John Markoff

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The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick by Jonathan Littman

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Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, centre right, computer age, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, telemarketer

"Tsutomu, some people outside the computer world look at hackers as the last rugged individualists," she begins what sounds like a prepared question. "There are people who like Kevin Mitnick." "He did nothing imaginative," Shimomura snaps, clearly irritated at the question. "Nothing interesting, nothing new that I can see." Shimomura tosses out John Markoff's name while answering a question, and John Johnson, a reporter for the Los Angeles Times, quickly picks up on it. "What was John Markoff's role?" asks the reporter. "John wrote the book on Kevin," Shimomura informs the crowd of journalists and network TV scouts. "The third member of our team was John Markoff," volunteers Julia Menapace, the woman who accompanied Shimomura into the courtroom. She's casually dressed in jeans, taller than Shimomura, with long brown hair. She doesn't work for the feds or the San Diego Supercomputer Center. She's Shimomura's girlfriend.

Mitnick shackled in Raleigh, North Carolina. Kevin Poulsen, aka Dark Dante Henry Spiegel Ron Austin with his father Erica Videotape image of Justin Petersen, aka Eric Heinz or Agent Steal, working undercover for the FBI at a 1992 hacker conference. Shimomura in North Carolina Shimomura's equipment Shimomura in the Media Tsutomu Shimomura, John Markoff of the New York Times, former San Francisco Assistant U.S. Attorney Kent Walker, and Joe Orsak and Jim Murphy of Sprint Cellular. Kent Walker John Markoff Joe Orsak Jim Murphy Kevin Pazaski Todd Young Todd Young, a cellular fraud gumshoe, and Kevin Pazaski of CellularOne in Seattle, found Kevin Mitnick in a few hours and kept his basement apartment under surveillance for two weeks. Federal authorities rejected the cellular fraud case as insignificant. Young's Cellscope Mitnick's apartment in Seattle I figure I might as well ask my subject for some ideas on where to start researching.

He's complaining again about Newsweek putting his name "way in lights" when he says he hasn't done anything new. "Maybe they think I did Shimomura, you know. They're bringing up cellular involved in it. Who knows? "I know you can find out the inference here by calling your friend John Markoff because Markoff is friends with Shimomura. Why don't you just dial Markoff up and say, 'Hey, Markoff, what's the scoop?' " A couple of minutes later, as if on cue, my call waiting beeps again. "Could you hold on just one second? My beeper's going off again," I kid him. "Looks like they got half of the trace done," Mitnick jokes. It's John Markoff again. I apologize, and ask once again if I can call him back. He tells me not to worry about it, jokes we'll probably play telephone tag a couple more times, and asks me to call him back when I've got a chance. "It didn't work," I say, returning to Mitnick.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

Hagerty, “A Roboticist’s Trip from Mines to the Moon,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2011, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304569504576405671616928518. 4.John Markoff, “The Creature That Lives in Pittsburgh,” New York Times, April 21, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/21/business/the-creature-that-lives-in-pittsburgh.html. 5.John Markoff, “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html?pagewanted=all. 6.“Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012, http://www.nhtsa.gov/Laws+&+Regulations/Electronic+Stability+Control+(ESC). 7.John Markoff, “Police, Pedestrians and the Social Ballet of Merging: The Real Challenges for Self-Driving Cars,” New York Times, May 29, 2014, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/29/police-bicyclists-and-pedestrians-the-real-challenges-for-self-driving-cars/?

PREFACE 1.This distinction was famously made by Richard Stallman, an iconoclastic software developer who pioneered the concept of freely shared software. 1|BETWEEN HUMAN AND MACHINE 1.John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005), 282. 2.Moshe Y. Vardi, “The Consequences of Machine Intelligence,” Atlantic, October 25, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/10/the-consequences-of-machine-intelligence/264066. 3.Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, “Dancing with Robots: Human Skills for Computerized Work,” http://content.thirdway.org/publications/714/Dancing-With-Robots.pdf. 4.J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (March 1960): 4–11, http://groups.csail.mit.edu/medg/people/psz/Licklider.html. 5.John Markoff, “Can Machines Think? Humans Match Wits,” New York Times, November 9, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/09/us/can-machines-think-humans-match-wits.html. 6.Jonathan Grudin, “AI and HCI: Two Fields Divided by a Common Focus,” AI Magazine, Winter 2009, http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?

Brock, “How William Shockley’s Robot Dream Helped Launch Silicon Valley,” IEEE Spectrum, November 29, 2013, http://spectrum.ieee.org/at-work/innovation/how-william-shockleys-robot-dream-helped-launch-silicon-valley. 2.David C. Brock, “From Automation to Silicon Valley: The Automation Movement of the 1950s, Arnold Beckman, and William Shockley,” History and Technology 28, no. 4 (2012), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07341512.2012.756236#.VQTPKCbHi_A. 3.Ibid. 4.John Markoff, “Robotic Vehicles Race, but Innovation Wins,” New York Times, September 14, 2005. 5.John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005). 6.Pamela McCorduck, Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence, 2nd ed. (Natick, MA: A K Peters/CRC Press, 2004), 268. 7.Ibid., 273. 8.Brad Darrach, “Meet Shaky [sic], the First Electronic Person: The Fascinating and Fearsome Reality of a Machine with a Mind of Its Own,” Life, November 1970. 9.Charles A.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

newsId=40920394–9e62–415d-b038–15fe2e72a677&pageTitle=Recent%20Headlines&crumbTitle=Man%20and%20%20machine:%20Better%20writers,%20better%20grades. 3. Ry Rivard, “Humans Fight over Robo-Readers,” Inside Higher Ed, March 15, 2013, http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/03/15/professors-odds-machine-graded-essays. 4. John Markoff, “Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break,” New York Times, April 4, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/science/new-test-for-computers-grading-essays-at-college-level.html. 5. John Markoff, “Virtual and Artificial, but 58,000 Want Course,” New York Times, August 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/science/16stanford.html?_r=0. 6. The story of the Stanford AI course is drawn from Max Chafkin, “Udacity’s Sebastian Thrun, Godfather of Free Online Education, Changes Course,” Fast Company, December 2013/January 2014, http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb; Jeffrey J.

A true programmable computer, it was financed by the US Army and intended primarily for calculating firing tables used to aim artillery. ** Due to a miscommunication, Wiener’s article was never published in 1949. A draft copy was discovered by a researcher working with documents in the MIT library archives in 2012, and substantial excerpts were finally published in a May 2013 article by New York Times science reporter John Markoff. * Labor productivity measures the value of the output (either goods or services) produced by workers per hour. It is a critically important gauge of the general efficiency of an economy; to a significant extent it determines the wealth of a nation. Advanced, industrialized countries have high productivity because their workers have access to more and better technology, enjoy better nutrition as well as safer and more healthful environments, and are generally better educated and trained.

The Rise—and Stumble—of the MOOC Free Internet-based courses like those offered by edX are part of the trend toward massive open online courses—or MOOCs—that exploded into the public consciousness in the late summer of 2011, when two computer scientists at Stanford University, Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig, announced that their introductory artificial intelligence class would be available to anyone at no cost over the Internet. Both of the course’s instructors were celebrities in their field with strong ties to Google; Thrun had led the effort to develop the company’s self-driving cars, while Norvig was the director of research and co-author of the leading AI textbook. Within days of the announcement, more than 10,000 people had signed up. When John Markoff of the New York Times wrote a front-page article5 about the course that August, enrollment rocketed to more than 160,000 people from over 190 countries. The number of online students from Lithuania alone exceeded the entire undergraduate and graduate student enrollment at Stanford. Students as young as ten and as old as seventy signed up to learn the basics of AI directly from two of the field’s preeminent researchers—an extraordinary opportunity previously available only to about 200 Stanford students.6 The ten-week course was divided into short segments lasting just a few minutes and modeled roughly on the enormously successful videos for middle and high school students created by the Khan Academy.


pages: 265 words: 74,807

Our Robots, Ourselves: Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy by David A. Mindell

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Air France Flight 447, autonomous vehicles, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chris Urmson, digital map, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fudge factor, index card, John Markoff, Mars Rover, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics, trade route, US Airways Flight 1549, William Langewiesche, zero-sum game

“without traffic accidents or congestion”: Sebastian Thrun, “Self-Driving Cars Can Save Lives, and Parking Spaces,” New York Times, December 5, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/sebastian-thrun-self-driving-cars-can-save-lives-and-parking-spaces.html. Sebastian Thrun, “What We’re Driving At,” Google official blog, http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/10/what-were-driving-at.html, accessed July 10, 2014. John Markoff, “A Trip in a Self-Driving Car Now Seems Routine,” Bits Blog, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/13/a-trip-in-a-self-driving-car-now-seems-routine, accessed July 10, 2014. John Markoff, “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html. The Google car’s successful driving tests: Mark Harris, “How Google’s Autonomous Car Passed the First U.S. State Self-Driving Test,” IEEE Spectrum Online, September 10, 2014, http://spectrum.iee.org.

It Depends On Whom You Work For,” IEEE Spectrum Cars That Think, February 24, 2015, http://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/human-factors/how-much-training-do-you-need-to-be-a-robocar-test-driver-it-depends-on-whom-you-work-for. He put a video camera on the dashboard of his car: John Leonard, “Conversations on Autonomy,” presentation, MIT, March 13, 2014. John Markoff, “Police, Pedestrians and the Social Ballet of Merging: The Real Challenges for Self-Driving Cars,” Bits Blog, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/29/police-bicyclists-and-pedestrians-the-real-challenges-for-self-driving-cars/, accessed July 10, 2014. We know that driverless cars will be susceptible: John Markoff, “Collision in the Making Between Self-Driving Cars and How the World Works,” New York Times, January 23, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/24/technology/googles-autonomous-vehicles-draw-skepticism-at-legal-symposium.html. Will Knight, “Proceed with Caution toward the Self-Driving Car,” MIT Technology Review, April 16, 2013, http://www.technologyreview.com/review/513531/proceed-with-caution-toward-the-self-driving-car/.

They travel routes mapped with great precision by Google’s human-driven survey cars; the maps serve as virtual railway tracks for the cars (indeed, they are as yet unable to drive on roads without these detailed maps). The drives have included human safety drivers and software experts who can turn the autonomy on and off. “The idea was that the human drives onto the freeway, engages the system, [and] it takes them on the bulk of the trip—the boring part—and then they reengage,” said Google engineer Nathaniel Fairfield. A ride in one of these vehicles led the New York Times’s John Markoff to conclude that “computerized systems that replace human drivers are now largely workable and could greatly limit human error,” potentially supporting Google’s goal of cutting the number of U.S. highway deaths in half. Google’s rhetoric around the project has the kind of Silicon Valley optimism that typically surrounds software systems. Roboticist Sebastian Thrun, lead engineer for the project, envisions a future of utopian autonomy “without traffic accidents or congestion.”


pages: 275 words: 84,418

Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution by Fred Vogelstein

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Apple II, cloud computing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Dynabook, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Googley, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, zero-sum game

Gundotra’s 2007 start date: Brad Stone, “Larry Page’s Google 3.0,” Bloomberg Businessweek, 1/26/2011; and my own reporting. But Gundotra thrived: Levy, In the Plex, 219. For example, the trio: Ibid., 218. The secrecy, leaks, and backbiting: John Markoff, “I, Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone,” New York Times, 11/4/2007. It wasn’t just dull: Ryan Block, “Live coverage of Google’s Android Gphone mobile OS announcement,” Engadget.com, 11/5/2007; Danny Sullivan, “Gphone? The Google Phone Timeline,” SearchEngineLand.com, 4/18/2007; Miguel Helft and John Markoff, “Google Enters the Wireless World,” New York Times, 11/5/2007. Google got more attention: See the first Android introduction and demo by Sergey Brin and Steve Horowitz at www.youtube.com/watch?v=egxNkU5__hU. Certainly, Google’s other initiatives: Ken Auletta, Googled: The End of the World as We Know It (New York: Penguin Press, 2009), e-book location 2842.

People describe his home as something akin to Tony Stark’s basement laboratory in Iron Man—a space jammed with robotic arms, the latest computers and electronics, and prototypes of various projects. Like many electronics whizzes in Silicon Valley, he had Tony Stark’s respect for authority too. At Apple in the late 1980s he got in trouble for reprogramming the corporate phone system to make it seem as if CEO John Sculley were leaving his colleagues messages about stock grants, according to John Markoff’s 2007 profile in The New York Times. At General Magic, an Apple spin-off that wrote some of the first software for handheld computers, he and some colleagues built lofts above their cubicles so they could more efficiently work around the clock. After Microsoft bought his next employer, WebTV, in the mid-1990s, he outfitted a mobile robot with a web camera and microphone and sent it wandering around the company, without mentioning to anyone that it was connected to the Internet.

But he also hated the idea that consumers would see the iPhone this way. Computers are things that run software from developers all over the world—outside Apple. He didn’t want the iPhone to become that at all. After the unveiling, when software developers began clamoring for permission to make programs for the iPhone, Jobs said no publicly and emphatically. “You don’t want your phone to be like a PC,” he told John Markoff of The New York Times right after the announcement. “The last thing you want is to have loaded three apps on your phone and then you go to make a call and it doesn’t work anymore. These are more like iPods than they are like computers.” But the iPhone had so many other cool new features that consumers overlooked its flaws. It wasn’t just that the iPhone had a new kind of touchscreen, or ran the most sophisticated software ever put in a phone, or had an Internet browser that wasn’t crippled, or had voice mail that could be listened to in any order, or ran Google Maps and YouTube, or was a music and movie player and a camera.


pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

—Library Journal “Thanks to the cunning of history and the wondrous strangeness of Northern California, the utopian counterculture, psychedelic drugs, military hardware and antimilitary software were tangled together inextricably in the prehistory of the personal computer. Full of interesting details about weird but not arbitrary connections, John Markoff’s book tells one of the oddest—because truest—of California tales and thereby helps illuminate the still unsettled legacy of the Sixties.” —Todd Gitlin, author of Media Unlimited and The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage “It is easy to see how the personal computer has shaped contemporary culture. But how did contemporary culture shape the emergence of the personal computer? In this innovative, lively narrative, veteran technology reporter and cultural critic John Markoff demonstrates how the values and obsessions of the 1960s, especially as centered in the San Francisco Bay Area, created the environment for the emergence of the personal computer as social tool and cultural catalyst.”

Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi–110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Copyright © John Markoff, 2005 All rights reserved Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to reprint an excerpt from “White Rabbit” by Grace Slick. © 1966, 1994 Irving Music, Inc./BMI. Used by permission. International copyright secured. All rights reserved. THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS HAS CATALOGED THE HARDCOVER EDITION AS FOLLOWS: Markoff, John. What the dormouse said—: how the sixties counterculture shaped the personal computer industry / John Markoff. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 978-1-1012-0108-4 1. Microcomputers—History. 2. Computers and civilization. 3. Nineteen sixties. I. Title.

PENGUIN BOOKS WHAT THE DORMOUSE SAID John Markoff is a senior writer for The New York Times who has coauthored Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier and the bestselling Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America’s Most Wanted Computer Outlaw. He lives in San Francisco, California. Praise for What the Dormouse Said “At the core of Dormouse lies a valid and original historical point.” —The New York Times “A convincing case…. This makes entertaining reading.” —The New York Times “Evocative” —Newsweek “Fascinating” —Computerworld “Fascinating…Markoff is a wonderful writer and storyteller, and he effortlessly weaves together the stories of the main cast of characters. The individuals had the most unusual knack for crossing paths, and Markoff’s ability to show these sometimes tangential—but always important—relationships, without losing the thread of the story, is impressive.”


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

They have been extraordinarily open and [ x ] Acknowledgments forthcoming, devoting hours and sometimes days to helping me understand their histories. For all of their help, I’d like to thank Bob Albrecht, Dennis Allison, John Perry Barlow, Reva Basch, Keith Britton, Lois Britton, John Brockman, Michael Callahan, John Coate, Doug Engelbart, Bill English, Lee Felsenstein, Cliff Figallo, David Frohman, Asha Greer (formerly Barbara Durkee), Katie Hafner, Paul Hawken, Alan Kay, Kevin Kelly, Art Kleiner, Butler Lampson, Liza Loop, John Markoff, Jane Metcalfe, David Millen, Nancy Murphy, Richard Raymond, Danica Remy, Howard Rheingold, Louis Rossetto, Peter Schwartz, Mark Stahlman, Gerd Stern, Shirley Streshinsky, Larry Tesler, Paul Tough, Jim Warren, and Gail Williams. Most of all, I thank Stewart Brand, whose openness to this project has been a lesson in itself. I am also grateful to a number of people and institutions for permission to quote conversations and to reprint previously published material.

Against these accounts, others have argued that the notion of the computer as a tool for personal and communal transformation first came to life outside the computer industry, among an insurgent group of hobbyists with countercultural loyalties. Members of this group, they point out, built the Homebrew Computer Club and ultimately not only Apple Computer, but a number of other important personal computer companies as well.6 A close look at the computing world of the Bay area in the late 1960s and early 1970s reveals that both of these accounts are true but that neither is complete. As journalist John Markoff has shown, industry engineers and hobbyists lived and worked side-by-side in this period, and both were surrounded by countercultural activities and institutions.7 Two of the most influential of these groups in the region maintained offices within a few square blocks of each other and of the offices of the Whole Earth Catalog in Menlo Park. One of the groups consisted of the researchers associated with Douglas Engelbart’s Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) and later Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), and the other was made up of computer hobbyists affiliated with the People’s Computer Company and, later, the Homebrew Computer Club.

In the Hackers’ Conference, Brand and company provided computer workers with a venue in which to develop and live a group identity around the idea of hacking and to make sense of emerging economic forms in terms of that identity. This work had the effect of rehabilitating hackers in the public eye, but it also explicitly and securely linked Whole Earth people and the Whole Earth ethos to the world of computing. Virtually all of the journalistic reports that came from the Conference echoed John Markoff ’s comments in Byte magazine: “Anyone attending would instantly have realized that the stereotype of computer hackers as isolated individuals is nowhere near accurate.”67 Some of [ 138 ] Chapter 4 those same reports picked up on another theme as well, however. Several either quoted or paraphrased Ted Nelson’s exclamation “This is the Woodstock of the computer elite!”68 One listed Stewart Brand among the “luminaries of the personal computer ‘revolution.’”


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

monitors physical spaces: Calum MacLeod (3 Jan 2013), “China surveillance targets crime—and dissent,” USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/01/03/china-security/1802177. Messages containing words: Vernon Silver (8 Mar 2013), “Cracking China’s Skype surveillance software,” Bloomberg Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-03-08/skypes-been-hijacked-in-china-and-microsoft-is-o-dot-k-dot-with-it. 30,000 Internet police: John Markoff (1 Oct 2008), “Surveillance of Skype messages found in China,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/02/technology/internet/02skype.html. India: John Ribeiro (13 Jan 2011), “RIM allows India access to consumer BlackBerry messaging,” CIO, http://www.cio.com/article/654438/RIM_Allows_India_Access_to_Consumer_BlackBerry_Messaging. Amol Sharma (28 Oct 2011), “RIM facility helps India in surveillance efforts,” Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204505304577001592335138870.

Ethiopia used this software: Bill Marczak et al. (12 Feb 2014), “Hacking Team and the targeting of Ethiopian journalists,” Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, https://citizenlab.org/2014/02/hacking-team-targeting-ethiopian-journalists. Craig Timberg (12 Feb 2014), “Foreign regimes use spyware against journalists, even in U.S.,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/foreign-regimes-use-spyware-against-journalists-even-in-us/2014/02/12/9501a20e-9043-11e3-84e1-27626c5ef5fb_story.html. We labeled the Chinese actions: Andrew Jacobs, Miguel Helft, and John Markoff (13 Jan 2010), “Google, citing attack, threatens to exit China,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/13/world/asia/13beijing.html. David E. Sanger (6 May 2013), “U.S. blames China’s military directly for cyberattacks,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/07/world/asia/us-accuses-chinas-military-in-cyberattacks.html. sometimes invoking: New York Times (7 May 2013), “China and cyberwar (editorial),” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/08/opinion/china-and-cyberwar.html.

George Mason University School of Public Policy (Feb 2014), “Cyber security export markets 2014,” Virginia Economic Development Partnership, http://exportvirginia.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Report-on-Cyber-Security-Preface.pdf Estonia was the victim: Joshua Davis (21 Aug 2007), “Hackers take down the most wired country in Europe,” Wired, https://web.archive.org/web/20071019223411/http://www.wired.com/politics/security/magazine/15-09/ff_estonia. ex-Soviet republic of Georgia: John Markoff (13 Aug 2008), “Before the gunfire, cyberattacks,” New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/technology/13cyber.html. South Korea was the victim: Matthew Weaver (8 Jul 2009), “Cyberattackers target South Korea and US,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/08/south-korea-cyber-attack. a pro-Kremlin youth group: Charles Clover (11 Mar 2009), “Kremlin-backed group behind Estonia cyber blitz,” Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/57536d5a-0ddc-11de-8ea3-0000779fd2ac.html.


pages: 547 words: 160,071

Underground by Suelette Dreyfus

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airport security, invisible hand, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, zero day

Atika Shubert, ‘Tens of thousands of alleged Afghan war documents go online,’ CNN online, 25 July, 2010. See: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-07-25/tech/wikileaks.afghanistan_1_julian-assange-whistle-blower-website-afghan-war?_s=PM:TECH 7. William J. Broad, John Markoff and David E Sanger, ‘Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay, New York Times online, 15 January, 2011. See: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html?pagewanted=3&_r=1 8. Ibid. 9. CBS News, ‘Iran Confirms Stuxnet Worm Halted Centrifuges’, 29 November, 2010. See: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/11/29/world/main7100197.shtml 10. William J. Broad, John Markoff and David E. Sanger, ‘Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay’, New York Times online, 15 January, 2011. See: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html?

‘Listen to this,’ Erik had said, reading Phoenix the lead paragraph, ‘ “A computer intruder has written a program that has entered dozens of computers in a nationwide network in recent weeks, automatically stealing electronic documents containing users’ passwords and erasing files to help conceal itself.” ’ Phoenix was falling off his chair he was laughing so hard. A program? Which was automatically doing this? No. It wasn’t an automated program, it was the Australians! It was the Realm hackers! God, this was funny. ‘Wait – there’s more! It says, “Another rogue program shows a widespread vulnerability”. I laughed my ass off,’ Erik said, struggling to get the words out. ‘A rogue program! Who wrote the article?’ ‘A John Markoff,’ Erik answered, wiping his eyes. ‘I called him up.’ ‘You did? What did you say?’ Phoenix tried to gather himself together. ‘ “John,” I said, “You know that article you wrote on page 12 of the Times? It’s wrong! There’s no rogue program attacking the Internet.” He goes, “What is it then?” “It’s not a virus or a worm,” I said. “It’s PEOPLE.” ’ Erik started laughing uncontrollably again. ‘Then Markoff sounds really stunned, and he goes, “People?”

The idea of penetrating so many sites all in such a short time clearly baffled the investigators, who concluded it must be a program rather than human beings launching the attacks. ‘Yeah,’ Erik continued, ‘And then Markoff said, “Can you get me to talk to them?” And I said I’d see what I could do.’ ‘Yeah,’ Phoenix said. ‘Go tell him, yes. Yeah, I gotta talk to this idiot. I’ll set him straight.’ Page one, the New York Times, 21 March 1990: ‘Caller Says he Broke Computers’ Barriers to Taunt the Experts’, by John Markoff. True, the article was below the crease – on the bottom half of the page – but at least it was in column 1, the place a reader turns to first. Phoenix was chuffed. He’d made the front page of the New York Times. ‘The man identified himself only as an Australian named Dave,’ the article said. Phoenix chuckled softly. Dave Lissek was the pseudonym he’d used. Of course, he wasn’t the only one using the name Dave.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

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1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

Nazila Fathi, “Iran Disrupts Internet Service ahead of Protests,” New York Times, February 11, 2010. 4. Farhad Manjoo, “How the Internet Helps Iran Silence Activists,” Slate, June 25, 2009; Miguel Helft and John Markoff, “Google, Citing Cyber Attack, Threatens to Exit China,” New York Times, January 13, 2010. 5. John Ribeiro, “Google Placates India, China with Different Map Versions,” PC World, October 23, 2009. 6. Miguel Helft and David Barboza, “Google Shuts China Site in Dispute over Censorship,” New York Times, March 22, 2010. 7. Miguel Helft and David Barboza, “Google’s Plan to Turn Its Back on China Has Risks,” New York Times, March 23, 2010; John Markoff, “Cyberattack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010; John Markoff and Ashlee Vance, “Software Firms Fear Hackers Who Leave No Trace,” New York Times, January 20, 2010. 8. Harry Lewis, “Does Google Violate Its ‘Don’t Be Evil’ Motto?”

Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). 9. Levy, “Secret of Googlenomics.” 10. Randall E. Stross, Planet Google: One Company’s Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know (New York: Free Press, 2008), 109–28. 11. Cecillia Kang, “AT&T Accuses Google of Violating Telecom Laws; Google Rejects Claims,” Post I.T., blog, September 25, 2009; Amy Schatz, “AT&T Asks for Curbs on Google,” WSJ.com, September 26, 2009; John Markoff and Matt Richtel, “F.C.C. Hands Google a Partial Victory,” New York Times, August 1, 2007. 12. “GOOG: Google Inc Company Profile,” CNNMoney.com, August 12, 2010. 13. Ken Auletta, “Annals of Communications: The Search Party,” New Yorker, January 14, 2008; Rob Hof, “Maybe Google Isn’t Losing Big Bucks on YouTube After All,” BusinessWeek, June 17, 2009; Nicholas Thompson and Fred Vogelstein, “The Plot to Kill Google,” Wired, January 19, 2009; Eli Edwards, “Stepping Up to the Plate: The Google-Doubleclick Merger and the Role of the Federal Trade Commission in Protecting Online Data Privacy,” SSRN eLibrary, April 25, 2008, http://papers.ssrn.com; Michael Liedtke, “Guessing Game: How Much Money Is YouTube Losing?”


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

CHAPTER 4: VARIANTS AND PERMUTATIONS 51 When the Egyptian government shut down the Internet: Initially one Egyptian ISP, Noor, remained online for a few days but was eventually shut down as well. For a detailed technical analysis of the shutdown, see James Cowie, “Egypt Leaves the Internet,” Renesys Blog, January 28, 2011, www.renesys.com/blog/2011/01/egypt-leaves-the-internet.shtml; and Earl Zmijewski, “Egypt’s Net on Life Support,” Renesys Blog, January 31, 2011, www.renesys.com/blog/2011/01/egypts-net-on-life-support.shtml. Also see James Glanz and John Markoff, “Egypt Leaders Found ‘Off’ Switch for Internet,” New York Times, February 15, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/technology/16internet.html (accessed June 27, 2011). 52 After Muammar Gaddafi cut off phone and Internet service to rebel-held areas in eastern Libya: Margaret Corker and Charles Levinson, “Rebels Hijack Gadhafi’s Phone Network,” Wall Street Journal, April 13, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703841904576256512991215284.html (accessed June 27, 2011). 53 In a comprehensive book about technology and politics in the Islamic world: Philip N.

Satter, “Vodafone: Egypt Forced Us to Send Text Messages,” Associated Press, February 3, 2011, www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9L5ANI80.htm (all accessed August 13, 2011). 185 in June 2011 the UN Human Rights Council approved the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: “Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, John Ruggie; Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework,” UN Human Rights Council A/HRC/17/31, March 21, 2011, www.business-humanrights.org/media/documents/ruggie/ruggie-guiding-principles-21-mar-2011.pdf. CHAPTER 12: IN SEARCH OF “INTERNET FREEDOM” POLICY 189 Global Internet Freedom Consortium (GIFC): www.internetfreedom.org. 189 The GIFC found powerful allies in Mark Palmer . . . and Michael Horowitz: See John Markoff, “Iranians and Others Outwit Net Censors,” New York Times, April 30, 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/05/01/technology/01filter.html; James O’Toole, “Internet Censorship Fight Goes Global,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 4, 2009, www.post-gazette.com/pg/09155/974993-82.stm; Brad Stone, “Aid Urged for Groups Fighting Internet Censors,” New York Times, January 20, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/01/21/technology/21censor.html; Caylan Ford, “What Hillary Clinton, Google Can Do About Censorship in China,” Washington Post, January 20, 2010, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/20/AR2010012002805.html; Genevieve Long, “Internet Freedom Software Should Get Federal Funding, Group Says,” Epoch Times, March 5, 2010; Gordon Crovitz, “Mrs.

.& A. with Rebecca MacKinnon: Internet in China” with Evan Osnos, New Yorker, February 22, 2011, www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/evanosnos/2011/02/internet-in-china.html. 190 Senator Richard Lugar . . . called for the remaining funds to be removed from State Department control and given to the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG): “Another U.S. Deficit—China and America—Public Diplomacy in the Age of the Internet: A Minority Staff Report Prepared for the Use of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate,” February 15, 2011, http://lugar.senate.gov/issues/foreign/diplomacy/ChinaInternet.pdf. 191 “Internet-in-a-suitcase”: James Glanz and John Markoff, “US Underwrites Internet Detour Around Censors,” New York Times, June 12, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/06/12/world/12internet.html. Also see Josh Smith, “State Allocates Final $28 Million for Internet Freedom Programs,” National Journal, May 3, 2011, www.nextgov.com/nextgov/ng_20110503_8059.php. 191 Clay Shirky critiqued Washington’s obsession with circumvention: Clay Shirky, “The Political Power of Social Media,” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 1 (January–February 2011): 28–41. 193 as Ethan Zuckerman of Harvard’s Berkman Center warns: See Ethan Zuckerman, “Internet Freedom: Beyond Circumvention,” My Heart’s in Accra blog, February 22, 2010, www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2010/02/22/internet-freedom-beyond-circumvention. 193 Evgeny Morozov has been even more critical: Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011). 193 US Internet freedom policy also has critics among its intended beneficiaries: Sami Ben Gharbia, “The Internet Freedom Fallacy and the Arab Digital Activism,” September 17, 2010, http://samibengharbia.com/2010/09/17/the-internet-freedom-fallacy-and-the-arab-digital-activism. 195 While the Bahraini government was arresting bloggers and suppressing dissent, the United States was planning to sell $70 million in arms to Bahrain: See Ivan Sigal, “Going Local,” Index on Censorship 40, no. 1 (2011): 93–99. 195 When Clinton visited Cairo a month after the revolution, Egypt’s January 25 Revolution Youth Coalition refused to meet with her: Kirit Radia and Alex Marquardt, “Young Leaders of Egypt’s Revolt Snub Clinton in Cairo,” ABC News Political Punch, March 15, 2011, http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalpunch/2011/03/young-leaders-of-egypts-revolt-snub-clinton-in-cairo.html. 195 “International Strategy for Cyberspace”: www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/internationalstrategy_cyberspace.pdf. 196 Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt called for a “new transatlantic partnership for protecting and promoting the freedoms of cyberspace”: Carl Bildt, “Tear Down These Walls Against Internet Freedom,” Washington Post, January 25, 2010, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/24/AR2010012402297.html. 196 In July 2010 the French and Dutch foreign ministers convened an international conference on the Internet and freedom of expression: “Ministers to Meet in the Netherlands to Champion Internet Freedom,” Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations, www.netherlandsmission.org/article.asp?


pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

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Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, John Markoff, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

. [>] As of 2013, the NSA: Keith Alexander provided the figures on NSA employment in public remarks at a cyber security event sponsored by Politico in Washington, DC, on October 8, 2013, http://www.politico.com/events/cyber-7-the-seven-key-questions/. 11. The Corporate Counterstrike [>] “a highly sophisticated”: David Drummond, “A New Approach to China,” Google blog, January 12, 2010, http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html. [>] “crown jewels”: John Markoff, “Cyberattack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/technology/20google.html?_r=0. [>] “Google broke in”: Author conversation with said official, February 2013. [>] Google uncovered evidence: For more on Google’s investigation, see David E. Sanger and John Markoff, “After Google’s Stand on China, US Treads Lightly,” New York Times, January 14, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/15/world/asia/15diplo.html?_r=0. [>] Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg : Author interview with a US intelligence agency consultant with knowledge of the conversation, February 2010.

Thanks also to Ben Pauker, Peter Scoblic, Mindy Kay Bricker, and David Rothkopf for all they’ve done guiding this fast-moving and fast-growing ship. I owe a particular debt of gratitude to the voluminous and insightful reporting of several journalist colleagues whose work informed my own research, including Siobhan Gorman and Danny Yadron at the Wall Street Journal; David Sanger, Nicole Perlroth, and John Markoff at the New York Times; Ellen Nakashima at the Washington Post; Tony Romm at Politico; Spencer Ackerman at the Guardian and formerly of Wired’s Danger Room blog; Kim Zetter, also of Wired and author of its Threat Level blog; Joseph Menn at Reuters; and Michael Riley at Bloomberg Businessweek. Each of them has done groundbreaking work on this terrain. Thanks to my friend and favorite lunch companion, Ben Wittes, whose blog Lawfare is an indispensable destination for serious thinking about national security.

. [>] In 2013 the NSA had a budget: Barton Gellman and Ellen Nakashima, “US Spy Agencies Mounted 231 Offensive Cyber-Operations in 2011, Documents Show,” Washington Post, August 30, 2013, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-08-30/world/41620705_1_computer-worm-former-u-s-officials-obama-administration. [>] “Graduates of the program become”: “About the Program,” Systems and Network Interdisciplinary Program, http://www.nsa.gov/careers/_files/SNIP.pdf. [>] The company itself has been the target: John Markoff, “Cyber Attack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010. 6. The Mercenaries [>] “Bonesaw is the ability to map”: Aram Roston, “Nathaniel Fick, Former CNAS Chief, to Head Cyber Targeting Firm,” C4ISR Journal, January–February 2013, http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130115/C4ISR01/301150007/Nathaniel-Fick-Former-CNAS-Chief-Heads-Cyber-Targeting-Firm. [>] Internal documents show: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Cyber Weapons: The New Arms Race,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 20, 2011, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/cyber-weapons-the-new-arms-race-07212011.html#p4. [>] “Eventually we need to enable”: Andy Greenberg, “Founder of Stealthy Security Firm Endgame to Lawmakers: Let US Companies ‘Hack Back,’” Forbes, September 20, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/09/20/founder-of-stealthy-security-firm-endgame-to-lawmakers-let-u-s-companies-hack-back/. [>] “If you believe that wars”: Joseph Menn, “US Cyberwar Strategy Stokes Fear of Blowback,” Reuters, May 10, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/10/us-usa-cyberweapons-specialreport-idUSBRE9490EL20130510. [>] One prominent player: Information about CrowdStrike’s techniques is based on author interviews with Steve Chabinksy, the company’s general counsel and a former senior FBI official, conducted in July and August 2013.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect: World Trade Organization International Trade Statistics, 2013, World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2013_e/its2013_e.pdf. The highest-skilled labor markets: Richard Rahn, “RAHN: Estonia, the Little Country That Could,” Washington Times, June 20, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/jun/20/the-little-country-that-could/. A computer that can speed up analysis: John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all. Social networks can open doors: Larry Rosen, iDisorder: Understanding Our Obsession with Technology and Overcoming Its Hold on Us (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012). The digitization of payments: Luke Landes, “What Happens If Your Bank Account Is Hacked?”

Apparently the Germans: Alex Knapp, “The World’s Largest Walking Robot Is a Giant Dragon,” Forbes, September 18, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2013/09/18/the-worlds-largest-walking-robot-is-a-giant-dragon/. Run by the National Science Foundation: “National Robotics Initiative Invests $38 Million in Next-Generation Robotics,” R&D Magazine, October 25, 2013, http://www.rdmag.com/news/2013/10/national-robotics-initiative-invests-38-million-next-generation-robotics. The private sector is also investing: John Markoff, “Google Adds to Its Menagerie of Robots,” New York Times, December 14, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/technology/google-adds-to-its-menagerie-of-robots.html?_r=1&. As a kid, Hassabis was: Samuel Gibbs, “Demis Hassabis: 15 Facts about the DeepMind Technologies Founder,” Guardian, January 28, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/technology/shortcuts/2014/jan/28/demis-hassabis-15-facts-deepmind-technologies-founder-google; “Breakthrough of the Year: The Runners-Up,” Science 318, no. 5858 (2007): 1844–49, doi:10.1126/science.318.5858.1844a.

Each of these robots currently costs $25,000: John Biggs, “Foxconn Allegedly Replacing Human Workers with Robots,” TechCrunch, November 13, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/13/foxconn-allegedly-replacing-human-workers-with-robots/; Nicholas Jackson, “Foxconn Will Replace Workers with 1 Million Robots in 3 Years,” Atlantic, July 31, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/07/foxconn-will-replace-workers-with-1-million-robots-in-3-years/242810/. By the end of 2012: Jackson, “Foxconn Will Replace Workers.” Gou hopes to have the first: Robert Skidelsky, “Rise of the Robots: What Will the Future of Work Look Like?” Guardian, February 19, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/feb/19/rise-of-robots-future-of-work. As he explained in a 2012 New York Times article: John Markoff, “Skilled Work, without the Worker,” New York Times, August 19, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industry.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. But wages in China: Keith Bradsher, “Even as Wages Rise, China Exports Grow,” New York Times, January 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/business/international/chinese-exports-withstand-rising-labor-costs.html?


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

“At that time Google still really had a beautiful, angelic reputation.” Even after the local paper outed the benefactor as Google, the company still insisted that local people not make reference to that fact and had local officials sign a confidentiality agreement. When they talked about it, they used the code name Project 02. When visitors came asking, the locals clammed up like bay mussels; New York Times reporter John Markoff traveled to the site in 2006 and was stonewalled by the city manager. An official in a nearby town, free to make sour-grapes jokes at the lucky municipality across the river, said, “It’s a little bit like He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named in Harry Potter.” Indeed, as local reporters found out when Google finally allowed them a glimpse of the compound (only the cafeteria and the public area—not the vast area where the servers resided), outside the security fence was a sign that read voldemort industries.

My friend Lynnea Johnson proved a lifesaver when she offered the Palo Alto cottage she co-owns with Carolyn Rose as my base camp for the project. The actual writing of the book accelerated because of a fantastic uncluttering of my office by Erin Rooney Doland. My fact-checking team included Deborah Branscum, Victoria Wright, Stacy Horn, Teresa Carpenter, and Andrew Levy. (Though, as always, the buck stops with the author.) I got wisdom and advice along the way from John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, and Brad Stone. My first and most enthusiastic reader, of course, was my wife, Teresa Carpenter. (Having a Pulitzer Prize winner in the house is pretty useful.) As always, my agent Flip Brophy was invaluable at every stage of the perilous publishing process. At Simon & Schuster, Bob Bender was again my sharp-eyed editor, with Johanna Li assisting. The meticulous copyeditor at Simon & Schuster was Nancy Inglis.

Kaplan, The Silicon Boys and Their Valley of Dreams (New York: William Morrow, 1999). 74 “zero percent possibility” Ince, “The Lost Google Tapes.” 75 Google’s first press release “Google Receives $25 Million in Equity Funding,” Google Press Center website, June 7, 1999. 77 “true story testimonials” “Google True Story Testimonials,” 2000–2001, Google Press Release. 80 “He was the only” John Markoff and G. Pascal Zachary, “In Searching the Web, Google Finds Riches,” The New York Times, April 13, 2003. 82 “Basically, we needed” Kevin Gray, “The Little Engine That Could,” Details, February 2002. 85 “long tail” The definitive article on this phenomenon is Chris Anderson, “The Long Tail,” Wired, October 2004. Anderson (who is my editor at Wired) later wrote a best-selling book with the same title. 85 Yossi Vardi “Interview with Sergey Brin,” Haaretz.com, June 2, 2008. 90 So Veach devised I described the workings of Google’s ad model in “Secret of Googlenomics,” Wired, April 2009. 94 “That’s really satisfying” Brin told me this while I was researching “The World According to Google,” Newsweek, December 16, 2002. 95 Overture’s failures Flake presented his slide show, “How Google Won the Search Engine Wars,” at the Marketing 3.0 conference in New York City, April 25, 2009. 99 “the dominant transaction mechanism” Benjamin Edelman, Michael Ostrovsky, and Michael Schwarz, “Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth of Keywords,” American Economic Review, March 2007. 101 “many synergies” Amy Harmon, “Google Deal Ties Company to Weblogs,” The New York Times, February 17, 2003. 102 “The potential exists” Danny Sullivan, “Google Throws Hat into the Contextual Advertising Ring,” Search Engine Watch, March 4, 2003. 102 “We could change the economics” Wojcicki called me at Newsweek in 2003 to explain the product. 105 In 2008, a story Nicholas Carlson, “Google’s Worst Ads, Ever,” Business Insider, August 20, 2009. 106 In May 2010 Neal Mohan, “The AdSense Revenue Share,” Google Inside AdSense blog, May 24, 1010.


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The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

., ModMyiFone, Main Page, http://www.modmyifone.com/wiki/index.php/ (as of Sept. 30, 2007, 16:17 GMT) (containing code and instructions for modifications). 5. See Posting of Saul Hansell to N.Y. Times Bits Blog, Saul Hansell, Steve Jobs Girds for the Long iPhone War, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/09/27/steve-jobs-girds-for-the-long-iphone-war/ (Sept. 27, 2007, 19:01); Jane Wake-field, Apple iPhone Warning Proves True, BBC NEWS, Sept. 28, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7017660.stm. 6. See John Markoff, Steve Jobs Walks the Tightrope Again, N.Y. TIMES, Jan. 12, 2007, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/12/technology/12apple.html. 7. Posting of Ryan Block to Engadget, A Lunchtime Chat with Bill Gates, http://www.engadget.com/2007/01/08/a-lunchtime-chat-with-bill-gates-at-ces/ (Jan. 8, 2007, 14:01). PART I. THE RISE AND STALL OF THE GENERATIVE NET 1. For a discussion of the consolidation of the telephone industry at the turn of the twentieth century, see JASON A.

See Sullivan, supra note 1; see also SPAFFORD, THE INTERNET WORM INCIDENT, supra note 7, § 3.3. 11. Sullivan, supra note 1; see, e.g., James Bone, Computer Virus at Pentagon, THE TIMES (LONDON), NOV. 5, 1989; Philip J. Hilts, ‘Virus’ Hits Vast Computer Network; Thousands of Terminals Shut Down to Halt Malicious Program, WASH. POST, NOV. 4, 1988, at A1; Tom Hundley, Computer Virus Attack Called More Persistent Than Brilliant, CHI. TRIE.., Nov. 7, 1988, at C4; John Markoff, Author of Computer ‘Virus’ is Son of N.S.A. Expert on Data Security, N.Y. TIMES, NOV. 5, 1988, § 1, at 1. 12. Ted Eisenberg et al., The Cornell Commission: On Morris and the Worm, 32 COMM. OF the ACM 706, 707 (1989), available at http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=63526.63530 (publishing findings and dispelling myths about Morris and the worm). 13. GAO REPORT, supra note 3. The GAO used the occasion to make its report the first distributed over the Internet as well as on paper.

This all-in-one approach does carry some legal risks: for example, in a recent antitrust case, Microsoft was accused of putting a thumb on the scale for its own browser, not by designing its system to exclude new code, but by exploiting the power of system default options. See United States v. Microsoft Corp., 159 F.R.D. 318, 321 (D.D.C. 1995) (discussing the antitrust investigation against Microsoft and subsequent charges). 5. See John Markoff, Apple Earnings Bolstered by iPod and Notebook Sales, NY. TIMES, July 20, 2006, at C3 (reporting Apple’s 4.6 percent share of the U.S. PC market). 6. See DONALD A. NORMAN, THE INVISIBLE COMPUTER 52 (1998) (arguing that the usefulness of a tool for a particular task is the key virtue of “information appliances”). Indeed, “the primary motivation behind the information appliance is clear: simplicity.


pages: 492 words: 153,565

Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

According to the BBC report, Aghazadeh resigned sometime around June 26. But the June 2009 version of Stuxnet was unleashed June 22, and once it found itself on the right PLC, it took thirteen days for the sabotage to begin. So unless an earlier version of Stuxnet or something else caused an accident at Natanz, the timing didn’t match Aghazadeh’s resignation. 14 Author interview, September 2010. 15 John Markoff, “A Silent Attack, but Not a Subtle One,” New York Times, September 26, 2010. 16 Laurent Maillard, “Iran Denies Nuclear Plant Computers Hit by Worm,” Agence France-Presse, September 26, 2010, available at iranfocus.com/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21820. 17 David E. Sanger, “Iran Fights Malware Attacking Computers,” New York Times, September 25, 2010. 18 Six months later, a report from the Iranian Passive Defense Organization, a military organization chaired by Revolutionary Guard General Gholam-Reza Jalali, which is responsible for defending Iran’s nuclear facilities, contradicted these statements.

Bradley Graham, “Military Grappling with Rules for Cyber,” Washington Post, November 8, 1999. 25 James Risen, “Crisis in the Balkans: Subversion; Covert Plan Said to Take Aim at Milosevic’s Hold on Power,” New York Times, June 18, 1999. A Washington Post story says the plan never came to fruition. “We went through the drill of figuring out how we would do some of these cyber things if we were to do them,” one senior military officer told the paper. “But we never went ahead with any.” Graham, “Military Grappling with Rules for Cyber.” 26 John Markoff and H. Sanker, “Halted ’03 Iraq Plan Illustrates US Fear of Cyberwar Risk,” New York Times, August 1, 2009. According to Richard Clarke, it was the secretary of treasury who vetoed it. See Richard Clarke and Robert Knake, Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It (New York: Ecco, 2010), 202–3. In general, nations have observed an unspoken agreement against manipulating financial systems and accounts out of concern over the destabilizing effect this could have on global markets and economies. 27 David A.

See “How West Infiltrated Iran’s Nuclear Program, Ex-Top Nuclear Official Explains,” Iran’s View, March 28, 2014, www.iransview.com/west-infiltrated-irans-nuclear-program-ex-top-nuclear-official-explains/1451. 15 Yong and Worth, “Bombings Hit Atomic Experts in Iran Streets.” 16 Dagan was reportedly pushed out by Prime Minister Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak because he opposed an air strike against Iran. 17 Yong and Worth, “Bombings Hit Atomic Experts in Iran Streets.” 18 William J. Broad, John Markoff, and David E. Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011. 19 Ibid. CHAPTER 14 SON OF STUXNET As spring arrived in 2011, the story of Stuxnet seemed to be winding down. Symantec had resolved the mystery of the devices the digital weapon attacked, Albright had made the final connection between Stuxnet and the centrifuges at Natanz, and although the US government still hadn’t made a formal admission of responsibility for the attack, the New York Times had confirmed what everyone suspected—that the United States and Israel were behind it.


pages: 514 words: 152,903

The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman

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Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, fixed income, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Parag Khanna, Pareto efficiency, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K, zero-sum game

An energy company could also use Willow for flexible solar cells. Corning even envisions e-books with glass pages. Eventually, Willow will ship out on huge spools, like movie reels, each holding up to 500 feet of glass. That is, once someone places an order. For now, rolls of glass sit on the Harrodsburg factory floor, a solution waiting for the right problem to arise. John Markoff 26. Skilled Work, Without the Worker New York Times The robots are coming for the last of the manufacturing jobs, as John Markoff writes in this fascinating look at the future of building things. This isn’t science fiction or futurism. It’s already happening, and it raises critical questions for society as a whole. At Tesla, the assembly-line workers have “a slightly menacing ‘Terminator’ quality” as the ten-foot-tall robots weld, rivet, and install parts.

Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs Greg Smith New York Times 23. Death Takes a Policy: How a Lawyer Exploited the Fine Print and Found Himself Facing Federal Charges Jake Bernstein ProPublica Part VIII. Brave New World 24. How Companies Learn Your Secrets Charles Duhigg New York Times Magazine 25. Glass Works: How Corning Created the Ultrathin, Ultrastrong Material of the Future Bryan Gardiner Wired 26. Skilled Work, Without the Worker John Markoff New York Times 27.I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave Mac McClelland Mother Jones 28. In China, Human Costs Are Built Into an iPad Charles Duhigg and David Barboza New York Times 29. How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking Mat Honan Wired Permissions List of Contributors Introduction Dean Starkman Compiling the Best Business Writing series each year reliably brings the pleasures of the eclectic and unexpected.

The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited. www.nytimes.com. “Glass Works: How Corning Created the Ultrathin, Ultrastrong Material of the Future.” Copyright © 2012 Condé Nast. All Rights Reserved. Article by Bryan Gardiner originally published in Wired. Reprinted by permission “Skilled Work, Without the Worker,” by John Markoff, from the New York Times, August 19, 2012. © 2012 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited. www.nytimes.com. “I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave,” by Mac McClelland. First published in Mother Jones March/April 2012. © 2012 by Foundation for National Progress.


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Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

The earliest networks—like the Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link (WELL), organized by Stewart Brand, the founder of The Whole Earth Catalog—grew directly out of 1960s counterculture. Brand had helped novelist Ken Kesey organize the Acid Tests—epic be-ins where thousands of hippies ingested LSD and danced to the music of a new band, the Grateful Dead. Steve Jobs, founder of Apple Computer, Inc., dropped acid as well. “Jobs explained,” wrote John Markoff in his book What the Dormouse Said, “that he still believed that taking LSD was one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life, and he said he felt that because people he knew well had not tried psychedelics, there were things about him they couldn’t understand.” Brand, Kesey, and Jobs envisioned a new kind of network that was truly “bottom-up.” But our hopes that this new kind of network would overthrow political hierarchies and decrease inequality have turned out to be pipe dreams, the fantasies of digital utopians.

Less than two minutes into the San Francisco demo, Engelbart said, “If in your office you as an intellectual worker were supplied with a computer display backed up by a computer that was alive for you all day and was instantly responsive to every action you have, how much value could you derive from that?” Engelbart had built a working prototype of what we today would easily recognize as a contemporary Internet device—fifteen years before the introduction of the Apple Macintosh. The next year Engelbart took a team from the Stanford Research Institute to the Lama Foundation commune, north of Taos, New Mexico. It was Stewart Brand who suggested that Lama might provide an atmosphere, as John Markoff wrote, “to create a meeting of the minds between the NLS researchers and the counterculture community animated by the Whole Earth Catalog.” The land outside Taos was full of alternative communities—Morningstar East, Reality Construction Company, the Hog Farm, New Buffalo, and the Family, to name a few. Steve Durkee and Steve Baer, both disciples of Buckminster Fuller and close friends of Stewart Brand, ran Lama, and the architecture of the buildings hewed closely to Bucky Fuller’s geodesic dome design.

Chapter Three: Tech’s Counterculture Roots Although I never got to meet Doug Engelbart, I was fortunate enough to have spent time with some of the founders of the Internet, including Vint Cerf, Tim Berners-Lee, and most especially John Seely Brown, who has been a mentor to me for the past seven years. Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2000). Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), and John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said (New York: Viking, 2005), are both wonderful resources around the story of the early Internet. Lee Vinsel and Andrew Russell, “Hail the Maintainers,” Aeon, April 7, 2016, aeon.co/essays/innovation-is-overvalued-maintenance-often-matters-more. Chapter Four: The Libertarian Counterinsurgency Peter A. Thiel and David O. Sachs, The Diversity Myth (Oakland: The Independent Institute, 1998).


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Healey, “Toyota Deaths Reported to Safety Database Rise to 37,” USA Today, Feb. 17, 2010. 24 A jury found: Phil Baker, “Software Bugs Found to Be Cause of Toyota Acceleration Death,” Daily Transcript, Nov. 4, 2013; Junko Yoshida, “Acceleration Case: Jury Finds Toyota Liable,” EETimes, Oct. 24, 2013. 25 Toyota was accused: Jerry Hirsch, “Toyota Admits Misleading Regulators, Pays $1.2-Billion Federal Fine,” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 2014. 26 According to the London Metropolitan Police: Victoria Woollaston, “Forget Carjacking, the Next Big Threat Is Car-HACKING,” Mail Online, May 8, 2014. 27 The operation takes less: William Pentland, “Car-Hacking Goes Viral in London,” Forbes, May 20, 2014; Thomas Cheshire, “Thousands of Cars Stolen Using Hi-Tech Gadgets,” Sky News, May 8, 2014. 28 Using nothing more than a laptop: Sebastian Anthony, “Hackers Can Unlock Cars via SMS,” ExtremeTech, July 28, 2011; Robert McMillan, “ ‘War Texting’ Lets Hackers Unlock Car Doors Via SMS,” CSO Online, July 27, 2011. 29 Your musical tastes: Rebecca Boyle, “Trojan-Horse MP3s Could Let Hackers Break into Your Car Remotely, Researchers Find,” Popular Science, March 14, 2011. 30 For just under $30: Victoria Woollaston, “The $20 Handheld Device That Hacks a CAR—and Can Control the Brakes,” Mail Online, Feb. 6, 2014. 31 Entirely possible: John Markoff, “Researchers Hack into Cars’ Electronics,” New York Times, March 9, 2011; Chris Philpot, “Can Your Car Be Hacked?,” Car and Driver, Aug. 2011; Andy Greenberg, “Hackers Reveal Nasty New Car Attacks—with Me Behind the Wheel,” Forbes, July 24, 2013; Dan Goodin, “Tampering with a Car’s Brakes and Speed by Hacking Its Computers: A New How-To,” Ars Technica, July 29, 2013. 32 Renault Nissan’s CEO: Paul A. Eisenstein, “Spying, Glitches Spark Concern for Driverless Cars,” CNBC.​com, Feb. 8, 2014. 33 The biggest proponent: Sebastian Anthony, “Google’s Self-Driving Car Passes 700,000 Accident-Free Miles, Can Now Avoid Cyclists, Stop at Railroad Crossings,” ExtremeTech, April 29, 2014; John Markoff, “Google’s Next Phase in Driverless Cars: No Steering Wheel or Brake Pedals,” New York Times, May 27, 2014. 34 Law enforcement officials clearly: Lance Whitney, “FBI: Driverless Cars Could Become ‘Lethal Weapons,’ ” CNET, July 16, 2014. 35 Just as vehicles were rated: Ms.

Weapons System Designs Compromised by Chinese Cyberspies,” Washington Post, May 27, 2013. 56 According to an FBI report: Marcus Ranum, “Cyberwar Rhetoric Is Scarier Than Threat of Foreign Attack,” U.S. News and World Report, March 29, 2010. 57 Of course it is not just the American military’s: Craig Timberg and Ellen Nakashima, “Chinese Cyberspies Have Hacked Most Washington Institutions, Experts Say,” Washington Post, Feb. 20, 2013. 58 Moreover, a 2009 report: John Markoff, “Vast Spy System Loots Computers in 103 Countries,” New York Times, March 28, 2009; Omar El Akkad, “Meet the Canadians Who Busted GhostNet,” Daily Globe and Mail, March 30, 2009; Tom Ashbrook et al., “Unmasking GhostNet,” On Point with Tom Ashbrook, WBUR, April 2, 2009, http://​onpoint.​wbur.​org/​2009/​04/​02/​unmasking-​ghostnet. 59 China has also been accused: David E. Sanger, David Barboza, and Nicole Perlroth, “Chinese Army Unit Is Seen as Tied to Hacking Against U.S.,” New York Times, Feb. 18, 2013. 60 The Times hired the private: Mandiant Corp., “APT 1: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units,” Mandiant. 61 In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Inside the Chinese Boom in Corporate Espionage,” Bloomberg Businessweek, March 15, 2012. 62 All told, between thefts: Lisa Daniels, “DOD Needs Industry’s Help to Catch Cyber Attacks, Commander Says,” Department of Defense News, March 27, 2012; David E.

,” Mashable, June 22, 2012; Kristin Burnham, “Facebook’s WhatsApp Buy: 10 Staggering Stats,” InformationWeek, Feb. 21, 2014. 4 Put another way, every ten minutes: Verlyn Klinkenborg, “Trying to Measure the Amount of Information That Humans Create,” New York Times, Nov. 12, 2003. 5 The cost of storing: McKinsey Global Institute, Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity, May 2011; Kevin Kelly speaking at the Web 2.0 conference in 2011, http://​blip.​tv/​web2expo/​web-​2-​0-​expo-​sf-​2011-​kevin-​kelly-​4980011. 6 Across all industries: World Economic Forum, Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class, Jan. 2011. 7 Eventually, your personal details: Cory Doctorow, “Personal Data Is as Hot as Nuclear Waste,” Guardian, Jan. 15, 2008. 8 That’s one account: Emma Barnett, “Hackers Go After Facebook Sites 600,000 Times Every Day,” Telegraph, Oct. 29, 2011; Mike Jaccarino, “Facebook Hack Attacks Strike 600,000 Times per Day, Security Firm Reports,” New York Daily News, Oct. 29, 2011. 9 Because 75 percent of people: “Digital Security Firm Says Most People Use One Password for Multiple Websites,” GMA News Online, Aug. 9, 2013. 10 Many social media companies: “LinkedIn Hack,” Wikipedia; Jose Pagliery, “2 Million Facebook, Gmail, and Twitter Passwords Stolen in Massive Hack,” CNNMoney, Dec. 4, 2013. 11 Transnational organized crime groups: Elinor Mills, “Report: Most Data Breaches Tied to Organized Crime,” CNET, July 27, 2010. 12 Such was the case: Jason Kincaid, “Dropbox Security Bug Made Passwords Optional for Four Hours,” TeckCrunch, June 20, 2011. 13 Later, however, it was revealed: John Markoff, “Cyberattack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010; Kim Zetter, “Report: Google Hackers Stole Source Code of Global Password System,” Wired, April 20, 2010. 14 According to court documents: John Leyden, “Acxiom Database Hacker Jailed for 8 Years,” Register, Feb. 23, 2006; Damien Scott and Alex Bracetti, “The 11 Worst Online Security Breaches,” Complex.​com, May 9, 2012. 15 More recently, in 2013, the data broker Experian: Brian Krebs, “Experian Sold Customer Data to ID Theft Service,” Krebs on Security, Oct. 20, 2013. 16 Experian learned of the compromise: Byron Acohido, “Scammer Dupes Experian into Selling Social Security Nos,” USA Today, Oct. 21, 2013; Matthew J.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

At the time, Bush was working as the chief administrator of the application of science to warfare: as Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, he coordinated the activities of some 6,000 scientists. The essay was republished, in an abridged form, a month after the atom bomb dropped. It is widely interpreted as sketching a path for new collaborations of scientists from different disciplines in peacetime. But it is most notable for the general-purpose information storage and retrieval machine it proposes, the “memex”. According to John Markoff, author of What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counter-culture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, at around about the time America’s atom bomb destroyed the city of Hiroshima – killing 80,000 of its residents, maiming tens of thousands more, and ending Japan’s involvement in World War II – Doug Engelbart was sailing out of San Francisco harbour on his way to do his military service in the Philippines.

But outside of Chaos, your average 21st-century computer user will be more familiar with the computer components that Doug Engelbart troubled himself over than with anything Vannevar Bush wrote about. Ask a child to draw a computer and he will draw a keyboard, screen, mouse and – possibly – a box sitting next to it. Yet the box is the computer – the rest of it is just input and output devices. Engelbart was not an acid head, but according to John Markoff he, like Brand, had taken part in the IFAS experiments, with mixed results. His first dose of LSD left the reclusive engineer catatonic. In a later experiment, a weaker, second dose was administered before participants, including Engelbart, were asked to work on a selection of engineering problems. According to Markoff: Engelbart’s contribution to the creativity session was a toy he conceived… called… a “tinkle toy”, and it was a little waterwheel that would float in a toilet bowl and spin when water (or urine) was run over it.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

,” International Trade Administration, October 2010, http://trade.gov/publications/ita-newsletter/1010/services-sector-how-best-to-measure-it.asp. 31 AI with Jeremy Howard, 2013. 32 For information on the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark see http://benchmark.ini.rub.de. 33 Geoffrey Hinton et al., “ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks,” http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~fritz/absps/imagenet.pdf. 34 John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced By Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all. 35 David Schatsky and Vikram Mahidhar, “Intelligent automation: A new era of innovation,” Deloitte University Press, January 22, 2014, http://dupress.com/articles/intelligent-automation-a-new-era-of-innovation/. 36 John Markoff, “Computer Wins on ‘Jeopardy!’: Trivial, It’s Not,” New York Times, February 16, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/science/17jeopardy-watson.html?pagewanted=all. 37 “IBM Watson’s Next Venture: Fueling New Era of Cognitive Apps Built in the Cloud by Developers,” IBM Press Release, November 14, 2013, http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/42451.wss. 38 Nancy Dahlberg, “Modernizing Medicine, supercomputer Watson partner up,” Miami Herald, May 16, 2014. 39 AI with Daniel Cane, 2014. 40 Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns.” 41 Daniela Hernandez, “Meet the Man Google Hired to Make AI a Reality,” Wired, January 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/geoffrey-hinton-deep-learning/. 42 AI with Geordie Rose, 2014. 43 See http://1qbit.com. 44 John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude E.

Seriously, it’s one thing for a computer to recognize known objects (zip codes, traffic signs), but categorizing thousands of random objects is an ability that is downright human. Only better. For again the algorithms outperformed people.33 Similar progress is showing up in reading. Today, there are AIs that can accurately and consistently decipher everything from high school student essays to complicated tax forms far faster than humans. Take legal documents, a linguistic quagmire if ever there was one. Yet, as John Markoff wrote in a 2011 article for the New York Times:34 “Thanks to advances in artificial intelligence, ‘e-discovery’ software can analyze documents in a fraction of the time for a fraction of the cost. . . . Some programs go beyond just finding documents with relevant terms at computer speeds. They can extract relevant concepts—like documents relevant to social protest in the Middle East—even in the absence of specific terms, and deduce patterns of behavior that would have eluded lawyers examining millions of documents.”


pages: 378 words: 94,468

Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power

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air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

It was a computer in Engelbart’s Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute that would make the second node of the ARPANET. His dream was a future where workers would sit at personal computers connecting and collaborating. At the same time as many social hierarchies were being challenged, the technical architectures and hardware that would become the internet were taking shape. The links between the 1960s Californian freak scene and the pioneering days of early personal computing are chronicled in John Markoff’s 2005 book What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (even the book’s title is taken from a hoary old Jefferson Airplane track). In it, Markoff revealed that the world’s first online transaction was a drug deal: ‘In 1971 or 1972, Stanford students using Arpanet accounts at SAIL engaged in a commercial transaction with their counterparts at MIT.

Shulgin’s influence and experience bridges the gaps between the early 1950s intellectual explorers and psychiatric treatment pioneers, the 1960s hippy counterculture, 1970s and 1980s underground psychiatry, the 1980s explosion of Ecstasy as a recreational drug, the early internet drug scene of the 1990s and early 2000s – right into the chaotic twenty-first-century situation. What was to complicate the picture was a development that, on reflection, was entirely predictable. As the twentieth century ended, the web wasn’t just a place where you could talk about drugs – it was about to become a place where you could buy them. Notes 1. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2005), p. 109 2. Mylon Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros: 35 Years of Psychedelic Exploration: Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness (Thaneros Pr, 1994) 3. http://kk.org/ct2/2008/09/the-whole-earth-blogalog.php 4. Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, p. 109 5. www.giganews.com/usenet-history/index.html 6.

Nicholas Saunders, E for Ecstasy (Octavo, May 1993); http://ecstasy.org/books/e4x/e4x.ch.02.html 17. The Face, August 1990; http://testpressing.org/2010/07/the-face-europe-a-ravers-guide-august-1990/ 18. www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/subnational-health3/deaths-related-to-drug-poisoning/2010/stb-deaths-related-to-drug-poisoning-2010.html 19. Simon Reynolds, Rip it Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984 (Faber and Faber, 2006), p. xvi Notes 1. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2005), p. 109 2. Mylon Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros: 35 Years of Psychedelic Exploration: Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness (Thaneros Pr, 1994) 3. http://kk.org/ct2/2008/09/the-whole-earth-blogalog.php 4. Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, p. 109 5. www.giganews.com/usenet-history/index.html 6.


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Selfie: How We Became So Self-Obsessed and What It's Doing to Us by Will Storr

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, bitcoin, book scanning, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, gig economy, greed is good, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Lyft, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Mother of all demos, Nixon shock, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Book Six: The Digital Self A man, Doug Engelbart, appearing in a headset: My account of the story of Doug Engelbart, ARC, EST and Stewart Brand was mostly sourced from: What the Dormouse Said, John Markoff (Penguin, 2005); From Counterculture to Cyberculture, Fred Turner (University of Chicago Press, 2006); The Network Revolution, Jacques Vallee (Penguin, 1982); Bootstrapping, Thierry Bardini (Stanford University Press, 2000); ‘Chronicle of the Death of a Laboratory: Douglas Engelbart and the Failure of the Knowledge Workshop’, Thierry Bardini and Michael Friedewald, History of Technology (2003), 23, pp. 191–212; ‘Douglas Engelbart’s lasting legacy’, Tia O’Brien, Mercury News, 3 March 2013. A video of Engelbart’s presentation is widely available online. The account I’ve given in the text has been lightly edited for sense and concision. audience considered Engelbart a ‘crackpot’: ‘The Mother of All Demos – 150 years ahead of its time’, Cade Metz, Register, 11 December 2008. John Markoff has called ‘a complete vision of the information age’: What the Dormouse Said, John Markoff (Penguin, 2005), p. 9. In 1968, the year of the demo, the Institute’s co-founder Michael Murphy had written: ‘Esalen: Where Man Confronts Himself’, Michael Murphy, Stanford Alumni Almanac, May 1968. with one 1985 Esquire story reporting ‘scientists’: ‘Encounters at the Mind’s Edge’, George Leonard, Esquire, June 1985. Tim O’Reilly, the man who in 2005 christened the internet’s: ‘The Trend Spotter’, Steven Levy, Wired, 1 October 2010.

This insight came to him during his commute and he found it so awful he’d had to pull his car over. ‘My God, this is ridiculous. No goals!’ He spent that night preoccupied with finding a new project to aim his life at. He knew he wanted to change the world. But how? Could he invent something that would help humans cope better with the dizzying complexity of the future? It all came to him, then, in a torrent of fabulous insight that Silicon Valley historian John Markoff has called ‘a complete vision of the information age’. In his vision, he saw a man sitting at a screen that was attached to a computer and there were characters on the screen and the computer would be a kind of portal to all the information you’d need to do your work, and it would be wired to other computers, so you could communicate with each other, and your computer would work for you, organizing and aiding your working life.

It doesn’t necessarily follow that because she’s influential, she’d automatically agree with the ideas and works of all the people she’s influenced. In fact, as we’re talking about Rand, this seems staggeringly unlikely. Book Six: The Digital Self A man, Doug Engelbart, appearing in a headset: My account of the story of Doug Engelbart, ARC, EST and Stewart Brand was mostly sourced from: What the Dormouse Said, John Markoff (Penguin, 2005); From Counterculture to Cyberculture, Fred Turner (University of Chicago Press, 2006); The Network Revolution, Jacques Vallee (Penguin, 1982); Bootstrapping, Thierry Bardini (Stanford University Press, 2000); ‘Chronicle of the Death of a Laboratory: Douglas Engelbart and the Failure of the Knowledge Workshop’, Thierry Bardini and Michael Friedewald, History of Technology (2003), 23, pp. 191–212; ‘Douglas Engelbart’s lasting legacy’, Tia O’Brien, Mercury News, 3 March 2013.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Advances in AI are now being employed across a range of professional disciplines to increase efficiency and productivity and reduce human labor. EDiscovery is a software program that can sift through millions of legal documents, looking for patterns of behavior, lines of thought, concepts, and the like, at speeds that would trump the best Harvard-educated lawyers and with crisp analysis that even the most well-trained legal scholars might miss. The savings in labor cost is equally impressive. The New York Times journalist John Markoff cites the example of a blockbuster lawsuit in 1978 involving five television studios, the U.S. Justice Department, and CBS. The studios’ lawyers and paralegals had the unenviable task of reading through more than 6 million documents over months at a cost of $2.2 million in labor time. In January 2011 BlackStone Discovery, a Palo Alto, California, enterprise, analyzed 1.5 million legal documents using eDiscovery software for less than $100,000.

Peter Joseph, Roxanne Meadows, and Jacque Fresco, “The Zeitgeist Movement: Observations and Responses,” Zeitgeist Movement, February 2009 http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/socio politica/zeitgeist08.htm (accessed June 13, 2013). 14. Caroline Baum, “So Who’s Stealing China’s Manufacturing Jobs?,” Bloomberg, October 14 2003, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aRI4bAft7Xw4 (accessed July 1, 2013). 15. John Markoff, “Skilled Work, without the Worker,” New York Times, August 18, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-indus try.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (accessed July 1, 2013). 16. Ibid. 17. “World Robotics 2012 Industrial Robots,” International Federation of Robotics, http://www.ifr .org/industrial-robots/statistics/ (accessed May 26, 2013). 18.

Jason Perlow, “In the Battle of Clicks versus Bricks, Retail Must Transform or Die,” ZDNet, December 8, 2011, http://www.zdnet.com/blog/perlow/in-the-battle-of-clicks-versus-bricks-retail -must-transform-or-die/19418 (accessed August 3, 2013). 33. “Occupational Employment and Wages News Release,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 29, 2013, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.htm (accessed June 8, 2013). 34. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all (accessed October 20, 2013). 35. Ibid. 36. Christopher Steiner, “Automatons Get Creative,” New York Times, August 17, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10000872396390444375104577591304277229534#printprin (accessed June 30, 2013). 37.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Urmas Paet, accused the Kremlin directly: Doug Bernard, “New Alarm Bells, and Old Questions, About the Flame Virus and Cyber-War,” VOA (blog), May 30, 2012, http://blogs.voanews.com/digital-frontiers/tag/cyber-war/. NATO and European Commission experts were unable to find evidence: “Estonia Has No Evidence of Kremlin Involvement in Cyber Attacks,” RIA Novosti (Moscow), June 9, 2007, http://en.rian.ru/world/20070906/76959190.html. websites for the Georgian military and government were brought down: John Markoff, “Georgia Takes a Beating in the Cyberwar with Russia,” Bits (blog), New York Times, August 11, 2008, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/08/11/georgia-takes-a-beating-in-the-cyberwar-with-russia/; John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” New York Times, August 12, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/technology/13cyber.html. Russian hackers targeted the Internet providers in Kyrgyzstan: Gregg Keizer, “Russian ‘Cybermilitia’ Knocks Kyrgyzstan Offline,” Computerworld, January 28, 2009, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9126947/Russian_cybermilitia_knocks_Kyrgyzstan_offline.

Some refer to this as the upcoming Code War: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Cyber Weapons: The New Arms Race,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, July 20, 2011, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/cyber-weapons-the-new-arms-race-07212011.html. As you can see, we did not coin the term “code war.” DDoS attacks crippled major government websites: Kim Zetter, “Lawmaker Wants ‘Show of Force’ Against North Korea for Website Attacks,” Wired, July 10, 2009, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/07/show-of-force/. suggested that the network of attacking computers, or botnet, began in North Korea: Choe Sang-Hun and John Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” New York Times, July 9, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/10/technology/10cyber.html?_r=1; Associated Press (AP), “U.S. Officials Eye N. Korea in Cyberattack,” USA Today, July 9, 2009, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/washington/2009-07-08-hacking-washington-nkorea_N.htm. Officials in Seoul directly pointed their fingers at Pyongyang: Choe and Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” New York Times, July 9, 2009.

mobile-phone service was also suspended: Associated Press (AP), “Vodafone: Egypt Ordered Cell Phone Service Stopped,” Huffington Post, January 28, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/28/vodafone-egypt-service-dropped_n_815493.html. Vodafone Egypt, issued a statement that morning: “Statements—Vodafone Egypt,” Vodafone, see January 28, 2011, http://www.vodafone.com/content/index/media/press_statements/statement_on_egypt.html. fiber-optic cables housed in one building in Cairo: James Glanz and John Markoff, “Egypt Leaders Found ‘Off’ Switch for Internet,” New York Times, February 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/technology/16internet.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. through its state-owned company Telecom Egypt, physically cut their service: Ibid. It was a move unprecedented in recent history: Parmy Olson, “Egypt Goes Dark, Cuts Off Internet and Mobile Networks,” Forbes, January 28, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2011/01/28/egypt-goes-dark/.


pages: 297 words: 89,820

The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness by Steven Levy

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Apple II, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, en.wikipedia.org, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technology bubble, Thomas L Friedman

An addendum by Bill Kincaid (www.panic.com/extras/audionstory/ popup-sjstory.html) describes the origin of Soundjam. 54 Anthony Michael Fadell: Tony Fadell's now-dark Web site provided background, as did Pamela Kruger and Katherine Miezknowski, "Stop the Fight," Fast Company, September 1998; Stephen Roskoff, "U-M Students: They're Bullish on Business," Michigan Alumnus, November-December 1989; and John Markoff, "Oh, Yeah, He Also Sells Computers," The New York Times, April 25,2004. 64 PortalPlayer, Pixo: Besides personal interviews, my account of the iPod's outside suppliers drew on Erik Sherman, "Inside the Apple iPod Design Triumph," Electronics Design Chain, Summer 2002; Mathew Yi, Notes "Little Known Startup Was Behind iPod's Easy-to-use Interface," San Francisco Chronicle, August 16,2004; and John H.

Notes 201 Mac team: I addressed the dynamics of Jobs and the Mac team in Insanely Great: The Story of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything (New York: Viking, 1994). 214 "Style is nice": Colleen Ryan was interviewed by my Newsweek colleague Brad Stone. 216 Sony: In addition to several personal interviews with Howard Stringer and other Sony executives, my discussion of Sony was informed by Phred Dvorak, "At Sony, Rivalries Were Encouraged; Then Came iPod," The Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2005; and Frank Rose, "The Civil War Inside Sony," Wired, February 2003. 218 Neistat: My researcher Jodi Mardesch interviewed the Neistat brothers. You can view the movie on the Neistat Web site http://www.ipods dirtysecret.com. 221 The iPod Economy: Damon Darlin, "Add-ons Have Become a Billion-Dollar Bonanza," The New York Times, February 3,2006. 226 "Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future": John Markoff, "Michael Dell Should Eat His Words, Apple Chief Suggests," The New York Times, January 16,2006. Podcast 230 iPod-based tour commentaries: Hannah Karp, "Hearing the Sights," The Wall Street Journal, April 21,2006. 231 ShasPod: My researcher Jodi Mardesch interviewed Shmidman. I also consulted Alex Mindlin, "2000 Talmud Tapes, or One Loaded iPod," The New York Times, March 17,2005. 238 Think Secret: Tom McNichol, "Think Belligerent," Wired, May 2005. 240 "Podcasting will shift": Doc Searls, "DIY Radio with Podcasting," Doc Searls'IT Garage, September 28,2004.

Once I engaged in a round of interviews and investigation for the book, I was aided in my work by Jodi Mardesch, a truly over-qualified researcher. Victoria Wright did her usual terrific job of transcribing tapes (and this time, MP3 files). Kevin McCarthy and J. Gabriel Boylan painstakingly fact-checked the manuscript. Brooke Hammerling and Julie Panebianco helped with music industry connections. Thanks also to J. J. Jacobi, Carl Malamud, Bruce Schneier, and John MarkofF. My agent. Flip Brophy, not only supplied the usual good advice but the perfect place to work during crunch time. (Thanks also to everyone at Sterling Lord Literistic.) I'm happy that David Rosenthal of Simon & Schuster finally bought one of my books, and happier still to be edited by Bob Bender, who even kept his cool when I told him my idea about shuffling the book. Johanna Li kept things moving.


pages: 284 words: 92,387

The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement by David Graeber

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Bretton Woods, British Empire, corporate personhood, David Graeber, deindustrialization, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, financial innovation, George Gilder, John Markoff, Lao Tzu, late fees, Occupy movement, payday loans, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, working poor

If we want to explore the origins of those democratic sensibilities that caused ordinary New Yorkers to feel sympathetic to the idea of democratic rule in the first place, or even to find where people actually had direct, hands-on experience in collective decision making that might have influenced their sense of what democracy might actually be like, we not only have to look beyond the sitting rooms of the educated gentry. In fact, we soon find ourselves in places that might seem, at first, genuinely startling. In 1999, one of the leading contemporary historians of European democracy, John Markoff, published an essay called “Where and When Was Democracy Invented?” In it there appears the following passage: That leadership could derive from the consent of the led, rather than be bestowed by higher authority, would have been a likely experience of the crews of pirate vessels in the early modern Atlantic world. Pirate crews not only elected their captains, but were familiar with countervailing power (in the forms of the quartermaster and ship’s council) and contractual relations of individual and collectivity (in the form of written ship’s articles specifying shares of booty and rates of compensation for on-the-job injury).16 He makes the remark very much in passing but in a way it’s a very telling example.

Generally the electorate was a local council of worthies; in London, for instance, such a group might consist of 150 out of 3,000 local inhabitants. 7. Bernard Manin, The Principles of Representative Government (Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 38. In ancient Greece, for instance, democracies tended to choose holders of executive positions by lot, from among a pool of volunteers, while election was considered the oligarchic approach. 8. See John Markoff, “Where and When Was Democracy Invented?,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, no.4 (1991): 663–65. 9. Gouverneur Morris to [John] Penn, May 20, 1774, in Jared Sparks, The Life of Gouverneur Morris: With Selections from His Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers: Detailing Events in the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and in the Political History of the United States (Boston: Grey & Bowen, 1830), p. 25. 10.

Madison, Federalist Papers, No. 10, pp. 54–55. 13. Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, Athens on Trial (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), p. 183. 14. Benjamin Rush, Medical Inquiries and Observations, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: J. Conrad, 1805), pp. 292–93. 15. Francis Dupuis-Déri, “History of the Word ‘Democracy’ in Canada and Québec: A Political Analysis of Rhetorical Strategies,” World Political Science Review, 6, no. 1 (2010): 3–4. 16. John Markoff, “Where and When Was Democracy Invented?,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, no. 41 (1999): 673. 17. As reconstructed by Marcus Rediker in Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age (Boston: Beacon Press, 2004). 18. Ibid., p. 53. 19. Colin Calloway, New Worlds for All (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). (cf. Axtell 1985) 20. Cotton Mather, Things for a Distress’d People to Think Upon (Boston, 1696). 21.


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The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Michael Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009), p. 4. 3. Joseph Hooper, “DARPA’s Debacle in the Desert,” Popular Science, June 4, 2004, http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2004-06/darpa-grand-challenge-2004darpas-debacle-desert. 4. Mary Beth Griggs, “4 Questions About Google’s Self-Driving Car Crash,” Popular Mechanics, August 11, 2011, http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/news/indus try/4-questions-about-googles-self-driving-car-crash; John Markoff, “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html. 5. Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (New York: HarperCollins, 2012), p. 72. 6. Levy and Murnane, The New Division of Labor, p. 29. 7. “Siri Is Actually Incredibly Useful Now,” Gizmodo, accessed August 4, 2013, http://gizmodo.com/5917461/siri-is-better-now. 8.

“Minneapolis Street Test: Google Gets a B+, Apple’s Siri Gets a D - Apple 2.0 -Fortune Tech,” CNNMoney, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/06/29/minneapolis-street-test-google-gets-a-b-apples-siri-gets-a-d/ (accessed June 23, 2013). 10. Ning Xiang and Rendell Torres, “Architectural Acoustics and Signal Processing in Acoustics: Topical Meeting on Spatial and Binaural Evaluation of Performing Arts Spaces I: Measurement Techniques and Binaural and Interaural Modeling,” 2004, http://scita tion.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JASMAN000116000004. 11. As quoted in John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 12. “Spring Cleaning for Some of Our APIs,” The Official Google Code Blog, June 3, 2011, http://googlecode.blogspot.com/2011/05/spring-cleaning-for-some-of-our-apis.html. 13. Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (New York: Random House, 2007), p. 54. 14.

Lars Bo Jeppesen and Karim Lahkani, “Marginality and Problem Solving Effectiveness in Broadcast Search,” Organization Science 20 (2013), http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/3351241/Jeppesen_Marginality.pdf?sequence=2. 24. “Predicting Liability for Injury from Car Accidents,” Kaggle, 2013, http://www.kaggle.com/solutions/casestudies/allstate. 25. “Carlsberg Brewery Harnesses Design Innovation Using Affinnova,” Affinnova, http://www.affinnova.com/success-story/carlsberg-breweries/ (accessed August 6, 2013). Chapter 6 ARTIFICIAL AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE IN THE SECOND MACHINE AGE 1. John Markoff, “Israeli Start-Up Gives Visually Impaired a Way to Read,” New York Times, June 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/04/science/israeli-start-up-gives-visually-impaired-a-way-to-read.html. 2. “Press Announcements – FDA Approves First Retinal Implant for Adults with Rare Genetic Eye Disease,” WebContent, February 14, 2013, http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm339824.htm. 3.


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WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

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1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Clay Shirky, transcript of talk at Web 2.0 conference, April 23, 2008, www.herecomeseverybody.org/2008/04/looking-for-the-mouse.html. Chapter 4 1 David Weinberger, “Transparency is the New Objectivity,” JOHO the Blog, July 19, 2009, www.hyperorg.com/blogger/2009/07/19/transparency-isthe-new-objectivity. The video of Weinberger’s talk is posted here www. youtube.com/watch?v=o3qSDLF6lU4. 2 John Markoff, “Plan Opens More Data to the Public,” The New York Times, October 22, 1993. 3 Carl Malamud, “By the People,” Address to the Government 2.0 Summit, Washington D.C., September 9, 2009, http://public.resource.org/people. 4 John Markoff, “Group to Widen Access to Federal Data Bases,” The New York Times, December 23, 1994. 5 Gary Ruskin, “America Off-Line: Gingrich’s Unfulfilled Internet Promise,” The Washington Post, November 16, 1997, www.washingtonpost.com/ wp-srv/politics/govt/fedguide/stories/fig112197.htm. 6 Daniel Charles, “2006 Young Innovators Under 35,” Technology Review, www.technologyreview.biz/TR35/Profile.aspx?

Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams

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Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K

In August of 1998, when chip-maker Intel purchased a stake in GNU/Linux vendor 142 Red Hat, an accompanying New York Times article described the company as the product of a movement "known alternatively as free software and open source."See Amy Harmon, "For Sale: Free Operating System," New York Times (September 28, 1998). Six months later, a John Markoff article on Apple Computer was proclaiming the company's adoption of the "open source" Apache server in the article headline.See John Markoff, "Apple Adopts 'Open Source' for its Server Computers," New York Times (March 17, 1999). Such momentum would coincide with the growing momentum of companies that actively embraced the "open source" term. By August of 1999, Red Hat, a company that now eagerly billed itself as "open source," was selling shares on Nasdaq. In December, VA Linux-formerly VA Research-was floating its own IPO to historical effect.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

The ads that appeared in 1976 for their first Apple computer announced that “our philosophy is to provide software for our machines free or at minimal cost” and “yes folks, Apple BASIC is Free.”16 1984 During the decade after Computer Lib, as personal computers became fixtures in American homes and as computer companies became established organizations in their own right, the notion that personal computers represented a naked challenge to the centralized power of both computing and larger institutions persisted. John Markoff’s account of the counterculture’s influence on personal computing relates how “[t]he old computing world was hierarchical and conservative. Years later, after the PC was an established reality, Ken Olson, the founder of minicomputer maker Digital Equipment Corporation, still … publicly asserted that there was no need for a home computer.”17 On the other hand, antiestablishment ideology became entrenched in manifold specifics of the PC’s design; Markoff relates, for instance, that the visualization that comes with iTunes—the pretty colors that move and change in sequence with the music—was inspired in part by Jobs’s use of LSD, which Jobs called “one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life.”

The quotation is taken from his essay “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time, 1 Mar. 1995. 13. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/newsletters/peoples-computer/peoples-1972-oct/index.html 14. http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/homebrew_and_how_the_apple.php 15. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/newsletters/homebrew/V2_01/index.html 16. http://www.gadgetspage.com/comps-peripheral/apple-i-computer-ad.html 17. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 1996). 18. http://pdgmag.com/2012/02/02/steve-jobs-lee-clow-and-ridley-scott-the-three-geniuses-who-made-1984-less-like-1984/ 19. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8 20. Adelia Cellini, “The Story Behind Apple’s ‘1984’ TV Commercial: Big Brother at 20.” MacWorld 21, no. 1 (2004): 18. 21. http://partners.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/12/biztech/articles/122099outlook-bobb.html?

The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

The next chapter explores half a dozen of the most plausible scenarios. By assessing the likelihood and utility of each scenario, and understanding how to achieve or avoid them, we may be able to achieve the most positive outcome of the economic singularity. 6. - Scenarios 6.1 – No Change In a July 2015 interview with Edge, an online magazine, Pulitzer Prize-winning veteran New York Times journalist John Markoff lamented the deceleration of technological progress - in fact he claimed that it has come to a halt.[cccxlii] He reported that Moore’s Law stopped reducing the price of computer components in 2013, and pointed to the disappointing performance of the robots entered into the DARPA Robotics Challenge in June 2015 (which we reviewed in chapter 3.7). He claimed that there has been no profound technological innovation since the invention of the smartphone in 2007, and complained that basic science research has essentially died, with no modern equivalent of Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC), which was responsible for many of the fundamental features of computers which we take for granted today, like graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and indeed the PC.

[cccxl] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_and_drugs_and_rock_and_roll [cccxli] I am that terrible old cliché: a socialist student whose left-wing views did not long survive contact with the world of work. As a trainee BBC journalist writing about Central and Eastern Europe long before the Berlin Wall fell, I soon realised how fortunate I was to have grown up in the capitalist West. I didn’t expect to be heading back in the other direction in later life. [cccxlii] https://edge.org/conversation/john_markoff-the-next-wave [cccxliii] http://uk.pcmag.com/robotics-automation-products/34778/news/will-a-robot-revolution-lead-to-mass-unemployment [cccxliv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment [cccxlv] http://www.prisonexp.org/ [cccxlvi] http://fourhourworkweek.com/2014/08/29/kevin-kelly/ [cccxlvii] https://www.edge.org/conversation/kevin_kelly-the-technium [cccxlviii] http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/165acton.html [cccxlix] http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Brito_BitcoinPrimer.pdf [cccl] http://www.dugcampbell.com/byzantine-generals-problem/ [cccli] http://www.economistinsights.com/technology-innovation/analysis/money-no-middleman/tab/1 [ccclii] : The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI) in Northern California, The Future of Humanity Institute (FHI) and the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (CSER) in England’s Oxford and Cambridge respectively, and the Future of Life Institute (FLI) in Massachussetts.


pages: 352 words: 96,532

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon

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air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy

Also by Katie Hafner The House at the Bridge: A Story of Modern Germany Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (with John Markoff) TOUCHSTONE Rockefeller Center 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Visit us on the World Wide Web: http://www.SimonSays.com Copyright © 1996 by Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. First Touchstone Edition 1998 TOUCHSTONE and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster Inc. Includes index. ISBN-10: 0-684-87216-1 ISBN-13: 978-0-684-87216-2 To the memory of J. C. R. Licklider and to the memory of Cary Lu Contents Prologue 1. The Fastest Million Dollars 2. A Block Here, Some Stones There 3.

Memories were growing fuzzy in late 1993, when we first started thinking about doing a book, and Frank Heart and others were interested in having BBN’s considerable role in the creation of the original ARPANET recorded. Not only did the company open its archives to us and cooperate in every way but it helped fund the project as well, while agreeing to exercise no control over the content of the book. Marian Bremer, then BBN’s head librarian, made the initial phone call that led to the book. Cary Lu and John Markoff urged us to take on the project. Helen Samuels and the folks at MIT archives were immensely helpful, as was Kevin Corbitt, assistant archivist at the Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing, at the University of Minnesota. We are grateful to John Day, Larry Roberts, Al Vezza, and John Shoch for digging around in old boxes for us. Deborah Melone and Bob Menk sent photographs and archives from BBN.


pages: 363 words: 94,139

Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products by Leander Kahney

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Apple II, banking crisis, British Empire, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Computer Numeric Control, Dynabook, global supply chain, interchangeable parts, John Markoff, Jony Ive, race to the bottom, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the built environment, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple

The couple moved into a modest house on San Francisco’s Twin Peaks, the highest hill in the city, from which they enjoyed a stunning view of the city that extended the length of Market Street to the skyscrapers downtown. Inside, the place reflected Jony’s design tastes. “There is a fireplace in the sparsely appointed interior and a tiny television sitting atop an upscale stereo with a turntable, and virtually all the furniture is on wheels,” wrote reporter John Markoff, who visited Jony and his wife for a New York Times profile a few years later.1 “The room is lighted by a futuristic lamp, which appears to hang like a red orb, but there isn’t a personal computer in sight.” Jony bought an orange Saab convertible for the commute to Apple, about thirty-five miles away down the Peninsula in Cupertino. He went to work in the IDg studio on Valley Green Drive, a short walk from Apple’s main campus on Infinite Loop.

Peter Burrows, “Who Is Jonathan Ive?” Businessweek, originally in Radical Craft Conference, the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, California., http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-09-24/who-is-jonathan-ive 52. Design Museum, http://designmuseum.org/design/jonathan-ive. 53. Ibid. 54. Interview with Peter Phillips, Spring 2013. CHAPTER 4 Early Days at Apple 1. John Markoff, “At Home with Jonathan Ive: Making Computers Cute Enough to Wear,” http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/05/garden/at-home-with-jonathan-ive-making-computers-cute-enough-to-wear.html, published Feruary 05, 1998. 2. Paul Kunkel, AppleDesign, (New York: Graphis Inc., 1997), p. 81. 3. Interview with Robert Brunner, March 2013. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Interview with Rick English, December 2012. 7.


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Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy by Erik Brynjolfsson

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, business process, call centre, combinatorial explosion, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, hiring and firing, income inequality, intangible asset, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Ray Kurzweil, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, shareholder value, Skype, too big to fail, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Similarly, the best therapists, managers, and salespeople excel at interacting and communicating with others, and their strategies for gathering information and influencing behavior can be amazingly complex. But it’s also true, as the examples in this chapter show, that as we move deeper into the second half of the chessboard, computers are rapidly getting better at both of these skills. We’re starting to see evidence that this digital progress is affecting the business world. A March 2011 story by John Markoff in the New York Times highlighted how heavily computers’ pattern recognition abilities are already being exploited by the legal industry where, according to one estimate, moving from human to digital labor during the discovery process could let one lawyer do the work of 500. In January, for example, Blackstone Discovery of Palo Alto, Calif., helped analyze 1.5 million documents for less than $100,000. … “From a legal staffing viewpoint, it means that a lot of people who used to be allocated to conduct document review are no longer able to be billed out,” said Bill Herr, who as a lawyer at a major chemical company used to muster auditoriums of lawyers to read documents for weeks on end.


pages: 889 words: 433,897

The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey by Emmanuel Goldstein

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affirmative action, Apple II, call centre, don't be evil, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, information retrieval, John Markoff, late fees, license plate recognition, optical character recognition, packet switching, pirate software, place-making, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RFID, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, Y2K

But what was most amazing was that we wound up getting steered in a totally different direction when in 1998 we got a hold of an internal copy of the screenplay (don’t 94192c08.qxd 6/3/08 3:32 PM Page 235 Pop Culture and the Hacker World ask) for a new movie called Takedown. To put it mildly, we thought it was treating the hacker community and Mitnick in particular in a very unfair manner. So we decided to speak up about it. And that would lead to the making of our own film.... When Hackers Ride Horses: A Review of Cyberpunk (Summer, 1991) Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier By Katie Hafner and John Markoff $22.95, Simon and Schuster, 354 pages Review by The Devil’s Advocate The exploits of Kevin Mitnick, Pengo, and Robert Morris have become legendary both in and out of the hacker mainstream. Until now, however, hackers have had to worship their idols from afar. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier unites hackers in this true-life testimony by presenting an in-depth, up-front view of these “techno-menaces” without the overreactive doomsday prophecies that usually accompany such a work.

Rather, Littman’s brand of compassion is 245 94192c08.qxd 6/3/08 3:32 PM Page 246 246 Chapter 8 an acute understanding of the abuses of his own craft, that of the media in distorting facts to the point of creating fiction. Fugitive is the story of how just such irresponsible journalism turned computer expert Kevin Mitnick into “the most wanted computer hacker in the world.” Readers will remember Mitnick as the spiteful and vindictive teenager featured in Katie Hafner and John Markoff’s Cyberpunk: Computers and Outlaws on the Electronic Frontier. At the time of its release, Cyberpunk’s portrayal of Mitnick was thought to be biased, allegedly because Mitnick was the only hacker featured who refused to be interviewed. Biased or not, he was portrayed by the authors as a “Dark Side” hacker, and the antithesis of the hacker ethic. He was considered more evil than Pengo, a West Berlin hacker who sold his knowledge of American systems on the Internet to the Russians for cash.

In Fugitive, Littman reminds us that an investigative journalist’s most powerful weapon is still to question. Question everything. Question the good guys. Question the bad guys. Question authority. Fugitive is replete with questioning, most of which remains unanswered. While loose ends are not usually considered praiseworthy for an investigative work, in this case, the kudos are indeed appropriate because Littman seems to be the only one doing the questioning. Certainly John Markoff, despite Cyberpunk and all of his New York Times pieces, has never bothered to scratch below the surface of Mitnick or acquire the true facts of his case. Littman spends entire chapters debunking the myths and distortions surrounding Mitnick, most of which originated from these very sources. And Littman’s questions have a way of reminding the reader to remain skeptical, that things are never as simple as we 94192c08.qxd 6/3/08 3:32 PM Page 247 Pop Culture and the Hacker World would like them to be.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

When we log onto Google, it instantly identifies our approximate geographical location from the Internet Protocol address on the browser that connects us to the Internet. Thus the query is dispatched to the closest data center, which produces a speedier result. But the data centers are meant for more than search. Eric Schmidt, Schachter noted, has been proselytizing for cloud computing for two decades, since he was a Sun executive touting “network computing.” That same year, 2004, John Markoff of the New York Times spotted it too. While others saw Microsoft training its guns on search, he saw Google taking aim at Microsoft’s software. The scale of the Google computer system, as well as the backgrounds of its management, he wrote, “suggests that while Microsoft may want to be the next Google, the Web search company has its own still-secret plans to become the next Microsoft.” A STRIKING TAKEAWAY from the Google IPO and letter is that Google’s two thirty-one-year-old founders were driving the company with a clarity of purpose that would be stunning if they were twice their age.

“Your choices suck”: author interview with Mel Karmazin, May 13, 2008. 12 “I will believe in the 500-channel world”: Sumner Redstone speech before the National Press Club, October 19, 1994. 13 Vinod Khosla ... once told: “An Oral History of the Internet,” Vanity Fair, July 2008. 13 “a tsunami”: author interview with Craig Newmark, January 11, 2008. 14 Nielsen reported: The Nielsen Company, “Three Screen Report,” May 2008. 14 In 2008, more Americans: press release from the Pew Research Center for People & the Press, December 23, 2008. 14 the number one network teleuision show: Nielsen Media Research. 14 an estimated 1.6 billion: Universal McCann study, “Wave.3,” March 2008, and John Markoff, the New York Times, August 30, 2008. 14 newspapers, which traditionally claimed nearly a quarter: JackMyers.com. 14 lost 167,000 jobs: Advertising Age report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 18, 2008. 14 two hundred billion dollars: Myers Advertising and Marketing Investment Insights, annual advertising spending forecast, September 15, 2007. 14 plunge below 20 percent: McCann Erickson Worldwide chart of percentage of ad dollars by media, 1980-2007. 15 it took telephones seventy-one years ... just five years: Progress & Freedom Foundation report, January 16, 2008, and “The Decade of Online Advertising,” DoubleClick, April 2005. 15 thirty-four technology stocks: charts provided to the author by Yossi Vardi. 15 1 million job applications: author interview with Lazslo Bock, August 22, 2007. 15 Its revenues... from advertising and other Google statistics: Google’s SEC filing for fiscal year ending December 31, 2007, Google Amendment No. 9 to Form S-1, filed with the SEC August 18, 2004, and Google 10-K filed with the SEC, December 31, 2008. 16 daily advertising impressions: Google Product Strategy Meeting attended by the author, April 16, 2008. 16 Google’s hundreds of millions of daily auctions: reported in its Google 10-K SEC filing for the year ending December 31, 2007. 16 index contained: Google’s third-quarter earnings report, October 16, 2008. 16 billions of pages per day: Google internal documents for March 2008, presented at an April 16, 2008, Google Product Strategy Meeting attended by the author. 16 tens of billions: May 2007 revenue report, the Interactive Advertising Bureau. 16 YouTube ... twenty-five million unique daily visitors; DoubleClick posted seventeen billion: Eric Schmidt presentation to Google employees, April 28, 2008. 16 Google’s ad revenues in 2008: “Media Spending 2006-2009 Estimates,” JackMyers. com, January 29, 2008. 16 “We began”: Google 10-K filed in 2008 for the period ending December 31, 2007. 16 “We are in the advertising business”: author interview with Eric Schmidt, October 9, 2007. 17 likens Google to ...

“: author interview with Marissa Mayer, November 4, 2008. 108 The stock reached $108.31 ... to its employees: SEC Form S-1, August 2004. 109 Even Bonnie Brown: Stefanie Olsen, CNET News, January 23, 2008. 110 ”We began as a technology company“: Google IPO, SEC form 3-1, August 2004. 110 two hundred million dollars in 2003: author interview with Benjamin Schachter, February 15, 2008. 110 ”In a second“: author interview with Matt Cutts, March 26, 2008. 111 ”suggests that while Microsoft“: John Markoff, ”Why Google Is Peering Out, at Microsoft,“ New York Times, May 3, 2004. 111”we believe that our user focus“: Google IPO, August 2004. 112 ”Being less experienced“: author interview with Larry Page, March 25, 2008. 112. ”A lot of it is common sense“: author interview with Sergey Brin, September 18, 2008. 112 ”They wanted to replicate the Stanford culture“: author interview with Ram Shriram, June 12, 2008. 112 ”They predicted things that did not make sense to me“: author interview with Urs Hölzle, September 10, 2007. 112 ”Their clear, coherent point of view“: author interview with Terry Winograd, September 25, 2007. 112”The number of times they made me change my opinion“: author interview with Rajeev Motwani, October 12, 2007. 113 the construct framed by Eric Steven Raymond: Eric Steven Raymond, ”The Cathedral and the Bazaar,“ found at http:/wwwcatb.org/-esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/. 113 Page and Brin actually have more experience: author interview with Eric Schmidt, September 12, 2007. 113 ”quintessential Montessori kids“: author interview with Marissa Mayer, August 21, 2007. 114 ”question everything“: Larry Page speech at University of Michigan, 2005. 114 ”There’s kind of a strength in the duo“: author interview with Bill Campbell, October 8, 2007. 114 ”We agree eighty to ninety percent of the time“: author interview with Sergey Brin, March 26, 2008. 114 ”If we both feel the same way ... we’re probably right“: author interview with Larry Page, March 25, 2008. 114 strength ”to be different“: author interview with Susan Wojcicki, September 10, 2007. 114 ”having a mental sparring partner“: author interview with Jen Fitzpatrick, September 12, 2007. 114 ”Having the two of them being completely in sync“: author interview with Omid Kordestani, September 12, 2007. 114 ”to force a conversation“: author interview with Eric Schmidt, September 12, 2007. 115 ”Some companies would be worried“: author interview with Sheryl Sandberg, October 11, 2007. 115 ”people saw values we believed in“: author interview with Craig Newmark, January 11, 2008. 115 the reason the troika ”works is that whoever you go to“: author interview with Sheryl Sandberg, October 11, 2007. 116 ”Eric is the leader for the company“: author interview with Sergey Brin, October 11, 2007. 116 ”I can’t imagine“: author interview with Bill Campbell, October 8, 2007. 116 ”A balanced appreciation“: author interview with Dan Rosensweig, February 27, 2008. 116 ”It borders on insulting“: author interview with Elliot Schrage, October 12, 2007. 116 ”catcher“: author interviews with Eric Schmidt, September 12, 2007, and October 9, 2007. 116 At the press lunch: post-Zeitgeist lunch attended by author, October 11, 2007. 117 ”the best business partner“: annual Google shareholder meeting attended by author, May 10, 2007. 117 ”Eric is the person who said“: author interview with Sheryl Sandberg, October 11, 2007. 117 ”I’ve become a huge cheerleader“: author interview with Michael Moritz, March 31, 2009. 118 an incident at the 2005 World Economic Forum: author interview with Andrew Lack, October 4, 2007. 118 ”no recollection of the specific incident“: e-mail from Arthur Sulzberger, Jr., April 29, 2009. 118 ”Schmidt confirmed Lack’s account“: author interview with Eric Schmidt, April 1, 2009. 118 ”Here’s the part you don’t see“: author interview with Bill Campbell, April 1, 2009. 119 ”We’re smart guys“: author interview with Terry Winograd, September 25, 2007. 120 ”privacy concerns“: Google IPO, August 2004.


pages: 440 words: 117,978

Cuckoo's Egg by Clifford Stoll

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affirmative action, call centre, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, John Markoff, Menlo Park, old-boy network, Paul Graham, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley

He’s only active late at night.” This was a difference. I often watched my hacker at noon. As I thought about it, Stanford was following different people. If anything, the Berkeley hacker seemed to prefer the name, “Hunter,” though I knew him by the several different account names he stole. Three days later, the headlines of the October 3 San Francisco Examiner blared, “Computer Sleuths Hunt A Brilliant Hacker.” Reporter John Markoff had sniffed out the Stanford story. On the side, the newspaper mentioned that this hacker had also gotten into the LBL computers. Could this be true? The story described Dan’s snares and his inability to catch Stanford’s Pfloyd hacker. But the reporter got the pseudonym wrong—the newspaper reported “a crafty hacker using the name ‘Pink Floyd.’ ” Cursing whoever leaked the story, I prepared to close things up.

Who knew where it landed next? Someone had leaked it to Quick magazine. And they published the story two weeks before I was going to. Damn. One year of silence. A year of covert cooperation with the authorities. Betrayed to a cheap tabloid in Germany. How ignominious. Even with a copy of my notebook, Quick was anything but accurate. Not much to do but get the facts out ourselves. Damn. Whatever we did, we’d be late. John Markoff—now at the New York Times—had heard about the story and was asking questions. Damn. Only one thing to do: my lab announced a press conference. With me at center stage. Damn. That evening, at 11 P.M., I was nervous and worried sick. Me? At a press conference? A phone call from the NSA didn’t help, either. Sally Knox, an administrator with NSA’s computer security center, was in town. She’d heard about tomorrow’s press conference.

“For once, I’ll tell you the truth,” Bob said. “I know who wrote the virus.” “Are you going to tell me?” “No.” Now that’s efficient. Ten hours after I call them, the National Computer Security Center has found the culprit. But I hadn’t. He’s still a mystery to me, so it’s back to snooping around the networks. If I could only find the computer that had been first infected. No, that won’t work. There’s thousands out there. John Markoff, a reporter from the New York Times, called. “I heard a rumor that the person who wrote the virus has the initials RTM. Is that any help?” “Not much, but I’ll check it out.” How do you find someone from his initials? Of course … you look him up in the network directory. I log into the Network Information Center and search for anyone with the initials RTM. One guy pops up: Robert T. Morris.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Provine Don’t Ring Me: Aubrey de Grey A Thousand Hours a Year: Simon Baron-Cohen Thinking Like the Internet, Thinking Like Biology: Nigel Goldenfeld The Internet Makes Me Think in the Present Tense: Douglas Rushkoff Social Prosthetic Systems: Stephen M. Kosslyn Evolving a Global Brain: W. Tecumseh Fitch Search and Emergence: Rudy Rucker My Fingers Have Become Part of My Brain: James O’Donnell A Mirror for the World’s Foibles: John Markoff a completely new form of sense: Terence Koh By Changing My Behavior: Seirian Sumner There Is No New Self: Nicholas A. Christakis I Once Was Lost but Now Am Found, or How to Navigate in the Chartroom of Memory: Neri Oxman The Greatest Pornographer: Alun Anderson My Sixth Sense: Albert-László Barabási The Internet Reifies a Logic Already There: Tom McCarthy Instant Gratification: Peter H.

What all this means is that we are in a different space now, one that is largely unfamiliar to us even when we think we’re using familiar tools (like a “newspaper” that has never been printed or an “encyclopedia” vastly larger than any shelf of buckram volumes), and one that has begun life by going through rapid changes that only hint at what is to come. I’m not going to prophesy where that goes, but I’ll sit here a while longer, watching the ways I’ve come to “let my fingers do the walking,” wondering where they will lead. A Mirror for the World’s Foibles John Markoff Journalist; covers Silicon Valley for the New York Times; author, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry It’s been three decades since Les Earnest, then assistant director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, introduced me to the ARPANET. It was 1979, and from his home in the hills overlooking Silicon Valley he was connected via a terminal and a 2,400-baud modem to Human Nets, a lively virtual community that explored the impact of technology on society.


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

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1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Singer, “The Unmanned Mission,” Fortune, 161 (March 1, 2010), S2; Associated Press, “Robot Performs Wedding Ceremony in Tokyo,” Boston Globe, May 17, 2010, A3; and Kirsner, “You, Robot,” Boston Sunday Globe, May 30, 2010, G1, G4. Interestingly, Ramo has recently argued that robots could and should replace humans as much as possible in future space landings on Mars and elsewhere. See Simon Ramo, “Too Big a Step for Mankind,” Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2010, A15. 59 John Markoff, “Race to Build a Robot More Like Us,” Science Times, New York Times, July 12, 2011, D1. 60 See Karl Ritter, Associated Press, “Nobel Prize in Medicine Goes to In Vitro Fertilization Pioneer,” Boston Globe, October 5, 2010, A4; and Nicholas Wade, “In Vitro Fertilization Pioneer Wins Nobel Prize,” New York Times, October 5, 2010, A1, A3. 61 Quoted by Gwynne Dyer in his “A Long Way from Designing Chromosomes,” Bangor Daily News, May 25, 2010, A7. 62 Review by Deborah D.

See, for example, Newsweek’s cover story on Apple’s latest invention, the iPad, by Daniel Lyons and Nick Summers, “Think Really The Resurgence of Utopianism 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Different,” 155 (April 5, 2010), 47–51. The issue’s cover title was explicit: “What’s So Great About the iPad? Everything. How Steve Jobs Will Revolutionize Reading, Watching, Computing, Gaming— and Silicon Valley.” Similarly, Time’s cover story for 175 (April 12, 2010), 6, 36–43, was “Inside Steve’s Pad.” On new visions of artificial intelligence, see John Markoff, “The Coming Superbrain: Computers Keep Getting Smarter, While We Just Stay the Same,” Sunday New York Times, Week in Review, May 24, 2009, 1, 4; and Alex Beam, “Apocalypse Later: Ray Kurzweil Predicts the Not-So-Near Future in ‘Post-Biological’ Visions of Humanity,” Boston Globe, June 29, 2010, G23. On nuclear power, see the references in Chapter 6, notes 31–34 and 37–52. See James Fleming, Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010).


pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

“‘Father of Aerobics,’ Kenneth Cooper, MD, MPH to Receive Healthy Cup Award from Harvard School of Public Health,” press release, April 16, 2008, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2008-releases/aerobics-kenneth-cooper-to-receive-harvard-healthy-cup-award.html. 22. J. D. Reed, “America Wakes Up,” Time, Nov. 16, 1981, http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,950613,00.html. 23. Personal communication, October 5, 2012. 24. Kurt Eichenwald with John Markoff, “Wall Street’s Souped-up Computers,” New York Times, Oct. 16, 1988, http://www.nytimes.com/1988/10/16/business/wall-street-s-souped-up-computers.html. 25. Dean Baker, “The Run-up in Home Prices: Is It Real or Is It Another Bubble” briefing paper, Center for Economic and Policy Research, August 2002, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/housing_2002_08.pdf; and Dean Baker, “The Productivity to Paycheck Gap: What the Data Show,” briefing paper, April 2007, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/growth_failure_2007_04.pdf. 26.

Daniel Katz, “Quantitative Legal Prediction—Or—How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Start Preparing for the Data-Driven Future of the Legal Services Industry,” Emory Law Journal, 62, no. 909 (2013): 965. 3. Laura Manning, “65 Students Chasing Each Training Contract Vacancy,” Lawyer 2B, June 28, 2011, http://l2b.thelawyer.com/65-students-chasing-each-training-contract-vacancy/1008370.article. 4. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” The New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.htmlpagewanted=1&_r=1&hp. 5. Thor Olavsrud, “Big Data Analytics Lets Businesses Play Moneyball,” ComputerworldUK, Aug. 24, 2012, http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/it-business/3377796/big-data-analytics-lets-businesses-play-money ball/. 6. Daniel Martin, Katz “Quantitative Legal Prediction—Or—How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Start Preparing for the Data-Driven Future of the Legal Services Industry,” Emory Law Journal, 62, no. 909 (2013): 938. 7.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

four times that amount over a lifespan: Martin Haegele, Thomas Skordas, Stefan Sagert, et al., “Industrial Robot Automation,” White Paper FP6-001917, European Robotics Research Network, 2005. Priced at $25,000: Angelo Young, “Industrial Robots Could Be 16% Less Costly to Employ Than People by 2025,” International Business Times, February 11, 2015. all but seven minutes of a typical flight: John Markoff, “Planes Without Pilots,” New York Times, April 6, 2015. 3: FLOWING steady flow of household replenishables: “List of Online Grocers,” Wikipedia, accessed August 18, 2015. new medium imitates the medium it replaces: Marshall McLuhan, Culture Is Our Business (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970). top ten music videos: “List of Most Viewed YouTube Videos,” Wikipedia, accessed August 18, 2015.

Footnotes, invented in about: Ivan Illich, In the Vineyard of the Text: A Commentary to Hugh’s Didascalicon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 97. bibliographic citations: Malcolm B. Parkes, “The Influence of the Concepts of Ordinatio and Compilation on the Development of the Book,” in Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt, eds. J.J.G. Alexander and M. T. Gibson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 115–27. gaining visual intelligence rapidly: John Markoff, “Researchers Announce Advance in Image-Recognition Software,” New York Times, November 17, 2014. “one can only reread it”: Vladimir Nabokov, Lectures on Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980). “He who receives an idea from me”: Thomas Jefferson, “Thomas Jefferson to Isaac McPherson, 13 Aug. 1813,” in Founders’ Constitution, eds. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1986).


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

“If they could do a black-bag job on everyone who had it,” Gilmore recalled in a café in Haight-Ashbury, “then they could classify anything.”48 By now the anarchists were beginning to understand what the NSA feared. The c-punks had seen that the spooks at Fort Meade could tweak the law and play politics. But the activists also knew the secret agency hated publicity. So Gilmore started calling some of the technology reporters he knew through the cypherpunks list. One of the best-known journalists in San Francisco at the time was John Markoff, from the New York Times. Gilmore reached out to him. The Times later ran the story. “In Retreat, U.S. Spy Agency Shrugs at Found Secret Data,” the headline read.49 Gilmore’s plan worked as predicted: the NSA shunned the light. The agency declassified the Friedman documents in response to the high-profile publicity. The NSA’s lawyers didn’t call Gilmore’s lawyer to tell him that they had finally yielded and would declassify the Friedman books; they told Markoff straightaway.

., 61. 39.Kelly, “Cypherpunks, e-Money,” 46. 40.May, “Announcement.” 41.Ibid. 42.Kelly, “Cypherpunks, e-Money,” 42. 43.Kevin Kelly, Out of Control (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995), 178. 44.May, “True Nyms and Crypto Anarchy,” 82. 45.James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), 47–56. 46.The find wasn’t too remarkable. James Bamford had prominently reported on the wider Friedman papers in an influential book on the NSA: The Puzzle Palace, published in 1982. John Gilmore, interview by the author, April 7, 2014. 47.Gilmore, interview, April 7, 2014. 48.Ibid. 49.John Markoff, “In Retreat, U.S. Spy Agency Shrugs at Found Secret Data,” New York Times, November 28, 1992. 50.Gilmore, interview, April 7, 2014. 51.John Perry Barlow, “Remarks,” in First International Symposium: “National Security & National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions”: Proceedings, vol. 2 (Reston, VA: Open Source Solutions, 1992), 182–83. 52.Timothy May, “‘Stopping Crime’ Necessarily Means Invasiveness,” e-mail to cypherpunks@toad.com, October 17, 1996.


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

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en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

For an analysis of Google’s hard disks, see Pinheiro, Weber, and Barroso, “Failure Trends in a Large Disk Drive Population.” 26. In fact, information on a hard disk drive even survived the catastrophic disintegration of Space Shuttle Columbia. See Minkel, “Hard Disk Recovered from Columbia Shuttle.” 27. See, for example, Oakley, “E-Beam Hard Disk Drive Using Gated Carbon Nano Tube Source and Phase Change Media,” 245–50. 28. John Markoff, “H. P. Reports Big Advance in Memory Chip Design,” The New York Times, May 1, 2008. 29. Markoff, “Redefining the Architecture of Memory,” The New York Times. 30. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution, 64–73. 31. Kilgour, The Evolution of the Book, 76–77. 32. Ibid., 94–95. 33. Cole, Suspect Identities. 34. Michael R. Curry, “Location and Identity: A Brief History,” 157; see also Michael R.


pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by C. Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

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airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, lifelogging, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Very modest modern computers can easily solve yesterday’s problems.” The data and report illustrate Gray’s fondness for understanding through constant building and experimentation. Through various paths, Jim infected me with the importance of data. It’s “all about the data,” he would say. In one of our more playful times, while discussing how to get the concern for data into the national computing resource allocation agenda, we bumped into John Markoff, a friend and columnist at The New York Times who also had an office in our building. We made the case that the national computing agenda was missing the point by just thinking about computation speed. John took our picture in the lab on Friday and wrote an article that appeared in the Times on Sunday. Our compute-centric friends in Washington were not especially happy, but they slowly came around to our view, and after many years the situation is gradually changing from models and simulation to real world, data-based, data-intensive science.


pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

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A. Roger Ekirch, Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John Markoff, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Shoshana Zuboff, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

Scot Ober, “Review of Research on the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard,” Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, vol. 34, no. 4 (Fall 1992), 167–82; Scot Ober, “Relative Efficiencies of the Standard and Dvorak Simplified Keyboards,” Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, vol. 35, no. 1 (Winter 1993), 1–13, and references cited in each article; Peter J. Howe, “Different Strokes Catch On,” Boston Globe, January 15, 1996; Jennifer B. Lee, “Keyboards Stuck in the Age of NumLock; Defunct Keys and Odd Commands Still Bedevil Today’s PC User,” New York Times, August 12, 1999. 43. Neal Taslitz, telephone interview, August 17, 2002. 44. John Markoff, “Microsoft Sees New Software Based on Pens,” New York Times, November 9, 2000; “Newtonian Marketing Lessons,” Advertising Age, August 15, 1994, 20. 45. Frank R. Wilson, The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, 1998), 309–10; Lisa Guernsey, “For Those Who Would Click and Cheat,” New York Times, April 26, 2001. 46. Monaco, “Difficult Birth,” 15. 47.

Fowler, “In the Digital Age, ‘All Thumbs’ Is Term of Highest Praise,” Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2002; Libby Copeland, “Thumbs Up: After Eons Spent in Its Siblings’ Shadow, the Dumpy Digit Finally Counts,” Washington Post, June 24, 2002; Frank Wilson, The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, 1998), 146. 7. Eric von Hippel, The Sources of Innovation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 1–25, 102–16; Kim J. Vicente, Cognitive Work Analysis: Towards Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum), 109–38. 8. John Markoff, “Kristen Nygaard, 75, Who Built Framework for Modern Computer Languages,” New York Times, August 14, 2001. Suggestions for Further Reading On human culture in comparative perspective, the best survey that I have found is Tim Ingold, ed., Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology (London: Routledge, 1994), with a number of important articles by leading figures on themes such as tools and tool behavior, technology, and artifacts.


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Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley

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air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, Chance favours the prepared mind, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

“It had more to do with the difficulty of opening up a bank account when you have the word ‘Party’ in your name.” 319 Third Annual Phone Phreak Convention: YIPL ran phone phreak conventions in 1972 and 1973, but a dry spell followed until THC-79. 319 “For several reasons, I have permanently retired”: John Draper, “Greetings” (open letter to THC-79 attendees), TAP, no. 59, September–October 1979. 320 “While intrepidly trekking”: Cheshire Catalyst, “The News Is In from the West, and It’s Beige,” TAP, no. 51, July 1978, p. 4. 320 CBBS: Ward Christensen and Randy Suess, “Hobbyist Computerized Bulletin Board,” Byte, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 150–57. 320 first phone phreak/hacker BBSes: Katie Hafner and John Markoff, Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), p. 44; see also a description of the 8BBS in Santa Clara, California, which ran from 1980 to 1982, at http://everything2.com/title/8BBS. 321 “Enclosed for Bureau”: FBI file 117-HQ-2905, serial “X,” April 30, 1979 <db374>. 321 “nuclear yield”: FBI file 117-HQ-2905, serial 3, August 24, 1979 <db374>. 321 Judge Harold Greene: In an odd coincidence, in 1980 as part of a totally separate case, Judge Greene “ordered the FBI to stop destroying its surveillance files and to design a plan in which no files could be destroyed until historians and archivists could review them for historical value.”

Monaghan, in “The Child in a Man,” puts the year Engressia began calling himself Joybubbles as 1988. 328 “We were on a retreat”: Jim Ragsdale, “One Name Says It All,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, November 27, 2005, p. A1. 328 “I’m a survivor”: Huse, interview with Joybubbles. 329 legally changed his name: Ibid. 329 “Nobody knows how much peace”: Collier, “There’s Martin Luther King.” 329 selected it to be the word processor: John Markoff and Paul Freiberger, “Visit with Cap’n Software, Forthright Forth Enthusiast,” Infoworld, October 11, 1982, p. 31. 329 “wealthy executive”: Pete Carey, “Cap’n Crunch Programs His Way from Jail to Success,” Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1983, p. D1. 329 personal fortunes were crumbling: Alexander Besher, “The Crunching of America,” Infoworld, June 18, 1984, p. 66. 329 forging tickets to BART: Gary Richards, “‘Captain Crunch’ Charged in Ticket Forgery,” San Jose Mercury News, January 9, 1987, p. 1B; “John Draper at AutoDesk,” DigiBarn Computer Museum interview with John Draper, May 2006, at http://www.digibarn.com/collections/audio/digibarn-radio/06-05-john-draper-autodesk. 330 where-are-they-now newspaper article: Chris Rhodes, “The Twilight Years of Cap’n Crunch,” Wall Street Journal, January 13, 2007. 330 TAP ceased publication: See http://artofhacking.com/tap.


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What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

New York: Schenkman Publishing, p. 66. 134 known in statistics as a Poisson distribution: Dean Keith Simonton. (1978) “Independent Discovery in Science and Technology: A Closer Look at the Poisson Distribution.” Social Studies of Science, 8 (4). 134 greatest discoverers buy lots of tickets: Dean Keith Simonton. (1979) “Multiple Discovery and Invention: Zeitgeist, Genius, or Chance?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (9). 134 Westinghouse laboratory in Paris: John Markoff. (2003, February 24) “A Parallel Inventor of the Transistor Has His Moment.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/24/business/a-parallel-inventor-of-the-transistor-has-his-moment. html. 135 within months of each other in 1977: Adam B. Jaffe, Manuel Trajtenberg, et al. (2000, April) “The Meaning of Patent Citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees.” Nber Working Paper No.

Prehoda. (1972) “Technological Forecasting and Space Exploration.” An Introduction to Technological Forecasting, ed. Joseph Paul Martino. London: Gordon and Breach, p. 43. 158 to the Moon quite soon after that: Damien Broderick. (2002) The Spike: How Our Lives Are Being Transformed by Rapidly Advancing Technologies. New York: Forge, p. 35. 158 “Arthur C. Clarke had expected it to occur”: Ibid. 159 start-up making the integrated chips: John Markoff. (2005) What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer. New York: Viking, p. 17. 160 Plotting Moore’s Law: Data from Gordon Moore. (1965) “The Future of Integrated Electronics.” Understanding Moore’s Law: Four Decades of Innovation, ed. David C. Brock. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation, p. 54. https://www.chemheritage.org/pubs/moores_law/; David C. Brock and Gordon E.


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The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, corporate raider, creative destruction, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, zero-sum game

Ten years before Licklider wrote his paper, for instance, a young engineer named Douglas Engelbart was pondering what he might do with his life. He was recently married yet felt himself lost, an idealist in search of a meaningful contribution. One evening in 1950 he was struck with a powerful vision: a general purpose machine that might augment human intelligence and help humans negotiate life’s complexities. John Markoff, who has documented Engelbart’s life carefully, describes the vision in some detail: Engelbart “saw himself sitting in front of a large computer screen full of different symbols. He would create a workstation for organizing all of the information and communications needed for any given project.”5 Engelbart’s ideas were similar to Licklider’s, if a bit further along in their development. But neither was as yet close to describing how one might practically wed human and computer capacities.

Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (New York: Penguin, 2002). 3. For Rheingold’s description of the AN/FSQ-7, see Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000), 142–44. 4. J.C.R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (1960): 4. 5. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 2005), 9. 6. For an extensive discussion of Baran’s career and innovations, see Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 53–67. CHAPTER 13: NIXON’S CABLE 1. The opening story is based on the author’s interview with Ralph Lee Smith, September 14, 2008.


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What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

DEDICATION To Marvin Minsky CONTENTS DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PREFACE: THE 2015 EDGE QUESTION MURRAY SHANAHAN Consciousness in Human-Level AI STEVEN PINKER Thinking Does Not Imply Subjugating MARTIN REES Organic Intelligence Has No Long-Term Future STEVE OMOHUNDRO A Turning Point in Artificial Intelligence DIMITAR D. SASSELOV AI Is I FRANK TIPLER If You Can’t Beat ’em, Join ’em MARIO LIVIO Intelligent Machines on Earth and Beyond ANTONY GARRETT LISI I, for One, Welcome Our Machine Overlords JOHN MARKOFF Our Masters, Slaves, or Partners? PAUL DAVIES Designed Intelligence KEVIN P. HAND The Superintelligent Loner JOHN C. MATHER It’s Going to Be a Wild Ride DAVID CHRISTIAN Is Anyone in Charge of This Thing? TIMO HANNAY Witness to the Universe MAX TEGMARK Let’s Get Prepared! TOMASO POGGIO “Turing+” Questions PAMELA MCCORDUCK An Epochal Human Event MARCELO GLEISER Welcome to Your Transhuman Self SEAN CARROLL We Are All Machines That Think NICHOLAS G.

If you’re willing to entertain the simulation hypothesis, then maybe—given the amount of effort currently under way to control or curtail an AI that doesn’t yet exist—you’ll consider that this world is the simulation to torture those who didn’t help it come into existence earlier. Maybe, if you do work on AI, our superintelligent machine overlords will be good to you. OUR MASTERS, SLAVES, OR PARTNERS? JOHN MARKOFF Senior writer, science section, New York Times; author, Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots Hegel wrote that in the relationship between master and slave, both are dehumanized. That insight touched a wide range of thinkers, from Marx to Buber, and today it’s worth remembering. While there’s no evidence that the world is on the cusp of machines that think in a human sense, there’s also little question that in an Internet-connected world, artificial intelligence will soon imitate much of what humans do, both physically and intellectually.


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Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

various insurgent groups Siobhan Gorman, August Cole, and Yochi Dreazen, “Insurgents Hack U.S. Drones,” Wall Street Journal, December 17, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126102247889095011.html. “preserve of great states” Lewis, “The Threat,” p. 20. “the most to lose” Clayton, “The New Cyber Arms Race.” “tons of vulnerabilities” Ibid. “power equalization” Nye, “Power and National Security in Cyberspace,” p. 14. dummy set of centrifuges William J. Broad, John Markoff, and David E. Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html? pagewanted=all&_r=0. “smaller dogs bite” Nye, “Power and National Security in Cyberspace,” p. 14. escalation dominance Mahnken, “Cyberwar and Cyber Warfare,” p. 61. WHO HAS THE ADVANTAGE, THE OFFENSE OR THE DEFENSE?

tried to harm Facebook Dennis Fisher, “How Facebook Prepared to Be Hacked,” Threatpost, March 8, 2013, http://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/how-facebook-prepared-be-hacked-030813. offensive tactics and tricks Samuel L. King, Peter M. Chen, Yi-Min Wang, et al., “SubVirt: Implementing Malware with Virtual Machines,” University of Michigan, http://web.eecs.umich.edu/~pmchen/papers/king06.pdf, accessed August 11, 2013. “Israelis tried it out” William J. Broad, John Markoff, and David E. Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. network-based attack Tucker Bailey, James Kaplan, and Allen Weinberg, “Playing Wargames to Prepare for a Cyberattack,” McKinsey Quarterly, July 2012. McKinsey found Ibid. pension database Estonian defense official, interview with the authors, March 17, 2012, Washington DC.

From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly

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Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Grace Hopper, information asymmetry, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, linear programming, Menlo Park, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Lukewarm reviews and the absence of Table 8.7 Windowing systems for IBM-compatible PCs, 1984–1985. Publisher Product Price Announced Released Notes VisiCorp VisiOn $495 November 1982 January 1984 Price reduced to $95 Digital Research GEM $399 November 1983 September 1984 Price included Concurrent DOS Microsoft Windows 1.0 $95 November 1983 November 1985 IBM TopView $149 August 1984 February 1985 Quarterdeck DESQ $399 Spring 1983 May 1984 Sources: John Markoff, “Five Window Managers for the IBM PC,” Byte Guide to the IBM PC (Fall 1984): 65–7, 71–6, 78, 82, 84, 87; Irene Fuerst, “Broken Windows,” Datamation (March 1, 1985): 46, 51–2; Allen G. Taylor, “It’s Gem vs. Topview as IBM, DRI Square Off,” Software News (August 1985): 71–3; Ken Polsson, History of Microcomputers: Chronology of Events, http://www.maxframe.com/hiszcomp.htm (accessed December 2000).

Hiltzik, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age (HarperBusiness, 1999). 27. Steven Levy, Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything (Penguin, 1994). 28. See, e.g., “A Fierce Battle Brews Over the Simplest Software Yet,” Business Week, November 21, 1983: 61–63. 29. Phil Lemmons, “A Guided Tour of VisiOn,” Byte, June 1983: 256ff. 30. Irene Fuerst, “Broken Windows,” Datamation, March 1, 1985: 46, 51–52. 31. John Markoff, “Five Window Managers for the IBM PC,” Byte Guide to the IBM PC, fall 1984: 65–66, 71–76, 78, 82, 84, 87. 32. Efrem Sigel, “Alas Poor VisiCorp,” Datamation, January 15, 1985: 93–94, 96. 33. Lawrence D. Graham, Legal Battles That Shaped the Computer Industry (Quorum Books, 1999), pp. 35–41. 34. The best account of the complicated history of OS/2 appears in Paul Carroll, Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM (Crown, 1993). 35.


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The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

It too is steeped in history. Apple is one of the most secretive companies in the world, and the imperative originated at the top. Jobs was always proactive in managing his company’s media appearances; from the early days, he was keen on developing relationships with editors and writers at the major magazines and newspapers. But he wasn’t always super-secretive. The New York Times reporter John Markoff, one of the writers who’d earned access to Apple, noticed the change in the late 1990s and early 2000s. “Since Mr. Jobs returned to Apple, he has increasingly insisted that the company speak with just the voices of top executives,” Markoff noted after being denied an interview with a driving force behind the iPod, Tony Fadell. Another Times writer, Nick Bilton, observed that Jobs frequently described his products as “magical,” and, “as Mr.

Quotes were drawn from the Apple/Samsung trial of 2012, when Phil Schiller and Scott Forstall took the stand. Books that provided extraordinarily useful detail, research, and background were Dogfight, by Fred Vogelstein; Steve Jobs, by Walter Isaacson; Becoming Steve Jobs, by Brent Schlender; Inside Apple, by Adam Lashinsky; and Jony Ive, by Leander Kahney. Quotes attributed to Jony Ive, Steve Jobs, Mike Bell, and Douglas Satzger were drawn from those sources. John Markoff’s New York Times reporting and Steven Levy’s book The Perfect Thing and his work in Newsweek were used for reference. Sales figures cited are provided by Apple unless otherwise stated. Acknowledgments A key theme of this book is that little progress is possible without deep collaboration and sustained collective effort—nothing could be truer about writing this thing too. It simply wouldn’t have happened without the support of family, friends, colleagues, and even, sometimes, near-strangers.


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The Lights in the Tunnel by Martin Ford

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Albert Einstein, Bill Joy: nanobots, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, full employment, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, pattern recognition, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Thomas L Friedman, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, War on Poverty

Web: http://loebner.net/Prizef/TuringArticle.html Copyrighted Material – Paperback/Kindle available @ Amazon Notes / 253 “French students shy of real world”, BBC News, March 14, 2008. Web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7293992.stm 57 Blue Brain Project, Web: http://bluebrain.epfl.ch/ 58 Roger Penrose, The Emperor’s NewMind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics, Oxford University Press, 1989 and Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness, Oxford University Press, 1994. 59 For example: John Markoff, “Scientists worry that Machines may Outsmart Man”, NewYork Times, July 25, 2009. Web: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/26/science/26robot.html?e m 56 Copyrighted Material – Paperback/Kindle available @ Amazon


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Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

At Toyota, they told us of cars talking with traffic lights to avoid bottlenecks and collisions at intersections. Some experts are more optimistic about when driverless cars will arrive in a showroom near you. Bob Lutz, GM’s retired vice chairman, predicts that driverless cars would be ubiquitous in about 20 years. We think it will be more like ten years before the vehicles are technically ready and affordable. In the time it took us to write this chapter, our friend John Markoff, a New York Times technology reporter, may have witnessed a technological breakthrough when he was a passenger in a driverless, lidar-less Audi A7 that zipped down an Israeli highway at 65 miles an hour. Equipped with a system from a Netherlands-based start up called Mobileye Vision Technologies, the system could significantly reduce costs compared with lidar-based systems. During the same period, Tesla’s Musk, who has long been linked by investments and friendship with Google’s founders, declared “…Google’s current approach … is too expensive.


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We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

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1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

story_id=6794228 15 See Steven Levy and Brad Stone, ‘The New Wisdom of the Web’, Newsweek, April 2006. Available from http:// www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12015774/site/newsweek 16 Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago, IL/London: University of Chicago Press, 2006) 17 Patrice Flichy, The Internet Imaginaire (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007) 18 Charles Leadbeater, ‘The DIY State’, Prospect 130, January 2007 19 Fred Turner, op. cit. 20 John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2006) 21 Patrice Flichy, The Internet Imaginaire (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007) 22 Jonathan Lethem, ‘The Ecstasy of Influence’, Harper’s Magazine, February 2007 23 Garrett Hardin, ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’, Science 162 (1968), pp. 1243–48 24 Elenor Ostrom, Governing the Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1990) 25 Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999) and Free Culture (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2004) 26 Melvyn Bragg, The Routes of English (BBC Factual and Learning, 2000); Melvyn Bragg, The Adventure of English (Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, 2003) 27 Jonathan Lethem, ‘The Ecstasy of Influence’, Harper’s Magazine, February 2007 28 Cory Doctorow et al., ‘On “Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism” By Jaron Lanier’, Edge (2006). http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_ maoism.html 29 Paul A.


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I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

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3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, John Gruber, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

Special, Special, Special Thanks Danielle Bilton, for your patience, understanding, love, and baked goods. Special, Special Thanks This book would not have happened without the invaluable input from following people: David Carr, John Mahaney, Karen Blumenthal, Matthew Fishbane, Mark Hansen, Katinka Matson, John Brockman, Clay Shirky, Clive Thompson, Larry Ingrassia, Tom Bodkin, Mike Young, John Markoff, Tim O’Reilly, Sam Sifton, Hubert McCabe, Mark Bittman. New York Times Arthur Sulzberger Jr., Janet Robinson, Martin Nisenholtz, Bill Keller, John Geddes, Jill Abramson, Rick Berke, Damon Darlin, David Gallagher, Suzanne Spector, Michael Zimbalist, Ted Roden, Alexis Lloyd, Justin Ouellette, Patricia McSweeney, Amy Hyde, Susan Edgerly, Brian Stelter, Jenna Wortham, Jim Roberts, Doug Latino, Kelly Doe, Brad Stone, Ashlee Vance, Steve Lohr, Matt Richtel, Miguel Helft, Tim O’Brien, Claire Cain Miller, Michael Golden, Evan “Scoop” Sandhaus, Bill Cunningham, Glenn Kramon, Rob Larson, Rob Samuels, Kevin McKenna, and Fiona Spruill.


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such a large circuit can be built on a single wafer.” 14 . See Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001). 15 . See John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer (New York: Viking, 2005). For a broader sense of the California spiritual landscape, see Erik Davis, Visionary State (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2006). 16 . There is no book-length biography of Kay, although there should be. Many writings are available on the Web, and a good reminiscence is Alan Kay, “User Interface: A Personal View,” in The Art of Human Computer Interface Design, ed.


pages: 291 words: 81,703

Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

On the German population growing again, see Suzanne Daley and Nicholas Kulish, “Brain Drain Feared as German Jobs Lure Southern Europeans,” The New York Times, April 28, 2012. On job growth in services, see A. Michael Spence and Sandile Hlatshwayo, “The Evolving Structure of the American Economy and the Employment Challenge,” Council on Foreign Relations, March 2011. For one recent look at reshoring, see John Markoff, “Skilled Work, Without the Worker,” The New York Times, August 18, 2012. Chapter 10: Relearning Education For figures on K–12, see Stephanie Banchero and Stephanie Simon, “My Teacher is an App,” The Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2011. The point about stronger incentives for innovation I owe to Alex Tabarrok. On the Emporium model, see Daniel de Vise, “At Virginia Tech, computers help solve a math class problem,” The Washington Post, April 22, 2012.


pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For a firsthand narrative of some of these events by the inventor himself, see Vic Scheinman’s interview at Robotics History: Narratives and Networks, accessed November 25, 2014, http://roboticshistory.indiana.edu/content/vic-scheinman. 2. I’m indebted to my friend Carl Hewitt, known for his early logic programming language Planner, for his eyewitness report on this incident. Carl is now board chair of the International Society for Inconsistency Robustness. Seriously, it’s a real topic. 3. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Stanford University, “Jedibot—Robot Sword Fighting,” May 2011, http://youtu.be/Qo79MeRDHGs. 4. John Markoff, “Researchers Announce Advance in Image-Recognition Software,” New York Times, November 17, 2014, science section. 5. “Strawberry Harvesting Robot,” posted by meminsider, YouTube, November 30, 2010, http://youtu.be/uef6ayK8ilY. 6. For an amazingly insightful analysis of the effects of increased communication and decreased energy cost across everything from living cells to civilizations, see Robert Wright, Nonzero (New York: Pantheon 2000). 7.


pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

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23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

At the Times, several editors have—and still do—encourage my reporting in the field of data science, and its implications. They include Larry Ingrassia, Dean Murphy, Damon Darlin, Suzanne Spector, Joseph Plambeck, James Kerstetter, Quentin Hardy, David Gillen, Lon Teter, Thomas Kuntz, and David Corcoran. Conversations with Natasha Singer have sharpened my thinking on the subject of data and privacy. Then there is John Markoff, a science reporter these days; he and I have labored agreeably and often together in the data-laden precincts of business and science coverage for years. While I was on leave from the Times, Mark Hansen generously offered me office space to work in and travel from and an appointment as a research fellow at the Brown Institute for Media Innovation. Mark is a director of the Brown Institute, a collaboration between the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism and the Stanford School of Engineering.


pages: 252 words: 75,349

Spam Nation: The Inside Story of Organized Cybercrime-From Global Epidemic to Your Front Door by Brian Krebs

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barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, cashless society, defense in depth, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, John Markoff, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pirate software, placebo effect, ransomware, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, the payments system, transaction costs, web application

This amplification effect is especially pronounced if the perpetrators query dozens of DNS servers with these spoofed requests simultaneously. The good news is that Internet and security experts have long understood how to block these extraordinarily powerful attacks. “Indeed, a number of computer security specialists pointed out that the attacks would have been impossible if the world’s major Internet firms simply checked that outgoing data packets truly were being sent by their customers, rather than botnets,” wrote John Markoff and Nicole Perlroth of the New York Times. The bad news is that little has changed since these ultra-powerful attacks first surfaced more than a decade ago, said Rodney Joffe, senior vice president and senior technologist at Neustar, a security company that also helps clients weather huge online attacks. Joffe estimates that there are approximately 25 million misconfigured or antiquated home and business routers that can be abused in these digital sieges.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

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autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

Research that once required well-paid legal scholars to trawl through piles of legal documents can now be done by computers, unhampered by headaches or eyestrain. A large chemical company that recently unleashed its software on work done by its own legal staff in the 1980s and 1990s found an accuracy rate of only 60%. “Think about how much money had been spent to be slightly better than a coin toss,” reflected one of the former lawyers. See: John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” The New York Times (March 4, 2011). http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html 16. Warren G. Bennis first said this. Cited in: Mark Fisher, The Millionaire’s Book of Quotations (1991), p. 15. 17. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation,” Oxford Martin School (September 17, 2013). http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf For the calculation for Europe, see: http://www.bruegel.org/nc/blog/detail/article/1399-chart-of-the-week-54-percent-of-eu-jobs-atrisk-of-computerisation 18.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

“By opening the way to non-silicon materials it gave Moore’s law another shot in the arm at a time when many people were thinking it was coming to an end,” said Sadasivan Shankar, who worked on Intel’s material design team at the time and now teaches materials and computational sciences at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Commenting on the breakthrough, the New York Times Silicon Valley reporter John Markoff wrote on January 27, 2007: “Intel, the world’s largest chip maker, has overhauled the basic building block of the information age, paving the way for a new generation of faster and more energy-efficient processors. Company researchers said the advance represented the most significant change in the materials used to manufacture silicon chips since Intel pioneered the modern integrated-circuit transistor more than four decades ago.”

Because Watson, of course, was not a human but a computer, designed and built by IBM. By defeating the best human Jeopardy! champions in a three-day competition, Watson demonstrated the solution to the problem that “artificial intelligence researchers have struggled with for decades”: to create “a computer akin to the one on Star Trek that can understand questions posed in natural language and answer them” in natural language, as my colleague John Markoff put it in his February 16, 2011, New York Times story summing up the competition. Watson, by the way, won handily, showing great facility with some pretty complex clues that might easily stump a human, such as this one: “You just need a nap. You don’t have this sleep disorder that can make sufferers nod off while standing up.” Watson buzzed in first—in less than 2.5 seconds—and replied, “What is ‘narcolepsy’?”


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

For Toronto, see Garton Ash et al. 2013, 12 15. for ‘postmigrants’ see Timothy Garton Ash, ‘Freedom & Diversity: A Liberal Pentagram for Living Together’, New York Review of Books, 22 November 2012, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/nov/22/freedom-diversity-liberal-pentagram/ 16. see Darnton 2009, 21–23 17. see Zittrain 2008, 27 and his online source available at http://perma.cc/RN6R-4JS2 18. see Post 2009, 30 19. the Oxford English Dictionary attributes it to Vint Cerf et al., ‘Request for Comments’ (1974). See also Internet Society, ‘Brief History of the Internet’, http://perma.cc/SNY8-TYAE 20. Mueller 2004, 86 21. Berners-Lee 1999, chapters 2–4; see also the original website at http://perma.cc/MWR3-VASS 22. see ‘The End of Moore’s Law’, The Economist, 19 April 2015, http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/04/economist-explains-17 and John Markoff, ‘Smaller, Faster, Cheaper, Over’, New York Times, 27 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/27/technology/smaller-faster-cheaper-over-the-future-of-computer-chips.html. Note that Moore’s Law is variously cited as predicting that the number of transistors on a microchip will double every two years, or every 18 months, while he originally predicted that it would happen every year. The basic point stands 23. this is according to the decimal scale.

The minimal definition of literacy was established in 1958. Note that the UN estimate includes some 775 million adults and 122 million illiterate youth 29. Shteyngart 2010 30. Kurzweil 2005 31. Weizenbaum 1984 and Carr 2010, 201–8 32. Ian Sample and Alex Hern, ‘Scientists Dispute Whether Computer ‘Eugene Goostman’ Passed Turing Test’, The Guardian, 9 June 2014, http://perma.cc/9YMC-LJW7 33. John Markoff et al., ‘For Sympathetic Ear, More Chinese Turn to Smartphone Program’, New York Times, 31 July 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/04/science/for-sympathetic-ear-more-chinese-turn-to-smartphone-program.html 34. see Future of Life Institute, ‘Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence: An Open Letter’, http://perma.cc/ZD2A-DP7E, and Martin Rees, ‘Cheer Up, the Post-Human Era Is Dawning’, Financial Times, 10 July 2015, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4fe10870-20c2-11e5-ab0f-6bb9974f25d0.html#axzz3qv6zRoSp 35. this is essentially also the conclusion of Wu 2013 36. on the often neglected subject of touch, see Linden 2015 37.


pages: 678 words: 216,204

The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler

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affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, commoditize, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto

., "Evaluating Information and Communications Technology: Perspective for a Balanced Approach," Report to the Kellogg Foundation (December 17, 2001), http:// www.si.umich.edu/pne/kellogg/013.html. 132. Norman H. Nie and Lutz Ebring, "Internet and Society, A Preliminary Report," Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society, February 17, 2000, 15 (Press Release), ‹http://www.pkp.ubc.ca/bctf/Stanford_Report.pdf›. 133. Ibid., 42-43, tables CH-WFAM, CH-WFRN. 134. See John Markoff and A. Newer, "Lonelier Crowd Emerges in Internet Study," New York Times, February 16, 2000, section A, page 1, column 1. 135. Nie and Ebring, "Internet and Society," 19. 136. Amitai Etzioni, "Debating the Societal Effects of the Internet: Connecting with the World," Public Perspective 11 (May/June 2000): 42, also available at http:// www.gwu.edu/ ccps/etzioni/A273.html. 137. Manuel Castells, The Rise of Networked Society 2d ed.

., "Evaluating Information and Communications Technology: Perspective for a Balanced Approach," Report to the Kellogg Foundation (December 17, 2001), http:// www.si.umich.edu/pne/kellogg/013.html. 132. Norman H. Nie and Lutz Ebring, "Internet and Society, A Preliminary Report," Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society, February 17, 2000, 15 (Press Release), ‹http://www.pkp.ubc.ca/bctf/Stanford_Report.pdf›. 133. Ibid., 42-43, tables CH-WFAM, CH-WFRN. 134. See John Markoff and A. Newer, "Lonelier Crowd Emerges in Internet Study," New York Times, February 16, 2000, section A, page 1, column 1. 135. Nie and Ebring, "Internet and Society," 19. 136. Amitai Etzioni, "Debating the Societal Effects of the Internet: Connecting with the World," Public Perspective 11 (May/June 2000): 42, also available at http:// www.gwu.edu/ ccps/etzioni/A273.html. 137. Manuel Castells, The Rise of Networked Society 2d ed.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

As hard-core fans of science fiction, ham radio, and Japanese monster movies: “Spacewars and Beyond: How the Tech Model Railroad Club Changed the World,” Henry Jenkins. http://henryjenkins.org/2007/10/spacewars_and_beyond_how_the_t.html#sthash.vNI7iDoK.dpuf equal parts of “science, fiction, and science fiction”: Scientific Temperaments, p. 266. “Do the arithmetic or be doomed to talk nonsense”: “John McCarthy, 84, Dies; Computer Design Pioneer,” John Markoff. New York Times, Oct. 25, 2011. François Mitterrand, the president of France, visited her office: Jean Hollands, personal communication. Homebrew Computer Club: Ibid. a combination of Sherlock Holmes and A. J. Raffles: The Senior Class Book, compiled by the class of 1906, Cornell University, 1906, p. 147. he embarked on a bike tour of Europe: Lee Felsenstein, personal communication.

“I’m not daydreaming, I’m inventing”: “Oral History of Lee Felsenstein,” Kip Crosby. Edited by Dag Spicer. May 7, 2008. Computer History Museum, p. 2. http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102702231 He began to think of the basement as a holy sanctuary: Lee Felsenstein, personal communication. “I realized that I had made a mistake”: Lee Felsenstein, interview with the author, 2014. While McCarthy wanted to design machines: “An Interview with John Markoff: What the Dormouse Said.” Ubiquity, Aug. 2005. tools that would facilitate “conviviality”: Tools for Conviviality, Ivan Illich. Harper & Row, 1973. a programmer at a bustling commune: “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” Stewart Brand. Rolling Stone, Dec. 7, 1972. which was twenty-four feet long: “Convivial Cybernetic Devices: An Interview with Lee Felsenstein,” Kip Crosby.


pages: 696 words: 143,736

The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, fudge factor, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, information retrieval, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, ought to be enough for anybody, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, the medium is the message, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, Y2K

Neural Networks and Natural Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1988. Grossman, Reinhardt. Phenomenology and Existentialism: An Introduction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984. Guillen, Michael. Bridges to Infinity: The Human Side of Mathematics. Los Angeles: Jeremy P Tarcher, 1983. Guthrie, W K. C. A History of Greek Philosophy. 6 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962-1981. Hafner, Katie and John Markoff. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. Halberstam, David. The Next Century. New York: William Morrow, 1991. Hameroff, Stuart R., Alfred W Kaszniak, and Alwyn C. Scott, eds. Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Hamming, R. W Introduction to Applied Numerical Analysis.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

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3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Everyone was attending preachy “workshops” where a narrative about a mystical path to self-empowerment was reinforced. If you found it to be a load of claptrap you learned to keep quiet. It wasn’t worth the arguments. We like to pretend this phase of Silicon Valley culture didn’t happen, but it did. To my mind, this was a distinct period from the 1970s hippie/tech crossover, which was documented nicely in John Markoff’s book What the Dormouse Said. Well before the computer nerds showed up, California was already a center of “Eastern Religion.” There were Tibetan temples and Hindu ashrams. The wave of Eastern-influenced spiritual style was inescapable. During the wild early development of Virtual Reality, in the 1980s, I lived for a while in a faux Greek temple in the Berkeley hills built by friends of the radical dancer Isadora Duncan much earlier in the century.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Displacement and Job Creation,” World Bank, 2014. 11 BCA Research, “The End of Europe’s Welfare State,” Weekly Report, June 26, 2015. 12 Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?,” Oxford University Programme on the Impacts of Future Technology, September 17, 2013. 13 David Rotman, “How Technology Is Destroying Jobs,” MIT Technology Review, June 12, 2013. 14 John Markoff, “The Next Wave,” Edge, July 16, 2015. Chapter 2: The Circle of Life 1 Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World and the Rise of the Rest (New York: Norton, 2008). 2 Jonathan Wheatley, “Brazil’s Leader Blames White People for Crisis,” Financial Times, March 27, 2009. 3 Global Emerging Markets Equity Team, “Tales from the Emerging World: The Myths of Middle-Class Revolution,” Morgan Stanley Investment Management, July 16, 2013. 4 “The Quest for Prosperity,” Economist, May 15, 2007. 5 Saeed Naqvi, “A Little Left of Self Interest,” The Friday Times, June 26, 2015. 6 William Easterly, The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor (New York: Basic Books, 2014).


pages: 464 words: 155,696

Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart Into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender, Rick Tetzeli

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, computer age, corporate governance, El Camino Real, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Marc Andreessen, market design, McMansion, Menlo Park, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog

When one councilwoman tried to joke with him that perhaps the city should get free Wi-Fi in return for approving the move, Steve said, “Well, you know, I’m kind of old-fashioned. I believe that we pay taxes, and that the city then gives us services.” Over the last few months, a steady flow of visitors came by the house in Palo Alto. Bill Clinton came to visit, as did President Obama, for dinner with a select group of Silicon Valley leaders. John Markoff, of the New York Times, and Steven Levy, who had written several books about Silicon Valley, including ones about the development of the Macintosh and the iPod, dropped by together to pay their respects. Bill Gates wound up spending four hours with Steve one afternoon. “Steve and I will always get more credit than we deserve, because otherwise the story’s too complicated,” Gates says. “I mean, yes, Steve did brilliant work, and if you had to say—you know, leave me out of it—one person who had the most impact on the personal computer industry, particularly from where we sit now, you’d pick Steve Jobs.

Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns

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anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, creative destruction, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

Rand may also have inspired Brand’s later insistence that his hippy partners become comfortable with money and overcome their guilt about using it to reform the world. For libertarian and counterculture connections to cyberspace, see Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006); John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking Penguin, 2005). Rand’s intersection with the computer culture is noted in Christopher Hitchens, “Why So Many High-Tech Executives Have Declared Allegiance to Randian Objectivism,” Business 2.0, August/September 2001, 129–32, and is surely worth further exploration. 49. Ayn Rand, “A Suggestion,” The Objectivist, February 1969, 595–96; Ayn Rand, “Of Living Death,” The Objectivist, October 1968, 534.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

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Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

Richard Stallman, “The GNU Project,” available online at http://www.gnu.org/gnu/ thegnuproject.html and in Chris Dibona et al, eds., Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 1999). 57. Ross, Strange Weather, p. 80. 58. From a telephone interview with Kevin Mitnick, cited in Taylor, Hackers, p. 57. For more details on the Mitnick story, see the following texts: Katie Hafner and John Markoff, Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (New York: Touchstone, 1991); Tsu- Chapter 5 170 A British hacker named Dr-K hardens this sentiment into an explicit anticommercialism when he writes that “[c]orporations and government cannot be trusted to use computer technology for the benefit of ordinary people.”59 It is for this reason that the Free Software Foundation was established in 1985.


pages: 344 words: 96,690

Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies by Charlene Li, Josh Bernoff

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business process, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, demand response, Donald Trump, estate planning, Firefox, John Markoff, knowledge worker, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Tony Hsieh

You might post this query on Dell’s community forum (www.dellcommunity.com): This thread is visible to Dell community forum members at http://forr.com/gsw8-4. 5. He’s been logged into the forum for over 473,000 minutes, the equivalent of 123 working days a year: Dell representatives provided us with these statistics on Predator’s time spent and postings on the Dell community forum. 6. Caterina Fake, cofounder of the photo-sharing site Flickr, called it “the culture of generosity”: See, for example, “Web Content by and for the Masses” by John Markoff, New York Times, June 29, 2005, visible at http://forr.com/gsw8-6. 7. We call it the search for psychic income: The term psychic income—meaning nonmonetary compensation—entered the lexicon through the work of the economists F. A. Fetter and Irving Fisher in the 1920s. In the groundswell it becomes a crucial form of currency. See, for example, this page for a definition: http://forr.com/gsw8-7. 8.


pages: 317 words: 84,400

Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World by Christopher Steiner

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23andMe, Ada Lovelace, airport security, Al Roth, algorithmic trading, backtesting, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delta neutral, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, dumpster diving, Flash crash, Gödel, Escher, Bach, High speed trading, Howard Rheingold, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, late fees, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, medical residency, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Sergey Aleynikov, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

Paul Kedrosky and Dane Stangler, Financialization and Its Entrepreneurial Consequences, Kauffman Foundation Research Series, March 2011, http://www.kauffman.org/uploadedfiles/financialization_report_3-23-11.pdf. CHAPTER 10: THE FUTURE BELONGS TO THE ALGORITHMS AND THEIR CREATORS 1. “Algorithm Measures Human Pecking Order,” MIT Technology Review, December 21, 2011, http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/27437/. 2. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011. 3. Eric Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race against the Machine (Digital Frontier Press e-book, 2011). 4. Steve Lohr, “More Jobs Predicted for Machines, Not People,” New York Times, October 23, 2011. 5. Steve Lohr, “In Case You Wondered, a Real Human Wrote This Column,” New York Times, September 10, 2011. 6.


pages: 422 words: 104,457

Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

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AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

In 1996, however, the government dropped: Phil Zimmermann, “Significant Moments in PGP’s History: Zimmermann Case Dropped” philzimmermann.com (personal blog), January 12, 1996, http://www.philzimmermann.com/EN/news/PRZ_case_dropped.html. And in 1999, the United States dropped: Jeri Clausing, “White House Eases Export Controls on Encryption,” New York Times, September 17, 1999, http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/09/biztech/articles/17encrypt.html. It developed the “Clipper chip” to encrypt: John Markoff, “Technology; Wrestling over the Key to the Codes,” New York Times, May 9, 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/05/09/business/technology-wrestling-over-the-key-to-the-codes.html. copies of the encryption keys: Steven Levy, “Battle of the Clipper Chip,” New York Times, June 12, 1994, http://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/12/magazine/battle-of-the-clipper-chip.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm. In 1994, Matt Blaze at AT&T Bell Labs: Matt Blaze, in discussion with author, May 8, 2013.


pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

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air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, Donald Davies, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Its total cost was $1.8 million: For an account of Google’s arrival in The Dalles, see Steven Levy, In the Plex (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), pp. 192–95. “It was visionary—this little town…”: Ibid., p. 192. I’d even read a little note about it: The site has since been changed, but it was accessible as of June 2011 at http://www.google.com/corporate/datacenter/index.html; a copy is preserved here: http://kalanaonline.blogspot.com/2011/02/where-is-your-data-google-and-microsoft.html. Where Google had kept everything top secret: John Markoff and Saul Hansell, “Hiding in Plain Sight, Google Seeks More Power,” New York Times, June 14, 2006 (http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/14/technology/14search.html). “It’s time to stop treating data centers like Fight Club”: Maggie Shiels, “Facebook Shares Green Data Centre Technology,” BBC News, April 8, 2011 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-13010766). Facebook had come under fire from Greenpeace: Elizabeth Weingarten, “Friends Without Benefits,” Slate, March 7, 2011 (http://www.slate.com/id/2287548/).


pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

ZDNet, February 8, 2002, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.zdnet.com/news/ will-merger-hurt-hps-printing-biz/120630. 197 About 300 million have been: HP release, “Twenty Years of Innovation,” http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press_kits/2008/deskjet20/ bg_deskjet20thannivtimeline.pdf. 197 In 2011, HP’s Imaging: Ibid. 197 A month before: Robinson and Stern, Corporate Creativity, 165. 197 He wandered into the calligraphy: Steve Jobs, text and video of Stanford commencement address, June 12, 2005, posted on the Stanford Report, June 14, 2005, accessed September 4, 2012, http://news.stanford.edu/news/ 2005/june15/jobs-061505.html. 198 Without Peggy Guggenheim: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Jackson_Pollock; http://totallyhistory.com/jackson-pollock/, accessed September 5, 2012. 198 in Long Island where his Drip paintings: http://totallyhistory.com/jackson-pollock/, accessed September 5, 2012. 198 Guggenheim also introduced: Helen Gent, “Peggy Guggenheim, Mistress of Modernism,” Marie Claire, June 19, 2009, accessed September 5, 2012, http://au.lifestyle.yahoo.com/marie-claire/ features/life-stories/article/-/5869429/peggy-guggenheim-mistress-of-modernism/. 198 Of course, Guggenheim played: Kay Larson, Where the Heart Beats (New York: Penguin Press, 2012), 96–97. 198 More recently, Stanford University: Liz Gannes, “Stanford Professors Launch Coursera with $16M from Kleiner Perkins and NEA,” All Things D, April 18, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://allthingsd.com/20120418/ stanford-professors-launch-coursera-with-16m -from-kleiner-perkins-and-nea/; John Markoff, “Online Education Venture Lures Cash Infusion and Deals with 5 Top Universities,” New York Times, April 18, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/ 04/18/technology/coursera-plans- to-announce-university-partners-for-online-classes.html. 198 one of two VCs who invested: Markoff, “Online Education Venture.” 198 In December 2009, Jesse Genet: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/ lumi/lumi-co-a-new-textile-printing-technology, accessed September 5, 2012. 199 a printing system based: Morgan Furst, Q&A with Jesse Genet, Source 4 Style, December 22, 2011, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.source4style.com/trends/the-academy/ qa-with-jesse-genet-printing-with-light/; http://lumi.co/, accessed September 5, 2012. 199 Angoulvant needed $50,000: http://lumi.co/collections/kickstarter, accessed September 5, 2012; http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/ lumi/print-on-fabric-using-sunlight-the-lumi-process, accessed September 5, 2012. 199 Eddie Huang was a twenty-three-year-old: Baohaus story based on interviews with Evan Huang; Fresh Off the Boat, Eddie Huang’s blog, http://thepopchef.blogspot.com/; New York magazine, accessed September 8, 2012, Salon, January 19, 2011; http://www.baohausnyc.com/about.html, accessed September 5, 2012. 200 the small meat-filled buns: Joe DiStefano, “A First Look at Baohaus (in Which I Learn I Fit the Profile), January 11, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://newyork.seriouseats.com/2010/01/ a-first-look-at-baohaus-review-lower-east-side-manhattan-new.html; http://www.baohausnyc.com/about.html, accessed September 5, 2012. 200 Huang wanted to call: Evan Huang, interviews with the author, spring 2012. 200 Eddie’s father may have been: “The Year of Asian Hipster Cuisine,” New York magazine “Grub Street,” July 8, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://newyork.grubstreet.com/2012/ 07/asian_hipster_cuisine.html. 200 Luckily, several of Eddie: Evan Huang, interviews with the author, spring 2012. 201 They arrived in 2009: interviews with Huang, spring 2012; http://thepopchef.blogspot.com/search?


pages: 294 words: 81,292

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat

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3D printing, AI winter, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Automated Insights, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, drone strike, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day


pages: 362 words: 86,195

Fatal System Error: The Hunt for the New Crime Lords Who Are Bringing Down the Internet by Joseph Menn

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Brian Krebs, dumpster diving, fault tolerance, Firefox, John Markoff, Menlo Park, offshore financial centre, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular electronics, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, zero day

Some of the premier experts in government are cited in the text, while others asked not to be exposed. I was fortunate to be aided by many of the most able private researchers, not all of whom are paid for their work, including Joe Stewart, Rafal Rohozinski, Don Jackson, Jart Armin, Paul Ferguson, Avivah Litan, and Dmitri Alperovich. My fellow journalistic specialists also do an important service for followers like me and for the world at large. Among the very best are Brian Krebs, John Markoff, Jon Swartz, Byron Acohido, Kevin Poulsen, Kim Zetter, John Leyden, and Robert McMillan. I am grateful to my former colleagues at the Los Angeles Times, who supported my early reporting and allowed me a leave to write; my new friends at the Financial Times, who gave me time to finish; Lindsay Jones and others at PublicAffairs; my agent Jill Marsal; Chris Gaither, who served as an unpaid manuscript editor; and those close to me who dealt with my prolonged distraction and repeated absences.


pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

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4chan, Airbus A320, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

Marin, Ryan Block, Tom Bodkin, Danah Boyd, Matt Buchanan, David Carr, Brian Chen, Mathias Crawford, Tony and Mary Conrad, Tom Conrad, Paddy Cosgrave, Dennis Crowley, Damon Darlin, Anil Dash, Mike Driscoll, Aaron Durand, Josh Felser, Tim Ferris, Brady Forrest, David Gallhager, Michael Galpert, John Geddes, Shelly Gerrish, Ashley Khaleesi Granata, Mark Hansen, Quentin Hardy, Leland Hayward, Erica Hintergardt, Mat Honan, Arianna Huffington, Kate Imbach, Larry Ingrassia, Walter Isaccson, Mike Issac, Joel Johnson, Andrei Kallaur, Paul Kedrosky, Kevin Kelly, Jeff Koyen, Brian Lam, Jeremy LaTrasse, Steven Levy, Allen Loeb, Kati London, Om Malik, John Markoff, Hubert McCabe, Christopher Michel, Claire Cain Miller, Trudy Muller, Tim O’Reilly, Carolyn Penner, Nicole Perlroth, Megan Quinn, Narendra Rocherolle, Jennifer Rodriguez, Evelyn Rusli, Naveen Selvadurai, Ryan and Devon Sarver, Elliot Schrage, Mari Sheibley, MG Siegler, Courtney Skott, Robin Sloan, Andrew Ross Sorkin, Suzanne Spector, Brad Stone, David Streitfeld, Gabriel Stricker, Arthur Sulzberger Jr., Kara Swisher, Clive Thompson, Deep Throat, Baratunde Thurston, Mark Trammell, Sara Morishige Williams, Nick Wingfield, Jenna Wortham, Aaron Zamost, Edith Zimmerman.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

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AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, commoditize, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, fixed income, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, lifelogging, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

Dan Ariely, Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions, revised and expanded edition (New York: Harper Perennial, 2010). 6. Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, 3rd ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2011). 7. Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer, “Emotional Intelligence,” Imagination, Cognition and Personality 9, no. 3 (March 1990): 185–211. 8. John Markoff, “Skilled Work, Without the Worker,” New York Times, August 18, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industry.html?_r=0. 9. Michigan News, “Empathy: College Students Don’t Have as Much as They Used To,” May 27, 2010, http://ns.umich.edu/new/releases/7724-empathy-college-students-don-t-have-as-much-as-they-used-to. 10. Jean M. Twenge and W.


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal

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A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, industrial cluster, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

FORD “Ford announced recently that they are creating an open platform that will allow tinkerers and developers to electronically ‘hot-rod’ their cars.” From “Hack your car with OpenXC, a platform for modding Ford car computers,” by Dean Takahashi, VentureBeat, September 12, 2011, http://www.venturebeat.com/2011/09/12/hack-your-car-with-openxc-platform-for-modding-ford-car-computers/. SELF-DRIVING CARS “Google is working on cars that will drive themselves.” From “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” by John Markoff, The New York Times, October 9, 2010. JOB GROWTH “Job growth will be led by health care…” From “Occupational Outlook Handbook: 2010-20 Projections,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 29, 2012, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/About/Projections-Overview.htm. Chapter 3. Everything is a service Our mission statement about treating people with respect and dignity is not just words but a creed we live by every day.


pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

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Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

GSMA Intelligence, “Connections Excluding Cellular M2M: Q2 2007.” 33. Much of this section is based on Daniel Roth, “Google’s Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless Web,” Wired, June 23, 2008, http://archive.wired.com/techbiz/media/magazine/16-07/ff_android?currentPage=all. 34. Larry Page and Sergey Brin had met Andy Rubin and heard about his mobile vision when Rubin gave a talk to an engineering class at Stanford in 2002. John Markoff, “I Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone,” New York Times, November 4, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/04/technology/04google.html?pagewanted=all. 35. Vogelstein, Dogfight, 46–48. 36. Symbian was based on legacy PDA code. West and Wood, “Tradeoffs of Open Innovation Platform Leadership.” The Microsoft Mobility story is apparently more complicated. See Brian X. Chen, “The Microsoft Blew It with Windows Mobile,” Wired, November 17, 2009, http://www.wired.com/2009/11/microsoft-windows-mobile/. 37.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Denise Dubie, “Microsoft Struggling to Convince about Vista,” Computerworld UK, November 19, 2007, http://www.computerworlduk.com/news/it-vendors/microsoft-struggling-to-convince-about-vista-6258/. 9. Robin Bloor, “10 Reasons Why Vista is a Disaster,” Inside Analysis, December 18, 2007, http://insideanalysis.com/2007/12/10-reasons-why-vista-is-a-disaster/2/. 10. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Vista and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_XP. 11. Steve Lohr and John Markoff, “Windows Is So Slow, but Why?” New York Times, March 27, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/27/technology/27soft.html?_r=1. 12. Carliss Young Baldwin and Kim B. Clark, Design Rules: The Power of Modularity, vol. 1 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). 13. Robert S. Huckman, Gary P. Pisano, and Liz Kind, “Amazon Web Services,” Harvard Business School Case 609-048, 2008. 14. Carliss Young Baldwin and Kim B.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Dunbar, “Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size, and Language in Humans,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1993): 681–735. 5Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2000). 6Dunbar, “Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size, and Language in Humans,” 683. 7Dunbar, “Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size, and Language in Humans,” 685–86. 8Dunbar, “Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size, and Language in Humans,” 684–85; http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-01-10/the-dunbar-number-from-the-guru-of-social-networks. 9R. A. Hill and R. I. M. Dunbar, “Social Network Size in Humans,” Human Nature 14, no. 1 (2003). 10John Markoff and Somini Sengupta, “Separating You and Me? 4.74 Degrees,” New York Times, November 21, 2011. 11Claude S. Fischer, To Dwell Among Friends: Personal Networks in Town and City (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 139–44. 12Sam G. B. Roberts, Robin I. M. Dunbar, Thomas V. Pollet, and Toon Kuppens, “Exploring Variation in Active Network Size: Constraints and Ego Characteristics.” Social Networks 31 (2009): 138. 13Nicholas A.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Quotes from an interview with the author except for this one, which is from Justin Cox, “Documenting a Bin Laden Ex-Confidante: Q&A with Filmmaker Laura Poitras,” TheHill.com, July 13, 2010, http://thehill.com/capital-living/cover-stories/108553-documenting-a-bin-laden-ex-confidante-qaa-with-filmmaker-laura-poitras#ixzz2YfhpMdXu. 2. The other person Snowden contacted was the journalist Glenn Greenwald of the Guardian, with whom Poitras collaborated. 3. That start-up is Narrative Science, a computer program that generates sports stories. Janet Paskin, “The Future of Journalism?,” Columbia Journalism Review (November/December 2010): 10. 4. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 5, 2011, A1. 5. See Janice Gross Stein’s book based on her Massey Lecture: Janice Gross Stein, The Cult of Efficiency (Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2002). 6. Christopher Steiner, Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World (New York: Portfolio, 2012), 88. 7. I owe this observation to an exchange with Richard Nash, who went on to make the point eloquently here: Richard Nash, “What Is the Business of Literature?


pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, Vannevar Bush

Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, For Profit Higher Education: The Failure to Safeguard the Federal Investment and Ensure Student Success, July 30, 2012, http://www.help.senate.gov/imo/media/for_profit_report/PartI-PartIII-SelectedAppendixes.pdf. the average sticker price of attending a public four-year university increased by roughly 80 percent: College Board, Trends in College Pricing 2013. 6: THUNDER LIZARDS he came across an article: John Markoff, “Computer Visionary Who Invented the Mouse,” New York Times, July 3, 2013. he finished a PhD in electrical engineering: Doug Engelbart Institute, “Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart Curriculum Vitae,” http://dougengelbart.org/about/cv.html. In handwritten notes summarizing his speech: Doug Engelbart, “Augmented Man, and a Search for Perspective,” Stanford Research Institute, December 16, 1960.


pages: 415 words: 103,231

Gusher of Lies: The Dangerous Delusions of Energy Independence by Robert Bryce

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Berlin Wall, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, financial independence, flex fuel, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, price stability, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Yom Kippur War

In 1983, gasoline consumption was about 287.1 million gallons per day. In 2005, it was 378.4 million gallons. EIA data available: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ dnav/pet/hist/c100000001A.htm. 20. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2007, Table D14, 204. 21. Electricity consumption figures are per EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2007, Table D6, 196. 22. Google. Available: http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html. 23. John Markoff and Saul Hansell, “Hiding in Plain Sight, Google Seeks More Power,” New York Times, June 14, 2006. 24. A 10,000-square-foot data center uses as much electricity as 1,000 homes. See Robert Bryce, “Power Struggle,” Interactive Week, December 19, 2000. Two football fields are equal to about 115,000 square feet. Article available: http:// www.robertbryce.com/ar_2. 25. Markoff and Hansell, op. cit. 26.


pages: 542 words: 161,731

Alone Together by Sherry Turkle

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Albert Einstein, Columbine, global village, Hacker Ethic, helicopter parent, Howard Rheingold, industrial robot, information retrieval, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rodney Brooks, Skype, stem cell, technoutopianism, The Great Good Place, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, women in the workforce

., The Inner History of Devices (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 2-29. 2 Sherry Turkle, The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit (1984; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005), 2. 3 Sherry Turkle, Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 13. 4 Roger Entner, “Under-aged Texting: Usage and Actual Cost,” Nielsen.com, January 27, 2010, http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/under-aged-texting-usage-and-actual-cost (accessed May 30, 2010). INTRODUCTION: ALONE TOGETHER 1 See “What Is Second Life,” Second Life, http://secondlife.com/whatis (accessed June 13, 2010). 2 Benedict Carey and John Markoff, “Students, Meet Your New Teacher, Mr. Robot,” New York Times, July 10, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/07/11/science/11robots.html (accessed July 10, 2010); Anne Tergeson and Miho Inada, “It’s Not a Stuffed Animal, It’s a $6,000 Medical Device,” Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704463504575301051844937276.html (accessed August 10, 2010); Jonathan Fildes, “‘Virtual Human’ Milo Comes Out to Play at TED in Oxford,” BBC News, July 13, 2010, www.bbc.co.uk/news/10623423 (accessed July 13, 2010); Amy Harmon, “A Soft Spot for Circuitry: Robot Machines as Companions,” New York Times, July 4, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/07/05/science/05robot.html?


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

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agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mass immigration, megacity, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Scientific American, November 2008, pp. 56–61. ­ ­5 “It’s like being an astronomer”: Jeff Wise, “Thought Police: How Brain Scans Could Invade Your Private Life,” Popular Mechanics, October 15, 2007, www.­popularmechanics.­com/­science/­health/­neuroscience/­4226614. ­ ­6 “possible to identify, from a large set of completely novel natural images”: New Scientist, October 15, 2008, issue 2678. ­ ­7 “Can we tap into the thoughts of others”: David Baltimore, “How Biology Became Information Science,” in Denning, pp. 53–54. ­ ­8 “I am told”: Ibid., p. 54. ­ ­9 “Perhaps something like the Star Trek tricorder”: Bernhard Blümich, “The Incredible Shrinking Scanner: MRI-like Machine Becomes Portable,” Scientific American, November 2008, p. 68. 2. FUTURE OF AI: RISE OF THE MACHINES ­ ­1 “Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man”: John Markoff, New York Times, July 25, 2009, p. A1, www.­nytimes.­com/­2009/­07/­26/­science/­26robot.­html­?scp=1&­sq=Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man&­st=cse. ­ ­2 “Technologists are providing”: Ibid. ­ ­3 “just at the stage where they’re robust”: Kaku, p. 75. ­ ­4 “Machines will be capable, within twenty years”: Crevier, p. 109. ­ ­5 “It’s as though a group of people”: Paul W. Abrahams, “A World Without Work,” in Denning and Metcalfe, p. 136. ­ ­6 “Today, you can buy chess programs for $49”: Richard Strozzi Heckler, “Somatics in Cyberspace,” in Denning, p. 281. ­ ­7 “To this day, AI programs”: Sheffield et al., p. 30. ­ ­8 “100 million things, about the number a typical person knows”: Kurzweil, p. 267. ­ ­9 In 2006, it was estimated that there were 950,000 industrial robots: World Robotics 2007, IFR Statistical Department (Frankfurt: International Federation of Robotics, 2007). 10 “Discovering how the brain works”: Fred Hapgood, “Reverse Engineering the Brain,” Technology Review, July 11, 2006, www.­technologyreview.­com/­read_­article.­aspx­?


pages: 205 words: 18,208

The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? by David Brin

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affirmative action, airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, data acquisition, death of newspapers, Extropian, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, informal economy, information asymmetry, Iridium satellite, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, means of production, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, open economy, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, placebo effect, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telepresence, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

A number of books have explored this netherworld at the edge of both technology and the law—for example, The Hacker Crackdown by Bruce Sterling, At Large by David Freedman and Charles Mann, and Masters of Deception by Michelle Slatalla and Josh Quittner. Some writers take pains to distinguish “cyberjocks” who cruise the dataways in a spirit of fun-loving curiosity, careful to avoid doing harm, from others who aim to steal, vandalize, or demonstrate a sense of power and superiority, labeling the latter “crackers.” John Markoff of The New York Times used the terms “Hacker A” and “Hacker B” to make a similar distinction. A clumsy but brutal example of the second type, showing that threats donʼt always come from a techno-elite, was described by Dixie Baker, chief scientist with Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC). The thirteenyear-old daughter of a hospital clerk copied the computer records of several emergency room patients and then phoned those patients to inform them they were HIV-positive.


pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

average starting salary for a law school graduate See the National Association of Law Placement’s Employment Report and Salary Survey for the Class of 2010. http://www.nalp.org/uploads/Classof2010SelectedFindings.pdf. average lawyer earned May 2011 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes231011.htm. The most advanced example of this trend is e-discovery See John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011. (Meanwhile, DLA Piper, one of the law firms) See Nathan Koppel and Vanessa O’Connell. “Pay Gap Widens at Big Law Firms as Partners Chase Star Attorneys,” Wall Street Journal, February 8, 2011. In the age of the global super-elite, even dentists Joan Juliet Buck, “Drill, Bébé, Drill,” New York Times T Magazine, August 10, 2011.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

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A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Vannevar Bush’s “As We May Think” first appeared in the Atlantic in July 1945. It is available at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/194507/bush. My account of Douglas Engelbart’s work draws on readings from his work collected at the Bootstrap Institute Web site at http://www.bootstrap.org/, as well as the accounts in Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping (Stanford University Press, 2000); Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought (Simon & Schuster, 1985); and John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said (Viking, 2005). The video of Engelbart’s 1968 demo is at http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/1968Demo.htm. “store ideas, study them”: From the Invisible Revolution Web site, devoted to Engelbart’s ideas, at http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/nls.htm. “successful achievements can be utilized”: From the “Whom to Augment First?” section of Engelbart’s 1962 paper, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” at http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers /B5_F18_ConceptFrameworkPt4.htm.


pages: 559 words: 157,112

Dealers of Lightning by Michael A. Hiltzik

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Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, index card, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, oil shock, popular electronics, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. Berkeley, Calif.: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1984. Gelernter, David. Machine Beauty: Elegance and the Heart of Technology. New York: Basic Books, 1998. Gleick, James. Genius: The Life and Science of Richard I. Feynmann. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992. Goldberg, Adele, ed. A History of Personal Workstations. Reading, Mass.: ACM Press, 1988. Hafner, Katie, and John Markoff. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992. Hafner, Katie, and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay up Late: The Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. Jackson, Tim. Inside Intel. New York: Dutton, 1997. Jacobson, Gary, and John Hillkirk. Xerox: American Samurai.


pages: 538 words: 147,612

All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Norman Mailer, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the new new thing, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, wealth creators, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

.: Harvard University Press, 1994), p. 29. 21. “From the outset”: Ibid. Much of the information on the history of Silicon Valley comes from Saxenian’s book. 22. They had become friends: Kaplan, The Silicon Boys, p. 34. 23. Later he encouraged the duo: Saxenian, Regional Advantage, p. 20. 24. Hewlett and Packard are the iconic models: The information on Hewlett and Packard’s early days in Silicon Valley comes mainly from John Markoff, “William Hewlett Dies at 87: A Pioneer of Silicon Valley,” obituary, New York Times, Jan. 13, 2001. 25. In a 1983 Esquire article: Tom Wolfe, “The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce: How the Sun Rose on the Silicon Valley,” Esquire, Dec. 1983. 26. At Fairchild, Noyce designed: Kaplan, The Silicon Boys, p. 56. 27. It was at Intel in late 1971: “How the West Kicked Butt,” Forbes, Aug. 25, 1997. 28.


pages: 380 words: 118,675

The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone

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3D printing, airport security, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, call centre, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, game design, housing crisis, invention of movable type, inventory management, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, late fees, loose coupling, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Rodney Brooks, search inside the book, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Skype, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Tony Hsieh, Whole Earth Catalog, why are manhole covers round?, zero-sum game

My editor Jim Aley provided a careful first read. Diana Suryakusuma helped me assemble the photographs under a tight deadline. My friend and colleague Ashlee Vance proved an invaluable sounding board when I needed to discuss the thornier challenges of telling this story. I also want to thank fellow journalists Steven Levy, Ethan Watters, Adam Rogers, George Anders, Dan McGinn, Nick Bilton, Claire Cain Miller, Damon Darlin, John Markoff, Jim Brunner, Alan Deutschman, Tom Giles, Doug MacMillan, Adam Satariano, Motoko Rich, and Peter Burrows. Nick Sanchez provided stellar research and reporting assistance for this book, and Morgan Mason from the journalism program at the University of Nevada at Reno assisted with interviews of Amazon associates at the fulfillment center in Fernley, Nevada. My family was remarkably helpful and patient throughout this process, particularly in taking up the slack when I disappeared into reporting and writing.


pages: 386 words: 122,595

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

A29. 13. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999). 14. Giacomo Balbinotto Neto, Ana Katarina Campelo, and Everton Nunes da Silva, “The Impact of Presumed Consent Law on Organ Donation: An Empirical Analysis from Quantile Regression for Longitudinal Data,” Berkeley Program in Law & Economics, Paper 050107–2 (2007). CHAPTER 4. GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY II 1. John Markoff, “CIA Tries Foray into Capitalism,” New York Times, September 29, 1999. 2. March 6, 2001. 3. Jackie Calmes and Louise Story, “In Washington, One Bank Chief Still Holds Sway,” New York Times, January 19, 2009. 4. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). 5. Celia W. Dugger, “A Cruel Choice in New Delhi: Jobs vs. a Safer Environment,” New York Times, November 24, 2000. 6.


pages: 496 words: 154,363

I'm Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 59 by Douglas Edwards

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, book scanning, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, commoditize, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Googley, gravity well, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, John Markoff, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, microcredit, music of the spheres, Network effects, P = NP, PageRank, performance metric, pets.com, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, second-price auction, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, stem cell, Superbowl ad, Y2K

Passwords on MOMA were no longer forbidden. It was a shame, Eric observed, that reality had finally come to Google. The source for the stories turned out to be a low-level administrator feeding information to an outsider. She was asked to leave. In January 2004, though, long after that first small leak had been plugged, a much bigger crack appeared in our wall of secrecy. The same month we hired our first corporate security manager, John Markoff from the New York Times wrote a series of articles in which he reported details of products in development and the results of an internal audit conducted in preparation for a possible IPO. The information had been extremely confidential and closely held. The leak was ultimately traced to a senior manager who had known Markoff for years. He left the company as well, though the true reason for his departure was not made public, leading to much speculation.


pages: 396 words: 117,149

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World by Pedro Domingos

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3D printing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, off grid, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, zero-sum game

Learning Deep Architectures for AI,* by Yoshua Bengio (Now, 2009), is a brief introduction to deep learning. The problem of error signal diffusion in backprop is described in “Learning long-term dependencies with gradient descent is difficult,”* by Yoshua Bengio, Patrice Simard, and Paolo Frasconi (IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 1994). “How many computers to identify a cat? 16,000,” by John Markoff (New York Times, 2012), reports on the Google Brain project and its results. Convolutional neural networks, the current deep learning champion, are described in “Gradient-based learning applied to document recognition,”* by Yann LeCun, Léon Bottou, Yoshua Bengio, and Patrick Haffner (Proceedings of the IEEE, 1998). “The $1.3B quest to build a supercomputer replica of a human brain,” by Jonathon Keats (Wired, 2013), describes the European Union’s brain modeling project.

Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

See also Richard Poynder, "Enclosing the Digital Commons," Information Today, vol. 20, no. 5 (May 2003), pp. 37-38; and Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Random House, 2001). 15. In negotiations with AOL, for example, Microsoft demanded that AOL drop RealNetworks' RealPlayer, which was in direct competition with Microsoft's Windows Media Player. RealNetworks's anti-trust lawsuit against Microsoft quoted a Microsoft executive as saying Microsoft would target RealNetworks "for obliteration." See John Markoff, "RealNetworks Accuses Microsoft of Restricting Competition," New York Times, December 19, 2003, p. C5. For more details on Microsoft's attacks on Netscape and the subsequent lawsuit, see 17. 18. 19. 20. 313 Paul Abrahams and Richard Waters, "You've Got Competition," Financial Times, January 24, 2002, p. 16. The Council of Economic Advisers became concerned about the economic impact of Microsoft's dominant position while I served as member and chair.


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How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Andrew Hessel, Marc Goodman, and Steven Kotler, “Hacking the President’s DNA,” The Atlantic, November 2012, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/11/hacking-the-presidents-dna/309147/. 7. “Call to Action,” Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, accessed January 23, 2016, www.stopkillerrobots.org/call-to-action/. 8. “Seize the Opportunity for Action,” Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, accessed January 23, 2016, www.stopkillerrobots.org/2013/11/seize-the-opportunity-for-action/; www.stopkillerrobots.org/. 9. John Markoff, “Planes Without Pilots,” New York Times, April 6, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/04/07/science/planes-without-pilots.html; Rachel Nuwer, “Computers Can Tell if You’re Really in Pain—Even Better than People Can,” Smithsonian, April 30, 2014, www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/computers-are-better-people-differentiating-between-real-and-faked-expressions-pain-180951263/?no-ist; Rachel Fobar, “Meet the Machine That Could Replace Anesthesiologists,” Popular Science, May 12, 2015, www.popsci.com/meet-machine-could-replace-anesthesiologists. 10.


pages: 479 words: 144,453

Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow by Yuval Noah Harari

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23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, drone strike, European colonialism, experimental subject, falling living standards, Flash crash, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, glass ceiling, global village, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, mutually assured destruction, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, ultimatum game, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Bradley Hope, ‘Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over “Unfair Advantage” for High-Frequency Traders Dismissed’, Wall Street Journal, 29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-over-unfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, ‘High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claims’, Huffington Post, 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/26/high-frequency-trading-lawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, ‘Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humans’, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-23/fake-report-erasing-136-billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, ‘How the Robots Lost: High-Frequency Trading’s Rise and Fall’, Bloomberg Businessweek, 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/123468-how-the-robots-lost-high-frequency-tradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner, Automate This, 2–5, 11–52; Luke Dormehl, The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems – And Create More (London: Penguin, 2014), 223. 6. Jordan Weissmann, ‘iLawyer: What Happens when Computers Replace Attorneys?’, Atlantic, 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-when-computers-replace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, ‘Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software’, New York Times, 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Adi Narayan, ‘The fMRI Brain Scan: A Better Lie Detector?’, Time, 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546-2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, ‘Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detector’, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:54 (2013); Steiner, Automate This, 217; Dormehl, The Formula, 229. 7.


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Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks (Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise) by Andrew L. Russell

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barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, creative destruction, Donald Davies, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust

Brock, The Second Information Revolution (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2003), 106–111. 29 Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Doubleday, 1984); Edwards, Closed World; Atsushi Akera, “Voluntarism and the Fruits of Collaboration: The IBM User Group, Share,” Technology and Culture 42 (2001): 710–736; Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006); John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 2006); Ted Friedman, Electric Dreams: Computers in American Culture (New York: New York University Press, 2005); Steven W. Usselman, “Comment: Mediating Innovation: Reflections on the Complex Relationships of User and Supplier,” Enterprise & Society 7 (2006): 477–484. 30 Steven W.


pages: 515 words: 132,295

Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business by Rana Foroohar

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3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund, zero-sum game

Jonathan Weisman, “Biggest Automaker Needs Big Changes,” Washington Post, June 11, 2005. 10. Justin Hyde, “First Pontiac Aztek’s Sale Highlights the Long Half-Life of Ugly,” Motoramic, Yahoo Autos, August 1, 2013. 11. Lutz, Car Guys vs. Bean Counters, 73. 12. Robert D. Atkinson and Stephen J. Ezell, Innovation Economics: The Race for Global Advantage (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012), 22. 13. Gary Rivlin and John Markoff, “Tossing Out a Chief Executive,” New York Times, February 14, 2005. 14. Kimberly D. Elsbach, Ileana Stigliani, and Amy Stroud, “The Building of Employee Distrust: A Case Study of Hewlett-Packard from 1995 to 2010,” Organizational Dynamics 41, no. 3 (2012): 254–63. 15. Alfred Sloan, My Years with General Motors, reissue ed. (New York: Doubleday, 1990), 62 (emphasis added). 16. Dodge v. Ford Motor Co., 170 N.W. 668 (1919). 17.


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Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

Van Alstyne, and Sangeet Paul Choudary, Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy and How to Make Them Work for You (New York: Norton, 2016). Chapter 7 PAYING COMPLEMENTS, AND OTHER SMART STRATEGIES 151 “$500? Fully subsidized? With a plan?”: “Ballmer Laughs at iPhone,” YouTube, September 18, 2007, 2:22, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eywi0h_Y5_U. 152 “When [the iPhone] first came out in early 2007”: Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), 501. 152 “You don’t want your phone to be like a PC”: John Markoff, “Phone Shows Apple’s Impact on Consumer Products,” New York Times, January 11, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/11/technology/11cnd-apple.html. 162 Steve Jobs made a “nine-digit” acquisition offer: Victoria Barret, “Dropbox: The Inside Story of Tech’s Hottest Startup,” Forbes, October 18, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/victoriabarret/2011/10/18/dropbox-the-inside-story-of-techs-hottest-startup/#3b780ed92863. 162 84% of total revenue for Facebook: Facebook, “Facebook Reports Third Quarter 2016 Results,” November 2, 2016, https://investor.fb.com/investor-news/press-release-details/2016/Facebook-Reports-Third-Quarter-2016-Results/default.aspx. 163 “grand slam”: Apple, “iPhone App Store Downloads Top 10 Million in First Weekend,” July 14, 2008, http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/07/14iPhone-App-Store-Downloads-Top-10-Million-in-First-Weekend.html. 164 $6 billion: Daisuke Wakabayashi, “Apple’s App Store Sales Hit $20 Billion, Signs of Slower Growth Emerge,” Wall Street Journal, January 6, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/apples-app-store-sales-hit-20-billion-signs-of-slower-growth-emerge-1452087004. 165 “Jobs soon figured out”: Isaacson, Steve Jobs, 501. 165 Facebook’s offer to publish: Henry Mance, “UK Newspapers: Rewriting the Story,” Financial Times, February 9, 2016, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/0aa8beac-c44f-11e5-808f-8231cd71622e.html#axzz3znzgrkTq. 166 “we only have the faintest idea”: Peter Rojas, “Google Buys Cellphone Software Company,” Engadget, August 17, 2005, https://www.engadget.com/2005/08/17/google-buys-cellphone-software-company. 166 “best deal ever”: Owen Thomas, “Google Exec: Android Was ‘Best Deal Ever,’ ” VentureBeat, October 27, 2010, http://venturebeat.com/2010/10/27/google-exec-android-was-best-deal-ever. 166 Android founder Andy Rubin: Victor H., “Did You Know Samsung Could Buy Android First, but Laughed It Out of Court?”


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

,” Neurobiology of Aging, April 2009, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp. 507–14. 10Radical technologies 1.Bruce Sterling and Jon Lebkowsky, “Topic 487: State of the World 2016,” The WELL, January 3, 2016, well.com. 2.Mark Bergen, “Nest CEO Tony Fadell Went to Google’s All-Hands Meeting to Defend Nest. Here’s What He Said,” Recode, April 13, 2016. f 3.Brad Stone and Jack Clark, “Google Puts Boston Dynamics Up for Sale in Robotics Retreat,” Bloomberg Technology, March 17, 2016. 4.John Markoff, “Latest to Quit Google’s Self-Driving Car Unit: Top Roboticist,” New York Times, August 5, 2016. 5.Mark Harris, “Secretive Alphabet Division Funded by Google Aims to Fix Public Transit in US,” Guardian, June 27, 2016. 6.Siimon Reynolds, “Why Google Glass Failed: A Marketing Lesson,” Forbes, February 5, 2015. 7.Rajat Agrawal, “Why India Rejected Facebook’s ‘Free’ Version of the Internet,” Mashable, February 9, 2016. 8.Mark Zuckerberg, “The technology behind Aquila,” Facebook, July 21, 2016, facebook.com/notes/mark-zuckerberg/the-technology-behind-aquila/10153916136506634/. 9.Mari Saito, “Exclusive: Amazon Expanding Deliveries by Its ‘On-Demand’ Drivers,” Reuters, February 8, 2016. 10.Alan Boyle, “First Amazon Prime Airplane Debuts in Seattle After Secret Night Flight,” GeekWire, August 4, 2016. 11.Farhad Manjoo, “Think Amazon’s Drone Delivery Idea Is a Gimmick?


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Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett

Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism

† In the 1970s, Leo Zeff ran (illegal) group trips in Chesapeake Bay, of around ten to twelve people tripping and three ‘gurus’ staying sober. * Openness is also thought to be a good predictor of creativity, which is why LSD is so often associated with music. Steve Jobs said taking LSD was one of the two or three most important things he’d ever done. (The interesting overlaps between the early computer scene and psychedelics are brilliantly documented in John Markoff’s 2005 book What the Dormouse Said.) * At the very least, there may be some kind of two-way relationship: People with higher levels of openness, or more open to the prospects of self-development, appear to get more out of their experience; and the more people get out of their experience, the more open they become. The way to really test this would be to give LSD to people who had very low openness scores, under a perfect double-blind randomised control trial.


pages: 580 words: 168,476

The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future by Joseph E. Stiglitz

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, declining real wages, deskilling, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jobless men, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, London Interbank Offered Rate, lone genius, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, obamacare, offshore financial centre, paper trading, Pareto efficiency, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, very high income, We are the 99%, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

One of Netscape’s founders, Marc Andreessen, was part of the team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign that developed Mosaic, the first widely used web browser, which was a project of the university’s National Center for Supercomputing Applications (one of the original sites of the National Science Foundation’s Supercomputer Centers Program). See the website of the NCSA, http://www.ncsa.illinois.edu/Projects/mosaic.html (accessed March 3, 2012); and John Markoff, “New Venture in Cyberspace by Silicon Graphics Founder,” New York Times, May 7, 1994, available at http://www.nytimes.com/1994/05/07/business/new-venture-in-cyberspace-by-silicon-graphics-founder.html?ref=marcandreessen (accessed March 3, 2012). 36. For an overview of the Microsoft case, see Geisst, Monopolies in America. 37. See Steven C. Salop and R. Craig Romaine, “Preserving Monopoly: Economic Analysis, Legal Standards, and Microsoft,” George Mason Law Review 4, no. 7 (1999): 617–1055. 38.


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Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition by Steven Levy

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air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, Donald Knuth, El Camino Real, game design, Hacker Ethic, hacker house, Haight Ashbury, John Conway, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, popular electronics, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, software patent, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

On my travels to California and Cambridge, I benefited from the hospitality of Phyllis Coven, Art Kleiner, Bill Mandel, and John Williams. Lori Carney and others typed up thousands of pages of transcripts. Viera Morse’s exacting copy editing kept me linguistically honest. Magazine editors David Rosenthal and Rich Friedman gave me work that kept me going. Good advice was given by fellow computer scribes Doug Garr, John Markoff, Deborah Wise, and members of the Lunch Group. Support and cheerleading came from my parents, my sister Diane Levy, friends Larry Barth, Bruce Buschel, Ed Kaplan, William Mooney, Randall Rothenberg, David Weinberg, and many others—they know who they are—who will have to accept this insufficient mention. The book was also a product of the enthusiasm and patience of my agent, Pat Berens, and my editor, James Raimes, who encouraged me mightily.


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City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco by Chester W. Hartman, Sarah Carnochan

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, business climate, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, John Markoff, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, young professional

The political schisms in present-day Chinatown, reflecting international politics and migration streams, are outlined in Nina Wu, “The City’s Two-China Chinatown,” San Francisco Examiner, 31 May 2001. 20. Sabin Russell, “Mayor, 3 Hopefuls Talk Business,” San Francisco Chronicle, 24 April 1987; see also Moira Johnson, “In the Wake of the Takeover Wars,” California Magazine (May 1987): 10–13. 21. John Markoff, “The City by the Bay Holds Its Collective Breath,” New York Times, 15 April 1998. 22. Diana B. Henriques, “Bank of America to Cut up to 6.7% of Work Force, or 10,000 Jobs,” New York Times, 29 July 2000. 23. Les Shipnuck and Dan Feshbach, “Bay Area Council: Regional PowerHouse,” Pacific Research and World Empire Telegram vol. 4, no. 1 (November/December 1972), 3–11. 24. BART Impact Studies Final Report Series, vol. 4, pt.


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The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game


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The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

See http://urbanizationproject.org/blog/charter-cities. Charter Cities represents a plan to introduce new legal frameworks for new or existing cities, turning them into a parallel to Special Economic Zones, here Special Political Zones. New York University economist Paul Romer is a leading advocate for the vision. 6.  See this discussion of Gelernter's influence on the conceptual development of the Cloud: David Gelernter, John Markoff, and Clay Shirky, “Lord of the Cloud,” Edge, April 29, 2009, http://edge.org/conversation/lord-of-the-cloud. For a sense of Gelernter's political conservatism, see http://www.nationalreview.com/author/david-gelernter. 7.  See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_time. 8.  Sun Microsystems’ old tagline, “the network is the computer” has been realized, especially if the definition of network is expanded to include both the physical computing network and the network of users providing content and feedback. 9. 


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Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Feynman), Recession Proof Graduate (Charlie Hoehn), Ogilvy on Advertising (David Ogilvy), The Martian (Andy Weir) Kamkar, Samy: Influence (Robert Cialdini) Kaskade: Lights Out: A Cyberattack, A Nation Unprepared, Surviving the Aftermath (Ted Koppel) Kass, Sam: Sapiens (Yuval Noah Harari), The Art of Fielding (Chad Harbach), Plenty; Jerusalem; Plenty More (Yotam Ottolenghi), The Flavor Bible: The Essential Guide to Culinary Creativity, Based on the Wisdom of America’s Most Imaginative Chefs (Karen Page and Andrew Dornenburg), A History of World Agriculture (Marcel Mazoyer and Laurence Roudart) Kelly, Kevin: The Adventures of Johnny Bunko (Daniel Pink), So Good They Can’t Ignore You (Cal Newport), Shantaram (Gregory David Roberts), Future Shock (Alvin Toffler), Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 (AnnaLee Saxenian), What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (John Markoff), The Qur’an, The Bible, The Essential Rumi; The Sound of the One Hand: 281 Zen Koans with Answers (Yoel Hoffman), It’s All Too Much: An Easy Plan for Living a Richer Life with Less Stuff (Peter Walsh) Koppelman, Brian: What Makes Sammy Run? (Budd Schulberg), The Artist’s Way Morning Pages Journal (Julia Cameron), The War of Art (Steven Pressfield) Libin, Phil: The Clock of the Long Now (Stewart Brand), The Alliance (Reid Hoffman), The Selfish Gene (Richard Dawkins), A Guide to the Good Life (William Irvine) MacAskill, Will: Reasons and Persons (Derek Parfit), Mindfulness: An Eight-Week Plan for Finding Peace in a Frantic World (Mark Williams and Danny Penman), The Power of Persuasion (Robert Levine), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Nick Bostrom) MacKenzie, Brian: Tao Te Ching (Lao Tzu), Way of the Peaceful Warrior (Dan Millman) McCarthy, Nicholas: The Life and Loves of a He Devil: A Memoir (Graham Norton), I Put a Spell on You: The Autobiography of Nina Simone (Nina Simone) McChrystal, Stanley: Once an Eagle (Anton Myrer), The Road to Character (David Brooks) McCullough, Michael: The Start-up of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career (Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha), Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity (David Allen), The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change (Stephen R.

The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin

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Apple II, Bob Noyce, collective bargaining, computer age, George Gilder, informal economy, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, open economy, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

“From Germanium to Silicon: A History of Change in the Technology of the Semiconductors. ” In Facets: New Perspectives on the History of Semiconductors, eds. Andrew Goldstein and William Aspray, 35–74. New Brunswick: IEEE Press, 1997. Semiconductor Industry Association 1979 Yearbook and Directory. Cupertino, Calif.: SIA, 1979. Sideris, George. “The Intel 1103: The MOS Memory that Defied Cores.” Electronics, 26 April 1973, 108. Siegel, Leonard M., and John Markoff. The High Cost of High Tech. New York: Harper and Rowe, 1985. “The Silicon Valley Economy,” FRBSF [Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco] Weekly Newsletter, Number 92–22, 29 May 1992. Slater, Robert. Portraits in Silicon. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987. Slotkin, Richard. Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Atheneum, 1992. 374 Bibliography Spencer, William J., and Peter Gindley.


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What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Shih, “Restoring American Competitiveness,” Harvard Business Review, July 2009. Steven Greenhouse, “GE to Add Two New US Plants as Unions Agree on Cost Controls.” 29 Peter G. Peterson, “The Morning After,” Atlantic Monthly, October 1987. 30 Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, 529. 31 Alan Tonelson, “Up From Globalism.” 32 “Staying Put,” Economist, Jan. 19, 2013, special report p. 8. 33 John Markoff, “Google Taking a Retro Route: Made in US,” New York Times, June 28, 2012. 34 “OECD Economic Surveys: United States 2012,” Paris, OECD. See also: L. Branstetter, “Are Knowledge Spillovers International or Intranational in Scope? Macroeconomic evidence from the US and Japan,” Journal of International Economics 53, 55–79 (2001); M. Greenstone, R. Hornbeck, and E. Moretti, “Identifying Agglomeration Spillovers: Evidence from Million-Dollar Plants,” NBER working paper no. 13833 (2008); and W.


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