failed state

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pages: 222 words: 75,561

The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It by Paul Collier


air freight, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Doha Development Round, failed state, falling living standards, income inequality, out of africa, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization

Some sort of reform is much more likely to be initiated in postconflict states than in other failing states, but many of these incipient reforms will fail because it is harder to sustain any continuous course of change. This suggests that there is an important difference between postconflict situations and other failing states. Recall the depressing statistic that the expected time before a failing state achieves decisive change is fifty-nine years. The normal condition for a failing state is to be stuck, as bad policies and governance are highly persistent. Postconflict situations are the major exception: they are failing states, but change is relatively easy. This suggests that our policy interventions to help failing states need to differentiate between types of situations, treating postconflict situations as major opportunities.

This suggests that our policy interventions to help failing states need to differentiate between types of situations, treating postconflict situations as major opportunities. I will have more to say on that in Part 4. The Costs of Neglect: Why It Matters for G8 Policy The typical failing state is going to go on failing for a long time. Does it matter? The whole topic of failing states is fashionable because people have an uneasy sense that it probably does matter. After 9/11 the U.S. aid budget was increased by 50 percent, and the main impetus for it was the perceived need to fix failing states. In Part 4 you will see how, ironically, this is what aid is not going to do. But can we get beyond that inchoate sense that failing states are a problem? Can we actually quantify the costs of a failing state? Remember, I have defined a failing state in terms of its bad policies and governance. The core of the cost is what results from these policy and governance failings for the economy of the country itself and for its neighbors.

In this case, fortunately, we got results that were surprisingly robust. The costs of a failing state build up year by year. The growth rate of the failing state is very sharply reduced—indeed, it is likely to be in absolute decline. And the growth of neighbors is also sharply reduced. Since failing states take such a long time to turn around, these costs continue way into the future. Economists routinely convert flows of future costs into a single number, which they term a “discounted present value.” We estimated that the cost of a single failing state over its entire history of failure, to itself and its neighbors, is around $100 billion. This is our lower-bound estimate of what a sustained turnaround is worth. It is a mesmerizingly large number, but then, the phenomenon we are considering is indeed dramatic: a world without failing states would be a transformed world.

pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman


Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

The same cautious hands-off approach applied to Yemen, whose role as a new base for al-Qaeda was highlighted after a failed attempt to blow up a plane over Detroit on Christmas Day, 2009. The problem was all the more alarming because the list of potential “failed states” seemed only to be growing, particularly in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Some of the nations on the watch list were big countries of obvious strategic importance. The U.S. Defense Department caused massive offense in Mexico with a leaked assessment that America’s southern neighbor was in danger of becoming a failed state.16 If the implication was that Mexico might turn into Afghanistan or Somalia, that was clearly absurd. Yet if a failure to control territory and to exert the rule of law is one important mark of a failed state, Mexico clearly fit the description. Drug-related violence was rampant across the country in 2008 and 2009, fed, the Mexicans complained, by gun exports from the United States and by America’s appetite for drugs.

Obama’s decision to expand the war in Afghanistan may succeed in stabilizing the country, but the prospect for the next decade is that globally, the zone of international anarchy and danger referred to collectively as “failed states” is still likely to expand. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that because of Iraq and Afghanistan, and with government spending out of control, America’s appetite for further bloody and expensive foreign military engagements is severely diminished. It is true that U.S. military intervention overseas has sometimes helped to cause state failure rather than remedy it. Cambodia in the 1970s is an obvious example, and Iraq may yet repeat this sorry pattern. Nevertheless, some of the most rigorous studies of failed states have concluded that foreign military interventions are often critical to turning the situation around. Paul Collier is a bearded, left-wing Oxford professor, not a neoconservative, but he has concluded that in saving failed states, “military intervention, properly constrained, has an essential role, providing both the security and the accountability of government to citizens that are essential to development.”8 America has unrivaled military resources, and yet the country is clearly wary of further entanglements overseas.

By 2009, the Democratic Republic of Congo was the location for the largest ever UN peacekeeping operation—but the country continues to slide backward. The peacekeeping deficit means that, over the next decade, more parts of the world are likely to join the list of failed states and fall into disrepair and despair. A second reason why the number of failed states is likely to rise is that the rapid global economic growth that preceded the crash of 2008 is unlikely to resume for some years. The prospect that globalization would offer jobs and opportunity to some of the poorest people in the world was the best hope of combating the root causes of state failure. There is a close connection between poverty and war in “failed states.” Basically, the poorer a country is, the more likely it is to degenerate into civil war. Perhaps the most dispiriting aspect of the struggle to turn around Afghanistan is that “success” would entail making the country look and feel more like neighboring Pakistan: richer, with a stronger central government, an army that could fight without foreign help, and a functioning civil society and private sector.

What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Did Betty Friedan say, “Let’s have women’s rights,” and all of a sudden we had women’s rights? No. It’s a long struggle. That’s what education is. In Failed States, you point out that often critics of the system are denounced for being negative and never having anything positive to put forth. You address that criticism with some specific suggestions about solutions.49 Very unoriginal suggestions that just happen to be supported by a large majority of people in the United States. I think they’re good suggestions. They would change the country significantly. There is nothing radical about them, but they’re off the agenda. That’s part of the serious collapse of democratic institutions. Let me just read some of your suggestions in Failed States: accept the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court and the World Court, sign and carry forward the Kyoto Protocols, let the United Nations take the lead in international crises, rely on diplomatic and economic measures rather than military ones in confronting terror, keep to the traditional interpretation of the UN Charter, give up the Security Council veto.

.,” Washington Post, 17 September 2005. 5 For a discussion of the millennium goals, see Chomsky, Failed States, p. 4. 6 Ibid., pp. 79–82, 94–95. 7 Joel Brinkley, “In Word Feud with ‘Hitler,’ ‘Satan’ Draws Line in Sand,” New York Times, 20 May 2006; Pablo Bachelet, “Chavez Throws More Barbs at Bush: Democrats Object,” Minneapolis Star Tribune, 22 September 2006. 8 Cooper, “Iran Who?” 9 Ewen MacAskill, “US Seen as a Bigger Threat to Peace than Iran, Worldwide Poll Suggests,” Guardian (London), 15 June 2006. 10 Andy Webb-Vidal, “Jubilation in the Barrios as Chavez Returns in Triumph,” Financial Times (London), 15 April 2002. 11 Guy Dinmore and Isabel Gorst, “Bush to Seal Strategic Link with Kazakh Leader,” Financial Times (London), 29 September 2006. 12 For more discussion, see Chomsky, Failed States, p. 137. See polling by Latinobarómetro, December 2006.

Argentineans are now ridding themselves of the IMF, thanks in part to the fact that Venezuela helped them buy out their debt.23 That’s the real world. It’s different if you’re eating in elegant restaurants, meeting your rich friends, and reading the editorials in the Wall Street Journal. In Hegemony or Survival, you say that there is a “severe democracy deficit” in the United States.24 I’ve discussed this in more detail in a later book, Failed States, running extensively through public opinion studies and actual policy.25 There is an enormous gap between public opinion and policy. In 2005, for example, right after the federal budget was announced, the Program on International Policy Attitudes, which also studies domestic issues, did an extensive poll on what people thought the budget ought to be. It turned out to be the inverse of the actual budget: where federal funding was going up, an overwhelming majority wanted it to go down.

pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna


Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

We often wait to act until the specter of the label “failed state” is stamped on a country’s image. But the signs of a state being in failure appear far in advance. In Pakistan, Musharraf’s 1999 coup was viewed as an effort to clean up corruption, but in fact his reign provided only a veneer of stability over a state in a continuous process of failure. Musharraf was not the antidote to state failure in Pakistan; he accelerated it. In the process, Pakistan, like so many other failing states, has lost the technical, fiscal, and even moral authority to run itself. Failed states create the worst kind of terrorism. By far the largest number of martial casualties results not from wars between countries, but rather from civil wars within dozens of failed states. In the 1980s and ’90s, two-thirds of sub-Saharan Africa’s forty-three countries suffered from civil war—and the toll in lives from displacement and disease was far greater than the deaths during fighting itself.

In the 1980s and ’90s, two-thirds of sub-Saharan Africa’s forty-three countries suffered from civil war—and the toll in lives from displacement and disease was far greater than the deaths during fighting itself. In failing states the leading killers are not tanks or guided missiles but AK-47s, available for as little as ten dollars on some street corners in Mexico, Central America, the Andean region of South America, central and sub-Saharan Africa, southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and southern and Southeast Asia. Violence is the new war; the killing comes from within. Since most of these failing states were never actually successful states, why do we pretend that they can be restored to some ideal of statehood? Is statehood itself the problem? Why is central government the metric of effective governance? Western nations now define such failing places as greater threats to their security than the mass armies of Asia’s rising powers, but they have little in the way of a strategy to deal with them.

Since then the bar of civility has risen from merely the “capacity to govern” (League of Nations) to “peace-loving nations” (United Nations) to the Copenhagen criteria of democracy, human rights, and free markets (European Union). Yet today many countries still remain a long way from meeting even the League of Nations’ most basic standard of a century ago. The only way most failed states will ever meet the standards of civilization is if we abandon the quest for sovereignty in favor of hybrid statehood. Across the world’s failing states, the weak need protection from militias and floods equally—delivering human security cannot wait for government “capacity building.” The foot soldiers of humanitarianism constantly relocate from Haiti to Afghanistan to Indonesia to confront the worst disasters, for which there is no strategy, only improvisation. After the Indonesian tsunami of 2004, the first aid to arrive in the remote Banda Aceh province came on planes and vans operated by Dutch logistics multinational TNT.

pages: 548 words: 147,919

How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks


airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

To trace these changes, it’s worth thinking briefly about where states come from, and what they do.1 And just as we sometimes end up trying to make sense of war by emphasizing those things that are not war—chess, rugby, homicide, riots, economic competition, trade sanctions—perhaps the best way to understand states is to start by thinking about what we call “failed states.”2 In the years since the end of the Cold War, the international community—and the community of international lawyers—has become increasingly preoccupied with “failed states.”3 Successful states control defined territories and populations, conduct diplomatic relations with other states, monopolize legitimate violence within their territories, and succeed in providing adequate social goods to their populations. Failed states, their dark mirror image, lose control over the means of violence, and cannot create peace or stability for their populations or control their territories.4 Recent examples of failed states are familiar to us all, from the total collapse of state institutions in Somalia and the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia to the varied crises in Syria, Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, Sudan, Rwanda, Haiti, Congo, and Sierra Leone.

Failed states, their dark mirror image, lose control over the means of violence, and cannot create peace or stability for their populations or control their territories.4 Recent examples of failed states are familiar to us all, from the total collapse of state institutions in Somalia and the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia to the varied crises in Syria, Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, Sudan, Rwanda, Haiti, Congo, and Sierra Leone. One notch up the food chain from failed states are the numerous “weak” or “failing” states, which together constitute much of sub-Saharan Africa (consider Côte d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Mali, Burundi, Mozambique, Liberia, and Angola, to name but a few of the most notorious), significant chunks of Central Asia, and parts of Latin America and South Asia. Failed states make it even harder to keep war in a box. They can become breeding grounds for extremism and insurgencies, or staging points for organized terrorist groups. Failed states cannot enter into or abide by treaties; they cannot participate in the increasingly dense network of international trade or environmental or human rights agreements and institutions; they cannot enforce contracts between their citizens and foreigners or protect settled property interests.

By definition, the international order cannot be considered a failed state on a global scale, because there never existed a global state that could fall apart. But is it so silly to analogize the international order to a failed state? True, there never was a global state that existed, so it seems odd to speak of the international community as a failed state. But much the same could be said of many failed states on the national level. That is: most so-called failed states were never really states in the first place, at least not in anything more than a strictly technical sense. Afghanistan was never a fully functioning modern state; neither was Congo, or Sierra Leone, or Syria, or Iraq, or Somalia, or most of the dozens of states that have been characterized in the past decades as failed or failing. With their boundaries often drawn by colonial and imperial powers, these faux states made for tidy maps and had seats at the United Nations and an international juridical personality, but they rarely possessed the attributes of robust states in other than a purely formal legal sense.8 From their inception, such states rarely exercised anything approaching a monopoly on violence within their territories; to a significant extent, their borders were unmanageably porous, and the reach of government authority either barely extended beyond their capital cities and a handful of other urban centers or extended only in predatory form.

State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century by Francis Fukuyama


Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, centre right, corporate governance, demand response, Doha Development Round, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, Nick Leeson, Potemkin village, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Washington Consensus

In this chapter, I address this set of interrelated problems. Since the end of the Cold War, weak or failing states have arguably become the single most important problem for international order (Crocker 2003). Weak or failing states commit human rights abuses, provoke humanitarian disasters, drive 92 weak states and international legitimacy 93 massive waves of immigration, and attack their neighbors. Since September 11, it also has been clear that they shelter international terrorists who can do significant damage to the United States and other developed countries. During the period from the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to September 11, 2001, the vast majority of international crises centered around weak or failing states. These included Somalia, Haiti, Cambodia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Congo, and East Timor.

The MCA may stimulate countries well on the road to reform, but it will do little for failed states and the world’s more troubled countries. The other external source for creating demand for institutions is the political power exercised directly by countries or consortia of countries as occupation authorities or through a strong direct relationship with the local government. This is what we label “nation-building.” An occupation authority obviously has much more direct leverage over the local country than does an external lender or aid agency working through conditionality. On the other hand, most nation-builders soon find that their ability to shape the local society is very limited as well. Moreover, most countries in need of nation-building are failed states or other types of postconflict societies with far 38 state-building more severe governance problems than the average recipient of a conditional loan.

The September 11 attacks highlighted a different sort of problem. The failed state of Afghanistan was so weak that it could in effect be hijacked by a non-state actor, the terrorist organization al-Qaida, and serve as a base of global terrorist operations. The attacks drove home the ways in which violence had become democratized: The possibility of combining radical Islamism with weapons of mass destruction (WMD) suddenly meant that events going on in distant, chaotic parts of the globe could matter intensely to the United States and other rich and powerful countries. Traditional forms of deterrence or containment would not work against this type of nonstate actor, so security concerns demanded reaching inside of states and changing their regime to prevent future threats from arising. The failed state problem that was seen previously as largely a humanitarian or human rights issue suddenly took on a major security dimension.

pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden,, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

“Last Mile,” Wikipedia, accessed June 19, 2014, 38. T. C. Sottek, “Google Now Offers Google Earth, Picasa, and Chrome in Syria,” Verge, May 24, 2012, accessed September 30, 2014, 39. Monk School of Global Affairs, Internet Filtering in a Failed State: The Case of Netsweeper in Somalia (Toronto: University of Toronto, February 2014), accessed September 30, 2014,; Monk School of Global Affairs, O Pakistan, We Stand on Guard for Thee: An Analysis of Canada-Based Netsweeper’s Role in Pakistan’s Censorship Regime (Toronto: University of Toronto, June 2014), accessed September 30, 2014, 40. Kate Crawford et al., “Seven Principles for Big Data and Resilience Projects,” iRevolution, September 23, 2013, accessed September 30, 2014, 41.

See also cyberespionage Estrada, Joseph, 127 Ethiopia, 215 Euromaidan protests (Ukraine), 114–15 Europe, political parties in, defending internet freedom, 166 European Union, 98 export controls, 252 extremism, resilience of, 131 extremist groups, 216–17, 219, 220 Facebook: xiii–xiv, 8, 9, 122; facilitating clan formation, 173, 174; governments requesting data from, 26; used as recruiting tool, 216–17 failed states, 72, 80–84, 94, 159; data from, 110–11; technology use in, 134 failing states, 80–84, 94 fair-trade coffee movement, 49–50 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 39 Femen network (Ukraine), 86 feudalism, 63–64 filter bubble, 202 financial markets, bots in, 34 Finfisher, 201 Firefox, 64 firms, rise of, 6 FISA. See Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Flame (virus), 40 Flemish, self-governance and, 145 Flickr, 9 foreign affairs, device networks and, 249 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 24 foreign policy, technology policy and, 8 fourth wave, 51 Freegate, 30 Free Syria Army, 62 Frischmann, Brett, 243 FrontlineSMS, 101–2, 119 Fukuda, Hareaki, 253 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, 177 Fukuyama, Francis, 12, 52, 129 Gauss (virus), 40 gender politics, 76–77 geographic information systems, 48 geolocation, xiii–xiv Georgia, 238 Gibbon, Edward, 232 GIS.

Like the slums of Haiti, the slums of Nigeria are also difficult for the government to see and serve. Dictators and Dirty Networks Digital networks can expose connections that political boundaries do not. Two-thirds of the world’s population lives in countries without fully functional governments. Or more accurately, they live in communities not served by states with real governments. They live in refugee camps, breakaway republics, corporate-run free economic zones, gated communities, failed states, autonomous regions, rebel enclaves, or walled slums. Modern pirates dominate their fishing waters, and complex humanitarian disasters disrupt local institutions regularly. Organizing people to solve problems in such places is especially tough. In many of these places, rogue generals, drug lords, or religious thugs who report to no one (not on this earth, anyway) lead governments. Not having a recognizable government makes it tough to collaborate with neighbors on solving shared problems.

Nation-Building: Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq by Francis Fukuyama


Berlin Wall, business climate, colonial rule, conceptual framework,, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, informal economy, land reform, microcredit, open economy, unemployed young men

• 1 • • Francis Fukuyama The frequency and intensity of U.S. and international nation-building efforts have increased since the end of the Cold War, which, as Michael Ignatieff has pointed out, left a band of weak or failed states stretching from North Africa through the Balkans and the Middle East to South Asia.1 In addition, parts of sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, Central America, and the Caribbean have been the loci of state failure in recent decades. These failures have produced refugees, human rights abuses, inter- and intrastate wars, drug and human trafficking, and other problems that crossed international borders. And after September 11, 2001, it became clear that weak or failed states could sponsor terrorism that threatened the core security interests of the world’s sole superpower, the United States. Although conventional military power was sufficient for some purposes, such as expelling Serbian military forces from Kosovo or defeating Saddam Hussein’s army, the underlying problems caused by failed states or weak governance could only be solved through long-term efforts by outside powers to rebuild indigenous state institutions.

Although conventional military power was sufficient for some purposes, such as expelling Serbian military forces from Kosovo or defeating Saddam Hussein’s army, the underlying problems caused by failed states or weak governance could only be solved through long-term efforts by outside powers to rebuild indigenous state institutions. Security problems in earlier times centered around strong states that could maintain a monopoly of force over their own territory, but many post–Cold War crises involved an internal absence of state power that necessitated outside intervention and long-term receivership by the international community. Thus the ability of outside powers to provide governance and control the internal behavior of failed or weak states has become a key component of their national power. As the chapters by David Ekbladh, Francis X.

(In the Japanese case, the political system was democratized without forcing abdication of the Emperor, a decision of MacArthur’s that eased the postwar transition but made the break with the prewar past much less clear than in Germany.) And in both countries, the Allied occupations eventually got around to promoting economic reconstruction, once the Soviets had finished stripping their occupation zones of equipment as war reparations. But in both cases, what went on under the rubric of nation-building looked quite different from more recent efforts in such failed states as Somalia, East Timor, or Afghanistan, where the state itself had ceased to exist. Reconstruction versus Development Nation-building encompasses two different types of activities, reconstruction and development. Although the distinction between the two is often blurred, it was always present to nation-builders of earlier generations dealing with post-conflict situations. The official title of the World Bank is, after all, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and most of its early activity fell under the first heading.

pages: 390 words: 119,527

Armed Humanitarians by Nathan Hodge


Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, European colonialism, failed state, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, walking around money

A series of dramatic, innovative nation-building experiments rescued the Iraq mission from complete failure, but in the process, the military overcompensated. The Pentagon became fixated on soft power as the answer for security problems such as terrorism and insurgency. Military commanders threw billions of dollars at quasi-development schemes in the hopes that a combination of aid money and armed social work would get at the root causes of violence in failing states. And top policymakers launched an initiative to refashion government around the tasks of state building. The short-term lessons drawn from Iraq took on a life of their own, as policymakers and practitioners looked to repeat the experiment on an equally grand scale in Afghanistan. In a debate with Vice President Al Gore in 2000, the Republican presidential candidate, George W. Bush, outlined his vision of the U.S. military policy: “I don’t think our troops ought to be used for what’s called nation building,” he said.

Weeks after the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, conservative writer Max Boot made a provocative argument in favor of a new kind of American imperialism. “Afghanistan and other troubled lands today cry out for the sort of enlightened foreign administration once provided by self-confident Englishmen in jodhpurs and pith helmets,” he wrote.13 Implicit in that clever shorthand was a critique: The United States lacked a talented class of colonial administrators capable of refashioning failed states and preparing the local inhabitants for eventual self-rule. At first glance, it looks as if Boot’s post-9/11 wish has been fulfilled—and that the United States is finally creating the twenty-first-century equivalent of the British Empire’s Colonial Service. Over the 2000–2010 decade, a new class of nation builders has emerged: staffing Provincial Reconstruction Teams in cities in Iraq; constructing roads in rural Afghanistan; or training Kalashnikov-toting soldiers in Timbuktu.

The military was grasping for a new way to describe this mission: It was something other than war—more a hybrid of police work and development. They settled on the term “stability operations” to describe this kind of approach. The Pentagon’s embrace of this new strategy can be charted out in a series of official documents. One week before the STAR-TIDES demonstration at the Pentagon, in October 2008, the U.S. Army released Field Manual 3-07, Stability Operations. The manual provided the military with a blueprint for rebuilding failed states. And it stated the obvious: Nation building requires a lot of “soft power” and the full participation of the civilian agencies of government if it is to succeed. According to the manual, the United States faced a new era in which “the greatest threats to national security will not come from emerging ambitious states, but from nations unable or unwilling to meet the basic needs and aspirations of their people.”

Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, nuremberg principles, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Yossi Beilin, Mehiro shel Ihud (Tel Aviv: Revivim, 1985), 42, 147; the primary source for Israeli cabinet records under the Labor coalition, 1967–77. Dayan’s analogy, Gorenberg, Accidental Empire, 81–2. For more on these matters, see Failed States, chap. 5; my Middle East Illusions (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), chap. 6. Herald cited by James Bradley, The Imperial Cruise (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2009), 63. 36. Sometimes called a “one-state solution,” though there clearly are two groups, each entitled to respect for their own cultural mix, language, and identity. 37. See Failed States, 193ff. 38. For an illustration, see economist Sever Plocker (“A Thorn in the World’s Side,” Yediot, November 3, 1999;,7340,L-3798761,00.html), describing with despair how he must cancel a lecture in Oxford because the anti-Israel atmosphere there is so extreme that he would be treated as a leper.

Yolande Knell, Heba Saleh, and Roula Khalaf, Financial Times Special Report on Egypt, December 17, 2009. On the timid gestures about democracy in Egypt under Bush, see Failed States. 35. Associated Press, January 5, 2010. 36. Douglas Little, “Cold War and Covert Action,” Middle East Journal, Winter 1990. NSC 5801/1, January 24, 1958. See also Salim Yaqub, “Imperious Doctrines: U.S.-Arab Relations from Dwight D. Eisenhower to George W. Bush,” Diplomatic History 26, no. 4 (Fall 2002) and his Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004). 37. For sources, and further discussion of U.S. support for Arab tyrannies and the (understood) consequences, see Hegemony or Survival, chaps. 3, 8 and Failed States, chap. 5. Also Gardner, Last Chance, and many other sources. 38. Ibid. 29, xix. Fawaz Gerges, Journey of the Jihadist (Orlando: Harcourt Press, 2006), 210ff.

NATO expansion, see chap. 12 below. 37. Alan Nairn, Nation, September 27, 1999. 38. Akiva Eldar, Haaretz, December 2, 2008 (Hebrew). Dennis Ross, The Missing Peace (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004). See Norman Finkelstein, Dennis Ross and the Peace Process (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2007); Failed States, 183–4. 39. Quoted in Jeff Zeleny, New York Times, November 27, 2008. 40. “Notable and Quotable,” Wall Street Journal, November 22, 2008. 41. For a sample of polls, see Failed States, 225. For more extensive review, Vicente Navarro, Why the United States Does Not Have a National Health Program (Amityville, NY: Baywood, 1992); Dangerous to Your Health (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1993); The Politics of Health Policy (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1994), 210ff. 42.

pages: 217 words: 61,407

Twilight of Abundance: Why the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutish, and Short by David Archibald


Bakken shale, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income per capita, means of production, mutually assured destruction, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, peak oil, price discovery process, rising living standards, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The errant nuclear power of the moment is Iran, which has a large, well-funded uranium-enrichment program and a stated intention of annihilating Israel with nuclear weapons. But whatever the fate of the Iranian bomb-making effort, there is already another nation that is also heading toward failed-state status while still upping the bomb-making rate of its nuclear weapons program. This is Pakistan, “the land of the pure.” Pakistan is in one of the world’s poorer countries, with a literacy rate of 55 percent and a population growth rate of 1.7 percent per annum. Yet it is believed to have an arsenal of approximately one hundred completed nuclear weapons and is accelerating its bomb-making program. Pakistan is a failed state in waiting. When it does fail, what will be the fate of all those nuclear bombs? This situation is not going to end well. A NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRIMER Let’s step back a minute to review some basic facts about nuclear weapons.

As for world peace, the artificial nations created by the British and the French in the Middle East after World War I will devolve to their tribal components. That part of the world at least may go back to the Stone Age–condition of 30 percent of adult males dying violent deaths. Very few Middle Eastern countries produce all of their food requirements. Who will pay to keep them fed when grain becomes scarce and expensive? Added into that mix are the nuclear weapons of Pakistan (a future failed state) and the ones that Iran is intent on making. China is a more formidable threat. A recent Pentagon report described China’s claim to the South China Sea as “enigmatic.” It is nothing of the sort. The claim is China’s way of grabbing its neighbors’ traditional fishing grounds and asserting hegemony in the region. China has become nasty and aggressive. It is the schoolyard bully who wants to pick a fight in order to get respect.

In the meantime, the miracle of compound interest—on the population, not on Yemen’s nonexistent wealth—is making the problem much worse. There is no doubt about what the end will be. There is one part of Yemen that could be very useful to any party wishing to project power in the region. The Socotra Islands off the northeast tip of Somalia were first captured by the Portuguese in 1506 and not incorporated into Yemen until 1967. When Yemen becomes a completely failed state, control of these islands will be up for grabs. There are two countries with the wherewithal and strategic interest to capture them. China’s contribution to the anti-piracy patrol off Somalia includes a landing ship, which, together with support vessels, could take Socotra at any time, unless the Chinese were interdicted. But the Chinese might have competition. The Socotra Islands are 3,000 kilometers closer to the Middle East than the United States’ B-52 base at Diego Garcia in the southern half of the Indian Ocean, and in the longer term they would be a much more secure base than Djibouti, on mainland Africa at the southern entrance to the Red Sea.

Interventions by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, cuban missile crisis, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, Ralph Nader, Thorstein Veblen, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, éminence grise

He also added material expanding what was in the original drafts— background, and other information. As a book, Interventions has benefited from these additions. It is important to note that during the period that Chomsky wrote the essays in this book—2002 to 2007—he also wrote several major works: Hegemony or Survival (which held ground for weeks on the New York Times bestseller list after Hugo Chávez praised it during a speech before the United Nations in 2006), Failed States and Perilous Power (with Gilbert Achcar and Stephen Shalom), all of which discuss many of the ideas contained in Interventions in greater detail. In composing op-eds, Chomsky is taking advantage of the fact that our society is still one of the freest in the world: openings still exist to challenge the White House, the Pentagon, and the corporations enriched by them. Chomsky believes that the freedom to challenge power is not just an opportunity, it’s a responsibility, and he takes advantage of the op-ed form to do just that.

One way is to try to alleviate the threats by paying some attention to legitimate grievances, and by agreeing to become a civilized member of a world community, with some respect for world order and its institutions. The other way is to construct even more awesome instruments of destruction and domination, so that any perceived challenge, however remote, can be crushed—provoking new and greater challenges. NOTES 1. Postwar intelligence assessments revealed that the increase was well beyond what had been anticipated. See my Failed States (2006), page 18ff., and the classified National Intelligence Estimate, reported by Mark Mazzetti, “Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat,” in the New York Times, September 24, 2006. In the March/April 2007 issue of Mother Jones, terrorism specialists Peter Bergen and Paul Cruickshank discussed their recent study showing that “the Iraq War has generated a stunning sevenfold increase in the yearly rate of fatal jihadist attacks, amounting to literally hundreds of additional terrorist attacks and thousands of civilian lives lost; even when terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan is excluded, fatal attacks in the rest of the world have increased by more than one-third.” 2.

The plan calls for Israel to take over the regions within the wall, to dismember the shrinking fragments left to Palestinians, and to imprison the fragments by taking over the Jordan Valley. It was supported by the Bush administration, and praised as “moderate” in Western commentary—perhaps too moderate, the U.S.-Israel determined after their invasion of Lebanon in July 2006. 2. Sometimes Washington has gone out of its way to humiliate Israel, with no reaction from the lobby. For one striking example in 2005, see Failed States, page 189. Uri Avnery argues that U.S. orders blocked Israel’s plans for the 2006 Lebanon war, planned well in advance, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert conceded in March 2007. Avnery, “Olmert’s Truth,” March 10, 2007, see See also note 1 to “Dilemmas of Dominance” on page 48. 3. These numbers, incidentally, are mostly meaningless, because they do not take into account the projected borders of the settlements, mostly state secrets, or the huge infrastructure projects—superhighways for Israelis from which Palestinians are barred, with very wide borders; the Israeli checkpoints and other devices to make life impossible for Palestinians, etc.

pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen


3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

If state control relies on the perception of total command of events, every incident that undermines that perception—every misstep captured by camera phone, every lie debunked with outside information—plants seeds of doubt that encourage opposition and dissident elements in the population, and that could develop into widespread instability. There may be only a handful of failed states in the world today, but they offer an intriguing model for how connectivity can operate in a power vacuum. Indeed, telecommunications seems to be just about the only industry that can thrive in a failed state. In Somalia, telecommunications companies have come to fill many of the gaps that decades of war and failed government have created, providing information, financial services and even electricity. In the future, as the flood of inexpensive smart phones reaches users in failed states, citizens will find ways to do even more. Phones will help to enable the education, health care, security and commercial opportunities that the citizens’ governments cannot provide.

Mobile technology will also give much-needed intellectual, social and entertainment outlets for populations who have been psychologically traumatized by their environment. Connectivity alone cannot revert a failed state, but it can drastically improve the situation for its citizens. As we’ll discuss later, new methods to help communities handle conflict and post-conflict challenges—developments like virtual institution building and skilled labor databases in the diaspora—will emerge to accelerate local recovery. In power vacuums, though, opportunists take control, and in these cases connectivity will be an equally powerful weapon in their hands. Newly connected citizens in failed states will have all the vulnerabilities of undeletable data, but none of the security that could insulate them from those risks. Warlords, extortionists, pirates and criminals will—if they’re smart enough—find ways to consolidate their own power at the expense of other people’s data.

., 2012, 4.1 elections, Venezuela electricity Emergency Information Service empathy encryption, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 4.1 Ennahda party entertainment Equatorial Guinea Ericsson, 3.1, 3.2 Eritrea Estonia, 3.1, 6.1 Ethiopia Etisalat Etisalat Misr European Commission European Union, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 evolution, 3.1, con.1 exiles expectations gap explosive-ordnance-disposal (EOD) robots extortionists Facebook, itr.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2 data safeguarded by facial-recognition software, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1, con.1 failed states FARC Farmer, Paul FBI, 2.1, 5.1 Ferrari, Bruno fiber-optic cables, itr.1, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2 filtering, 2.1, 3.1 financial blockades fingerprinting Finland Fixing Failed States (Lockhart and Ghani), 7.1n Flame virus, 3.1, 3.2 Food and Drug Administration food prices foreign aid forgetfulness Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) Foster-Miller 4G, 7.1, 7.2 France, 6.1, 7.1, nts.1 Freakonomics (Levitt and Dubner), 2.1 Fred freedom of assembly free expression free information French Data Network Fukushima nuclear crisis, n gacaca, 249–50 Gadhafi, Muammar, 4.1, 4.2, 7.1 Gallic Wars “Gangnam Style,” 24n Gates, Robert Gaza General Motors genocide virtual genome sequencing geography Georgia (country) Georgia (state) Germany gesture-recognition technology Ghana Ghani, Ashraf, n GiveWell globalization, 1.1, 3.1 Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Goldsmith, Jack, n Google, itr.1, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3n, 163, 5.1, 7.1 Chinese cyber attacks on, itr.1, 3.1, 3.2 data safeguarded by driverless cars of Project Glass in tweet-by-phone service of Google App Engine Google Earth Google Ideas Google Map Maker Google Maps, 6.1, nts.1 Google+ Google Voice GPS, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 GPS data Great Firewall of China, 3.1, 3.2 GreatNonprofits Green Revolution GuideStar hackers, 2.1, 2.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1 Hackers’ Conference, n hacktivists Hague, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2 haircuts Haiti, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Haiti After the Earthquake (Farmer), 7.1 Hama, Syria Hamas, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1 Han Chinese handheld mobile devices Hanseatic League haptic technology, 1.1, 2.1n, 203–4 harassment, 6.1, 6.2 hard-drive crashes hawala, 69 Hayden, Michael V.

pages: 214 words: 57,614

America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama


affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

If this is true, it implies that we are facing a huge crisis of missing sovereignty. It is fine to argue that an ideal global order should be based on a system of states, states which coherently make and enforce rules and have the capacity to deal with other states on a relatively equal basis. But we have no idea how to get most weak or failing states to meet these conditions. We can promote political development, good governance, and democracy at the margin, but for the foreseeable future there will remain a large core of states that simply do not fit the traditional sovereignty model. In dealing with failed states like Bosnia, Kosovo, Somalia, and Afghanistan, we have pretended that external actors, from the European Union to the United States to the World Bank, are overseeing a transitional arrangement before the return of full sovereignty to these places. But the prospects for actually doing so lie far down the road.

That world is characterized by American hegemony and a global anti-American backlash, complete with inchoate forms of "soft" balancing; a shift in the locus of action away from nation-states toward non-state actors and other transnational forces; an accompanying dis- Principles and Prudence integration of sovereignty both as a normative principle and as an empirical reality; and the emergence of a band of weak and failed states that are the source of most global problems. In light of this emerging external environment, the United States needs to define an approach to foreign policy that is not captured by any of these existing positions. This approach begins from certain neoconservative premises: first, that U.S. policy and the international community more broadly need to concern themselves with what goes on inside other countries, not just their external behavior, as realists would have it; and second, that power—specifically American power—is often necessary to bring about moral purposes.

What we need, in other words, is a more realistic Wilsonianism that better matches means to ends in dealing with other societies. Realistic Wilsonianism differs from classical realism by taking seriously as an object of U.S. foreign policy what goes on inside states. To say that nation-building or democracy promotion is hard is not to say that it is impossible or that it should be scrupulously avoided. Indeed, weak or failed states are one of the biggest sources of global disorder today, and it is simply impossible, for reasons relating both to security and to morality, for the world's Principles and Prudence sole superpower to walk away from them. Neither realists nor neoconservatives have paid sufficient attention to the problem of development over the years, nor have they focused on parts of the world like Africa or Latin America where development is most problematic (except, of course, when countries in these regions became security threats).

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna


1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

The same is now happening with the ASEAN Economic Community of Southeast Asia and the pan-Asian Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, where economies are opening at their own pace to protect their comparative advantages and boost employment. The infrastructural and market integration under way within regions today makes them far more significant building blocks of global order than nations. Importantly, the geographies not knitting themselves together into collective functional zones—the Near East and Central Asia—are also generally where one finds the most failed states. Mega-regions are not monolithic blocs but what scholars call “composite empires,” informal and transactional rather than formal and institutionalized. They feature nominal central authority but substantial autonomy for various provinces within. The Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires were geographically vast, militarily dominant, and economically wealthy, but they were also highly unequal, politically devolved, and culturally fractured.

Zaatari in northern Jordan houses over 100,000 Syrians, making it the fourth-largest city in the country. The World Food Programme head remarked, “We don’t look at Zaatari as a camp anymore, but as a municipality or a town.”5 The space in between the region’s civilizational anchors—Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Iran—is now up for grabs. Iraqi nationalism is meaningless, and Syria is an artificial failed state. Given its sectarian diversity and rugged topography, it is destined to devolve further, with Damascus and Aleppo remaining autonomous commercial hubs. The entire region is experiencing Lebanonization: sectarian towns at various distances from more multiethnic capitals. The Middle East, it has long been argued, is but a collection of “tribes with flags.” Today tribes such as the Kurds that have no state have far more meaningful nationalism than Jordanians or Lebanese who do.

A 2013 report declared that Cleveland is “Balkanized,” describing it as “cut off from the global flow of people and ideas.”1 In Buffalo, once-bustling factory buildings producing Otis elevators and Wonder bread are now hollow, rotting carcasses. Experts predict a much wider wave of municipal bankruptcies across the Rust Belt of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, New York, and even some New England cities that are losing talent, business, and investment to Boston. For a large empire such as America, failing cities are its own version of failing states. While many blame outsourcing to low-wage car plants in China as the cause of Detroit’s decline, the Motor City has a counterpart in China as well: Dongguan. Dubbed one of the “Four Little Tigers” in China’s southern Guangdong province, Dongguan specialized in electronics manufacturing, ranking only second to Shenzhen in total trade volume.2 But the 2008 financial crisis crushed its exports as well: Factories closed, and workers vacated.

The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly


airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

The Bank announced “a joint government/ multi-donor Interim Cooperation Framework (Cadre de Coopération Intérimaire, or CCI).55 In July 2004, the CCI believed that Haiti was now “primed to tackle many urgent and medium term development needs.56The Economist in June 2005 quoted people a little closer to reality, such as diplomats stationed in Port-au-Prince, as saying that Haiti was on the verge of being a “failed state.” Foreign Policy magazine in August 2005 classified Haiti as a failed state, ranking it as more dysfunctional than the likes of Afghanistan, North Korea, and Zimbabwe.57 The long years of military intervention have failed to produce anything constructive in Haiti. As far as promoting democracy, one study on the historical record of American nation-building says that it doesn’t usually work. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace scholars Minxin Pei and Sara Kasper analyzed sixteen American nation-building efforts over the past century.58 Only four were democracies ten years after the U.S. military left—Japan and Germany after resounding defeat and occupation in World War II, and tiny Grenada(1983) and Panama (1989).

Weinstein, “Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective,” Center for Global Development Working Paper no. 57, April 2005. 3.James Fearon and David Laitin, “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States,” International Security 28, no. 4 (Spring 2004): 5–43. 4.Sebastian Mallaby, “The Reluctant Imperialist: Terrorism, Failed States, the Case for American Empire,” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 2 (March/April 2002); Chester Crocker, “Engaging Failing States,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 5 September/October 2003); Stuart Eizenstat, John Edward Porter, and Jeremy Weinstein, “Rebuilding Weak States,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (January/February 2005); Stephen D. Krasner and Carlos Pascual, “Addressing State Failure,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 4 (July/August 2005); Stephen Ellis, “How to Rebuild Africa,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 5 (September/October 2005). 5.Krasner and Pascual, “Addressing State Failure.” 6.Niall Ferguson, Colossus: The Price of America’s Empire, New York: The Penguin Press, 2004, p. 198. 7.D.

An Englishman observed at the time, “The present government seems to consider the poverty and ignorance of the people as the best safeguards of the security and permanence of their own property and power.67 The illiteracy and powerlessness of the majority of the population had condemned Haiti to underdevelopment long before the Duvaliers and the IMF arrived, and it still does today. The IMF giving Haiti credit after credit did nothing to address the centuries-old political roots of macroeconomic instability, not to mention the country’s underdevelopment. The International Financial Institutions Get Taken Again One test of how donor agencies deal with government is to see how they respond to some of the worst cases. Haiti is not the only failed state getting IMF credits. Another notorious case is Mobutu’s Zaire. The IMF gave Mobutu eleven bailout loans during his tenure. It was not that his thefts were a secret. The IMF had sent a German banker named Erwin Blumenthal to the Central Bank of Zaire in 1978–1979. He carefully documented how much Mobutu was stealing, and reported back to the IMF and the World Bank. Mobutu could use thuggery as well as bribery: In the late 1970s, a Zairean army unit attacked an uncooperative resident representative of the IMF and the World Bank.

pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij


agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

It was a Cold War strategy that might be charitably described as shortsighted, and certainly appeared contradictory: a United States supposedly committed to principles of secular government helped oust a regime attempting to establish just that, albeit undemocratically. Soviet restraint in the United States struggle for Vietnam was not rewarded with American moderation in Afghanistan, even when it must have been obvious to some policy makers in Washington that a forced withdrawal of Soviet troops would leave Afghanistan a destabilized, faction-ridden, failed state flooded with armaments at a time when Islamic terrorism was on the rise. Soon the factions that had been somewhat united during the anti-Soviet campaign were in conflict, with warlords controlling fiefdoms far from the devastated capital and more than 3 million refugees encamped on the Pakistan side of the border. The United States, of course, was not the only factor in the struggle for Afghanistan.

Whether the Muslim-Christian clashes are an isolated event or a signal of more serious problems is not yet clear. As Figure 9-2 shows, the Islamic Front loops into the Horn of Africa, coinciding very roughly with the border between mainly Muslim Eritrea and dominantly Christian Ethiopia before dividing the latter into a Muslim east (Ogaden) and a Christian west. The Muslim east is the historic home of the Somali people living on the Ethiopian side of the border with the failed state of Somalia that, as the map indicates, is virtually 100 percent Muslim. Ethiopia's Christianized core area, centered on the capital of Adis Abeba, lies in the highlands, a natural fortress that has protected the country in the past and from where the founding emperor, Menelik, extended its power over the encircling plains. In the process Ethiopia's Christian rulers gained con-trol over the Ogaden with its Muslim Somali population and its leading city, Harer (Fig. 9-2).

Clan allegiances and divisions, not invented boundaries, dominated life. Somali pastoralists drove their herds across the borders in pursuit of seasonal rains as they had for centuries, and in Somalia they fought among themselves over influence and dominance. The approximate position of the Islamic Front in Ethiopia is of less concern that its extension along the Somali-Kenya border, because Somalia has been a failed state for decades and it is there, rather than in Muslim Ethiopia, that the greatest potential for terrorist activity exists. In early 2005, Somalia remained a state divided into three parts; Somaliland, the former British FROM TERRORISM TO INSURGENCY 185 GAMBIA ^^^ 99% ;j^GgiNEA ;: f GUINEA-V ^v85S^>-'A BISSAU ^^y'^*5*> mTN- 45% SIERRA' "fc »^^ "I " 'GHANA LEONE ^ ^ J^--5 Torn \ / '' ' «■"""-«':; «t' 46% /->'^ -^- ^3§o9„ l/^ CAMEROON M'^^'-^-'v^ C6TE EQUATORIAL-ccf-' 1 ^^'''''' ^r ^' V' P| T—' ?

pages: 421 words: 125,417

Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs


agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

Without antennae, we grope helplessly from one crisis to the next. We need to fundamentally revamp our foreign policy strategy and organization. We cannot achieve national security strictly through military outlays. Instead, we need international partnerships and goodwill, and greater stability in today’s fragile and failing states. We need to use development assistance to promote global stability. Finally, we need to reorganize government so that the deeper challenges to our stability—extreme poverty, failed states, environmental threats—can be addressed with knowledge and capacity. THE LIMITS OF MILITARY POWER Figure 12.1 shows an astounding fact. U.S. military spending in 2006 was nearly equal to the military spending of the rest of the world combined. By now, after large increases in the U.S. budget in fiscal years 2007–8, it’s very likely that U.S. military spending now exceeds the rest of the world’s.

The current Bush administration wrongly accused UNFPA of aiding China in coercive measures and cut off all U.S. funding for UNFPA. The U.S. State Department investigated and in 2002 recommended that funding be restored, but it did not succeed in overturning a White House political move. Narrow politics prevailed over America’s foreign policy interests. U.S. policy neglect is especially surprising in view of our concerns over the threats of failed states. The youth bulge of high-fertility countries—measured as the share of youth (aged fifteen to twenty-four) in the entire adult population (aged fifteen and above)—should be a matter of national concern. The evidence, summarized in powerful reports by Population Action International (PAI) and by the demographer Henrik Urdal, is that a youth bulge significantly raises the likelihood of civil conflict, presumably by raising the ratio of those who would engage in violence relative to those who would mediate disputes.

Public and Private Capital Even when technologies are invented by the private sector, the use of new technologies usually depends on public-sector investments as well. For example, cars require roads, electrical machinery requires a reliable power grid, and imported medicines in the poorest countries require public-sector hospitals and clinics. If the government is not holding up its end of the deal by making the needed public investments, then the private sector will not be able to make profitable private investments in new technologies. Thus, a failed state, or a bankrupt government that can’t pay for public investments, or a wildly corrupt government, will result in a technologically stagnant private sector as well. Adaptation to Local Ecology Many technologies work right out of the box, irrespective of the local physical environment. Many, however, require significant adaptation to local biophysical conditions. Agronomic practices, public health methodologies, construction methods and materials, and infrastructure design all must adapt international practices to local conditions.

Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The project was conceived by Tom Engelhardt and Steve Fraser, editors who are themselves historians and writers. Published by Metropolitan Books, an imprint of Henry Holt and Company, its titles include Hegemony or Survival and Failed States by Noam Chomsky, The Limits of Power and Washington Rules by Andrew Bacevich, Blood and Oil by Michael T. Klare, A Question of Torture by Alfred McCoy, A People’s History of American Empire by Howard Zinn, and Empire’s Workshop by Greg Grandin. For more information about the American Empire Project and for a list of forthcoming titles, please visit Also by Noam Chomsky Hegemony or Survival Failed States Imperial Ambitions What We Say Goes Metropolitan Books Henry Holt and Company, LLC Publishers since 1866 175 Fifth Avenue New York, New York 10010 Metropolitan Books® and ® are registered trademarks of Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

., 24 Tunisia, 44–45, 48–49, 53, 67, 112–13 Turkey, 51, 89–94 human rights violations, 89–92 -Israel relations, 92–94 Kurds, 89–92 Turkmenistan, 17 Twitter, 105, 145 UNASUR, 161 unemployment, 22–23, 38, 66, 76 United Arab Emirates, 8, 15, 49 United Auto Workers, 25 United Nations, 46, 50–52, 115, 162, 163 universal genome, 129 universal grammar, 126–29 universities, 150–53, 165–68 corporatization of, 152, 167–68 sports, 165–66 uprisings, 44–64 Arab Spring, 44–55, 60–64, 67, 112–13, 168 Egypt, 44–49, 60–64 Libya, 50–54 Vietnam War, 1–3, 15, 31, 64, 97 visual system, 141 voting, 81, 84, 117–18 Wallerstein, Immanuel, 77 Wall Street Journal, 54, 169 Walmart, 9 war, 13–18, 20 crimes, 114–17 Warfalla, 50 Washington, George, 3 Weathermen, 74 Weimar Republic, 25, 27–29 Weisskopf, Victor, 149, 154 welfare, 82–83, 84, 87 Western Sahara, 46 “When Elites Fail” (Chomsky), 22 Wiesel, Elie, 94 WikiLeaks, 99, 107–13 Wilson, Woodrow, 13, 23 Wisconsin, labor demonstrations in, 40–43 Wolf, Martin, 78 Wolff, Richard, 88 women’s rights, 79, 150, 177 World Bank, 47 World Trade Organization, 107 World War II, 5, 7, 56, 57, 115–16 Yemen, 49, 114 Yglesias, Matthew, 59, 63 YouTube, 104 Zaire, 17 Zinn, Howard, 1, 22, 78 About the Authors NOAM CHOMSKY is the author of numerous best-selling political works, including Hegemony or Survival and Failed States. A professor of linguistics and philosophy at MIT, he is widely credited with having revolutionized modern linguistics. He lives outside Boston, Massachusetts. DAVID BARSAMIAN, director of the award-winning and widely syndicated Alternative Radio (, is the winner of the Lannan Foundation’s Cultural Freedom Fellowship and the ACLU’s Upton Sinclair Award for independent journalism.

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment

He traces it back to early U.S. history, specifically to John Quincy Adams, who laid out the grand strategy for the conquest of the continent. The centerpiece of his argument is a famous letter that Adams wrote in 1818 justifying Andrew Jackson’s conquest of Florida during the First Seminole War.1 Gaddis cites Adams’s argument that it was necessary to attack the Florida area in order to protect American security because the area was a “failed state”—he actually uses the phrase—a kind of a power vacuum which threatened the United States. But if you examine the actual scholarship, it’s quite interesting. Gaddis certainly knows that the scholarly books he cites point out that Andrew Jackson’s invasion of Florida had absolutely nothing to do with security. It was a matter of expansion, a bid to take over the Spanish settlements. And the only threats were “lawless” Indians and runaway slaves.

Then most of them go back home, and continue with their lives. Health care is a different issue. You can’t get it with one demonstration. You have to have a functioning democratic society, with popular associations, unions, and political groups working on it all the time. That’s the way you organize people to get health care. But that’s what’s lacking. The United States is basically what’s called a “failed state.” It has formal democratic institutions, but they barely function. So it doesn’t matter that approximately three fourths of the population think we ought to have some kind of government-funded health care system. It doesn’t even matter if a large majority regards health care as a moral value. When commentators rave about moral values, they’re talking about banning gay marriage, not the idea that everyone should have decent health care.

In Brazil, where there are vibrant popular movements, people were able to elect a president, Lula, from their own ranks. Maybe they don’t like everything Lula’s doing, but he’s an impressive figure, a former steelworker. I don’t think he ever went to college. And they were able to elect him president. That’s inconceivable in the United States. Here you vote for one or another rich boy from Yale. That’s because we don’t have popular organizations, and they do. Or take Haiti. Haiti is considered a “failed state,” but in 1990 Haiti had a democratic election of the kind we can only dream of. It’s an extremely poor country, and people in the hills and the slums actually got together and elected their own candidate. And the election just shocked the daylights out of everyone, which is why in 1991, there was a military coup, supported by the United States, to crush the democratic government. For us to become as democratic as Haiti doesn’t sound very utopian.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden,, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

See also labor movement; wage labor World Bank World People’s Conference on Climate Change World War I World War II Yarborough, William Yeltsin, Boris Yemen Yglesias, Matthew Yifrah, Shimon Yugoslavia Zarif, Javad Zarqawi, Abu Musab al- Zawahiri, Ayman al- Zelikow, Philip Zertal, Idith Zionism Zola, Émile Zughayer, Kemal ALSO BY NOAM CHOMSKY Hegemony or Survival Imperial Ambitions Failed States What We Say Goes Power Systems ABOUT THE AUTHOR NOAM CHOMSKY is the author of numerous best-selling political works, including Hegemony or Survival and Failed States. A professor emeritus of linguistics and philosophy at MIT, he is widely credited with having revolutionized modern linguistics. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts. You can sign up for email updates here. THE AMERICAN EMPIRE PROJECT In an era of unprecedented military strength, leaders of the United States, the global hyperpower, have increasingly embraced imperial ambitions.

Miller, and Stephen Van Evera, Nuclear Diplomacy and Crisis Management: An International Security Reader (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press 1990), 304. 47. William Burr, ed., “The October War and U.S. Policy,” National Security Archive, published 7 October 2003, 48. The phrase “super-sudden first strike” was coined by McGeorge Bundy and cited in John Newhouse, War and Peace in the Nuclear Age (New York: Knopf, 1989), 328. 49. Noam Chomsky, Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (New York: Henry Holt, 2006), 3. 9. THE OSLO ACCORDS: THEIR CONTEXT, THEIR CONSEQUENCES   1. See for example David M. Shribman, “At White House, Symbols of a Day of Awe,” Boston Globe, 29 September 1995; Maureen Dowd, “Mideast Accord: The Scene; President’s Tie Tells It All: Trumpets for a Day of Glory,” New York Times, 14 September 1993 (“the jaded were awed”).   2.

The American Empire Project publishes books that question this development, examine the origins of U.S. imperial aspirations, analyze their ramifications at home and abroad, and discuss alternatives to this dangerous trend. The project was conceived by Tom Engelhardt and Steve Fraser, editors who are themselves historians and writers. Published by Metropolitan Books, an imprint of Henry Holt and Company, its titles include Hegemony or Survival and Failed States by Noam Chomsky, The Limits of Power and Washington Rules by Andrew J. Bacevich, Blood and Oil by Michael T. Klare, Kill Anything That Moves by Nick Turse, A People’s History of American Empire by Howard Zinn, and Empire’s Workshop by Greg Grandin. For more information about the American Empire Project and for a list of forthcoming titles, please visit Thank you for buying this Henry Holt and Company ebook.

9-11 by Noam Chomsky


Berlin Wall, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty

Noam Chomsky, Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda, 2nd edition (Seven Stories Press, 2002). Noam Chomsky, Necessary Illusions (South End Press, 1989). Noam Chomsky, Pirates and Emperors, Old and New (South End Press, 2003). Noam Chomsky, Power and Terror, expanded edition (Paradigm, 2011). Noam Chomsky, Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order (Seven Stories Press, 1998). Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival (Metropolitan, 2004). Noam Chomsky, Failed States (Metropolitan, 2007). Chomsky and Edward S. Herman, Political Economy of Human Rights (South End Press, 1979). Chomsky and Gilbert Achcar, edited by Stephen R. Shalom, Perilous Power: The Middle East and U.S. Foreign Policy: Dialogues on Terror, Democracy, War, and Justice (Paradigm, 2006). John Cooley, Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism (Pluto, 1999, 2001). Alex George, ed., Western State Terrorism (Polity-Black-well, 1991).

In 1961, Chomsky was appointed full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics (now the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy) at MIT. From 1966 to 1976 he held the Ferrari P. Ward Professorship of Modern Languages and Linguistics. In 1976 he was appointed Institute Professor, a position he held until 2002. Chomsky is the author of numerous influential political works, including Hopes and Prospects (Haymarket Books) Interventions (City Lights/Open Media Series), Failed States (Metropolitan Books), Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance (Metropolitan Books), Media Control (Seven Stories Press/Open Media Series), Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media with Ed Herman (Pantheon), Necessary Illusions (South End Press), Understanding Power (New Press), and many other titles. In 1988, Chomsky received the Kyoto Prize in Basic Science, given “to honor those who have contributed significantly to the scientific, cultural, and spiritual development of mankind.”

pages: 566 words: 144,072

In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan by Seth G. Jones


business climate, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, failed state, friendly fire, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, open borders, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route

Khalilzad, then at the National Security Council and a close confidant of Strmecki, took the acceleration package for Afghanistan to the White House and helped push it forward. It evolved into a Power Point presentation of roughly thirty slides that set U.S. goals for Afghanistan. The document assumed that Afghanistan was a central front in America’s war against terrorism and, as Khalilzad prophetically warned, that a “lack of success—a renewed civil war, a narco-state, a successful Taliban insurgency, or a failed state—would undermine the Coalition’s efforts in the global war on terrorism and could stimulate an increase in Islamist militancy and terrorism.”12 The “accelerating success” concept was approved by the Deputies Committee of the National Security Council on June 18, by the Principals Committee on June 19, and by President Bush on June 20, 2003. Khalilzad then began to work on obtaining additional funding even before he became ambassador to Afghanistan.

But after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the increase in U.S. stability operations in Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo, DynCorp broadened its scope to police training and security protection. DynCorp was not alone. With military costs rising and an increased number of operations abroad, the U.S. government began to rely on a growing list of companies—including Military Professional Resources Incorporated (MPRI) and Blackwater—to provide such security functions as police training, protective security, convoy protection, border enforcement, and even drug eradication in failing states. For their mission in Afghanistan, DynCorp recruited retired U.S. police officers, as well as some active members of state and local police forces, to serve as the U.S. contingents of civilian police teams. From the beginning, senior U.S. military officials had worried that the INL program was not doing a good job of creating more competent Afghan police, and others were concerned that many of the DynCorp advisers had had little experience training police from a Third World tribal society such as Afghanistan.

Rudyard Kipling, Rudyard Kipling’s Verse: Inclusive Edition, 1885–1926 (New York: Doubleday, 1931), p. 479. 21. Winston S. Churchill, The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An Episode of Frontier War, 2nd ed. (London: Longmans, Green, 1901), p. 274. 22. Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 13; Barnett R. Rubin, The Search for Peace in Afghanistan: From Buffer State to Failed State (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995), p. 7; Lester Grau, ed., The Bear Went Over the Mountain: Soviet Combat Tactics in Afghanistan (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1996), p. xix. 23. Ann Scott Tyson, “British Troops, Taliban in a Tug of War over Afghan Province,” Washington Post, March 30, 2008, p. A1. 24. General Tommy Franks, American Soldier (New York: Regan Books, 2004), p. 324. 25.

pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna


Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Turkish companies, the master construction engineers of the region, are already speedily building both of Kurdistan’s international airports, as well as tunnels, overpasses, and ring roads, while the Kurdistan government protects oil flows to Turkey’s strategic port of Ceyhan. Though Turkey’s powerful military, amassed on Kurdistan’s northern border, still routinely crosses into Kurdistan to snuff out PKK activity, a sovereign Kurdistan would have greater responsibility to rein in such groups than the quasi-independent province of a failed state. The smuggling of fuel, tea, sugar, and drugs has for centuries linked the markets of Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan—with Kurdistan right in the middle. As Turkey’s trade with Iran and Syria grows, Kurdistan would happily continue to play its part as a commercial conduit servicing all four. The famed Hamilton Road along the magnificent Zagros Mountains, built by New Zealand engineer A.M.

And like South Korea, Australia, Thailand, and India, Malaysia quietly assures the United States that it is on the U.S. side while not doing anything to offend China, effectively recusing itself from their rivalry by pledging to remain neutral if “the elephants wrestle.” INDONESIA: LESS IS MORE Indonesia is perpetually under attack by both nature and man. It is prone to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, infectious diseases, financial crises, and ethnic strife—and it is powerless against all of them. It is not a failed state, but it is perpetually at risk of becoming one with the next seismic shift in the earth or in the markets. In early 2007, Jakarta seemed to all but disappear in a torrential flood that displaced much of its population, swept away thousands of homes, and caused mass illness. It is a miracle that Indonesia exists at all, and it will be a greater miracle if it survives in its present form. The Indonesian subsystem of islands is Southeast Asia’s shield to the outside world.

The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. New York: Harper Perennial, 1964. Chang, Gordon. The Coming Collapse of China. New York: Random House, 2001. Chase, Robert S., Emily Hill, and Paul M. Kennedy, eds. Pivotal States and U.S. Policy: A New Strategy for U.S. Policy in the Developing World. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999. Chomsky, Noam. Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006. Chua, Amy. World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability. New York: Doubleday, 2003. Clissold, Tim. Mr. China. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. Cohen, Benjamin J. The Geography of Money. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998. Cohen, Saul. Geography and Politics in a Divided World.

pages: 247 words: 62,845

VoIP Telephony with Asterisk by Unknown


call centre, Debian, failed state, framing effect, packet switching, telemarketer

TABLE: 13-2 Some SIP Image Versions for the 7960 Version File Name Release Notes 2.3 P0S30203.bin SipPhoneReleaseNotes.2.3.txt 3.2 P0S3-03-2-00.bin SipPhoneReleaseNotes.3.2.txt 4.4 P0S3-04-4-00.bin SipPhoneReleaseNotes.4.4.txt 5.3 SipPhoneReleaseNotes.5.3.txt 6.0 SipPhoneReleaseNotes.6.0.pdf Failure to Upgrade Here is an example of what the TFTP log entries can look like after a failure to upgrade to SIP, in this example to version 3.0 Wed Nov 06 11:58:51 2002: Sending 'OS79XX.TXT' file to10.1.1.1 in binary mod Wed Nov 06 11:58::51 2002: Successful Wed Nov 06 11:58:51 2002: Sending 'P0S30300.bin' file to10.1.1.1 in binary mod Wed Nov 06 11:58:52 2002: Failed ( State Error ) Wed Nov 06 11:59:00 2002: Sending 'P0S30300.bin' file to10.1.1.1 in binary mod Wed Nov 06 11:59:02 2002: Failed ( State Error ) Wed Nov 06 11:59:10 2002: Sending 'P0S30300.bin' file to10.1.1.1 in binary mod Wed Nov 06 11:59:13 2002: Failed ( State Error SIP Version 2.0 To convert or program a 7960 for version 2.0 SIP download the following files from the Cisco Web site. Copies of these file must be in theTFTP server directory with read and write permission for everyone. TABLE: 13-3 OS79XX.TXT SIPDefault.cnf SIPSIPmacaddress.cnf RINGLIST.DAT ringer1.pcm ringer2.pcm P0S30200.bin Connect the phone to the network, but don't power it on yet.

pages: 279 words: 72,659

Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians by Ilan Pappé, Noam Chomsky, Frank Barat


Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Islamic Golden Age, New Journalism, price stability, too big to fail

., Targeting Iran (San Francisco: City Lights, 2007), 112. Hassan Nasrallah has repeatedly expressed the same position. 65 For brief review of the record, and sources, see Failed States. See further Norman Finkelstein, Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict (London: Verso, 1996; new edition 2003). For a detailed critical analysis of Israel’s security strategy from the outset, revealing clearly the preference for expansion over security and diplomatic settlement, see Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006). 66 Ethan Bronner, “Gaza War Role Is Political Lift for Ex-Premier,” New York Times, January 8, 2009. 67 See Failed States, 193ff. 68 Gareth Porter, “Israel Rejected Hamas Ceasefire Offer in December,” Inter Press Service, January 9, 2009,

See also CIA; Democratic Party; Republican Party University and College Union University of Bogazici V Versailles W Wall Street Journal Walt, Stephen Waltz, Kenneth Walzer, Michael Washington Institute for Near East Policy Weissman, Keith Weizmann, Chaim White, Haden Wilson, Woodrow Wolfowitz, Paul World Bank World Court World Food Programme World Health Organization World Social Forum World Trade Center Y Ya’alon, Moshe Z Zaitun Zertal, Idith Zimbabwe Zipori Zochrot Zu’ubi, Hanin Zunes, Stephen ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS ILAN PAPPÉ is professor of history at the University of Exeter and is the author of The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, A History of Modern Palestine, and The Israel/Palestine Question. NOAM CHOMSKY is Institute Professor (Emeritus) of Linguistics and Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the author of numerous books, including the New York Times bestsellers Hegemony or Survival and Failed States, and Hopes and Prospects. FRANK BARAT is a human rights activist. He lives in London, UK. He is the coordinator of the Russell Tribunal on Palestine. He has written for the Electronic Intifada, CounterPunch, Zmagazine, the New Inter-nationalist , the Palestine Chronicle, State of Nature, and other Web sites and publications. ALSO FROM HAYMARKET BOOKS Between the Lines: Readings on Israel, the Palestinians, and the U.S.

pages: 264 words: 74,313

Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places by Paul Collier


dark matter, deskilling, failed state, moral hazard, out of africa, price stability, structural adjustment programs

Donors are also amazingly bad at enforcing their agreements with governments. So my own judgment is that donor conditionality on economic policies is not the explanation for policy improvement. I would put my money on learning from failure. I reali zed th at if th is critique of electoral competition was right it had huge implications. The whole modern approach to- 48 WARS, GUNS, AND VOTES ward failing states had been based on the premise that they would be rescued by democratic elections. The approach had seemed to be vindicated by the enthusiastic take-up of elections even in the most unpromising circumstances. Afghanistan, among the most backward societies on earth, was able to run an election within months of the expulsion of the Taliban. Iraq, about the most violence-torn place on earth, was able to conduct an election with quite a high turnout.

With Anke Hoeffler I worked on the causes of civil war, on arms races, and on 236 Acknowledgments what makes a country prone to coups d’état—potentially the most sellable work I have ever done, since it is the key fear of presidents in the countries I visit. Our work on coups ended up as a different kind of race: we managed to finish it in the days before Anke gave birth to her first child. I promptly found myself in the same race with Lisa Chauvet, with whom I have worked on elections, on the costs of failing states, and on why reform is so slow. With my female workforce on maternity leave, much of the work on which this book is based has been done with young men. Both Dominic Rohner and Benedikt Goderis left Cambridge to come and work with me. With Dominic I did the disturbing work on political violence in low-income democracies that underpins chapter 1. The work with Benedikt proved so astonishing that it will form my next book: that is why neither the commodity booms nor the impact of China feature here.

In The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960–2000, edited by Benno Ndulu, Steve O’Connell, Robert Bates, Paul Collier, and Chukwuma Soludo, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, 391–418. With Dominic Rohner “Democracy, Development and Conflict.” Journal of the European Economic Association 6, nos. 2–3 (2008): 531–540. With Christopher Adam and Victor Davies “Post-Conflict Monetary Reconstruction.” World Bank Economic Review 22 (2008): 87–112. With Lisa Chauvet “What Are the Preconditions for Policy Turnarounds in Failing States?” Conflict Management and Peace Science (2008). With Lisa Chauvet and Havard Hegre “The Security Challenge in Conflict-Prone Countries.” In Copenhagen Consensus, 2nd edition, edited by B. Lomberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Research on Which This Book Is Based 243 By other scholars Alberto Alesina and Eliana La Ferrara. “Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance.” Journal of Economic Literature 43, no. 3 (2005): 762–800.

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

These three categories of institutions may exist in different polities independently of one another, and in various combinations. Hence the People’s Republic of China has a strong and well-developed state but a weak rule of law and no democracy. Singapore has a rule of law in addition to a state but very limited democracy. Russia has democratic elections, a state that is good at suppressing dissidence but not so good at delivering services, and a weak rule of law. In many failed states, like Somalia, Haiti, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the early twenty-first century, the state and rule of law are weak or nonexistent, though the latter two have held democratic elections. By contrast, a politically developed liberal democracy includes all three sets of institutions—the state, rule of law, and procedural accountability—in some kind of balance. A state that is powerful without serious checks is a dictatorship; one that is weak and checked by a multitude of subordinate political forces is ineffective and often unstable.

Successful modernization depends, then, on the parallel development of political institutions alongside economic growth, social change, and ideas; it is not something that can be taken for granted as an inevitable concomitant of the other dimensions of development. Indeed, strong political institutions are often necessary to get economic growth going in the first place. It is precisely their absence that locks failed or fragile states into a cycle of conflict, violence, and poverty. The first and most important institution that fragile or failing states lack is an administratively capable government. Before a state can be constrained by either law or democracy, it needs to exist. This means, in the first instance, the establishment of a centralized executive and a bureaucracy. 3 BUREAUCRACY How study of the state is the study of bureaucracy; recent efforts to measure the quality of government; variance in the quality of government across countries and the need for a historical understanding of these outcomes For many people around the world, the central problem of contemporary politics is how to constrain powerful, overweening or, indeed, tyrannical governments.

As a consequence, much of the discussion of political development has centered in recent years on the institutions of constraint—the rule of law and democratic accountability. But before governments can be constrained, they have to generate the power to actually do things. States, in other words, have to be able to govern. The existence of states able to provide basic public services cannot be taken for granted. Indeed, part of the reason many countries are poor is precisely that they don’t have effective states. This is obvious in failed or failing states including Afghanistan, Haiti, and Somalia, where life is chaotic and insecure. But it is also true in many better-off societies with reasonably good democratic institutions. Take the case of India, which has been a remarkably successful democracy since its creation in 1947. In 1996, the activist and economist Jean Drèze produced a Public Report on Basic Education that surveyed the state of primary education in a number of Indian states.

pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill


air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

Airstrike Kills Somali Accused of Links to Al-Qaeda.” 226 bio of their slain leader: Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, “The Strategic Challenge of Somalia’s Al-Shabaab,” Middle East Quarterly (fall 2009), 226 “short-term disruption”: US diplomatic cable 08NAIROBI1363, from Ambassador Michael Ranneberger, US Embassy Nairobi, “Somalia—Ayrow’s Demise,” June 3, 2008, released by WikiLeaks, 226 agreement signed in Djibouti: United Nations Security Council Department of Public Information, “Security Council, in Presidential Statement, Welcomes Signing of Djibouti Agreement on Reconciliation by Parties to Somalia Conflict,” UN Security Council press release, September 4, 2008. 227 refused to discuss: Author interview, President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, June 2011. 227 “favorite puppet”: Abdirahman “Aynte” Ali, “The Anatomy of al Shabaab,” unpublished paper, June 2010, 227 indigenous diversity: Ibid., p. 28. 227 sense of empowerment: Ibid., p. 20. 228 diplomatic “visits”: International Crisis Group, “Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State,” Africa Report No. 147, December 23, 2008, p. 12. 228 lengthy negotiations: Ibid., pp. 12–13. 228 dismantling of roadblocks: Mark Bradbury, “State-Building, Counterterrorism, and Licensing Humanitarianism in Somalia,” briefing paper, Feinstein International Center, October 2010. 228 “a caricature”: International Crisis Group, “Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State,” p. 14. 228 reminiscent of the Taliban: Ibid. 228 “the only organization”: Committee on Foreign Relations, Al Qaeda in Yemen and Somalia: A Ticking Time Bomb, S. Prt. 111-40, p. 16 (2010). 228 “far more popular”: Ali, “The Anatomy of al Shabaab,” p. 37. 229 “Fight on, Champions”: Khaled Wassef (CNET), “Bin Laden Urges Somalis to ‘Fight On,’”, March 19, 2009. 23: “If Your Son Does Not Come to Us, He Will Be Killed by the Americans” 230 discovered a US spy drone: US diplomatic cable 07SANAA473, from Chargé d’Affaires Nabeel Khoury, US Embassy Sana’a, “Unmanned USG Aircraft Washes Ashore, Official Media Reports Downed Iranian ‘Spy Plane,’” April 2, 2007, released by WikiLeaks,

Now, though, thanks in large part to a backlash against US policy, al Shabab’s ranks were growing and its territory expanding. Sheikh Sharif officially assumed the presidency in Somalia the same month Obama was sworn in, but Sharif could barely lay claim to being the mayor of Mogadishu. He loosely governed a small slice of territory in the capital—with the authority of a city council member surrounded by far more powerful enemies who wanted to kill him. “The idea that Somalia is just a failed state somewhere over there, where people are fighting with one another over heaven knows what, is a construct that we adopt at our peril,” declared Hillary Clinton during her Senate confirmation hearing to become secretary of state. “The internal conflict within the groups in Somalia is just as intense as it’s ever been, only now we have the added ingredient of al-Qaida and terrorists who are looking to take advantage of the chaos.”

Although the speech was focused on the coming surge of US troops in Afghanistan, the president hinted at the ongoing and broadening asymmetric wars his administration was waging behind the scenes. “The struggle against violent extremism will not be finished quickly, and it extends well beyond Afghanistan and Pakistan,” Obama declared. “It will be an enduring test of our free society, and our leadership in the world. And unlike the great power conflicts and clear lines of division that defined the 20th century, our effort will involve disorderly regions, failed states, diffuse enemies.” He added: “We’ll have to be nimble and precise in our use of military power. Where al Qaeda and its allies attempt to establish a foothold—whether in Somalia or Yemen or elsewhere—they must be confronted by growing pressure and strong partnerships.” A week after his West Point speech, President Obama accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway. His remarks would win praise from hawkish Republicans for his forceful defense of the projection of US power across the globe and for his assertion that the wars America was waging were “just wars.”

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The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security by Deborah D. Avant


barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, failed state, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rolodex, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, trade route, transaction costs

Introduction 31 contracting. 80 Concomitant with the increase in supply was an increase in the demand for military skills on the private market – from western states that had downsized their militaries, from countries seeking to upgrade and westernize their militaries as a way of demonstrating credentials for entry into western institutions, from rulers of weak or failed states no longer propped up by superpower patrons, and from non-state actors such as private firms, INGOs, and groups of citizens in the territories of weak or failed states. There are those who assume that the turn to PSCs was the obvious, natural, and functional response to the material changes technology brought to warfare and the shift in the balance of power after the Cold War. 81 Arguments about the future of defense in the US illustrate this thinking. The United States, as the sole remaining superpower, must accomplish a variety of international ends.

A transnational market for military and security services Private security companies provide military and security services to states, international organizations, INGOs, global corporations, and wealthy individuals. Every multi-lateral peace operation conducted by the UN since 1990 included the presence of PSCs. States that contracted for military services ranged from highly capable states like the US to failing states like Sierra Leone. Meanwhile, global corporations 8 The Market for Force hired PSCs to provide site security and planning, and INGOs working in conflict zones or unstable territories did the same. Since the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States, the war on terrorism has offered even greater opportunities for the private security industry. This is evident not only in Iraq – where PSCs are the second largest member of the “coalition of the willing” – but also in the growing presence of PSCs in the new jobs that accompany the war on terrorism, interrogators and interpreters, for instance.20 The number of private security providers burgeoned during the 1990s.

Civil unrest became a much more common occurrence on the African continent in the first years of the post-Cold War as the strategic interest (from both the west and the east) in Africa evaporated. The supply of foreign and military aid dried up, leaving governments even more cash starved than they had been during the Cold War. Other events in the 1990s such as drought and famine intensified governance problems, resulting in a stream of revolutions, civil insurrections, ethnic strife, and failed states. The World Bank estimates that per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) declined by more than 40 percent between 1965 and 1997 in Democratic Republic of Congo. The civil war began in the fall of 1996. For details on its outbreak see William Thom, “Congo-Zaire’s 1996–1997 Civil War in the Context of Evolving Patterns of Military Conflict in Africa in the Era of Independ- ence,” Journal of Conflict Studies Vol. 19, No. 2 (fall 1999). 138 See Thom, “Congo-Zaire’s 1996–1997 Civil War”; Khareen Pech, “The Hand of War,” in Abdel-Fatau Musah and J.

pages: 487 words: 147,891

McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny


anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile

It is hard to imagine a family less likely to be involved in a political mafia killing from the former Soviet Union. But one of the officers involved in the Utsiev brothers’ case pointed out at the time, “We were suddenly dealing with crime and politics from a part of the world that, to be honest, none of us in the Metropolitan or Surrey police had ever heard of. We knew nothing about the wars, about the crime, and about the politics—we were frankly all at sea.” It was 1994, and the failing state, an unknown concept to most, was visiting Britain for the first time. The post–World War II order began to crumble in the first half of the 1980s. Its dissolution followed no obvious pattern, occurring instead as a series of seemingly disparate events: the spectacular rise of the Japanese car industry; Communist Hungary’s clandestine approach to the International Monetary Fund to explore a possible application for membership; the stagnation of India’s economy; President F.

This was the New Silk Route, a multilane criminal highway that linked the belt with other troubled regions such as Afghanistan and which permitted the swift and easy transfer of people, narcotics, cash, endangered species, and precious hardwood from Asia to Europe and farther to the United States. This clutch of uncertain new states on the southern periphery of the former Russian empire was born as the pace of globalization accelerated. Countries in Western Europe and the Mediterranean proved a powerful magnet for those scrambling to seize power along the New Silk Route. Money translated directly into political power and vice versa. And so those harboring ambition in the failing states needed the New Silk Route for three related transactions: to transfer cash to the sanctity of Western banks and real estate; to sell illicit goods and services into the European Union, the United States, and eastward to Japan; and to buy and sell arms within the former Soviet Union and to export them into the world’s trouble spots. “In ’93–’94 I started working in law enforcement, knowing that globalization was beginning to have an impact on a whole range of issues,” said Jon Winer in his plush office a couple of blocks from the White House.

The architect of the Clinton administration’s organized crime strategy, Winer had spotted these new developments earlier than most. “The paradigm was El Salvador. After the war, people decided to use their arms caches to make money in criminal gangs. And then we saw that the right-wing paramilitaries and left-wing guerrillas began working together! Burglary, carjacking plus kidnapping, car theft…” Winer had stumbled across something that still plagues peace initiatives aiming to stop wars that engulf failed states. When diplomats succeed in bringing the fighting to a halt, they are confronted with a wrecked local economy and a society dominated by testosterone-driven young men who are suddenly unemployed but have grown accustomed to their omnipotence. If you want lasting stability, you have to find useful jobs to occupy them. Otherwise these people find the temptation to retrain themselves as organized criminal units irresistible.

pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

Needless to say, it was rejected. Chalmers placed Haiti’s dilemma in a global context. “We are unable to develop our own models of development and have to get international funding for the neoliberal agenda,” he told me. “It’s a way to show capitalism that we’re willing to work with you, but you’re actually destroying our own economy and agriculture.” Chalmers continued: “Haiti is one of the countries they call a ‘failed state.’ Since 1915, it’s been about how Haiti will please the United States, but there are alternatives to industrial parks. If you invest in agriculture and farming, you’ll have much better and more sustainable results. There is a finite number of people who can work in industrial parks, but millions of jobs are required. For example, we have over 168 species of mangoes in Haiti, but we don’t have the industry that can work on it.

However, since its independence, there had been little development of an understanding of PNG, which was mostly characterized as a poor nation teetering on the edge of collapse despite its abundance of natural resources—a state reliant on outside help and plagued by institutional corruption. Australia’s dumping of asylum seekers on PNG’s poor Manus Island, with justified local anger, strengthened the foreign narrative of a failed state. The new nation’s first prime minister, Michael Somare, was fondly remembered by some young locals as the man who commenced negotiations with Australian prime minister Gough Whitlam in the early 1970s to begin the decolonization process. But he was mostly seen as having delivered few long-lasting projects that had assisted all inhabitants of PNG. He was certainly unpopular in Bougainville, viewed as having contributed to many alleged corrupt, business-as-usual practices that now blighted the state.

The minister for petroleum and energy, William Duma, said that this was “a demonstration of the trust and confidence multinationals around the globe have for PNG … We as a country stand to gain more and we can’t go wrong.”49 Prime Minister Peter O’Neill, officiating at the opening of a Shell office in the capital in February 2012, reassured foreign investors that “despite the perception of political instability, unlike many other countries of the world, PNG has been able to maintain the confidence of the business community.”50 But the governor of PNG’s Gulf Province, Havila Kavo, voiced his concerns, asking why Shell was being welcomed back to the nation after the company had described PNG as a “failed state” a decade earlier. “They [Shell] ripped off the country and left,” he said. “What infrastructure have they left and what positive development have they left before departing? Such companies have no confidence in the country.”51 It seemed that Shell had decided to retract its previously held views in order to participate in PNG’s developing gas industry.52 It was rare that a poor country could resist the charms of a multinational offering substantial investment within its borders.

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim


additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

In the latter year, more than $4 trillion changed hands across international borders daily.18 The ability to move information around has vastly expanded as well. How many people do you know who don’t own a cellphone? Very few. This answer holds true even in the poorest and most dysfunctional nations. “Somali Mobile Phone Firms Thrive Despite Chaos” was the headline of a 2009 Reuters dispatch from that ravaged country. 19 Somalia epitomizes the concept of “failed states,” societies in which citizens lack access to basic services that most of us take for granted. Yet, even there, twenty-first-century mobile telephony is widely available. The expansion of mobile telephony is as surprising for its speed as for its novelty. In 1990, the number of mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people worldwide was 0.2. By 2010 it had exploded to more than 78 subscribers for every 100 persons.20 The International Telecommunications Union reports that in 2012 subscriptions to mobile telephony exceeded the 6 billion mark—equivalent to an astonishing 87 percent of the world’s population.21 And then, of course, there is the Internet.

Even in a world with new rivals and multiple poles of influence—a “post-American world,” as Fareed Zakaria has put it—the United States enjoys unique advantages that reinforce, not diminish, its power.19 Still others fear that changes in the global economy and the way we live have been so radical that neither hegemony nor global rules are even possible anymore. They fear that a form of anarchy—the primeval state of the world system—is once again taking hold. As early as 1994, Robert Kaplan saw anarchy emerging from failed states and ethnic rivalries, the rise of unchecked terrorist and criminal networks, and the vulnerability of an interconnected world to the spread of disease and other catastrophes. An even more dire view is that of political scientist Randall Schweller, who compares changes under way in the world system to the 122 onset, in physics, of the state of entropy, when a system becomes so disorganized that it changes nature in a way that is impossible to reverse.

Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, “Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals,” October 2006. 6. Edir Macedo, quoted in Tom Phillips, “Solomon’s Temple in Brazil Would Put Christ the Redeemer in the Shade,” Guardian, July 21, 2010. 7. Alexei Barrionuevo, “Fight Nights and Reggae Pack Brazilian Churches,” New York Times, September 15, 2009. 8. Richard Cimino, “Nigeria: Pentecostal Boom—Healing or Reflecting a Failing State?” Religion Watch, March 1, 2010. 9. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, “Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population,” December 2011. 10. Ibid. 11. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, “Faith on the Move: The Religious Affiliation of International Migrants,” March 2012. 12. Larry Rohter, “As Pope Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists,” New York Times, May 7, 2007. 13.

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The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World by Jay Bahadur


collective bargaining, failed state, private military company, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning

I asked Boyah why the Americans had let them escape once they had left the safety of their hostages on board the Nori. “Because that was the agreement,” Boyah said. But I already knew the real reason, at least from the US point of view: the Americans would not have known what to do with Boyah and his men if they had captured them. According to international law—to the extent that international law has any meaning in an utterly failed state—the Americans were not even supposed to be in Somali territorial waters. Their hands were tied, and they let the pirates go. The Golden Nori was one of the first major commercial vessels hijacked in the Gulf of Aden, before the international community had truly become cognizant of the problem. During this period, foreign navies tended to give pirates a slap on the wrist: their weapons and boats were impounded or destroyed, and they were released.

In some nations, such as the United Kingdom, arrested pirates would even be within their rights to claim asylum (the UK Foreign Office has voiced concerns that the pirates may face the Islamic punishments of beheading or amputation should they be returned to Somalia).1 Although in rare instances national pride has prevailed over fiscal sense—Boyah’s six unfortunate compatriots, for instance, as well as five pirates turned over to Dutch courts by the Danish navy in January 2009—prosecuting pirates through Western institutions is not a feasible long-term solution. So labyrinthine is the legal maze that many foreign navies have opted simply to release suspects after confiscating their weapons and destroying their ships, thereby drawing attacks from media outlets. Such criticism is not entirely fair. Pirates operating out of a failed state are unprecedented in modern times, and the existing international legal machinery is simply not suited to handle them. International law, fortunately, is continually being reinvented as needs dictate, and in no case is this fact better demonstrated than in the legal dilemma posed by the Somali pirates. * * * Since ancient Rome, pirates have been labelled as hostis humani generis—“enemies of all mankind”—and piracy has been considered a crime of universal jurisdiction, giving states the right to arrest and prosecute suspected offenders outside national boundaries, such as the high seas.

The resolution decreed that states authorized by Somalia’s figurehead Transitional Federal Government (TFG)—a collection of former warlords and self-styled moderate Islamists controlling a few checkpoints in Mogadishu—would be allowed, for a period of six months, to enter the territorial waters of Somalia and use “all necessary means” to repress acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea.3 The token permission of the TFG was allegedly granted through a letter delivered to the Security Council by the UN permanent representative to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdullah, though this mysterious document was never made public.4 In reality, Resolution 1816 merely legitimized the status quo, wherein foreign navies routinely violated Somali waters when necessity demanded (on occasion, states have sought the TFG’s explicit permission, as when French forces pursued Boyah’s gang inland following the Le Ponant hijacking). Six months later, Resolution 1851 went as far as to authorize the use of ground forces on Somali soil; not surprisingly, no country has volunteered its troops. In a world without failed states, any Somali caught in the act of piracy—whether in international or Somali national waters—would be handed over to the government of Somalia for prosecution. As noted in earlier chapters, many piracy suspects are turned over to the government of Puntland, and occasionally that of Somaliland. Yet, for just cause, international actors doubt the will and capacity of these makeshift governments to seriously prosecute the offenders; furthermore, there is the problem of what to do with suspects originating from southern Somalia, who would undoubtedly go free if returned home.

pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George


Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning

For now, he was working for EU-NAVFOR despite belonging to the Royal Air Force, and his job was to talk piracy and counter-piracy. He had a talent for it. Even before we reached his office, he had told me that once he was in the shower when his wife shouted up. ‘Paddy, there’s someone on the phone, he says he’s a pirate?’ They phoned him all the time, because the spokesperson’s number is on the EU-NAVFOR website, and although Somali pirates come from a failed state, they still have smartphones and internet cafés. Pirates can Google. They are known to read up on their crews and hostages, so it becomes dangerous for any information – a family photo of a captain standing in front of a decent house, for example – to be accessible online. A decent house could mean pirates push for a high ransom. Any excuse for a higher ransom. The wing commander’s desk was in a large open-plan office, but he spent much of his time in the operations room, where lines of Finnish, Italian, German and other European military spend hours in front of a giant screen that displays Mercury, an information-sharing programme used by EU-NAVFOR, other coalitions and other interested parties.

On MV Arillah-1, seafarers endured 30 hours inside their citadel while pirates burned ropes and wood near the ventilation grilles of the citadel, trying to choke them out or to death. At his desk, which held a copy of Pirate Latitudes by Michael Crichton – a Christmas present from his wife, still unread in March – Paddy said, OK, everyone knows the general situation in Somalia. Or they have watched Black Hawk Down, which they think amounts to the same thing. War, chaos, failed state. No meaningful government since 1991. By 2011, the Transitional Federal Government was nominally governing the country, but only as President Hamid Karzai – nicknamed the Mayor of Kabul – was ruling Afghanistan: partly, and with backup. On the TFG’s side was the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), an African Union peacekeeping force that also wages war; and on the other side was Al-Shabab, Somalia’s group of native terrorists, affiliated with Al-Qaeda though without its global ambition.

For Robert Young Pelton, who ran the Somalia Report news agency, pirates emerged originally from the Puntland coastguard. When the national government fell, the coastguard turned pirate ‘in about a day’. A London-based Somalia expert told me modern pirates had never been fishermen or coastguards. He thought they came from inland criminal gangs. It was a protection racket. Mombasa-based Somalis were anyway in the habit of selling illegal fishing licences to foreign operators. You can do that in a failed state when foreigners used to a rule of law know no different. The foreigners, he said, would come and start fishing, ‘and the [Somalis] would make their presence known’. He meant that they demanded money. ‘Then they realized they could make more by pinching the ship.’ Thus the template was formed. ‘We would get a report of a vessel seized, journalists would ring up fishermen and get quotes about foreigners raping the seas and [were told] that Somali fishermen were furious.

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50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson


23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

One way of solving these problems is to develop new forms of genetically engineered biofuels (algae that produce basic hydrocarbons including octane, for example), but so far these ideas mostly exist in research laboratories rather than inside your gas tank. Nevertheless, expect to see next-generation biofuel “factories” both in marine environments and on land. Californification According to some observers, California is a failed state. It is dysfunctional. Its budget is bust. Its schools are failing. It has gridlocked traffic, failing infrastructure and overcrowded prisons. It’s short of water too. All of this is true. But looking at things differently, California is a model for the future, not only for America, but also for the global economy. Economically, demographically, culturally and technologically, California is on the cutting edge.

the condensed idea Reinventing our wheels timeline 1769 First self-propelled mechanical vehicle 1885 Karl Benz invents the modern motorcar 1960s Personal jetpack technology becomes a reality 2004 China unveils a high-speed magnetic levitation train 2016 35 percent of cars now hybrids 2022 Self-driving cars start to appear in China and India 2039 High-speed rail networks link Europe with North Africa 2036 Solar-powered planes widely used in Africa and Australia 15 Extra-legal & feral slums According to a UN estimate, 1 in 7 people worldwide now live in slums and in many cases these slums, which are not regulated or sanctioned by law, are set to become major cities in the near future. Meanwhile, some urban areas have become so lawless that authorities have all but given up on removing criminal gangs and have fallen back on a policy of geographical containment instead. There has been a lot of comment and concern about failed states and feral children of late, so it should come as no surprise that feral cities are set to become a future threat to organized society and civil order. “If the young men are not initiated into the village, they will burn it down just to feel its warmth.” African proverb An article by Peter Liotta and James Miskel in World Policy Journal (US), for instance, makes the point that Mogadishu, in Somalia, could be the model for future cities in many parts of the world in the sense of creating a series of “nontraditional” security threats.

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The Wars of Afghanistan by Peter Tomsen


airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

., “New Evidence on the War in Afghanistan,” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Cold War International History Project Bulletin, no. 14/15 (2003—2004): 226—227, 23 Steve Coll, The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (New York: Penguin, 2004), 210. 24 Islamabad 15754, “Afghanistan—Internal Situation,” July 22, 1989, secret/ NODIS, declassified. 25 Ibid. 26 See “The Fund for Peace: Promoting Sustainable Security. Failed States Index 2009,”; “Pakistan Recovers in Failed States Index,” June 29, 2009, By June 2009, Pakistan ranked tenth from the bottom in the Failed States Index, between Guinea and Ivory Coast. 27 U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency, “Mohammad Najib Replaces Babrak Karmal,” unclassified, 88-DIA-0435-88-5F. 28 “Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with President of Afghanistan, General Secretary of the CC PDPA Najibullah, Tashkent, 7 April 1988,” Gorbachev Foundation, Moscow, provided by Anatoly Chernyaev, translated by Gary Goldberg, in Ostermann, ed., “New Evidence on the War in Afghanistan,” 178. 29 A.

Pakistan’s hopeless venture to place Hekmatyar and later the Taliban in Kabul would inflict many more years of inconclusive, bloody warfare on Afghanistan. The continuing Afghan war would also harm Pakistan. An ongoing refugee burden; the blowback of Islamic terrorism, violence, and lawlessness; “the Kalashnikov culture” of guns and violence; narcotics; and international estrangement would push Pakistan lower and lower on the Failed States Index, a list compiled by the Fund for Peace based on twelve indicators of risk.26 In June 2009, Pakistan ranked tenth from the bottom, between Guinea and Ivory Coast. The Soviet Union’s decision to continue propping up the Najib regime after its withdrawal was also a poor investment. The resources wasted in Afghanistan by the USSR between 1989 and the end of 1991, when the Soviet Union finally collapsed, were desperately needed at home.

Eikenberry, Karl W. Eisenhower administration Election Complaints Commission (ECC) Elphinstone, William Emad, Nurullah Encapsulation strategy Energy pipelines, issue of Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act Enlightenment, the Etemadi, Nur Ahmad Ethnic groups See also specific ethnic groups European imperialism, expansion of European Union Fahd al-Saud, King Fahim, Mohammad Failed States Index Faisal al-Saud, King Farid, Ustad Fedotov, Vladimir Finn, Robert Flatin, Bruce Foreign Assistance Act Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs), list of (fig.) Fragmentation, avoiding France Franks, Tommy Freeman, Charles French Revolution Friendship treaties Funding oversight, providing Gailani, Hamed Gailani, Salman Gailani, Sayyid Ahmad (table) Gall, Sandy Gamiat Islamiya (extremist group) Gandamak Treaty Gandhi, Indira Gankowskiy, Yuriy Gates, Robert Gaugamela, Battle of Gender issues.

pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer


agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis,, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

The CIA today counts some fifty countries that have “stateless zones,” where the local government has lost all effectiveness or simply given up. Falling behind in the new world of technology could make it harder for these zones to come back, as well as potentially add to their number. Describes one U.S.-government-funded report, “Extreme losers in the information revolution could become ‘failed states.’ Such failed states could become breeding grounds for terrorists, who could threaten vital U.S. interests.” A government’s inability to control its territory and provide what its people want or need then opens up a vacuum. And politics, like nature, abhors a vacuum. Warrior groups move into such vacuums and seize local control, a scenario played out again and again with groups like the Taliban, Hezbollah, Hamas, and the Tamil Tigers.

Much of war is no longer battles between equally matched state armies in open fields, but rather “irregular warfare,” that amalgam of counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, peace, stability, and support operations. None of these, as professor of strategy Jeffrey Record notes, “are part of the traditional U.S. military repertoire of capabilities.” (Record made this argument in the U.S. Army’s journal, in an article titled “Why the Strong Lose.”) Whether in Iraq, Afghanistan, or some future failed state, it is reasonable to predict that the U.S. military will find itself embroiled in a fair number of insurgencies in the years ahead. As Army War College expert Steven Metz writes, “During the Cold War, insurgent success in China, Vietnam, Algeria, and Cuba spawned emulators. While not all of them succeeded, they did try. That is likely to happen again. By failing to prepare for counterinsurgency in Iraq and by failing to avoid it, the United States has increased the chances of facing it again in the near future.”

As retired major general Barry McCaffrey describes, Peters is “simply one of the most creative and stimulating writers on national security we have produced in the post-WWII era.” Peters is also quite a force in the field of fiction, having written eight political thrillers. His first novel was a cold war spy story set in the former West Germany. His subsequent novels have gone on to include more contemporary settings of terrorism and failed states, and he’s built up quite a sizable fan base among military readers. As if this wasn’t enough, Peters also writes a series of historical detective novels set in the Civil War under the pseudonym Owen Parry. It is perhaps because of this breadth of experience, analysis, and imagination that Peters is an apt resource for understanding where war, and its future causes, is headed, and not just because his latest book is titled Wars of Blood and Faith: The Conflicts That Will Shape the Twenty-first Century.

pages: 335 words: 82,528

A Theory of the Drone by Gregoire Chamayou


failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, moral hazard, Necker cube, private military company, RAND corporation, telepresence, V2 rocket, Yom Kippur War

As the theorists of manhunting remind us, “borders are among the greatest allies” that a fugitive can have.2 Out in the countryside, English common law used to authorize “the hunting of ravenous prey, such as badgers and foxes, in another man’s land, because destroying such creatures is said to be profitable to the Public.”3 That is the kind of right that the United States today would like to claim in the case of human prey worldwide.4 As Paul Wolfowitz has put it, we need “to deny them sanctuaries.”5 What is emerging is the idea of an invasive power based not so much on the rights of conquest as on the rights of pursuit: a right of universal intrusion or encroachment that would authorize charging after the prey wherever it found refuge, thereby trampling underfoot the principal of territorial integrity classically attached to state sovereignty. According to such a concept, the sovereignty of other states becomes a contingent matter. Full enjoyment of that sovereignty is recognized only if those states take imperial tracking to heart. If they do not—“failed” states cannot, “rogue” states will not—their territories can legitimately be violated by a hunter-state. The drone counters the terrestrial forms of territorial sovereignty, founded upon the enclosure of land, with the continuity of the air above. In doing so, it extends the great historical promises of aerial power. As Douhet puts it, the aerial weapon, unaffected by harsh landscapes, “moves freely through a third dimension.”6 It draws its own lines in the sky.

See distinction dishonor, 98–99 distance, 255n13 killing and, 115–16 tele-technologies and, 247–54n8 See also proximity distinction, 137–38, 162, 169, 198, 199 between civilians and combatants, 261–62n2 between combatants and noncombatants, 142–47 between weapons and combatants, 210 Doctrine of Right (Kant), 196–97 Dos Gringos, 99 Dougherty, Norma Jeane, 25, 26 Douhet, Giulio, 52, 53 Dresden, 140, 141 drone cameras, 247n1 drone operators, 92, 102 ability to discriminate among targets, 137–38, 142–47 awarding of military medals to, 102 compartmentalization and, 120–21, 123–24 courage and, 103 empathy and, 108 feeling of duality and, 120–21 guilt felt by, 109–10, 113 insensitivity of, 107–8, 113 invisibility of, 118 invulnerability of, 130 as mirror image of suicide bombers, 89 ocular proximity and, 255–56n22 perceptual proximity and, 117–18 physical distance and, 115–18, 138–39, 156, 255–56n22, 262n10 psychic vulnerability of, 104–5, 106–13 PTSD and, 103, 106–13 references to video games by, 107–8 sensitivity of, 108, 113 soldiers’ scorn for, 106–7 stress and, 103, 106–13 suffering of, 106–13 transition from war to peace and, 119–20 traumas of, 106–13 drones amateur, 78 among other modes of war, 231n14 as analogous to bulletproof vests, 169–70 characteristics of, 16 comparison to video games, 107–8 costs of, 13–14, 188–89, 231n14, 232–33n5 as counterproductive, 190 definition of, 11 demilitarization of, 78 development of, 231n14 difference from cruise missiles, 232n3 domestic market for, 203 economics of, 232–33n5 effects of, 44–45, 117 as ethical precision devices, 140–49 as eye of God, 37–38 genealogy of, 16 homemade, 78 human, 78–79 as humanitarian weapons, 17 kamikazes and, 83–89 kinds of, 11 law enforcement and (see also law enforcement), 168–69 as low-cost, 77–78 origin of, 16 outfitted with non-lethal weapons, 203 politico-strategic vulnerabilities of, 75–76 populations subjected to (see also civilians; collateral damage), 44–45 precision of, 56–57 psychopathologies of the, 106–13 relaunch of American production in the 1980s, 28 as revolution in sighting, 38 self-preservation and (see also self-preservation), 84 surveillance and, 235n21 technical and budgetary barriers to development of, 231n14 technical vulnerabilities of, 75–76 as technology substituting for strategy, 65–66 use of, 13–14 use of the word “drone,” 26 as virtuous, 100–101 vulnerabilities of, 73–79 as weapons of postcolonial violence, 94–95 See also specific kinds of drones drone-states, 15, 18 drone strikes as counterproductive, 70–71 international law and, 167–73 law enforcement and, 168, 171 legal framework for, 167–73 personal, 47 dronization, 100, 181, 184, 188–89, 194, 214–15, 221 Dunlap, Charles, 62, 70 duty, 199 dystopias, 213 economic decision-making theory, 188–89, 190–91 effects-based operations, 34 Egypt, 27 Ehrenreich, Barbara, 193–94 electronic communications, interpretation of, 41 Ellis, Al, 28 El-Sarraj, Eyad, 88 Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 129–30, 260n7 emasculation, 100 emotional involvement, 254–55n12 See also empathy; specific emotions empathy, 108, 261n15, 273–74n31 enemies, 15, 114 body as battlefield, 56–58 conceptions of, 68–69 dispensability of, 155 figurative reduction of, 114, 119 as guilty party, 160 inaccessibility of, 52–53 as node in a social network, 34 recognition of, 144–45 right to kill, 198 right to life of, 198 subjectlessness of, 206 See also combatants Engels, Friedrich, 221 English common law, 53 ESPN, 40 ethics, 189, 261n15 drones as ethical precision devices, 140–49 See also military ethics; military ethos; morality; necroethics Etzioni, Amitai, 190–91, 200 euphemization, 147–48 Everett, Bart, 83 evil, 68, 69 cumulativeness of lesser evils, 190 logic of the lesser evil, 139, 146 execution, 35, 62, 103–4, 169, 255n17 See also assassination explosions, perimeter of, 141 Exum, Andrew McDonald, 64 Eyeborgs, 44 “The eye of God” (Horapollo), 36, 37 F-16 planes, 29 failed states, 53 Farocki, Harun, 114, 247n1, 247n2 fascism, robots and, 205 fear, 242–43n1 See also emotional involvement Federal Aviation Administration, 203 fighter pilots, 99, 115, 214 resistance to dronization, 100 fighter planes, dronization of, 214 fighting. See combat filming, 39–41 fog of war, 16, 216 Formica, Richard P., 55 Foucault, Michel, 43–44, 268n1 France, 65, 268n7 Franks, Tommy, 216 French Revolution, 268n7 Freud, Sigmund, 106, 112, 246n19, 246n20 Friedman, Benjamin, 191 Frigga, 73 fronts, 33 Fukuyama, Francis, 78 Fuller, John, 242–43n1 Galula, David, 66, 67 Gaza, 88, 130–32 General Atomics, 28–29 geography, 239n31 analysis of, 49 combat and, 52 hunting and, 52 political, 52–53, 54 targeted assassination and, 239n31 See also space geospatial analysis, 48 Gernsback, Hugo, 220 global war against terror, 52 Glubb, John Bagot, 62 Gorgon, 43, 44 Gorgon Stare, 43, 236n27 GPS data, 41, 76 Graham, Stephen, 54 Great Britain, 187 “air control” methods used in Pakistan, 65 See also Royal Air Force (RAF) Gregory, Derek, 42, 43, 57 Grossman, Dave, 118, 246n19 On Killing, 115–16, 116 Grotius, 158–59, 263n4 ground force commanders, 2 The Guardian, 136–37 guerrilla warfare, 60, 61–62, 264–66n17 as political, 66–67 See also counterinsurgency Guevara, Ernesto “Che,” 60, 66 guilt of enemy targets, 146, 160 felt by drone operators, 109–10, 113 Gusterson, Hugh, 88, 89 Gyges, 96, 97, 123–24 Hägerstrand, Torsten, 42 Haijazi, Maulvi Abdullah, 62 Hammond, Jeremy, 189–90 hardware, 212 Harvey, Adam, 204 Hawkins, Jeff, 135 “hearts and minds,” conquering of, 67, 70–71 Hegel, G.W.F., 98, 180, 181, 195–96, 205–6, 254–55n12 Hellfire AGM-114C, 29 heroism, 86–88, 97–98, 100, 101, 103 Hersh, Seymour, 32, 196 Hershey, Burnet, 231–32n4 Hezbollah, 75 Hiroshima, 140 history, Hegel’s philosophy of, 205–6 history, philosophy of, 205–6 Hitler, Adolf, 205 Hobbes, Thomas, 178, 268n5 Leviathan, 218, 219 Hobson, 188 Hobson, J.A., 187 homicide.

Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men

But then other rebels arose to fight these new rulers, starting a conflict that continues to fester at the time of this book’s writing. 115 CH A PTER F I VE Neighboring countries—Angola, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe—sent their troops to Congo with designs on its vast mineral wealth. Neither are we in the world’s rich countries immune to the global aftershocks of civil war, which can emerge in terrifying ways. Failed states can provide a lawless sanctuary for international organized crime and terrorist groups that profit from the illicit trades in arms, drugs, and rare minerals, like diamonds. Conflict zones in Afghanistan and Colombia serve as bases for major international drug narcotraficantes. Al-Qaeda operatives set up shop in Sudan and Sierra Leone during the 1990s and more recently in Somalia. States destroyed by terror and violence beget further suffering.

RCPS is an economically sensible means of providing a bridge to a more stable political environment, and can help create the conditions where Africans themselves want to invest in their own countries’ futures. Violence in all its forms—from witch killing to warfare—is partially a product of Africa’s economic desperation and volatility. Once they get started, civil conflicts can last for many years, even decades. They’ve claimed millions of lives and created failed-state havens for international criminals and terrorists. The civil wars in Liberia and Congo became cancers for whole regions. And witch killings—just one poignant illustration of violent crime borne of economic hardship—show no sign of disappearing in Tanzania. Before picking up the pieces from another humanitarian catastrophe, or burying another elderly “witch,” why not try to use some basic economics to stop the violence before it starts?

pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham


airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight

If gated communities and rent-a-cops were enough, September 11 never would have happened.70 The supposed social pathologies, unconstrained sexualities and ‘weak ego structures’ deemed by neoconservative social critics to lie at the root of the problems in US cities are identical to the supposed traits of the essentialized ‘Arab mind’ conjured by neoconservatives and senior military officials during the War on Terror.71 Thus, a wide range of comparable depictions demonize the core cities of the US and cast the growing cities of the global South as the intrinsically anarchic, threatening Other.72 Neoconservative writers present booming cities as the central motors of the ‘coming anarchy’73 of the post–Cold War world – essentially feral places which breed lawlessness, drug abuse, crime, brutal turf wars, and security risks for the rest of the world. The obsession with ‘failed states’ as the key security threats to US interests is, in fact, morphing into a concern with ‘failed’ cities – burgeoning urban concentrations apparently unconnected to the supposed benefits of neoliberal globalization.74 ‘Imagine a great metropolis covering hundreds of square miles’, writes Richard Norton in an influential 2003 article in Naval War College Review. ‘Once a vital component in a national economy, this sprawling urban environment is now a vast collection of blighted buildings, an immense Petridish of both ancient and new diseases, a territory where the rule of law has long been replaced by near anarchy in which the only security available is that which is attained through brute power.’

Within the urban environment, it is not the weapon itself but rather the city which maximises or mutes an arm’s effectiveness. In claustrophobic alleys and urban canyons, civilians are impossible to control or characterise as friendly or not. Weapons hidden beneath a cloak, in a child’s carriage, or rolled in a carpet, can get past security personnel undetected.17 The second main feature of the urban-turn discourse shifts the focus from the national scale – the challenges presented by ‘failed states’ – to the urban scale, the military and political challenges of well-armed insurgent groups hiding within, and controlling, fast-growing urban areas. An important element is US military commentator Richard J. Norton’s influential concept of ‘feral cities’ – highly disorderly urban areas in the global South which are controlled by violent non-state militias of various sorts.18 Some protagonists in this debate argue that the breakdown of high-tech sensors and weapons, caused by the ‘clutter of concealment’ provided by cities, is leading directly to an increased tendency among US political adversaries to take refuge within cities (Figure 5.3).

‘Comparing the Israeli and American alternative legalities’, she writes, ‘one finds some clear commonalities’ in the detailed legal justification for the state of exception and the irrelevance of international humanitarian law (IHL). Hajjar stresses that the Israeli state’s description of the status of the West Bank and Gaza as sui generis, in order to assert that IHL does not actually apply, is legally indistinguishable from US claims that such law was inapplicable to the invasion of Afghanistan because it was a ‘failed state’.49 She also underlines that both the US and Israeli states have often argued that the statelessness of their enemies automatically means they have no rights whatsoever under IHL. In both cases, it is a legal trick that has been used to legitimize mass incarceration without trial. Moreover, both states have used national laws to authorize legal practices that contravene the norms and rules of IHL, a form of ‘domesticating’ international law for questionable purposes.50 ISRAEL AND THE ‘PALESTINIANIZATION’ OF IRAQ In late 2003, as the US military’s task in Iraq quickly morphed from the relatively simple challenge of destroying an infinitely inferior state military to the challenge of pacifying complex urban insurgencies, Israel’s direct involvement in shaping the doctrine, weaponry and military thinking of US occupying forces grew dramatically – with corresponding pay-offs for the Israeli economy.

pages: 509 words: 153,061

The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2006-2008 by Thomas E. Ricks


amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Berlin Wall, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, interchangeable parts, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, traveling salesman

“I’d follow him to the end of the world. Usually when you work closely with people, you see the warts and all, and your opinion goes down. My opinion of him has gone way up.” She may have been soft on Odierno, but she retained her sharpness about the rest of the world. Asked in an interview early in 2007 about Iraqi politics, she interrupted to redefine the question. “It’s not a government, it’s a failing state.” She still could blow the whistle on the U.S. military, but now she did so from inside the tent. In the spring of 2007, she was in a “battle update assessment” as an officer showed gun camera footage of an attack helicopter surprising insurgents emplacing a bomb and blowing them to bits. This was red meat for officers who had spent years being attacked by anonymous roadside bombers. “They all loved it,” she recalled, so much so that the officers at the briefing began talking about taking the declassification steps necessary to release the imagery to the media.

But on the ground in Iraq, the new goal was simply getting to a more or less peaceful Iraq that didn’t explode into a regional war or implode into a civil war. As Odierno, Sky, and others talked into the night, hours at a time, three or four nights a week, they focused on the way that parts of the Baghdad government exercised power to further sectarian agendas, undermining the legitimacy of the entire enterprise. “It is a failed state with ungoverned spaces in which the government is part of the problem,” Sky summarized as their conclusion. In particular, they would target Shiite militiamen employed by the Ministry of Health, who among other things were killing Sunnis who sought medical care. They also decided that they needed to reposition the U.S. government. In February, Odierno would tell his subordinate commanders to conduct “balanced operations targeting groups on both sides of the sectarian divide.”

So right now we are in a kind of twilight zone of neither peace nor victory. But I think we are drifting toward a breakup.” To some, that meant it was time to pull the plug. “To date the Iraqi political process has not demonstrated the capacity to deal successfully with any of these issues,” said Senator Jack Reed, a Rhode Island Democrat who was growing increasingly influential on defense issues. “And if they’re not dealt with, then you’ve got a failing state that is not helping itself.” But to others, the failure of Iraqi politics raised the question of whether the next step was to revise the American mission—and in some ways return to the grandiose vision that the Bush administration held when it sent American forces into Iraq, that of making it a democratic beacon that would change the politics of the Middle East. “We’ve built a state, and now we have to build a nation,” Col.

pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell


affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

The detail of how financial liberalisation went wrong in south-east Asia is explored on a journey to Indonesia’s capital Jakarta, where a new financial district grew like a mushroom in the run-up to the Asian financial crisis. The countries covered I have made a number of simplifications in this book so as not to dilute its central messages and to enable its story to be told (endnotes excepted) in just over 200 pages. One of these involved choosing which east Asian countries to leave out of the narrative. Since the book is about developmental strategies that have achieved a modicum of success, the region’s failed states do not appear. North Korea, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Papua New Guinea, all of which are found near the bottom of the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) rankings,8 are not discussed. The reasons for the failure of these states are varied, but one common characteristic leaps out: they are all politically and economically introverted. In varying degrees, these countries are re-learning the old lesson of pre-1978 China, pre-1989 Soviet Union and pre-1991 India: that if a country does not trade and interact with the world, it is all but impossible to get ahead in the development game.

With its population of 23 million, Taiwan has a developmental story that is both distinct from that of mainland China, and one which exhibits some striking and underreported policy similarities – reflecting the shared experiences of Kuomintang and Communist politicians and bureaucrats on the mainland in the 1930s and 1940s. The book’s structure allows both facets of Taiwan’s economic history to be discussed. The omission of failed states and offshore centres, and the adjustment with respect to Taiwan, means that we are left with nine significant east Asian economies: a north-east Asian group of Japan and its two former colonies, South Korea and Taiwan; a south-east Asian group of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines; and China and Vietnam. Vietnam, however, is omitted from this third ‘post-communist’ group in order to further to simplify the structure of the book.

It may be that, more than education leading to economic progress, economic progress leads families to educate their children, which in turn makes more economic progress possible. In the Philippines, the US colonial government placed great emphasis on investment in schooling in the early twentieth century. Even today the Philippines has the highest level of tertiary-educated students in south-east Asia. But because more important policy choices were flunked, the country is on the cusp of being a failed state. Looking further afield, Cuba has the world’s second-highest literacy rate for children over age fifteen, and the sixth highest rate of school enrolment. Education has been a top priority there since the revolution in 1960. Yet the country ranks only ninety-fifth in GDP per capita in the world. Cuba has a surfeit of university graduates and inadequate employment opportunities for them – one reason why 25,000 Cuban physicians undertake state-subsidised work overseas.12 In the former Soviet Union, too, output of highly trained personnel was never matched by economic development.

Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson


Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Martin Wolf, mobile money, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War

Gabon’s oil is slowly running out, and it nurses not a cushion of savings but, instead, unpayable debts. The list of trouble goes on. Oil and gas pay for the intelligence services and armies that keep the boiling anger at arm’s length. It is no coincidence that Africa’s four longestserving leaders all come from these conflicted oil zones.13 Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, one of the few western academics to have studied these issues in depth, calls sub-Saharan Africa’s oil nations successful failed states: countries with strong leaders backed by sophisticated state-owned oil and gas companies and other islands of competence, surrounded by unusually tormented societies and AIDS-ravaged millions who shoulder the burdens of their states’ failures. “The contrast between the heightened expectations 4 The New Gulf of oil producers and their populations, on the one hand, and the dire impact of oil dependence on development, on the other,” he wrote, “is one of the most dispiriting tales of postcolonial hope gone astray.”14 The forgotten hinterlands and turbulent seas of invisible Africans that have emerged around the glittering shopping malls and yacht marinas in Lagos, Libreville, or Luanda should worry us all, because of the presence, in the vicinity of all this anger, of great wealth that circulates in unpredictable ways.

It was a terrible time: Angola was for some time described as “the single worst place on earth for a child to be born”; with more than a quarter of Angolan children born not expected to make it to their fifth birthday.34 Angola’s oil-backed borrowing was a more sophisticated, bettercontrolled version of the debt tools that French interests used to control the leaders of André Milongo’s Congo-Brazzaville. Angola during its civil war became a wealthier, grander, more sophisticated version of the Congolese “successful failed state,” the two-speed nation where the apparatus of government was stripped down to little more than its sovereign, extractive core, leaving the rest to wither. The war was, in the words of the Angolan activist Rafael Marques, “a war of poor people against miserable people,” conducted while the rulers lived in fabulous luxury. While the fighting 183 P o i s o n e d We l l s killed many hundreds of thousands in the countryside, the financial instability fostered by the oil-backed loans savagely worsened already desperate living standards everywhere.

“The notion of the competitiveness of countries, on the model of the competitiveness of companies, is nonsense,” wrote the Financial Times commentator Martin Wolf.19 Think about it this way. If a company cannot compete, it goes bankrupt and a better one takes its place; this weeds out bad firms and is a 228 Conclusion source of capitalism’s dynamism. But if a country cannot “compete,” you get a failed state. “I have never heard a coherent argument for tax competition,” said Christensen of the Tax Justice Network. “You might as well talk about environmental competition.” High taxes or low taxes? I recoil from the idea that competition from tax havens—which Christensen rightly calls “invitations to crime”—should trump what voters want. There are already perfectly good mechanisms for keeping governments on their toes, such as interest rates and inflation: if a government screws up, its currency will fall and the bond markets (and inflation) will punish it.

pages: 337 words: 103,273

The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding


airport security, Albert Einstein, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

Central Command, retired Marine Corps general Anthony Zinni, who participated in a high-level Military Advisory Board review on the subject, we either address climate change today or “we will pay the price later in military terms. And that will involve human lives. There will be a human toll.” The 2007 report concluded that climate change would act as a threat multiplier by exacerbating conflict over resources, especially because of declining food production, border and mass migration tensions, and so on—increasing political instability and creating failed states—if no action was taken to reduce impacts. The findings of this report agree with those of the confidential assessment of the security implications of climate change by the National Intelligence Council (NIC), the coordinating body of America’s sixteen intelligence agencies. Former NIC chairman Thomas Fingar told Congress that unchecked, climate change has “wide-ranging implications for national security because it will aggravate existing problems,” especially in already vulnerable areas such as sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.

We would not, if we took that choice, have two, three, or four billion poor people quietly going away to die in a far-flung corner of the world. While we can’t know just how it will develop, it doesn’t take much to imagine how it might unfold. A global economic crash combined with widespread food shortages, would probably see the desperate slide of nations and regions into chaos. We would see failed states with nuclear arms and countless other weapons being taken over by dictators and terrorists. We would see refugees by the hundreds of millions, if not billions. Yes, some would be too weak or ill equipped to travel far, but many would move first as their countries collapsed around them. This would not be, as we have seen in past crises, a few million people on isolated roads moving into refugee camps.

pages: 296 words: 87,299

Portfolios of the poor: how the world's poor live on $2 a day by Daryl Collins, Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford


Cass Sunstein, clean water, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, income per capita, informal economy, job automation, M-Pesa, mental accounting, microcredit, moral hazard, profit motive, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, transaction costs

If we include the Grameen II diaries (see chapter 6), which covered 43 households, this increases to just under 300 households. 3. The countries we refer to here, as well as the three countries where we collected the diaries—Bangladesh, India, and South Africa—are all fortunate in that they are not at war or in conflict, and have working, recognized governments and functioning economies. Some of what we say in this book may not apply to fragile or “failed” states, or areas where there is no monetized economy. Our broad perspectives have been shaped by research completed by a wide range of individuals and organizations, and we cite representative studies in the text. 4. In important new work, Krislert Samphantharak and Robert Townsend (2008) apply the idea to monthly data from Thailand, providing rigorous methodological foundations for drawing analogues between households and corporate firms. 5.

., 252n.12 Dowla, Asif, 258n.1 Dubois, Pierre, 252n.5 274 INDEX Duflo, Esther, 101, 105, 248n.7, 249n.18, 249n.20, 251n.4, 254n.3, 254nn.6–7, 257n.3, 260n.1 Easterly, William, 247n.1 Egypt, 120 employment: of children, 37–38; employment guarantee scheme in Maharashtra state, India, 71; formal sector jobs, insecurities of, 43–45; kinds of, distinction between South Asia and South Africa regarding, 37–38; multiple and uncertain as the norm, 35–38 Equity Bank (Kenya), 183 Ethiopia, 253n.16 Fafchamps, Marcel, 251n.3, 252n.5, 254n.7 “failed” states, 247n.3 festivals, spending on, 254n.7 Financial Access Initiative, 260n.5 financial diaries: balance sheets as source of information, 8–10, 32, 60, 96–97; cash flow as source of information, 10, 32–33, 61, 97; construction of, 4–5 (see also methodology); the Grameen II diaries, 159–60; interest rates (see prices); in kind transactions, 10–11; relationship of time and money observed in, 187–88; strengths and weaknesses as a research tool, 185, 205, 208–10.

pages: 387 words: 105,250

The Caryatids by Bruce Sterling


carbon footprint, clean water, failed state, impulse control, new economy, nuclear winter, semantic web, social software, stem cell, supervolcano, urban renewal, Whole Earth Review

They know that she was breeding super-women and training them in high technology—the ‘high technology’ of that period, anyway. That foolishness has all been documented. There were biopiracy labs all over this island. You—you and your beautiful sisters—you are the only people in the world who still think that local crime wave is a secret.” Herbert smacked his fist into his open hand. “A clone is an illegal person. That’s all. This island is manned by refugees from failed states, so we’re all technically ‘illegal,’ like you. You can’t convince us that you’re the big secret monster from the big secret monster lab. Because we know you, and we know how you feel. We’re in solidarity with you, Vera. It’s all a matter of degree.” Vera chose to say nothing about this vapid pep talk. No one understood the tangled monstrosity that was herself and her sisters, and no outsider ever would.

Glory was the source of communion. Glory was the spirit of the corps. Glory was a reason to be. Camp people badly needed reasons to be. Before being rescued by the Acquis, they’d been desolated. These city women, like many city women, had no children and no surviving parents. They’d been uprooted by massive disasters, fleeing the dark planetary harvest of droughts, fires, floods, epidemics, failed states, and economic collapse. These women, blown across the Earth as human flotsam, were becoming pioneers here. They did well at adapting to circumstance—because they were women. Refugee women—women anywhere, any place on Earth—had few illusions about what it meant to be flotsam. Vera herself had been a camp refugee for a while. She knew very well how that felt and what that meant. The most basic lesson of refugee life was that it felt bad.

pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens


4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

Charismatic bandits are not that rare. How about foreign invasion and forced administration? It worked in Bosnia and failed in Haiti, Iraq, and Afghanistan. It's expensive, dangerous, and only makes sense as part of a smash-and-grab operation on the largest scale. It certainly doesn't fix broken countries. I think the solution to fixing failed states like Congo-Kinshasa is to recognize that a government, whether "elected" or installed by violence or bluff, does not by itself create a valid state. When we recognize a failed state as a bandit gang, we see that the problem is the bandits and their economic model. The first step is to flag a country as sick when, like a person suffering from a mental disease, it becomes dysfunctional. We can measure that in terms of mortality and life expectancy, education, freedom of expression, and corruption.

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey


accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

Leaving aside the ideological fight over state planning versus market, what this all means is that the continuity of capital flow in a world of increasingly complicated social divisions of labour rests upon the existence of adequate institutional arrangements that facilitate the continuity of that flow across space and time. Where those arrangements are defective or do not exist, capital will encounter serious barriers. While ways can be found for capital to operate successfully under, say, conditions of lawlessness, corruption and indeterminate property rights, this does not in general constitute an optimal environment in which capital can flourish. What to do about ‘failed states’ and how to ensure the creation of ‘a good business climate’ (including the suppression of corruption and lawlessness) have therefore become leading missions of international financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank, as well as a project of various arms of contemporary US and European imperialist practices in many parts of the world. The WTO agreements, for example, codify ‘good behaviour’ for the states that have signed up (and many states have no option except to sign if they wish to continue to trade with the US and Europe) in such a way as to favour the freedoms of corporations to do business without excessive state regulation or interference.

Index Numbers in italics indicate Figures; those in bold indicate a Table. 11 September 2001 attacks 38, 41–2 subject to perpetual renewal and transformation 128 A Abu Dhabi 222 Académie Française 91 accumulation by dispossession 48–9, 244 acid deposition 75, 187 activity spheres 121–4, 128, 130 deindustrialised working-class area 151 and ‘green revolution’ 185–6 institutional and administrative arrangements 123 ‘mental conceptions of the world’ 123 patterns of relations between 196 production and labour processes 123 relations to nature 123 the reproduction of daily life and of the species 123 slums 152 social relations 123 subject to perpetual renewal and transformation 128 suburbs 150 technologies and organisational forms 123 uneven development between and among them 128–9 Adelphia 100 advertising industry 106 affective bonds 194 Afghanistan: US interventionism 210 Africa civil wars 148 land bought up in 220 neocolonialism 208 population growth 146 agribusiness 50 agriculture collectivisation of 250 diminishing returns in 72 ‘green revolution’ 185–6 ‘high farming’ 82 itinerant labourers 147 subsidies 79 AIG 5 alcoholism 151 Allen, Paul 98 Allende, Salvador 203 Amazonia 161, 188 American Bankers Association 8 American Revolution 61 anarchists 253, 254 anti-capitalist revolutionary movement 228 anti-racism 258 anti-Semitism 62 après moi le déluge 64, 71 Argentina Debt Crisis (2000–2002) 6, 243, 246, 261 Arizona, foreclosure wave in 1 Arrighi, Giovanni: The Long Twentieth Century 35, 204 asbestos 74 Asia Asian Currency Crisis (1997–98) 141, 261 collapse of export markets 141 growth 218 population growth 146 asset stripping 49, 50, 245 asset traders 40 asset values 1, 6, 21, 23, 26, 29, 46, 223, 261 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 200 Athabaska tar sands, Canada 83 austerity programmes 246, 251 automobile industry 14, 15, 23, 56, 67, 68, 77, 121, 160–61 Detroit 5, 15, 16, 91, 108, 195, 216 autonomista movement 233, 234, 254 B Baader-Meinhof Gang 254 Bakunin, Michael 225 Balzac, Honoré 156 Bangalore, software development in 195 Bangkok 243 Bank of England 53, 54 massive liquidity injections in stock markets 261 Bank of International Settlements, Basel 51, 55, 200 Bank of New England 261 Bankers Trust 25 banking bail-outs 5, 218 bank shares become almost worthless 5 bankers’ pay and bonuses 12, 56, 218 ‘boutique investment banks’ 12 de-leveraging 30 debt-deposit ratio 30 deposit banks 20 French banks nationalised 198 international networks of finance houses 163 investment banks 2, 19, 20, 28, 219 irresponsible behaviour 10–11 lending 51 liquidity injections by central banks vii, 261 mysterious workings of central banks 54 ‘national bail-out’ 30–31 property market-led Nordic and Japanese bank crises 261 regional European banks 4 regular banks stash away cash 12, 220 rising tide of ‘moral hazard’ in international bank lending practices 19 ‘shadow banking’ system 8, 21, 24 sympathy with ‘Bonnie and Clyde’ bank robbers 56 Baran, Paul and Sweezey, Paul: Monopoly Capital 52, 113 Barings Bank 37, 100, 190 Baucus, Max 220 Bavaria, automotive engineering in 195 Beijing declaration (1995) 258 Berlin: cross-border leasing 14 Bernanke, Ben 236 ‘Big Bang’ (1986) 20, 37 Big Bang unification of global stock, options and currency trading markets 262 billionaire class 29, 110, 223 biodiversity 74, 251 biomass 78 biomedical engineering 98 biopiracy 245, 251 Birmingham 27 Bismarck, Prince Otto von 168 Black, Fischer 100 Blackstone 50 Blair, Tony 255 Blair government 197 blockbusting neighbourhoods 248 Bloomberg, Mayor Michael 20, 98, 174 Bolivarian movement 226, 256 bonuses, Wall Street 2, 12 Borlaug, Norman 186 bourgeoisie 48, 89, 95, 167, 176 ‘boutique investment banks’ 12 Brazil automobile industry 16 capital flight crisis (1999) 261 containerisation 16 an export-dominated economy 6 follows Japanese model 92 landless movement 257 lending to 19 the right to the city movement 257 workers’ party 256 Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) 31, 32, 51, 55, 171 British Academy 235 British empire 14 Brown, Gordon 27, 45 Budd, Alan 15 Buenos Aires 243 Buffett, Warren 173 building booms 173–4 Bush, George W. 5, 42, 45 business associations 195 C California, foreclosure wave in 1, 2 Canada, tightly regulated banks in 141 ‘cap and trade’ markets in pollution rights 221 capital bank 30 centralisation of 95, 110, 113 circulation of 90, 93, 108, 114, 116, 122, 124, 128, 158, 159, 182, 183, 191 cultural 21 devalued 46 embedded in the land 191 expansion of 58, 67, 68 exploitations of 102 export 19, 158 fixed 191, 213 industrial 40–41, 56 insufficient initial money capital 47 investment 93, 203 and labour 56, 88, 169–70 liquid money 20 mobility 59, 63, 64, 161–2, 191, 213 and nature 88 as a process 40 reproduction of 58 scarcity 50 surplus 16, 28, 29, 50–51, 84, 88, 100, 158, 166, 167, 172, 173, 174, 206, 215, 216, 217 capital accumulation 107, 108, 123, 182, 183, 191, 211 and the activity spheres 128 barriers to 12, 16, 47, 65–6, 69–70, 159 compound rate 28, 74, 75, 97, 126, 135, 215 continuity of endless 74 at the core of human evolutionary dynamics 121 dynamics of 188, 197 geographic landscape of 185 geographical dynamics of 67, 143 and governance 201 lagging 130 laws of 113, 154, 160 main centres of 192 market-based 180 Mumbai redevelopment 178 ‘nature’ affected by 122 and population growth 144–7 and social struggles 105 start of 159 capital circulation barriers to 45 continuity of 68 industrial/production capital 40–41 inherently risky 52 interruption in the process 41–2, 50 spatial movement 42 speculative 52, 53 capital controls 198 capital flow continuity 41, 47, 67, 117 defined vi global 20 importance of understanding vi, vii-viii interrupted, slowed down or suspended vi systematic misallocation of 70 taxation of vi wealth creation vi capital gains 112 capital strike 60 capital surplus absorption 31–2, 94, 97, 98, 101, 163 capital-labour relation 77 capitalism and communism 224–5 corporate 1691 ‘creative-destructive’ tendencies in 46 crisis of vi, 40, 42, 117, 130 end of 72 evolution of 117, 118, 120 expansion at a compound rate 45 first contradiction of 77 geographical development of 143 geographical mobility 161 global 36, 110 historical geography of 76, 117, 118, 121, 174, 180, 200, 202, 204 industrial 58, 109, 242 internal contradictions 115 irrationality of 11, 215, 246 market-led 203 positive and negative aspects 120 and poverty 72 relies on the beneficence of nature 71 removal of 260 rise of 135, 192, 194, 204, 228, 248–9, 258 ‘second contradiction of’ 77, 78 social relations in 101 and socialism 224 speculative 160 survival of 46, 57, 66, 86, 107, 112, 113, 116, 130, 144, 229, 246 uneven geographical development of 211, 213 volatile 145 Capitalism, Nature, Socialism journal 77 capitalist creed 103 capitalist development considered over time 121–4 ‘eras’ of 97 capitalist exploitation 104 capitalist logic 205 capitalist reinvestment 110–11 capitalists, types of 40 Carnegie, Andrew 98 Carnegie foundation 44 Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 195 Carson, Rachel: Silent Spring 187 Case Shiller Composite Indices SA 3 Catholic Church 194, 254 cell phones 131, 150, 152 Central American Free Trade Association (CAFTA) 200 centralisation 10, 11, 165, 201 Certificates of Deposit 262 chambers of commerce 195, 203 Channel Tunnel 50 Chiapas, Mexico 207, 226 Chicago Board Options Exchange 262 Chicago Currency Futures Market 262 ‘Chicago School’ 246 Chile, lending to 19 China ‘barefoot doctors’ 137 bilateral trade with Latin America 173 capital accumulation issue 70 cheap retail goods 64 collapse of communism 16 collapse of export markets 141 Cultural Revolution 137 Deng’s announcement 159 falling exports 6 follows Japanese model 92 ‘Great Leap Forward’ 137, 138 growth 35, 59, 137, 144–5, 213, 218, 222 health care 137 huge foreign exchange reserves 141, 206 infant mortality 59 infrastructural investment 222 labour income and household consumption (1980–2005) 14 market closed after communists took power (1949) 108 market forcibly opened 108 and oil market 83 one child per family policy 137, 146 one-party rule 199 opening-up of 58 plundering of wealth from 109, 113 proletarianisation 60 protests in 38 and rare earth metals 188 recession (1997) 172 ‘silk road’ 163 trading networks 163 unemployment 6 unrest in 66 urbanisation 172–3 and US consumerism 109 Chinese Central Bank 4, 173 Chinese Communist Party 180, 200, 256 chlorofluoral carbons (CFCs) 74, 76, 187 chronometer 91, 156 Church, the 249 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 169 circular and cumulative causation 196 Citibank 19 City Bank 261 city centres, Disneyfication of 131 City of London 20, 35, 45, 162, 219 class consciousness 232, 242, 244 class inequalities 240–41 class organisation 62 class politics 62 class power 10, 11, 12, 61, 130, 180 class relations, radical reconstitution of 98 class struggle 56, 63, 65, 96, 102, 127, 134, 193, 242, 258 Clausewitz, Carl von 213 Cleveland, foreclosure crisis in 2 Cleveland, foreclosures on housing in 1 Clinton, Bill 11, 12, 17, 44, 45 co-evolution 132, 136, 138, 168, 185, 186, 195, 197, 228, 232 in three cases 149–53 coal reserves 79, 188 coercive laws of competition see under competition Cold War 31, 34, 92 Collateralised Bond Obligations (CBOs) 262 Collateralised Debt Obligations (CDOs) 36, 142, 261, 262 Collateralised Mortgage Obligations (CMOs) 262 colonialism 212 communications, innovations in 42, 93 communism 228, 233, 242, 249 collapse of 16, 58, 63 compared with socialism 224 as a loaded term 259–60 orthodox communists 253 revolutionary 136 traditional institutionalised 259 companies joint stock 49 limited 49 comparative advantage 92 competition 15, 26, 43, 70 between financial centres 20 coercive laws of 43, 71, 90, 95, 158, 159, 161 and expansion of production 113 and falling prices 29, 116 fostering 52 global economic 92, 131 and innovation 90, 91 inter-capitalist 31 inter-state 209, 256 internalised 210 interterritorial 202 spatial 164 and the workforce 61 competitive advantage 109 computerised trading 262 computers 41, 99, 158–9 consortia 50, 220 consumerism 95, 109, 168, 175, 240 consumerist excess 176 credit-fuelled 118 niche 131 suburban 171 containerisation 16 Continental Illinois Bank 261 cooperatives 234, 242 corporate fraud 245 corruption 43, 69 cotton industry 67, 144, 162 credit cards fees vii, 245 rise of the industry 17 credit crunch 140 Credit Default swaps 262 Crédit Immobilièr 54 Crédit Mobilier 54 Crédit Mobilier and Immobilier 168 credit swaps 21 credit system and austerity programmes 246 crisis within 52 and the current crisis 118 and effective demand problem 112 an inadequate configuration of 52 predatory practices 245 role of 115 social and economic power in 115 crises crises of disproportionality 70 crisis of underconsumption 107, 111 east Asia (1997–8) 6, 8, 35, 49, 246 financial crisis of 1997–8 198, 206 financial crisis of 2008 34, 108, 114, 115 general 45–6 inevitable 71 language of crisis 27 legitimation 217 necessary 71 property market 8 role of 246–7 savings and loan crisis (US, 1984–92) 8 short sharp 8, 10 south-east Asia (1997–8) 6, 8, 35, 49, 246 cross-border leasing 142–3 cultural choice 238 ‘cultural industries’ 21 cultural preferences 73–4 Cultural Revolution 137 currency currency swaps 262 futures market 24, 32 global 32–3, 34 options markets on 262 customs barriers 42, 43 cyberspace 190 D Darwin, Charles 120 DDT 74, 187 de-leveraging 30 debt-financing 17, 131, 141, 169 decentralisation 165, 201 decolonisation 31, 208, 212 deficit financing 35, 111 deforestation 74, 143 deindustrialisation 33, 43, 88, 131, 150, 157, 243 Deleuze, Gilles 128 demand consumer 107, 109 effective 107, 110–14, 116, 118, 221, 222 lack of 47 worker 108 Democratic Party (US) 11 Deng Xiaoping 159 deregulation 11, 16, 54, 131 derivatives 8 currency 21 heavy losses in (US) 261 derivatives markets creation of 29, 85 unregulated 99, 100, 219 Descartes, René 156 desertification 74 Detroit auto industry 5, 15, 16, 91, 108, 195, 216 foreclosures on housing in 1 Deutsches Bank 20 devaluation 32, 47, 116 of bank capital 30 of prior investments 93 developing countries: transformation of daily lives 94–5 Developing Countries Debt Crisis 19, 261 development path building alliances 230 common objectives 230–31 development not the same as growth 229–30 impacts and feedbacks from other spaces in the global economy 230 Diamond, Jared: Guns, Germs and Steel 132–3, 154 diasporas 147, 155, 163 Dickens, Charles: Bleak House 90 disease 75, 85 dispossession anti-communist insurgent movements against 250–51 of arbitrary feudal institutions 249 of the capital class 260 China 179–80 first category 242–4 India 178–9, 180 movements against 247–52 second category 242, 244–5 Seoul 179 types of 247 under socialism and communism 250 Domar, Evsey 71 Dongguan, China 36 dot-com bubble 29, 261 Dow 35,000 prediction 21 drug trade 45, 49 Dubai: over-investment 10 Dubai World 174, 222 Durban conference on anti-racism (2009) 258 E ‘earth days’ 72, 171 east Asia crash of 1997–8 6, 8, 35, 49, 246 labour reserves 64 movement of production to 43 proletarianisation 62 state-centric economies 226 wage rates 62 eastern European countries 37 eBay 190 economic crisis (1848) 167 economists, and the current financial crisis 235–6 ecosystems 74, 75, 76 Ecuador, and remittances 38 education 59, 63, 127, 128, 221, 224, 257 electronics industry 68 Elizabeth II, Queen vi-vii, 235, 236, 238–9 employment casual part-time low-paid female 150 chronic job insecurity 93 culture of the workplace 104 deskilling 93 reskilling 93 services 149 Engels, Friedrich 89, 98, 115, 157, 237 The Housing Question 176–7, 178 Enron 8, 24, 52, 53, 100, 261 entertainment industries 41 environment: modified by human action 84–5 environmental movement 78 environmental sciences 186–7 equipment 58, 66–7 equity futures 262 equity index swaps 262 equity values 262 ethanol plants 80 ethnic cleansings 247 ethnicity issues 104 Eurodollars 262 Europe negative population growth in western Europe 146 reconstruction of economy after Second World War 202 rsouevolutions of 1848 243 European Union 200, 226 eastern European countries 37 elections (June 2009) 143 unemployment 140 evolution punctuated equilibrium theory of natural evolution 130 social 133 theory of 120, 129 exchange rates 24, 32, 198 exports, falling 141 external economies 162 F Factory Act (1848) 127 factory inspectors 127 ‘failed states’ 69 Fannie Mae (US government-chartered mortgage institution) 4, 17, 173, 223 fascism 169, 203, 233 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) 8 rescue of Continental Illinois Bank 261 Federal Reserve System (the Fed) 2, 17, 54, 116, 219, 236, 248 and asset values 6 cuts interest rates 5, 261 massive liquidity injections in stock markets 261 rescue of Continental Illinois Bank 261 feminists, and colonisation of urban neighbourhoods 248 fertilisers 186 feudalism 135, 138, 228 finance capitalists 40 financial institutions awash with credit 17 bankruptcies 261 control of supply and demand for housing 17 nationalisations 261 financial services 99 Financial Times 12 financialisation 30, 35, 98, 245 Finland: Nordic cris (1992) 8 Flint strike, Michigan (1936–7) 243 Florida, foreclosure wave in 1, 2 Forbes magazine 29, 223 Ford, Henry 64, 98, 160, 161, 188, 189 Ford foundation 44, 186 Fordism 136 Fordlandia 188, 189 foreclosed businesses 245 foreclosed properties 220 fossil fuels 78 Foucault, Michel 134 Fourierists 168 France acceptance of state interventions 200 financial crisis (1868) 168 French banks nationalised 198 immigration 14 Paris Commune 168 pro-natal policies 59 strikes in 38 train network 28 Franco-Prussian War (1870) 168 fraud 43, 49 Freddie Mac (US government-chartered mortgage institution) 4, 17, 173, 223 free trade 10, 33, 90, 131 agreements 42 French Communist Party 52 French Revolution 61 Friedman, Thomas L.: The World is Flat 132 futures, energy 24 futures markets 21 Certificates of Deposit 262 currency 24 Eurodollars 262 Treasury instruments 262 G G7/G8/G20 51, 200 Galileo Galilei 89 Gates, Bill 98, 173, 221 Gates foundation 44 gays, and colonisation of urban neighbourhoods 247, 248 GDP growth (1950–2030) 27 Gehry, Frank 203 Geithner, Tim 11 gender issues 104, 151 General Motors 5 General Motors Acceptance Corporation 23 genetic engineering 84, 98 genetic modification 186 genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 186 gentrification 131, 256, 257 geographical determinism 210 geopolitics 209, 210, 213, 256 Germany acceptance of state interventions 199–200 cross-border leasing 142–3 an export-dominated economy 6 falling exports 141 invasion of US auto market 15 Nazi expansionism 209 neoliberal orthodoxies 141 Turkish immigrants 14 Weimar inflation 141 Glass-Steagall act (1933) 20 Global Crossing 100 global warming 73, 77, 121, 122, 187 globalisation 157 Glyn, Andrew et al: ‘British Capitalism, Workers and the Profits Squeeze’ 65 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 156 gold reserves 108, 112, 116 Goldman Sachs 5, 11, 20, 163, 173, 219 Google Earth 156 Gould, Stephen Jay 98, 130 governance 151, 197, 198, 199, 201, 208, 220 governmentality 134 GPS systems 156 Gramsci, Antonio 257 Grandin, Greg: Fordlandia 188, 189 grassroots organisations (GROS) 254 Great Depression (1920s) 46, 170 ‘Great Leap Forward’ 137, 138, 250 ‘Great Society’ anti-poverty programmes 32 Greater London Council 197 Greece sovereign debt 222 student unrest in 38 ‘green communes’ 130 Green Party (Germany) 256 ‘green revolution’ 185–6 Greenspan, Alan 44 Greider, William: Secrets of the Temple 54 growth balanced 71 compound 27, 28, 48, 50, 54, 70, 75, 78, 86 economic 70–71, 83, 138 negative 6 stop in 45 Guggenheim Museu, Bilbao 203 Gulf States collapse of oil-revenue based building boom 38 oil production 6 surplus petrodollars 19, 28 Gulf wars 210 gun trade 44 H habitat loss 74, 251 Haiti, and remittances 38 Hanseatic League 163 Harrison, John 91 Harrod, Roy 70–71 Harvey, David: A Brief History of Neoliberalism 130 Harvey, William vii Haushofer, Karl 209 Haussmann, Baron 49, 167–8, 169, 171, 176 Hawken, Paul: Blessed Unrest 133 Hayek, Friedrich 233 health care 28–9, 59, 63, 220, 221, 224 reneging on obligations 49 Health Care Bill 220 hedge funds 8, 21, 49, 261 managers 44 hedging 24, 36 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 133 hegemony 35–6, 212, 213, 216 Heidegger, Martin 234 Helú, Carlos Slim 29 heterogeneity 214 Hitler, Adolf 141 HIV/AIDS pandemic 1 Holloway, John: Change the World without Taking Power 133 homogeneity 214 Hong Kong excessive urban development 8 rise of (1970s) 35 sweatshops 16 horizontal networking 254 household debt 17 housing 146–7, 149, 150, 221, 224 asset value crisis 1, 174 foreclosure crises 1–2, 166 mortgage finance 170 values 1–2 HSBC 20, 163 Hubbert, M.

pages: 341 words: 111,525

Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher


airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade

Despite these first-world trappings, Kinshasa also has the chronic problems standard to many African capitals. Most of its nine-million-strong urban population crowd into squalid squatter camps without adequate drinking water, electricity, health care or basic services. Corruption corrodes every aspect of day-to-day life, forcing its people to rely on international organisations - the UN, aid groups, donors - to prop up the failing state. But by comparison with the country's medieval hinterland, Kinshasa is centuries ahead. I found the disconnect between capital and country bewildering when I arrived by UN helicopter. And it got worse after I was met by Maurice, the local representative of my cobalt-mining contact from Lubumbashi, and whisked away in his jeep. We passed city sights that I recognised from my earlier visit in 2001: the long central artery of the city, `The 30th of June Boulevard', which locals boast of as the `longest independence avenue in Africa'; the house where Patrice Lumumba briefly ran his doomed post-independence government before he was assassinated on the orders of Washington and Brussels; the stadium that staged the `Rumble in the jungle' boxing match; and the Belgian diplomatic compound where I met one of Mobutu's surviving cronies in 2001 and first discussed my plan to retrace Stanley's journey.

And Adolphe Onusumba, the rebel leader I had courted before the journey, underwent a radical change. We had been exchanging emails and telephone calls regularly, but a few months after I got home all communication ended. I then found out that the former rebel had been co-opted into the government of his erstwhile enemy, President Kabila, as Defence Minister. I concluded that the ambassador and minister were too ashamed to hear what I had discovered about their failed state. My own work took me to Jerusalem, from where I now cover the Middle East region for the Telegraph. I might have moved, but my obsession with the Congo - the daunting, flawed giant that symbolises Africa's triumph of disappointment over potential - remains stronger than ever. Tim Butcher Jerusalem, October 2006 Bibliography Non-fiction John and Julie Batchelor, In Stanley's Footsteps - Across Africa From West to East, 1990, Blandford Colette Braeckman: L'Enjeu Congolais, 1999, Fayard - Les Nouveaux Predateurs, 2003, Fayard Ritchie Calder: Agony of the Congo, 1961, Victor Gollancz Verney Lovett Cameron: Across Africa, 1877, Daldy, Isbister and Company Peter Forbath: The River Congo, 1977, Harper & Row Alan Gallop: Mr Stanley, I Presume?

Culture of Terrorism by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, centre right, clean water, David Brooks, failed state, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

Just how firmly the culture of terrorism has been established we shall see, as the Reaganites attempt to consummate their project and other elements within the narrow elite consensus take up the cause, in their own ways, adapting policies to unchanging goals that are deeply rooted in our institutions, our historical practice, and our cultural climate. Notes Preface to the 2015 Edition 1. David Ignatius in the Washington Post. For details, see Noam Chomsky, Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (New York: Holt, 2007), chap. 6. 2. See, for example, the careful work of Larry Bartels, Martin Gilens, and Benjamin Page, over many years. 3. Walter Dean Burnham and Thomas Ferguson, “Americans Are Sick to Death of Both Parties, “Americans Are Sick to Death of Both Parties: Why Our Politics Is in Worse Shape Than We Thought,” 4.

., Mobile Capital and Latin American Development (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996). Timothy A. Canova, “Banking and Financial Reform at the Crossroads of the Neoliberal Contagion,” American University International Law Review 14.6 (1999), 1571–1645. Eichengreen, Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). 5. See Chomsky, Failed States, for discussion and sources. 6. The judgment was overturned on technical grounds by the Constitutional Court, and is scheduled to resume in January 2015. The Court decision was condemned by Amnesty International as a “devastating blow for the victims of the serious human rights violations committed during the conflict.” The US Embassy, obliquely recognizing the facts that are well known to scholarship and human rights activists, stated that “If judges are subject to threats and intimidation, justice will suffer.”

pages: 325 words: 90,659

Narconomics: How to Run a Drug Cartel by Tom Wainwright


Airbnb, barriers to entry, bitcoin, business process, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, Mark Zuckerberg, microcredit, price mechanism, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Skype

In spite of this, the state has repeatedly proved incapable of meeting the most basic needs of the population. Like José the teenage hit man, many of the country’s children are slowly starving: half of those under five suffer from chronic malnutrition, the fourth-highest rate in the world. Nowhere in Latin America comes close to this figure: in Haiti, which is the region’s closest thing to a failed state, the rate is half as high. The reason the government has failed to fix this and other problems is that it collects pitifully small amounts of tax. Public spending amounts to only about 12 percent of gross domestic product, the lowest in Latin America, where the average is over 20 percent.3 Successive presidents have tried to raise taxes, each time having their reforms blocked or diluted by a private sector that seems allergic to paying its fair share.

The scale of the violence is unbelievable: after working out the probability of a man’s being murdered over the course of his lifetime, I run the numbers past the Economist’s research department, suspecting that I have miscalculated. They turned out to be correct after all: at the current rate, for an average Honduran man the odds of being murdered over the course of a lifetime are a staggering one in nine.6 The sheer number of killings leaves detectives little chance of clearing many of them up. Bonilla insists that the government is winning the battle and that the country is not yet a failed state, a phrase that is mentioned increasingly frequently regarding Honduras. “Crime isn’t in control here,” he says. The gangs “run things very well in certain zones. But in no municipality of Honduras has the state lost its authority.” As in Guatemala, that is debatable. According to estimates from the US State Department, in 2012 three-quarters of all cocaine-smuggling flights originating in South America landed in Honduras.7 The flights began in earnest following the country’s latest coup, in 2009, when the president was marched out of his home in the early hours of the morning, still in his pajamas, and put on a one-way flight to Costa Rica.

pages: 459 words: 109,490

Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible by Stephen Braun, Douglas Farah


air freight, airport security, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Donald Trump,, failed state, Mikhail Gorbachev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company

The results, writ large, were staggeringly bleak. The massive continent has fifty-three countries and is the size of China, the United States, Europe, India, Argentina, and New Zealand combined.5 Yet a 2003 World Bank study found that only nine nations merited even a barely acceptable fair-governance rating. The rest, comprising more than 80 percent of the continent, were judged as failing or failed states.6 The private global arms trade had surged, reaping as much as $10 billion a year—an industry that researchers believe had its most rapid growth in the decade following the end of the Cold War.7 The effects were immediate and pronounced on African countries that were suddenly awash in guns. African tribal factions had long fought territorial wars using a patchwork of simple and outdated weaponry—rustic hunting rifles, shotguns, spears, and machetes.

Like the bleakly amoral characters that populate Graham Greene’s novels and John le Carré’s thrillers, Bout deftly surfed the upheaval of the 1990s, playing to the shifting desires of nations uncertain of their own way in the rapidly changing world. Bout intuitively understood the business potential of catering to rebel armies and criminal regimes that controlled access to lucrative natural resources and were willing to barter for weapons. Reaching far into remote lawless regions and failed states, he had become the master of weapons delivery to all corners of the globe, redefining the logistics of twenty-first-century warfare. His nimble, shape-shifting network consistently outpaced the hidebound and often contradictory responses of the nations that pursued him. Nowhere was this policy schizophrenia more apparent than in the Bush administration’s eagerness to use his planes in Iraq while pestering his network with limited sanctions.

pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria


affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional

Russia will turn hostile and imperious in its dealings with its neighbors and the West. In Latin America, Hugo Chávez of Venezuela will launch the most spirited anti-Western campaign in a generation, winning many allies and fans. Israel and Hezbollah will fight a war in southern Lebanon, destabilizing Beirut’s fragile government, drawing in Iran and Syria, and rattling the Israelis. Gaza will become a failed state ruled by Hamas, and peace talks between Israel and the Palestinians will go nowhere. “Given these events,” you say to the sage, “how will the global economy fare over the next decade?” This is not really a hypothetical. We have the forecasts of experts from those years. They were all wrong. The correct prediction would have been that, between 2000 and 2007, the world economy would grow at its fastest pace in nearly four decades.

To describe more concretely what operating in this new world would look like, I have set out six simple guidelines. 1. Choose. American omnipotence has made Washington believe that it is exempt from the need to have priorities. It wants to have it all. It is crucial that the United States be more disciplined about this. President Obama’s national security adviser, Thomas Donilon, argues properly for a rebalancing of American foreign policy, away from the obsessive attention to the hot spots and failed states in the wider Middle East and toward the new centers of global power in Asia. While making this strategic shift, Washington will also need to make a shift in its ongoing approach to international problems, in which all too often it balks at making any choices—because they suggest compromise. On North Korea and Iran, for example, the Bush administration could not decide whether it wanted regime change or policy change (that is, denuclearization).

pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal

To every historian’s despair, COW takes 1816 as the arbitrary start point of history, uses patently invalid definitions of state sovereignty and apparently (in studies written in the twenty-first century) does not yet include the USSR among its obituaries.16 It is a hopeful sign that a call has been made to revise the COW data.17 In the last decade, a further sub-field of study has appeared under the heading of ‘Failed States’. The term is clearly a misnomer, since the bodies concerned, though infirm, have still not reached the international graveyard. They should probably be called ‘Failing States’, and are said to be ‘in danger of disintegration’. As from 2005, an annual Index of sixty such invalids has been published, supported by quantitative measurements of their distress and dividing them into ‘critical’, ‘in danger’ and ‘borderline’.18 Somalia, Chad and Sudan topped the Index for 2010. Europe was represented by Georgia (no. 37), Azerbaijan (no. 55), Moldova (no. 58) and Bosnia and Hercegovina (no. 60).

John Westlake, ‘On the Extinction of States’, in his International Law, Part 1 (Cambridge, 1904), pp. 63–8. 14. James Crawford, The Creation of States in International Law, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 2006). 15. Tanisha Fazal, State Death: The Politics and Geography of Conquest, Occupation and Annexation (Princeton, 2007). 16. ‘COW, Project History’, (2009). 17. Fazal, State Death, pp. 243–58. 18. ‘Index of Failed States, 2009’, from the journal Foreign Policy (2010). 19. Monty Python’s Flying Circus, ‘Dead Parrot Sketch’, (2009). 20. (2011). 21. John Locke, ‘Of the Dissolution of Government’, Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690; London, 1960), ch. XIX, pp. 252–3. 22.

pages: 795 words: 212,447

Dead or Alive by Tom Clancy, Grant (CON) Blackwood


affirmative action, air freight, airport security, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benoit Mandelbrot, defense in depth, failed state, friendly fire, Google Earth, Panamax, post-Panamax, Skype, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl

I trust you can sleep through gunfire, yes?” “We’ve been known to,” Clark replied. “I have to tell you, Mr. Embling, you paint a bleak picture of Peshawar.” “Then I’ve given you an accurate portrayal. I’ve been here on and off for nearly four decades, and in my estimation Pakistan is at a tipping point. Another year or so should tell the tale, but the country’s about as close to being a failed state as it’s been in twenty years.” “A failed state with nuclear weapons,” Clark added. “Right.” “Why do you stay?” Chavez asked. “It’s my home.” A few minutes later Chavez said, “Back to the Hayatabad . . . What I’m wondering is who doesn’t live there?” “And a good question it is,” Embling said. “Though it’s a subjective measure the three big players here—the URC, Lashkar-e-Taiba, and Sipah-e-Sahaba, formerly Anjuman—are generally clustered around the Peshawar cantonment—the Old City—and the Saddar area.

With an inept and reactionary Edward Kealty at the country’s helm, the FBI and CIA would in due course unravel the identities of those responsible for the attacks, only to find carefully constructed and fully backstopped legends that would eventually lead directly to the doorstep of Pakistan’s Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence and radicalized elements of the Pakistan Army General Staff, both long suspected to be less-than-enthusiastic supporters of the war on terror. Where the United States rightly invaded Afghanistan following 9/11, she would again react swiftly and overtly, expanding military operations east across the Safed Koh and Hindu Kush mountains. The inevitable destabilization of Pakistan, already a near-failed state, would, according to the Emir, create a power vacuum into which the Umayyad Revolutionary Council would step and take control of Pakistan’s substantial nuclear arsenal. “It’s plausible,” Jerry Rounds said. “Worst case, the plan succeeds; best case, we have to go into the area big, maybe quadruple our current presence.” “And stay there for a couple decades,” Clark added. “If we thought Iraq was a recruiting poster for militants ...”

pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby


1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

I’ve made a little list, and it includes such charges as responding to short-term opportunities to the neglect of long-term effects, dispensing power without responsibility, promoting material values over spiritual ones, commoditizing human relations, monetizing social values, corrupting democracy, unsettling old communities, institutions, and arrangements, and rewarding aggressiveness and—yes—greed.20 Two other capitalist responsibilities have cast long shadows forward: intractable poverty and a deteriorating environment. While most of the world economies have been developing nicely, sixty years of effort by the First World to stimulate prosperity in many Third World countries has ended in disappointment. Experts are regrouping to test some novel approaches to animate stagnate economies and revive failed states. Thinking more broadly, some think it’s time to correct the flaws in capitalism instead of expecting another technological spurt to divert attention elsewhere. On the agenda for the new century is a multipronged effort to halt the environmental damage that a century of population growth, fossil fuel burning, water pollution, and various other human intrusions on the planet have caused. Capitalism’s critics fall into three groups.

Of the six billion people living today, one-sixth of them are in advanced capitalist economies, another four billion are in developing countries, and the remaining billion live in countries with stalled economies.23 World Bank figures for 2005 indicate that 1.4 billion people live below the poverty line, earning less than $1.25 a day. Unlike the backward, underdeveloped Third World nations of yore, the bottom billion today live in particular countries—fifty-seven in fact—that are treading water while the world around them is swimming toward development, even during a world recession. They are not the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), which have won attention as “emerging markets.” Instead they are “failed states” that have begun to wear out the patience of philanthropists and test the imagination of aid organizations. Today more money is pouring into combating disease than into promoting economic change, evidence of a certain despair about development. The fifty-seven states tethered to the bottom of the global economy are not like others in the world. They carry special burdens, which means that the conventional aid programs will not be effective with them.

Estimating that a typical one costs sixty-four billion dollars, Collier recommends military intervention in countries like Afghanistan and Somalia to rescue them from this trauma. Arguing that such interventions should last at least a decade in order to lay the foundation for sound government, he wants the intervening organizations to clarify their intentions through an international charter. Collier views neither trade nor aid alone as being of much help to failed states. Change must come from within, he maintains, but domestic reformers will succeed only with assistance from the industrialized world. Nor does he place faith in globalization per se because the entrance of India and China has made it much harder for latecomers to get into the world marketplace. A former official with the World Bank, Collier recognizes the tyranny of the already tried and urges a revitalized debate on the subject.25 The best ideas for tackling poverty have come from people, like Muhammad Yunus, Hernando de Soto, Amartya Sen, Frances Moore Lappé, Walden Bello, Raj Patel, and Peter Barnes, who want to use the strengths of capitalism in new ways to enhance everyone’s life.

pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus

But in many cases, things that happened hundreds or even thousands of years ago continue to exert major influence on the nature of politics. If we are seeking to understand the functioning of contemporary institutions, it is necessary to look at their origins and the often accidental and contingent forces that brought them into being. The concern over the origin of institutions dovetailed with a second preoccupation, which was the real-world problems of weak and failed states. For much of the period since September 11, 2001, I have been working on the problems of state and nation building in countries with collapsed or unstable governments; an early effort to think through this problem was a book I published in 2004 titled State-Building: Governance and World Order in the Twenty-first Century.2 The United States, as well as the international donor community more broadly, has invested a great deal in nation-building projects around the world, including Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Timor-Leste, Sierra Leone, and Liberia.

The United States is not in nearly as serious a moral and fiscal crisis as ancien régime France. The danger, however, is that its situation will continue to worsen over time in the absence of some powerful force that will knock the system off its current dysfunctional institutional equilibrium. FANTASIES OF STATELESSNESS A common thread links many of our contemporary anxieties about the future, from authoritarian backsliding in Russia to corruption in India, to failed states in the developing world, to entrenched interest groups in contemporary American politics. It concerns the difficulties of creating and maintaining effective political institutions, governments that are simultaneously powerful, rule bound, and accountable. This might seem like an obvious point that any fourth grader would acknowledge, and yet on further reflection it is a truth that many intelligent people fail to understand.

GETTING TO DENMARK The problem of creating modern political institutions has been described as the problem of “getting to Denmark,” after the title of a paper written by two social scientists at the World Bank, Lant Pritchett and Michael Woolcock. 25 For people in developed countries, “Denmark” is a mythical place that is known to have good political and economic institutions: it is stable, democratic, peaceful, prosperous, inclusive, and has extremely low levels of political corruption. Everyone would like to figure out how to transform Somalia, Haiti, Nigeria, Iraq, or Afghanistan into “Denmark,” and the international development community has long lists of presumed Denmark-like attributes that they are trying to help failed states achieve. There are any number of problems with this agenda. It does not seem very plausible that extremely poor and chaotic countries could expect to put into place complex institutions in short order, given how long such institutions took to evolve. Moreover, institutions reflect the cultural values of the societies in which they are established, and it is not clear that Denmark’s democratic political order can take root in very different cultural contexts.

pages: 484 words: 136,735

Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky


bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, peak oil,, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Washington Consensus

In a system of full capitalism, there should be (but, historically, has not yet been) a complete separation of state and economics, in the same way and for the same reasons as the separation of state and church.”2 Most serious political philosophers, sociologists, and economic historians have long realized that the opposite is true. Any society driven purely by market incentives will fail catastrophically, in economic as well as political terms. The freest, most incentive-driven market economies in the world are not the United States or Hong Kong or even tax havens such as the Cayman Islands but failed states and gangster societies such as Somalia, Congo, and Afghanistan.3 The overriding importance of political institutions in creating the conditions for successful capitalism has been established in great works of social scholarship going back to Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments and Max Weber’s Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.4 But after the Thatcher-Reagan revolutions of the 1980s, business leaders, academic economists, and conservative politicians decided to ignore the historical realities described by sociologists and political scientists in favor of the oversimplified assumptions of market fundamentalist ideologues such as Ayn Rand.

Morgan Kahn, Richard Kahneman, Daniel Kaldor, Nicholas Kalecki, Michal Keynes/Keynesian economics “animal spirits,” biography of Keynes boom-bust cycles explanation Capitalism and Golden Age ideas/policies mathematics and See also Economics eras/second; Macroeconomics Khrushchev, Nikita King, Mervyn Knight, Frank Krugman, Paul Kuhn, Thomas Labor unions stagflation and unemployment and Lagarde, Christine Laissez-faire philosophy Lehman Brothers capitalism transition and saving scenario/effects Lehman Brothers collapse chain reaction from confidence collapse and effects GSE seizure and share price plunge Limits to growth/physical resources Lloyds Lockhart, James MacDonald, Ramsay Macroeconomics economics eras/second new classical school and recovery from financial crisis See also Capitalism 4.0/economic policy; Keynes/Keynesian economics Mad Max (movie) Mad Max Paradox Mahbubani, Kishore Mandela, Nelson Mandelbrot, Benoit Mark-to-market accounting/effects Market fundamentalism description economic recovery and failed states and financial crisis of 2007-09 and flaws/dangers of imaginary world of oil prices/shock (2008) and progressive taxation and term See also Economics eras/third; Monetarism; specific individuals; Thatcher-Reagan revolution Marris, Robin Marx, Karl on capitalism social problems and Masters, Michael Mathematics in economics normal distribution use oversimplification and “science” and McCarthy, Joe Meade, James Medicare/Medicaid, U.S.

pages: 465 words: 124,074

Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism From Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda by John Mueller


airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, energy security, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, side project, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

However, even under chaotic conditions, nuclear weapons would likely remain under heavy guard by people who know that a purloined bomb would most likely end up going off in their own territory, would still have locks (and, in the case of Pakistan would be disassembled), and could probably be followed, located, and hunted down by an alarmed international community. The worst-case scenario in this instance requires not only a failed state but a considerable series of additional conditions, including consistent (and perfect) insider complicity and a sequence of hasty, opportunistic decisions or developments that click flawlessly in a manner far more familiar in Hollywood scripts than in real life.17 It is conceivable that stolen bombs, even if no longer viable as weapons, would be useful for the fissile material that could be harvested from them.

On Chechnya: Cameron 2004, 84. 15. Linzer 2004a. See also Levi 2007a, 97, 126. 16. Trigger: Jenkins 2008, 141. Reporter: Linzer 2004a. Disassembled: Reiss 1995, 11, 13; Warrick 2007. Younger 2009, 153–54. See also Kamp 1996, 34; Wirz and Egger 2005, 502; Langewiesche 2007, 19; Levi 2007a, 125. 17. Pakistan disassembled: Warrick 2007. Taliban takeover a stretch: Cole 2009a, 158; 2009b. For a discussion of the failed state scenario, including useful suggestions for making it even less likely, see Levi 2007a, 133–38. 18. Wirz and Egger 2005, 502. See also Levi 2007a, 125. 19. Levi 2007a, 26; Lugar 2005, 17. See also Ferguson and Potter 2005, chs. 3–4. 20. Kamp 1996, 33; Garwin and Charpak 2001, 314; Keller 2002; Milhollin 2002, 46–47; Rees 2003, 44–45; Linzer 2004a; G. Allison 2004, 96–97; Goldstein 2004, 131–32; Cameron 2004, 84; Wirz and Egger 2005, 500; Frost 2005, 27–28; Bunn and Wier 2006, 135; Langewiesche 2007, 21–23; Levi 2007a, 73–81; Younger 2009, 142–43.

pages: 487 words: 139,297

Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa by Jason Stearns


Berlin Wall, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, technology bubble, transfer pricing, unemployed young men, working-age population, éminence grise

Most of the dead were Tutsis—and most of those who perpetrated the violence were Hutus. —“RWANDA: HOW THE GENOCIDE HAPPENED,” BBC GISENYI, RWANDA, JULY 17, 1994 To the east of the Congo, in the heart of the African continent, lie the highlands of Rwanda. The country is tiny, the size of Massachusetts, and has one of the highest population densities in the world. This is not the Africa of jungles, corruption, and failed states portrayed in movies. Temperatures fall to freezing on some hilltops, cattle graze on velvety pastures, and the government maintains a tight grip on all aspects of society. On the thousands of hills—in between tea plantations and eucalyptus groves—millions of peasants eke out a living by farming beans, bananas, and sorghum. The conflict in the Congo has many causes, but the most immediate ones came across the border from Rwanda, a country ninety times smaller.

Nine governments battled through a country the size of western Europe, walking thousands of miles on foot through jungles and swamps. Over five million people have died, and hundreds of thousands of women have been raped.2 If anything should be important, it is the deaths of five million people. Or is it? The Congo war is actually rarely seen as a problem of joint humanity. Instead, it is either portrayed in western media as an abject mess—a morass of rebel groups fighting over minerals in the ruins of a failed state—or as a war of good versus evil, with the role of villain played alternatively by the Rwandan government, international mining companies, the U.S. government, or Congolese warlords. In the twenty-four-hour news cycle, in which international news is devoted largely to the war on terror and its spin-offs, there is little interest in a deeper understanding of the conflict, little appetite for numbers as unimaginably large as five million.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier


23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Morgan Marquis-Boire et al. (15 Jan 2013), “Planet Blue Coat: Mapping global censorship and surveillance tools,” Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, Netsweeper is a … filtering product: Adam Senft et al. (20 Feb 2014), “Internet filtering in a failed state: The case of Netsweeper in Somalia,” Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, Helmi Noman et al. (20 Jun 2013), “O Pakistan, we stand on guard for thee: An analysis of Canada-based Net-sweeper’s role in Pakistan’s censorship regime,” Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, Fortinet is used to censor: Open Net Initiative (12 Oct 2005), “Internet filtering in Burma 2005,”

pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber


Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh

Impulsive-Red functioning can still be found in adults in many tribal societies in the world today and in underprivileged areas amidst developed societies, when circumstances don’t provide adequate nurture for children to develop beyond this stage. Every paradigm has its sweet spot, a context in which it is most appropriate. Impulsive-Red is highly suitable for hostile environments: combat zones, civil wars, failed states, prisons, or violent inner-city neighborhoods. Red Organizations Organizations molded in Impulsive-Red consciousness first appeared in the form of small conquering armies, when the more powerful chiefdoms grew into proto-empires. They can still be found today in the form of street gangs and mafias. Today’s Red Organizations borrow tools and ideas from modernity—think about organized crime’s use of weaponry and information technology.

The chief must regularly resort to public displays of cruelty and punishment, as only fear and submission keep the organization from disintegrating. Mythical stories about his absolute power frequently make the rounds, to keep foot soldiers from vying for a higher prize. Present-centeredness makes Red Organizations poor at planning and strategizing but highly reactive to new threats and opportunities that they can pursue ruthlessly. They are therefore well adapted to chaotic environments (in civil wars or in failed states) but are ill-suited to achieve complex outcomes in stable environments where planning and strategizing are possible. Conformist—Amber paradigm8 Every paradigm shift opens up unprecedented new capabilities and possibilities. When Conformist-Amber consciousness emerged, humankind leaped from a tribal world subsisting on horticulture to the age of agriculture, states and civilizations, institutions, bureaucracies, and organized religions.

pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

Continued progress in developing countries is good for traditional Western powers for three basic reasons.9 First, development and increased prosperity in the world’s poorest countries enhance global security. Higher incomes, improved health, and stronger governance all reduce the threat of violence within developing countries, and reduce the potential for these countries to be used as launching points for violence and terrorism. The biggest threats to global security in recent years have come from groups operating in failed and failing states. Development brings stronger institutions, greater capacity for effective governance, less violence, and fewer security threats. As progress has accelerated in the last two decades, the number of civil wars in developing countries has been cut in half. This reduction in conflict makes the world a safer place for both rich and poor countries, and reduces the need for international military intervention.

If a future along these lines is achieved, the great surge of development progress that began in the 1960s and accelerated in the 1990s would be just the beginning of a decades-long transformation for hundreds of millions of people in developing countries, from deep poverty to modest prosperity. Millions more people will have incomes that will allow them to take care of their families, with less poverty, better health and education, and a wider range of basic freedoms. Far fewer countries will be failing states, and the world will be a far better place because of it. As I write in early 2015, there are many dark clouds forming on the horizon that could impede further advances. The global economy has not recovered fully from the 2008 financial crisis, and there are growing concerns as to whether the world’s leading economies and emerging markets can return to the pace of growth achieved before the crisis.

pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma


3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel,, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

I have often overlooked countries that are off the global media radar. I missed the economic turnaround in Colombia after Álvaro Uribe became president in 2002 and started to bring peace and order to the war-torn economy. To believe that a country long synonymous with cocaine and murder could be transformed quickly was one leap of faith too far for me. But the condition of “failed state” is not a permanent one. It’s hard to name a supposedly failed state whose economic revival was more roundly ignored by the global media than the Philippines. When I visited Manila in January 2010, I sensed a turn for the better as Filipinos were fed up with the way their country was being surpassed by neighboring economies. They were keen to give a strong mandate to a leader seen as “Mr. Clean,” who would reduce record levels of corruption and kick-start investment in a country that was using no more cement per capita than it had eighty years earlier.

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay


Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock,, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

"Come to Africa-it's a freshman Republican's paradise. Yes, sir, nobody in Liberia pays taxes. There's no gun control in Angola. There's no welfare as we know it in Burundi, and no big gov- {284} John Kay ernment to interfere in the market in Rwanda. But a lot of their people sure wish there were." 28 The "governments" of these countries are corrupt businesses, more akin to the Mafia than to public services. "Failed states" describe situations-as in Afghanistan or Somalia-where no group of warlords is sufficiently dominant to be described as government, in contrast to the monopoly of oppression in Saddam's Iraq, Mobutu's Zaire, and Mugabe's Zimbabwe. Rich states function through a variety of established social conventions and political institutions, which were not successfully transplanted to Africa during short periods of colonial occupation. 29 Dependencia ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Colonial regimes in countries of settlement put in place the building blocks of successful market economies.

Eastern Europe ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The gap between expectation and achievement was wide in Eastern Europe, and these countries achieve particularly low scores for self-reported happiness. 40 The collapse of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s, followed by the disintegration of the Soviet Union itself, created many and varied new states. The architecture of the capital cities of Slovenia, Hungary, and the Czech Republic demonstrates the strength of their European heritage. Tiny Baltic countries like Estonia and Latvia look naturally to Scandinavia, failed states like Romania and Moldova sit on the edge of Europe, and Tajikistan and Uzbekistan enjoy an uneasy relationship with other Asian Islamic republics. Experience since the communist collapse has varied widely. The most successful economies were always geographically and culturally close to established rich states ofWestern Europe. If the Czech Republic had been independent after World War II, it would probably today be a rich European state.

pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

In 1961, Chomsky was appointed full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics (now the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy) at MIT. From 1966 to 1976 he held the Ferrari P. Ward Professorship of Modern Languages and Linguistics. In 1976 he was appointed Institute Professor, a position he held until 2002. Chomsky is the author of numerous influential political works, including Failed States (Metropolitan Books), Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance (Metropolitan Books), 9/11 (Open Media Series/Seven Stories Press), Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media with Ed Herman (Pantheon), Necessary Illusions (South End Press), Understanding Power (New Press), Interventions (Open Media Series/City Lights), Hopes and Prospects (Haymarket) and many other titles.

pages: 225 words: 61,388

Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa by Dambisa Moyo


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio,, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invisible hand, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Since 1996, eleven countries have been embroiled in civil wars (Angola, Burundi, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Uganda).8 And according to the May 2008 annual Global Peace Index, out of the ten bottom countries four African states are among the least peaceful in the world (in order, Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan and Somalia) – the most of any one continent. Why is it that Africa, alone among the continents of the world, seems to be locked into a cycle of dysfunction? Why is it that out of all the continents in the world Africa seems unable to convincingly get its foot on the economic ladder? Why in a recent survey did seven out of the top ten ‘failed states’ hail from that continent? Are Africa’s people universally more incapable? Are its leaders genetically more venal, more ruthless, more corrupt? Its policymakers more innately feckless? What is it about Africa that holds it back, that seems to render it incapable of joining the rest of the globe in the twenty-first century? The answer has its roots in aid. What is aid? Broadly speaking there exist three types of aid: humanitarian or emergency aid, which is mobilized and dispensed in response to catastrophes and calamities – for example, aid in response to the 2004 Asian tsunami, or monies which targeted the cyclone-hit Myanmar in 2008; charity-based aid, which is disbursed by charitable organizations to institutions or people on the ground; and systematic aid – that is, aid payments made directly to governments either through government-to-government transfers (in which case it is termed bilateral aid) or transferred via institutions such as the World Bank (known as multilateral aid).

On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat


Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Stephen Hawking

About the Contributors © Florent Barat Noam Chomsky is Institute Professor in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. He is widely regarded as one of the foremost critics of U.S. foreign policy in the world. His books include At War with Asia, Towards a New Cold War, Fateful Triangle, Necessary Illusions, Hegemony or Survival, Deterring Democracy, Failed States, and Manufacturing Consent. Professor Ilan Pappé is the Director of the European Center for Palestine Studies and a fellow at the Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter. He is the author of fifteen books, among them The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine and his most recent book, The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge. Frank Barat is a human rights activists and author.

Masters of Mankind by Noam Chomsky


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, failed state, income inequality, land reform, Martin Wolf, means of production, nuremberg principles, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

., Chomsky has taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he is Institute Professor (Emeritus) in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. His work is widely credited with having revolutionized the field of modern linguistics. Chomsky is the author of numerous best-selling political works that have been translated into scores of countries worldwide. His most recent books are the New York Times bestseller Hegemony or Survival, Failed States, Imperial Ambitions, What We Say Goes, Interventions, Occupy, and Hopes and Prospects (Haymarket Books). Haymarket Books is reissuing twelve of his classic works in new editions starting in 2014. His web site is

What Kind of Creatures Are We? (Columbia Themes in Philosophy) by Noam Chomsky


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, conceptual framework,, failed state, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, means of production, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Turing test, wage slave

Bartels, Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2010). 10. Elizabeth Rosenthal, “Health Care’s Road to Ruin,” New York Times, December 21, 2013; Gardiner Harris, “In American Health Care, Drug Shortages Are Chronic,” New York Times, October 31, 2004. 11. Kaiser Health Tracking Poll, April 2009. On polls, see Noam Chomsky, Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (New York: Metropolitan Books / Holt, 2006), chap. 6. On constitutional right, see Robert H. Wiebe, Self-Rule: A Cultural History of American Democracy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 239. 12. Conor Gearty, Liberty and Security (Malden, Mass.: Polity, 2013). 13. Quotations from Robert B. Westbrook, John Dewey and American Democracy (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991). 14.

pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer


airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

China’s top leaders do not threaten to bury the United States, they don’t bang their shoes on desks at the United Nations, and they aren’t looking to base missiles in Cuba. Islamic militants, ever an elusive enemy, have become a less urgent foreign policy priority, particularly since the 2011 killing of al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden further undermined public support for an extended troop commitment in Afghanistan.9 Failed or failing states like Yemen and Somalia can create terrorist safe havens that have the attention of U.S. officials, and countries like Pakistan and Iran pose security challenges of their own. But as the American public loses patience with new troop commitments in Afghanistan and elsewhere, U.S. policymakers will be forced to rely on economic pressure and diplomatic coercion to manage these problems. In fact, an ever-increasing percentage of Americans are not old enough to remember the Cold War and have not absorbed the idea, as previous generations have, that America plays a unique and indispensable role in promoting democracy and keeping the peace.

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis


barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

Moreover, like the community organizations patronized by the War on Poverty in the 1960s, Third World NGOs have proven brilliant at coopting local leadership as well as hegemonizing the social space traditionally occupied by the Left Even if there are some celebrated exceptions - such as the militant NGOs so instrumental in creating the World Social Forums - the broad impact of the NGO/ "civil society revolution," as even some World Bank researchers acknowledge, has been to bureaucratize and deradicalize urban social movements.21 18 Sebastian Mallaby, The World's Banker: A Story of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations, New York 2004, pp. 89-90, 145. 19 Rita Abrahamsen, "Review Essay: Poverty Reduction or Adjustment by Another Name?," Review of African Political Economy 99 (2004), p. 185. 20 Stiglitz's 1998 speech, "More Instruments and Broader Goals: Moving Towards the Post-Washington Consensus," is discussed in John Pender, "From 'Structural Adjustment' to 'Comprehensive Development Framework': Conditionality Transformed?

pages: 233 words: 73,772

The Secret World of Oil by Ken Silverstein


business intelligence, clean water, corporate governance, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Google Earth, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Glencore reportedly treated the official, Karel Brus, to a week’s vacation at a luxury hotel on the French Riviera. Glencore also bought Brus a cell phone and picked up more than $20,000 worth of calls he made to the company, some placed just minutes before bid deadlines. * * * The frontiers are Glencore’s growth engine, and nowhere more so than the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the poster child of the resource-cursed failed state. Doing business there is all but impossible without a well-connected political patron, and Glencore’s partner in Kinshasa is perhaps the most wired of them all: Dan Gertler, an Israeli businessman known for his intimate ties to President Joseph Kabila. The grandson of the founder of the Israel Diamond Exchange, Gertler turned up in Congo in 1997 at age twenty-three as the country was descending into a hellish war that left at least four million dead.

pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World by Tim Marshall


9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Without NATO harrying the Taliban on the Afghan side of the border, Pakistan’s job of beating the Pakistani Taliban has become even harder. Washington continues to press Islamabad, and this leaves several possible scenarios: • The full weight of the Pakistani military falls upon the North-West Frontier and defeats the Taliban. • The Taliban campaign continues to hasten the fracturing of Pakistan until it becomes a failed state. • The Americans lose interest, the pressure on Islamabad relents, and the government compromises with the Taliban. The situation returns to normal, with the North-West Frontier left alone but Pakistan continuing to push its agenda in Afghanistan. Of these scenarios the least likely is the first. No foreign force has ever defeated the tribes of the North-West Frontier, and a Pakistani army containing Punjabis, Sindhis, Baluchis, and Kashmiris (and some Pashtun) is considered a foreign force once it moves into the tribal areas.

pages: 1,016 words: 283,960

Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World by Nir Rosen


Ayatollah Khomeini, failed state, glass ceiling, Google Earth, unemployed young men, urban sprawl, éminence grise

Following the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, Zarqawi made his way through Iran to autonomous Kurdistan in northern Iraq—a point worth noting, since the Bush administration claimed Zarqawi’s presence in Iraq was proof of an Al Qaeda connection. But Zarqawi linked up with the terrorist group Ansar al-Islam in a region outside Saddam’s reach. With Saddam removed from power on April 9, 2003, Zarqawi had a new failed state to operate in. By the summer of 2003 he had claimed responsibility for the devastating attack against the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad’s Canal Hotel. Zarqawi allied himself with Ansar al-Sunna, the reconstituted Ansar al-Islam, which was composed mostly of Iraqis, whereas the members of Zarqawi’s Tawhid and Jihad group were mostly foreign Arabs. In October 2004, Iraqi intelligence claimed that Zarqawi’s group consisted of 1,000 to 1,500 fighters, foreign and Iraqi.

Al Qaeda was concerned that the battle against Israel, and the glory, was being monopolized by Hizballah, and it hoped to establish itself in this crucial front. Zawahiri’s words were taken seriously by some. Islamist websites and Internet forums carried demands to establish a Sunni jihadist front in Lebanon. Other jihadists fled Iraq, disgusted with the sectarian fighting or pressure from the growing power of the American-backed Sunni militias in the Anbar province. Hunted in Jordan and Syria, they found Lebanon—with its failed state, lawless refugee camps, and sectarian strife—was their only safe haven. Zawahiri’s statement in July 2007 praised an attack against United Nations peacekeepers in southern Lebanon. ONE DAY THAT MONTH, I visited Ayn al-Hilweh for a funeral in the late afternoon. Soon after I arrived calls to prayer echoed from all the mosques in the camp. First built in 1949 to house Palestinians expelled from northern Palestine, the camp had grown into a ramshackle ghetto made of concrete and cinder blocks.

They may not have been religious beforehand, but they view Al Qaeda as an effective way to combat perceived Shiite expansion and a potent symbol for them to reclaim their masculinity. One of the many ramifications of this is that the United States is yet again involving itself in forms of spiraling violence whose outcomes are unpredictable and whose unintended consequences will be keeping it busy for decades to come. Part Three THE SURGE CHAPTER SEVEN “Iraqi Solutions for Iraqi Problems” BY LATE 2006 IRAQ SEEMED LOST, A FAILED STATE, HEADING TOWARD Rwanda and threatening to provoke a regional conflict. There was finally a sense among Americans in Baghdad that things were going wrong. The First Cavalry Division of the U.S. Army—known as the “First Team”—took over the headquarters of Multi-National Division Baghdad (MND-B), the major U.S. military unit responsible for the city of Baghdad, in November 2006. Before its arrival, military policy was directed to handing over more authority to the Iraqi Security Forces.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

In The Bottom Billion, Collier made the case that the only way out economically for Africa is through trade, and not within a bloc of equally stagnant nations but by exporting to the developed world. The goal is to sell manufactured products, not commodities, but flowers and food are the continent’s only toehold besides its vanishing stockpiles of oil and minerals. And for landlocked nations in the Sahel trapped between failed states and the Sahara, “air freight offers a potential lifeline into European markets,” he wrote. “The key export products are likely to be high-value horticulture, and so European trade policy does matter.” “Kenya already has forty percent of the European green beans market,” he told me, and 70 percent of the U.K.’s. Overall, almost half of Britain’s airborne imports arrive from sub-Saharan Africa, and the British consume upward of one million pounds sterling’s worth each day of African produce.

Flights south of the Sahara—typically via their former colonizers’ flag carriers—are strato-spherically expensive and often run just once a week. “Africa-bound traffic can afford to be beaten up and tossed around, because the choices are limited,” Baluch said. His solution was a deal with Ethiopian Airlines, which possesses a fleet of modern Boeings (including, improbably, the 787 starting later this year) and a network crisscrossing the continent. Four years ago, Swift started service to Kenya, Rwanda, and “failed states” such the Congo, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, and Uganda. Up next are the nations along the southwestern edge of the Sahara, including Niger, Chad, and Mali. Swift operates virtually unopposed from Dubai, controlling 80 percent of the market. “The key to Dubai is Africa,” an American opportunist told me. “All the infrastructure, roads, telecommunications, food, water—everything—has to be imported, which means the opportunity here is to do just that.”

pages: 423 words: 126,375

Baghdad at Sunrise: A Brigade Commander's War in Iraq by Peter R. Mansoor, Donald Kagan, Frederick Kagan


Berlin Wall, central bank independence, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, HESCO bastion, indoor plumbing, land reform, open borders, RAND corporation, Saturday Night Live

Iran, Syria, and other regional actors were injecting violence into Iraq through their support of extremist groups in the form of money, weapons, training, and sanctuary, as well as providing safe passage through their territory to terrorists and foreign fighters bent on battling the “crusaders.” Iran was fighting a proxy war against the United States while using Iraq as its chosen battleground. A rush to transfer power and authority to the ineffective Iraqi government and its immature armed forces had succeeded in creating a failed state. Baghdad in 2006 had undergone massive sectarian cleansing by militiamen of the Jaish al-Mahdi, the revitalized forces of Muqtada al Sadr that had regrouped following their defeat in the battles of 2004, and by Sunni insurgents and al Qaeda–Iraq terrorists bent on creating segregated sectarian quarters in the city. A culture of violence and the absence of a sense of rule of law had made Baghdad all but ungovernable, the city kept together solely through the application of massive amounts of military force.

Although U.S. soldiers had at one time barricaded the access road adjacent to the Canal Hotel, the obstacles were removed at the behest of UN personnel, who were uneasy with the highly visible military presence.¹¹ Ultimately, the assumption and appearance of neutrality provided no barrier to insurgent attacks. The rising vulnerability of international and nongovernmental organizations in the world today is an unfortunate fact. In a world of failed states, global terrorist movements, and progressively more virulent religious dogma and extremist ideologies, civilians and those who support them are increasingly targeted for political advantage, and emblems such as the UN 84 Rusafa globe and the Red Cross no longer confer immunity from attack. After the departure of most UN personnel, ngos became the next target—but they, too, failed to heed the lesson of this bloody reality.

pages: 796 words: 242,660

This Sceptred Isle by Christopher Lee


agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, failed state, financial independence, glass ceiling, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Northern Rock, Ronald Reagan, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, urban decay

However there had been a 400 per cent increase in cotton output and a four-fold increase in coal mining; the steam engine was invented, the first canal opened and the first edition of The Times was printed. And it was the century of the Georges, the third of whom they said was insane. However, the momentous event at the end of the century was the Union of Great Britain with Ireland. It was more than a significant constitutional moment. Ireland and Britain joined together because Ireland was, to the British, fast becoming a failed State in rebellion. The object of that rebellion was the so-called Protestant Ascendancy that ruled Ireland and therefore the British rule itself. The Protestant Ascendancy was the almost entirely Protestant/Anglican organization that ruled a nation island that was 75 per cent Roman Catholic. The rebellion came not from the Catholics but was initiated from a Presbyterian-based movement known as the United Irishmen (see p.405).

Throughout the Seven Years War (1756–63) Britain saw Ireland as a backdoor for a French invasion and so, Union became attractive to Britain – but not to Ireland. Henry Grattan (1746–1820) and his Patriot Party led the opposition. Instead of Union, Grattan achieved limited legislative independence in 1782. Grattan was part of the Protestant Ascendancy and supported the Crown but wanted Parliamentary reform and Catholic Emancipation (which George III did not). By the 1790s, Ireland was becoming a failing State and breeding open rebellion by a mix of Presbyterian and Catholic Defenders. The Defenders dated from the 1780s. They were Catholic vigilantes formed in Armagh to defend their people against the Protestant Boys (later the Orange Order). Following the Ulster cleansing of Catholics in the mid-1790s, the Defenders moved with other Catholics to Leinster and Connaught. They were natural allies of rebellious Presbyterians against the ruling Protestant Ascendancy.

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman


3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Knowledge Is Power Let’s go through the logic of each element and see why they can add up to a national security strategy for a country like America today—starting with “amplify.” It is a truism, but one worth repeating, that disorder and the rise of super-empowered breakers on the scale that we are seeing in the Middle East and Africa is a product of failed states unable to keep up with the age of accelerations and enable their young people to realize their full potential. But these trends are exacerbated by climate change, population growth, and environmental degradation, which are undermining the agricultural foundations that sustain vast African and Middle Eastern populations on rural lands. The combination of failing states and failing agriculture is producing millions of young people, particularly young men, who have never held a job, never held power, and never held a girl’s hand. That terrible combination of humiliating pathologies is then preyed upon by jihadist-Islamist ideologues (with money), who promise these young people redemption or ninety-nine virgins in heaven if they double down on backwardness—if they go back to a seventh-century Islamist puritanical lifestyle.

pages: 1,085 words: 219,144

Solr in Action by Trey Grainger, Timothy Potter


business intelligence, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, data acquisition,, failed state, fault tolerance, finite state, full text search, glass ceiling, information retrieval, natural language processing, performance metric, premature optimization, recommendation engine, web application

If you are using Amazon EC2 instances in the cloud, you can use Amazon’s Elastic Load Balancer to set up load balancing in a similar way. If you are running a smaller operation, you may consider installing HAProxy for use as a load balancer. Regardless of which solution you use, you will want some kind of “health check” option—something the load balancer can check on the server to determine whether the server is healthy and should be in service or is in a failed state and should be removed. To facilitate these kinds of health checks, Solr maintains the Ping Request Handler, which can be enabled by adding a special requestHandler entry in your solrconfig.xml. The Ping Request Handler is responsible for determining if a server is supposed to be enabled to receive traffic and is able to successfully execute queries. To enable it, you need to make sure it is configured in your solrconfig.xml: <requestHandler name="/admin/ping" class="solr.PingRequestHandler"> <lst name="invariants"> <str name="q">choose_any_query</str> <str name="shards"> localhost:8983/solr/core1,remotehost:8983/solr/core2 </lst> <str name="healthcheckFile">server-enabled</str> </requestHandler> With the Ping Request Handler enabled, now all you have to do is point your load balancer to http://servername:8983/solr/admin/ping for each of your servers, and if the load balancer gets a Status 200 OK response it means your Solr cluster is healthy and should remain in the load balancer; if you get an HTTP error code (any other status besides 200 in this case), it means there is a problem with the server and that the load balancer should stop sending traffic to the server.

<query> element queryAnalyzerFieldType setting QueryResponseWriter class QueryScorer query-time boosting, 2nd quorum R rad function RAID (redundant array of independent disks) RAM (random access memory), 2nd <ramBufferSizeMB> element range faceting range searches, 2nd ranked retrieval, 2nd ranking, influencing rare search terms. See also idf. Raw query parser read dominant real-time get Recall balancing with Precision graphing versus Precision overview recency, boosting by recip function, 2nd, 3rd recommendations vs. search Recovering state Recovery Failed state rectangle (geospatial) redundancy redundant array of independent disks. See RAID. RegexFragmenter relational databases, importing data from relationships between documents Reload button ReloadCacheRequestHandler class reloading cores remote debugging renaming cores repeated letters, collapsing replicateAfter directive replicationFactor parameter ReplicationHandler class, 2nd representational state transfer.

pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks


affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

In addition to intelligence and policy changes that may provide active incentive or disincentive leverage, the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) has a long history of conducting economic warfare valuable to any ARSOF UW campaign. Like all other instruments of US national power, the use and effects of economic “weapons” are interrelated and they must be coordinated carefully.3 All of the Iraq WikiLeaks cables provide vital information about US policies that have left a US legacy of violence and political instability that forms the basis of the failed state that is Iraq today. DIVIDE AND CONQUER History shows us that in Iraq, while there are clear differences in the religious beliefs of the two sects of Islam—Sunni and Shia—the kind of violent sectarianism that has become the norm today did not exist in modern Iraq prior to the 2003 US-led invasion. Several of the larger areas of Baghdad comprised equal numbers of Sunni and Shia, and this was common across many other cities, such as Baquba.

See Mona Mahmood, Maggie O’Kane, Chavala Madlena, and Teresa Smith, “Revealed: Pentagon’s Link to Iraqi Torture Centres,” Guardian, March 6, 2013. 103Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, “Committee Study of the Central Intelligence Agency’s Detention and Interrogation Program,” December 3, 2014, at 104Guantánamo Detainee US9GZ-010016DP: Abu Zubaydah. 105Reed Brody, “Prisoners Who Disappear,” International Herald Tribune, October 12, 2004. 106Sam Masters, “CIA Torture Report: The Doctors Who Were the Unlikely Architects of the CIA’s Programme,” Independent, December 9, 2014. 107“Former CIA Director: ‘We Don’t Torture People,’” CBS News, December 9, 2014. 108 member_torture_briefings,_2009. 109Scott Shane, “Political Divide About CIA Torture Remains After Senate Report’s Release,” New York Times, December 9, 2014. 110“Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales, Counsel to the President,” US Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, August 1, 2002, available at 111Carl Schmitt, the German legal scholar and prominent Nazi, was cited by constitutional law professor Sanford Levinson as the “true éminence grise” of the Bush administration. Quoted in Noam Chomsky, Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (London: Penguin, 2007). 112“White Paper on the Law of Torture and Holding Accountable Those Who Are Complicit in Approving Torture of Persons in US Custody,” National Lawyers Guild, at 113McCoy, A Question of Torture, p. 113. 114Steven Donald Smith, “Guantánamo Detainees Being Held Legally, Official Says,” American Forces Press Service, February 15, 2006, at 115Lars Erik Aspaas, “The Power of Definition: How the Bush Administration Created ‘Enemy Combatants’ and Redefined Presidential Power and Torture,” University of Oslo, MA thesis, Spring 2009, available at 116Peter Forster, “CIA Tortured Terror Suspects ‘to Point of Death,’ US Senate Report Will Say: Source,” National Post, September 8, 2014. 117Anthony D’Amato, “True Confessions?

pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez


barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

At one Massachusetts auto repair shop, the owner pointed to a car parked outside in his lot that belonged to a young woman: “It’s been here for a couple of weeks now. It was only a $200 repair, but she doesn’t have the money to fix it, so she just left it here.” The intersection of widespread poverty and predatory, underregulated business practice means that, as mentioned above, people now even rent tires, especially when their bald tires cause them to fail state inspection and threaten their ability to get to work. Rent-A-Tire has 68 stores around the South and West that offer car owners the opportunity to pay for their tires 110 Carjacked in installments. When the cheapest set available at Wal-Mart may be $450, many drivers are forced to accept Rent-A-Tire’s terms. With weekly payments of $32 for a set of four, plus a $5 weekly “club fee”—“sort of tire insurance,” we were told by a Rent-A-Tire salesperson—and taxes, a customer will end up paying $2,059 for four tires by the end of the agreement’s one-year term.

pages: 325 words: 99,983

Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum


Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Seierstad communicated with the wider world in Globish, ‘the world–wide dialect of the third millennium’. Today, in every country struggling to participate in capitalist democracy, it is Globish that provides the main avenue of advancement. As Chris Patten puts it in his monograph, What Next?, ‘There are more people living in what in less free days we called “the free world” than ever before. Many more are desperate to join us. For every failed state there are numerous liberalising others quietly getting on with the business of building free and secure institutions in prosperous, plural societies.’ For these aspiring millions, it will be Globish that offers a way forward. As we enter the second decade of the new century, we are witnessing, in Globish, a contemporary phenomenon of extraordinary range and complexity, expressing a new world of global interconnections.

pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker


banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, millennium bug, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

The same planes that took people off to foreign holidays carried back young Britons of Pakistani descent to prepare bombs to explode on Tube trains. From ‘the globe’ came a wave of asylum seekers, preoccupying ministers and distorting Labour’s plans. The Cabinet Office National Security Strategy (2008) declared that no state threatened the UK directly. Instead, it was at risk from globalization’s stepchildren – international terror, WMD, implosion of failed states, pandemics and transnational crime. Labour tried to give the ‘international community’ some bite. The trials of Slobodan Miloševic and Radovan Karadžic at the International Criminal Court offered a sense that justice might prevail, however long and tortuous the road. Ministers signed the Ottawa Convention to outlaw anti-personnel landmines. The UK tried to stop commerce in diamonds from areas of conflict in Africa.

pages: 292 words: 81,699

More Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky


barriers to entry, Black Swan, Build a better mousetrap, business process, call centre, Danny Hillis, failed state, Firefox, George Gilder, low cost carrier, Mars Rover, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Oldenburg, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, The Great Good Place, type inference, unpaid internship, wage slave, web application, Y Combinator

He calls it Five Whys. When something goes wrong, you ask why, again and again, until you ferret out the root cause. Then you fix the root cause, not the symptoms. Since this fit well with our idea of fixing everything two ways, we decided to start using five whys ourselves. Here’s what Michael came up with: Five Whys 287 Our link to PEER 1 NY went down. • Why?—Our switch appears to have put the port in a failed state. • Why?—After some discussion with the PEER 1 NOC, we speculate that it was quite possibly caused by an Ethernet speed/duplex mismatch. • Why?—The switch interface was set to autonegotiate instead of being manually configured. • Why?—We were fully aware of problems like this and have been for many years. But we do not have a written standard and verification process for production switch configurations. • Why?

pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand


agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

Nils Gilman at GBN notes that “while a single extreme event may be relatively easy to withstand, a second in succession is likely to be far more devastating, as normal resiliency measures are built to deal with one but not multiple consecutive extreme events.” Governments, he concludes, “will experience climate change not as a smooth transformation, but rather as a series of radical discontinuities—as a series of bewildering ‘oh shit’ events. Environmentally failed states are a nontrivial possibility.” Repetition knocks you down; duration kills you. Complex societies can handle drought, but not multidecade drought. That’s the historic civilization killer, says archaeologist Brian Fagan. It brought down the ancient empires of the Middle East and Central America. When the rains fail, agriculture fails, the cities convulse and empty, and what’s left of the society builds shacks in the ruins of its former glory.

pages: 364 words: 101,193

Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet by Mark Lynas


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Climatic Research Unit, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, ice-free Arctic, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, South China Sea, supervolcano

All of human history shows that given the choice between starving in situ and moving, people move. In the latter part of the century tens of millions of Pakistani citizens may be facing this choice, as the river which has sustained their civilisation for centuries runs dry, and the breadbaskets which it supported are overcome by the spreading desert. Nuclear-armed Pakistan may find itself joining the growing list of failed states, as civil administration collapses and armed gangs seize what little food is left. The rule of the gun would replace the rule of law. In the high mountains, meanwhile, the shimmering white of all but the highest snows will have given way to bare rock and sun-baked soil. Down below, valley glaciers which for millennia ground their way slowly between the peaks will have vanished into rubble. And somewhere in the remote wastes of the Tibetan plateau, far away from any human habitation, a simple pile of stones will mark the spot which was once the source of one of the mightiest rivers in history.

pages: 355 words: 92,571

Capitalism: Money, Morals and Markets by John Plender


Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, diversification, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, moral hazard, moveable type in China, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

And while rugged is not quite the adjective to apply to most women entrepreneurs, it is hard not to be impressed by those, like billionaire TV host Oprah Winfrey, who have broken away from conventional areas of female entrepreneurship such as cosmetics to thrive in hitherto male-dominated industries such as the media and to make substantial philanthropic efforts. Most of the people mentioned in this chapter made enormous contributions both to economic growth and, ultimately, to the quality of people’s lives. At the same time, entrepreneurs in the developing world are actively engaged in lifting millions out of poverty, even if that is not their direct intention or motivation. And in failing states such as North Korea, entrepreneurs have emerged to create a private parallel economy in the midst of chaos. Some of these people were undoubtedly vicious; others were morally admirable. So the conclusion has to be that there is truth in the views of both Mandeville and Keynes. Yet the Marxian view of the entrepreneur as a ruthless accumulator of capital is surely anachronistic. In the early stages of the industrial revolution, many entrepreneurs, perhaps a majority, were indeed ruthless in their greedy pursuit of profit.

pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris


Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

It was paternalism mixed with condescension—the country was too unstable for Calderón to manage on his own, officials seemed to think. But it was in America’s self-interest to spy on Calderón too. American officials thought that the cartels could extend their violent reach over the border into the United States, and that they might even topple Calderón’s government or weaken it so much that Mexico effectively became a failed state. In the summer of 2012 the NSA accessed the e-mails of then presidential candidate Enrique Peña Nieto, who took office in December of that year. The agency intercepted his cell phone calls, too, along with those of “nine of his close associates,” as well as more than 85,000 text messages sent by Nieto and his associates, the top-secret NSA document states. The spies used a graphing program that displayed who was in touch with whom, then determined which sets of communications indicated significant relationships among those being monitored.

pages: 377 words: 110,427

The Boy Who Could Change the World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz by Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig


affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, deliberate practice, Donald Trump, failed state, fear of failure, Firefox, full employment, Howard Zinn, index card, invisible hand, John Gruber, Lean Startup, More Guns, Less Crime, post scarcity, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, semantic web, single-payer health, SpamAssassin, SPARQL, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, unbiased observer, wage slave, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor

Congressional Research Service RL33209. <><>. * Forstater, Ira B. November 1995. “House Legislative Counsel’s Manual on Drafting Style.” The Office of the Legislative Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives HLC 104-1. <><>. * Chomsky, Noam. 2006. Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (Macmillan). ISBN 0805079122, 234. * DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Robert Mills. August 2004. “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003.” U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports P60-226. <><>. Keynes, Explained Briefly September 24, 2009 Age 22 If you read the economic textbooks, you’ll find that the job market is a market like any other.

pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler


3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush

From the Office of the Secretary of Defense, “Military Power of the People’s Republic of China” (Annual Report to Congress, 2008): “As China’s economy grows, dependence on secure access to markets and natural resources, particularly metals and fossil fuels, is becoming a more urgent influence on China’s strategic behavior.” From the US Joint Forces Command, “Joint Operating Environment” (2010): “A severe energy crunch is inevitable without a massive expansion of production and refining capacity . . . an economic slowdown would exacerbate other unresolved tensions, push fragile and failing states further down the path toward collapse, and perhaps have serious economic impact on both China and India. . . . One should not forget that the Great Depression spawned a number of totalitarian regimes that sought economic prosperity for their nations by ruthless conquest.” 269enduring importance of military strength and arms development: There are several reasons for this. Going forward from the present, APM prospects will not quickly change the need to maintain strong force postures.

pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr


Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

His Seasteading Institute hopes to set up floating technology incubation camps on the ocean, outside national boundaries. “If you can start a new business, why can you not start a new country?” he asks. In a speech last fall at the Y Combinator Startup School, venture capitalist Balaji Srinivasan channeled Leary when he called for “Silicon Valley’s Ultimate Exit”—the establishment of a new country beyond the reach of the U.S. government and other allegedly failed states. “You know, they fled religious persecution, the American Revolutionaries which left England’s orbit,” Srinivasan said, referring to the Pilgrims. “Then we started moving west, leaving the East Coast bureaucracy.” Now, the time has come for innovators to start up their own society: What do I mean by Silicon Valley’s Ultimate Exit? It basically means: build an opt-in society, ultimately outside the U.S., run by technology.

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson


Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Meanwhile, according to some sources, China has been investigating US networks and has invested Government and Politics 89 heavily in computer-based countermeasures in case someone attacks its own infrastructure. As always, the future is embedded in the present and Estonia has already had to deal with a cyberattack, which was variously blamed on the Russians and tech-savvy “hacktivists”. We will also see more and more failed states in the future, especially within Africa, the Middle East and Asia, which will become a major threat to civil order. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, for example, police recently stopped removing the favelas (street gangs) to concentrate on geographical containment of the problem. The city’s rich have literally risen above all this by using helicopters to bypass no-go areas (there are now 240 helicopter landing pads in Sao Paulo, compared to just ten in New York).

pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

But anticipating that some states might allow gay and lesbian couples to marry legally, Congress enacted the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 1996, which denies federal recognition of same-sex marriages. Nevertheless, as of 2012, nine states as well as the District of Columbia permit same-sex marriages. Public sentiment is quickly shifting in favor of more tolerant attitudes regarding homosexuality, especially among younger cohorts. After thirty failed state public referenda to allow same-sex marriage, for the first time in 2012 public referenda in Maine, Maryland, and Washington passed allowing same-sex marriages to take place. Using General Social Survey data from 1973 to 2010, Tom W. Smith (2011) found that the American public clearly makes a distinction between whether homosexuality is morally wrong and whether homosexuals should be allowed certain civil rights.

pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey


3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

According to the latest World Bank data (2011), female life expectancy in Mali, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Ivory Coast, and Afghanistan averages at fifty-four, fifty-two, forty-nine, fifty-three, fifty, and sixty years, respectively. Their corresponding total fertility rates are 6.9, 6.0, 6.1 6.2, 4.9, and 5.4 children per woman. Social, political, and economic chaos certainly afflicts those countries. George Mason University’s Center for Systemic Peace has devised a State Fragility Index as a way to measure a country’s stability, with scores ranging from 0, meaning no fragility, to a high of 23, denoting a failed state. On the index, Mali scores 19, Nigeria 16, Congo 23, Burundi 18, Ivory Coast 16, and Afghanistan 22. In contrast, all twenty-two countries with a fragility score of 0 have below replacement fertility rates. Tragically, the political violence and economic chaos endemic in so many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the ongoing food insecurity, the pervasive risk of disease, a high before-age-five child mortality rate, the lack of education, and their low social status provide African women many grounds to wonder just how long they may expect to live.

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker


1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser,, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Tribes and chiefdoms can maintain their ways indefinitely, such as the Montenegrin tribes in Europe that lasted into the 20th century. And when a state breaks down, it can be taken over by tribes, as in the Greek dark ages (which followed the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization and in which the Homeric epics were set) and the European dark ages (which came after the fall of the Roman Empire). Even today, many parts of failed states, such as Somalia, Sudan, Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, are essentially chiefdoms; we call the chiefs warlords.27 For all these reasons, it makes no sense to test for historical changes in violence by plotting deaths against a time line from the calendar. If we discover that violence has declined in a given people, it is because their mode of social organization has changed, not because the historical clock has struck a certain hour, and that change can happen at different times, if it happens at all.

And they include only battle-related deaths: fatalities caused by battlefield weapons. What happens to the trends when we start looking for the keys that don’t fall under these lampposts? The first exclusion consists of the nonstate conflicts (also called intercommunal violence), in which warlords, militias, mafias, rebel groups, or paramilitaries, often affiliated with ethnic groups, go after each other. These conflicts usually occur in failed states, almost by definition. A war that doesn’t even bother to invite the government represents the ultimate failure of the state’s monopoly on violence. The problem with nonstate conflicts is that until recently war buffs just weren’t interested in them. No one kept track, so there’s nothing to count, and we cannot plot the trends. Even the United Nations, whose mission is to prevent “the scourge of war,” refuses to keep statistics on intercommunal violence (or on any other form of armed conflict), because its member states don’t want social scientists poking around inside their borders and exposing the violence that their murderous governments cause or their inept governments fail to prevent .61 Nonetheless, a broad look at history suggests that nonstate conflicts today must be far fewer than they were in decades and centuries past, when less of the earth’s surface was controlled by states.

Pockets of anarchy that lay beyond the reach of government retained their violent cultures of honor, such as the peripheral and mountainous backwaters of Europe, and the frontiers of the American South and West (chapter 3). The same is true of the pockets of anarchy in the socioeconomic landscape, such as the lower classes who are deprived of consistent law enforcement and the purveyors of contraband who cannot avail themselves of it (chapter 3). When law enforcement retreats, such as in instant decolonization, failed states, anocracies, police strikes, and the 1960s, violence can come roaring back (chapters 3 and 6). Inept governance turns out to be among the biggest risk factors for civil war, and is perhaps the principal asset that distinguishes the violence-torn developing world from the more peaceful developed world (chapter 6). And when the citizens of a country with a weak rule of law are invited into the lab, they indulge in gratuitous spiteful punishment that leaves everyone worse off (chapter 8).

pages: 956 words: 288,981

Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2011 by Steve Coll


airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, colonial rule, computer age, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, index card, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

His eclectic, inclusive outlook did not seem to be a dodge; it seemed to reflect authentically who he was.19 His views about the global threats America faced in the summer of 1997 stood squarely in the center of CIA and Clinton administration analysis. He saw five “critical challenges” to the United States. These were the “transformation of Russia and China”; the threat of rogue states such as North Korea, Iran, and Iraq; the “transnational issues” such as terrorism, nuclear proliferation, drugs, and organized crime; regional crises; and failing states in places such as Africa and the former Yugoslavia. There was nothing remotely controversial about Tenet’s list; it covered such a wide range of potential foreign policy problems as to be almost immune from criticism. To the extent it made choices, it was a list of hard targets, and it focused on the potential for strategic surprise. It was also the list of a synthesizer, a collator of other people’s analyses, including, crucially, the president’s.

New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. Roy, Olivier. Afghanistan: From Holy War to Civil War. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1995. ---. Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ---. The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations. New York: New York University Press, 1997. Rubin, Barnett R. The Search for Peace in Afghanistan: From Buffer State to Failed State. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995. ---. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System. 2d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995. Rubin, Barry. Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. London: Macmillan, 1990. Scales, Robert H., Jr. Future Warfare Anthology. Rev. ed. Carlisle Barracks, Penn.: U.S. Army War College, 2001.

pages: 419 words: 124,522

Shadow of the Silk Road by Colin Thubron


Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, invention of gunpowder, invention of the telescope, Lao Tzu, Pax Mongolica, South China Sea, trade route

But by AD 100, letters written on mulberry bark were travelling the Silk Road. The archaeologist Aurel Stein, while investigating a watch-tower in the Lop desert, came upon a cache of undelivered mail, with messages in Sogdian dating back to AD 313. These are the first known inscribed paper. Their words are in carbon ink. One contains the outburst of a neglected wife (‘I’d rather be a dog’s or a pig’s wife than yours!’). Another touches on the failing state of China–the sack of cities, the flight of the Emperor–and its implications for trade. But for the rest, across their fragments, the script runs neat as a company balance-sheet: ‘In Guzang there are 2,500 measures of pepper for dispatch…Kharstang owed you 20 staters of silver…He gave me the silver and I weighed it, and there were only 4.5 staters altogether. I asked…’ In a dumpling restaurant that hangs its red lanterns near the city’s drum tower, Hu Ji and his daughter are debating something.

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Any theory of democracy that doesn’t go beyond the cost of mobilization as its only criteria of democratization is a theory that policymakers would be well-advised to avoid, even more so in the digital age, when many costs are plummeting across the board. Not asking those questions would also prevent us from identifying the political consequences of such democratization of access to technology. Only irresponsible pundits would advocate democratizing access to guns in failed states. But the Internet, of course, has so many positive uses—some of which promote freedom of expression—that the gun analogy is rarely invoked by anyone. The good uses, however, do not always cancel out all the bad ones; if guns could also be used as megaphones, they would still make good targets for regulation. The danger is that the colorful banner of Internet freedom may further conceal the fact that the Internet is much more than the megaphone for democratic speech, that its other uses can be extremely antidemocratic in nature, and that without addressing those uses the very project of democracy promotion might be in great danger.

pages: 651 words: 135,818

China into Africa: trade, aid, and influence by Robert I. Rotberg


barriers to entry, BRICs, colonial rule, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, labour market flexibility, land reform, megacity, microcredit, offshore financial centre, out of africa, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, Washington Consensus

China has peacekeepers operating in seven of the eight current UN missions in Africa.30 As the international community contemplates increasing its presence in such locations as the Darfur region of the Sudan, and with the possibility that additional UN peacekeepers will be needed elsewhere, the United States, China, the AU, and other interested parties will need to intensify their consultations in response. The reasoning behind the forthcoming establishment of the new U.S. AFRICOM, reflective of increasing U.S concerns about stability, failed states, and terrorism in Africa, is one point of departure for U.S. and Chinese discussions about security on the continent. In addition, civil society and nongovernmental organizations can become important facilitators for future China-Africa-U.S. collaboration. China’s expansive engagement in Africa thus far has not tapped into Africa’s burgeoning civil society organizations. Working with civil society organizations 14-7561-4 ch14.qxd 9/16/08 4:23 PM Page 309 Implications for the United States 309 operating in Africa, both domestic and international, will prove an effective means to gain a better understanding of local developments and accurately gauge local reactions to China’s expanding role.

pages: 568 words: 162,366

The Oil and the Glory: The Pursuit of Empire and Fortune on the Caspian Sea by Steve Levine


Berlin Wall, California gold rush, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, indoor plumbing, Khyber Pass, megastructure, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, Potemkin village, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, trade route

Yet he had otherwise shrewdly balanced the demands of the great powers—Russia and China, right on Kazakhstan’s borders, versus the United States—and made his country relatively secure for the first time in a century and a half. There was a measure of personal freedom and qualitative distance from its Central Asian neighbors—Uzbekistan’s systematic torture, Tajikistan’s civil war, Turkmenistan’s descent as a failed state, Kyrgyzstan’s perpetual disorder. Yet in summer 2007, Nazarbayev assumed some of the more dictatorial aspects of those regimes, granting himself the constitutional right to be president for life if he so decided, rather than being forced to step down in 2012. At the same time, he lifted the sole remaining grounds on which he could be impeached, allowing himself to retain power even if he committed treason.

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

The popular claim that globalization leads to the convergence of incomes between poor and rich countries has been shown to be demonstrably false, thus far.22 This is not to say that developing countries do not grow through their participation in the global economy or that people in developing countries do not make more than they would have otherwise. It means that when we compare whole countries, income inequality appears to grow wider through the process of globalization—primarily because growth among a subset of the poorest countries (including the failed states) stagnates compared to the rest. The income gap between the richest country and poorest country in the world about 250 years ago was about 5 to 1, whereas today it is around 400 to 1. Although incomes in all countries have risen over the long term, economists have found that “virtually all of the observed rise in world inequality has been driven by widening gaps between nations.”23 Figure 7.2.

pages: 511 words: 148,310

Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide by Joshua S. Goldstein


Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, failed state, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of writing, invisible hand, land reform, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Steven Pinker, Tobin tax, unemployed young men, Winter of Discontent, Y2K

Eckhardt, William. Civilizations, Empires and Wars: A Quantitative History of War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1992. Edwards, Michael. Future Positive: International Cooperation in the 21st Century. London: Earthscan, 1999. Ember, Carol R. “Myths about Hunter-Gatherers.” Ethnology 17 (4) 1978: 439–48. Englebert, Pierre, and Denis Tull. “Postconflict Resolution in Africa: Flawed Ideas about Failed States.” International Security 32 (4), 2008: 106–39. Erlanger, Steven. “Europeans Transfer Chad Mission to U.N.” New York Times, March 17, 2009: A10. European Union [Council of, General Secretariat]. Background: DRC Elections 2006: EU Support to the DRC during the Election Process. EU press release RDC/02/EN, June 2006. European Union [Council of]. EUFOR RD CONGO: The Mission. January 1, 2007. Accessed on the EU website 9/18/09 at

pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell


Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, working poor

The overall debate might be deliberately polarized, framed as the exclusive choice between competing desires for wealth accumulation versus environmental and social protection. Given the extensive environmental and social effects of the tar sands, and the long-term consequences— such as their contribution to climate change and the toxification of the Albertan landscape—petro-capitalism needs cultural machinery to maintain its existing popular support. When this fails, states use physical violence, but for the most part domination works by the failure to recognize the extent of power structures on the part of those who are being dominated. Gramsci’s concept of hegemony indicates the importance of understanding how structures of thought and practice can lead people to tacitly or overtly give consent to their domination, thereby helping to perpetuate the status quo.

pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman


4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Even though the British conquered and burned the American capital city, the private American fleet caused such damage to the British economy that they compelled negotiations. As in cyberspace today, one of the biggest challenges for major powers was that an attacker could quickly shift identity and locale, changing its flags and often taking advantage of third-party harbors with loose local laws. Maritime piracy is still with us, but it’s confined off the shores of failed states like Somalia and occurs on a miniscule scale compared to its golden age (only 0.01 percent of global shipping is taken by modern-day pirates). Privateering, the parallel to the most egregious attacks we have seen in the cyber realm, is completely taboo. Privateers may have helped the US against the British in the War of 1812, but by the time the American Civil War started in 1861 President Lincoln not only refused to recruit plunderers-for-hire, but also blasted the Confederates as immoral for opting to employ them.

Scala in Action by Nilanjan Raychaudhuri


continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, database schema, domain-specific language,, failed state, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, index card, MVC pattern, type inference, web application

import When the Future has the value it is considered completed. A Future could also be completed with an exception. To do an operation after the Future is completed we can use the onComplete callback method as in following: someFuture.onComplete { case Success(result) => println(result) case Failure(t) => t.printStackTrace } Since a Future could be a success or failed state, the onComplete allows you to handle both conditions. (Check the scala.concurrent.Future scaladoc for more details.) Futures can also be created using Promise. Consider Promise as a writable, single assignment container. You can use Promise to create a Future, which will be completed when Promise is fulfilled with a value: val promise: Promise[String] = Promise[String]() val future = promise.future ... val anotherFuture = Future { ... promise.success("Done") doSomethingElse() } ... future.onSuccess { case msg => startTheNextStep() } Here we have created two Futures, one using the future method and the other from Promise. anotherFuture completes the promise by invoking the success method (you can also complete promise with the failure method).

pages: 513 words: 141,963

Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari


Airbnb, centre right, failed state, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, McJob, Naomi Klein, placebo effect, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, Steven Pinker, traveling salesman, War on Poverty

Charlie Chan: The Untold Story of the Honorable Detective and His Rendezvous with American History. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010. Huidobro, Eleuterio. Le Fuga de Punta Carretas. Montevideo, Uruguay: Banda Oriental, 2012. ———, and Mauricio Rosencoff. Memorias del Calabozo. Montevideo, Uruguay: Banda Oriental, 1988. Huxley, Aldous. The Doors of Perception. New York: Vintage, 2004. Inkster, Nigel, and Virginia Comolli. Drugs, Insecurity and Failed States: The Problems of Prohibition. London: Routledge, 2012. Jack, Malcolm. Lisbon: City of the Sea; A History. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007. Jarvis, Brian. Cruel and Unusual: Punishment and U.S. Culture. Sterling, VA: Pluto Press, 2004. Jay, Mike. Emperors of Dreams: Drugs in the Nineteenth Century. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus, 2000. ———. High Society: Mind-Altering Drugs in History and Culture.

Turning the Tide by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, land reform, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

By the late 1940s, the US had committed itself to support the French effort to reconquer their former colony, having rejected repeated overtures from the Viet Minh, the anti-French resistance whom the State Department recognized in secret to be the representatives of Vietnamese nationalism; a favorable response might have permitted the Communist-led national movement to maintain its independence, thus undermining the official rationale for the US-French attack. US intelligence was then assigned the task of demonstrating the required truth: that Vietnamese nationalists were simply agents of the “Commie-dominated bloc of slave states,” in Dean Acheson’s elegant phrase. Intelligence sought desperately to find links between Ho Chi Minh and his masters in the Kremlin or “Peiping”; either would do. It failed. State Department intelligence found evidence of “Kremlin-directed virtually all countries except Vietnam,” which appeared to be “an anomaly,” and found “surprisingly little direct cooperation between local Chinese Communists and the Viet Minh.” The problem, then, was to show how these facts demonstrated the required conclusion: that Ho was an agent of the Commie conspiracy. The problem was readily solved.

pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization,, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

The causes of this cannot be explored here; one can assume, however, that they include the demonstration effect of the defeats suffered by the United States in successive wars, as well as declining domestic support for what is now considered foreign ‘adventures’ by a majority of U.S. citizens. ‘Nation-building’ having failed in large parts of the world, the global system of sovereign development-friendly free-trade states as originally envisaged shows growing holes and gaps, with failed states as a permanent source of unpredictable and unmanageable political and economic disorder. In many of them, fundamentalist religious movements have taken control, rejecting modernism and international law and seeking an alternative to consumerist capitalism, which they can no longer expect to replicate in their countries. Others, having given up hope in peaceful capitalist development at home, are trying to become part of advanced capitalism by migrating from the periphery to the centre.

pages: 391 words: 117,984

The Blue Sweater: Bridging the Gap Between Rich and Poor in an Interconnected World by Jacqueline Novogratz


access to a mobile phone, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, business process, business process outsourcing, clean water, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Hernando de Soto, Kibera, Lao Tzu, market design, microcredit, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, transaction costs

Norton) Portfolios of the Poor: How the World’s Poor Live on $2 a Day by Daryl Collins, Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford, and Orlanda Ruthven (Princeton University Press) The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly (Penguin Books) Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything by Don Tap-scott and Anthony D. Williams (Portfolio Hardcover) The World’s Banker: A Story of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations by Sebastian Mallaby (Penguin Press) INDEX A Abid, Sadaffe, 237 Accountability accepting, 284 for genocide in Rwanda, 190 lack of, consequences of, 131, 200, 213 leadership and, effective, 277 need for, in nonprofit organizations, 34, 140, 153–54, 214 poverty solution and, 272 problems with in blue bakery, 79–80 in Duterimbere, 70–71 success from implementing, 88 Acumen Fund bank credit and, 268 board of, 219 building, 202 challenge of, early, 219–20 change in approaches of, 228–29 culture of, 220 donor-grantee relationship in, 218 fellows program, 278–79 founding of, 216–17, 218–19 Godin and, 279–80 IDEO and, 270 impact of, 281–82 Investment Gathering of, 281–82 investments of by 2008, 281 Aravind, 221–25 Drishtee, 231–33, 275 IDE India, 247–50 Kashf, 237–38 Saiban, 238–47 style of, 229 WaterHealth International, 265–71 for women, 231–32 Muslim world and, 227 naming of, 217 Novogratz’s resolve about, 276–77 patient capital and, 229, 234 Philanthropy Workshop members and, 154 private sector approaches to distribution and, 260–61, 264 registration of, 217–18 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and, 225–27 ADB, 10, 15, 21 Addy, Tralance, 265 Adrien (Acumen Fund fellow), 278 Africa.

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Still, the divergence of fortunes at the top and bottom doesn’t change the broad truth: the world is a dramatically healthier, wealthier, more educated place than before our New Renaissance began. This is especially true for people born poor, who stand a better chance now of escaping poverty and living a longer, healthier life than at any other moment in history. The positive achievements dominate, for two reasons. First: scale. The blunt fact is that the worst cases of failing states and backwards stumbles are relatively small, while the best achievements of the past couple decades are very big. The combined populations of the six least developed countries in the world do not quite equal the population of a single average-sized Chinese or Indian province. Some argue that this fact exposes humanity’s recent achievements as hollow. Take China out of the equation, and the broad picture flips from progress to stagnation.

pages: 424 words: 121,425

How the Other Half Banks: Exclusion, Exploitation, and the Threat to Democracy by Mehrsa Baradaran


access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, credit crunch, David Graeber, disintermediation, diversification, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, income inequality, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Own Your Own Home, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, the built environment, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, union organizing, white flight, working poor

State and private insurance funds have been attempted and have failed because to be effective at deterring runs, an insurance system must be basically unlimited. If you suspected that because of a limited insurance pool, only ninety of a bank’s one hundred customers would get their deposits back in the event of a bank failure, you would run to the bank to make sure you were among the ninety. You would refuse to take even a 10 percent chance of not getting your money back. The effect of a run is the same: the bank fails. State and private funds eventually run out. Federal funds do not. Even when the federal deposit insurance fund goes in the “red”—as the FDIC fund did in 2010—it can get a loan from the United States Treasury, which essentially has the power to insure all depositors.17 Therefore, banks need to be backed by the full faith and credit of the federal government in order to attract customer deposits. However, lending out customer deposits represents just a small portion of their lending business.

pages: 403 words: 125,659

It's Our Turn to Eat by Michela Wrong


Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, Kibera, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shock, out of africa, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, upwardly mobile, young professional, éminence grise

Moi's far leaner economy struggled, in contrast, to sustain the impact of State House's system of authorised looting, which a minister later estimated to have cost the taxpayer a total of 635 billion Kenya shillings (roughly $US10 billion) in the space of twenty-four years.29 Identical practices were viewed in the West with freshly critical eyes. The fall of the Berlin Wall meant support for disreputable African regimes could no longer be justified on traditional ‘He may be a bastard, but he's our bastard’ lines. Many of those bastards were seen to produce failed states, judged – with the menace of the Soviet empire gone – to threaten Western interests. The new head of the World Bank, the Australian James Wolfensohn, gave voice to the new approach when he declared corruption an ‘intolerable cancer’. Donors began digging in their heels, insisting on elections and attaching ever more detailed conditions to their money. Wily presidents responded by playing games.

pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott


Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

The blockchain drastically lowers the cost of transmitting such funds as remittances. It significantly lowers the barrier to having a bank account, obtaining credit, and investing. And it supports entrepreneurship and participation in global trade. That was part of Satoshi’s vision. He understood that, for people in developing economies, the situation was worse. When corrupt or incompetent bureaucrats in failed states need funding to run the government, their central banks and treasuries simply print more currency and then profit from the difference between the cost of manufacturing and the face value of the currency. That’s seigniorage. The increase in the money supply debases the currency. If the local economy really tanked—as it did in Argentina and Uruguay, and more recently in Cyprus and Greece—these central bodies could freeze the bank assets of whoever couldn’t afford a bribe.

pages: 1,509 words: 416,377

Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty by Bradley K. Martin


anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, four colour theorem, illegal immigration, informal economy, kremlinology, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, stakhanovite, UNCLOS, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

A British defense expert, Paul Beaver of Jane’s Sentinel intelligence database, said Pyongyang still lacked the delivery system but had a bomb—so “the only thing they could do at the moment is blow themselves up.” Beaver added that he couldn’t rule out a suicidal gesture.13 North Korea, thanks to the Kims’ reluctance to change, seemed to offer the perfect example of-what Yale University historian Paul Kennedy had begun referring to as a “failed state.”14 That only accentuated the questions of sanity and judgment asked about the Kims for decades. Thankfully, however, ever since 1953, Kim Il-sung’s military behavior had been more or less in his regime’s rational self-interest. And while Kim Jong-il was much less of a known quantity, his NPT withdrawal was not irrational. In the end it would have to be counted a shrewd ploy that increased his negotiating leverage and his regime’s short-to-medium-term security.

., 86 elections, 114, 116, 270, 551, 694 enemies’ role in preserving regime power, 107, 111, 513 energy, 177 coal, 393, 503 competition for, between military and civilian sectors, 505 firewood, corn husks, 393, 405 nuclear (for peaceful use), 435–436, 437–438, 497, 565, 635 petroleum, 391, 442, 468, 483, 645 See also Korean People’s Army (KPA): fuel supply entrepreneurs, moneyed class ideological recognition, 661, 665–666, 700 environmental pollution, 438, 479, 627 espionage, 372 against North, 6, 95, 126, 436 “reality training” for, in South Korean–style conspicuous consumption, 539 See also infiltration; Pueblo incident exile Kim Jong-il reasons to grant, 452, 455 preparations, 494 other top elite’s secret 1990s plans for, 494 See also punishment: banishment (internal exile) face, 110, 456, 561, 577, 645 factions, 501 in Korean communist movement, 30–31, 38, 55–56, 61, 544 See also domestic faction; partisans; purges; Soviet Koreans; Yenan faction “failed state,” 492 families divided between North and South, 143–144 punishment for relatives’ offenses, 290, 297 divorce to avoid, 599 leniency policies, 416, 572, 617, 631 suicide’s family deemed traitors, 607 relationships within, 398 role of, in ideology, 404 family background, status and, 112, 226–234, 301, 309, 310–311, 399–400, 408, 412, 419, 421, 459, 537, 544, 620 farming cash crops introduced, 663 collectivization, 8, 102–104, 162, 265, 359 policy criticized by opponents, 106, 111, 358 Chonsam-ri, cooperative farm, 160–164 Chongsan-ri method, 163 eclipsed by industry, 96 fertility, compared with South’s, 51, 63–64 Haksan cooperative farm, 359–360 hillside planting, 4, 57, 162, 224, 393, 614 irrigation, 161 individual plots, 103, 358, 359, 662 as support network for landless relatives, 663 leased land, Russian Far East, 561 livestock, 358–359, 427, 468, 531–532 mechanization, 163, 184–185, 468 model farms, 8 soil types, 184, 358 weather, effects from, 103 Fate of a Self-Defense Corps Man, 251–252 fisheries, 480 flooding, 552, 553, 556 effect on coal mines, 643 Flower Girl, 254, 272, 326, 327, 361–362 flunkeyism, 9, 88, 89, 108–109, 111 food cannibalism, 618 corn (maize) as substitute for rice, 103, 117, 563–564 famine, 308, 552–553 death toll, 552, 561, 571, 618 rental coffins, 624 grain trading (black market), 103, 500, 517 hunger affecting loyalty, 386 enhancing fighting spirit, 513–514 malnutrition, stunted growth, ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction, skin discoloration, 308, 309, 428, 431, 552–553 meat, 449, 458, 500 pine bark, corn cobs, “green porridge,” 622–623 rationing, 103, 308, 405, 428 irregularity, suspension of distribution, due to shortage, 308, 312, 491, 500, 531 priority recipients, regional imbalances, 418, 560–561, 564, 565, 572, 576, 623–624 rice aid (1984) to South, 342, 392, 415, 427 “rice and meat soup,” promised by Kim Il-sung, 97 shortages, 405 in 1940s, 54, 58, 342, 357 in 1950s, 357 in 1960s, 266 in 1970s, 6, 427 in 1980s, 265, 342, 357–358, 392–393, 415–416, 427 in 1990s, 265, 308, 312, 427, 441–442, 513, 571, 634, 635 slogan, “Let’s eat two meals a day,” 468 soybeans, 103 starvation, 265, 570–571, 618, 621, 624 defection as alternative to, 532 war as alternative to, 488, 526 theft, 428, 442 war reserves, 433, 513–514 deterrent value, 517, 657 See also aid: international food; Korean People’s Army (KPA): food: war reserves, diversion to peacetime use; United Nations: World Food Program force reduction, mutual, proposed 1958, 114 fortification, 133, 338, 513 airfield hardening, 129 See also tunnel(s); underground factories gangs, juvenile, 227–232 General Sherman incident, 13 Geneva conference (1954), 100, 114 Geneva Convention, 86 genocide, 487, 558–567 ginseng, 175 gold, 197, 275, 276, 369, 451, 480, 563 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 352, 397, 400, 465, 574, 628 Graham, Rev.

pages: 584 words: 187,436

More Money Than God: Hedge Funds and the Making of a New Elite by Sebastian Mallaby


Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, automated trading system, bank run, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, High speed trading, index fund, Kenneth Rogoff, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, merger arbitrage, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, pattern recognition, pre–internet, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, rolodex, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, too big to fail, transaction costs

MORE MONEY THAN GOD ALSO BY SEBASTIAN MALLABY The World’s Banker: A Story of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations After Apartheid: The Future of South Africa MORE MONEY THAN GOD HEDGE FUNDS AND THE MAKING OF A NEW ELITE SEBASTIAN MALLABY A Council on Foreign Relations Book THE PENGUIN PRESS New York 2010 THE PENGUIN PRESS Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4P 2Y3 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi – 110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), 67 Apollo Drive, Rosedale, North Shore 0632, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England First Published in 2010 by The Penguin Press, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

pages: 719 words: 209,224

The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David Hoffman


anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier

The United States maintains at the ready about 2,200 strategic nuclear warheads, and 500 smaller, tactical nuclear weapons. Another 2,500 warheads are held in reserve, and an additional 4,200 are awaiting dismantlement. Russia still maintains 3,113 warheads on strategic weapons, 2,079 tactical warheads and more than 8,800 in reserve or awaiting dismantlement. That's more than 23,000 nuclear warheads. Since the end of the Cold War, the world has changed dramatically. Amorphous and murky threats--failed states, terrorism and proliferation--have grown more ominous. Nuclear weapons will hardly deter militias such as the Taliban, or terrorists such as those who attacked New York, Washington, London, Madrid and Mumbai in recent years. The terrorists and militias seek to frighten and damage a more powerful foe. So far they have employed conventional weapons--bombs, grenades, assault rifles and hijacked airliners--but they also want to get their hands on more potent weapons of mass casualty.

pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques


Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

Charles Krauthammer, ‘An American Foreign Policy for a Unipolar World’, Irving Kristol Lecture, American Enterprise Institute Dinner, 10 February 2004. 10 . Philippe Sands, Lawless World: America and the Making and Breaking of Global Rules (London: Allen Lane, 2005), Chapters 3-4, 10. 11 . SpendingVersusRestoftheWorld. 12 . The argument against the inviolability of national sovereignty, of course, has various rationales, notably failed states and so-called rogue states. Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-first Century (London: Atlantic Books, 2003), and ‘Civilise or Die’, Guardian, 23 October 2003; Michael Ignatieff, Empire Lite: Nation-Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan (London: Vintage, 2003). Ignatieff quite wrongly suggests (p. 21) that ‘we are living through the collapse into disorder of many [my italics] of these former colonial states’ in Asia and Africa. 13 .

pages: 999 words: 194,942

Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand


Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language,, failed state, finite state, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

"something is wrong")))) ;= #<Agent@3cf71b00: nil> a ;= #<Agent@3cf71b00 FAILED: nil> (send a identity) ;= #<Exception java.lang.Exception: something is wrong> Attempting to send an action to a failed agent will return the exception that caused the failure. If you explicitly want to check for an error, you should use agent-error, which will return the exception or nil if the provided agent isn’t in a failed state. A failed agent can be salvaged with restart-agent, which will reset the agent’s state to the provided value and enable it to receive actions again. An optional flag to restart-agent, :clear-actions, will clear any pending actions on the agent. Otherwise those pending actions will be attempted immediately. (restart-agent a 42) ;= 42 (send a inc) ;= #<Agent@5f2308c9: 43> (reduce send a (for [x (range 3)] (fn [_] (throw (Exception.

pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin


agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

‘It is well for our countrymen in China to understand’, remarked The Times in 1875, ‘that we are not in the mood to undertake the responsibilities of another India.’2 The restorative powers of Afro-Asian states were still regarded as plausible. The 1870s sawa sea change. By the end of the decade, a vast geopolitical crisis was unfolding across the still independent states of Afro-Eurasia: in the North African Maghrib; sub-Saharan Africa; the Ottoman, Egyptian and Iranian Middle East; the khanates of Central Asia; mainland South East Asia; and China. Here lay a mass of apparently failing states – what one contemporary statesman called ‘dying nations’ and another the ‘outlived oriental states’. Their political systems seemed on the verge of collapse. Internal order was breaking down. Their finances were in chaos. They could not defend their frontiers, which were often ill-defined. They had no means of protecting foreign property or persons. Violence, banditry and religious fanaticism threatened their old social order.

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams


accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

But one thing is increasingly certain: it will take a new way of thinking about the challenges and opportunities associated with the green energy economy—including an unprecedented level of transparency, collaboration, and technology sharing—to bring changes like these about. It’s easy to see these issues as isolated, but in fact they are highly interrelated. Excruciating levels of poverty provide a fertile ground for extremism.15 The failed states in which many of the world’s poorest live provide a safe haven in which terrorists set up base camps and hijack oil tankers to fund their nefarious deeds. Speaking of oil, the world’s unrelenting addiction to its diminishing supplies is sowing the seeds of deeper global instability in the years to come, not to mention the environmental ruin inflicted by catastrophes like the Gulf oil spill. And if that’s not already bad enough, runaway climate change could displace hundreds of millions of people, creating a permanent state of emergency that will make the tragic events in Haiti seem like a mere warmup exercise for the international community.

pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein


1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The three policy pillars of this new era are familiar to us all: privatization of the public sphere, deregulation of the corporate sector, and lower corporate taxation, paid for with cuts to public spending. Much has been written about the real-world costs of these policies—the instability of financial markets, the excesses of the super-rich, and the desperation of the increasingly disposable poor, as well as the failing state of public infrastructure and services. Very little, however, has been written about how market fundamentalism has, from the very first moments, systematically sabotaged our collective response to climate change, a threat that came knocking just as this ideology was reaching its zenith. The core problem was that the stranglehold that market logic secured over public life in this period made the most direct and obvious climate responses seem politically heretical.

pages: 897 words: 210,566

Shake Hands With the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda by Romeo Dallaire, Brent Beardsley


airport security, colonial rule, failed state, global village, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, risk/return, Ronald Reagan

As Michael Ignatieff ned us, "riskless warfare in pursuit of human rights is a moral con The concept of human rights assumes that all human life is equal value. Risk-free warfare presumes that our lives matter more those we are intervening to save." On the basis of my experience force commander in Rwanda, j accuse. We have fallen back on the yardstick of national selfinterest to easure which portions of the planet we allow ourselves to be ned about. In the twenty-first century, we cannot afford to tolerate a ngle failed state, ruled by ruthless and self-serving dictators, arming d brainwashing a generation of potential warriors to export mayhem d terror around the world. Rwanda was a warning to us all of what in store if we continue to ignore human rights, human security and The tens of millions of threeyear-olds like the one I met that Rwandan road deserve and must have nothing less than a ce at life as a human being and not as someone's slave, vassal, chattel, expendable pawn.

pages: 678 words: 159,840

The Debian Administrator's Handbook, Debian Wheezy From Discovery to Mastery by Raphaal Hertzog, Roland Mas


bash_history, Debian, distributed generation,, failed state, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Jono Bacon, NP-complete, QWERTY keyboard, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Skype, SpamAssassin, Valgrind, web application, x509 certificate, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

We will then be able to write fields such as Provides: libstorable-perl (= 1.7) to indicate that a package provides the same functionality as libstorable-perl in its 1.7 version. Replacing Files: The Replaces Field The Replaces field indicates that the package contains files that are also present in another package, but that the package is legitimately entitled to replace them. Without this specification, dpkg fails, stating that it can not overwrite the files of another package (in fact, it is possible to force it to do so with the --force-overwrite option). This allows identification of potential problems and requires the maintainer to study the matter prior to choosing whether to add such a field. The use of this field is justified when package names change or when a package is included in another. This also happens when the maintainer decides to distribute files differently among various binary packages produced from the same source package: a replaced file no longer belongs to the old package, but only to the new one.

pages: 684 words: 188,584

The Age of Radiance: The Epic Rise and Dramatic Fall of the Atomic Era by Craig Nelson


Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, Doomsday Clock, El Camino Real, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, Project Plowshare, Ralph Nader, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, éminence grise

It allows them to satisfy their ambitions without much expense. If they want to intimidate others, to be respected by others, this is now the easiest way to do it.” Journalist Fareed Zakaria countered: “Does anyone really think that North Korea or Pakistan are regarded as fearsome adversaries, countries to emulate, countries with great influence in the councils of the world? No. They are regarded as basket cases—failed states that are dangerous largely because they are unstable and are run by irresponsible governments that are willing to do destabilizing things in their region. The result is they are more watched, cordoned off, and contained than ever before.” Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha, father of India’s nuclear technology, baldly stated the solution back in 1965: “A way must be found so that a nation will gain as much by not going for nuclear weapons as it might by developing them.” 16 On the Shores of Fortunate Island IN the fading-ember days of World War II, Kiwamu Ariga was one of untold dozens of Japanese schoolchildren whose education was postponed.

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

Noting that the head of Egypt’s main spy agency had boasted that he was ‘in constant contact’ with the CIA, Jimmy Wales and the executive director of the Wikimedia foundation invited readers of the New York Times to imagine a Wikipedia editor in Egypt who wanted to edit a page about opposition to the Egyptian military regime, or discuss it with fellow editors: ‘If that user knows the NSA is routinely combing through her contributions to Wikipedia, and possibly sharing information with her government, she will surely be less likely to add her knowledge or have that conversation, for fear of reprisal. And then imagine this decision playing out in the minds of thousands of would-be contributors in other countries’.9 Security is also the field in which the imbalance of power between an effective modern state and the citizen is greatest. (This obviously does not apply to the many places in today’s world where warlords, gangs, businesses or local cabals are stronger than a weak or failed state.) The sociologist and historian Charles Tilly famously observed that ‘war made the state and the state made war’.10 It is in times of war that the state is most likely to invoke both the necessity and its own strongest powers to curb free speech. The First Amendment scholar Geoffrey Stone argues that across more than 200 years, ‘virtually every instance in which the United States has directly punished political dissent has occurred during wartime.

pages: 1,266 words: 278,632

Backup & Recovery by W. Curtis Preston


Berlin Wall, business intelligence, business process, database schema, Debian, dumpster diving, failed state, fault tolerance, full text search, job automation, side project, Silicon Valley, web application

If you have a database with a high level of activity, the transaction log might be full. It is also possible that the log is full because either your disk is full or you don’t have auto-growth enabled on that logfile. Make sure before you begin any of these fixes that you make a backup. This will ensure that, no matter how wrong the restore goes, you’ll always be able to revert back to the last known state. Yes, this state is the failed state, but at least you’ll be able to begin again. If the disk has filled up, you can try to gain a temporary reprieve by truncating the transaction log, doing a backup, or freeing space on the drive by removing unnecessary space abusers. However, this will likely buy you only a short amount of time. The long-term solution is to move the transaction log to a new disk. If the disk hasn’t filled up, but the transaction log has filled up, you can try to enable auto-growth if it is not enabled.

pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker


agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley,, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey

On his return to Denmark, Schumacher applied these experiences to draft the ‘Royal Law’ (Kongelov): the constitution of 1665 that conferred ‘supreme power and authority’ on the king.53 No More Wars Other survivors of Europe's wars proposed mechanisms to avoid future wars entirely. Some wrote treatises advocating ‘universal peace’. In 1623 the French monk Emeric Crucé proposed the creation of a permanent international assembly of ambassadors, to whom sovereigns would present their differences for adjudication, solemnly swearing to accept the majority decision (although, if they failed, states should enforce a settlement through economic and even military sanctions). It was to be a truly international body, and although Crucé proposed Venice as its ideal location, he felt confident that ‘navigation can overcome [the] difficulty’ that delegates from Persia, China and the Americas would face in getting there. Two years later, the Dutch polymath Hugo Grotius published a book entitled The law of War and Peace, proposing conventions to avoid needless wars, and also needless brutality in the wars that nevertheless occurred.