offers a more comprehensive means to receive this notice, following the process shown in Figure 18-2. Figure 18-2. NFC tag flow in Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) In Android 2.3.3 (API level 10) and later, when an NFC tag is discovered the tag object (a Parcelable) is placed into an Intent as an EXTRA_TAG.
The Future of Technology by Tom Standage
air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, disintermediation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K
Whether railways, cars or even electricity, all are relatively limited technologies compared with it, which in time is likely to embrace the whole of business and society. Currently, wireless technologies are all the rage, although again nobody knows how much money will be in it for vendors and carriers. Optimists hope that surfers will soon be able to roam around freely and remain continuously connected to the internet. And small radio chips called rfid tags will make it possible to track everything and anything, promising to make supply chains much more efficient. But even a new killer application is unlikely to bring back the good old times. “After a crash, much of the glamour of the new technology is gone,” writes Brian Arthur, an economist at the Santa Fe Institute. The years after the British railway mania, for instance, were “years of build-out rather than novelty, years of confidence and steady growth, years of orderliness.”
A small portion of these wares eventually do end up being used by ordinary humans. Currently, the ces technophiles are excited about two trends in particular. The first is that every single electronic device will soon be connected to the internet. This includes the obvious, such as mobile phones and tv sets, and the less obvious, such as shirts and nappies that carry tiny radio-frequency identification (rfid) tags. Microsoft talks about its “connected-car” project, which conjures up images of drivers rebooting on the motorway. But the direction is clear. In future, most people in rich countries will be “always on”, and will connect to the internet through something other than a pc. The other, and related, big idea concerns what some vendors call “the digital home” and others the “e-home”. This year’s ces was full of mock homes in which the toaster, the refrigerator and the oven talk wirelessly to the computer, where toilet seats warm up at appropriate times and the front door can be unlocked remotely through the internet by the owner on his business trip abroad.
O’Neil, David 73 O’Neil, John 28, 30 OneSaf 197 online banks 37 online shopping viii, 37 open standards 7, 10, 22–7, 31, 38, 43, 85–7, 115, 118–19, 152 operating systems 9, 10, 23–5, 31, 38, 85, 101, 109 operators, mobile phones 157–61, 162–9 Opsware 8, 15 optical-character recognition 121 Oracle 5, 20–2, 33, 38, 39–40, 46, 56, 62, 86, 243 Orange 157–8 organic IT 13–16, 88 original design manufacturers (ODMs), mobile phones 156–7 O’Roarke, Brian 192 O’Roarke, John 96 Orr, Scott 187 orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 212–13, 215–17 INDEX Otellini, Paul 11, 95 outshored developments, software 38, 115, 138–9 outsourcing viii, 9, 19–20, 22, 38, 68–9, 71, 72, 88–92, 112–46, 158–60 see also globalisation barriers 121–2, 143 concepts 112–46 costs 112–24, 131–5, 140–3 cultural issues 122, 142 Europe 140–6 historical background 119–20, 125–6, 133 India 38, 109, 112–15, 119–22, 125–35, 137–8, 140–6 legal agreements 121–4 mobile phones 155–6, 158–60 opportunities 144–6 protectionists 140–6 reasons 123–4, 143 services 113–30 social outsourcing 143 “overshoot” stage, industries 9, 10–11, 109 overview vii–x, 6–7 Ovi, Alessandro 275–6 Oxford GlycoSciences 243 P Pacific Cycle 140 Page, Larry 9 Pait, Rob 207 Palladium 74, 76 Palm Pilot 150 Palmisano, Samuel 22 Paltrow, Gwyneth 173 Panasonic 156 Papadopoulos, Greg 14, 78–9, 83–4, 91 Papadopoulos, Stelios 237 Parker, Andrew 143 Parks Associates 96, 203 Parr, Doug 319 particulate filters 296–7 passwords 53, 58–61, 67, 96–7 patents, nanotechnology 321–6, 329 Patriot Act, America 35 PCs 9–16, 78–81, 82–110, 151, 171–3, 202–18 see also digital homes; hardware commoditisation issues 9–16, 132–5, 203 complexity issues 78–81, 82–110 screen sizes 100–1 UWB 214–18 Wi-Fi 209–18 PDAs see personal digital assistants Peck, Art 203 PentaSafe Security 60 Pentium chips 199–200 PeopleSoft 39, 86, 119, 126, 132 Perez, Carlota 5–6, 134 performance issues see also processing power; returns cars 291–8 Cell chips 198–200 cost links 29–30 Perlegen 244 personal digital assistants (PDAs) 151, 277, 279 see also handheld computers personal video recorders (PVRs) 203, 205–6 perverse incentives, security issues 61–2 Pescatore, John 55 Pfizer 69, 240, 247, 312, 315 pharmaceutical companies 239–40, 241–50, 312 PHAs 260 Philippines 130 Philips 120, 217 “phishing” 76, 89 phonograph 82, 84 photo-voltaic cells 280 photos ix, 78, 95, 101, 179–83 Physiome 248 Picardi, Tony 79 Pick, Adam 156 Pink Floyd 225 Piper, H. 292 Pittsburgh convention centre 304 Pivotal 187 plasma screens 230–2 plastics 238–9, 259–64 PlayStation 191–2, 199–200, 206–7 plug-and-play devices 78 plug-in hybrid cars 295–6 Poland 120 police involvement, security breaches 72 polio 265 politics 32–5 see also governments Pollard, John 157 pollution 275, 296–7, 299–304, 319 Pop Idol (TV show) 225 Pope, Alexander 267 Porsche 292 “post-technology” period, IT industry vii, 5–7 Powell, Michael 98, 206 power grids 233, 285–90 PowerPoint presentations 4–5, 107 Predictive Networks 337 Presley, Elvis 225 prices, downward trends viii, 4–7 PricewaterhouseCoopers 38 printers 78, 96 privacy issues 27, 34, 42–8, 179–83 see also security... mobile phones 179–83 processing power see also computer chips 353 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY exponential growth 4–7, 8–14 Proctor, Donald 106 Prodi, Romano 274–5 profits, future prospects 7, 17–18, 37–40 proprietary technology 24, 26, 80, 86 protectionists, outsourcing 140–6 proteins, biotechnology 241–64 protocols, complexity issues 86 Proxim 210 Prozac 315 PSA Peugeot Citroën 293, 296–7 PSP, Sony 191–3 public accounts 44 Pullin, Graham 177–8 PVRs see personal video recorders Q Qualcomm 164 quantum dots 312, 317, 322, 325 R radiation fears, mobile phones 176 radio 34–5, 36, 39, 94–5, 108, 155–61, 164, 209–18, 223 see also wireless... chips 155–61, 164 “garbage bands” 209–10, 215 music industry 223 spectrum 34–5, 94–5, 209–18 UWB 96–7, 214–19 Radjou, Navi 333–4 railway age vii, 5, 7, 23, 36, 39, 134 Raleigh, Greg 211 RAND 195 rationalisation exercises 31 RCA 108–9, 206, 208, 220, 315 real-world skills, gaming comparisons 194–7 RealNetworks 203 rechargeable batteries 280–4 Recourse Technologies 62–3 Reed, Philip 177 regulations 35, 44, 209–10, 326–9 see also legal issues relational databases 101–2 reliability needs viii, 42–8 religion 19 renewable energy 275–6, 286, 289, 300, 310, 315 ReplayTV 205 Research in Motion (RIM) 152–3 resistance problems, employees 31 return on investment (ROI) 30–1 returns 20, 29–31, 329 see also performance issues risk 20, 30, 329 revenue streams biotechnology 237–8, 241–2 354 gaming 189–90, 191 GM 251–2 mobile phones 151, 154–5, 157, 162–3, 165–6, 174 nanotechnology 321–6 revolutionary ideas vii–viii, 5–7, 13–14, 36–40, 80–4, 107–10, 116, 134, 151–3, 198–200, 236–40, 326–9 RFID radio tags 39, 94–5 Rhapsody 203 Ricardo 296–7 Riley, James, Lieutenant-Colonel 195–7 RIM see Research in Motion ringtones 165–6 RISC chips 200 risk assessments 70–4, 76 attitudes 18 handling methods 71 insurance policies 71–3 management 70–4 mitigation 71–3 outsourced risk 71, 72, 88–92 returns 20, 30, 329 security issues 42–8, 49–69, 70–4 RNA molecules 241–2, 249–50, 265 Robinson, Shane 15–16 robotics x, 233, 316, 332–5 Roco, Mihail 309 Rodgers, T.J. 32 Rofheart, Martin 216–17 Rogers, Richard 300 ROI see return on investment Rolls, Steve 121 Romm, Joseph 298 Roomba 332, 334–5 “root kit” software 51 Rose, John 226 Roslin Institute 256 Roy, Raman 125–8 Russia 115, 130, 140, 142, 145, 319 Ryan, John 312 S S700 mobile phone 171 Saffo, Paul 83–4, 103, 182 Salesforce.com 19, 20, 84, 91–2, 109 Samsung 158–60, 181, 208, 217, 231, 277 Santa Fe Institute 39 SAP 22, 38, 86, 119, 126, 132 satellite television 205 Saudi Arabia 180 scandals 28 scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) 306 SCC see Sustainable Computing Consortium Schadler, Ted 95, 97 Schainker, Robert 285, 289 INDEX Scherf, Kurt 96–7 Schmelzer, Robert 91 Schmidt, Eric 9, 35, 36–8 Schmidt, Nathan 66 Schneider National 29–31 Schneier, Bruce 43, 58, 61–2, 65, 70, 73–4 schools, surveillance technology 181 Schwartz, John 46 Schwinn 140, 143 Scott, Tony 43, 68–9 screen sizes 100–1 screws 23–4 Seagate Technology 207 seamless computing 96–7 Sears, Roebuck & Co 36 Securities and Exchange Commission 321 security issues viii, 25–7, 32–5, 42–8, 49–74, 86–7 see also privacy... airport approach 68–9 anti-virus software 50–1, 60, 67–8 biometric systems 60, 64–5, 71, 74 breaches 43–4, 46, 49–52, 62, 72–3 civil liberties 74 concepts 42–74, 86–7 costs 45–6, 50–1, 62, 70–4 employees 58–63, 69 encryption 53–4 firewalls 51–3, 58, 60, 62, 66–8, 71, 86–7 hackers 4, 43, 47, 49, 51–3, 58–63 handheld computers 67–8 honeypot decoys 62–3 human factors 57–63, 69 identity management 69 IDSs 51, 53–4, 62, 87 impact assessments 70–1, 76 insider attacks 62–3 insurance policies 71–3 internet 35, 42–8, 49–57, 61–2, 66, 66–7, 71, 73–6, 179–83 job vacancies 46 joint ventures 67 major threats 35, 42, 43, 47, 49–63, 66–9 management approaches 60–3, 69 Microsoft 54–6, 72, 74, 76 misconceptions 46–8 networks 42–8, 49–65, 66–9 passwords 53, 58–61, 67, 96–7 patches 56–7, 76 perverse incentives 61–2 police involvement 72 risk assessments 70–4, 76 standards 71–3 terrorism 35, 42, 43, 50, 65, 74, 75–6, 265–6 tools 49–63, 86–7 viruses 45, 47, 49–56, 59–60, 67–8, 74, 86, 89 Wi-Fi 66–7, 93 sedimentation factors 8–9, 84 segmentation issues, mobile phones 167–9 self-configuration concepts 88–9 Sellers, William 23 Seminis 254 Sendo 160 Senegal 182 September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks 35, 42, 43, 50, 65, 75 servers 9–16, 37–8, 62–3, 85–7, 132–3, 203 services industry 14, 17–22, 25–7, 31, 36–40, 80, 88–92, 109, 113–35, 203 see also web services outsourcing 113–46 session initiation protocol (SIP) 104–6 sewing machines 82, 84 SG Cowen 237 shapes, mobile phones 170–6 Shapiro, Carl 24 Sharp 156, 231, 326 shelfware phenomenon 20 Shelley, Mary 267, 269 shipping costs 121 sick building syndrome 302 Siebel 86 Siemens 120, 130, 142, 156, 159, 170, 172, 174 SightSpeed 84, 98, 103 SilentRunner 62 Silicon Valley 9, 32–40, 45–6, 54, 69, 79, 96, 98, 101, 103, 152, 313–14, 321 silk 263, 269 Simon, Herbert 336 simplicity needs 78–81, 84, 87, 88–92, 98–110 SIP see session initiation protocol Sircam virus 45, 49 Sirkin, Hal 120, 140 “six sigma” methods 128 SK 169 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill 302 Sky 205 Skype 103–4, 110 Sloan School of Management, MIT 30 Slovakia 120 small screens 100 Smalley, Richard 311 smallpox 265–6 smart power grids 233, 285–90 smartcards 64, 69 smartphones 150–3, 157–61 see also mobile phones SMES devices 289 Smith Barney 37 Smith, George 307–8 Smith, Lamar 75 Smith, Vernon 17 SNP 243–4 SOAP 25–7 355 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY social issues mobile phones 177–8, 182–3 music players 220–1 social outsourcing 143 software see also information technology ASPs 19–20, 91–2, 109 bugs 20–1, 54–6 Cell chips 198–200 commoditisation issues 10–16, 25, 132–5, 159, 203 complexity issues 14–15, 78–81, 82–110, 117–22 firewalls 52–3, 58, 86–7 hackers 51–3, 58–63 Java programming language 21–2, 25, 86 management software 13–16, 21–2, 88, 117–18 mobile phones 158–9 natural-language search software 339–40 operating systems 9, 10, 23–5, 31, 38, 85, 101, 109 outsourcing 38, 115, 138–9 patches 56–7, 76 premature releases 20–1 shelfware phenomenon 20 viruses 45, 47, 49–56, 59–60, 67, 74, 89 solar power 275–6, 286, 289, 301–2, 310, 315, 325 Solectron 112–13, 119 solid-state storage media 204, 207, 219 SOMO... project, mobile phones 177–8 Sony 95, 108, 156, 191–3, 198–200, 203, 206–7, 217, 228, 231, 282–4, 332, 334, 338 Sony Ericsson 156, 158, 159–60, 171 Sony/BMG 222–3, 227, 229 Sood, Rahul 38 Sorrent 187 South Africa 309, 319, 334 South Korea 156, 158, 163–5, 167–9, 170–1, 181, 319 soyabean crops 252–4 spam 76, 89, 118 Spar, Debora 32–3 speculation vii speech recognition 102, 121, 336 SPH-V5400 mobile phone 208 Spider-Man 189–90 Spinks, David 60–1, 63 Spitzer, Eliot 223 Sprint 167–8, 180–1 SQL 53 @Stake 54 Standage, Ella 316 standards green buildings 300–4 open standards 7, 10, 22–7, 31, 38, 43, 85–7, 115, 118–19, 152 356 security issues 71–3 W-CDMA standard 163–4, 168 web services 90–1 Wi-Fi 210–13 Stanford University 82, 137 Star Wars (movie) 186 steam power ix, 5, 134 steel industry 134 steering committees 31 stem cells 268–9 Steven Winter Associates 302 Stewart, Martha 249 STM see scanning tunnelling microscope stop-start hybrid cars 293–4 storage problems, electricity 275–6, 289–90 StorageTek 85 strategy 30 stress-resistance, biotechnology 254 Studio Daniel Libeskind 302 Sturiale, Nick 45 Sun Microsystems 9, 13–15, 21–2, 25, 27, 37–8, 43, 56, 58, 78–9, 83, 85, 87, 91, 102 supercomputers 199–200 Superdome machines 21 supply chains 8, 37–40, 155 surveillance technology 35, 74, 179–83, 309 Sussex University 5, 220, 310 Sustainable Computing Consortium (SCC) 27 Sweden 109 Swiss Army-knife design, mobile phones 171–2 Swiss Re Tower, 30 St Mary Axe 299, 301–2, 304 swivel design, mobile phones 171 Symantec 39, 46, 50, 62–3, 67 Symbian 158 Symbol 210 synthetic materials 258–64, 317 systems analysts 137 T T-Mobile 167–8 Taiwan 156–7, 160 Talwar, Vikram 144 Taylor, Andy 226 Taylor, Carson 287 TCP/IP 25 TCS 132–5, 145–6 Teague, Clayton 314 TechNet 33 techniques, technology 17–18 techno-jewellery design, mobile phones 172–4 technology see also individual technologies concepts vii–x, 4–7, 17–18, 23–7, 32–3, 82–4, 134, 326–9 cultural issues 93–4, 142 INDEX geekiness problems 83–4 government links 7, 18, 27, 31–5, 43–8, 123–4, 179–83, 209–10 Luddites 327 surveillance technology 35, 74, 179–83, 309 Tehrani, Rich 105 telecommunications viii, 23, 26, 103–6, 134, 164–5 telegraph 32–3, 108 telephone systems 84, 103–6, 109–10, 212–13, 214 Telia 109 terrorism 35, 42, 43, 50, 65, 74, 75–6, 265–6 Tesco 168 Tetris 12 Texas Energy Centre 287 Texas Instruments 125–6, 217 text-messaging facilities 165, 167 Thelands, Mike 164 therapeutic antibodies 249–50, 256–7 Thiercy, Max 339–40 thin clients 102 third-generation mobile phone networks (3G) 151, 162–9, 212 Thomas, Jim 318 Thomson, Ken 59 Thornley, Tony 164 3G networks see third-generation mobile phone networks TIA see Total Information Awareness TiVo 203, 205–6 Tomb Raider (game/movie) 187–8 Toshiba 156, 198–200, 203 Total Information Awareness (TIA) 35 toxicity issues, nanotechnology 316–17, 319, 328–9 Toyota 291–5, 297, 300–1, 334 toys see also gaming robotics 334 transatlantic cable 36, 39 transistors 4–7, 8–12, 85–7, 109 see also computer chips Transmeta 313 Treat, Brad 84, 98 Tredennick, Nick 10–11 Treo 150, 153 “Trojan horse” software 51–2 True Crime (game) 187 TruSecure 52, 60, 63 TTPCom 155–6 Tuch, Bruce 210 TVs see also video recorders flat-panel displays ix, 94, 147, 202–3, 230–2, 311 hard disks 204–8 screens 202–3, 230–2 set-top boxes 203, 205–6 UWB 214–18 Wi-Fi 212–18 U UBS Warburg 31, 45, 80–1, 89, 170, 174 UDDI 25–7 ultrawideband (UWB) 96–7, 214–19 UMTS see W-CDMA standard “undershoot” stage, industries 9, 109 UNECE 332–4 Ungerman, Jerry 52 Unimate 332–3 United Airlines 27 Universal Music 222–3, 226–7 Unix 9, 25, 85, 108 USB ports 78 usernames 59 USGBC 300–2 utility companies, cyber-terrorism threats 75–6 utility factors 7, 16, 17, 19–22, 42–8 UWB see ultrawideband V V500 mobile phone 157 vaccines 265–6 Vadasz, Les 33 Vail, Tim 290 value added 5–7, 37–40, 133, 138–9 value transistors 11 van Nee, Richard 211 Varian, Hal 24 VC see venture capital Veeco Instruments 324 vendors complexity issues 84–110 consumer needs 94–7 Venter, Craig 262–3, 271 venture capital (VC) 12, 31, 45, 79, 92, 107, 126–7, 238, 308, 321–6 Verdia 254–5, 261 Veritas 39, 85 Vertex 247 vertical integration, mobile phones 156–61 Vertu brand 173–4 Viacom 224 video phone calls 84, 103–6, 164–5, 167–8 video recorders see also TVs DVRs 205–6 handheld video players 206 hard disks 204–8 PVRs 203, 205–6 Wi-Fi 212–13 video searches, Google 11 357 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY Video Voyeurism Prevention Act, America 180 video-game consoles see gaming Virgin 95, 160, 167–8 Virgin Mobile 160, 167–8 virtual private networks (VPNs) 54, 68, 86–7 virtual tissue, biotechnology 248 virtualisation concepts 15–16, 88–92 viruses 45, 47, 49–56, 59–60, 67–8, 74, 86, 89 anti-virus software 50–1, 60, 67–8 concepts 49–56, 59–60, 74 costs 50–1 double-clicking dangers 59–60 Vista Research 46, 62, 67 Vodafone 164–5 voice conversations internet 103–6 mobile phones 165–9, 171 voice mail 104–6 voice-over-internet protocol (VOIP) 103–6, 167 Vonage 104, 110 VPNs see virtual private networks W W3C see World Wide Web Consortium W-CDMA standard 163–4, 168 Waksal, Sam 249 Wal-Mart 95, 114–15, 131–2, 140, 224, 228 Walkman 192 warfare AI 338 biotechnology 265–6 gaming comparisons 195–7, 339 nanotechnology 319 Warner Music 222–3, 226–7 Watson, James 236, 247, 271 web services 21–2, 25–7, 31, 80, 88–92, 109, 203 see also internet; services... complexity issues 88–92, 109 standards 90–1 Webster, Mark 211 WECA see Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance Weill, Peter 30 Welland, Mark 318 Western Union 33, 108 Westinghouse Electric 332 wheat 253 white page 99–100 Wi-Fi 34–5, 66–7, 93, 95–7, 153, 203, 209–18 concepts 209–18 forecasts 209, 212–13 historical background 209–13 hotspots 211–12 mobile phones 212 standards 210–13 358 threats 212–13 UWB 214–18 Wilkerson, John 237 Williams, Robbie 222, 226 Wilsdon, James 318 WiMax 212–13 WiMedia 213 Wimmer, Eckard 265 wind power 275–6, 286, 289–90, 302 Windows 15, 24–5, 55–6, 96, 101, 108, 152, 203 Windows Media Center 203 WinFS 101 Wipro 112, 115, 120–1, 125–9, 131–5, 138, 145–6 Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) 211 wireless technology ix, 11, 34–5, 39, 66–7, 93, 95–7, 109–10, 147, 150–3, 167, 168–9, 171–3, 203, 209–13, 334 see also Wi-Fi Bluetooth wireless links 171–2, 173, 214–15, 218 concepts 209–13, 334 historical background 209–13 Wladawsky-Berger, Irving vii, 5, 19, 22, 25, 38–9 Wolfe, Josh 323 Wong, Leonard 195 Wood, Ben 156–7, 160, 174 Woodcock, Steven 338–9 Word 84, 107 work-life balance 80–1, 94 see also employees World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) 25 worm viruses 49–50, 59, 86, 89 Wright, Myles 118 “ws splat” 90–1 WSDL 25–7 X x-ray crystallography 247–8 Xbox 189, 206–7 Xelibri mobile phones 170, 172, 174 Xerox 108–9 XML see extensible markup language XtremeSpectrum 216 Y Y2K crisis 76, 126, 128 Yagan, Sam 229 Yanagi, Soetsu 84 Yurek, Greg 288 Z ZapThink 91
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
For savvy urban designers, equally adept with physical and virtual envelopes, it's not difficult to make up long lists of possible projects: augmented reality Apps for ambulance paramedics and open-air surgical theaters; a mash-up of post-Twitter microblog Apps linked to post-Siri voice-control interfaces and trans-Google translation software, together posting anything you want to say to anyone anywhere always; citizen activists using GIS, mass-market geobrowsers, and modified drones to streaming real-time C3 video to 3D-printed phones; mining composite crowd-sourced behavioral data to optimize the recycling of post-purchase prosaic junk; real-time flu outbreak visualization and private microgovernance of microbiopolitical swarms (a premium upgrade only for club members); traffic control sensor and smart tollbooth hacks; individually reconfigurable robotic building interiors collapsing rooms and even floors serving different programs in morning and at night; anonymized parking markets based on bitcoin and namecoin; building exteriors featuring networked cinema, not on thirty-second loops but on eighteen-month lunar cycles; lifelong syncing of car-phone-home-Clouds platform allegiance chosen at birth like football team fandom; Google Office per-minute commercial office leasing apps; personal RFID managers; rock star privacy consultants—all driven by (at least partially) open APIs enabling other applications to build further on their existing traces. Insert your own schemes and nightmares here. Regarding the experiment suggested above, for two groups of architects assigned to tackle the virtual as well as the physical envelope, it's certain that even this is fraught with risk, not only because of what it would leave behind but because of what it might accomplish and quickly lose the ability to control.
The physical object becomes the exemplary noncitizen User of the City layer, as the most intensive impact of algorithmic capital into the physical realm of The Stack is in the molecular reassemblage of standardized matter, its global redistribution as manufactured objects, and the computational optimization of their itineraries through supply chains. All of these enjoy their own kinds of megastructural theater. At the City layer, this object-oriented economy of molecular logistics is expressed in “planetary supersurfaces” such as warehouses that are so large that their floors have been laser-leveled against the curvature of the Earth. Instead of walls and windows, these spaces are programmed by bar codes, RFID chips, and scanners and populated by robotic platforms, shelves, and stockers that can easily lift over a ton of goods at once.72 From the perspective of The Stack looking out at the Earth, these architectures of and for things are perhaps even more essential than those rendered for the benefit of human appreciation (as discussed in more detail in the User chapter). Taken as a whole, these Cloud platform megastructures concentrate the City layer by drawing economies of flesh, information, energy, and symbolization into a web of settlement and displacement as vast as it is uneven and asymmetrical.
The design problematics of planetary-scale computation push up against the expansion of infrastructure at urban and transcontinental scales but also draw on the dilution of small-scale objects into something like a universal solvent of synthetic computation. By comparison, we are no longer so impressed by the prospect of “smart objects,” interactive habitats, and reflexive architectures. Now projects seek “networked matter,” the hybridizing of digital bits and pieces of the physical world, both above and below anthropometric scale, into an ambient field of systematic intercommunication and assembly. Joining the battalions of RFID-enabled objects would be smart dust, robotic insects, transistors inside of living cells, and programmable clay filled with zillions of nanometric machines that can take on any animated form. Research programs such as Hewlett-Packard's Central Nervous System of the Earth (CeNSE), work toward the trillion-sensor world in which bridges, trains, warehouses, earthquake faults, trees, flowers and animals, and even internal organs are filled with tiny sensors, each transmitting data directly to one another or to the Cloud.4 The promise (or threat) of designing with a computation that is so deeply laced into the structures and behaviors of matter is an ambition for addressing platforms of comprehensive transparency and the remote interaction with the world at a chemical and atomic scale.
Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products by Leander Kahney
Apple II, banking crisis, British Empire, Dynabook, global supply chain, interchangeable parts, Jony Ive, race to the bottom, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the built environment, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple
I took one look at him and figured that our work was gonna get a lot better, fast.”9 De Iuliis was able to imbue his designs with strong personality, a skill that served him well later on. One of his early projects was the Macintosh Color Classic, an update of the original Mac that exuded character and was avidly collected by fans for years. He would later work on the MacBook Pro and the iPhones 4 and 5. His name appears on more than 560 patents. They’re vast and varied in scope, including innovations in 3-D cameras, multi-touch displays, location tracking, RFID transponders, nitriding stainless steel, magsafe charging mechanisms, the iPod and improved speaker enclosures. Later in his career, De Iuliis would receive top design awards for his work. Once Jony joined the team, the two developed a strong relationship. De Iuliis and Jony lived close to each other in San Francisco, and commuted together for more than twenty years. In 1992, Brunner recruited Bartley K.
He would emerge as one of the top five patent holders in the United States on a year-to-year basis (thanks to his last name, he is listed on all of Apple’s major patents in the title: “United States Patent Application Andre et al.”). By 2013, Andre had more patents to his name than any other Apple designer, including Jony. In 2009 alone, he received 92 patents; in 2010, his 114 set a record for an Apple designer. Most of the patent awards were for innovations on the phone, tablet and laptop lines. Andre worked on everything at ID, from circuit modules to RFID systems. He was credited with the design of Apple’s 035 design prototype of the first iPad, according to information released during the Apple v. Samsung trial in 2012. Along with other members of the team, he several times received the prestigious Red Dot Award, from Germany’s Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen institute. Daniel J. Coster joined the team after Jony, arriving in June 1994. Described as “tall, goofy [and] super-talented,” Coster had earned an ID degree from the Wellington Polytechnic School in New Zealand in 1986.
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review
The computer manufacturer Cisco estimates that there will be 50 billion devices on the internet by 2020, in addition to tens of billions of screens. The electronics industry expects a billion wearable devices in five years, tracking our activities, feeding data into the stream. We can expect another 13 billion appliances, like the Nest thermostat, animating our smarthomes. There will be 3 billion devices built into connected cars. And 100 billion dumb RFID chips embedded into goods on the shelves of Walmart. This is the internet of things, the emerging dreamland of everything we manufacture that is the new platform for the improbable. It is built with data. Knowledge, which is related, but not identical, to information, is exploding at the same rate as information, doubling every two years. The number of scientific articles published each year has been accelerating even faster than this for decades.
See also books; ebooks and readers realism, 211–14, 216 real time, 66, 88, 104, 114–17, 131, 145 recommendation engines, 169 Red Dead Redemption, 227–30 Reddit, 136, 140, 143, 149, 264 Red Hat, 69 reference transactions, 285 relationship network analysis, 187 relativity theory, 288 remixing of ideas, 193–210 and economic growth, 193–95 and intellectual property issues, 207–10 legal issues associated with, 207–10 and reduced cost of creating content, 196–97 and rewindability, 204–7 and visual media, 197–203 remixing video, 197–98 renting, 117–18 replication of media, 206–9 Rethink Robotics, 51 revert functions, 270 reviews by users/readers, 21, 72–73, 139, 266 rewindability, 204–7, 247–48, 270 RFID chips, 283 Rheingold, Howard, 148–49 ride-share taxis, 252 ring tones, 250 Ripley’s Believe It or Not, 278 robots ability to think differently, 51–52 Baxter, 51–52 categories of jobs for, 54–59, 60 and digital storage capacity, 265 dolls, 36 emergence of, 49 industrial robots, 52–53 and mass customization, 173 new jobs related to, 57–58 and personal success, 58–59 personal workbots, 58–59 stages of robot replacement, 59–60 training, 52–53 trust in, 54 Romer, Paul, 193, 209 Rosedale, Phil, 219 Rowling, J.
Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (And How to Take Advantage of It) by William Poundstone
availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equal pay for equal work, experimental economics, experimental subject, feminist movement, game design, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index card, invisible hand, John von Neumann, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, payday loans, Potemkin village, price anchoring, price discrimination, psychological pricing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, working poor
Supermarket consultants leave few stones unturned in determining what boosts consumers’ willingness to pay. One of the more intriguing of recent findings is that shoppers open their wallets wider when moving through a store in a counterclockwise direction. On average, these shoppers spend $2 more a trip than clockwise shoppers. This was determined in studies of shopping cart movements. Herb Sorensen of Sorensen Associates has fitted carts with RFID tags emitting a radio ping every five seconds. This PathTracker technology allows sensors to triangulate each cart’s location, map its motion, and tally what was bought and at what price. No one is quite sure why counterclockwise shoppers buy more. Paco Underhill, CEO of Envirosell, mentions one popular guess, that North Americans see shopping carts as “cars” to be driven on the right. “If you want to get my attention,” Underhill said, “it better be to my right.”
., 53 Psychological Bulletin, 54, 55, 86 psychophysics, 8–9, 26–27, 29–36, 39– 40, 53, 146; definition of, 31; experiments in, 26–27, 35, 40; of jury awards, 276–79; luxury trade and, 155; magnitude scales of, 194; of money, 42–45 origins of, 29–32; of pain, 136; perceptual illusion demonstrations of, 36–37, 84–85; power curve rule in, 32–33; prospect theory and, 98; of rebates, 178 Psychophysics (Stevens), 34 Puffs tissues, 5 Puto, Christopher, 151–53, 156 Quarterly Journal of Economics, The, 138 Quattrone, George, 12–13 Quilted Northern toilet paper, 5 racial discrimination, 245, 283; in car sales, 241–44 Rand, Ayn, 108 RAND Corporation, 71 Rapp, Gregg, 162–64 rationality: bounded, 52; cult of, 77–78 Ravikovich, Dahlia, 82 Reagan, Ronald, 56, 256 real estate market, 196–206, 211; alcohol and deal-making in, 219; anchoring in, 196–201, 203–205; bargaining in, 115; bubbles in, 101, 264; charm prices in, 186; framing of gains and losses in, 107; incentives in, 176; money illusion in, 229 rebates, 176–78 reference points, 98, 101, 132 reference pricing, 204–206 Remington Rand, Inc., 224 Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, 223 restaurants, 143–45, 159–64; charm pricing by, 186, 190 Revionics, Inc., 6, 148 RFID tags, 150 Richelieu, Duc de, 219 Riding, Alan, 266–67 Ritov, Ilana, 209–10 Ritty, James, 186 Riviera Casino (Las Vegas), 49 Robb Report, 156 Roberts, Gilbert, 283 Robertson, Leslie, 27 Rockefeller, J. Sterling, 49 Rockefeller, Nelson, 116 Rodriguez, Alex, 258–59 Roider, Andreas, 213 Rolex watches, 44 Rolling Stones, 202 Rolodex, 224 Romano, Ray, 255 Romans, ancient, 109–10 Rope, The (Plautus), 109–10 Rosenblum, Paula, 177 Russell Sage Foundation, 104 Ruth, Babe, 258–59 Ryan, Nolan, 259 Saatchi, Charles, 266 Saatchi, Diane, 201 Sage, Russell, 104 salaries, 211–12, 218, 287; beauty premium in, 239–40; cuts in, fairness of, 107; gender and, 237–38, 240; psychophysics and, 42–43; of top earners, 235, 255–59 Salary.com, 211 Sam’s Club, 151 Samuelson, Paul, 51, 77 S&H Green Stamps, 176–77 Sanfey, Alan, 168 Saturn cars, 243 Savage, Leonard “Jimmie,” 56–59, 78, 125, 146 scanners, 147–48 Schiff, Arthur, 169 Schkade, David, 276–77, 279 Schmittberger, Rolf, 113 Schmitz, Patrick, 213 Schutte, Nicola, 17 Schwarze, Bernd, 113 Schweitzer, Maurice, 239–40 Science, 12, 88, 90, 125 Scientific American, 127, 147 Scion cars, 243 Scotland, Church of, 270 Scott, Robert, 4 Seaney, Rick, 183 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 257 Seinfeld, Jerry, 255 Seinfeld (television show), 3, 255 Sensory Logic, Inc., 156 sensory perceptions, study of, see psychophysics September 11 terrorist attacks, 258 Shafir, Eldar, 227, 228, 230–32, 245–47 Shakespeare, William, 127 Shampanier, Kristina, 193 Shiller, Robert, 262–63 Siegelman, Peter, 241–44 Simester, Duncan, 188–91 Simon, Herbert, 51–52 Simon, Hermann, 6, 145–48, 173, 175 Simon Fraser University, 105 Simon-Kucher & Partners (SKP), 4, 6–7, 16, 148, 157–58, 165, 172, 173, 181 Simonson, Itamar, 156–58 Simpsons, The (television show), 143 Sinai war (1956), 81 Sizzler restaurant chain, 160 Skinner, B.
Python Requests Essentials by Rakesh Vidya Chandra, Bala Subrahmanyam Varanasi
About the Reviewers Yves Dorfsman is a system administrator and a developer with experience in oil and gas, financial, and software industries. He has extensive experience in Python, both in sysadmin tasks and automation, and in software development. Ilsu Park is an entrepreneur and software engineer currently living in Seoul, South Korea. He studied computer science from KAIST and was a member of the hacking and security group in college. He has a research experience in RFID security, and his interests are decentralized networks, concurrency handling, and highly scalable architecture. He also has contributed to various open source projects, including Python requests and the tornado web server. He is most passionate about building a great company. Kirk Strauser is a software architect from San Francisco Bay Area and has used Python personally and professionally for over 15 years.
AI winter, call centre, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, demand response, discovery of DNA, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, global supply chain, Internet of things, John von Neumann, Mars Rover, natural language processing, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, smart grid, smart meter, speech recognition, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
Today, we are witnessing the emergence of a new force in society and business: big data. Organizations and individuals are faced with a torrent of data, everything from structured information such as transaction records to a wide variety of unstructured information—still images, video, audio, and sensor data. The biggest new source of data is the so-called Internet of things, data produced by sensors and harvested via the Internet. The sensors involved range from the RFID tags that retailers use to track merchandise to video cameras that capture the flow of traffic. Every day, as a group, human beings generate about 3 exabytes of computer data—a prodigious output that is expected to produce a data universe of 40 zettabytes of digital stuff by 2020.2 A zettabyte is a decidedly big number: a 1 followed by 21 zeros. One zettabyte of storage would hold 250 billion two-hour HD movies.
Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra
Navy) Professional, Educated, Trained, and Empowered (PETE) electronic assistant Project Alpha Pugwash movement Pulsed Energy Projectile Purple (supercomputer) al-Qaeda technology and al-Qaeda in Iraq Qiao Liang QinetiQ Quantico (Bear) QuickTime (software program) Quinn, Robert radio control devices radio-frequency identification(RFID) radio-frequency weapons (e-bombs) Raduege, Harry Rainbows End: A Novel with One Foot in the Future (Vinge) Ramirez, Louis Ramona (AI program) RAND Raven (unmanned aerial vehicle) Raytheon RCA Reagan, Ronald Real-Time Adversarial Intelligence and Decision-making (RAID) Reaper (unmanned aerial vehicle) Record, Jeffrey Reed, Lou Rees, Martin Reid, John Reid, Steve Remotec Remote Environmental Monitoring Unit (REMUS) remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) Repliee (android) Republican Guard, Iraqi REV (Robotic Evacuation Vehicle) REX (Robotic Extraction Vehicle) Reynolds, Craig RFID (radio-frequency identification) RHEX (robot) Ribich, William Rice, Condoleezza Richards, Russ Richtofen, Manfred von Rifkin, Jeremy RMA (revolution in military affairs) hybrid technology and network-centric warfare and Robb, John Robert Heinlein, U.S.S.
Today, more than eleven million cosmetic surgeries happen each year in the United States alone, ranging from breast augmentation to butt implants. While the full force is still a few decades out, a similar trend is already starting to appear with voluntary technologic implants. These don’t merely replace something lost, but add something more. The Florida-based VeriChip company, for instance, has sold human-implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips to over five thousand security, government, and industrial installations. Even the Baja Beach Club, one of Barcelona’s hottest nightclubs, is a buyer. In 2006, the club implanted its VIP customers, including the entire cast of Grand Hermano (the Spanish version of the reality show Big Brother), with the tiny microchips, so that they would not have to wait in line or need to carry cash or credit cards.
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
For example, SAS business analytics allow utilities such as Brazilian utility Cemig to precisely forecast electrical demand in both the long and very short term. Cemig can even predict how demand will change when a World Cup soccer game starts or ends and televisions are turned on or off. Others, like IBM, are piloting schemes to monitor entire systems such as supply chains and transportation networks. The company has developed sensors and RFID tags that can track foodstuffs such as meat or other horticultural products from the producer all the way to the supermarket shelf.16 Armed with this data, retailers can ensure the quality of supply while customers can make smarter purchasing decisions. The drive to make all things “smarter” by connecting electrified objects to the Internet will, within a few years, result in a flood of new data that can be aggregated and analyzed, providing a powerful engine for energy dashboards and trading platforms that help households and businesses optimize their consumption.
City officials shutdown the plant immediately and issue a text alert to calm nervous residents who fear that some form of chemical attack had been unleashed. This account may be fictional, but it is not far-fetched. Like Paulos, technologists and science fiction writers have long envisioned a world where a seamless global network of Internet-connected sensors could capture every event, action, and change on earth. With the proliferation of radio-frequency identification (RFID), satellite imagery, cheap personal video recorders, powerful mobile computing devices, and an array of Internet-connected sensors, that vision of millions of New Yorkers participating (perhaps unwittingly) in an act of civic regulation is increasingly plausible. Indeed, the question raised in this chapter is whether a combination of new technologies and citizen participation could unleash an era of participatory regulation, where citizens and other stakeholder groups play an active role in designing and enforcing regulations.
The FDA may not require manufacturers of processed foods to label where a product came from, whether it contains genetically modified organisms, or was produced using synthetic hormones, antibiotics, and pesticides. But retailers like Tesco and a legion of online product guides are making this information available anyway. Why? Because customers are demanding transparency! Now imagine the FDA was to extend a similar level of openness to realtime product recalls. Indeed, why not set up an open-source platform where a combination of RFID technologies and historical sales data would enable retailers to alert anyone who has purchased a recalled product. We bet hundreds of programmers would vie for the opportunity if the retailers agreed to open up a series of data feeds. The FDA should also consider open sourcing risk assessment (they call it Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) for the same reasons we argued that it’s time for opening up risk assessment in the financial sector.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
., 58-59; Foot, Milan Since the Miracle, 113. 237 also made Milan’s population plummet: “Milan,” Encyclopædia Britannica. 238 population increased between 2000 and 2008: Istat, Demography in Figures. 238 Milan’s per capita productivity is the highest: In this case, I am using productivity to mean value added per capita. Author’s calculations using Istat, Regional Accounts and National Economic Accounts. 238 three quarters of Milan’s workers are in services: Author’s calculations using Istat, Regional Accounts. 238 Miuccia Prada and Patrizio Bertelli: Galloni, “Miuccia and Me”; “Learning from Prada,” RFID Journal, June 24, 2002, www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/272/1; and for Pocone, “Prada, Miuccia,” Britannica Book of the Year, 2003, Encyclopædia Britannica. 238 The Versaces: Spindler, “Gianni Versace.” 238 A quarter of the Vancouver area’s residents: Canada: Statistics Canada, Population 15 Years and Over; and Canada: Statistics Canada, Greater Vancouver. 239 top of global quality-of-life rankings: For instance, Mercer’s Quality of Living Worldwide City Rankings, www.mercer.com/qualityoflivingpr#City_Ranking_Tables, or the Economist Intelligence Unit, Global Liveability Report, www.eiu.com/site_info.asp?
Tearing Down the Walls: How Sandy Weill Fought His Way to the Top of the Financial World . . . and Then Nearly Lost It All. New York: Free Press, 2003. Lay, Maxwell Gordon. Ways of the World: A History of the World’s Roads and of the Vehicles That Used Them. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992. Leape, Jonathan. “The London Congestion Charge.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20, no. 4 (Autumn 2006): 157-76. “Learning from Prada.” RFID Journal, June 24, 2002, www.rfidjournal.com/article/view/272/1. Lee, Sidney. A Life of William Shakespeare. London: Smith Elder, 1898. Levick, Barbara. Vespasian. New York: Routledge, 1999. Levine, Robert M. The History of Brazil. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. ———. Vale of Tears: Revisiting the Canudos Massacre in Northeastern Brazil, 1893-1897. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton
affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration
Wilson, “Global Production and Distribution: Wal-Mart’s Global Logistics Empire (with Special Reference to the China/ Southern California Connection),” in Wal-Mart World: The World’s Biggest Corporation in the Global Economy, ed. Stanley D. Brunn (New York: Routledge, 2006), 227–42; Charles Fishman, The Wal-Mart Effect: How the World’s Most Powerful Company Really Works—and How It’s Transforming the American Economy (New York: Penguin, 2006); ATKearney, “Meeting the Retail RFID Mandate: A Discussion of the Issues Facing CPG Companies,” (2003), www. atkearney.com/shared_res/pdf/Retail_RFID_S.pdf. 74. James Hoopes, “Growth Through Knowledge: Wal-Mart, High Technology, and the Ever Less Visible Hand of the Manager,” in Wal-Mart: The Face of Twenty-First Century Capitalism, ed. Nelson Lichtenstein (New York: New Press, 2006), 83–104; on supply chains, see Bonacich and Wilson, “Global Production and Distribution.” 5. Service Work and the Service Ethos 1.
Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier
airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K
This works with things like bathrobes, but it's too easy for the hotel to lose track of how many towels a guest has in his room, especially if piles of them are available at the pool or can easily be taken from a housekeeper's cart in the hallway. A newer system, still not widespread, is to embed washable computer chips into the towels and track their movement around the hotel electronically. One anonymous Hawaii hotel claims they've reduced towel theft from 4,000 a month to 750, saving $16,000 monthly in replacement costs. Assuming the RFID tags are inexpensive and don't wear out too quickly, that's a pretty good security system. Let's go back to our two prisoners. They are morally inclined not to betray each other. Their reputation in the underworld depends on them not betraying their fellow criminal. And the criminal organization they're part of has unwritten but very real sanctions against betraying other criminals to the police.
To make defection harder, think of obfuscation and misdirection measures, security cameras in casinos, guard patrols, and authentication systems. To make cooperation easier, think of automatic face-recognition systems, uniforms, those automatic road-sign radar guns that tell you what speed you're going, and road signs that inform you of the rules. Detection/response systems. These include burglar alarms, sensors in smokestacks to detect pollutants, RFID tags attached to store merchandise—or hotel towels—and detectors at the doorways, intrusion-detection systems in computer networks, and a UV light to detect if your hotel's bed sheets are clean. Audit/forensic systems. These are primarily enhancements to institutional societal pressure. They include fingerprint- and DNA-matching technology and the expert systems that analyze credit card spending, looking for patterns of fraud.
Sixty Days and Counting by Kim Stanley Robinson
dumpster diving, energy security, full employment, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, urban decay, Works Progress Administration
They called it in and waited uneasily for the zoo staff to arrive with the dart guns and nets and slings. They had a bad history together on this front, having lost a gibbon that fell to its death after Frank hit it with a trank dart. Neither mentioned this now, but they spoke little until the staffers arrived and one of them shot the tapir. At that the other animals bolted, and the humans approached. The big RFID chip was inserted under the tapir’s thick skin. The animal’s vital signs seemed good. Then they decided to take it in anyway. Too many tapirs had died. Nick and Frank helped hoist the animal onto a gurney big enough for all of them to get a hand on. They carried the unconscious beast through the snow like its pallbearers. From a distant ridge, the aurochs looked down on the procession. After that, the two of them hiked down the streambed to the zoo itself.
Leaves covered the surrounding hillsides to ankle depth everywhere they could see. Cutter gestured at the view with the can of beer in his hand: “Ain’t it pretty? All these leaves, and nobody’s gonna have to leaf-blow them away.” Fedpage did join him on a dawn patrol one morning, massaging his face to wake up. The two of them wandered slowly up the ravine, peering through the trees, pinging animals they saw with their FOG RFID readers. Fedpage talked under his breath most of the time. Perhaps obsessive-compulsive, with huge systems in his mind which made better sense to him than he could convey to other people. He was not unlike Anna in this intense regard for systems, but did not have Anna’s ability to assign them their proper importance, to prioritize and see a path through a pattern, which was what made Anna so good at NSF.
Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman
23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar
And there are vast quantities of data, including much of what we do on social media, that are simply public, out there for the taking, whether by an intelligence agency or a small company conducting sentiment analysis. These digital bread crumbs, the tiny leavings that we produce on a daily basis, have spawned a new term: dataveillance. Dataveillance is surveillance enabled by the data produced by credit cards, E-ZPass devices and toll booths, RFID pass cards, transit cards, browser histories, and on and on. Often, they are not important for the actual data they contain—such as what you bought with your credit card—but for their metadata—the time and location you made a purchase, where you went to next, the route you took. (Metadata is data about data, data that describes other data.) This information would be as useful for an intelligence agency as it would be for a smartphone app trying to develop a pattern of your daily commute and your buying habits, the better to target you with ads that fit your profile.
While we enjoy the pleasures of connection, these workers are undergoing experiences that often leave them depressed, traumatized, and angry. For this nascent market, dispensing with human labor may prove more lucrative than the current arrangement. Strangely, it may also prove more humane. One could imagine a movement forming in which labor rights advocates say that micro-work is so unsustainable and dehumanizing that it must be automated. Add RFID chips to all packaged food and grocery products and you can track their movement through supply chains and stores without human assistance. Perhaps companies can partner with stores to help utilize their surveillance systems to monitor the placement of goods. Firm up sentiment analysis, trending-topic algorithms, and optical-character-recognition scanning so that humans aren’t forced to do such drudgery.
Python Network Programming Cookbook by M. Omar Faruque Sarker
Vasudeva Varma on topics related to Cloud Computing, Distributed Systems, Big Data, and Software Defined Networks. I would like to thank my advisors, Dr. Venkatesh Choppella and Dr. Vasudeva Varma, who showed me the direction in my work and helped me a lot. I would also like to thank my Google Summer of Code mentor, Patirica Tressel. Tom Stephens has worked in software development for nearly 10 years and is currently working in embedded development dealing with smartcards, cryptography, and RFID in the Denver metro area. His diverse background includes experience ranging from embedded virtual machines to web UX/UI design to enterprise Business Intelligence. He is most passionate about good software design, including intelligent testing and constantly evolving practices to produce a better product with minimal effort. Deepak Thukral is a polyglot who is also a contributor to various open source Python projects.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar
This will radically alter the way in which we manage supply chains by enabling us to monitor and optimize assets and activities to a very granular level. In the process, it will have transformative impact across all industries, from manufacturing to infrastructure to healthcare. Consider remote monitoring – a widespread application of the IoT. Any package, pallet or container can now be equipped with a sensor, transmitter or radio frequency identification (RFID) tag that allows a company to track where it is as it moves through the supply chain – how it is performing, how it is being used, and so on. Similarly, customers can continuously track (practically in real time) the progress of the package or document they are expecting. For companies that are in the business of operating long and complex supply chains, this is transformative. In the near future, similar monitoring systems will also be applied to the movement and tracking of people.
airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize
Where there once was a gap between the professional and the amateur scientist—a gap defined and maintained by the credentialing process—the Net is putting out tendrils to find every way across the divide. The first Maker Faire was held at the San Mateo Fairgrounds near San Francisco in 2005. Twenty thousand people showed up to see “self-balancing two-wheeled vehicles, computer-controlled Etch-A-Sketches, biodiesel processing units, biologically-inspired multiprocessors, scratch-built RFID readers, wind-powered generators, networked citizen weather stations, ornithology research systems, flying pterosaur replicas, and hundreds of other projects,” in the words of Mark Frauenfelder, the editor of Make magazine, which inspired the event.22 In 2008, three times that number attended. Frauenfelder does not attribute this growth in interest to the Web directly. Rather, he says, in the past few years, “some of the folks who had been spending all their time creating the Web, and everything on it, looked up from their monitors and realized that the world itself was the ultimate hackable platform.”
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
Flipping the box demands human intervention, however, as the software is helpless until it can see the label. Every package entering the sort passes under a camera and infrared sensor capable of reading characters and correctly estimating dimensions and weight. In the future, even that won’t be necessary once radio frequency identification chips are embedded in their sides, broadcasting the vital signs of what’s within. For now, these RFID tags still cost more money than they save, and until that flips around, any labels missing a key piece of information—a scrawled digit in the zip code, perhaps—have their pictures flashed to a room full of PCs where human operators are required to fill in the blanks. At two in the morning, it is typically filled with college-age men and women slumped in silence, iPod earbuds firmly in place, clicking and dragging over and over as they zoom in to see what’s the matter.
“E-commerce is express mail,” Gladwell concluded. The real revolution had taken place twenty years before, with the widespread adoption of bar codes. Lands’ End could retire hunt-and-peck picking methods and switch to more efficient methods, quadrupling productivity from 175 items picked per hour to 600 or 700. Zappos’ carousel picker tripled their pace; Kiva’s robots doubled it again. Kasarda believes the next doubling will come when RFID chips replace bar codes, and then again when “intelligent agents” embedded in those chips guide packages, robots, and belts to their final destinations, with no humans necessary. The Internet arm of Zappos could physically be located anywhere, and Tony Hsieh knows it. He moved his headquarters from San Francisco to Las Vegas several years ago in pursuit of cheaper labor. But he wouldn’t dream of touching the warehouse, because “we’re within a fifteen-minute drive from the hub.
Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
If you only saw ads when there was a chance you might be persuaded by them, you’d probably see many fewer ads, and possibly wouldn’t find them as annoying. 22. See Brynjolfsson and Schrage (2009). Department stores have long experimented with product placement, trying out different locations or prices for the same product in different stores to learn which arrangements sell the most. But now that virtually all physical products are labeled with unique barcodes, and many also contain embedded RFID chips, they have the potential to track inventory and measure variation between stores, regions, times of the day, or times of the year—possibly leading to what Marshall Fisher of the University of Pennsylvania Wharton School has called the era of “Rocket Science” retailing (Fisher 2009). Ariely (2008) has also made a similar point. 23. See http://www.povertyactionlab.org/ for information on the MIT Poverty Action Lab.
The Zenith Angle by Bruce Sterling
airport security, Burning Man, cuban missile crisis, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Iridium satellite, market bubble, new economy, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, V2 rocket, Y2K
He flirted with Fawn, made cell-phone calls to a series of loose women, and paged through computer security brochures. But Michael Hickok was a man of action. It wasn’t in him to waste time. He watched Van’s office routines, then he made himself useful. Van’s least favorite job was to demo security gadgets for the Vault’s many cyberwar groupies. There were packs of gizmos arriving for Van every day. Dongles and decryptors. Peel-and-stick RFID labels. Teflon and Kevlar security cables. Barcodes and asset tags. Ridiculous homemade EMP blasters right out of the aluminum-foil hat set. Teensy-tiny locks on chipsets sculpted right into the microscopic silicon with ultra-high-tech MEMS techniques . . . The CCIAB had become a clearinghouse for American infowar toys. Van spent a lot of valuable overtime reviewing and clearing peculiar gizmos for the Special Forces.
Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason
Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce
Our solution must map comfortably on to a world of networks, info-goods, complexity and exponential change. Of course, on the route to postcapitalism, we will have need of planning. Large parts of the capitalist world are effectively planned already – from urban design and construction projects through to the integrated supply chains of a large supermarket. It is the advance in processing power, the use of big data and the digital tracking of individual objects and components – using barcodes or RFID tags – that make this possible. That part of our project which requires planning would be well equipped because of this. But the nature of modern society alters the problem. In a complex, globalized society, where the worker is also the consumer of financial services and micro-services from other workers, the plan cannot outdo the market unless there is a retreat from complexity and a return to hierarchy.
Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator
Regularly take your senior leadership through a personal transformation program. Examine your own leadership skill sets. Remove anyone who puts his or her own career ahead of the success of the enterprise. 2. Partner with, Invest in or Acquire ExOs From 1990 to about 2005, there were at least five major disruptions in the retail or CPG industry. Three of them—EPOS systems with point-of-sale transactions, RFID tags for supply chain management, and customer loyalty cards—produced a significant amount of new data that fundamentally changed the industry. Marcus Shingles, a principal at Deloitte Consulting, and his research team spent most of 2012 helping the Grocery Manufacturer’s Association (GMA) analyze the CPG industry for potential Big Data innovation disruptions of the same magnitude. To his surprise, he and his team identified hundreds of startups with industry-specific solutions, of which eighty had leveraged emerging technologies.
4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, carbon footprint, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, job automation, l'esprit de l'escalier, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
Maybe the corporeal reunion, the undoing of Zeus’s separation, is simply impossible.8 When two people marry, there’s a legal sense in which they “become one”—if only for tax purposes. That, too, though, is hardly the kind of state-of-man repair that Aristophanes imagined. But there’s hope. Nervous System to Nervous System: Healed by Bandwidth The organizer of the 2008 Loebner Prize was University of Reading professor Kevin Warwick—also known in the press sometimes as “the world’s first cyborg.” In 1998 he had an RFID chip implanted in his arm: when he walks into his department, the doors open for him and a voice says, “Hello, Professor Warwick.” More recently, he’s undergone a second surgery, a much more invasive one: wiring a hundred-electrode array directly into the nerves of his arm. With this array he’s done a number of equally astonishing things: he’s been able to get a robot arm to mimic the actions of his real arm, using the electrode array to broadcast the neural signals coming from his brain to the robot arm, which follows those commands in real time, just as—of course—Warwick’s real arm does.9 He also experimented with adding a sixth sense—namely, sonar.
The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution by Henry Schlesinger
Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, British Empire, Copley Medal, Fellow of the Royal Society, index card, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Livingstone, I presume, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Yogi Berra
They are made up of micron- and submicron-thin layers that create the anode, cathode, and electrolyte, and researchers have to date gotten them down to about five microns or 0.00019685 of an inch thick to produce an electrical charge. While not suitable for typical consumer products, they offer enough power to run a small IC in your credit card or label on canned peas, or even small active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, store data, or power up some basic IC hardware. This technology is already offered by TI and a few other companies for specialty applications, such as Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS, that require relatively little power. And when combined with a new generation of flexible ICs, due out soon, computing power will migrate from hard, protective coverings to a wider range of applications, such as clothing capable of powering monitors for heart rate or lighting for some form of decorative display.
Clan Corporate by Stross, Charles
Armed guards were a normal fact of life in the FTO, but nervous ones were something new. “What’s up?” he asked. “We have a problem,” said Smith. “Matt went for a walk about two hours ago,” said Pete, nervously fingering his document folder. “Went for a-” “Down the express elevator from the twenty-third floor, or so it would appear judging from the elevator logs,” Smith added. “Although there’s no evidence he was actually in the elevator car except for the RFID tags concealed in his underwear. Which he is no longer wearing. And there’s a missing window on the twenty-third floor. Shall we talk about it?” They went up to the newly installed Vault Type Room on the nineteenth floor and Smith signed them in. Then they authenticated each other and locked the door. The blue-suiter waited outside, which was a relief to Mike-but only a temporary one. “Do we know where he went?”
Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey
3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra
Cyborgs resonate in modern culture, embodying the tension between free will and mechanical determinism. They’re reminiscent of Mary Shelley’s dark vision of Frankenstein, animated by electricity and overpowering its creator. The acceptable face of cyborg research is represented by Kevin Warwick, a professor of cybernetics at the University of Reading in England. He was one of the first to experiment with implants, having an RFID chip put into his arm in 1998. Four years later, he had an array of a hundred electrodes grafted onto the nerves of his arm. This allows him to extend his nervous system over the Internet and control a robotic hand at a remote location. Warwick’s wife also had a cybernetic implant, and when someone grasped her hand, he was able to feel the same sensation in his hand on the other side of the Atlantic—a bizarre form of cybernetic telepathy.
Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff
3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar
We may, in fact, be reaching a stage of technological efficiency once imagined only by science-fiction writers and early cyberneticists: an era when robots really can till the fields, build our houses, pave our roads, and drive our cars. It’s an era that was supposed to be accompanied by more leisure time. After all, if robots are out there plowing the fields, shouldn’t the farmers get to lie back and enjoy some iced tea? Something is standing in the way of our claiming the prosperity we have created. The toll collector whose job is replaced by an RFID “E-ZPass” doesn’t reap the benefit of the new technology. When he can’t find a new job, we blame him for lacking the stamina and drive to retrain himself. But even if he could, digital solutions require, on average, less than one tenth the human employees of their mechanical-age predecessors. And what new skill should he go learn? Even the experts and educators have little idea what gainful employment will look like just five years from now.* In fact, jobs are a relatively new approach to work, historically speaking.
Statistics hacks by Bruce Frey
Berlin Wall, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, index card, Milgram experiment, p-value, place-making, RFID, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, statistical model
He is proudest of two accomplishments: his marriage to his sweet wife, and his purchase of a low-grade copy of Showcase #4, a comic book wherein the "Silver Age Flash first appears," whatever that means. Contributors The following people contributed their hacks, writing, and inspiration to this book: Joseph Adler is the author of Baseball Hacks (O'Reilly), and a researcher in the Advanced Product Development Group at VeriSign, focusing on problems in user authentication, managed security services, and RFID security. Joe has years of experience analyzing data, building statistical models, and formulating business strategies as an employee and consultant for companies including DoubleClick, American Express, and Dun & Bradstreet. He is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with an Sc.B. and an M.Eng. in computer science and computer engineering. Joe is an unapologetic Yankees fan, but he appreciates any good baseball game.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar
Just a 1 percent reduction in cost would result in a savings of $4.2 billion per year, or $63 billion over a 15-year period.14 Push these gains in efficiency from 1 percent, to 2 percent, to 5 percent, to 10 percent, in the aviation and health-care sectors and across every other sector, and the magnitude of the economic change becomes readily apparent. The term Internet of Things was coined by Kevin Ashton, one of the founders of the MIT Auto ID Center, back in 1995. In the years that followed, the IoT languished, in part, because the cost of sensors and actuators embedded in “things” was still relatively expensive. In an 18 month period between 2012 and 2013, however, the cost of radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips, which are used to monitor and track things, plummeted by 40 percent. These tags now cost less than ten cents each.15 Moreover, the tags don’t require a power source because they are able to transmit their data using the energy from the radio signals that are probing them. The price of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), including gyroscopes, accelerometers, and pressure sensors, has also dropped by 80 to 90 percent in the past five years.16 The other obstacle that slowed the deployment of the IoT has been the Internet protocol, IPv4, which allows only 4.3 billion unique addresses on the Internet (every device on the Internet must be assigned an Internet protocol address).
The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone
3D printing, airport security, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, game design, housing crisis, invention of movable type, inventory management, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, late fees, loose coupling, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Rodney Brooks, search inside the book, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Skype, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Tony Hsieh, Whole Earth Catalog, why are manhole covers round?
Better financial terms with suppliers translate directly into a healthier bottom line—and create the foundation on which everyday low prices become possible. Walmart in particular had mastered this perpetual coercion of suppliers, and it did it with missionary zeal and the belief that it led to the low prices that made products like diapers affordable to lower- and middle-class Americans. Walmart is notorious for demanding that suppliers open offices in Bentonville, Arkansas, and integrate certain technologies, like RFID chips, into their products. The company is also known for specifying just how much it will pay for products and for demanding severe concessions if it believes a supplier’s profit margin is too high. In Amazon’s early years, when the likes of Sony and Disney refused to sell directly to the company, Bezos had been on the short end of this Darwinian dynamic. He had learned the game firsthand. Now the balance of power was shifting.
3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K
Machines can beat humans at chess, but they have yet to design the type of mind game that will intrigue humans for centuries. Machines can see statistical regularities my feeble brain will miss, but they can’t make the insightful leap that connects disparate sets of data to devise a new field. I’m not terribly concerned about machines that compute. I’ll deal with the frustration of my browser in exchange for a smart refrigerator that, based on tracking RFID codes of what comes in and out, texts me to buy cream on my way home (hint to those working on such a system . . . sooner rather than later!). I like having my computer underline words it doesn’t recognize, and I’ll deal with the frustration of having to ignore its comments on “phylogenetic” in exchange for catching my typo on a common term (in fact, it won’t let me misspell a word here to make a point).
Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K
If Hippocrates Were an Economist One of information technology’s great benefits, supposedly, is its ability to lower costs. Walmart, for example, is famous for its digital stock-keeping. Its databases know exactly what’s on the shelves, and they automatically inform suppliers which stores are low on stock. The system keeps inventories razor-thin and costs low. And it all seems to be about technology – databases, barcode readers, RFID-encoded pallets, and so on. You might think, then, that some of our greatest cost-control challenges could be solved with IT. A conspicuous target in America is our health-care system. In fact, electronic medical records have firm bipartisan support even in an era of political deadlock. President Barack Obama has called for electronic medical records since before his days in the White House, citing efficiency and cost savings.8 And the GOP Doctors Caucus, formed by Representatives Phil Gingrey and Tim Murphy, states, “Health information technology has the potential to save more than $81 billion annually in health care costs.
Iron Sunrise by Stross, Charles
blood diamonds, dumpster diving, gravity well, hiring and firing, industrial robot, life extension, loose coupling, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, RFID, side project, speech recognition, technological singularity, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl
You’re saying it’s going to be a hands-on job?” “He’s holed up in a cheap apartment tree. He’s indoors, well away from windows, vents, doors. Our floor penetrator says he’s in the entertainment room with something dense enough to be a gadget. The stack is dusted, but we’re having fun replaying the ubiquitous surveillance takes for the past month — seems he started jamming before anything else, and his RFID tag trace is much too clean. Someone has to go inside and talk him down or take him out, and you’ve got more experience of this than any of us. It says here you’ve done more than twenty of these jobs; that makes you our nearest expert.” “Hell and deviltry. Who’s the underwriter for this block?” “It’s all outsourced by the city government — I think Lloyds has something to do with it. Whatever, you bill us for any expenses, and we’ll sort them out.
Jennifer Morgue by Stross, Charles
call centre, correlation does not imply causation, disintermediation, dumpster diving, Etonian, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Maui Hawaii, mutually assured destruction, planetary scale, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, stem cell, telepresence, traveling salesman, Turing machine
She's still underwater, but she's not sitting in the control chair on board the submersible grab anymore: she's free-swimming in near-total darkness, stroking upwards alongside the drill string, and I can feel the exhaustion as a tight band across the tops of her thighs. ''It's a doublecross.'' I can taste her fear. ''Talk to me!'' I force myself to bend over and go through the corpse's pockets. There's another magazine for the pistol, and a badge: some species of RFID tag. I take it and glance around the cabin. My right hand is still bleeding but it doesn't look as bad as it feels. (Memo to self: do not make a habit of gripping the slide of an automatic pistol while it is being fired.) ''How long have I got? Where are you?'' ''The grab — I was halfway home when one of the docking splines engaged, and the control deck disconnected and stayed stuck on the pipe string while the payload kept going up.
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff
affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional
The Internet provides human beings with an even more entirely virtual, controlled, and preconfigured landscape on which to work and live, while providing corporations with the equivalent of corporeal existence for the very first time. Out on the Web, people have no more substance or stature than any virtual entity—and in most cases, less. We become more virtual while our corporate entities become more real. The people may as well be the machines. Once high-tech security-minded employers in California and Cincinnati get their way in the courts, they’ll be materializing this vision by implanting workers with the same kinds of RFID tags Wal-Mart puts in its products. A central-office computer monitors exactly who is where and when, opening doors for those who have clearance. While implantation isn’t yet mandatory for existing laborers, the additional and convenient access to sensitive materials it affords makes voluntary implantation a plus for worker recognition and advancement. Increasingly, we find ourselves working on behalf of our computers rather than the other way around.
Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War by P. W. Singer, August Cole
3D printing, Admiral Zheng, augmented reality, British Empire, energy security, Firefox, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Google Glasses, IFF: identification friend or foe, Just-in-time delivery, Maui Hawaii, new economy, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, trade route, Wall-E, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, zero day
Such lovely eyes. Armando’s smile went unnoticed by Allison Swigg as she cut across the grassy field by the pond in her rush from the parking lot. The imagery analyst had gotten stuck in the traffic on I-295 on her way back from a networking lunch out at Tysons Corner. And now she was late for the staff meeting. Neither of them noticed the other, but as she passed the landscaper, his tablet recognized the RFID chips embedded in Swigg’s security badge. A localized wireless network formed for exactly 0.03 seconds. In that instant, the malware hidden in the video packet from Caracas made its jump. As Chavez finished the iced tea his wife had made for him the previous night, Swigg approached the security desk manned by a guard in a black bullet-resistant nylon jumpsuit. A compact HK G48 assault rifle hung from the glossy gray ceramic vest that protected his chest.
Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White
Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, combinatorial explosion, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, full text search, Grace Hopper, information retrieval, Internet Archive, linked data, loose coupling, openstreetmap, recommendation engine, RFID, SETI@home, social graph, web application
The data gathered included a photo taken every minute, which resulted in an overall data volume of one gigabyte a month. When storage costs come down enough to make it feasible to store continuous audio and video, the data volume for a future MyLifeBits service will be many times that. The trend is for every individual’s data footprint to grow, but perhaps more important, the amount of data generated by machines will be even greater than that generated by people. Machine logs, RFID readers, sensor networks, vehicle GPS traces, retail transactions—all of these contribute to the growing mountain of data. The volume of data being made publicly available increases every year, too. Organizations no longer have to merely manage their own data: success in the future will be dictated to a large extent by their ability to extract value from other organizations’ data. Initiatives such as Public Data Sets on Amazon Web Services, Infochimps.org, and theinfo.org exist to foster the “information commons,” where data can be freely (or in the case of AWS, for a modest price) shared for anyone to download and analyze.
The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More
23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce
Ground-breaking work on functional connectomics includes work in the lab of George Church (Harvard), who is well known for his work in genomics, but now has a keen interest in developing high-resolution, large-scale acquisition and interfacing technology. The approach taken there involves work by Yael Maguire to develop measurement devices at the scale of red blood cells (about 8 micrometers in diameter). The technology is based on existing fabrication capabilities from the integrated circuit industry, builds on prior successful work embedding chips in cells (Gomez-Martinez et al. 2010), and adds to this RFID-inspired passive communication, and infrared signaling and power technology. Even before those tools reach their full potential, there are ongoing efforts in the Ed Boyden group to scale up multi-electrode arrays to thousands of recording channels that are integrated with light-guides for optogenetic stimulation. Such a stimulation-recording array would provide previously unobtainable feedback about mechanistic hypotheses that are relevant to WBE.
affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs
Individual items in commerce can provide vastly greater amounts of information about their contents and quality. Users can use machine processing to search and sift through this information and to compare views and reviews of specific items. Trademark has become less, rather than more, functionally important as a mechanism for dealing with search costs. When we move in the next few years to individual-item digital marking, such as with RFID (radio frequency identification) tags, all the relevant information about contents, origin, and manufacture down to the level of the item, as opposed to the product line, will be readily available to consumers in real space, by scanning any given item, even if it is not otherwise marked at all. In this setting, where the information qualities of trademarks will significantly decline, the antidilution law nonetheless assures that owners can control the increasingly important cultural meaning of trademarks.