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Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

This has been fine for the Blockchain 1.0 implementation of currency and payment transactions, but for the more complicated tier of Blockchain 2.0 applications such as the recording and transfer of more complex assets like smart property and smart contracts, we need the third step—a more robust scripting system—and ultimately, Turing completeness (the ability to run any coin, protocol, or blockchain). Nakamoto envisioned not just sending money from point A to point B, but having programmable money and a full feature set to enable it. One blockchain infrastructure project aiming to deliver a Turing-complete scripting language and Turing-complete platform is Ethereum. Ethereum is a platform and a programming language for building and publishing distributed applications. More fundamentally, Ethereum is a foundational general-purpose cryptocurrency platform that is a Turing-complete virtual machine (meaning that it can run any coin, script, or cryptocurrency project). Rather than being a blockchain, or a protocol running over a blockchain, or a metaprotocol running over a protocol like other projects, Ethereum is a fundamental underlying infrastructure platform that can run all blockchains and protocols, rather like a unified universal development platform.

-M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy and consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe extensibility of, Extensibility of Blockchain Technology Concepts for facilitating big data predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation future applications, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe limitations of (see limitations) organizational capabilities, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity tracking capabilities, Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange-Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange blockchain-recorded marriage, Decentralized Governance Services BlockCypher, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs BOINC, DAOs and DACs bond deposit postings, Technical Challenges Brin, David, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel BTCjam, Financial Services business model challenges, Business Model Challenges Buttercoin, Financial Services Byrne, Patrick, Financial Services C Campus Cryptocurrency Network, Campuscoin Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin censorship, Internet (see decentralized DNS system) Chain, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs challenges (see see limitations) charity donations, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost China, Relation to Fiat Currency ChromaWallet, Wallet Development Projects Chronobit, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit Circle Internet Financial, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Codius, Financial Services coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption coin mixing, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity coin, defining, Terminology and Concepts, Currency, Token, Tokenizing Coinapult, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Coinapult LOCKS, Relation to Fiat Currency Coinbase, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin, Financial Services CoinBeyond, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinffeine, Financial Services Coinify, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinprism, Wallet Development Projects Coinspace, Crowdfunding CoinSpark, Wallet Development Projects colored coins, Smart Property, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Communitycoin, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention complementary currency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable concepts, redefining, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe consensus-derived information, Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe contagious disease relief, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts-The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence (see also smart contracts) crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding financial services, Financial Services-Financial Services marriage, Decentralized Governance Services prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property wallet development projects, Wallet Development Projects copyright protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Counterparty, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform Counterparty currency (XCP), Currency, Token, Tokenizing Counterwallet, Wallet Development Projects crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding cryptocurrencies benefits of, Currency, Token, Tokenizing cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity mechanics of, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin cryptosecurity challenges, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity cryptowallet, Blockchain Neutrality currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Regulatory Status, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption Communitycoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin decentralizing, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention defining, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Currency, Token, Tokenizing, Currency: New Meanings demurrage, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency monetary and nonmonetary, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies new meanings, Currency: New Meanings technology stack, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency currency mulitplicity, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies D DAOs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Blockchain Government Dapps, Dapps-Dapps, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Dark Coin, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity dark pools, Technical Challenges Dark Wallet, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations DDP, Crowdfunding decentralization, Smart Contracts, Centralization-Decentralization Tension and Equilibrium decentralized applications (Dapps), Dapps-Dapps decentralized autonomous organization/corporation (DAO) (see DAOs/DACs) decentralized autonomous societies (DASs), DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations decentralized autonomy, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity decentralized DNS, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity challenges of, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services and digital identity, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services decentralized file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation decentralized secure file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation deeds, Decentralized Governance Services demurrage currencies, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features action-incitory features, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features limitations of, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also blockchain attestation services) hashing and timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection digital cryptography, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 digital divide, defining, Digital Divide of Bitcoin digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution DIYweathermodeling, Community Supercomputing DNAnexus, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Dogecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Scandals and Public Perception DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems DriveShare, DAOs and DACs dynamic redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) E education (see learning and literacy) Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models EMR (electronic medical record) system, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage Ethereum, Crowdfunding, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine-Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity ExperimentalResultscoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin F Fairlay, Bitcoin Prediction Markets fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation financial services, Regulatory Status, Financial Services-Financial Services, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity, Government Regulation Fitbit, Personal Thinking Blockchains, Blockchain Health Research Commons, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Florincoin, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel Folding@Home, DAOs and DACs, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing franculates, Blockchain Government freedom of speech, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel (see also decentralized DNS system) Freicoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable fundraising (see crowdfunding) futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets G GBIcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives), Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable Gems, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Dapps Genecoin, Blockchain Genomics Genomecoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Genomic Data Commons, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomic sequencing, Blockchain Genomics 2.0: Industrialized All-Human-Scale Sequencing Solution-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin GenomicResearchcoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomics, consumer, Blockchain Genomics-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Git, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation GitHub, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief GoCoin, Financial Services GoToLunchcoin, Terminology and Concepts governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance decentralized services, Decentralized Governance Services-Decentralized Governance Services dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personalized governance services, Blockchain Government random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections societal maturity impact of blockchain governance, Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance government regulation, Regulatory Status, Government Regulation-Government Regulation Gridcoin, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin H hashing, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Technical Challenges Hayek, Friedrich, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable, Conclusion, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology health, Blockchain Health-Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup as demurrage currency, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features doctor vendor RFP services, Doctor Vendor RFP Services and Assurance Contracts health notary services, Blockchain Health Notary health research commons , Blockchain Health Research Commons health spending, Healthcoin healthcare decision making and advocacy, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personal health record storage, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage virus bank and seed vault backup, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Healthcoin, Healthcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable I identity authentication, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records Indiegogo, Crowdfunding, Dapps industry scandals, Scandals and Public Perception infrastructure needs and issues, Technical Challenges inheritance gifts, Smart Contracts intellectual property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also digital art) Internet administration, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Internet Archive, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Personal Thinking Blockchains Internet censorship prevention (see Decentralized DNS system) Intuit Quickbooks, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin IP protection, Hashing Plus Timestamping IPFS project, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation J Johnston, David, Blockchain Technology Could Be Used in the Administration of All Quanta Journalcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Judobaby, Crowdfunding justice applications for censorship-resistant organizational models, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models-Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also digital art, blockchain attestation services) digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records freedom of speech/anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance (see also governance) Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also decentralized DNS) K Kickstarter, Crowdfunding, Community Supercomputing Kipochi, Blockchain Neutrality, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Koinify, Crowdfunding, Dapps Kraken, Financial Services L latency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Technical Challenges, Technical Challenges, Scandals and Public Perception LaZooz, Dapps, Campuscoin, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Learncoin, Learncoin learning and literacy, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges learning contract exchanges, Learning Contract Exchanges Ledra Capital, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List legal implications crowdfunding, Crowdfunding smart contracts, Smart Contracts lending, trustless, Smart Property Lighthouse, Crowdfunding limitations, Limitations-Overall: Decentralization Trends Likely to Persist business model challenges, Business Model Challenges government regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation personal records privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records scandals and public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections Litecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Technical Challenges literacy (see learning and literacy) LTBcoin, Wallet Development Projects, Currency, Token, Tokenizing M M2M/IoT infrastructure, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-The Blockchain Is Not for Every Situation, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology Maidsafe, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Technical Challenges Manna, Crowdfunding marriage, blockchain recorded, Decentralized Governance Services Mastercoin, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects mechanics of cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works Medici, Financial Services mega master blockchain list, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List Melotic, Crowdfunding, Wallet Development Projects merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant payment fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Dapps, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services, Technical Challenges MetaDisk, DAOs and DACs mindfiles, Personal Thinking Blockchains MIT Bitcoin Project, Campuscoin Monegraph, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection money (see currency) MOOCs (massive open online courses), Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Moroz, Tatiana, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention multicurrency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable N Nakamoto, Satoshi, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Nationcoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable notary chains, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure notary services, Hashing Plus Timestamping, Blockchain Health Notary NSA surveillance, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel NXT, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects O offline wallets, Technical Challenges OneName, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Identity Verification OneWallet, Wallet Development Projects online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection-Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Open Assets, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Open Transactions, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects OpenBazaar, Dapps, Government Regulation Ostel, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel P passports, Decentralized Governance Services PayPal, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems, Financial Services, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models peer-to-peer lending, Financial Services Peercoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency personal cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity personal data rights, Blockchain Genomics personal mindfile blockchains, Personal Thinking Blockchains personal thinking chains, Personal Thinking Blockchains-Personal Thinking Blockchains physical asset keys, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property plagiarism detection/avoidance, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Precedent, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Terminology and Concepts prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations, Decentralized Governance Services, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Predictious, Bitcoin Prediction Markets predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records private key, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Proof of Existence, Proof of Existence-Proof of Existence proof of stake, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges proof of work, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges property ownership, Smart Property property registration, Decentralized Governance Services public documents registries, Decentralized Governance Services public health, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception public/private key cryptography, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101-Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 publishing, academic, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin pull technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity push technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity R random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections Realcoin, Relation to Fiat Currency redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation regulatory status, Regulatory Status reputation vouching, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Researchcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin REST APIs, Technical Challenges Ripple, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Relation to Fiat Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Ripple Labs, Financial Services Roadcoin, Blockchain Government S Saldo.mx, Blockchain Neutrality scandals, Scandals and Public Perception science, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Sean's Outpost, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost secret messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine security issues, Technical Challenges self-bootstrapped organizations, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations self-directing assets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets self-enforced code, Smart Property self-sufficiency, Smart Contracts SETI@home, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing size and bandwidth, Technical Challenges smart contracts, Smart Contracts-Smart Contracts, Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence automatic markets and tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets Counterparty, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs Dapps, Dapps-Dapps DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations Ethereum, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine increasingly autonomous, Dapps, DAOs, DACs, and DASs: Increasingly Autonomous Smart Contracts-Automatic Markets and Tradenets smart literacy contracts, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection smartwatch, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Snowden, Edward, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models social contracts, Smart Contracts social network currencies, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies Stellar, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs stock market, Financial Services Storj, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Dapps, Technical Challenges Stripe, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Swancoin, Smart Property swaps exchange, Financial Services Swarm, Crowdfunding, Dapps Swarm (Ethereum), Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Swarmops, Crowdfunding T Tatianacoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Tendermint, Technical Challenges Tera Exchange, Financial Services terminology, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts 37Coins, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief throughput, Technical Challenges timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations titling, Decentralized Governance Services tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets transaction fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Tribecoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption trustless lending, Smart Property Truthcoin, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Turing completeness, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Twister, Dapps Twitter, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection U Uber, Government Regulation unbanked/underbanked markets, Blockchain Neutrality usability issues, Technical Challenges V value chain composition, How a Cryptocurrency Works versioning issues, Technical Challenges Virtual Notary, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit voting and prediction, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets W wallet APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs wallet companies, Wallet Development Projects wallet software, How a Cryptocurrency Works wasted resources, Technical Challenges Wayback Machine, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation Wedbush Securities, Financial Services Whatevercoin, Terminology and Concepts WikiLeaks, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Wikinomics, Community Supercomputing World Citizen project, Decentralized Governance Services X Xapo, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Z Zennet Supercomputer, Community Supercomputing Zooko's Triangle, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity About the Author Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contemporary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII.

-M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy and consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe extensibility of, Extensibility of Blockchain Technology Concepts for facilitating big data predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation future applications, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe limitations of (see limitations) organizational capabilities, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity tracking capabilities, Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange-Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange blockchain-recorded marriage, Decentralized Governance Services BlockCypher, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs BOINC, DAOs and DACs bond deposit postings, Technical Challenges Brin, David, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel BTCjam, Financial Services business model challenges, Business Model Challenges Buttercoin, Financial Services Byrne, Patrick, Financial Services C Campus Cryptocurrency Network, Campuscoin Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin censorship, Internet (see decentralized DNS system) Chain, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs challenges (see see limitations) charity donations, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost China, Relation to Fiat Currency ChromaWallet, Wallet Development Projects Chronobit, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit Circle Internet Financial, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Codius, Financial Services coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption coin mixing, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity coin, defining, Terminology and Concepts, Currency, Token, Tokenizing Coinapult, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Coinapult LOCKS, Relation to Fiat Currency Coinbase, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin, Financial Services CoinBeyond, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinffeine, Financial Services Coinify, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinprism, Wallet Development Projects Coinspace, Crowdfunding CoinSpark, Wallet Development Projects colored coins, Smart Property, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Communitycoin, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention complementary currency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable concepts, redefining, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe consensus-derived information, Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe contagious disease relief, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts-The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence (see also smart contracts) crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding financial services, Financial Services-Financial Services marriage, Decentralized Governance Services prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property wallet development projects, Wallet Development Projects copyright protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Counterparty, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform Counterparty currency (XCP), Currency, Token, Tokenizing Counterwallet, Wallet Development Projects crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding cryptocurrencies benefits of, Currency, Token, Tokenizing cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity mechanics of, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin cryptosecurity challenges, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity cryptowallet, Blockchain Neutrality currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Regulatory Status, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption Communitycoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin decentralizing, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention defining, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Currency, Token, Tokenizing, Currency: New Meanings demurrage, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency monetary and nonmonetary, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies new meanings, Currency: New Meanings technology stack, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency currency mulitplicity, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies D DAOs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Blockchain Government Dapps, Dapps-Dapps, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Dark Coin, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity dark pools, Technical Challenges Dark Wallet, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations DDP, Crowdfunding decentralization, Smart Contracts, Centralization-Decentralization Tension and Equilibrium decentralized applications (Dapps), Dapps-Dapps decentralized autonomous organization/corporation (DAO) (see DAOs/DACs) decentralized autonomous societies (DASs), DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations decentralized autonomy, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity decentralized DNS, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity challenges of, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services and digital identity, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services decentralized file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation decentralized secure file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation deeds, Decentralized Governance Services demurrage currencies, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features action-incitory features, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features limitations of, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also blockchain attestation services) hashing and timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection digital cryptography, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 digital divide, defining, Digital Divide of Bitcoin digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution DIYweathermodeling, Community Supercomputing DNAnexus, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Dogecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Scandals and Public Perception DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems DriveShare, DAOs and DACs dynamic redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) E education (see learning and literacy) Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models EMR (electronic medical record) system, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage Ethereum, Crowdfunding, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine-Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity ExperimentalResultscoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin F Fairlay, Bitcoin Prediction Markets fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation financial services, Regulatory Status, Financial Services-Financial Services, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity, Government Regulation Fitbit, Personal Thinking Blockchains, Blockchain Health Research Commons, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Florincoin, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel Folding@Home, DAOs and DACs, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing franculates, Blockchain Government freedom of speech, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel (see also decentralized DNS system) Freicoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable fundraising (see crowdfunding) futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets G GBIcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives), Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable Gems, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Dapps Genecoin, Blockchain Genomics Genomecoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Genomic Data Commons, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomic sequencing, Blockchain Genomics 2.0: Industrialized All-Human-Scale Sequencing Solution-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin GenomicResearchcoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomics, consumer, Blockchain Genomics-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Git, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation GitHub, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief GoCoin, Financial Services GoToLunchcoin, Terminology and Concepts governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance decentralized services, Decentralized Governance Services-Decentralized Governance Services dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personalized governance services, Blockchain Government random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections societal maturity impact of blockchain governance, Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance government regulation, Regulatory Status, Government Regulation-Government Regulation Gridcoin, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin H hashing, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Technical Challenges Hayek, Friedrich, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable, Conclusion, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology health, Blockchain Health-Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup as demurrage currency, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features doctor vendor RFP services, Doctor Vendor RFP Services and Assurance Contracts health notary services, Blockchain Health Notary health research commons , Blockchain Health Research Commons health spending, Healthcoin healthcare decision making and advocacy, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personal health record storage, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage virus bank and seed vault backup, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Healthcoin, Healthcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable I identity authentication, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records Indiegogo, Crowdfunding, Dapps industry scandals, Scandals and Public Perception infrastructure needs and issues, Technical Challenges inheritance gifts, Smart Contracts intellectual property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also digital art) Internet administration, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Internet Archive, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Personal Thinking Blockchains Internet censorship prevention (see Decentralized DNS system) Intuit Quickbooks, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin IP protection, Hashing Plus Timestamping IPFS project, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation J Johnston, David, Blockchain Technology Could Be Used in the Administration of All Quanta Journalcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Judobaby, Crowdfunding justice applications for censorship-resistant organizational models, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models-Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also digital art, blockchain attestation services) digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records freedom of speech/anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance (see also governance) Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also decentralized DNS) K Kickstarter, Crowdfunding, Community Supercomputing Kipochi, Blockchain Neutrality, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Koinify, Crowdfunding, Dapps Kraken, Financial Services L latency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Technical Challenges, Technical Challenges, Scandals and Public Perception LaZooz, Dapps, Campuscoin, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Learncoin, Learncoin learning and literacy, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges learning contract exchanges, Learning Contract Exchanges Ledra Capital, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List legal implications crowdfunding, Crowdfunding smart contracts, Smart Contracts lending, trustless, Smart Property Lighthouse, Crowdfunding limitations, Limitations-Overall: Decentralization Trends Likely to Persist business model challenges, Business Model Challenges government regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation personal records privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records scandals and public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections Litecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Technical Challenges literacy (see learning and literacy) LTBcoin, Wallet Development Projects, Currency, Token, Tokenizing M M2M/IoT infrastructure, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-The Blockchain Is Not for Every Situation, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology Maidsafe, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Technical Challenges Manna, Crowdfunding marriage, blockchain recorded, Decentralized Governance Services Mastercoin, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects mechanics of cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works Medici, Financial Services mega master blockchain list, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List Melotic, Crowdfunding, Wallet Development Projects merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant payment fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Dapps, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services, Technical Challenges MetaDisk, DAOs and DACs mindfiles, Personal Thinking Blockchains MIT Bitcoin Project, Campuscoin Monegraph, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection money (see currency) MOOCs (massive open online courses), Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Moroz, Tatiana, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention multicurrency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable N Nakamoto, Satoshi, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Nationcoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable notary chains, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure notary services, Hashing Plus Timestamping, Blockchain Health Notary NSA surveillance, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel NXT, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects O offline wallets, Technical Challenges OneName, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Identity Verification OneWallet, Wallet Development Projects online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection-Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Open Assets, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Open Transactions, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects OpenBazaar, Dapps, Government Regulation Ostel, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel P passports, Decentralized Governance Services PayPal, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems, Financial Services, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models peer-to-peer lending, Financial Services Peercoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency personal cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity personal data rights, Blockchain Genomics personal mindfile blockchains, Personal Thinking Blockchains personal thinking chains, Personal Thinking Blockchains-Personal Thinking Blockchains physical asset keys, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property plagiarism detection/avoidance, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Precedent, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Terminology and Concepts prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations, Decentralized Governance Services, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Predictious, Bitcoin Prediction Markets predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records private key, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Proof of Existence, Proof of Existence-Proof of Existence proof of stake, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges proof of work, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges property ownership, Smart Property property registration, Decentralized Governance Services public documents registries, Decentralized Governance Services public health, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception public/private key cryptography, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101-Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 publishing, academic, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin pull technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity push technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity R random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections Realcoin, Relation to Fiat Currency redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation regulatory status, Regulatory Status reputation vouching, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Researchcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin REST APIs, Technical Challenges Ripple, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Relation to Fiat Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Ripple Labs, Financial Services Roadcoin, Blockchain Government S Saldo.mx, Blockchain Neutrality scandals, Scandals and Public Perception science, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Sean's Outpost, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost secret messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine security issues, Technical Challenges self-bootstrapped organizations, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations self-directing assets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets self-enforced code, Smart Property self-sufficiency, Smart Contracts SETI@home, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing size and bandwidth, Technical Challenges smart contracts, Smart Contracts-Smart Contracts, Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence automatic markets and tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets Counterparty, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs Dapps, Dapps-Dapps DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations Ethereum, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine increasingly autonomous, Dapps, DAOs, DACs, and DASs: Increasingly Autonomous Smart Contracts-Automatic Markets and Tradenets smart literacy contracts, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection smartwatch, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Snowden, Edward, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models social contracts, Smart Contracts social network currencies, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies Stellar, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs stock market, Financial Services Storj, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Dapps, Technical Challenges Stripe, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Swancoin, Smart Property swaps exchange, Financial Services Swarm, Crowdfunding, Dapps Swarm (Ethereum), Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Swarmops, Crowdfunding T Tatianacoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Tendermint, Technical Challenges Tera Exchange, Financial Services terminology, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts 37Coins, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief throughput, Technical Challenges timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations titling, Decentralized Governance Services tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets transaction fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Tribecoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption trustless lending, Smart Property Truthcoin, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Turing completeness, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Twister, Dapps Twitter, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection U Uber, Government Regulation unbanked/underbanked markets, Blockchain Neutrality usability issues, Technical Challenges V value chain composition, How a Cryptocurrency Works versioning issues, Technical Challenges Virtual Notary, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit voting and prediction, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets W wallet APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs wallet companies, Wallet Development Projects wallet software, How a Cryptocurrency Works wasted resources, Technical Challenges Wayback Machine, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation Wedbush Securities, Financial Services Whatevercoin, Terminology and Concepts WikiLeaks, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Wikinomics, Community Supercomputing World Citizen project, Decentralized Governance Services X Xapo, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Z Zennet Supercomputer, Community Supercomputing Zooko's Triangle, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity About the Author Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contemporary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, millennium bug, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

On the basis of this, Turing4 designed an electromechanical device – called ‘bombe’ because of the terrible noise it produced – that could predict some of the daily settings of the Enigma machines by replicating the actions of several Enigma machines wired together. This idea of a machine (the bombe) effectively simulating other machines (the Enigma) is central to computer theory. When a machine can simulate every other machine this is called ‘Turing complete’. We saw how Babbage’s Analytical Engine was the first ‘Turing complete’ machine in the world. Our modern computers are also Turing complete. But to get from the Analytical Engine to modern computers required a giant leap in the early 1940s, as the British and the Americans fought the Germans in the Atlantic. Turing’s bombe cannot be considered a precursor of modern computer architecture. However, there was another machine designed and built at Bletchley Park that could.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. 20Rebeck, J. (1994), ‘Synthetic Self-Replicating Molecules’, in: Scientific American, July 1994, pp. 48–55. 21Wolfram had conjectured that Rule 110 was Turing complete. Proof that Rule 110 is Turing complete was published by Matthew Cook. The proof is found in: Wolfram, S. (2002), A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media. 22Or a transition to another state of dynamic equilibrium. In this case we have a ‘bifurcation’ point beyond which the system transits unpredictably to another attractor. An interesting speculation about such a mechanism applied in evolution was made by the late evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002). His ‘punctuated equilibria hypothesis’ is a description of abrupt phase transitions on the scale of an ecosystem. 23There exist 88 possible unique elementary cellular automata, but only Rule 110 has been proven to be Turing complete so far. It is possible that other unique cellular automata are also Turing complete, but more complex. 24Baron-Cohen, S. (1997), Mindblindness: an essay on autism and theory of mind, New York: MIT Press. 25Willingham, E. (2012), ‘Is Autism an “Epidemic” or are we just noticing more people who have it?’

Cellular automata are patterns of 0s and 1s that evolve step-by-step according to a simple set of rules. A new pattern, or ‘generation’, of a cellular automaton emerges after each step. Points on the new patterns will be either 0 or 1 depending on their current value as well as the value of their neighbours. In the early 1980s, the English mathematician Stephen Wolfram conjectured that a particular cellular automaton called ‘Rule 110’ might be ‘Turing complete’,21 a conjecture that was later proved by Matthew Cook. ‘Turing complete’ means that Rule 110 is capable of universal computation, i.e. any calculation or computer program can be simulated using this automaton. What is particularly interesting about Rule 110 is its behaviour on the boundary between stability and chaos. It is neither stable nor completely chaotic. Localised structures appear and interact in various complicated looking ways.


pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

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Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, We are the 99%

Of all the possible rules for a 2D CA, most yield simple behavior; most initial conditions quickly stabilize or grow unbounded. By avoiding uninteresting CAs, Conway was also avoiding Wolfram’s Class 1 and Class 2 behavior, and probably Class 3 as well. If we believe Wolfram’s Principle of Computational Equivalence, we expect GoL to be in Class 4, and it is. The Game of Life was proved Turing complete in 1982 (and again, independently, in 1983). Since then, several people have constructed GoL patterns that implement a Turing machine or another machine known to be Turing complete. Example 7-3. Many named patterns are available in portable file formats. Modify Life.py to parse one of these formats and initialize the grid. Realism Stable patterns in GoL are hard not to notice, especially the ones that move. It is natural to think of them as persistent entities, but remember that a CA is made of cells; there is no such thing as a toad or a loaf.

Wolfram’s demonstration of complex behavior in simple cellular automata is more surprising—and disturbing, at least to a deterministic world view. So far I have focused on scientific challenges to determinism, but the longest-standing objection is the conflict between determinism and human free will. Complexity science provides a possible resolution of this apparent conflict; we come back to this topic in Free Will. Structures The behavior of Class 4 CAs is even more surprising. Several 1-D CAs, most notably Rule 110, are Turing complete, which means that they can compute any computable function. This property, also called universality, was proved by Matthew Cook in 1998. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_110. Figure 6-5 shows what Rule 110 looks like with an initial condition of a single cell and 100 time steps. At this time scale, it is not apparent that anything special is going on. There are some regular patterns but also some features that are hard to characterize.

The Turing machine is useful because it is possible to characterize the set of functions that can be computed by a Turing machine, which is what Turing did. Functions in this set are called Turing computable. To say that a Turing machine can compute any Turing-computable function is a tautology: it is true by definition. But Turing computability is more interesting than that. It turns out that just about every reasonable model of computation anyone has come up with is Turing complete; that is, it can compute exactly the same set of functions as the Turing machine. Some of these models, like lambda calculus, are very different from a Turing machine, so their equivalence is surprising. This observation led to the Church-Turing thesis, which is essentially a definition of what it means to be computable. The thesis is that Turing computability is the right (or at least natural) definition of computability, because it describes the power of such a diverse collection of models of computation.


pages: 210 words: 62,771

Turing's Vision: The Birth of Computer Science by Chris Bernhardt

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, British Empire, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Conway's Game of Life, discrete time, Douglas Hofstadter, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture

So did Minsky who looked at the system with the help of a computer. In fact, this question still remains unanswered. In 1961, Minsky showed how any Turing machine can be emulated by a tag system. This means that given any algorithm, there is a tag system that computes it. This fact is sometimes expressed in the literature by saying that tag systems are Turing complete. It has even been shown that you only ever need to consider systems that drop the first two letters — 2-tag systems — to get Turing completeness.10 Given an algorithm, we can in theory design a Turing machine that implements it, and then convert to a tag system. However, the resulting tag system is usually extremely complicated. It would be nice to construct the tag system without first constructing a Turing machine. This has been done in certain cases. We will look at one particular example, an interesting tag system that was found by Liesbeth De Mol as part of her PhD. dissertation in 2007.11 It is a very simple system that calculates the modified Collatz function.

Minsky studied Post’s tag systems and was able to construct one that simulated a universal Turing machine. Consequently, anything a Turing machine, or computer, can do a tag system can do — at least in theory.4 When we looked at one-dimensional cellular automata, we made the observation that some of the rules could be considered as algorithms for computations. Surprisingly, they can also simulate universal Turing machines. Stephen Wolfram conjectured that Rule 110 was Turing complete. This is one of the rules that shows a mixture of chaos and stability depending on the starting tape. For some starting tapes the rule produces very simple output. For other starting tapes the output looks chaotic. Wolfram’s conjecture was that Rule 110 should be able to do any computation whatsoever. Here is the rule: Matthew Cook, who was working at Wolfram Research at the time, managed to prove that Wolfram was correct.

It was not a major part of his dissertation and he never studied them in detail. (It would be Post who followed up and proved the major results concerning oracles in the 1940s.) But these machines have also proved to be an important part of theoretical computer science. As Robert Soare has commented, you can think of your laptop being a Turing machine and the oracle as being the web. After Turing completed his Ph.D., von Neumann offered him a position as his assistant, but Turing decided not to accept and instead returned to England. During the time that Turing was working on his Ph.D. another breakthrough paper was written. This was on logic and switching circuits and was written by Claude Shannon. Claude Shannon In 1936, Claude Shannon graduated from the University of Michigan with two undergraduate degrees; one in electrical engineering and one in mathematics.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

In 2013, attention started to shift to the “blockchain 2.0” applications: uses of the same technology that underlies Bitcoin's decentralization and security to other applications, ranging from domain name registration to financial contracts to crowdfunding and even games. The core insight behind my own platform, Ethereum, was that a Turing-complete programming language, embedded into the protocol at the base layer, could be used as the ultimate abstraction, allowing developers to build applications with any kind of business logic or purpose while benefiting from the blockchain's core properties. Around the same time, systems such as the decentralized storage platform InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) began to emerge, and cryptographers came out with powerful new tools that could be used in combination with blockchain technology to add privacy, particularly zk-SNARKs, or zero-knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive ARgument Knowledge. The combination of Turing-complete blockchain computing, non-blockchain decentralized networks using similar cryptographic technologies, and the integration of blockchains with advanced cryptography was what I chose to call “crypto 2.0”—a title that may be ambitious, but which I feel best captures the spirit of the movement in its widest form.

Oracles are data sources that send actionable information to smart contracts. 7. Smart contracts are not for developers only. The next generation of smart contracts will include user-friendly entry points, like a Web browser. That will allow any business user to configure smart contracts via a graphical user interface, or perhaps a text-based language input. 8. Smart contracts are safe. Even in the Ethereum implementation, smart contracts run as quasi-Turing complete programs. This means there is finality in their execution, and they do not risk looping infinitely. 9. Smart contract have a wide range of applications. Like HTML, the applications are limited by whoever writes them. Smart contracts are ideal for interacting with real-world assets, smart property, Internet of Things (IoT), and financial services instruments. They are not limited to money movements.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Ask his legion of followers about Ethereum, and they’ll tell you it’s a “blockchain-based, arbitrary-state, Turing-complete scripting platform.”1 It has attracted IBM, Samsung, UBS, Microsoft, and the Chinese auto giant Wanxiang, and an army of the smartest software developers in the world, all of whom think that Ethereum may be the “planetary scale computer” that changes everything.2 When Buterin explained “arbitrary-state, Turing-complete” to us, we got a glimpse of his mind. Listening to music is very different from reading a book or calculating the day’s revenues and expenses, and yet you can do all three on your smart phone, because your smart phone’s operating system is Turing complete. That means that it can accommodate any other language that is Turing complete. So innovators can build just about any digital app imaginable on Ethereum—apps that perform very dissimilar tasks, from smart contracts and computational resource marketplaces to complex financial instruments and distributed governance models.

See Design principles ShapeShift, 260 Shapiro, Melanie, 287 Shareholders, 11, 78–79, 100, 107, 125–28 Sharing economy, 17–18, 134–35, 187 Sidechains, 60 Silbert, Barry, 86, 284 Silk Road, 9, 276 Simplified payment verification (SPV), 50 Simpson, Arianna, 287 Skogstad, Anselm, 240 Skynet, 273 Slack, 89 Smart contracts, 101–3, 109, 126, 142, 219 aid groups and, 190 DApps, 120, 121 definition of, 101–2 MFIs and, 192 multisig authentication, 103–5 ownership rights and, 46–48 for political reputations, 210–11 Smart devices, 150–54 economic payoffs, 161–64 future developments, 164–67 hacking your future, 168–69 twelve disruptions, 156–61 Smart homes, 161, 275 Smart locks, 117 Smart pills, 151, 158 Smartwallet, 83, 131, 153 Snow Crash (Stephenson), 38, 315n Snowden, Edward, 243 Social contracts, 99 Social energy, 148–50 Social production, 129–32 Social Security, 80, 176 Societal change, 257–58 Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), 42, 59, 262 Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC), 229 Song, Dawn, 288 Sony Music Entertainment, 229, 230 Soul of a New Machine, The (Kidder), 150 Spain, Agora Voting, 218–19 Spam, 34, 39, 255, 321n Spotify, 88, 229, 230, 239, 319n Srinivasan, Balaji, 178–79 Stakeholders, 262 Standards networks, 304–6 Stark, Elizabeth, 288 Steiner, Peter, 3 Stellar, 32, 37, 170–71 Stellar Development Foundation, 170–71 Stephenson, Neal, 315 Stiglitz, Joseph, 35–36, 57, 107 Storing value, in financial services, 61–62, 64 Storj, 95, 120 Streaming music, 229, 230 Streaming open and trusted data, 208–9 Streamium, 233 Student debt, 248–49 SUber, 165–67 Subledger, 73–74 Surveillance, 25, 42, 44–45, 212, 243–44, 274–75 Swan, Melanie, 110, 204, 224, 247–49 Sybil attacks, 36, 37, 315n Systemic risk, 59 Szabo, Nick, 4–5, 37, 101–2, 255 Talking Heads, 227, 228 “Taps,” 146–47 Tapscott, Bob, 261, 268 Taylor, Simon, 75 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), 43, 50 Technology democracy and, 212–14 as implementation challenge, 254–58 Termen, Lev Sergeyevich, 253–54, 277 Terms of third-party engagement, 234 Tezos, 95 Theory of the firm, 92–93, 100, 105–6, 121, 319n Theremin, 253–54 Thiel, Peter, 93–94 360-degree deals, 229 Ticoll, David, 25, 109, 134 Tinsley, Michelle, 155 Title registration, 8, 19–20, 51, 188–89, 193–95, 198 Todd, Peter, 133, 268 Tools of abundance, 178–79 Top-down management, 89, 92, 106 Tor, 263 Torvalds, Linus, 88, 282 Totalitarianism, 34, 52, 141, 145 TradeNet, 165 Trading volume, 256 Transactional capacity, 255 Transaction costs, 92–93, 95–101, 107, 142, 193, 269 Transparency, 10, 11, 298 aid groups and, 190–91 design principles and, 30, 39, 41, 44, 45 financial services and, 66–67, 77 government and political institutions, 205, 210, 296 MFIs and, 192 music and, 232–33, 236 Transportation, 137, 156–57, 164–67, 206 Treat, David, 70 Triple-entry accounting, 77, 78–79, 180 Trump, Donald, 210 Trust achieving in the digital age, 10–11 costs of (re-)building, 107–9, 143 networked integrity, 30–33 in political institutions, 201–2 Trust Barometer, 10 Trusted data, 208–9 Trusted systems. See Walled gardens Trust protocol, 4–6, 58, 309–11 Turing completeness, 278 22Hertz, 237–38 Twister, 246 Twoway peg, 60 Uber, 17, 118, 134, 135, 164–65, 270 Ulbricht, Ross William, 9 Unbanked and underbanked, 170–72, 175–78 Unemployment, 173 UNESCO, 249 UNICEF, 189–90 Unicoin, 190 Unique node list, 32 Universal Music, 229, 230 Usage data analytics, 233–34 Utility grids, 145–50 Value as incentive, 35–39, 202 Value innovation, 60 Value templates, 232 Vavilov, Valery, 261, 268 “Vectors of disruption,” 163 Vegetabile, Andrew, 267 Venture capitalists (VCs), 284, 287 Ver, Roger, 263, 284 VeriCoin, 266 VerifyID, 116 Verisart, 133 Vertical search, 97 Virtru Corporation, 40 Virtual private networks (VPNs), 118 Visa, 187–88 Vogogo, 72 Voorhees, Erik, 56, 81–82, 260, 284 Voter ID fraud, 217 Voter intimidation, 216–17 Voter turnout, 200–201 Voting, 198, 202, 214–15, 218–19 electronic (e-voting), 198, 215–17 Waldemeyer, Moritz, 228 Wales, Jimmy, 282 Walled gardens, 13, 70, 265 Warner Music Group, 229 Wassenaar Arrangement, 243–44 Waste management, in IoTs, 157 Watchdog networks, 303–4 Water management, in IoTs, 157 Wealth of Networks, The (Benkler), 277 Wealth tax, 173 WeatherDApp, 124–25 Weathernet, 123–24 WeatherNodes, 123–25, 147, 158 Western Union, 20, 56, 115, 185–86, 187–88 WhatsApp, 184 White, Derek, 68–69 Wikinomics, 128, 137 Wikipedia, 12, 129, 130–32, 282 Wilkins, Carolyn, 9, 294, 295–96 Williamson, Oliver, 93–94, 100, 105–6, 320n Windowing strategy, 235–36 Winklevoss, Tyler, 175, 255–56, 301 Winter, Alex, 21 Wisdom of the crowds, 84–85, 221 WISeKey, 11, 14, 154, 204 Women leaders in blockchain, 287–89 Wong, Pindar, 300, 305 Wood, Gavin, 119 World Bank, 193, 295, 300 World Economic Forum (WEF), 175, 270, 306 World Health Organization, 281 World Trade Organization, 281 World Wide Ledger, 6–8, 75–77, 95–96, 142 World Wide Web Consortium, 271, 299 Wozniak, Steve, 129, 274 Wright, Aaron, 103, 258, 264, 265, 293 YouTube, 230, 234, 235, 236 Zeall, Anson, 217 Zelaya, Manuel, 193 Zero to One (Thiel), 94 Zimbabwe, voter intimidation, 216–17 Zipcar, 134, 137, 187 Zyskind, Guy, 27–28 Looking for more?


pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

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business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

It was pretty successful, and as our typesetting equipment became more capable, I also did a language for drawing figures and diagrams, which was called PIC. PIC started out only able to draw, but it rapidly became clear that it needed arithmetic expressions to handle computations on coordinates and the like, and it needed variables to store results, and it needed loops to create repetitive structures. All of these were added, but each one was kind of awkward and shaky. In the end, PIC was quite powerful, a Turing-complete language, but one wouldn’t want to write a lot of code in it. How do you define success in terms of your work? Brian: One of the most rewarding things is to have someone say that they used your language or tool and found that it helped them get their job done better. That’s really satisfying. Of course it’s sometimes followed by a report of problems or of missing features, but even those are valuable.

Brian: Perhaps, but the further from C, the less likely it would have succeeded. It’s a difficult balance, and I think he did a very good job. To what degree can you pursue backward compatibility versus trying to introduce something new and revolutionary? Brian: That’s a dilemma in absolutely every field, and I don’t see any way out of it. You mentioned that a lot of little languages started adding features and becoming Turing-complete and losing their conceptual purity. Are there design principles to apply if you’re taking a little language and making it more general purpose without losing its way? Brian: I guess. I remember saying that on a variety of occasions, and I often wondered how much of it was a parochial view. That is, all of the languages I had touched had this property and maybe nothing else did. Perhaps I was just seeing my own problem.

This ongoing struggle will be made easier if the language has a good extensibility mechanism (see the next item). Extensibility The language should have a well-defined, general-purpose mechanism whereby new functionality can be added, ideally with little or no impact on the syntax of the language. For example, a database query language might provide a facility for adding user-defined functions written in a separate Turing-complete programming language. Abstraction The language should not expose or depend on aspects of a specific implementation. For example, eliminating duplicates from a set of values should be specified in terms of an abstract concept such as a “primary key” rather than a physical strategy such as a “unique index.” (This was a flaw in some of the earliest versions of SQL.) In the database world, this concept is sometimes called data independence.


pages: 52 words: 13,257

Bitcoin Internals: A Technical Guide to Bitcoin by Chris Clark

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bitcoin, fiat currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, transaction costs, Turing complete

In python, the script would look something like this (bracketed names represent hard-coded values in the script): def scriptSig(): return <sig>, <pubKey> def scriptPubKey(txHash): sig, pubKey = scriptSig() return (hash(pubKey) == <pubKeyHash> and verifySig(sig, pubKey, txHash)) The parameter txHash is a hash of some parts of the transaction, and this hash is the message that was signed to generate the signature. This ensures that these parameters of the transaction can not change without a new signature. The script in Bitcoin looks quite a bit different though, because Bitcoin uses its own custom scripting language. 7.3 Scripting The scripting language used in Bitcoin is a stack-based language similar to Forth. It is intentionally not Turing-complete so that it can be executed without concern for whether the script will hang. It works like a reverse polish notation calculator. The script is read from left to right. When a value is encountered in the script, it is pushed onto a stack. When an operator is encountered in the script, some values are popped off the stack, the operator is applied to these values, and the result is pushed onto the stack.

Practical OCaml by Joshua B. Smith

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cellular automata, Debian, domain-specific language, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, John Conway, Paul Graham, slashdot, text mining, Turing complete, type inference, web application, Y2K

In turn, these smaller components are less complicated, and (theoretically) easier to debug. Less Code There are several reasons why this is true, and one of the biggest is that functional languages are often more terse than their structured counterparts. This terseness does not hamper their expressiveness, and because functional languages are just as Turing-complete as their structured brethren. Expressiveness is more than simple Turing completeness; the functional programming style encourages short functions that perform simple actions. Less code is also a direct result of more general modularity. The ability to decompose problems into smaller parts is dependent on the ability to utilize those parts. Higher-order functions are a very powerful way in which those parts can be used (often referred to as “bottom-up” programming).

Random BMP 620Xch27final.qxd 9/22/06 1:22 AM Page 389 CHAPTER 27 ■ PROCESSING BINARY FILES Figure 27-3. xor BMP Figure 27-4. and BMP 389 620Xch27final.qxd 390 9/22/06 1:22 AM Page 390 CHAPTER 27 ■ PROCESSING BINARY FILES Conway’s Game of Life In 1970, a British mathematician named John Conway created the field of cellular automata when he published the first article on the subject. Conway’s “game” isn’t so much a game played by people as it is a mathematical experiment. The game is an example of emergent behavior because there are only four simple rules that generate an amazing amount of complexity. Conway’s game is also Turing Complete, which means that (given the right initial conditions) the game is as powerful as any “real” computer. The game itself is represented (in its original version) by a matrix of cells. These cells can be either alive or dead, as determined by the cells’ neighbors and the rules of the game. This representation of cells is why Conway’s game provides an excellent graphical target to shoot for. There are only four rules in the game: • A cell will die if it has fewer than two living neighbors. • A cell will die if it has more than three living neighbors. • A living cell stays the same if it has two or three living neighbors. • A dead cell with three living neighbors becomes a living cell.


pages: 372 words: 101,174

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed by Ray Kurzweil

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, brain emulation, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer age, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, George Gilder, Google Earth, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, linear programming, Loebner Prize, mandelbrot fractal, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, self-driving car, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Turing and Alonzo Church (1903–1995), his former professor, went on to develop the Church-Turing thesis, which states that if a problem that can be presented to a Turing machine is not solvable by it, it is also not solvable by any machine, following natural law. Even though the Turing machine has only a handful of commands and processes only one bit at a time, it can compute anything that any computer can compute. Another way to say this is that any machine that is “Turing complete” (that is, that has equivalent capabilities to a Turing machine) can compute any algorithm (any procedure that we can define). A block diagram of a Turing machine with a head that reads and writes the tape and an internal program consisting of state transitions. “Strong” interpretations of the Church-Turing thesis propose an essential equivalence between what a human can think or know and what is computable by a machine.

Because the Turing machine (and therefore any computer) is capable of basing its future course of action on results it has already computed, it is capable of making decisions and modeling arbitrarily complex hierarchies of information. In 1939 Turing designed an electronic calculator called Bombe that helped decode messages that had been encrypted by the Nazi Enigma coding machine. By 1943, an engineering team influenced by Turing completed what is arguably the first computer, the Colossus, that enabled the Allies to continue decoding messages from more sophisticated versions of Enigma. The Bombe and Colossus were designed for a single task and could not be reprogrammed for a different one. But they performed this task brilliantly and are credited with having enabled the Allies to overcome the three-to-one advantage that the German Luftwaffe enjoyed over the British Royal Air Force and win the crucial Battle of Britain, as well as to continue anticipating Nazi tactics throughout the war.


pages: 489 words: 148,885

Accelerando by Stross, Charles

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call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, cognitive dissonance, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, dumpster diving, Extropian, finite state, Flynn Effect, glass ceiling, gravity well, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, packet switching, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, South China Sea, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, The Chicago School, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, web of trust, Y2K

He grabs one of her small breasts, feeling very brutish and primitive. Naked. He's not sure Pamela ever let him see her fully naked: She thought skin was more sexy when it was covered. Annette squeezes him again, and he stiffens. "More!" By the time they finish, he's aching, and she shows him how to use the bidet. Everything is crystal clear, and her touch is electrifying. While she showers, he sits on the toilet seat lid and rants about Turing-completeness as an attribute of company law, about cellular automata and the blind knapsack problem, about his work on solving the Communist Central Planning problem using a network of interlocking unmanned companies. About the impending market adjustment in integrity, the sinister resurrection of the recording music industry, and the still-pressing need to dismantle Mars. When she steps out of the shower, he tells her that he loves her.

Owning slaves is legal – the fiction is that the owner has an option hedged on the indentured laborer's future output, with interest payments that grow faster than the unfortunate victim can pay them off – and companies are legal entities. If Amber sells herself into slavery to this company, she will become a slave and the company will be legally liable for her actions and upkeep. The rest of the legal instrument – about ninety percent of it, in fact – is a set of self-modifying corporate mechanisms coded in a variety of jurisdictions that permit Turing-complete company constitutions, and which act as an ownership shell for the slavery contract. At the far end of the corporate shell game is a trust fund of which Amber is the prime beneficiary and shareholder. When she reaches the age of majority, she'll acquire total control over all the companies in the network and can dissolve her slave contract; until then, the trust fund (which she essentially owns) oversees the company that owns her (and keeps it safe from hostile takeover bids).


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

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3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

You could have programmable money and you could have programmable smart contracts that extended Bitcoin into something beyond just a money system – into a kind of a replacement for the current way the internet works. But he felt that there were a lot of concerns from scalability to security, so he purposefully neutered the scripting language of Bitcoin, so as to not enable this. We call it state and Turing completeness. ‘So, it’s been five years, we’ve learned a huge amount of lessons, there’s been a lot of overlay protocols, other attempts to increase the functionality of Bitcoin. What we did with Ethereum is we kind of unified a lot of the 2.0 actors and put them into a big bucket and we’re building a completely new block chain and we’re building a completely new scripting language that basically adds in those missing features.


pages: 1,201 words: 233,519

Coders at Work by Peter Seibel

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Ada Lovelace, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, George Gilder, glass ceiling, HyperCard, information retrieval, loose coupling, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

I was really thinking of TeX as something that the more programming it had in it, the less it was doing its real mission of typesetting. When I put in the calculation of prime numbers into the TeX manual I was not thinking of this as the way to use TeX. I was thinking, “Oh, by the way, look at this: dogs can stand on their hind legs and TeX can calculate prime numbers.” Seibel: But people use the fact that it's a Turing-complete programming language to do typesetting-related computations. If it wasn't Turing-complete they would be unable to do those things. Knuth: Yeah, that's right. I wrote a programming language for simulation in the '60s that I had to work hard to kill because it had a lot of users, but then when Simula came out I liked Simula better and I told people to stop using my SOL language. Mostly I don't consider that I have great talent for language design.


pages: 416 words: 106,582

This Will Make You Smarter: 150 New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking by John Brockman

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23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, biofilm, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, data acquisition, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, hive mind, impulse control, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, mandelbrot fractal, market design, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, open economy, place-making, placebo effect, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, randomized controlled trial, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Schrödinger's Cat, security theater, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Catalog

For instance, in the Game of Life, you can distinguish “still lives,” small patterns that are stable and unchanging; “oscillators,” patterns that perpetually cycle through a fixed sequence of states; “spaceships,” patterns that move across the grid (such as gliders); “guns,” stationary patterns that send out an incessant stream of spaceships; and “puffer trains,” patterns that move across the grid leaving debris behind. As you begin to form these and other concepts, the chaos on the screen gradually becomes more comprehensible. Developing concepts that carve nature at its joints is the first crucial step toward understanding, not only in the Game of Life but in science and in ordinary life as well. At a more advanced level, we discover that the Game of Life is Turing complete. That is, it’s possible to build a pattern that acts like a Universal Turing Machine (a computer that can simulate any other computer). Thus, any computable function could be implemented in the Game of Life—including perhaps a function that describes a universe like the one we inhabit. It’s also possible to build a universal constructor in the Game of Life, a pattern that can build many types of complex objects, including copies of itself.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

In his view, its core protocol was too clunky for software developers to create robust yet user-friendly application programming interfaces (APIs). All the secondary protocols being built upon it were similarly narrow. He was essentially saying it was like DOS, before Windows was created. What if he built an entirely independent protocol and blockchain that could sustain any kind of application written in any programming language, one that was, as developers say, “Turing complete”? What if it could support any decentralized service—currency-trading systems, smart contracts, shareholder registrations, voting systems, DApps, DACs, DAOs, whatever—and let developers construct as pretty an interface as they felt their market needed? The solution he came up with quickly took the cryptocurrency world by storm: a completely redesigned, fully versatile, decentralized blockchain that could function as an open platform on which all manner of contracts and decentralized applications could be installed.


pages: 999 words: 194,942

Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand

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Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, finite state, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

Code can be executed repeatedly in a loop; or, code can be grouped as a unit and given a name as a function; or, using conditionals, the same code can do different things in different circumstances. It should be clear that some languages offer more powerful means of abstraction than others. Imagine for a moment a programming language without loops. Such a language might be usable, but unrolling all loops by hand would be incredibly tedious. Similarly, a language without functions might be able to do anything any other Turing-complete language can do, but code would have to be repeated over and over. In short, when a language lacks proper means of abstraction, the result is boilerplate and repetition, both signs of fundamental weaknesses in that language. Macros are powerful because they give you a way to define entirely new levels of abstraction within the language itself. Macros are the ultimate tool for eliminating boilerplate and growing a programming language up to meet your needs.


pages: 647 words: 43,757

Types and Programming Languages by Benjamin C. Pierce

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Albert Einstein, combinatorial explosion, experimental subject, finite state, Henri Poincaré, recommendation engine, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference, Y Combinator

Suppose we want to construct a similar type system for a language combining booleans (for the sake of brevity, we’ll ignore numbers in this chapter) with the primitives of the pure lambda-calculus. That is, we want to introduce typing rules for variables, abstractions, and applications that (a) maintain type safety—i.e., satisfy the type preservation and progress theorems, 8.3.2 and 8.3.3—and (b) are not too conservative—i.e., they should assign types to most of the programs we actually care about writing. Of course, since the pure lambda-calculus is Turing complete, there is no hope of giving an exact type analysis for these primitives. For example, there is no way of reliably determining whether a program like if <long and tricky computation> then true else (λx.x) yields a boolean or a function without actually running the long and tricky computation and seeing whether it yields true or false. But, in general, the The system studied in this chapter is the simply typed lambda-calculus (Figure 9-1) with booleans (8-1).


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

As those representations become more closely glued to the direct perception of environments (as for augmented reality, for example), their capacity to engender committed interpretations for Users will prove irresistible to various fundamentalisms (see below). The machinic image is qualified by many little sinkholes between the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real, and at a global scale of billions of Users, the interfacial image is also partially a function of sheer machinic quantity. With the comparatively instantaneous adoption of mobile devices (a Turing complete processor + camera + homing tether + telephonic voice relay), we have seen an explosion in the absolute volume of mechanical images of and in the world, dwarfing the total sum produced before the mobile phone appeared in our hands. Unlike images of the painting-photographic-cinematic era, these images do not pass into an archive only after their practical life is passed; rather, through various Apps, images are produced through the medium of the archival database itself, socialized through the archive, and assigned searchable metadata through the archive.


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Haskell Programming from first principles by Christopher Allen, Julie Moronuki

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c2.com, en.wikipedia.org, natural language processing, spaced repetition, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference, web application, Y Combinator

This possibility for unlimited nested sentences is recursive and enables the limitless expressibility therein. Recursion is a means of expressing code that must take an indefinite number of steps to return a result. But the lambda calculus does not appear on the surface to have any means of recursion, because of the anonymity of expressions. How do you call something without a name? Being able to write recursive functions, though, is essential to Turing completeness. We use a combinator – known as the Y combinator or fixed-point combinator – to write recursive functions in the lambda calculus. Haskell has native recursion ability based on the same principle as the Y combinator. It is important to have a solid understanding of the behavior of recursive functions. In later chapters, we will see that, in fact, it is not often necessary to write our own recursive functions, as many standard higher-order functions have built-in recursion.