peer-to-peer model

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pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

An interesting challenge for academic publishing on the blockchain is not just having an open-access, collaboratively edited, ongoing-discussion-forum journal per existing examples, or open-access, self-published blockchain white papers on GitHub, but to more fundamentally implement the blockchain concepts in blockchain journals. The consideration of what a decentralized direct peer-to-peer model for academic publishing could look like prompts the articulation of the functions that academic publishing provides and how, if these are still required, they might be provided in decentralized models. In terms of “publishing,” any manner of making content publicly available on the Web is publishing; one can easily self-publish on blogs, wikis, Twitter, Amazon, and the like.

In terms of “publishing,” any manner of making content publicly available on the Web is publishing; one can easily self-publish on blogs, wikis, Twitter, Amazon, and the like. A blockchain model in terms of decentralized peer-to-peer content would be nothing more than a search engine linking one individual’s interests with another’s published material. This is a decentralized peer-to-peer model in the blockchain sense. So, academic (and other publishers) might be providing some other value functions, namely vouching for content quality. Publishers provide content curation, discovery, “findability,” relevancy, advocacy, validation, and status ascribing, all of which might be useful attributes for content consumers.

Many blockchain companies provide alternative wallet interfaces that have this kind of functionality, such as Blockchain.info’s numerous wallet APIs. Business Model Challenges Another noted challenge, both functional and technical, is related to business models. At first traditional business models might not seem applicable to Bitcoin since the whole point of decentralized peer-to-peer models is that there are no facilitating intermediaries to take a cut/transaction fee (as in one classical business model). However, there are still many worthwhile revenue-generating products and services to provide in the new blockchain economy. Education and mainstream user-friendly tools are obvious low-hanging fruit (for example, being targeted by Coinbase, Circle Internet Financial, and Xapo), as is improving the efficiency of the entire worldwide existing banking and finance infrastructure like Ripple—another almost “no brainer” project, when blockchain principles are understood.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Will they induce growth because there’s a lot more exchange going on? Will Duncan’s vision of “impulse buying, then renting out” materialize? Or will the economy slow because people stop buying things? La Ruche Qui Dit Oui—Redefining Perfection Back in Paris, there’s another face-to-face, peer-to-peer model that’s been gaining popularity in a different vertical—grocery shopping. In spring 2014, accompanied by a wonderful NYU Stern MBA student team (Humaira Faiz, Sydnee Grushack, Andrew Ng, and Jara Small), I met Marc-David Choukrun, the co-founder and CEO of La Ruche Qui Dit Oui, which translates roughly to “the beehive that says yes,” and is also known in English-language countries by the easier-to-remember name The Food Assembly.

The third category involves collaborative forms of finance, such as Funding Circle and Kiva, or Bitcoin (which enables people to carry out transactions without a traditional third-party intermediary). Finally, the fourth category consists of collaborative forms of education, such as Coursera and edX, which enable people around the world to take courses at top-ranked universities whether or not they are enrolled as students, or Skillshare and Trade School, which offer alternative peer-to-peer models for gaining knowledge. Owyang’s Honeycomb As crowd-based capitalism evolved in 2012 and 2013, Jeremiah Owyang developed an industry-sector-based classification of the different kinds of economic activity that he viewed as “collaborative.” His Collaborative Economy Honeycomb provides a nuanced categorization of the sharing economy in 2015 and is a useful way of keeping track of the scope and impact of this new form of organizing economic activity across different industry verticals.19 As I write this book, Owyang’s broad categories include learning, municipal, money, goods, health and wellness, space, food, utilities, transportation, services, logistics, and corporate.

And Californians actually use their cars more intensively than the average US resident does. Figure 5.1 Vehicle usage in the United States (compiled from NHTS data as of 2009). We may not need to wait for self-driving cars to see a digitally induced economic revolution in the auto and transportation sector. The range of new peer-to-peer models—Uber to get a driven car on-demand, Lyft to see who else is driving your route, Getaround to see whose car in your neighborhood might be available for you to drive by yourself, BlaBlaCar to get a ride to another city—have already started to increase the impact of the global automobile stock.


pages: 731 words: 134,263

Talk Is Cheap: Switching to Internet Telephones by James E. Gaskin

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Debian, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, telemarketer

Business Details They Don't Mention The following list describes the business elements Skype doesn't specify: Money, and the need for money to support Skype, will become critical over 2005. They have millions of venture capital investments, including $19 million in March 2004 as a second round. Executives refused to say how much their initial funding was, but said it was "less than $10 million" (Zennstrom interview with CNET 12/2/2003). Admittedly, the peer-to-peer model reduces costs, and the viral marketing scheme worked so well I don't think they've spent any significant advertising dollars. But the services they must provide to keep growing, such as SkypeOut improvements, SkypeIn, voicemail, and their hinted Skype for Business, will require investment. Right now, the number of Skype registered users paying for SkypeOut hovers around three percent.

Business Details They Don't Mention The following list describes the business elements Skype doesn't specify: Money, and the need for money to support Skype, will become critical over 2005. They have millions of venture capital investments, including $19 million in March 2004 as a second round. Executives refused to say how much their initial funding was, but said it was "less than $10 million" (Zennstrom interview with CNET 12/2/2003). Admittedly, the peer-to-peer model reduces costs, and the viral marketing scheme worked so well I don't think they've spent any significant advertising dollars. But the services they must provide to keep growing, such as SkypeOut improvements, SkypeIn, voicemail, and their hinted Skype for Business, will require investment. Right now, the number of Skype registered users paying for SkypeOut hovers around three percent.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

Peer-to-peer A new business model which is generating a lot of column inches for the idea of digital disruption is peer-to-peer commerce, the leading practitioners of which are AirBnB and Uber. Both were founded in San Francisco, of course – in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The level of investor enthusiasm for the peer-to-peer model is demonstrated by comparing AirBnB’s market cap of $20bn in March 2015 with Hyatt’s market cap of $8.4bn. Hyatt has over 500 hotels around the world and revenues of $4bn. AirBnB, with 13 members of staff, owns no hotels and its revenues in March 2015 were around $250m. Uber’s rise has been even more dramatic: its market cap reached $50bn in May 2015.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

., higher than zero) is considered good, and an NPS of +50 is excellent. The NPS is largely based on a single, direct question: How likely is it that you would recommend our company/product/service to a friend or colleague? If you have a high NPS, then your sales function is free. If you are using peer-to-peer models, your service costs can also essentially be free. Using crowdsourcing and community ideation (such as Quirky or Gustin), your R&D and product development costs can also approach zero. And it doesn’t stop there. What we’re now seeing with ExOs—and this is tremendously important—is that the marginal cost of supply goes to zero.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Spotify and Pandora, however, advanced the business model yet again. Not only do I not need to buy a whole album when I only want one song, but since I can listen to any song I want at any time through a subscription service, I don’t feel the need to own music at all. Jeremiah Owyang, formerly an analyst at Forrester Research covering peer-to-peer models and how companies respond, is now founder of Crowd Companies, a brand council that offers research and strategic advice to companies seeking to become part of the collaborative economy. He has a simple four-phase circular path that explains the transition from the old industrial approach to the new one: Product → Service → Marketplace → Platform.

Version Control With Git: Powerful Tools and Techniques for Collaborative Software Development by Jon Loeliger, Matthew McCullough

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continuous integration, Debian, distributed revision control, GnuPG, Larry Wall, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pull request, revision control, web application, web of trust

Unlike CVS, SVN committed changes atomically and had significantly better support for branches. BitKeeper and Mercurial were radical departures from all the aforementioned solutions. Each eliminated the central repository; instead, the store was distributed, providing each developer with his own shareable copy. Git is derived from this peer-to-peer model. Finally, Mercurial and Monotone contrived a hash fingerprint to uniquely identify a file’s content. The name assigned to the file is a moniker and a convenient handle for the user and nothing more. Git features this notion as well. Internally, the Git identifier is based on the file’s contents, a concept known as a content-addressable file store.


pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

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AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

See also http://p2ptracker.com (summarizing current technology); “Business, Bandwidth May Dash Hopes of a Peer-to-Peer Utopia,” http://news.cnet.com/news/0-1005-201-3248711-0.html. 26 Clay Shirky, “Clay Shirky's Writings About the Internet: Economics and Culture, Media and Community, Open Source,” November 16, 2000, www.openp2p.com/pub/ a/p2p/2000/11/24/shirky1-whatisp2p.html. 27 See, e.g., Nelson Minar and Marc Hedlund, “A Network of Peers: Peer-to-Peer Models Throughout the History of the Internet,” in Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Benefits of a Disruptive Technology, Andy Oram, ed. (Beijing and Cambridge, Mass: O'Reilly, 2001), 3-15 (describing how the original Internet was “fundamentally designed as a peer-to-peer system” but became increasingly client/server oriented over time owing to Web browser applications, firewalls, and other factors). 28 For background on SETI, see “History of SETI,” at http://www.seti-inst.edu/ general/history.html; Eric Korpela et al., “SETI@home: Massively Distributed Computing for SETI,” at http://www.computer.org/cise/articles/seti.htm. 29 Howard Rheingold, “You Got the Power,” Wired (August 2001), at http://www.wired. com/wired/archive/8.08/comcomp.html?


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Just like a bitcoin, it can be sent to any address.”4 The blockchain (along with smart contracts) also ensures that the devices are paid for so they continue to work. The Internet of Things cannot function without blockchain payment networks, where bitcoin is the universal transactional language. Social Energy: Powering a Neighborhood Now, instead of poles, imagine digitizing every node in a power system to create entire new peer-to-peer models of power production and distribution. Everyone gets to participate in a blockchain-enabled power grid. Under a New York State–sponsored program to increase energy resiliency even in extreme weather conditions, work is under way to create a community microgrid in the Park Slope area of Brooklyn.