Torches of Freedom

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pages: 273 words: 34,920

Free Market Missionaries: The Corporate Manipulation of Community Values by Sharon Beder

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anti-communist, battle of ideas, business climate, corporate governance, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, income inequality, invisible hand, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, risk/return, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Torches of Freedom, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, young professional

During the First World War, propaganda was used for the first time ‘as a systematic weapon of war’.11 Business leaders were not slow to learn from this demonstration of how public opinion could be shaped and harnessed, and they hired the very men who had achieved it to defend their public reputations and fight the unions.12 These men included Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays, each of whom has been cited as the father of modern public relations. Bernays was the first to write books on public relations and apply theory to their practice, seeking to utilize psychology, sociology and other social sciences to manipulate the desires and beliefs of members of the public in ways that went far beyond mere publicity and advertising. One of his most famous public relations 4 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES strategies was the 1929 Torches of Freedom March he organized on behalf of the American Tobacco Company. It involved women marching through New York streets smoking cigarettes, thus associating women’s rights and liberation with smoking without linking the march to his client.13 Bernays was a key proponent of the idea that ‘changing the public’s opinion – using public relations techniques – about troublesome social movements and labour unions, was far more effective than hiring goons to club people’.14 Despite a general improvement in public acceptance of large corporations, public relations expanded in the 1920s, as part of a ‘conscious policy of managing public attitudes to retain’ corporate power.

Ayer & Son 31 Nabisco 50 Nader, Ralph 64, 185, 198 Nadler, Richard 175, 176, 182, 183, 191 NAFTA 150 National Alliance of Businessmen 65 National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) 1935 Convention 30 1970s campaigns 75 anti-socialist message 38 campaign spending 26 community program outreach 18, 19 and Coors 109 decentralized approach 18–19 discredited 30 economic education programmes 46, 47, 49–50, 53 employee education 55–56 free market message 20–3 funding for associations 47 and pensions 172 post-war campaigns 35–36 pre-war political campaign 4–5, 13, 14–26 reactions to campaign 19–20 techniques 15–18 National Association of Secondary School Principals 52, 53 National Better Business Bureau 52 National Center for Employee-Ownership (NCEO) 179 National Center for Policy Analysis 176 National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) 203, 209–210, 214–219, 220 see also Joint Council on Economic Education (JCEE); education, standards in economics National Economic Council 48, 54 National Education Association 47, 52 National Education Business Partnership Network 214 National Education Program 54, 71 National Electric Light Association (NELA) 194 National Farmers Federation 132, 133, 137 see also McLachlan, Ian National Federation of Building Trades Employers 113 National Federation of Enterprise Agencies 214 National Federation of Independent Business 65 National Foundation for Consumer Credit 54 National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship 209, 212 National Industrial Conference Board 45 National Restaurant Association 172 National Science Teachers Association 52 National Tax Limitation Committee 118 nationalism 21, 25 nationalization 94 Nelson, Brendan 180 neo-classical economics 6–9, 94–95, 105, 159, 220 neo-liberalism 93–105 see also economics, economic rationalism; ideology, free market Nestlé 73, 211 New Deal 14, 15, 24, 117, 222 New Right 127, 130–131, 159, 160 New York Stock Exchange 53, 195 New York Times 45 New Zealand civil service 163 deregulation 152–155, 156, 163–165 economic advisers 152–156 economic literacy 218 New Right 130 privatizations 132, 138 social justice 153, 154, 163–164 258 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES think tanks 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 138 Treasury 152–156 US influence 154 Washington consensus 149 New Zealand Association of Economists 155 New Zealand Business Roundtable 104, 132, 133, 135, 155, 156 News Corporation 201 newspapers, campaigns 5, 15–17, 18, 26, 34–35, 68, 70, 71, 87, 110, 117, 120 Nimmanahaeminda, Tarrin 148 Niskanen, William 118 Nixon, Richard 64, 97, 99 Noble, Edward 109 Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU) 99 North Limited 135 OECD 152, 154, 156, 159 Olin Foundation 73, 110, 119, 171, 209 opinion leaders 36 opinion polls/surveys 30–32, 56, 57, 66, 68, 86, 215–218 see also Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) 31, 35, 39–41, 45, 52, 55, 57–58 Ortiz, Guillermo 148 Packard, David 72 parent–teacher associations 36 patriotism 5, 14, 16, 21, 22, 25, 26, 33, 36 pensions, privatization 171–173, 181–184 see also social security People’s Bicentennial Commission 66 Pepsico 73 Perle, Richard 121 Pfizer 119, 222 Philip Morris 69, 119, 222 Phillips Petroleum 70, 73 Pinochet, Augusto 97, 145–146 planning 96, 103 Poleconomy 87 policy institutes see think tanks political freedom, and free market 8, 21, 38, 41, 42, 48, 50, 67, 88, 95, 131, 145 pollsters’ role 30–32 Porter, Michael 132, 133, 134, 137 Powell, Lewis 63–64, 72, 73, 109 Pratt, Dick 133 Prebble, Richard 153 PricewaterhouseCoopers 210, 212 privatizations Adam Smith Institute 113 Australia 132, 138, 183–184, 196 Chicago School 96 France 196–197 Germany 196 New Zealand 132, 138 public choice theory 105 social security 171–173, 181–186 UK utilities 102, 195–196 Washington Consensus 148 Procter & Gamble 15, 33, 38, 65, 110, 119, 209, 211, 222 Productivity Promotion Council of Australia 82 Profit Sharing Council of America 180 Progress for America 172 Progress Party 128 Project Victoria 134–135, 156 propaganda, etymology of 3 Proshare 178, 202 Protestantism 231 Psychological Corporation 25, 31 Public Affairs Council 79 Public Choice Society 103 public choice theory 103–105, 111, 128, 223 Public Media Center 66 public speeches 16, 35, 36, 39, 71 see also speakers Quaker Oats Company 53 radio programmes see broadcasting Rainbow Warrior 153 Rand, Ayn 127 Read, Leonard 45, 46, 93 Reader’s Digest 45, 47, 49, 88 Reagan, Ronald 71, 97, 99–100, 101, 102, 103, 109, 110, 115–118, 121, 147, 149, 171, 182 regulation freedom from 5, 7, 8, 36, 37, 41, 83, 105, 149 See also free market, economic freedom opposition to 14, 21, 23-25, 38, 41, 46, 74, 86, 95, 98, 100, 102, 103, 110, 115, 116, 151, 176 see also government Reith, Peter 180–181 religion economics as religion 230–231 free market scriptures 6–9 missionary zeal 87 Protestantism and capitalism 231 Republic Steel 26, 33, 38, 58 Richardson, Ruth 132, 153 Rio Tinto 212 Roach, Ian 130 Robinson, Claude 45 Rochester University 96, 154 Roosevelt, Franklin 13, 14, 18 Roosevelt, Theodore 3 Rotary Clubs 36, 88 Roux, Michael 161 Royal Bank of Canada 220 Rumsfeld, Donald 171 Ryerson Inc. 70 Saint-Gobain 196–197 Santos 129, 130 Scaife, Richard Mellon 110 Scaife Foundations 73, 119, 171, 212, 223 Scanlan, Phil 135 school teachers 26, 36, 40, 41, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, INDEX 259 69, 70, 72–74, 80–81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 202–203, 209–210, 212, 222, 223–224 schools see education Schwab, Klaus 185 Sears/ Sears Roebuck 50, 57, 70 Securities Industry Foundation for Economic Education (SIFEE) 203–204 share ownership annual general meetings 197 Australia 174, 180–181, 201–202 children 194–195 classes of shares 199, 201 decision-making power 197–202 election of boards 197–198 employee share ownership 177–181 holdings within shareholdings 201 institutional investors 198–199 ‘public’ ownership 193–197 school education 202–204 shareholder democracy 8, 191–204 and social justice 192 statistics 199–202 Stock Market Game 203–204 United Kingdom 177, 178–179, 199, 200 US statistics 182–183, 201 wider ownership 173–177, 184–186 Shared Capitalism Institute 184–185 Shatner, William 70 Shell 73, 119, 127, 129, 133, 212, 222 Shell Australia 130, 135 Shell Canada 224 Shell Live Wire 214 Sherman, Alfred 113 Shultz, George 99 Simon, William 73 Singleton, John 127–128 Small Business Service 213, 231 Smith, Adam 6–7, 95 Smith Richardson Foundation 73, 110, 119 social justice Australia 165, 192 and free market 151–152, 153 New Zealand 153, 154, 163–164 and shareholder democracy 192 United Kingdom 149 social security 41, 96, 98 see also pensions, privatization socialism 38, 41, 47, 48, 49, 57, 71, 84 socially responsible corporate behaviour 174 Society for the Development of Austrian Economics 128 Society for Individual Liberty 128 South Korea 218 Southern California Edison 45 Soviet Union 59, 96 Spain 138 speakers 16, 18, 19, 26, 47, 50, 54, 63, 72, 80, 82, 85, 87, 88, 129 see also public speeches Standard Oil 3, 15, 31, 50, 51, 69 standards, economics courses 218–221, 222, 223 Stanford University 147, 148 Stanolind Oil and Gas Company 56–57 State Electricity Commission of Victoria 138 Stock Market Game 203–204 Stone, John 132, 133, 134, 137, 161 structural adjustments 146, 148–152 Students in Free Enterprise (SIFE) 222 Sturgess, Gary 159–160, 161 Suncor 224 supply-side economics 100–102, 110 Sydney Institute 135–136, 204 Sydney Stock Exchange 82 Tasman Economics see Tasman Institute Tasman Institute 133–135, 138 taxation Australia 88, 128, 131, 132, 158, 164 free market ideology 95, 96, 118 IMF 147 New Zealand 153 public opinion 88, 175, 176 opposition to 14, 21, 23, 24, 35, 53, 82 Reagan era 116 shareholdings 174, 178, 179, 195, 196 social security 171, 172 supply-side economics 100, 101–102 United Kingdom 149, 178, 179 Washington Consensus 148, 149 technopols 149 see also economic advisers Telecom NZ 213 television see broadcasting Telstra (Australia) 196, 204 ‘Ten Pillars of Economic Wisdom’ 47–48 Tenneco 73 Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) 216–217, 218 Texas Bureau for Econmic Understanding 71, 72 Texas Corporation 15 Texas University 73 Thailand 138, 148 Thatcher, Margaret 97, 99, 111–114, 116, 149, 196 think tanks Australia 84, 127–138 dissemination of free market ideology 110–122 funding 109, 110–111, 119 influence mechanisms 119–122 influence on economics teaching 223 and Mont-Pèlerin Society 94 New Zealand 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 138 United Kingdom 111–115 United States 115–122 Third Millennium 184 Thomas, Jean-Pierre 185–186 ‘thought leaders’ 36 TNT Express 211 tobacco, and women 4 Torches of Freedom March 1929 4 trade unions and Advertising Council campaign 33–34 Australia 87, 88, 133 banning 109 260 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES and economics education campaigns 53 and NAM campaigns 4 and people’s capitalism 177 post-war business propaganda 23–6 United Kingdom 98, 149–150 Trades Union Congress 179 Trotter, Ron 156 Truman, Harry 26, 38, 48 Tullock, Gordon 103 Turbull, Shann 180 UCLA 96 Uncle Abner 15, 17, 21 unemployment 16, 46, 68, 113, 97–100, 145, 150, 151, 153, 164, 174, 231 Unilever 209, 212 United Kingdom children and enterprise 209, 210, 211–212, 213–214 civil service 89, 163 economic education 79–81, 211, 213–4, employee share ownership 177, 178–179 inflation policies 98 Labour Party 48, 114 privatizations 102, 113, 138, 195–196 public view of business ethics 231 share ownership 195–196, 198–200 Thatcher economics 99, 149 think tanks 111–115 Washington consensus 154 welfare state 48, 150 universities 1970s free market education 72–74 Australian economics courses 89 centres of private enterprise 221–222 economics 96, 147–148 influence 154, 159 and Mont-Pèlerin Society 94 University of Canberra 160 University of Chicago 58, 94, 96, 99, 147 see also Chicago School University of Miami 74 University of Southern California 73 University of Virginia 96 Uranium Information Centre 224 US Chamber of Commerce 25, 26, 35, 36, 46, 47, 53, 63–64, 72, 75, 86, 117 US Civil Aeronautics Board 102 US Industrial Council (USIC) 70–71 US Steel 18, 22, 31, 50, 51, 54, 193 USIC Educational Foundation 71 utility companies 5, 138, 194, 195–196 see also electricity companies Vanderbilt, Cornelius 2 Victorian Employers’ Chamber of Commerce and Industry 135 Victorian Employers Federation 134 Victorian Farmers Federation 134 Victorian Gas and Fuel Corporation 138 Vodafone 212 Voice of America 80 Volker, William 94 W.

 

pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

He realized that the real desire for women was not the cigarettes themselves but the liberty to pursue the same things as men. During the 1929 New York Easter Parade, he arranged for a group of attractive young debutantes, including his own secretary, Bertha Hunt, to march in their Sunday best. On Bernays’s signal, the women all lit up a Lucky Strike cigarette. Hunt’s press release described the march as “Lighting the Torches of Freedom” in the interests of gender equality. And being the master of PR, Bernays saw to it that media throughout the world covered the event. The idea was that anyone against the idea of women smoking would appear to be against their liberty and freedom. Although this did not completely do away with the taboo against women’s smoking, the number of women taking up smoking skyrocketed (American Tobacco’s revenues jumped by $32 million in 1928 alone).6 In his memoirs, Bernays wrote, “It was on this day I learned that age-old customs could be broken down by a dramatic appeal, disseminated by the network of media.”7 When you consider that the average person sees more than three thousand advertising messages per day, it is not surprising that we have become so seduced by the pull of the new and the desire for more.8 Influencers like Bernays were part of a wider force, which engineered and reinforced a system that converted consumers’ wants into needs into everyday habits.

 

pages: 255 words: 90,456

Frommer's Irreverent Guide to San Francisco by Matthew Richard Poole

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Bay Area Rapid Transit, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pez dispenser, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, upwardly mobile

The city’s more modern role as a catalyst for social change and the avantgarde began in the 1950s when a group of young writers and philosophers—including Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac— challenged the materialism and conformity of American society 2 by embracing anarchy and Eastern philosophy, expressing their notions in poetry. They adopted a uniform of jeans, sweaters, sandals, and berets, called themselves “Beats,” and hung out in North Beach bars such as Vesuvio, Caffe Trieste, Tosca, and Enrico’s Sidewalk Cafe (all of which are still in business). In the 1960s the torch of freedom passed from the Beats and North Beach to the hippies and Haight-Ashbury, but it was a radically different torch. The hippies replaced the Beats’ angst, jazz, and poetry with love, communalism, rock music, and a back-to-nature philosophy. Timothy Leary (and many others) experimented with LSD and exhorted youth to “turn on, tune in, and drop out.” In 1967, during the Summer of Love, thousands of young people streamed into the city in search of drugs, sex, and the sounds of the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Big Brother and the Holding Company.

 

pages: 516 words: 159,734

War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower

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anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, labour mobility, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway

He proceeded to collect millions of feet of enemy film, to cut and edit this until the expressions of the Axis powers became lean anti-Axis images, and to juxtapose the menacing faces and words of the enemy against the bright hope and accomplishments of the American people and their allies. To be inspired with the will to win, Capra told his associates as they embarked on this work, Americans needed to be shown that they were fighting for the existence of their country, and at the same time were carrying the “torch of freedom” for a better postwar world–a world in which conquest, exploitation, and economic evils had been eliminated, and peace and democracy prevailed. This seemed a clear line, and a familiar one to anyone who recalled the idealistic Allied propaganda of World War One. A team of seven Hollywood writers was asked to prepare rough scenarios for a sequence of films conveying this message. Although the assignment seemed straightforward enough, the draft outlines Capra received upset him greatly, for in his eyes they were “larded with Communist propaganda.”

 

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Or it could go on a shopping spree and buy Netflix, Tesla, Twitter, Dropbox, Pandora, and Spotify. When it was done buying those companies, it would still have $59 billion in cash to spend on anything else it wants. See http://www.businessinsider.com/mind-blowing-facts-about-apple-2014-4?op=1#ixzz30L3YYeDJ. 57.  In this famous TV advertisement aired only once—during the 1984 Super Bowl—a young rebel representing Apple hurls “a torch of freedom” into the screens on which the face of “IBM” drones on. The promise is that with Apple's new colorful day, 1984 (the year) will not be like 1984, the Orwellian dystopia. If the reader is unfamiliar with the advertisement, its Wikipedia page will explain its significance: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1984_%28advertisement%29. 58.  See Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

 

pages: 1,157 words: 379,558

Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger

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air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

When, for instance, the company wanted to do something dramatic in 1929 to counter the taboo against women smoking on the street, Bernays was allowed to engage the services of psychiatrist A. A. Brill, who counseled Hill that cigarettes were symbols of freedom for women as well as “a sublimation of oral eroticism; holding a cigarette in the mouth excites the oral zone,” as Bernays recounted this flash of profundity. Thus, Brill concluded, “Cigarettes, which are equated with men, become torches of freedom.” This last phrase sounded so uplifting that Bernays, with Hill’s blessing, organized a “freedom march” led by ten debutantes and some prominent feminists who strode up six blocks of Fifth Avenue while smoking extravagantly as part of the Easter Sunday parade of finery. The stunt won enough publicity for Hill to seek analyst Brill’s renewed counsel a few years later for a billboard campaign to show women smoking.

 

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

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affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

“Today we reclaim New York’s skyline with a towering beacon to New York and our nation’s resilience,” Governor Pataki declared at the unveiling of the master plan’s iconic visual landmark in mid-December 2003. “The Freedom Tower will be a proud new symbol of our country’s strength—and a monument to our two lost icons.” What the rhetoric promised, the architectural model put on view: a “unique geometrical torque of the building’s tower” creating an asymmetrical form with a soaring offset 1,776-foot spire designed to “echo the profile of the Statue of Liberty’s arm holding the Torch of Freedom.”47 Symbolism infused the iconic tower’s tribute to the American creed of freedom in every dimension: in name, height, size, and location—at the northwest corner of the site to complete the spiraling composition of the master plan’s towers. The model’s formal unveiling at Federal Hall, the classical building where the first U.S. Congress met and wrote the Bill of Rights and George Washington was inaugurated as president, conferred additional historic meaning on this early act of political symbolism.

 

pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

Until 1931 the responsibility for dealing with civilian ‘revolutionary movements’ belonged to Thomson’s Directorate of Intelligence and, after its demise, to the Special Branch. Kell was obliged to tell chief constables in 1925 that MI5 was’only concerned with Communism as it affects the Armed Forces of the Crown’. ‘Civil’ subversion was Thomson’s responsibility.5 MI5’s New Year card for 1920 showed the attractive figure of ‘Liberty and Security’ in diaphanous gown, holding aloft the torch of freedom and standing on a pedestal erected by the heroic efforts of British fighting and working men (stage right). But ‘Liberty and Security’ is menaced by an assortment of subversives (stage left): a defeated Hun in pumpernickel helmet (by now a reminder of past dangers rather than a present menace), the rebel Irish (a much smaller threat on the mainland than in Ireland) and Bolshevik revolutionaries.