Mahatma Gandhi

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Living With the Himalayan Masters by Swami Rama

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Mahatma Gandhi

After fifteen days’ stay with the baba I came back with the conclusion that the art of living and being, whether in the world or outside it, lies in awareness toward the purpose of life and non-attachment. In the Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi In the late 1930s and early ’40s I had the opportunity to stay with Mahatma Gandhi in Vardha Ashram, where I met many gentle and loving souls. While I was there I observed Mahatma Gandhi serving a leper. The leper was a learned Sanskrit scholar who was frustrated and angry, but Mahatma Gandhi personally looked after him with great care and love. That was an example to all of us. The way in which he served the sick left a lasting impression on me. My master told me to observe Mahatma Gandhi particularly when he walked, and when I did so I found that his walk was quite different from the walk of other sages. He walked as though he were separate from his body.

I had several meetings with him, but he wouldn’t permit me to go to Tibet. Swami Rama before leaving for Tibet He suspected me of being a spy for the Indian Congress Party, which was then fighting the British government. There were two groups in India at that time: one was Mahatma Gandhi’s group, which practiced non-violence and used the methods of passive resistance and non-cooperation; the other was the Terrorist Party of India. I was not a member of either, but the political officer found two letters in my possession, one written by Pandit Nehru, and another from Mahatma Gandhi. These letters were non-political, but they caused the political officer to be even more suspicious, and I was put under house arrest and forced to stay in an inspection bungalow [a government house usually used for traveling inspectors or officials].

My First Days as a Swami A Constant Persecution Living on a Mount of Pebbles Temptations on the Path Should I Get Married? Spiritual Dignity Is Also Vanity A Miserable Experiment Charms of the World Two Naked Renunciates In the World and Yet Above To Lose Is to Gain VII. Experiences on Various Paths A Renowned Lady Sage With My Heart on My Palms and Tears in My Eyes Karma Is the Maker In the Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi “Not Sacrifice but Conquest”—Tagore Setting History Straight Maharshi Raman Meeting with Sri Aurobindo The Wave of Bliss Three Schools of Tantra The Seven Systems of Eastern Philosophy Soma VIII. Beyond the Great Religions A Christian Sage of the Himalayas My Meeting with a Jesuit Sadhu Jesus in the Himalayas A Vision of Christ Judaism in Yoga I Belong to None but God IX. Divine Protection Protecting Arms Lost in the Land of Devas The Land of Hamsas An Atheistic Swami An Appointment with Death X.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

“From Micro-Grids to Smart Grids,” Kidela, November 20, 2012, http://www.kidela.com /resources/blackout-from-micro-grids-to-smart-grids/ (accessed September 30, 2013). 43. Ibid. 44. “Mahatma Gandhi on Mass Production,” interview, May 16, 1936, http://www.tinytechindia .com/gandhiji2.html (accessed April 21, 2013). 45. Surur Hoda, Gandhi and the Contemporary World (Indo-British Historical Society, 1997). 46. “Mahatma Gandhi on Mass Production.” 47. Ibid. 48. Ibid. 49. Hoda, Gandhi and the Contemporary World. 50. “Mahatma Gandhi on Mass Production.” 51. Hoda, Gandhi and the Contemporary World. 52. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. 83, June 7, 1942–January 26, 1944 (New Delhi: Publications Division of the Government of India, 1999), 113, http://www.gandhiserve.org /cwmg/VOL083.PDF (accessed November 14, 2013). 53. Mahatma Gandhi, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi: Encyclopedia of Ghandi’s Thoughts, ed.

Mahatma Gandhi, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi: Encyclopedia of Ghandi’s Thoughts, ed. R. K. Prabhu and U. R. Rao (Ahmedabad, India: Jitendra T Desai Navajivan Mudranalaya, 1966), 243–44. 54. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. Edwin Cannan (London: Methuen, 1961), 1: 475. 55. “Mahatma Gandhi’s Views,” TinyTech Plants, http://www.tinytechindia.com/gandhi4.htm (accessed June 14, 2013). 56. Prarelal, Mahatma Gandhi: Poornahuti, vol. 10: The Last Phase, part 2 (Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Trust, 1956), 522. Chapter 7 1. “Skype in the Classroom,” Skype, 2013, https://education.skype.com/ (accessed November 6, 2013); Sarah Kessler, “Skype CEO: Our Goal Is to Connect 1 Million Classrooms,” Mashable, September 21, 2011, http://mashable.com/2011/09/21/skype-in-the-classroom-tony-bates/ (accessed November 12, 2013). 2.

This development will spawn new business practices whose efficiencies and productivity take us to near zero marginal costs in the production and distribution of goods and services—easing us out of the capitalist period and into the collaboratist era. Among the first to glimpse the historical significance of a “Makers Infrastructure” were the local grassroots activists who constituted the Appropriate Technology Movement. The movement began in the 1970s and was inspired by the writing of Mahatma Gandhi, and later E. F. Schumacher, Ivan Illich, and—if it’s not too presumptuous—a book I authored called Entropy: A New World View. A new generation of DIY hobbyists, most of whom were veterans of the peace and civil rights movements, loosely affiliated themselves under the appropriate technology banner. Some preached a “back to the land” ethos and migrated to rural areas. Others remained in the poor, urban neighborhoods of major cities, often squatting and occupying abandoned neighborhood buildings.


pages: 202 words: 62,199

Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less by Greg McKeown

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Albert Einstein, Clayton Christensen, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, minimum viable product, North Sea oil, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs

“Oprah Talks to Thich Nhat Hanh,” O magazine, March 2010, www.oprah.com/spirit/Oprah-Talks-to-Thich-Nhat-Hanh/3. 20. BE 1. Eknath Easwaran, preface to The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas, ed. Louis Fischer (1962; repr., New York: Vintage, 1990), xx. 2. “Gandhiji’s Philosophy: Diet and Diet Programme,” n.d., Mahatma Gandhi Information Website, www.gandhi-manibhavan.org/gandhiphilosophy/philosophy_health_dietprogramme.htm. 3. library.thinkquest.org/26523/mainfiles/quotes.htm. 4. Albert Einstein, “Mahatma Gandhi,” in Out of My Later Years: Essays (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950). 5. Henry David Thoreau to H. G. O. Blake, March 27, 1848, in The Portable Thoreau, ed. Jeffrey S. Cramer (London: Penguin, 2012). 6. Proverbs 23:7. APPENDIX: LEADERSHIP ESSENTIALS 1. Guy Kawasaki, “From the Desk of Management Changes at Apple,” MacUser, December 1991, and then a follow-up piece, “How to Prevent a Bozo Explosion,” How to Change the World, February 26, 2006, http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2006/02/how_to_prevent_.html. 2.

So how can we all introduce more play into our workplaces and our lives? In his book, Brown includes a primer to help readers reconnect with play. He suggests that readers mine their past for play memories. What did you do as a child that excited you? How can you re-create that today? CHAPTER 8 SLEEP Protect the Asset EACH NIGHT, WHEN I GO TO SLEEP, I DIE. AND THE NEXT MORNING, WHEN I WAKE UP, I AM REBORN. —Mahatma Gandhi Geoff sat straight up in bed, in a panic. He felt as if a bomb had exploded in his head. He was sweating and discombobulated. He listened intensely. What was going on? Everything was silent. Perhaps it was a weird reaction to something he’d eaten. He tried to go back to sleep. The next night it happened again. Then a few days later it happened in the middle of the day. He had just returned from India and at first he thought it might be a reaction to malaria medicine he was taking in combination with the Benadryl he took to help him sleep when he was jet-lagged.

It would be an understatement to say he eschewed consumerism: when he died he owned fewer than ten items. More importantly, of course, he devoted his life to helping the people of India gain independence. He intentionally never held a political position of any kind, yet he became, officially within India, the “Father of the Nation.” But his contribution extended well beyond India. As General George C. Marshall, the American secretary of state, said on the occasion of Gandhi’s passing: “Mahatma Gandhi had become the spokesman for the conscience of mankind, a man who made humility and simple truth more powerful than empires.”3 And Albert Einstein added: “Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth.”4 It is impossible to argue with the statement that Gandhi lived a life that really mattered. Of course, we don’t have to try to replicate Gandhi to benefit from his example as someone who lived, fully and completely, as an Essentialist.


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

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Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

The Kalpasar dam, which would raise the sea level and alter the ecology of hundreds of kilometers of coastline, was the cause of serious concerns amongst scientists in a 2007 report.23 It has made a sudden comeback in order to supply water to the Dholera Special Investment Region (SIR) in one of the most water-stressed zones not just in India but in the world. SIR is another name for a SEZ, a self-governed corporate dystopia of industrial parks, townships, and megacities. The Dholera SIR is going to be connected to Gujarat’s other cities by a network of ten-lane highways. Where will the money for all this come from? In January 2011 in the Mahatma (Gandhi) Mandir, Gujarat’s Chief Minister Narendra Modi presided over a meeting of ten thousand international businessmen from one hundred countries. According to media reports, they pledged to invest $450 billion in Gujarat. The meeting was deliberately scheduled to take place on the tenth anniversary of the massacre of two thousand Muslims in February 2002. Modi stands accused of not just condoning but actively abetting the killing.

(Anna withdrew that statement after a public outcry, but presumably not his admiration.)3 Despite the din, sober journalists have gone about doing what journalists do. We now have the backstory about Anna’s old relationship with the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).4 We have heard from Mukul Sharma, who has studied Anna’s village community in Ralegan Siddhi, where there have been no Gram Panchayat or cooperative society elections in the last twenty-five years. We know about Anna’s attitude to “harijans”: “It was Mahatma Gandhi’s vision that every village should have one chamar, one sunar, one kumhar and so on. They should all do their work according to their role and occupation, and in this way, a village will be self-dependent. This is what we are practicing in Ralegan Siddhi.”5 Is it surprising that members of Team Anna have also been associated with Youth for Equality, the antireservation (pro-“merit”) movement?


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, conceptual framework, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, V2 rocket

Treadle-powered machines, not so different from those made before 1914, were, in the 1960s, ‘by far the most important modern appliance’ in a small town of the district of Huaylas in Andean Peru.23 In Mae Hong Son, northern Thailand, in April 2002, treadle-operated Singers decorated with a sticker celebrating 150 years of Singer machines were on sale alongside white goods, next to an internet café. At the other end of the world, an expensive (male) tailor working alone making men’s suits in Lecce, Italy, also used a treadle-operated Singer.24 Treadle-powered sewing machines feature regularly in discussions of micro-credit initiatives supported by international development agencies. The sewing machine had a very particular place in the thinking of Mahatma Gandhi, as exemplary of an alternative approach to production. Gandhi was a strong opponent of the machine-based industries and famously argued not for mass production, but for production by the masses. Yet, he made what he called ‘intelligent exceptions’ to this hostility to industrially-made machines. ‘Take the case of the Singer Sewing Machine,’ he said. ‘It is one of the few useful things ever invented …’ His interviewer responded that he could not object to the factories that made them, to which Gandhi replied that he was ‘Socialist enough to say that such factories should be nationalized, or State-controlled’.

Yet the argument worked only for a closed system, if each nation was insulated from every other one. For the free-rider problem would otherwise also apply to governments – why should the Indian government fund research that would equally be exploited by Pakistani, or US citizens? We should recognise of course that in the 1950s the US dominated world research and development, and thus could be thought of as a closed system. 15. A national technology. Mahatma Gandhi reading newspaper clippings next to a Charkha (spinning wheel), the great symbol of the Indian National Congress. The spinning wheel was re-introduced into India in the twentieth century as a result of a campaign led by Gandhi to promote ‘production by the masses’. This implicit techno-nationalism is also found in another justification for national funding of research (and development). It is the idea that to overtake rich countries a nation needs to invent and innovate more, and that if it does not it will descend to the level of the poorest countries.

Tanis Day, ‘Capital-Labor substitution in the home’, Technology and Culture, Vol. 33 (1992), p. 322. 17. For some white European intellectuals in the interwar years, a critique of western industrial civilisation was built on celebration, often with noble savage overtones, of the ancient less corrupted cultures of Africa and Asia. A very few non-white intellectuals, and fewer African and Asians, were themselves putting this forward, among them Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi. See Michael Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology and Ideologies of Western Dominance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989), pp. 380–401. 18. Gustavo Riofrio and Jean-Claude Driant, ¿Que Vivienda han construido? Nuevos Problemas en viejas barriadas (Lima: CIDAP/IFEA/TAREA, 1987). 19. Slums of the World, p. 25 – quoted in Mike Davis, ‘Planet of Slums’, New Left Review, second series, No. 26 (2004), pp. 5–34. 20. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Durban.pdf Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements (Development and Planning Unit, University College London).


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Now, they fly through the air in trains at the rate of four hundred and more miles per day … Formerly, when people wanted to fight with one another, they measured between them their bodily strength; now it is possible to take away thousands of lives by one man working behind a gun from a hill … There are now diseases of which people never dreamt before, and an army of doctors is engaged in finding out their cures, and so hospitals have increased. This is a test of civilization … What more need I say? … This civilization is such that one has only to be patient and it will be self-destroyed. According to the teaching of Muhammad this would be considered a Satanic Civilization. Hinduism calls it the Black Age … It must be shunned. Mahatma Gandhi It is a people which by its sons (Robespierre, Descartes, etc.) has done much for humanity. I do not have the right to wish it evil. Senegalese student BURKE’S PROPHECY From the middle of the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth, the West ruled over the Rest. This was the age not just of empires but of imperialism, a theory of overseas expansion that justified the formal and informal domination of non-Western peoples on both self-interested and altruistic grounds.

An estimated 57 per cent of the world’s population lived in these empires, which accounted for close to four-fifths of global economic output. Even at the time, their conduct aroused bitter criticism. Indeed, the word ‘imperialism’ is a term of abuse that caught on with nationalists, liberals and socialists alike. These critics rained coruscating ridicule on the claim that the empires were exporting civilization. Asked what he thought of Western civilization, the Indian nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi is said to have replied wittily that he thought it would be a good idea. In Hind Swaraj (‘Indian Home Rule’), published in 1908, Gandhi went so far as to call Western civilization ‘a disease’ and ‘a bane’.2 Mark Twain, America’s leading anti-imperialist, preferred irony. ‘To such as believe’, he wrote in 1897, ‘that the quaint product called French civilization would be an improvement upon the civilization of New Guinea and the like, the snatching of Madagascar and the laying on of French civilization there will be fully justified.’3 The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was also being ironic when he called imperialism ‘the highest stage of capitalism’, the result of monopolistic banks struggling ‘for the sources of raw materials, for the export of capital, for spheres of influence, i.e., for spheres for profitable deals, concessions, monopoly profits and so on’.

From its New York headquarters at 458 (later 149) Broadway, Singer spread with astonishing speed to become one of the world’s first truly global brands, with manufacturing plants in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Russia and Scotland; at its peak, the Kilbowie factory at Clydebank covered a million square feet and employed 12,000 people. In 1904 global sales passed 1.3 million machines a year. By 1914 that figure had more than doubled. The brand logo – the ‘S’ wrapped around a sewing woman – was ubiquitous, to be seen even (according the firm’s advertising copywriters) on the summit of Mount Everest. In a rare concession to modernity, Mahatma Gandhi acknowledged that it was ‘one of the few useful things ever invented’ – praise indeed from the man who disdained even modern medicine.40 Singer exemplified the American advantage. Not only was the United States still attracting, as it always had, the world’s natural-born risk-takers. Now there were enough of them to constitute a truly unmatched internal market. Between 1870 and 1913 the United States overtook the United Kingdom.


pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

The Bikini Atoll bomb: the Atomic Age (© SuperStock) 17. General George Marshall and Zhou Enlai (© Gamma-Keystone / Getty Images) 18. Mao Zedong (© Underwood Photo Archives / SuperStock) 19. General Marshall with Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Mei-ling (© The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images) 20. Poverty and starvation in China (© Image Asset Management Ltd. / SuperStock) 21. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mohandas ‘Mahatma’ Gandhi (© The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images) 22. Mohammed Ali Jinnah (© AFP / Getty Images) 23. Communist partisans in Athens during the Greek Civil War (© Getty Images) 24. Greek partisans line up for battle (© Heritage Images / Getty Images) 25. Marshal Josef Broz Tito (© Getty Images) 26. Pro-Tito graffiti in Yugoslavia (© The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images) 27.

John Murray, London, 2007 Mastny, Vojtech, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: the Stalin Years. Oxford University Press, New York, 1996 Mazower, Mark, The Balkans. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 2000 ———, Inside Hitler’s Greece: the Experience of Occupation, 1941–1944. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1995 ———, (ed.), After the War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation, and State in Greece, 1943–1960. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2000 Mehta, Ved, Mahatma Gandhi and his Apostles. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977 Menand, Louis, ‘Getting Real: George Kennan’s Cold War’, New Yorker, 14 November 2011 Menon, V. P., The Story of the Integration of the Indian States. Longmans, Green, London, 1956 ———, The Transfer of Power in India. Longmans, Green, London, 1957 Mikołajczyk, Stanisław, The Rape of Poland: Pattern of Soviet Aggression. Whittlesey House, New York, 1948 Miscamble, Wilson, From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War.

Cambridge, New York, 2005 Willoughby, John, ‘The Sexual Behaviour of American GIs during the Early Years of the Occupation of Germany’, Journal of Military History, vol. 62, January 1998 Wilson, Francesca, Aftermath: France, Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia, 1945 and 1946. Penguin, London, 1947 Wolff-Mönckeberg, Mathilde, On the Other Side: To My Children: From Germany, 1940–1945. Persephone Books, London, 2007 Wolpert, Stanley, Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001 ———, Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New York, 1984 ———, Nehru: A Tryst with Destiny. Oxford University Press, New York, 1996 Yergin, Daniel, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State. André Deutsch, London, 1978 Zhukov, Georgi, The Memoirs of Marshal Zhukov. Jonathan Cape, London, 1971 Zubok, Vladislav, ‘“To Hell with Yalta”: The Soviet Union Opts for the Status Quo’, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin Nos. 6 and 7, Winter 1995/6 ———, A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev.


pages: 231 words: 73,818

The Achievement Habit: Stop Wishing, Start Doing, and Take Command of Your Life by Bernard Roth

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Albert Einstein, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, deskilling, fear of failure, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, school choice, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

We can emulate their positive attributes and guard against their negative ones. We can learn from a child as well as from a famous celebrity. It is important not to be disillusioned when you find out your idols have clay feet. They can still be your teachers. You might even be able to learn more from obviously imperfect people than from those still pretending to be perfect. Does the fact that Mahatma Gandhi was not a great father to his children invalidate his message and example? Does the fact that a politician had an illicit affair invalidate the good work she has done? You can choose a priori to rule certain influences out of your life, or you can be inclusive and take the relevant lessons from each. I believe the latter course leads to a richer life experience. CUTTING OTHERS DOWN I was part of a ten-person teaching team leading a weeklong intensive workshop in the d.school that we called Summer College.

Braverman points out that work that allows for self-expression satisfies human needs, and he traces the roots of the trend toward deskilling of both work and workers. In Braverman’s terms, the machines that enhance people’s skills are considered life-supporting, while those that deskill people and devalue their work are life-destroying.2 Perhaps the best spokesperson for the need to define the proper role of machines is Mahatma Gandhi. Asked whether he was opposed to machines, he answered,3 How can I be when I know that even this body is a most delicate piece of machinery? The spinning wheel is a machine, a little toothpick is a machine. What I object to is the craze for machinery, not machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour-saving machinery. Men go on “saving labour” till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation.

First, it is my homage to The Adjusted American for providing the first motivation for this book. Second, I like that it implies that it is normal for people to have a sane life even though we live in a crazy world. 1.Kurt Vonnegut, Player Piano (New York: Doubleday, 1952). 2.Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974). 3.Gandhi is quoted as having said this in Delhi in 1924 by Mahadev DeSai; cited in the preface to Mahatma Gandhi, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule (Ahmedabad, India: Jitendra T. Desai/Navajivan, 1938), pp. 5–6. 4.E. F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered (New York: HarperCollins, 1973). 5.Ibid., pp. 56–66. 6.Lawrence Weschler, Seeing Is Forgetting the Name of the Thing One Sees (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982). 7.The quest for personal autonomy in a harsh assembly line environment is insightfully portrayed in the short story “Joe, the Vanishing American” by Harvey Swados (1957).


pages: 468 words: 150,206

Food Revolution, The: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our World by John Robbins, Dean Ornish M. D.

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Albert Einstein, carbon footprint, clean water, complexity theory, double helix, Exxon Valdez, food miles, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Rosa Parks, telemarketer

The reality, according to Schmeiser, is that many of his neighbors are growing genetically engineered canola, and pollen from them is blowing everywhere. "It's in the ditches and the roadsides; it's in the shelterbelts; it's in the gardens; it's all over.... We're just touching the tip of the iceberg in contamination of fields by this Roundup genetic canola." s On October 2, 2000, the 131st anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi's birth, Gandhi's family gave this Canadian farmer the prestigious Mahatma Gandhi award. An enormous crowd of 300,000 Indian farmers gathered to listen to and support Percy Schmeiser. When I first learned that Monsanto was suing Percy Schmeiser because their crops had invaded his fields, I could hardly believe it. It seemed ludicrous. But then I remembered that this is the same Monsanto that sues dairies who dare to inform their customers that they don't use the corporation's genetically engineered bovine growth hormone.

By 1999, nations throughout the European community, including Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Ireland, Finland, Belgium, and the Netherlands, had enacted almost complete bans on veal crates.45 As well, in 1999, agriculture ministers from the European Union agreed to end all caged egg production in Europe by 2012, replacing it completely with free-range farming.46 In 2000, scientists from the United Kingdom called for an end to all factory farming in Europe as the only sure way to halt Mad Cow disease.47 And in 2001, the European Union proposed new animal welfare rules for pigs.48 Attorney David Wolfson commented, "The contrast is stark: the United States alters the law to allow cruel farming practices while Western European countries are banning cruel farming practices."49 Seeing such a dramatic contrast, I am reminded of the words of one of our world's great moral leaders, Mahatma Gandhi, who said, "The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated." Fortunately, there are voices within the U.S. meat industry who understand the wisdom of the direction the Europeans are taking. Rather than resisting the public's growing awareness, they say, it would be good business to take animal protection issues seriously. In 1999, the journal Feedstuffs carried a remarkably insightful piece titled, "Agribusiness Wise to Consider Animal Welfare," which stated, "The United States has lagged far behind other civilized countries in regard to faun animal welfare.

In the heart of our grief we can find our connection to each other, and our ability to act. Our strength lies in our kinship with life. Our power lies in our deepest human responses. Our power does not lie in looking the other way. Through history there have always been people who have chosen to be vegetarians because they did not feel it was right to kill animals for food when it was not necessary, when there was other nourishing food available. People like Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Einstein, and countless others have been ethical vegetarians for just such reasons. But today, because of the way animals are raised for market, the question of whether or not it's ethical to eat meat has a whole new meaning and a whole new urgency. Never before have animals been treated like this. Never before has such deep, unrelenting, and systematic cruelty been mass produced. Never before have the choices of each individual been so important.


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The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional

From the Philippines and Haiti to Vietnam and Iraq, the natives’ reaction to U.S. efforts has taken Americans by surprise. Americans take justified pride in their own country—we call it patriotism—and yet are genuinely startled when other people are proud and possessive of theirs. In the waning days of Britain’s rule in India, its last viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten, turned to the great Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi and said in exasperation, “If we just leave, there will be chaos.” Gandhi replied, “Yes, but it will be our chaos.” That sense of being governed by one’s “own,” without interference, is a powerful feeling in emerging countries, especially those that were once colonies or quasi-colonies of the West. Zbigniew Brzezinski recently called attention to what he terms a “global political awakening.”

We did not even have a section for historical research until I created one. . . . Our policy therefore necessarily rested on the intuition of one man, who was Foreign Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru.” This meant that India’s early foreign policy was driven by Nehru’s principles and prejudices, which were distinctive. Nehru was an idealist, even a moralist. He was for nonalignment and against the Cold War. His mentor, Mahatma Gandhi, was an unyielding pacifist. “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth,” Gandhi used to say, “and soon the world will be blind and toothless.” The mahatma was revered in India almost like a god, and his strategy of nonviolence had brought down an empire. Like many of his followers, Nehru was determined to chart a new course in international affairs that lived up to those ideals. Nehru rooted India’s foreign policy in abstract ideas rather than a strategic conception of national interests.

They make the same critiques of government policy as those in London, Paris, and Washington. But these attitudes are most true of India’s English-speaking elite—still a minority in the country—that is in some ways more comfortable in the West’s world than in its own. (Ask an educated Indian businessman, scholar, scientist, or bureaucrat what was the last book he read in a language other than English.) Mahatma Gandhi was a more distinctly Indian figure. His foreign policy ideas were a mixture of Hindu nonviolence and Western radicalism, topped up with a shrewd practicality that was probably shaped by his merchant class background. When Nehru called himself the “last” Englishman to rule India, he sensed that as the country developed, its own cultural roots would begin showing more clearly and would be ruled by more “authentic” Indians.


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Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

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British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

Heroes do what is good, just and right, and even though they may be ambiguous or flawed characters they often sacrifice themselves to show humanity at its best and most humane (www.filmsite.org/afi100 heroesvilla.html) Three British characters feature in the top 50: James Bond (Dr No); T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia); and Robin Hood (The Adventures of Robin Hood). Six British actors feature in the top 50: Sean Connery (James Bond, Dr No); Peter O’Toole (T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia); Liam Neeson (Oskar Schindler, Schindler’s List); Ben Kingsley (Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi); Alec Guinness (Obi-Wan Kenobi, Star Wars); and Charlie Chaplin (The Tramp, City Lights). Oddly, only two of these roles are about genuinely British heroes from national history and literature: James Bond and T. E. Lawrence. Moreover, 134 BRIT-MYTH the actors employed to play them have an ambivalent relationship to British national identity. Sean Connery, the most famous Bond, is a prominent Scottish nationalist.

O’Toole was born and raised in Leeds; however, he holds an Irish passport and although resident in London for most of his life he has used his Irish heritage colourfully to signal distance from the sober values of the British. The remaining four British actors in Hollywood’s top six may bring national qualities to their performances, but the parts that they play are not heroes purported to distil the essence of British national life. Neeson, a Northern Irishman, plays Oskar Schindler, an ethnic German born in Austro-Hungary, with a Londonderry air of calculated insouciance and noblesse oblige; Kingsley’s Mahatma Gandhi is a scourge of the British in India; Alec Guinness’s Obi-Wan Kenobi is a creation of science fiction; and the Tramp, portrayed by Lambeth-born Charlie Chaplin, is a representation of the romantic, urban everyman. These actors aren’t portraying British characters. Nonetheless, their interpretation of the roles is recognized by audiences as bringing something recognizably heroic and British to the films.


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Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E

(If you haven’t seen it before you can take the test here: http://bit.ly/1gXmThe – it’s fun.) The flip side of this is “salience”, when something you have reason to pay attention to starts appearing everywhere you look. Thus if you buy a Lexus car, there may suddenly seem to be many more of them on the road than before. “Anchoring” is another way in which we are easily misled. If you ask people whether Mahatma Gandhi was older than 35 when he died and then ask them to guess his exact age when he died, they will give a lower answer than if your first question was whether he was over 100 when he died. (To save you looking it up, he was 78.) Some of our forms of bias are very damaging. How much better would our political processes be if we were not subject to “confirmation bias”, which makes us more attentive to data and ideas which confirm our existing viewpoints than to data and ideas which challenge them?

The idea that such an entity will forever remain constrained by instructions that we laid down at the outset, that it will never review its goals and think of improvements, is hard to swallow. The best we can hope for is that any evolution in the superintelligence’s goals takes them in directions we would approve of. Some people take comfort from the belief that if an entity starts off with benevolent motivations, it will not turn malevolent. Few people would disagree with the proposition that Mahatma Gandhi was a man of good will. If you had offered him a pill which would turn him into a murderer, he would have refused to take it, even if he believed that becoming a murderer would serve some noble purpose. There has been a fair amount of debate about whether Gandhi’s resolve to retain his moral probity could be diluted, but as far as I know, no method has yet been found to guarantee that a superintelligence could not alter its goals in such a way that it would end up harming us.


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The Education of a Value Investor: My Transformative Quest for Wealth, Wisdom, and Enlightenment by Guy Spier

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, NetJets, pattern recognition, pre–internet, random walk, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, winner-take-all economy, young professional

If so, it stands to reason that I should make a conscious effort to have the best possible people in my social networks. At first, I approached this idea in a calculated and self-serving manner, hoping that my attempts to build “social capital” would lead me to greater financial and professional success. But the relationships that I began to form were so life enriching that my cynical motives gradually receded. I’m not saying that I’m Mahatma Gandhi. But my deepening bonds with great people became a source of such sincere joy to me that I no longer needed any hidden agenda: these friendships became a wonderful end in themselves, not a means to self-advancement. Serendipitously, I’m writing these words in the Delamar Greenwich Harbor Hotel in Connecticut—the very place where I had my first dinner with Mohnish a decade ago, on February 11, 2004.

Or, A Good Hard Look at Wall Street by Fred Schwed Your Money and Your Brain: How the New Science of Neuroeconomics Can Help Make You Rich by Jason Zweig Literature 100 Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Hamlet by William Shakespeare Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values by Robert Pirsig Miscellaneous Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with the Truth by Mahatma Gandhi City Police by Jonathan Rubinstein Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage by Alfred Lansing Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela by Nelson Mandela Metaphors We Live By by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson Reagan: A Life in Letters by Ronald Reagan The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right by Atul Gawande The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The New British Constitution by Vernon Bogdanor The Power of Myth by Joseph Campbell with Bill Moyers Vor 1914: Erinnerungen an Frankfurt geschrieben in Israel by Selmar Spier Walden: or, Life in the Woods by Henry David Thoreau Why America Is Not a New Rome by Vaclav Smil Philosophy and Theology A Theory of Justice by John Rawls Anarchy, the State, and Utopia by Robert Nozick Destination Torah: Reflections on the Weekly Torah Readings by Isaac Sassoon Halakhic Man by Joseph Soloveitchik Letters from a Stoic by Lucius Annaeus Seneca Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl Meditations by Marcus Aurelius Pirke Avot: A Modern Commentary on Jewish Ethics by Leonard Kravits and Kerry Olitzky Plato, not Prozac!


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The London Compendium by Ed Glinert

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1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, Nick Leeson, price stability, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket

The station closed in 1990 when the tunnel under Snow Hill was reopened and a new station, the clumsily named City Thameslink, was built a little further to the south to cater for trains running between Bedford and Brighton. City Temple, Holborn Viaduct at Shoe Lane Built in 1874, City Temple became the leading centre for Nonconformity in nineteenth-century London and was run by the Revd Joseph Parker, a radical firebrand whose telegraphic address was simply ‘Preacher, London’, who attracted the young Mahatma Gandhi to services. In the 1920s two of the first million-selling records, Master Ernest Luff’s ‘O for the Wings of a Dove’ and the Temple choir’s version of Mendelssohn’s ‘Hear My Prayer’, were recorded at the church. Martin Luther King Jnr spoke at City Temple about racial tyranny in December 1964 before going to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. St Andrew Rebuilt by Christopher Wren from 1684 to 1690 with a double-storeyed Portland stone exterior to frame what is his largest parish church, St Andrew was originally a wooden Saxon church, first mentioned in 951, and was where in 1808 the essayist William Hazlitt was married, his best man, the essayist Charles Lamb, having to be restrained several times from bursting out laughing.

Past members include the Elizabethan courtier Sir Walter Ralegh, the diarist John Evelyn, the playwright William Congreve and the novelists Henry Fielding, William Makepeace Thackeray and John Buchan. The Inner Temple lies further east and its sites are decorated with the winged horse, Pegasus. Past members include Dr Johnson’s biographer James Boswell, the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the librettist W. S. Gilbert, Dracula author Bram Stoker and the Indian leaders Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. There are helpful maps on the walls (one by the porch on Middle Temple Lane and one by Carpmael Buildings), marked with sites of mostly literary interest. Inner Temple Lane Temple Church The first Gothic church to be built in London, erected between 1160 and 1185 in the style of the Church of the Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and consecrated by Heraclius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, in 1185, Temple Church was where in the thirteenth century initiation rites welcoming newcomers into the order of the Knights Templar, the warrior monks after whom the Temple is named, took place.

Tavistock Square Built in 1820 by Thomas Cubitt, the first London builder to use a permanent workforce, who was responsible for constructing parts of Barnsbury, Belgravia and Stoke Newington, and once a quiet residential enclave, Tavistock Square is now part of the main route between Holborn and Euston, dominated by the grotesque brickwork of the British Medical Association’s headquarters. It stands on the site of the house where Charles Dickens lived from 1851 to 1860 and wrote Bleak House (1853), Hard Times (1854), Little Dorrit (1857) and parts of A Tale of Two Cities (1859). The gardens opposite contain a memorial stone dedicated to conscientious objectors, unveiled by the composer Michael Tippett in 1994, and a statue of the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi designed by the Polish born artist Fredda Brilliant. (ii) around the British Museum Bedford Square Bloomsbury’s oldest complete Georgian square, spoilt by over-zealous pedestrianization, Bedford Square was financed by the money that flowed into London after the 1763 Peace of Paris, a treaty which recognized the independence of the American colonies and, according to the 4th Duke of Bedford, ‘excited a rage for building’.


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Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

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4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, side project, smart grid, urban planning

The telegraph was instrumental enough in how wartime communication took place; what if Lincoln or Churchill and Roosevelt had instant messaging? The Occupy movement has benefited enormously from being able to coordinate action and communicate its message on the backs of big-data systems. And, at both ends of the spectrum, imagine a data breach at Facebook: what would Hitler have done with that information? How would Mahatma Gandhi have utilized that kind of information about so many people? And because of the sheer velocity, volume, and variety of big data, as it evolves, it is introducing ethical challenges in places and ways we’ve never encountered before. To meet those challenges in those new and unexpected ways, we simply must learn to engage in explicit ethical discussion in new and unexpected environments—not only to protect ourselves from the risk of unintended consequences, but because there are legitimate and immediate benefits.


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Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

India is still poor, but it’s growing at a feverish pace, and Bangalore, India’s fifth-largest city, is among the subcontinent’s greatest success stories. Bangalore’s wealth comes not from industrial might (although it still makes plenty of textiles) but from its strength as a city of ideas. By concentrating so much talent in one place, Bangalore makes it easier for that talent to teach itself and for outsiders, whether from Singapore or Silicon Valley, to connect easily with Indian human capital. Echoing antiurbanites throughout the ages, Mahatma Gandhi said that “the true India is to be found not in its few cities, but in its 700,000 villages” and “the growth of the nation depends not on cities, but [on] its villages.” The great man was wrong. India’s growth depends almost entirely on its cities. There is a near-perfect correlation between urbanization and prosperity across nations. On average, as the share of a country’s population that is urban rises by 10 percent, the country’s per capita output increases by 30 percent.

Galarneau, Diane, and René Morissette. “Immigrants’ Education and Required Job Skills.” Statistics Canada, Perspectives, Dec. 2008, www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2008112/pdf/10766-eng.pdf. Galatas, Roger, and Jim Barlow. The Woodlands: The Inside Story of Creating a Better Hometown. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 2004. Galloni, Alessandra. “Miuccia and Me.” Wall Street Journal Magazine, Mar. 2010. Gandhi, Mahatma. Mahatma Gandhi: The Essential Writings, ed. Judith Margaret Brown. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Gans, Herbert J. The Levittowners: Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. Gari, L. “Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century.” Environment and History 8, no. 4 (2002): 475-88. Gaspar, Jess, and Edward L.

“Theme Park Developers Turn Their Attention to Asia, Where Business Is Growing.” New York Times, Dec. 26, 2009, Business/Financial. Koskoff, David E. Joseph P. Kennedy: A Life and Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Krueger, Alan B. “How Computers Have Changed the Wage Structure: Evidence from Microdata, 1984-1989.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 1 (Feb 1993): 33-60. Kumar, Satish. “The Whole Truth of a Home Economy.” In Mahatma Gandhi: 125 Years, ed. Manmohan Choudhuri and Ramjee Singh. Varanasi, India: Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Gandhian Institute of Studies, 1995. LaFranchi, Howard. “New Look on the Left Bank in Paris.” Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 14, 1989. Landau, Sarah Brandford, and Carl W. Condit. The Rise of the New York Skyscraper 1865-1913. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. Langley, Monica. Tearing Down the Walls: How Sandy Weill Fought His Way to the Top of the Financial World . . . and Then Nearly Lost It All.


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Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

The driver, a well-known bigot named James Blake, told her to use the rear and started to push her off the bus. Parks asked him not to touch her. She would leave on her own, she said quietly. “Get off my bus,” Blake sputtered in response. Parks complied, but not before deliberately dropping her purse on her way out and sitting on a “white” seat as she picked it up. “Intuitively, she had engaged in an act of passive resistance, a precept named by Leo Tolstoy and embraced by Mahatma Gandhi,” writes the historian Douglas Brinkley in a wonderful biography of Parks. It was more than a decade before King popularized the idea of nonviolence and long before Parks’s own training in civil disobedience, but, Brinkley writes, “such principles were a perfect match for her own personality.” Parks was so disgusted by Blake that she refused to ride his bus for the next twelve years. On the day she finally did, the day that turned her into the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement,” she got back on that bus, according to Brinkley, only out of sheer absentmindedness.

But it’s my painting, and when somebody says, ‘Why don’t you use more red instead of blue?’ Good-bye. It’s my painting. And I don’t care what they sell it for. The painting itself will never be finished. That’s one of the great things about it.” Part Three DO ALL CULTURES HAVE AN EXTROVERT IDEAL? 8 SOFT POWER Asian-Americans and the Extrovert Ideal In a gentle way, you can shake the world. —MAHATMA GANDHI It’s a sunny spring day in 2006, and Mike Wei, a seventeen-year-old Chinese-born senior at Lynbrook High School near Cupertino, California, is telling me about his experiences as an Asian-American student. Mike is dressed in sporty all-American attire of khakis, windbreaker, and baseball cap, but his sweet, serious face and wispy mustache give him the aura of a budding philosopher, and he speaks so softly that I have to lean forward to hear him.

Experience has taught me that silence is part of the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth. We find so many people impatient to talk. All this talking can hardly be said to be of any benefit to the world. It is so much waste of time. My shyness has been in reality my shield and buckler. It has allowed me to grow. It has helped me in my discernment of truth. Soft power is not limited to moral exemplars like Mahatma Gandhi. Consider, for example, the much-ballyhooed excellence of Asians in fields like math and science. Professor Ni defines soft power as “quiet persistence,” and this trait lies at the heart of academic excellence as surely as it does in Gandhi’s political triumphs. Quiet persistence requires sustained attention—in effect restraining one’s reactions to external stimuli. The TIMSS exam (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is a standardized math and science test given every four years to kids around the world.


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Marcel Proust, Pleasures and Days1 Abram Games’ banned 1942 propaganda poster featuring the Finsbury Health Centre In blacked-out London’s grimy nights invisible figures armed with nothing more than tin hats and buckets full of sand watched from towers and rooftops – intently or with chilled boredom – for German incendiaries falling from the skies. One of these watchers in the dark was an Indian immigrant named Dr Chuni Lai Katial. Handsome, socialistically inclined and very well connected (a 1931 photograph shows him with Charlie Chaplin and Mahatma Gandhi), Dr Katial was shortly to become Britain’s first Asian mayor. Before the war he was chairman of the public health committee of Finsbury, a deprived inner-city borough of London, and his firewatching was given a special piquancy by the possibility that his own baby might be burned or blasted by the bombs, the child in question being the Finsbury Health Centre. Dr Katial had fought long and hard to open the centre in 1938, and now it stood half-buried in sandbags, a necessary precaution since its facade was largely made of those unmistakable signifiers of architectural modernity, glass bricks (the glass cracked under the weight, but otherwise the building survived the war unscathed).

Military and naval hospitals in eighteenth-century Britain inspired architects across Europe, and the dire treatment of wounded and sick soldiers during the Crimean War (1853–6) spurred Florence Nightingale’s long campaign to reform hospitals back home. Later, the poor health of volunteers for the Boer Wars (1880–1902) caused a national scandal in Britain: only two fifths were fit to fight, and fear of martial incompetence, and the resulting disintegration of empire, provided an impetus to improve the living conditions of the working class. Dr Katial (rear left) hosted a meeting of Charlie Chaplin and Mahatma Gandhi at his home in London’s East End in 1931 But although changes were made, the nation’s health remained in a parlous state well into the 1930s. The biggest killer was tuberculosis, responsible for 30,000–40,000 deaths a year, and the connection with overcrowding and unsanitary conditions was clear. Finsbury, for example, with its tightly packed impoverished population, was a breeding ground for the disease.


pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, El Camino Real, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Not long after setting out, his boat scraped a hidden sandbar, shearing off the propeller. Without power, he drifted for more than a day until a sport fisherman spotted him and hauled him back to shore. Yet as unsuccessful as his Cuban journey may have been, Fred Moore was destined to have a dramatic impact on the world. Intent on bringing about change simply by putting his body on the line, in the mold of Mahatma Gandhi, Moore ultimately was to alter both the world’s politics and technology. A year after his Cuban misadventure, Fred Moore came to Berkeley to study science. He had an obvious talent for math and engineering, interests that had been sparked in part by frequent weekend visits to the home of a maiden aunt, who always gave him a mental puzzle to work at. In an era when America was a conforming society outwardly, his appearance was like that of other entering freshmen.

It didn’t immediately matter, and though it would take several years to bear fruit, the idea for interactive page layout was now firmly etched in Tesler’s mind. In 1961, Larry Tesler had come to Stanford as a fairly apolitical freshman. During Tesler’s first year on campus, Ira Sandperl, the local pacifist and former Stanford student who worked at Kepler’s bookstore, came to campus to speak, accompanied by folksinger Joan Baez. Of course everyone wanted to see and hear Baez, a phenomenon at the time. Sandperl discussed at length the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, especially nonviolent resistance. The ideas resonated with Tesler but had little direct impact immediately. After he graduated, Vietnam and the Free University began to have an effect on his thinking. He had married after leaving Stanford and initially focused on his career and family. One of his partners in his small programming consulting business was a former Stanford student who was far more radical than Tesler and who urged him to get more involved in protesting the war.


pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

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anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra

Apartheid’s Overreach: South Africa and Afrikaans Linguistic nationalism left enduring, perhaps unsolvable conflicts in Spain. Elsewhere, it may have even toppled at least one regime. South Africa’s Constitutional Court, in Pretoria, abounds in symbolism. In an unhappier, earlier era, it was a detention facility. It has the distinction of holding, at different times, two of the world’s most famously righteous freedom fighters: Mahatma Gandhi was held there by British authorities in the early twentieth century, and Nelson Mandela would be locked up there half a century later. Today, South Africa’s Constitutional Court is a symbol of reconciliation and justice. Some of the old brickwork has been kept as a reminder of what the building once was. But the rest is new. The ceiling is designed to evoke an outdoor setting beneath trees, making semiliteral a traditional African concept: “justice under the tree” is dispensed by elders in traditional communal gatherings.

Its chief political vehicle, India’s equivalent of the African National Congress, was the Congress Party. (In fact, Mandela and the ANC learned from the Indian experience.) In freeing their country, India’s independence leaders knew that they would also have to hold it together. The Congress Party’s leaders did not worry overmuch about language. They assumed that India’s biggest language, which they called “Hindustani,” would unite the free India they sought. These leaders included Mahatma Gandhi, a Gujarati-speaker who spoke Hindustani haltingly; Jawaharlal Nehru, who was descended from Kashmiris and spoke English best; and even the southern Tamil figure C.R. Rajagopalachari, who spoke no Hindustani at all. (Tamil is a Dravidian language, totally unrelated to the northern Indian languages, including Hindustani.) “Hindustani,” though, is these days a disputed concept. The languages now called Hindi and Urdu are its squabbling children.


pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

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Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, women in the workforce

Their leadership approach is focused on eliciting compliance and is particularly ineffective at generating widespread team member engagement and enthusiasm. Conscious companies are led by emotionally and spiritually mature leaders. Such conscious leaders are primarily motivated by service to the purpose of the business and its stakeholders, and not by the pursuit of power or personal enrichment. They develop and inspire, mentor and motivate, and lead by example. Rather than militaristic or mercenary, they are missionary leaders. They embody Mahatma Gandhi’s dictum “We must be the change we wish to see in the world.” Conscious leaders are strong individuals who possess exceptional moral courage and are able to withstand constant scrutiny and criticism from those who view business in a more traditional, narrow manner. Above all, conscious leaders view themselves as trustees of the business, seeking to nurture and safeguard it for future generations, not to exploit it for the short-term gains of themselves or current stakeholders.

Management is about efficiency and implementation. Leaders are the high-level architects, builders, and remodelers of the system, while managers ensure that the system works smoothly and take corrective actions when it doesn’t. Leaders have an inherent systemic sensitivity that enables them to understand both how a group of people will behave as a system and how to change the system in order to change its behavior. Mahatma Gandhi’s approach to nonviolence was once challenged by a history professor, who cited his “knowledge of history” to argue that Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence would never work. Gandhi replied, “Sir, your job is to teach history while mine is to create it.”4 Managers do not make history; conscious leaders do. They imagine and bring into existence that which did not exist before and which most thought could not be done.


pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn

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agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

Think how much more effective a women’s rights movement could be if backed by an army of social entrepreneurs. The United Nations and the aid bureaucracies have undertaken a relentless search for technical solutions—including improved vaccines and new processes for boring wells—and those are important. But progress also depends on political and cultural remedies, and, frankly, on charisma. Often the key is a person with a knack for leadership: Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States, Mahatma Gandhi in India, and William Wilberforce in Britain. It’s important to invest in these emerging leaders as well as in processes, and aid organizations have largely missed the boat that Drayton launched with Ashoka. “It does seem to be a major blind spot in development and government efforts,” notes David Bornstein, who wrote an excellent book about social entrepreneurs called How to Change the World.

* One exception: Successful public health initiatives have sometimes been directed from the treetops. Examples include the eradication of smallpox, vaccination campaigns, and battles against river blindness and guinea worm disease. They are exceptional because they depend on research, materials, and knowledge that do not exist at the grassroots. CHAPTER FOURTEEN What You Can Do You must be the change you wish to see in the world. —MAHATMA GANDHI Americans knew for decades about the unfairness of segregation. But racial discrimination seemed a complex problem deeply rooted in the South’s history and culture, and most good-hearted people didn’t see what they could do about such injustices. Then along came Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. and the Freedom Riders, along with eye-opening books like John Howard Griffin’s Black Like Me.

The Future of Money by Bernard Lietaer

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agricultural Revolution, banks create money, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, clean water, complexity theory, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, Golden Gate Park, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, price stability, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, the market place, the payments system, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, working poor

Radical behavioural and attitudinal changes are explored too, but it turns out that these alone are not enough either - there is still a crash in the mid twenty-first century. It is only when both these kinds of changes are applied together that a crash is avoided. It is precisely such a combination, which is in fact already happening today. 1. The Value Shift Wave 'First they ignore you; Then they ridicule you; Then they attack you; Then you win.' Mahatma Gandhi The most detailed data set about changes in values over the past 20 years relates to the US. But there are preliminary indications that this process is in fact going on in the entire Western world, and possibly even globally. Paul Ray has carried out the largest up-to-date surveys of the changes in values over the past 20 years. These surveys covered scientific samples of 100,000 Americans, and were further refined with over 500 focus groups.

The three waves to Sustainable Abundance would enable this to happen. As Sir Eric Tilgner put it: 'Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter ofchoice.' Just remember that we are doing: the choosing for your children, for your children's children, and for a significant part of the biosphere as well. Epilogue 'The great challenge of the Modem Age is not to remake our world. but to remake ourselves. Be the change you wish to see for the world' - Mahatma Gandhi 'A problem cannot be solved with the same type of thinking that created it.' - Albert Einstien 'We don’t see things as they are. We see them as we are.' – Anais Nin Humanity and Planet Earth are at a cross-roads. The next 20 years will either see an irretrievable loss of biodiversity and a deterioration of the quality of life for vast numbers of people, or we will have moved up the next evolutionary step.


pages: 124 words: 39,011

Beyond Outrage: Expanded Edition: What Has Gone Wrong With Our Economy and Our Democracy, and How to Fix It by Robert B. Reich

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, banking crisis, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, job automation, Mahatma Gandhi, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor

One of my favorites, Dolores Huerta, co-founded (with Cesar Chavez) the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. In 1966, Huerta negotiated a contract between the farmworkers and the Schenley Wine Company; it was the first time farmworkers effectively negotiated a contract to improve their pay and working conditions. Or think of other great leaders who had no formal authority but changed the world—Martin Luther King Jr., Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela. Leaders get people to actively work on what needs to be done. To do this, leaders need to help people overcome the four “work-avoidance mechanisms” that most of the rest of us carry around in our heads. Those mechanisms are denial that a problem exists, the desire to escape responsibility even when we recognize the problem, the tendency to scapegoat others for causing it, and—worst of all—cynicism about the possibility of ever remedying the problem.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Unlike the Brahmins of old who went to Oxford and adopted English tastes, Ambani prefers to speak his native tongue at home, loves the kind of Indian food that is sold on streetside carts, and relaxes with two or three Bollywood films a week.44 Offering an entrepreneurial speedup to the sluggish pace of social reform in India, Ambani embodies the spirit of the New India, its back firmly turned against its socialist past. Mahatma Gandhi and Mao Zedong—Two Men Cast Long Shadows over China and India Because capitalism impinges so closely upon attitudes, values, habits—the stuff of culture—it is worthwhile comparing China and India in yet one more way. Both countries found their venerable traditions challenged by a charismatic leader in the late 1940s. Perhaps some of their responses to capitalism can be traced back to the impact of those two giants, Mahatma Gandhi and Mao Zedong. Gandhi headed the movement for India independence from Great Britain from 1913 to 1948, when a Hindu extremist assassinated him six months after India had reacquired its autonomy.

A gifted mathematician, Naoroji developed statistics to prove his case, estimating that England was taking 200 million pounds sterling from India, where per capita income, measured in rupees, was 20, compared with 450 in Great Britain. The British reaction was to form a commission to study the issue, a classic delaying tactic. In 1885 Naoroji participated in the formation of the Indian National Congress. He also became the mentor of a young admirer named Mahatma Gandhi. At first working within the British system for reforms, the INC later led the anticolonial movement that achieved independence in 1947.34 From the perspective of capitalism’s history, India’s critics are significant for two reasons. They astutely perceived that British officials treated economics as though it were a natural system like physics instead of a social system created by human beings for their purposes.


pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

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active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

It is the issue of education to which we turn next. 5 Education and Empowerment We want to provide only such education as would enable the student to earn more. We hardly give any thought to the improvement of the character of the educated. The girls, we say, do not have to earn; so why should they be educated? As long as such ideas persist there is no hope of our ever knowing the true value of education. Mahatma Gandhi You are a young girl sitting outside a rude shelter, humble but home, in a Bangladeshi village, watching your baby brother play in the dirt – your parents are both at work – and daydreaming. The fairy godmother appears and asks: ‘How would you like a more secure future, better nutrition, a paid job, control over the decision if and when to get married, defence against being beaten by your husband, control over your sexuality and childbearing, increased chance that children you choose to have survive and grow in good health?

Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man [woman] whom you may have seen, and ask yourself, if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him [her]. Will he [she] gain anything by it? Will it restore him [her] to a control over his [her] own life and destiny? In other words, will it lead to swaraj [freedom] for the hungry and spiritually starving millions? Then you will find your doubts and your self melt away. Mahatma Gandhi ‘You are the first white man who spoke to me in a way I could believe in; what you said: did it include me?’ Then the Maori woman, in traditional Maori fashion, introduced herself by saying who her grandparents and parents were. She finished: ‘I think what you said includes me, but I want to hear from you that it is so.’ I had just given a lecture, covering some of the material in this book, at a big meeting in Auckland organised by the New Zealand Medical Association.


pages: 505 words: 127,542

If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Happy? by Raj Raghunathan

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Broken windows theory, business process, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fundamental attribution error, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Phillip Zimbardo, placebo effect, science of happiness, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, working poor, Zipcar

Compare your counts with those of your partner. The closer the match, the more self-aware you are. Chapter 7B THE SEVENTH HABIT OF THE HIGHLY HAPPY: MINDFULNESS Imagine that you’re given the opportunity to be a fly on the wall for any event. Which event would you choose? Would it be for a surreptitious meeting between JFK and Marilyn Monroe? Or would it be for the meeting between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Mountbatten on the night that India achieved freedom from Great Britain? Whatever event you choose, the idea of being a fly on the wall is that you are a disinterested observer. Not an uninterested observer, mind you, but a disinterested one. Uninterested means being bored and not interested. Disinterested, by contrast, means being unbiased, neutral. So one could be disinterestedly interested in something, which is what you would want to be if you were a fly on the wall for a momentous event.

However, that doesn’t mean it will make you soft and weak—unless you equate being compassionate with being soft and weak, which, unfortunately, many of us do. This is why, as my coauthors and I documented in a series of studies, many consumers believe ethical products (for example, tires made out of biodegradable materials) can’t be as durable. But the truth is, it is possible to be both compassionate and strong; in fact, some of the world’s most well-respected leaders, like Mahatma Gandhi, Mandela, Mother Teresa, and Martin Luther King, were the epitome of both strength and compassion. Of course, one can more readily think of leaders (like Steve Jobs or Jack Welch) who had the reputation of being uncaring. However, the theme that emerges from a larger number of data points, as we saw in chapter 3B, is that it is the leaders who are kind and compassionate (specifically, the “givers”) who are more likely to rise to the top of their organizations.


pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Per capita income is about $12,000 in Brazil and $1,400 in India. Lately India’s governing Congress Party has turned to generous spending in an effort to recover the political backing it had lost to an array of regional parties in recent decades. Brazil offered what was probably the emerging world’s most generous welfare program—the Bolsa Familia income supports—that is, until 2005, when the Congress Party in India pushed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which guarantees the rural poor one hundred days of public-sector employment each year, at an annual cost to the treasury of nearly $10 billion. It was easy enough for India to increase spending in the midst of a global boom, but the spending has continued to rise in the post-crisis period. Inspired by the popularity of the employment guarantees, the government now plans to spend the same amount extending food subsidies to the poor.

., 129 Kenya, 191, 205, 209 Keynes, John Maynard, 109 KGB, 86 Khodorkovsky, Mikhail, 87 Kia, 161, 162–63 kidnappings, 78–79, 190–91 Kim Jong Il, 170 Kinshasa, 205 Kirchner, Cristina, 89 Kirchner, Nestor, 89 Klaus, Vaclav, 108 Koç family, 125 “Korea Discount,” 167–69 “Korean Wave,” 122, 167 KOSPI index, 70, 153, 155, 156, 164, 165 K-pop, 122, 154, 167 Kuala Lumpur, 147, 148, 151 Kumar, Nitish, 50–51 Kuwait, 187–88, 214, 216, 218, 219 Kuznets curve, 76 labor market, 7, 17, 21–23, 27, 32, 38, 47, 55, 64, 65, 76, 77, 102, 103, 104, 164, 169–70, 174–75, 179, 180–81, 199, 203–4, 246–47 Lada, 86 Lafarge, 213 Lagos, 211, 212, 213 landlines, 207 land-use laws, 25, 168 Laos, 188 laptop computers, 158, 164 large numbers, law of, 7 Last Train Home, The, 22–23 Latin America, viii, 40–41, 42, 73–75, 81, 89, 246 see also specific countries Latvia, 101 Lavoisier, Antoine, 235–36 law, rule of, x, 50–51, 89, 96, 127, 181–82 lead, 19 Leblon neighborhood, 61 Lee Kwan Yew, 118, 148, 193 Lehman Brothers, 164 Le Thanh Hai, 203 Lewis, Arthur, 21 “Lewis turning point,” 21 LG, 158, 163 “Liberation Tigers” of Tamil Eelam, 192–93, 197 Liberty, 178 Libya, 127, 216 Limpopo River, 171 Linux, 238 liquidity, 9, 228–30 liquor stores, 126 literacy rate, 52 Lithuania, 101, 109 Lixin Fan, 22–23 loans, personal, 12, 24, 116, 125, 150 long-run forecasting, 1–14 L’Oréal, 31 Louis Vuitton, 31 Lugano, 40 Lula da Silva, Inácio, 59, 61, 66, 70, 210, 226, 248 luxury goods, vii–viii, 12, 25, 31, 236 Macao, 201 macroeconomics, 7–8, 13, 66, 67, 145–46, 188 “macromania,” 7–8, 188 Made in America, Again, 246–47 “made in” label, 155, 246–47 Madhya Pradesh, 52 maglev (magnetic levitation) trains, 15–16, 231 Magnit, 90–91 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 41–42 Malaysia, 146–52 in Asian financial crisis, 18, 131–32, 146–47, 149–50 banking in, 146, 149–50, 151, 252 currency of (ringgit), 131, 146–47, 149 economic planning in, 150–52, 161 economy of, 18, 118, 150–52, 161, 235 electronics industry of, 147–48 as emerging market, 10, 45, 118, 149, 161, 235 foreign investment in, 146–50, 151 foreign trade of, 6, 144, 147, 157 GDP of, 145, 147, 149 government of, 146, 148–52 growth rate of, 9, 147–48, 149, 244 income levels of, 138, 148 manufacturing sector in, 147–48, 150 political situation in, 146–49 Singapore compared with, 118 stock market of, 131, 235 Thailand compared with, 144, 145, 147 wealth of, 148 Mali, 208 Malta, 30, 106 Malthus, Thomas, 225, 231–32 Mandela, Nelson, 171, 172, 176 Manila, 130, 138, 139, 140, 141 Manuel, Trevor, 176 manufacturing sector, 17–18, 22–23, 28, 43, 54, 75, 80, 88–89, 90, 110, 124, 132, 147–48, 150, 155, 157, 158–59, 160, 161–66, 168, 170, 180, 221, 230, 235, 246–47, 265 Maoism, 37, 47 Mao Zedong, 21, 27, 29 Marcos, Ferdinand, 138, 139, 210 markets: black, 13–14, 96, 126 capital, 69, 70–71; see also capital flows commodity, 12, 13–14, 223–39 currency, 4, 9, 13, 28 domestic, 36, 43, 183 emerging, vii–x, 2–11, 37–38, 47, 64, 94, 185–91, 198–99, 242–49, 254–55, 259–62 free, x, 8–9, 96, 104 frontier, 89, 185–91, 213, 261–62 housing, 5–6, 16, 18, 24–25, 28–29, 31, 32, 61, 92, 103–4 labor, 7, 17, 21–23, 27, 32, 38, 47, 55, 64, 65, 76, 77, 102, 103, 104, 164, 169–70, 174–75, 179, 180–81, 199, 203–4, 246–47 see also stock markets Mato Grosso, 232 Mayer-Serra, Carlos Elizondo, 78 MBAs, 225 Mbeki, Thabo, 176, 206 Medellín drug cartel, 79 Medvedev, Dmitry, 95–96 Mercedes-Benz, 86, 144 Merkel, Angela, 108 Mexican peso crisis, 4, 9 Mexico, 73–82 antitrust laws in, 81–82 banking in, 81, 82 billionaires in, 45, 47, 71, 78–80 Brazil compared with, 71, 75 China compared with, 80, 82 consumer prices in, 75–76 corruption in, 76–77 currency of (peso), 4, 9, 73, 80, 131 drug cartels in, 79–80 economy of, 4, 12, 28, 73–82, 178, 183 emigration from, 79, 82 foreign exports of, 6, 75, 80, 158 GDP of, 76, 77, 81 government of, 76–78 growth rate of, 73–82, 244 income levels of, 8, 73–75, 76, 113 labor unions in, 76, 77 national debt of, 76, 80–81 nationalization in, 77–78 oil industry of, 75, 77–78, 82 oligopolies in, 73, 75, 76–82, 178 parliament of, 76–77 political situation in, 76–78, 82 population of, 73 stock market of, 73, 75, 76, 81 taxation in, 76 U.S. compared with, 75, 79, 80 Mexico City, 75 micromanagement, 151 middle class, 10, 19–20, 33, 42–43, 52–56, 182, 211, 236 Middle East, 38, 65, 68, 113, 116, 122, 123, 125, 166, 170, 189, 195, 214–21, 234, 246 middle-income barrier, 19–20, 144–45 middle-income deceleration, 20 Miller, Arthur, 223 minimum wage, 29, 63, 126, 137 mining industry, 44, 93, 154, 175, 176, 178–80 Miracle Year (2003), 3–6 misery index, 248–49 Mittal, Sunil Bharti, 204–5, 206, 209 mobile phones, 53, 86, 204–5, 207–8, 212, 237 Mohammed, Mahathir, 146–47, 148, 151 Moi, Daniel arap, 205 monetization, 225 Money Game, The (Smith), 234 Mongolia, 191 monopolies, 13, 73, 75–76, 178–79 Monroe, Marilyn, 129 Monte Carlo, 94 “morphic resonance,” 185 mortgage-backed securities, 5 mortgages, 5, 92, 105–6 Moscow, 12, 83, 84, 90, 91, 96, 136, 137, 232 mosques, 111 Mou Qizhong, 46 Mozambique, 184, 194–95, 198, 206 M-Pesa, 208 MTN, 212–13 Mubarak, Gamal, 218 Mubarak, Hosni, 92, 127, 218 Mugabe, Robert, 176, 181 Multimedia Supercorridor, 151 multinational corporations, 53, 73, 75, 81, 151, 158–59, 160, 184, 230 Mumbai, 43, 44, 79, 214, 244 Murder 2, 167 Murphy’s law, 11 Muslim Brotherhood, 127 Mutual, 178 mutual funds, 178–79 Myanmar, 30 Myspace, 41 Naipaul, V.

The Naked Presenter: Delivering Powerful Presentations With or Without Slides by Garr Reynolds

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deliberate practice, fear of failure, Hans Rosling, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

The real threat is not from others but from ourselves. In a presentation or meeting, we cannot control others, but we can work to remain balanced and steady. As Daisetsu Suzuki said, “There is harmony in our activity, and where there is harmony there is calmness.” (Images in slides from iStockphoto.) Chapter 6 End with a Powerful Finish 179 Wow! eBook <WoweBook.Com> My life is my message. — Mahatma Gandhi 180 The Naked Presenter Wow! eBook <WoweBook.Com> In Sum tWhen your ideas and energy are transferred to others and cause them to make a change, we can say that your message has resonance. However, sustaining a connection until the end of a presentation and delivering a powerful finish requires that you understand your audience well. tThe ideas and messages that stick best contain six common elements: Simplicity, Unexpectedness, Concreteness, Credibility, Emotions, and Stories.


pages: 184 words: 54,833

Why Orwell Matters by Christopher Hitchens

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anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Etonian, hiring and firing, land reform, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, nuclear winter, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes

If Lenin had not uttered the maxim ‘the heart on fire and the brain on ice’, it might have suited Orwell, whose passion and generosity were rivalled only by his detachment and reserve. Sir Victor Pritchett, as he later became, was among many to have configured Orwell as among the ‘saints’, albeit a secular member of that communion. Again we are confronted with spareness and the spectre of self-denial, instead of with the profane and humorous writer who said — of Mahatma Gandhi — that saints are always to be adjudged guilty until proven innocent. Speaking of another celebrated supposed Puritan, Thomas Carlyle wrote of his Cromwell that he had had to drag him out from under a mound of dead logs and offal before being able to set him up as a figure worthy of biography. This is not a biography, but I sometimes feel as if George Orwell requires extricating from a pile of saccharine tablets and moist hankies; an object of sickly veneration and sentimental overpraise, employed to stultify schoolchildren with his insufferable rightness and purity.


pages: 225 words: 54,010

A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright

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Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl

Nowadays, Washington claims to lead and safeguard “the civilized world,” a tradition in American rhetoric that began with the uprooting and exterminating of that country’s first inhabitants.5 The Roman circus, the Aztec sacrifices, the Inquisition bonfires, the Nazi death camps — all have been the work of highly civilized societies.6 In the twentieth century alone, at least 100 million people, mostly civilians, died in wars.7 Savages have done no worse. At the gates of the Colosseum and the concentration camp, we have no choice but to abandon hope that civilization is, in itself, a guarantor of moral progress. When Mahatma Gandhi came to England in the 1930s for talks on Indian self-rule, a reporter asked him what he thought of Western civilization. Gandhi, who had just visited the London slums, replied: “I think it would be a very good idea.”8 If I sound at times rather hard on civilization, this is because, like Gandhi, I would like it to fulfill its promise and succeed. I would rather live in a house than in a rockshelter.


pages: 199 words: 43,653

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal

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Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator

Even though the world is becoming a potentially more addictive place, most people have the ability to self-regulate their behaviors. The role of facilitator fulfills the moral obligation for entrepreneurs building a product they will use, and which they believe materially improves the lives of others. As long as they have procedures in place to assist those who form unhealthy addictions, the designer can act with a clean conscience. To take liberties with Mahatma Gandhi’s famous quote, facilitators “build the change they want to see in the world.” The Peddler Heady altruistic ambitions can at times outpace reality. Too often, designers of manipulative technology have a strong motivation to improve the lives of their users, but when pressed, they admit they would not actually use their own creations. Their holier-than-thou products often try to “gamify” some task no one actually wants to do by inserting run-of-the-mill incentives such as badges or points that don’t actually hold value for their users.

Affluenza: When Too Much Is Never Enough by Clive Hamilton, Richard Denniss

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call centre, delayed gratification, experimental subject, full employment, impulse control, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Naomi Klein, Own Your Own Home, Post-materialism, post-materialism, purchasing power parity, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, wage slave

It is hard to avoid the conclusion, however, that much of this hostility betrays a dogin-the-manger attitude: ‘If I am stuck in a life of worries, stresses and overwork, everyone else should be too’. Growing numbers of Australians are deciding they will no longer allow such a view to determine their lives. 177 Chapter 11 A new politics First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win. ——Mahatma Gandhi The affluenza spiral The argument of this book can be summarised quite simply. Since the early 1990s Australia has been infected by affluenza, a growing and unhealthy preoccupation with money and material things. This illness is constantly reinforcing itself at both the individual and the social levels, constraining us to derive our identities and sense of place in the world through our consumption activity.


pages: 175 words: 54,497

The Naked Eye: How the Revolution of Laser Surgery Has Unshackled the Human Eye by Gerard Sutton, Michael Lawless

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Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi

What is your most treasured possession? My Sage 1 Ebony Black 7 weight fly fishing rod. I wish I had never worn… … leather pants.. I was at a Year 11 party totally convinced I looked very groovy, but after a barrage of unflattering comments from males and females I never wore them again. If you could invite five people from history to a barbecue at your place, who would they be, and why? I would like to have Mahatma Gandhi there because I believe he was one of the greatest figures of the 20th century. Gandhi somehow combined the spiritual side of life with politics and then created a revolution by non-violent means. My second guest would be Ben Chifley. He is probably the closest we have ever come, in this country, to having a Prime Minister who was genuinely a man of the people. His Light on the Hill speech, which talks about working for the betterment of mankind, says it all.

Lint by Steve Aylett

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death of newspapers, Mahatma Gandhi, rolodex, Schrödinger's Cat

Curving north to Sarajevo, the bullet hit the Archduchess Sofia in the abdomen and Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary close to the heart before spanging southwest to the Mexican town of Chinameca where it looped through Emiliano Zapata, causing multiple wounds and continuing this spiral motion until its encounter with the sleeping Venustiano Carranza, president of Mexico—orbital inertia seems to have sent the bullet hurtling back across the Atlantic to Warsaw’s Palace of Fine Arts, where it blew three distinct wounds in President Gabriel Narutowicz of Poland and spent around four years following Benito Mussolini, occasionally darting at him like a wasp but without any lasting harm until heading Stateside again, blasting through the abdomen of Mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak and injuring four other bystanders in Bayfront Park Miami, but missing Franklin D. Roosevelt entirely, turning left in midair and hurtling to Vienna, where it connected with Engelbert Dollfuss, chancellor of Austria. The ricochet pattern continued as the round crossed the pond again to the outskirts of Mexico City, where it bounced cleanly in and out of Leon Trotsky’s skull, circling the globe to weave three wounds through Mahatma Gandhi and kill Liaquat Ali Khan, first prime minister of Pakistan, in Rawalpindi; narrowly missing Harry S. Truman in Washington, it fatally wounded Anastasio Somoza, president of Nicaragua, Carlos Castillo Armas, president of Guatemala, and Prime Minister Solomon Bandaranaike outside 3/18/05 3:57 PM Page 101 LINT Lint’s Magic Bullet (from Rigor Mortis). 02.ch11-20.lint 101 02.ch11-20.lint 102 3/18/05 3:57 PM Page 102 STEVE AYLETT his home in Sri Lanka—then set a course for the face of Dr.


pages: 270 words: 75,473

Time Management for System Administrators by Thomas A.Limoncelli

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Debian, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, Steve Jobs

He will spend extra effort helping you with your career path, you will increasingly receive first pick at the "fun" projects, and it opens the possibilities to small but important rewards such as cool equipment. Of course, it can't hurt your potential to receive better raises and bonuses. Best of all, if your boss is successful enough to receive a promotion, an ethical boss will take you with him. From that perspective, the ultimate criterion for how to prioritize your work is to center it around what will make your boss a success. Action expresses priorities. --Mahatma Gandhi Summary When you have a lot to do, prioritization becomes more important. When you have more to do than you have time for, prioritization is extremely important. When you have very little to do, any prioritization scheme works pretty well. Doing tasks in order works fine when you have a small number of tasks. Since older items bubble up to the top of the list, they will tend to get done.


pages: 293 words: 74,709

Bomb Scare by Joseph Cirincione

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Albert Einstein, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, Yogi Berra

The most important actor in this battle, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, quickly positioned himself against a nuclear weapons program. In 1964 Shastri said, “We cannot at present think in terms of making atomic bombs in India. We must try to eliminate the atomic bombs in the world rather than enter into a nuclear arms competition.”54 Clearly, “Shastri believed in this singular Indian mission, as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru had.”55 Bhabha, however, “loudly lobbied for development of nuclear weapons,” and took great pains to minimize the anticipated cost of such an effort, making an official estimate that excluded the expense of the nuclear reactors and plutonium separation plants.56 By the end of 1964, Shastri had compromised with Bhabha, agreeing to a “Peaceful Nuclear Explosives” program.


pages: 201 words: 64,545

Let My People Go Surfing by Yvon Chouinard

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air freight, business process, clean water, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Mahatma Gandhi, pushing on a string, Ralph Waldo Emerson, urban sprawl

Their tithing assures the church will take care of them if they should lose the farm. For me, the solution to the world’s problems is easy: We have to take action, and if we can’t do it ourselves, we’ve got to dig into our pockets. The scariest moment is writing that first check, but you know what, the next day things go on: The phone still rings, there’s food on the table, and the world is a little bit better. As Mahatma Gandhi said, “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” SUMMARY Dante once said that the hottest places in hell are reserved for those who in times of great moral crisis maintain their neutrality. —JOHN F. KENNEDY The Zen master would say if you want to change government, you have to aim at changing corporations, and if you want to change corporations, you first have to change the consumers.


pages: 275 words: 77,017

The End of Money: Counterfeiters, Preachers, Techies, Dreamers--And the Coming Cashless Society by David Wolman

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Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, cashless society, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, greed is good, Isaac Newton, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, mental accounting, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steven Levy, the payments system, transaction costs

In the arrivals hall at Indira Gandhi International, I made my way to a currency exchange window, set a few hundred dollars in the gray crater below the glass, and requested a mix of large and small bills. (As a tourist, I expect price gouging, but there’s no need to invite it by only carrying high-value notes.) The teller handed me a mountain of paper, and for a second I was seduced by the denomination effect. So many zeroes. A moment later the exchange-rate reality set in, and I saw the cash for what it was: a pain in the ass. No offense to Mahatma Gandhi, whose bespectacled face smiles on all of India’s paper money, but the softly worn banknotes renewed that whole suite of hygiene concerns, as if their very fibers were a preview of the humidity, dirt, and sweat of this megalopolis. For me, India’s dependence on cash was a mild inconvenience. For locals, it’s crushing. Cash not only perpetuates peoples’ exclusion from banking and the formal economy, it also has a knack for being spent.


pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

The post told the story of the talisman the revered Indian leader once gave to his grandson Arun, which listed the seven “blunders” he believed led to violence: Wealth without work. Pleasure without conscience. Knowledge without character. Commerce without morality. Science without humanity. Religion without sacrifice. Politics without principle. Number six on the list soon became the most poignant; on his way to a prayer meeting shortly after he gave Arun the note, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated. The same day that Pariser posted the Gandhi story on his blog, the top story on the hugely popular blog BuzzFeed was “20 Supporting Characters from ’90s TV Shows Then and Now”—a collection of embarrassing before-and-after pictures of goofy stars from shows like Clarissa Explains It All and Even Stevens. That post was shared by 30,000 people. It reached 800,000 viewers. This was the very phenomenon that drove Pariser, a mellow, unshaven author and activist from Maine, to start his blog: As more people used social networks like Facebook, the speed at which content—stories, videos, pictures—could spread to huge audiences, or “go viral,” was increasing.


pages: 220 words: 66,518

The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles by Bruce H. Lipton

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Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, correlation does not imply causation, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Mars Rover, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, stem cell

That thought is a good entrée into the next chapter, in which I’ll detail how living in love and living in fear create opposite effects in the body and the mind. Before we leave this chapter, I’d just like to emphasize again that not only is there nothing wrong with going through life wearing the proverbial rose-colored glasses. In fact, those rose-colored glasses are necessary for your cells to thrive. Positive thoughts are a biological mandate for a happy, healthy life. In the words of Mahatma Gandhi: Your beliefs become your thoughts Your thoughts become your words Your words become your actions Your actions become your habits Your habits become your values Your values become your destiny CHAPTER 6 GROWTH AND PROTECTION Evolution has provided us with lots of survival mechanisms. They can be roughly divided into two functional categories: growth and protection. These growth and protection mechanisms are the fundamental behaviors required for an organism to survive.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

They chose the twenty-six-year-old Martin Luther King Jr. as their spokesman, a Baptist minister with a gift for oratory. He was ordered to pay a fine, for defying a state anti-boycott law. But this did not deter him. He would go on to be jailed fourteen times, he would be stabbed, have his home blasted by a shotgun and bombed, and would see a motel where he stayed bombed too. Whatever happened he would carry on with a campaign of peaceful civil disobedience, inspired by Henry David Thoreau and Mahatma Gandhi, and explained that America was founded on the Jeffersonian ideal that all men are created equal, with the same inalienable rights, and this must include blacks. In the end, he would be assassinated. The movement’s calm and dignified protests, carried to all Americans’ living rooms thanks to a novelty, television, exposed the brutality of Southern mayors and sheriffs who ordered attacks on demonstrators and looked the other way when the Ku Klux Klan beat them up.


pages: 202 words: 8,448

Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl

“At the beginning of June 1961”: “ ‘I Am Prepared to Die’: Nelson Mandela’s Opening Statement from the Dock at the Opening of the Defence Case in the Rivonia Trial,” United Nations website for Nelson Mandela Day, www.​un.​org/​en/​events/​mandeladay/​court_​statement_​ 1964.​shtml. 2. the Spear launched almost two hundred attacks: Janet Cherry, Spear of the Nation (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2012), 23. 3. “We should have the ability to defend ourselves”: Mahatma Gandhi, The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas (New York: Vintage, 2002), 109. 4. In a stellar book: Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Con ict (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). 5. “There is more power in socially organized masses”: Martin Luther King, Jr., The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., vol. 5, Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959–December 1960, ed.


pages: 280 words: 75,820

Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life by Winifred Gallagher

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Build a better mousetrap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, fundamental attribution error, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, music of the spheres, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Walter Mischel

“You deliberately pay attention to your behavior and establish habits that eventually become second nature.” We tend to focus on virtue displayed in heroic circumstances: the bravery of John McCain in an enemy’s prison or the justice sought by Martin Luther King in the segregated South. In everyday life, however, most opportunities to build character are modest in scope and easily missed if you’re not paying attention. Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi may epitomize the quality of humanity, or unconditional love, but that doesn’t stop Peterson from his own pursuit of the virtue on a smaller scale. Offering an example, he says that while rushing home from the psych department one evening, he saw a distraught student clutching a late term paper in the hallway. He could have easily continued on his way, but instead of passing her by, he stopped to reopen the locked office and help her find the faculty mailbox she sought.


pages: 508 words: 192,524

The autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X; Alex Haley

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desegregation, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, rent control, Rosa Parks, transatlantic slave trade

I read Herodotus, “the father of History,” or, rather, I read about him. And I read the histories of various nations, which opened my eyes gradually, then wider and wider, to how the whole world's white men had indeed acted like devils, pillaging and raping and bleeding and draining the whole world's non-white people. I remember, for instance, books such as Will Durant's story of Oriental civilization, and Mahatma Gandhi's accounts of the struggle to drive the British out of India. Book after book showed me how the white man had brought upon the world's black, brown, red, and yellow peoples every variety of the sufferings of exploitation. I saw how since the sixteenth century, the so-called “Christian trader” white man began to ply the seas in his lust for Asian and African empires, and plunder, and power.

Or I might say, “No one will ever know exactly what emotional ingredient made this relatively trivial incident a fuse for those Montgomery Negroes. There had been _centuries_ of the worst kind of outrages against Southern black people-lynchings, rapings, shootings, beatings! But you know history has been triggered by trivial-seeming incidents. Once a little nobody Indian lawyer was put off a train, and fed up with injustice, he twisted a knot in the British Lion's tail. _His_ name was Mahatma Gandhi!” Or I might copy a trick I had seen lawyers use, both in life and on television. It was a way that lawyers would slip in before a jury something otherwise inadmissable. (Sometimes I think I really might have made it as a lawyer, as I once told that eighth-grade teacher in Mason, Michigan, I wanted to be, when he advised me to become a carpenter.) I would slide right over the reporter's question to drop into his lap a logical-extension hot potato for him.

When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Kings and queens often commanded blind allegiance from their subjects down through the centuries, from Boadicea and Henry V to Peter the Great and Queen Victoria. Japanese samurai, in their allegiance to their lord, were faithful unto death and demonstrated that quality regularly, as indeed did the cavalry and foot soldiers of Napoleon Bonaparte. Great leaders captivated willing disciples through sheer charisma—Alexander the Great, Caesar, Tamerlane, Hernan Cortés, Simón Bolívar, Kemal Atatürk, Mahatma Gandhi, Winston Churchill, Chou-en-Lai and Nelson Mandela are a few who come to mind. In the modern era, business leaders have occasionally shown the charismatic and visionary leadership that attracts loyal followers; examples are Henry Ford, Akio Morita, Konosuke Matsushita and Richard Branson. Religion has also played a major role in mass-motivation throughout the historical era. Twenty-First Century Aspirations If you consider the main cultural categories I introduced in Chapter 3— linear-active, multi-active and reactive—you can discern differences in the motivational patterns of cultural groups in each category, both in terms of traditional features and developing aspirations as a new century of opportunity gets under way.

INDIA 439 How to Empathize with Indians Indians tend to complain openly about the injustices of the colonial period. If treated with respect, they quickly put the past behind them, especially where good business is in the offing. Play the Indians at their own game: be reasonable, solicitous and flexible. The country has a magnificent history, which should be referred to and admired. Learn all the basic facts about Mahatma Gandhi and avoid confusing him with Indira and Rajiv Gandhi’s family, to which he was not related. A knowledge of Hinduism is also advisable, as is an awareness of the geography of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Indians emanate and expect warmth, respect and properness. Do not risk joking with them—they tend to take things seriously. Be flexible at all times. Accept that there is a great deal of chaos, and remember that they manage it better than you do.

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

From my own personal experience in it, and that’s only a little piece of it obviously, I know who was doing the really important things, and I remember them—like, I remember that this student worked hard to set up that demonstration, and that’s why I had a chance to talk there; and they were bringing other people in to get involved; they were enjoying what they were doing, and communicating that to others somehow. That’s what makes popular movements work—but of course, that’s all going to be gone from history: what will be left in history is just the fluff on the top. MAN: I’m curious what you think about some of the more famous leaders of change—like Martin Luther King or Mahatma Gandhi, for instance. You don’t ever seem to mention them when you speak. Why is that? Well, let’s take Martin Luther King. See, I think Martin Luther King was an important person, but I do not think that he was a big agent of change. In fact, I think Martin Luther King was able to play a role in bringing about change only because the real agents of change were doing a lot of work. And the real agents of change were people working at the grassroots level, like S.N.C.C.

They’re certainly not going to invade anybody, that’s not even imaginable: if they ever made a move, the country gets destroyed tomorrow. So the only role that nuclear weapons could play for them is as a deterrent to attack—and that’s not totally unrealistic. I mean, it’s a pretty crazy country, and there’s not very much good—there’s nothing good—you can say about the government. But no matter who they were, if they were Mahatma Gandhi, they would be worried about a possible attack. I mean, the United States was threatening North Korea with nuclear weapons at least as late as the 1960s. 62 And after all, just remember what we did to that country—it was absolutely flattened. Here people may not be aware of what we did to them, but they certainly know it well enough. Towards the end of what we call the “Korean War”—which was really just one phase in a much longer struggle [beginning when the U.S. destroyed the indigenous nationalist movement in Korea in the late 1940s]—the United States ran out of good bombing targets.


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

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affirmative action, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

But the politicians supporting the “Bombay for Maharashtra” cause objected, saying that “everywhere the principle of language has been recognized, except in this one case.”12 In an effort to rescue the city from the linguistic battles, Nehru suggested that Bombay should become a separate, bilingual area directly administered by the central government, an idea supported by some Bombay politicians such as S. K. Patil. It was support they would soon regret. To put it mildly, the Maharashtrians did not welcome the idea. Mobs surged across the city’s streets, shouting, “Bombay is ours” and “Death to Nehru!” They smashed statues of Mahatma Gandhi—his identity as a Gujarati, in this period of mayhem, superseding that of national leader—and attacked Gujaratis across the state. The rioters tossed rocks and electric bulbs filled with acid—the latter a protest weapon of choice since the 1940s Calcutta riots—blockaded roads and railway lines and looted shops. And when a European photographer stopped to take a picture of Nehru’s vandalized posters, the crowds cheered: “Take it, take it, and show the world what we think of Nehru.”13 The government was forced to back down, and any suggestion that the city would be carved out from the state was abandoned.

The ideology of the planned economy and its fascination with heavy industry that India favored paid little heed to the environment, as was already obvious in Stalin’s vision of “building an iron and cement brotherhood”3 and Mao’s exhortation to “transform and conquer nature . . . move mountains to build farmland.”4 It may not have helped that India’s most prominent environmentalist at this time was Mahatma Gandhi. His concern for sustainability was both visionary and central to his thinking, but his views, when juxtaposed with his village-industry model for the economy, seemed quaint in the eyes of other Indian leaders. Postindependent India as a result took a black-and-white approach toward the environment, sidelining these concerns in its quest for growth.cz An outcast in times of growth The world’s history of industry-led growth has not been a very presentable one.


pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris

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back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

The answer is self-evident: greed and envy demand continuous and limitless economic growth of a material kind, without proper regard for conservation, and this type of growth cannot possibly fit into a finite environment. We must therefore study the essential nature of the private enterprise system and the possibilities of evolving an alternative system which might fit the new situation.” — from Small is Beautiful The NEW VILLAGE GREEN 127 “ One of the fascinating aspects of the sustainability revolution is that, unlike Mahatma Gandhi who led the Non-Violence movement and Martin Luther King, Jr., who led the Civil Rights movement, there is no single leader. Instead, hundreds of thousands of community leaders and citizens from around the world are taking action through ecological, economic and social projects to improve people’s lives and protect the environment. Some of the visionary leaders who are redefining the relationship between humans and the environment are William McDonough, Janine Benyus, Ray Anderson, Paul Hawken, Vandana Shiva, and Sim Van der Ryn


pages: 304 words: 22,886

Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness by Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein

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Al Roth, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, availability heuristic, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, continuous integration, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, endowment effect, equity premium, feminist movement, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, index fund, invisible hand, late fees, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mason jar, medical malpractice, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, pension reform, presumed consent, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, school choice, school vouchers, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Zipcar

Whether or not they have ever studied economics, many people seem at least implicitly committed to the idea of homo economicus, or economic man—the notion that each of us thinks and chooses unfailingly well, and thus fits within the textbook picture of human beings offered by economists. If you look at economics textbooks, you will learn that homo economicus can think like Albert Einstein, store as much memory as ibm’s Big Blue, and exercise the willpower of Mahatma Gandhi. Really. But the folks that we know are not like that. Real people have trouble with long division if they don’t have a calculator, sometimes forget their spouse’s birthday, INTRODUCTION and have a hangover on New Year’s Day. They are not homo economicus; they are homo sapiens. To keep our Latin usage to a minimum we will hereafter refer to these imaginary and real species as Econs and Humans.


pages: 339 words: 112,979

Unweaving the Rainbow by Richard Dawkins

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Arthur Eddington, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Mahatma Gandhi, music of the spheres, Necker cube, p-value, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steven Pinker, Zipf's Law

London: Macmillan. * * * Index Numbers in brackets refer to relevant works numbered in the bibliography. * * * * Correcting copy in August 1998, I cannot let this pass without sadly reflecting that Nehru would feel India's decision to carry out nuclear tests, unilaterally and in defiance of world opinion, to be a shocking abuse of science and a desecration of his memory and that of Mahatma Gandhi. [back] *** * Colour is a rich source of philosophical speculation, which is often scientifically under-informed. A laudable attempt to rectify this is C. L. Hardin's 1988 book, Color for Philosophers: Unweaving the Rainbow. I am embarrassed to say that I discovered this book, and in particular its excellent subtitle, only after mine had gone off to the publishers. Doctor Dolittle, by the way, may be hard to find, as he is now often banned by pompously correct librarians.


pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve

Viewers of networks such as CNN and the BBC saw a seemingly literate, articulate, often English-speaking, and smartly dressed (though minimally and even provocatively hijab observant) group of young people demonstrate a great deal of courage and political sophistication. Chants of “Death to America” and “Long live the Ayatollah” were replaced by “Where is my vote?” (which some Americans could empathize with), “Everyone…a Martin Luther King,” and “Everyone…a Mahatma Gandhi.” This was a savvy bunch of activists who were committed to nonviolence, making limited yet achievable demands, and never surrendering the moral high ground. And the images were there to verify that Iranians were exercising their modern subjectivity. The physical backdrop to all of this was a country with modern cities, boulevards, and infrastructure. The world learned that Persian, after English and Mandarin, is the third most used language for blogging, even though the population of Iran is only about seventy million.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator

Dictators and despots oppress women, children, and minorities in secret, when few are watching. But, in the exponential times ahead, in a world of a trillion sensors, drones, satellites, and glass, someone will always be watching. While this raises serious concerns for privacy, it also offers us hope for the end of oppression and perhaps the beginning of an entirely new breed of moral global leadership. Who will be the Martin Luther King, Jr., or Mahatma Gandhi of the exponential age? Our history tells us that this breed of leaders is extremely rare and often underappreciated at first glance. Perhaps such leadership will materialize from experimentation in virtual worlds, or emerge from some crowdsourced competition, or be yielded over to a benevolent artificial intelligence. Each is, for the first time ever, a real possibility. Perhaps such leadership will arise the old-fashioned way, from those few concerned citizens willing to suffer the long and lonely hours it takes to see farther and hope further and build bridges across the seemingly vast chasms that still so frequently divide us.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

And maybe we’ll see a computer than can walk up the stairs to an elderly woman’s apartment, take her blood pressure, draw blood, and ask if she’s been taking her medication, all while putting her at ease instead of terrifying her. We don’t think any of these advances is likely to come any time soon, but we’ve also learned that it’s very easy to underestimate the power of digital, exponential, and combinatorial innovation. So never say never. “A policy is a temporary creed liable to be changed, but while it holds good it has got to be pursued with apostolic zeal.” —Mahatma Gandhi WHAT SHOULD WE DO to encourage the bounty of the second machine age while working to reduce the spread, or at least mitigate its harmful effects? How can we best encourage technology to race ahead while ensuring that as few people as possible are left behind? With so much science-fiction technology becoming reality now every day, it might seem that radical steps are necessary. But this is not the case, at least not right away.


pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky

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Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Kuiper Belt, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Yogi Berra

(Amusingly, NutsOnline also hosted a page on the campaign, at www.nutsonline. com/jericho.) The antiwar flower protest in Michigan was a way of doing “something positive to deliver our message,” as one protester put it (“Flowers Used to Protest War,” www.statenews.com/index.php/article/2006/04/flowers_used_to_protest). Similarly, the flowers sent to the U.S. State Department were often referred to as Ghandigiri, which is to say “in the spirit of Mahatma Gandhi” (“Say It with Flowers: Gandhigiri for US Green Cards,” in.news.yahoo.com/070710/48/6hwnn.html ). In all these cases, the delivery of actual objects did triple duty: the physical delivery increased attention, the nature of the object underlined the message (opposition with the nuts, nonviolence with the flowers), and the cost of sending the object communicated real commitment on the part of the sender.


pages: 353 words: 110,919

The Road to Character by David Brooks

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Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, follow your passion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, New Journalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile

“There is, especially in the National Office, an unhealthy degree of leader-worship of Mr. Randolph,” one outside analyst of the 1941 March on Washington organization observed, “which paralyzes action and prevents an intelligent working out of policy.”13 But Randolph had one more important contribution to make to the civil rights movement. In the 1940s and 1950s he was among those who championed nonviolent resistance as a tactic to advance the civil rights cause. Influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and some of the early labor movement tactics, he helped form the League of Non-Violent Civil Disobedience Against Military Segregation in 1948.14 Against most of the established civil rights groups, which advocated education and reconciliation over confrontation and contention, Randolph argued for restaurant sit-ins and “prayer protests.” As he told the Senate Armed Services Committee in 1948, “Ours would be [a movement] of non-resistance….


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

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3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Even though America no longer dominates space exploration, former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said that when more people live off-Earth than live on it, “. . . we want their culture to be Western, because Western Civilization is the best we’ve seen so far in human history.” This is a jaw-dropping neocolonial statement to come from the mouth of such a high-ranking government official. He may have been unaware of a prior rebuttal by Mahatma Gandhi; when asked what he thought of Western Civilization, he’s reported to have said, “I think it would be a good idea.” One year earlier, X Prize Foundation Chairman Peter Diamandis said, “The Solar System is like a giant grocery store. It has everything we could possibly want. . . . The Solar System’s seemingly limitless energy and mineral resources will solve Earth’s resource shortages.”14 This is acquisitiveness dressed as utilitarianism—if it’s there and we want it, we’ll take it.


pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

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4chan, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

It started simply enough by letting everyone know he was listening to the Beatles, the Apple chief’s favorite band—Jobs once told 60 Minutes that his “model for business is the Beatles.” But as time went on, Jack started to emulate Jobs’s appearance too. He experimented with Jobs’s round glasses and cloned the mantra of a daily uniform. One day he showed up to the office in blue jeans, a white buttoned-up shirt, and a black blazer. And from that moment on, he rarely wore anything else in public. Jack began talking about Mahatma Gandhi, the nonviolent leader of Indian nationalism, after he discovered that Jobs had traveled through India for several months in 1974 in search of enlightenment. Jack made a portrait of Gandhi the screen saver on his computer and then tweeted the picture. He also started walking new Square employees along a path through San Francisco that would begin at a statue of Ghandi. He copied many of Jobs’s decisions.


pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

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battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

15th August will Herald in the Independence of Hindustan & Pakistan With a Feast of Dance, Music, and Delicate Romance In JEEVAN PICTURES ALL INDIA PREMIERE ARSI Moviegoers could continue on for dinner at Mishat, which was planning to open on the same day, August 15, offering the “best Indian & European dishes” at the “only ideal & exclusive restaurant in the town.” The migrants were adopting a prosperous port city with a population of around four hundred thousand. Factories turned out chemicals, paper, and glass. People drove Chrysler sedans, and could order “home delivered” British Singer roadsters from a dealer on Mahatma Gandhi Street. A radio station was just opening for business, offering local songs of Sindh, the province that includes Karachi, as well as a program of “recorded Western music” called “The Birth of the Blues.” Newspapers catered to a sophisticated readership; some of the city’s elite had been educated in England. Pan Am Clippers arrived several times a week from Calcutta, big four-propeller airliners stopping to refuel on their way to points west.


pages: 315 words: 99,065

The Virgin Way: Everything I Know About Leadership by Richard Branson

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barriers to entry, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, clean water, collective bargaining, Costa Concordia, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, index card, inflight wifi, Lao Tzu, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Northern Rock, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, trade route

There is nothing wrong with cherishing and enjoying memories and hopefully learning from past experiences just as planning for the future is something we obviously all have to do as well – but what about today? All too frequently ‘now’ gets lost in the frenetic shuffle to rush ahead to tomorrow. Face it: these are ‘the good old days’ that you’ll be looking back on twenty years from now – so why not move heaven and earth to enjoy them while you’ve got them? Mahatma Gandhi is one of my all-time heroes, and a quote from him that I think I first read in a school history lesson has stuck with me ever since: ‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.’ This good advice has been popularly abbreviated to, ‘Live every day as if it were your last’, which is a wonderful sentiment even if it has frequently become a worldwide rallying cry for never-mind-the-consequences hell-raisers.


pages: 307 words: 102,734

The Black Nile: One Man's Amazing Journey Through Peace and War on the World's Longest River by Dan Morrison

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airport security, colonial rule, indoor plumbing, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Potemkin village, Silicon Valley

But the authorities said, ‘No, they are weak Muslims. They will change.’ They said that when the Comboni Brothers come we will all be making the sign of the cross. I was here before God. When did you come here? I was here six thousand years. Before religion. Before God.” I mentioned that Mohammed Wardi, the Nubian singer, had talked about armed resistance in Nubia. Bitek shook his head. “I respect Mahatma Gandhi. Mr. Nehru, he sees a cow, he bows down. That’s his belief. Those who speak of armed resistance should come and see. Come and see the situation here. Where are the people? This area is not suitable for guerrilla warfare.” Halfa was a Nubian city, he said, but its institutions—the banks, the police and the major businesses—were all in the hands of the Muslim Brotherhood. “They control the economy.”

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Conclusion Having addressed the “what” and “why” of frugal innovation, let us now turn to the “how” and begin with the first of our six principles: engage and iterate. 2Principle one: engage and iterate A customer is the most important visitor on our premises. He is not dependent on us. We are dependent on him. He is not an interruption in our work. He is the purpose of it. He is not an outsider in our business. He is part of it. We are not doing him a favour by serving him. He is doing us a favour by giving us an opportunity to do so. Mahatma Gandhi IN 1983, SCOTT COOK, who had worked in marketing at Procter & Gamble, a multinational consumer-products company, co-founded Intuit, a start-up that aimed to replace paper-and-pencil personal accounting with software applications that could run on personal computers. Cook was inspired to launch the applications after hearing his wife complain about the hassle of tracking and settling household bills.


pages: 401 words: 122,457

Salt by Mark Kurlansky

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British Empire, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, domestication of the camel, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, invention of movable type, Mahatma Gandhi, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route

Stars in the Water: The Story of the Erie Canal. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974. Cunliffe, Barry. The Ancient Celts. London: Penguin, 1997. Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. Verdadera historia de la conquista de la Nueva España. Mexico City: Ediciones Mexicanas, 1950. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. China: Cambridge Illustrated History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Fischer, Louis. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. Herm, Gerhard. The Celts: The People Who Came out of the Darkness. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1993. Herodotus. The Persian Wars. Bks. 1 and 2.. Trans. A. D. Godley. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999. Ibn Battuta. The Travels of Ibn Battuta. Vol 4. Trans. C. Defrémery and B. R. Sanguinetti. London: Hakluyt Society, 1994. Ikram, Salima, and Aidan Dodson.


pages: 541 words: 146,445

Spin by Robert Charles Wilson

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airport security, Colonization of Mars, invention of writing, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, rolodex, Stephen Hawking

They dress it up, they call it a wager or gamble, but it's really just sleight-of-hand for the purpose of distracting the rubes." "Interesting analysis," I said, "but—" "Would I be here talking to you if I thought this was an interesting analysis! Ask the appropriate questions, if you want to argue with me." "Such as?" "Such as, who exactly is Wun Ngo Wen? Who does he represent, and what does he really want? Because despite what they say on television he's not Mahatma Gandhi in a Munchkin package. He's here because he wants something from us. He's wanted it from day one." "The replicator launch." "Obviously." "Is that a crime?" "A better question would be, why don't the Martians do this launch themselves?" "Because they can't presume to speak on behalf of the entire solar system. Because a work like this can't be undertaken unilaterally." He rolled his eyes.


pages: 423 words: 149,033

The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid by C. K. Prahalad

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barriers to entry, business process, call centre, cashless society, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deskilling, disintermediation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, microcredit, new economy, profit motive, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, shareholder value, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, time value of money, transaction costs, working poor

The company produces nearly 50 percent of India’s total capacity for soda ash. Consumers are comfortable with Tata’s household name and the quality of the salt, but the company has not exerted a strong salt branding campaign, relying instead on the strength of its name. Dandi Salt In 2001, Kunvar Ajay Foods Private Ltd. introduced Dandi salt as highquality, triple-refined, and reasonably priced.22 Leveraging the historical importance of Mahatma Gandhi’s 1931 Salt March to Dandi Beach, Dandi salt was purposely named as such to evoke patriotic and emotional attachment to the brand. Dandi’s aggressive advertising resulted in high first purchases; however, consumer complaints about its poor taste and appearance adversely affected repeat purchases. Other Competitors ■ Conagra entered the market with its Healthy World brand of salt. ■ Cargil entered the branded staples market with wheat flour and subsequently introduced the Nature Fresh brand of iodized salt

The Laurel's Kitchen Bread Book: A Guide to Whole-Grain Breadmaking by Laurel Robertson, Carol Flinders, Bronwen Godfrey

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Community Supported Agriculture, Haight Ashbury, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi

Rather, it seems to have compelled them to stay in closer touch than they would have otherwise, and they both find the outdoor work, the contact with the animal herself, to be a perfect restorative. Not for everyone, a cow, but it does illustrate the principle and makes a twice-weekly baking seem small potatoes by comparison! AS LONG AS we’ve known each other, Laurel, Bron, and I have shared with others at Nilgiri Press a strong interest in the life and teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. (The first book we published, in fact—which Laurel helped design—was Gandhi the Man, by Eknath Easwaran.) That interest was rekindled last year by Richard Attenborough’s film masterpiece “Gandhi.” More and more of late, along with a great many other people, we have been looking to the man and his writings, seeming to find there solutions to the mounting problems of our day—solutions, or at least inspiration to go on looking for them.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

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agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, megacity, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

As Karen puts her head on your shoulder, you begin to realize that you are witnessing the birth of a new planetary civilization. And your kid will be among the first citizens of this new civilization. And then you take out an old, worn book from your back pocket, and read to her the words of someone who died more than 100 years ago. It reminds you of the challenges facing humanity before it attains a planetary civilization. Mahatma Gandhi once wrote: The Roots of Violence: Wealth without work, Pleasure without conscience, Knowledge without character, Commerce without morality, Science without humanity, Worship without sacrifice, Politics without principles. (The authors’ names refer to the books listed in Recommended Reading.) INTRODUCTION ­ ­1 “In his newspapers of January 1, 1900”: Rhodes, pp. 29–30. ­ ­2 “It will be as common for the citizen”: www.­learner.­org/­workshops/­primarysources/­corporations/­docs/­. ­ ­3 “Everything that can be invented”: quoted in Canton, p. 247. ­ ­4 “Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?”


pages: 424 words: 140,262

Blood, Iron, and Gold: How the Railways Transformed the World by Christian Wolmar

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banking crisis, Beeching cuts, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, invention of the wheel, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, railway mania, refrigerator car, side project, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, urban sprawl

Worst of all, though, was the attitude of the railway officers, belonging to ‘a low class of Europeans’, who treated even those more affluent Indians able to afford second class with rudeness and contempt. What is cruelly striking about the situation on the Indian railways is that despite this litany of complaints, the authorities did nothing to change the situation until the dying days of the Raj. The same complaints expressed in the 1860s were made seventy years later by Mahatma Gandhi and the treatment of the native population by the railway authorities contributed to the hostility towards the colonial power which his popularity embodied. The author of a history of Indian railways suggests it was not so much the lack of facilities that angered the Indians, but rather ‘the ill-treatment [that] smacked of racism and… was deeply resented by Indians’. 5 Nowhere in the world was the contrast so great between first and third-class as in India – though Russia, with the authorities’ long-entrenched disdain of the masses, came close.


pages: 453 words: 132,400

Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

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Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, centralized clearinghouse, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, double helix, fear of failure, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

But later in life friendships rarely happen by chance: one must cultivate them as assiduously as one must cultivate a job or a family. THE WIDER COMMUNITY A person is part of a family or a friendship to the extent he invests psychic energy in goals shared with other people. In the same way, one can belong to larger interpersonal systems by subscribing to the aspirations of a community, an ethnic group, a political party, or a nation. Some individuals, like the Mahatma Gandhi or Mother Teresa, invest all their psychic energy in what they construe to be the goals of humanity as a whole. In the ancient Greek usage, “politics” referred to whatever involved people in affairs that went beyond personal and family welfare. In this broad sense, politics can be one of the most enjoyable and most complex activities available to the individual, for the larger the social arena one moves in, the greater the challenges it presents.

Yucatan: Cancun & Cozumel by Bruce Conord, June Conord

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British Empire, colonial rule, feminist movement, if you build it, they will come, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Yogi Berra

This hotel, set across the main shopping street from the Museo de Cultura, was remodeled in 1995 and delivers the kind of room quality expected of the Holiday Inn chain as well as a swimming pool. The owner is active in promoting Chetumal tourism and, fortunately, her interest begins with pleasing her guests. This is the best place to stay in Chetumal. We liked the rooms very much but found the restaurant lacking. $$ Hotel Ucum (Mahatma Gandhi No. 4, % 983/2-04-10). Its name sounds amusing only if you pronounce it in English instead of Mayan – and you share our soph-omoric sense of humor. Basic accommodations in this friendly but not fancy hotel come with fans in rooms around a massive open courtyard. A clean budget hotel next door to the Holiday Inn. A good restaurant and coffee shop on the same side street is Pantoja. Supposedly, a daily bus for Xcalak leaves from here. $ Hotel Los Cocos (Av.


pages: 487 words: 139,297

Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa by Jason Stearns

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Berlin Wall, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, technology bubble, transfer pricing, unemployed young men, working-age population, éminence grise

Etienne Tshisekedi, the country’s former prime minister, insisted so doggedly that the government had to respect the constitutional order before he stepped back into politics and stood for election that he briefly moralized himself out of politics. Wamba dia Wamba, a former rebel leader who features in this book, was so idealistic about what a rebellion should be that he marginalized himself to irrelevance. It would have been an interesting experiment to drop a young, relatively unknown Mahatma Gandhi into the Congo and observe whether he, insisting on nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience, would have been able to change anything, either. The Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara spent almost a year in the Congo in 1965 fighting with rebels in the east before he abandoned the struggle. Malnourished and depressed, he concluded they “weren’t ready for the revolution.” The Congo has always defied the idealists.


pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

It marked the first anniversary of a successful demonstration at a provincial court, when some five hundred villagers had demanded the release from custody of their local leader. You Tho had been charged with inciting them to protest and to commit arson after a previous demonstration outside the company’s offices. You Tho, a soft-spoken man in his sixties, seemed an unlikely hothead. He was wearing a T-shirt with a picture of the Indian pacifist Mahatma Gandhi on it. He told me that some three hundred families in eleven villages in the Omlaing commune were threatened with losing at least some of their land to Ly Yong Phat’s sugar plantation, as it expanded down the valley. Their situations varied. In one village, people had been told their houses would be bulldozed. In another, every family had lost rice fields. “They will have nothing to eat this year,” said women at the meeting.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

There are even vain attempts to dress up capital itself in the humanist garb of what some corporate leaders like to call Conscious Capitalism, a species of entrepreneurial ethics that looks suspiciously like conscience laundering along with sensible proposals to improve worker efficiency by seeming to be nice to them.5 All the nasty things that happen are absorbed as unintentional collateral damage in an economic system motivated by the best of ethical intentions. Humanism is, however, the spirit that inspires countless individuals to give of themselves unstintingly and often without material reward to contribute selflessly to the well-being of others. Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Buddhist humanisms have spawned widespread religious and charitable organisations, as well as iconic figures like Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Mother Teresa and Bishop Tutu. Within the secular tradition there are many varieties of humanist thought and practice, including explicit currents of cosmopolitan, liberal, socialist and Marxist humanism. And, of course, moral and political philosophers have over the centuries devised a variety of conflicting ethical systems of thought based in a variety of ideals of justice, cosmopolitan reason and emancipatory liberty that have from time to time supplied revolutionary slogans.


pages: 514 words: 153,092

The Forgotten Man by Amity Shlaes

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anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Frederick Winslow Taylor, invisible hand, Mahatma Gandhi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, short selling, Upton Sinclair, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

The State Department quickly asked Joseph Robinson, Senate majority leader, to put through special legislation that would enable U.S. officers to snatch up Insull in countries where the United States exercised extraterritorial powers, such as Egypt. The bill passed without debate, and Roosevelt signed it on March 23. Meanwhile, however, both the mortified Greeks and others had lost track of the Maiotis, and in Alexandria crowds scanned the horizon for a glimpse of Insull. “Not since the passage through the Suez Canal of Mahatma Gandhi has any individual been so awaited,” wrote the normally staid New York Times. Within a day or so Greek authorities were in wire contact with the owners of the Maiotis, and a few days later the Maiotis docked at Istanbul to pick up provisions—potatoes, macaroni, salad. Washington demanded that Turkish authorities arrest Insull, and unlike the Greeks they complied immediately, subjecting Insull to a mock trial.


pages: 412 words: 113,782

Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson

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Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K

You just don’t do that to an addict; • a federal highway system that guaranteed our slavery to the automobile; • subsidies to purchasers of SUVs under the guise of helping the small-business person who needs a truck in her or his business; • governments that happily hand out money to some farmers to keep agricultural land fallow … • … while handing out money to encourage other farmers to overload other croplands to the point of erosion, compaction, and chemical poisoning; • subsidies for ethanol production that ultimately drive the cost of food up by supporting plant-based “refineries” that use almost as much energy as they yield; • in Germany, the coal industry is so heavily subsidized by the state that it would be far cheaper, according to one economist, to shut the mines down and send all the miners home at full salary for the rest of their lives than to continue to operate them; • India spends a full 14 percent of its gross domestic product—about $40 billion a year—for agricultural and industrial subsidies; • in the United States, the Price-Anderson Act legislates away our nuclear industry’s liability problem by placing artificially low limits on what people can collect from a nuclear utility in the event of a catastrophic accident. It’s an insurance policy our government (that’s you and I) provides at no cost to the nuclear industry—not a penny in liability premiums is collected. Take the subsidy away and no right-thinking board would ever approve a nuclear investment. Think about that when you hear someone mention grid parity, or say, “Renewables can’t compete with nuclear energy on price.” You know, when Mahatma Gandhi was asked what he thought of Western civilization, he wryly answered, “It would be a very good idea.” The same might be said about our “free” market. It, too, would be a very good idea. But a strange and perverse hybrid that is called “free” and is anything but is the one we’ve got. Call it Market 1.0. What about Market 2.0? What do we mean when we say we want to “redesign” commerce? For one, Market 2.0 focuses on delivering services and value in a closed-loop, waste-equals-food fashion that emulates nature rather than endlessly making, delivering, and discarding new products made from irreplaceable, nonrenewable raw materials.


pages: 514 words: 152,903

The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman

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Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K

“Editors tended to be pompous fellows thundering from the pulpit, speaking in eighty-word sentences,” Rahul Kansal, Jain’s executive president and brand chief, told me. “They saw themselves as part of nation building, as part of a big dialogue. It did not connect too well with younger Indians.” Samir Jain pressed his executives to create a more youthful paper. Articles would be shorter, sentences snappier; there would be more sports, less politics, more Bollywood, more color, lower necklines, and few book reviews. “You can’t write about Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday for a fifteen-year-old,” Das said. “You can give a passing reference for the grandfather.” He added, “Everyone wants to feel young, think like the young. Youth is an aspirational band, not a demographic band. So if you make the paper youthful it satisfies everyone.” • • • “Aspirational” is a word one hears often around the Times offices, as a way of characterizing the sunny outlook that the Jains say their readers want.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

Every traditional virtue can be described in terms of the three pillars: courage overcomes fear with self-control at well-discerned moments for the sake of someone other than one’s present self; temperance discerns against short-term reward and applies self-control for long-term advantage; justice and compassion are expressions of good intention toward others; prudence is self-control discerningly applied; humility discerns where confidence becomes overconfidence and asserts control over pride. Recently popular virtues such as grit and resilience are similar recombinations of heart, mind, and will. Cross-cultural analyses show that these and other virtues are valued throughout the world, even if their relative emphasis varies.20 When you ask people who they believe to be civilization’s wisest people, they nominate people like Socrates, Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Benjamin Franklin, Nelson Mandela, Daw Aung Sang Suu Kyi, and so on.21 Notably, the lists typically exclude the likes of Mozart and Steve Jobs, even if the latter might have been wise in limited domains. Intelligence, talent, and brilliance aren’t the same as heart, mind, and will, although some IQ might be needed for good discernment. Gandhi went on hunger strikes to free India from British rule, and Mandela emerged from twenty-seven years in prison only to seek reconciliation with his captors.


pages: 288 words: 16,556

Finance and the Good Society by Robert J. Shiller

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bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, income inequality, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market design, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, profit maximization, quantitative easing, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, young professional, Zipcar

Even the caste system itself has never been accepted by the Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim religions, though caste-like behavior nonetheless continues among many of their adherents. It has survived in the Hindu religion, at least in some of its schools of thought, which have incorporated the notion of caste into their fundamental concepts, so caste loyalty is still very much alive. But even there the system—which was deplored by Mahatma Gandhi and other spiritual leaders—is now declining. The same distaste for castes or their analogues was promoted by Vladimir Lenin in Russia, Kemal Atatürk in Turkey, Yukichi Fukuzawa in Japan, Sun Yat-sen and Mao Zedong in China, Eva Perón in Argentina, and Nelson Mandela in South Africa. These thought leaders couldn’t be more di erent from each other, but together they provide evidence of a worldwide trend that nds castes or their analogues repugnant.

The Old Patagonian Express by Paul Theroux

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anti-communist, Atahualpa, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Francisco Pizarro, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, transcontinental railway

So she gives me some eggplant parmyjan. She doesn't know I'm a non-dairy-raw-foodist. I looked at it. As soon as I saw it was cooked and had cheese on it I knew that I was going to feel awful. But she spent all day making it, so what else could I do? The funny thing is that I liked the taste of it. God, was I sick afterwards! And my nose started to run.' I told her that, in his autobiography, Mahatma Gandhi stated that eating meat made people lustful. And yet at thirteen, an age at which most American children were frolicking with the Little League team or concentrating their minds on making spit-balls, Gandhi had got married - and he was a vegetarian. 'But it wasn't a real marriage,' said Wendy. 'It was a kind of Hindu ceremony.' The betrothal took place when he was seven years old. The marriage sealed the bargain.


pages: 403 words: 125,659

It's Our Turn to Eat by Michela Wrong

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, Kibera, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shock, out of africa, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, upwardly mobile, young professional, éminence grise

But the aristocratic scion who chooses to live as a pauper, the class rebel whose antagonism towards his peers is based on the most intimate of understandings, is a well-established historical phenomenon. Discussing why someone of John's lofty caste might choose a ‘deviant’ path, Dr Tom Wolf, a US analyst living in Kenya, cites the examples of Lenin and Fidel Castro, ‘both from well-established, upper-middle-class families … who nevertheless re-engineered themselves into the most ferocious of revolutionaries’. Mahatma Gandhi came from a long line of statesmen, Che Guevara was of aristocratic descent, John and Robert Kennedy were born into a family of immense wealth, much of it shadily acquired. Growing up close to power, Wolf argues, probably ensured that John was ‘less in awe of those wielding it’ than a Kenyan contemporary from a more humble background, anxious to assimilate. ‘In that sense, his “class” heritage encouraged independence of thought and action, rather than sycophantic loyalty.’


pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson

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British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, night-watchman state, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing

At the time of writing, one BBC website (apparently aimed at school-children) offered the following equally incisive overview of imperial history: The Empire came to greatness by killing lots of people less sharply armed than themselves and stealing their countries, although their methods later changed: killing lots of people with machine guns came to prominence as the army’s tactic of choice … [It] … fell to pieces because of various people like Mahatma Gandhi, heroic revolutionary protester, sensitive to the needs of his people. The questions recently posed by an eminent historian on BBC television may be said to encapsulate the current conventional wisdom. ‘How’, he asked, ‘did a people who thought themselves free end up subjugating so much of the world … How did an empire of the free become an empire of slaves?’ How, despite their ‘good intentions’, did the British sacrifice ‘common humanity’ to ‘the fetish of the market’?

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

Along with the disciplined pluralism of to day's rich states has come a pace of innovation that is both extraordinary and unstoppable. 19 {part V} HOW IT ALL WORKS OUT ••••••••••••••••••• {24} ........................... . Poor States Stay Poor The Tryst with Destiny ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• "Long years ago, we made a tryst with destiny." On August 14, 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru accepted Indian independence from Louis Mountbatten, the country's last viceroy. 1 The birth of modern India was accompanied by high hopes and immense goodwill. These hopes and goodwill were largely the creation of Mahatma Gandhi, the remarkable leader of Indian nationalism. Gandhi had believed that only the integrity of his movement would ensure the success of its campaign and a basis for subsequent good government. As a result Nehru and his colleagues and officials were men of exceptional caliber. The architect of economic planning in India was P. C. Mahalanobis, a polymath of formidable intellect and analytic capability. 2 If planning would ever transform a poor state into a rich one, it would be in India.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

And when you get through kickin’ ass and celebratin’ the sheer joy of a good fight, be sure to tell those who come after how much fun it was.75 There’s work to be done, for bread, to be sure, but also for roses; and as Ivins urges, it should be fought for in celebration. And with raucous, righteous, rebellious indignation. EPILOGUE Poor Math Poverty is but the worst form of violence. —Mahatma Gandhi It’s heavy, this life, you know? —Marcello Perez, 1963 As we’ve now seen, the reality of poverty in the United States comports little to the myth. Even today, it is not a problem confined to a small minority; it will be experienced at some point by a majority of Americans, and there are greater opportunities for escaping poverty in other nations. Nor is welfare the province of the few: over the course of their lives, most Americans will receive some form of means-tested assistance.


pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

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air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

So President Abraham Lincoln was shot in the back of the head at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, DC by actor John Wilkes Booth, wielding a Philadelphia Derringer with a black walnut stock inlaid with silver.38 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was gunned down in the streets of Sarajevo in 1914, wearing such a tight uniform that some speculate it even helped speed his death.39 And a host of others have fallen to the assassin’s bullet, Tsar Nicholas II, Mahatma Gandhi, Yitzhak Rabin, President Kennedy, Dr Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X among them, victims of the powerful political symbolism the assassin’s bullet delivers; potent propaganda in a bloody deed. Like the best propaganda, the world of the assassin does not easily show its true face. But glimpses of it fascinate and endlessly inform the subject of films and dramas, which, in a way, seems ironic when you read that the father of Woody Harrelson, the star of Natural Born Killers, was actually a contract killer.


pages: 382 words: 115,172

The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat by Tim Spector

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biofilm, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Steve Jobs

She has concocted a range of diets and cookbooks and the thirty-bananas-a-day diet is widely promoted, with reports of both spectacular successes and failures. Before you sign up for her health plan you should know that she also believes that losing your periods from dieting for nine months is good for you, and that fruit not chemotherapy is the treatment for cancer.4 Other fruitarian advocates were the late Steve Jobs, whose company was clearly influenced by his diet, Mahatma Gandhi and reputedly Leonardo da Vinci, though mangoes and bananas may have been hard to get in Renaissance Florence. There are even several ultra-marathon runners who eat only fruit and claim it gives them special powers. But for many, this lifestyle is a modern form of eating disorder. Juicing and detox miracles ‘I look like I swallowed a sheep.’ It was 2007, and a Sydney stock market trader named Joe Cross looked in the mirror and realised he was very fat.


pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

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affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Nixon delivered his most precious baby on February 18, his 160-page “First Annual Report to the Congress on Foreign Policy for 1970,” what he called a “State of the World” message. “The postwar period in international relations has ended,” it began, then gave full expression to what a new “Framework for a Durable Peace” would look like. In-depth discussion of Vietnam only began around Chapter 4. He concluded by printing the toast he’d given to the president of India, a paean to Mahatma Gandhi: “A peace responsive to the human spirit, respectful of the divinely inspired dignity of man, one that lifts the eyes of all to what man in brotherhood can accomplish and that now, as man crosses the threshold of the heavens, is more necessary than ever.” The New York Times printed all 37,425 words in a stand-alone supplement. Thus, the Nixon public transcript, circa early 1970. As the danker corners of his mind got busy with things the public needn’t know.

And Al Capp tried out a new one-liner: “The opinions of eighteen-year-olds are valuable on things they know something about, such as puberty and hubcaps, but nothing else.” This was New Politics nirvana: a tide of 11 million newly eligible eighteen-to twenty-one-year-olds to ban the smoke-filled rooms forever, end the war, pass every ecology bill, change the world. The story was allegorized in the 1968 youth exploitation picture Wild in the Streets, in which a rock star led a crusade to lower the voting age to fourteen: “We got more cats than little ol’ Mahatma Gandhi had.” Then Max Frost became president after cops shot kids in a riot, and the kids remade America in their own image: “You know, if we didn’t have a foreign policy, we wouldn’t even have small wars…and at home, everybody’s rich, and if they’re not, they can sleep on the beaches and live like they’re rich anyway.” In the real world, New Politics theorists were hardly less exuberant. Fred Dutton, the LBJ White House aide, Pat Brown gubernatorial campaign manager, and University of California regent, had moved steadily leftward ever since watching Sirhan Sirhan assassinate his hero.


pages: 614 words: 176,458

Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce

A 1959 Ford Foundation study concluded that about half of Indian cows could be regarded as surplus in relation to feed supply. Alan Heston, an economist from the University of Pennsylvania, reported in 1971 that India had 30 million unproductive cows, producing a tenth the amount of milk that US or European cows produced, which he argued were redundant, and ought to be slaughtered. ‘Slaughter’ said Mahatma Gandhi, ‘is a thing that suggests itself easily to Western economists. That is why they cut the Gordian knot, by slaughtering the inferior breed of cows and bulls.’39 Marvin Harris sets out to show that the economists are missing the point: Many experts assume that man and cow are locked in a deadly competition for land and food crops. This might be true if Indian farmers followed the American agribusiness model and fed their animals on food crops … In his study of cattle in West Bengal, Dr Odend’hal discovered that the major constituent in the cattle’s diet is inedible byproducts of human food crops, principally rice straw, wheat bran and rice husks.


pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

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agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

A re-creation of the world map of Ptolemy (Corbis) 2. Constantinople, in the mid-sixteenth century (Ann Ronan Picture Library/Heritage Images) 3. The harbour at Batavia, Dutch East Indies (Ann Ronan Picture Library/Heritage Images) 4. Engraving portraying the defeat of Tipu Sultan (Corbis) 5. Commodore Matthew Perry’s entry into Tokyo harbour (Corbis) 6. French soldiers during the Boxer Rebellion (Corbis) 7. Mahatma Gandhi on the ‘salt march’, India 1930 (Corbis) 8. Nuclear test, Marshall Islands, 1952 9. Flags on Tiananmen Square (Corbis) List of Maps 1. The Islamic world in 1450 2. Ming China 3. The Portuguese empire in Asia 4. Russian expansion, 1462–1600 5. Ottoman expansion, c. 1600 6. Mughal expansion 7. Ch’ing expansion to 1760 8. Mughal Empire, c. 1700 9. Britain and France in North America, c. 1750 10.


pages: 836 words: 158,284

The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman by Timothy Ferriss

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23andMe, airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, game design, Gary Taubes, index card, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, microbiome, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, placebo effect, Productivity paradox, publish or perish, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, wage slave, William of Occam

This has led some scientists to suggest that the 4 calories per gram assumed for protein should be downgraded 20% to 3.2 calories per gram. GROUND ZERO— Getting Started and Swaraj At the individual level Swaraj is vitally connected with the capacity for dispassionate self-assessment, ceaseless self-purification and growing self-reliance.… It is Swaraj when we learn to rule ourselves. —Mahatma Gandhi, Young India, June 28, 1928, p. 772 THE HARAJUKU MOMENT The Decision to Become a Complete Human I must not fear. Fear is the mind-killer. Fear is the little-death that brings total obliteration. I will face my fear. I will permit it to pass over me and through me. And when it has gone past I will turn the inner eye to see its path. Where the fear has gone there will be nothing. Only I will remain.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

A Christian parent at the close of the first millennium AD might look into the eyes of a newborn for clues as to whether the devil lurked somewhere deep inside, ready to possess them. Today, at the beginning of the third millennium AD, a parent is more likely to scrutinize a child’s inner being for signs of his or her inherent good nature and sociability. That’s not to say that parents expect their children to grow up to be a Mahatma Gandhi or a Nelson Mandela or a Martin Luther King, Jr. Only that they expect them to be more like them than, say, an Adolf Hitler or a Joseph Stalin. All of which points to the fact that while most human beings are neither saints nor monsters, we expect pro-social behavior rather than antisocial behavior of one another. That’s because it is in our nature to be affectionate and caring and not remote and hateful.


pages: 604 words: 177,329

The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright

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airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, rolodex, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

There he stood, on the threshold of advocating violence against the United States, but he suddenly stopped himself. “What is required is to wage an economic war against America,” he continued. “We have to boycott all American products…. They’re taking the money we paythem for their products and giving it to the Jews to kill our brothers.” The man who had made his name in combat against the Soviets now invoked Mahatma Gandhi, who brought down the British Empire “by boycotting its products and wearing non-Western clothes.” He urged a public-relations campaign. “Any American we see, we should notify of our complaints,” bin Laden meekly concluded. “We should write to American embassies.” BIN LADEN WOULD LATER SAY that the United States had always been his enemy. He dated his hatred for America to 1982, “when America permitted the Israelis to invade Lebanon and the American Sixth Fleet helped them.”


pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

Yet that recognition did not justify absolute means. The strategy of cultural resistance—the construction of alternate society, of “living in truth”—implied the same quality of “self-restraint” that later provided the basis for the “self-limiting revolution” of Solidarity and 1989. It is striking, indeed, that the most influential nonviolent activist movements of the twentieth century—notably Mahatma Gandhi’s struggle for independence from the British Empire and Martin Luther King’s civil rights campaign (both of which drew, in their turn, on the writings of that Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy)—had overtly religious origins. Their legacy can be traced in the 1980s through such diverse events as the uprisings against dictatorship in South Korea, the 1986 “People’s Power” revolution in the Philippines, and the “velvet revolutions” in East Central Europe.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Munger), Siddhartha (Hermann Hesse), The Rational Optimist (Matt Ridley), V for Vendetta (Alan Moore), Labyrinths (Jorge Luis Borges), Meditations (Marcus Aurelius), The Book of Life: Daily Meditations with Krishnamurti (Jiddu Krishnamurti), Illusions (Richard Bach), Striking Thoughts (Bruce Lee), Influence (Robert Cialdini), Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman!; What Do You Care What Other People Think?; Perfectly Reasonable Deviations from the Beaten Track (Richard P. Feynman), Love Yourself Like Your Life Depends on It; Live Your Truth (Kamal Ravikant), Distress (Greg Egan), The Boys (Garth Ennis and Darick Robertson), Genome; The Red Queen; The Origins of Virtue; The Evolution of Everything (Matt Ridley), The Essential Writings (Mahatma Gandhi), The Tao of Philosophy (Alan Watts), The Bed of Procrustes (Nassim Nicholas Taleb), Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (Hunter S. Thompson), The Power of Myth (Joseph Campbell), Tao Te Ching (Lao Tzu), Falling into Grace (Adyashanti), God’s Debris (Scott Adams), The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (Julian Jaynes), Mastering the Core Teachings of the Buddha (Daniel M.


pages: 639 words: 212,079

From Beirut to Jerusalem by Thomas L. Friedman

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Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, Unsafe at Any Speed

We have been raped for years, but instead of our brothers helping us, they stood around and watched.” And now that you have taken your destiny into your own hands? “The wounds of the rape are starting to heal,” he said. “The woman is combing her hair and looking in the mirror again.” When the uprising began, Palestinians threw stones at the Israelis, not because they had all suddenly read the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and become nonviolent, not because they didn’t want to hurt the Israelis, but because when their anger suddenly exploded, stones and clubs and kitchen knives were all that most of them found available and operationally expedient. The Palestinians under occupation knew their enemy well. Unlike the PLO bureaucrats in Beirut and Tunis, they knew the real dimensions of Israel’s strength and weaknesses.

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, wikimedia commons, working poor

Petersen Automotive Vault Miracle Mile · The 150 vehicles on display may include a Mercedes-Benz that belonged to Saddam Hussein, President Clinton’s golf cart, and an imposing 1925 Round Door Rolls-Royce. Idle Hour North Hollywood · Sample the many signature cocktails at this bar located inside a giant whiskey barrel. Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine Pacific Palisades · This oasis of Eastern spirituality, located in a ritzy neighborhood, holds some of Mahatma Gandhi’s ashes. Air Hollywood Pacoima · If you need to shoot a scene set in an airplane or airport, this is the studio to use. One of the standing sets, a Pan Am plane interior, is also open to the public. Bunny Museum Pasadena · Step inside the “Hoppiest Place in the World” to view Earth’s largest collection of bunny memorabilia. Sunken City San Pedro · A 1929 landslide created Sunken City, an oceanside patch of broken house foundations, abandoned streetcar tracks, buckled sidewalks, and empty streets.


pages: 722 words: 225,235

The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich

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Boycotts of Israel, friendly fire, Mahatma Gandhi, Yom Kippur War

His wardrobe attested to the variety of roles he pursued with flair: well-tailored Italian suits, medal-bedecked uniforms—of an admiral as well as a general—and peasant robes. Sadat’s desire as a young man to see an end to British hegemony in Egypt was accompanied by admiration for national leaders who fought for the liberation of their people. In this category he placed not only the likes of Mahatma Gandhi and Kemal Atatürk but also Adolf Hitler. He held him in esteem as a charismatic leader who rebuilt a shattered nation. Sadat abandoned this assessment, at least publicly, only after he became president. From that point on, he used the term “Nazi” as a pejorative, usually directing it at Israel. Although a visionary, Sadat well understood the hard rules of autocracy. Within seven months of assuming the presidency he had arrested his main political opponents, who were plotting his ouster, and stabilized his regime.

The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan

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air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K

THE TIGERS A N D THE ELEPHANT son, it is below the per capita GDP of Cote d'lvoire and Lesotho. The reason for India's failure to follow China off the lower rungs of developing nations over the past fifteen years is an idea. When Britain declared Indian independence in 1947, it withdrew all aspects of British governing, but left behind a concept that captivated India's elite: Fabian socialism. Jawaharlal Nehru, a disciple of the revered Mahatma Gandhi and Indian prime minister for sixteen years following independence, was firmly attracted by the rationality of the Fabians, and he perceived market competition as economically destructive. Because of him, socialism has retained a firm grip on Indian economic policy long after it was abandoned by Britain. Nehru was entranced by central planning as the rational extension of human beings acting in concert to produce material well-being for the many rather than the few.

Bali & Lombok Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

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active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, first-past-the-post, global village, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism

Alam Asmara SpaSPA ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %0363-41929; www.alamasmara.com; massage from 150,000Rp; h9am-9pm) Candidasa's posh option is the Alam Asmara Spa at the hotel of the same name. Organic and natural products are used for a variety of traditional massages and treatments in a gently restful setting. Ashram Gandhi ChandiSPIRITUAL RETREAT ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %0363-41108; www.ashramgandhi.com; Jl Raya Candidasa; s/d from 350,000/450,000Rp) This lagoon-side Hindu community follows the pacifist teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Guests may stay for short or extended periods, but are expected to participate in community life. Simple guest cottages by the ocean are handy after a long day of yoga here. TTours Apart from the Bali Aga village of Tenganan, there are several traditional villages inland from Candidasa and attractive countryside for walking. oTrekking CandidasaWALKING TOUR (%0878 6145 2001; www.trekkingcandidasa.com; walks from 150,000Rp) The delightful Somat leads walks through the verdant hills behind Candidasa.


pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

We tripped over piles of carpets and surged into the great library to discover what the Shah read in his spare time. There were leather-bound volumes of Voltaire, Verlaine, Flaubert, Plutarch, Shakespeare and Charles de Gaulle. The entire works of Winston Churchill rested against Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner—a work the Shah might have found suitable reading on his long journey of exile—and biographies of Mahatma Gandhi. My People by Abba Eban, the former Israeli foreign minister—in fact, his book was partly written by an editor of Commentary magazine—lay on a lowly shelf with the author’s handwritten dedication to “His Imperial Majesty, the Shah of Shahs.” On another rack were the Goebbels diaries. In the Shah’s personal office, the guards could scarce restrain us from dialling a line on the golden telephones.

What was one to think when one walked, as I did, through the smoking embers of the National Museum, fired by the Iraqis on Tuesday? Or the gutted interior of the parliament? Or the still burning library in the Sief Palace—its magnificent golden clock tower smashed by a tank shell— when I found, lying on a chair, the remains of a book published by the government of India, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi? What kind of people burn museums and libraries? Fast-forward. Would I not be writing these same words, 800 kilometres north of here, in Baghdad, in almost exactly twelve years from now? Outside the museum, Kuwait’s collection of antique wooden boats had been burned to cinders. The “Islamic house” lay in ruins. The walls of the emir of Kuwait’s Dasman Palace were torn down with explosions and bulldozers.

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

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active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

The wood’s enclosed Parc de Bagatelle ( 39 75, 08 20 00 75 75; 9.30am-5pm, to 8pm in summer), in the northwestern corner, is renowned for its beautiful gardens surrounding the 1775 Château de Bagatelle (Bagatelle Palace; Map; 01 40 67 97 00; route de Sèvres à Neuilly, 16e; adult/student & 7-18yr/under 7yr €3/1.50/free; 9am-6pm Apr-Sep, 9am-5pm Oct-Mar). The Jardin des Serres d’Auteuil (Map; 01 40 71 75 23; av de la Porte d’Auteuil, 16e; Porte d’Auteuil; admission free; 9.30am-5pm, to 8pm in summer), opened in 1898, is a garden with impressive conservatories at the southeastern end of the Bois de Boulogne. The 20-hectare Jardin d’Acclimatation (Map; 01 40 67 90 82; av du Mahatma Gandhi; Les Sablons; adult/3-18yr/under 3yr €2.70/1.35/free; 10am-7pm Jun-Sep, 10am-6pm Oct-May), a kids-oriented amusement park whose name is another term for ‘zoo’ in French, includes the high-tech Exploradôme ( 01 53 64 90 40; www.exploradome.com, in French; adult/4-18yr/under 4yr €5/3.50/free), a tented structure devoted to science and the media. The southern part of the wood has two horse-racing tracks, the Hippodrome de Longchamp (Map) for flat races and the Hippodrome d’Auteuil for steeplechases.

The Stade Roland Garros, home of the French Open tennis tournament, is also here. Rowing boats ( 01 42 88 04 69; per hr €10; 10am-6pm mid-Mar–mid-Oct) can be hired at Lac Inférieur ( Av Henri Martin), the largest of the wood’s lakes and ponds. They sometimes open at the weekend in winter. Paris Cycles ( 01 47 47 76 50; per hr €5; 10am-7pm mid-Apr–mid-Oct) hires out bicycles at two locations in the Bois de Boulogne: on av du Mahatma Gandhi ( Les Sablons), across from the Porte Sablons entrance to the Jardin d’Acclimatation, and near the Pavillon Royal ( Av Foch) at the northern end of Lac Inférieur. Return to beginning of chapter ACTIVITIES The best single source of information on sports in Paris is the Salon d’Accueil (Reception Hall) of the Mairie de Paris at the Hôtel de Ville (Map; 39 75, 08 20 00 75 75; www.sport.paris.fr; 29 rue de Rivoli, 4e; Hôtel de Ville; 10am-7pm Mon-Sat).


pages: 1,079 words: 321,718

Surfaces and Essences by Douglas Hofstadter, Emmanuel Sander

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, Chance favours the prepared mind, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Ernest Rutherford, experimental subject, Flynn Effect, Georg Cantor, Gerolamo Cardano, Golden Gate Park, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, l'esprit de l'escalier, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, place-making, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl

Barnum of Polynesian pop, the Mae West of tiger taming, the Marilyn Monroe of hip-hop, the Meryl Streep of spitting, the Fellini of photography, the Stanley Kubrick of pornography, the Walt Disney of consumer electronics, the Bill Gates of wastewater, the Rockefeller of video games, the Babe Ruth of bank robbers, the Evel Knievel of oncologists, the Michael Jordan of bagpiping, the Tiger Woods of user-generated video, the Lance Armstrong of tough-guy jokes, the Usain Bolt of cognitive science, the Serena Williams of apathy, the Paul Revere of ecology, the Napoleon of fossil bones, the Rasputin of rockabilly, the Hitler of snuggling, the Franco of fricassee, the Mussolini of mulligatawny, the Mao Tse-Tung of gay soap operas, the Mahatma Gandhi of restaurant criticism, the Che Guevara of tango, the Richard Nixon of superheroes, the Indira Gandhi of astrophysics, the Osama bin Laden of monkeys, the George Bush of Oscar hosts, the Barack Obama of Tamil cinema, the Tarzan of the pole vault, the Sherlock Holmes of Yiddish music… The creation of a general category through the pluralization of a proper noun, such as a famous person’s name, is based on the idea that there is an essence to each very well-known person or thing, be it the Moon, the Mona Lisa, Mecca, or Mozart.


pages: 965 words: 267,053

A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise

The danger was averted only because of the stubborn demands of the Arab leaders, who insisted on a total ban on immigration and land sales as a condition for their collaboration in any political scheme. The executive in London carried on very much as before. Sokolow was received that year by King Fuad of Egypt, President Lebrun of France, Mussolini, de Valera, the vice president of the United States, and even Mahatma Gandhi, from whom he received ‘a satisfactory declaration’.* (Seven years later, after the November pogroms in Germany, Gandhi wrote to Martin Buber that the German Jews were in duty bound to stay in Germany and practise satyagraha, passive resistance, rather than emigrate to Palestine.) What was the outcome of these and other diplomatic activities? The more far-sighted Zionist leaders such as Arlosoroff, now in charge of the political department, were near despair.


pages: 1,263 words: 371,402

The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Sixth Annual Collection by Gardner Dozois

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augmented reality, clean water, computer age, cosmological constant, David Attenborough, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, financial independence, game design, gravity well, jitney, John Harrison: Longitude, Kuiper Belt, Mahatma Gandhi, Paul Graham, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Skype, stem cell, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, urban renewal, Wall-E

A moment later, he said, “We want to honor the spirit of the twentieth century.” That made less sense to Max than anything. Yes, his people wanted to hold time back to the twentieth century, but the Adareans had advanced far beyond that. “What? You mean like the discovery of the double helix, the first genome projects?” “More than that,” the Adarean said. “It’s the great century of political change, of people like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King. For the first time in history, people could peacefully oppose their governments; for the first time, without the use of violence, they could force their governments to change. It is the century where technology made real democracy possible, immediate, functional, on a large scale, for the first time ever.” “Huh,” Max said, looking at their tiny bunker, their too small beds, their emaciated bodies.


pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

No doubt recalling the Marxism of his youth, JP declared that it had become ‘glaringly apparent’ that the ‘state system was subservient to a variety of forces and interests in keeping it a closed shop’.35 Mass demonstrations opposed ‘student power’ and ‘people’s power’ to ‘State power’ and through ‘struggle committees’ a parallel system of self-government was attempted. Indira Gandhi however responded by imposing in 1975 her State of Emergency for nearly two years, imprisoning the main opposition leaders. Vinoba, Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘spiritual heir’, had reacted to JP’s campaign by a year’s vow of silence as a mark of disapproval. Asked for his opinion of the Emergency, he vouchsafed the written comment without breaking his silence: ‘an era of discipline’. It was immediately interpreted as support for Indira Gandhi’s government and the State of Emergency. The old libertarian who had done so much to guide the Sarvodaya movement into a genuinely anarchist direction, was even hailed as the ‘Saint of the Government’.36 He later clarified his position by saying that he was referring to the discipline laid down by the acharyas (traditional teachers) to guide their pupils, but the harm had been done.


pages: 1,402 words: 369,528

A History of Western Philosophy by Aaron Finkel

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British Empire, Eratosthenes, Georg Cantor, invention of agriculture, Mahatma Gandhi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, the market place, William of Occam

* Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VI, p. 17. * Ibid., p. 212. † Ibid., p. 30. * This hostility to pagan literature persisted in the Church until the eleventh century, except in Ireland, where the Olympian gods had never been worshipped, and were therefore not feared by the Church. † Letter LX. ‡ Letter CXXVIII. * Confessions, Bk. II, Ch. IV. † I must except Mahatma Gandhi, whose autobiography contains passages closely similar to the above. * Confessions, Bk. II, Ch. II. * Confessions, Bk. III, Ch. I. † Ibid., Bk. IV, Ch. II. ‡ Ibid., Bk. VI, Ch. XV. § Ibid., Bk. VIII, Ch. VII. Ibid., Bk. IV, Ch. III. * Confessions, Bk. IV, Ch. XVI. * Ibid., Bk. V, Ch. VI. ‡ Ibid., Bk. V, Ch. III. * Confessions, Bk. II, Ch. VII. † Ibid., Bk. V, Ch. XIV. ‡ Ibid., Bk.


pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

Of the twenty-seven officers in G Branch (investigations) early in 1917, eight had served in India.50 The Indian National Congress seems to have attracted no significant wartime attention from either MI5 or any other section of the British intelligence community, because it had no German connection and posed no threat of violent opposition to British rule. Before the First World War, Congress was a middle-class debating society which met briefly each December, then lapsed into inactivity for another year. There was nothing in 1914 to suggest that it would emerge from the war as a mass movement which would become the focus of resistance to the British Raj. The man who brought about this transformation was M. K. ‘Mahatma’ Gandhi, an English-educated barrister of the Inner Temple who, more than any other man, set in motion the process which, a generation later, began the downfall of the British Empire. When Gandhi returned to India in 1915 from South Africa, where he developed the technique of satyagraha, or passive resistance, which he was later to use against the Raj, the DCI assessed him as ‘neither an anarchist nor a revolutionary’ but ‘a troublesome agitator whose enthusiasm has led him frequently to overstep the limits of the South African laws relating to Asiatics’.51 In the course of the war MI5 extended its involvement in imperial intelligence from India to the Empire and Commonwealth as a whole.

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

It would take a lifetime working here to grasp all the intricacies of their arcane protocols – they’re similar to the Freemasons, and both are 13th-century creations. It’s best just to soak up the dreamy ambience of the alleys and open spaces and thank your lucky stars you’re not one of the bewigged barristers scurrying about. A roll call of former members would include the likes of Oliver Cromwell, Charles Dickens, Mahatma Gandhi and Margaret Thatcher. Lincoln’s Inn (Map; 7405 1393; www.lincolnsinn.org.uk; Lincoln’s Inn Fields WC2; grounds 9am-6pm Mon-Fri, chapel 12.30-2.30pm Mon-Fri; Holborn) is largely intact and has several original 15th-century buildings. It’s the oldest and most attractive of the bunch, boasting a 17th-century chapel and pretty landscaped gardens. Gray’s Inn (Map; 7458 7800; www.graysinn.org.uk; Gray’s Inn Rd WC1; grounds 10am-4pm Mon-Fri, chapel to 6pm Mon-Fri; Chancery Lane) was largely rebuilt after the Luftwaffe levelled it.

England by David Else

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

It would take a lifetime working here to grasp all the intricacies of their arcane protocols – they’re similar to the Freemasons, and both are 13th-century creations. It’s best just to soak up the dreamy ambience of the alleys and open spaces and thank your lucky stars you’re not one of the bewigged barristers scurrying about. A roll call of former members would include the likes of Oliver Cromwell, Charles Dickens, Mahatma Gandhi and Margaret Thatcher. Lincoln’s Inn (Map; 7405 1393; www.lincolnsinn.org.uk; Lincoln’s Inn Fields WC2; grounds 9am-6pm Mon-Fri, chapel 12.30-2.30pm Mon-Fri; Holborn) is largely intact and has several original 15th-century buildings. It’s the oldest and most attractive of the bunch, boasting a 17th-century chapel and pretty landscaped gardens. Gray’s Inn (Map; 7458 7800; www.graysinn.org.uk; Gray’s Inn Rd WC1; grounds 10am-4pm Mon-Fri, chapel to 6pm Mon-Fri; Chancery Lane) was largely rebuilt after the Luftwaffe levelled it.

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications

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banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Vélib’ stations are found near most of the park entrances, but not within the park itself; Paris Cycles ( 01 47 47 76 50; per hr €5; 10am-7pm mid-Apr-mid-Oct) rents bikes. Rowing boats (per hr €15; 10am-6pm mid-Mar–mid-Oct; Av Henri Martin) can be hired at Lac Inférieur, the largest of the Bois’ lakes and ponds. Families with young kids flock to amusement park Jardin d’Acclimatation (www.jardindacclimatation.fr; av du Mahatma Gandhi; admission €2.90, activity tickets €2.90, under 3yr free; 10am-7pm Apr-Sep, to 6pm Oct-Mar; Les Sablons) , with puppet shows, boat rides, a small water park, pony rides, art exhibits and sometimes special movies. Most activities cost extra (on top of the admission price). The Bois de Boulogne is home to the Roland Garros (www.billetterie.fft.fr; 2 av Gordon Bennett, Bois de Boulogne; Porte d’Auteuil) stadium, home to the French Open.