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air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, Chance favours the prepared mind, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
Mio Cohen imposed order on chaos by developing a filing system that allowed me to actually locate and use the thousands of documents and records I had amassed. Jordan Hayes, the best system administrator in the world, supported my requests for domain names and Web hosting with patience and humor. Jackie Cheong loaned me her quiet office so I could write; her husband, Curt Hardyck, denied me the office wifi password so that I actually would write. Jason Scott of textfiles.com offered invaluable insights, guidance, introductions, and feedback. Steven Gibb, the executor of Joybubbles’s estate, graciously provided access to Joybubbles’s (né Joe Engressia’s) old tapes and documents. Sam Etler, Steph Kerman, and Mark Cuccia became my go-to resources for technical questions about the telephone network of the 1960s and ’70s. Andy Couturier of the Opening and Jane Brunette of flamingseed.com provided invaluable help and coaching with my writing and the book’s organization.
Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: The Definitive Edition, volume I (Boston: Addison Wesley, 2005), p. 1–1. 119 “Through the years”: Engressia speech, 1974. 119 “His sister recalls”: Toni Engressia speaking on the Joybubbles memorial telephone conference, September 16, 2007; “emergency room”: Joybubbles, “Stories and Stuff,” May 8, 2004, at http://audio.textfiles.com/shows/storiesandstuff/joybubbles_-_stories_and_stuff_-_20040508.mp3. 119 “Most people”: Engressia speech, 1974. 120 “We met a phone man”: Joybubbles, author interview, 2006. 120 The Engressias moved a lot: Ibid.; Toni Engressia, author interview, 2008; and other Joybubbles/Engressia published interviews. 120 “Daddy hated the snow”: Toni Engressia, author interview, 2008. 121 “I learned a whole lot”: Engressia speech, 1974. 122 “I was seven or eight”: “A Conversation with Joybubbles.” 123 “I got $2.50 a week”: Engressia speech, 1974. 123 Dade County Junior College: Bill Acker, author interview, 2008. 123 “I can whistle like a bird”: Leslie Taylor, “Blind Student Dials Trouble,” USF Oracle, November 27, 1968, p. 1 <db1015>.
., “Inside Ma Bell,” 73 Magazine, June 1975, p. 67 <db318>. 241 some eight thousand people: Southwestern Bell memorandum/Q&A backgrounder titled “Fraud,” undated but circa 1977. 242 “Dear Telephone User”: “Dear Telephone User” letter from Pacific Telephone and Telegraph, mailed May 28, 1976. In the original, the last three paragraphs of the letter were all in capital letters; see http://pdf.textfiles.com/zines/TEL/TEL_spec2.jpg. 242 One recipient of this missive: Radio Electronics, 1976. 242 “serious national problem,” “nationwide telephone fraud”: “Free-Phone Racket Inside Post Office,” Sunday Times (London), January 21, 1973, p. 1. 243 “men of intellectual stature”: “Phone Fiddle by Bleep Box,” Daily Mirror, October 4, 1973. 243 charges went back to 1968: “Nineteen Accused of Dial-the-World Phone Fiddle,” Daily Telegraph, October 4, 1973. 243 exactly three went to live human beings: Robert Hill, “Days at the Old Bailey,” Interface (the house journal of Cambridge Consultants Ltd.), vol. 8, no. 1, April 1974, p. 10 <db341>.
Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K
From “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” p. 65. 68. http://www.firstmonday.org/Issues/issue8_12/ciffolilli/. 69. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.03/wiki.html. 234_Notes 70. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml ?title=Albert_Einstein& diff=2380047& oldid= 2380036 . 71. http://wikimania2006.wikimedia.org/wiki/Proceedings:MP1. Chapter 8. CRISIS OF COMMUNITY 72. http://wwwtcsdaily.com/article .aspx?id=111504A. 73. http://ascii.textfiles.com/archives/000060.html. 74. http://www.news.com/In-search -of-the-Wikipedia-prankster—page-2/2008-1029_3 -5995977-2 .html ?tag=st.next. 75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Semi-protection_policy#Semi -protection. 76. http://chronicle.com/wiredcampus/index.php?id=1909. 77. http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/02/28/wikipedia=oops/. 78. http://en.wikipedia.org / w/ index.php?title =Talk:Imprimatur& diff= prev& oldid= 12614544. 79. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
So while this showcased a community able to resolve a problem, it would likely drive away academics and scholars unaccustomed to Wikipedia’s contentious work process. This point has not gone unnoticed. Even those who join Wikipedia as enthusiastic contributors quickly see the unsavory agonistic side of the community. Community_at_Work_(The_Piranha_Effect)_131 Prominent Internet historian Jason Scott lamented this working aspect of Wikipedia during a public speech, highlighting the ominous side of a culture where “anyone can edit.” Scott is no Luddite. As a veteran of electronic bulletin board systems and online culture, his criticism had resonance even among people who are fans of Wikipedia: Jimbo [Wales] holds this up as the great aspect of Wikipedia, is that everybody gets to get their hands in it and that we’re all working together, but they don’t realize, we kill each other!
It’s very hard to say. . . . The user who visits Wikipedia to learn about some subject, to confirm some matter of fact, is rather in the position of a visitor to a public restroom. It may be obviously dirty, so that he knows to exercise great care, or it may seem fairly clean, so that he may be lulled into a false sense of security. What he certainly does not know is who has used the facilities before him.72 Jason Scott, mentioned previously as a critic of the phenomenon of edit warring, observed firsthand the problems that could occur when amateurs didn’t get it right. He had an anecdote from his experience with the article about New York politician [[Carmine DeSapio]]: Carmine DeSapio was the last head of Tammany Hall, which is the political machine that controlled New York City for a hundred years. He was the only non-Irish head, he basically got into a lot of trouble, and that was the end of Tammany Hall.
Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman
Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust
Producing Mobility: Indian ITers in an Interconnected World. PhD diss., University of Chicago. Anderson, C. W. 2009. Breaking Journalism Down: Work, Authority, and Networking Local News, 1997–2009. PhD diss., Columbia University. 2012. Networking the News: The Struggle to Rebuild Metropolitan Journalism in the Web Era, 1997–2011. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Anonymous. n.d. Anatomy of a Pirate. http://www.textfiles.com/piracy/anatomy.txt (accessed July 25, 2004). Arendt, Hannah. 1998. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Asad, Talal, ed. 1973. Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter. London: Ithaca Press. Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1984. Rabelais and His World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1993. Toward a Philosophy of the Act.
See also “History of the Department of Computer Sciences at Purdue University,” http://www.cs.purdue.edu/history/history.html (accessed October 23, 2011). 4. These quotes are culled from my life history interviews. 5. Efficiency can mean various things for programming/software, including running faster, using less computing resources, or both. 6. For a comprehensive history of the BBS era, see the excellent eight-part documentary BBS: The Documentary by Jason Scott (2005). 7. BBSs also played a prominent role among phreaks and underground hackers (Thomas 2003; Sterling 1992). Usenet, a large newsgroup service, was significant for hackers as well (Pfaffenberger 1996). 8. FidoNet, established in 1984, was an independent mail and information transport system that connected BBSs together. 9. IRC happens on IRC servers (EFnet, Freenode, etc.) that run software that allow users to set up “channels” and connect to them.
4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, moral panic, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day
a cluttered blue-on-white color scheme This description is based on the Internet Archive’s earliest Yahoo! snapshot, from October 17, 1996. “AFT: Please tell us about this new concept in releasing . . .” These quotes are copied verbatim from Affinity #3, “Spot Light.” “NetFraCk” is interviewed by “Mr. Mister” and the interview is dated August 19, 1996. The executable file may be retrieved from Textfiles.com, but you will need a DOS emulator to view it. My thanks to Johnny Ryan at University College Dublin for the original pointer. CHAPTER 6 the so-called “Rothschilds of the New World” This formulation comes from Peter C. Newman’s The Bronfman Dynasty (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1978). Bronfman had pushed for reorganization For details, see Connie Bruck, “Bronfman’s Big Deals,” New Yorker, May 11, 1998.
The documentary record of the official court system was matched—and sometimes exceeded—by the shadow bureaucracy of the Scene itself. Various dupecheck sites and leaked databases provided millions of NFO files, but it wasn’t until Tony Söderberg’s creation of Srrdb.com that these found a centralized home. The tireless work of other Internet historians proved invaluable as well, particularly that of Jason Scott and the rest of the team at the Internet Archive. Reporting on the life and history of Dell Glover comes from a series of ten interviews I conducted with him, on the phone and in person, over the course of nearly three years. I corroborated the details of his story with historical photographs, court testimony, DOJ evidence, clemency letters written by his friends, family, and neighbors, Facebook posts, corporate records from Vivendi Universal and Glenayre, arrest records from the Cleveland County Sheriff’s Office, and on-site visits to the Kings Mountain plant.
Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra
Boston science writer Joanne McNeil, writing on tomorrow museum.com, describes the emerging role of curator by suggesting we begin with the root of the word. “Start by thinking about the etymological roots of ‘curate’—to take care of. Information surplus creates different challenges in preservation and archival record keeping. There are ‘digital ethnographers,’ slightly fewer ‘cyber anthropologists,’ but media is most in need of digital historians like Jason Scott providing historical context. Someone who can determine the ‘and this’ from the ‘don’t forget’ in fickle Internet memes. Implied by the word curator is an intuitive sense of pattern recognition … More visual than a mere editor, the Internet curator requires a sense of the relationships between words, images, space, and shapes.” But I still haven’t answered the question I set out to resolve for you in this chapter: what is curation, exactly? THE ORIGIN OF CURATION Let’s start with where the need for a new word came from.