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air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War
House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, Cargo Container Dimensions, Powell testimony November 1, 1967, p. 50, and McLean comment November 16, 1967, p. 121. 35. Ibid., Powell testimony November 1, 1967, pp. 70–71; Harlander interview, COHP. 36. Minutes, combined meeting of MH-5 Load and Testing and Handling and Securing Subcommittees, November 30, 1966; Leslie A. Harlander, “Intermodal Compatibility Requires Flexibility of Standards,” Container News, January 1970, p. 20; Minutes of MH-5 committee, January 29 and May 20–21, 1970; L. A. Harlander, “Container System Design Developments,” p. 368. 37. Marad, “Intermodal Container Services Offered by U.S. Flag Operators,” January 1973 (unpaginated). Chapter 8 Takeoff 1. New York figure estimated from PNYA data; West Coast figure taken from Hartman, Collective Bargaining, p. 160. 2. Ernest W. Williams, Jr., The Regulation of Rail-Motor Rate Competition (New York, 1958), p. 208; Werner Bamberger, “Containers Cited as Shipping ‘Must,’” NYT, January 21, 1959, and “Industry Is Exhibiting Caution on Containerization of Fleet,” NYT, December 4, 1960.
The relevant sentence in the Transportation Act of 1958 reads, “Rates of a carrier shall not be held up to a particular level to protect the traffic of any other mode of transportation, giving due consideration to the objectives of the national transportation policy declared in this Act.” “Coast Carriers Win Rate Ruling,” NYT, January 5, 1961; Robert W. Harbeson, “Recent Trends in the Regulation of Intermodal Rate Competition in Transportation,” Land Economics 42, no. 3 (1966). The case was finally decided in the railroads’ favor by a unanimous Supreme Court, ICC v. New York, New Haven & Hartford, 372 U.S. 744, April 22, 1963. The dubious economics of determining a railroad’s “fully-distributed cost” of carrying a particular load are, fortunately, beyond the scope of this book. 16. Holcomb, “History, Description and Economic Analysis,” p. 220; Bernard J. McCarney, “Oligopoly Theory and Intermodal Transport Price Competition: Some Empirical Findings,” Land Economics 46, no. 4 (1970): 476. 17. Five of the ten leading users of the New York Central’s Flexi-Van service were freight forwarders, but four leading manufacturers and the Montgomery Ward department-store chain also were on the list; see memo, R.
Number of contracts appears in Wayne K. Talley, “Wage Differentials of Intermodal Transportation Carriers and Ports: Deregulation versus Regulation,” Review of Network Economics 3, no. 2 (2004): 209. Clifford Winston, Thomas M. Corsi, Curtis M. Grimm, and Carol A. Evans, The Economic Effects of Surface Freight Deregulation (Washington, DC, 1990), p. 41, estimate the total saving from deregulation at $20 billion in 1988 dollars, with the loss to railroad and trucking workers estimated at $3 billion. 39. Gallamore, “Regulation and Innovation, p. 516; John F. Strauss, Jr., The Burlington Northern: An Operational Chronology, 1970–1995, chap. 6, available online at www.fobnr.org/bnstore/ch6.htm; Kuby and Reid, “Technological Change,” p. 282. Paul Stephen Dempsey, “The Law of Intermodal Transportation: What It Was, What It Is, What It Should Be,” Transportation Law Journal 27, no. 3 (2000), looks at the history of regulations governing intermodal freight. 40.
banking crisis, barriers to entry, Beeching cuts, British Empire, combinatorial explosion, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, intermodal, iterative process, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge economy, linear programming, Network effects, New Urbanism, performance metric, railway mania, rent-seeking, strikebreaker, the market place, transaction costs
As early as the mid-1830s, the railway system was widely recognized as superior to turnpike roads and canals so far as long-distance traYc was concerned. The railways were part of a steam revolution which was aVecting other industries too—including mining, manufacturing, and shipping. Steam railways could connect steam-powered manufacturing at one end of the line with steam shipping at the other—just as the pioneering Liverpool and Manchester Railway had done. Railways facilitated the formation of a steam-based international intermodal transport system, with inter-modal hubs at major ports. Railways could act as feeders to these ports, or as land-bridges between them. Steam facilitated speed, and speed attracted passenger traYc as well as freight. The potential of speed encouraged the construction of long-distance inter-urban main lines—lines very diVerent from the very Wrst horse-drawn mineral railways. It was not long before some inter-urban railway lines earned as much revenue from passengers as they did from freight—in contrast to the major canals, where passenger Xy-boat traYc was relatively small.
The spatial division of labour dictated that diVerent towns specialized in diVerent industries, and this specialization was increased through the improved transport links provided by the railways themselves. Track and trains forged the connections. The conWguration of the network was dictated by the locations of the junctions between the various lines. Railway hubs emerged where several lines met. Engine sheds, goods yards, and engineering works were often sited at these hubs. The UK railway system was part of an international inter-modal transport system. The UK is an island with considerable entrepot potential, sited between northern Europe and North America. Its victory in the Napoleonic Wars meant that by 1830 the British navy controlled the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the North Sea. From the 1840s, free trade and Wscal prudence was national policy. Emigration fuelled imperial expansion, and London banks expanded to Wnance international trade and investment.
Because of the inconvenient siting of many stations, however, local carters and carriers continued to ply a reasonable trade—so much so that some railway companies sought to profit from it by franchising carriers who were awarded privileged access to their stations. So far as the counterfactual network is concerned, therefore, it is necessary to appreciate that, like the actual network, it is a part of an inter-modal system and is fed by local roads. Canals were more serious competitors to the railways. Indeed, some early railways—such as the Cromford and High Peak in Derbyshire—were built as adjuncts to the canals. Canals evolved from river navigations; they cut off river bends, and extended river systems further inland. It was difficult, however, to connect adjacent valleys without an expensive tunnel, as a long flight of locks was difficult to operate.
The Docks by Bill Sharpsteen
affirmative action, anti-communist, big-box store, collective bargaining, Google Earth, intermodal, inventory management, jitney, Just-in-time delivery, new economy, Panamax, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, strikebreaker, women in the workforce
“First Ever Clean Air Conference for Pacific-Rim Ports Attended by More than 25 Different Ports.” Press release. December 15, 2006. ———. “Goods Movement.” www.portoflosangeles.org/maritime/good_move ments.asp (accessed May 21, 2010). ———. “Intermodal Logistics and Port of Los Angeles/Port of Long Beach Rail Infrastructure.” Public rail workshop presentation, October 22, 2009. ———. “Los Angeles Harbor Commission Approves San Pedro Waterfront Project with Plans for Additional Cruise Ship Facility in Outer Harbor.” Press release. September 30, 2009. ———. No Net Increase Task Force. Minutes of meeting, October 27, 2004. ———. “Rail and Intermodal Yards.” www.portoflosangeles.org/facilities/rail _intermodal_yards.asp (accessed May 21, 2010). ———. “Report to Mayor Hahn and Councilwoman Hahn by the No Net Increase Task Force.” June 24, 2005. Port of Los Angeles, Board of Harbor Commissioners.
The hefty brochure Jutzi gives me is full of nice charts of how cargo flows into, through, and out of the country (to Canada, mainly). Allen Development makes a compelling case for the hub, arguing that cargo is more efficiently distributed away from the port in a central location such as Dallas, which is connected to the West Coast and the rest of the country by rail or interstate freeways. Beyond that, my eyes glaze over. Somehow, with all this geeky talk about intermodal point exchange, cross-dock this or that, and logistics something-or-other, I’ve lost the reason why I’m here in Dallas. I want to know how companies, their employees, and plain old consumers are affected by what happens at the Port of Los Angeles, some 1,200 miles away by road or rail. When the longshoremen and employers squabble, or if the Coast Guard shuts down the port because a suspicious package turns out to be a bomb (or not), what happens to places where the port is barely on anyone’s radar?
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
It includes destinations that attract nearly two million visitors annually: the Broad Street shopping district, the City Market, and the South Carolina Aquarium, to say nothing of the Fort Sumter National Monument out in Charleston’s harbor. The College of Charleston and the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina, between them have more than fifteen thousand students and three thousand faculty and staff. At the northern end of the peninsula, the city—or, rather, the Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority, or CARTA—is building a state-of-the-art transportation hub, the North Charleston Intermodal Transportation Center, which will connect local transit, like buses and taxis, with both Amtrak and the Southeastern Stages intercity bus network. Charleston has a strong and growing economy. The Port of Charleston remains one of the country’s busiest, and in 2011, Boeing built a new assembly site for their Commercial Airplanes division in North Charleston. Ten years before that the Charleston Digital Corridor (“18th-century architecture. 21st-century technology”) began actively attracting dozens of telecom, IT, and software companies to the city, in designated neighborhoods like the Gateway District in the north of Charleston’s peninsula, and the University and Wharf Districts in the south.
It’s not an accident. When Charleston passed the nation’s first preservation law in 1931, the city was already 261 years old. The law, which made it impossible to tear down much of anything, therefore also made it impossible to build anything either, so the core of Charleston has escaped most kinds of development-driven sprawl. Charleston’s fundamental transportation need isn’t too hard to figure out. With the Intermodal Facility and Boeing to the north, and most of the Digital Corridor, the universities, and the tourist destinations to the south, the peninsula has two potential anchors for a multimodal, multinodal system. CARTA already operates a traditional, fixed-route, motor bus system both in the peninsula and the surrounding areas, and, downtown, it runs a trolleybus system known as DASH, for the “Downtown Area Shuttle”: three different lines circulating along loops through the southern end of Charleston’s peninsula, with stops at the Broad Street shopping district, the City Market, the aquarium, and both colleges.
The reason is that it is so heavily used. According to the 2010 transport “microcensus” performed by the Civil Engineering Office of the City of Zurich every five years, 32 percent of Zurich’s residents use streetcars and trolleybuses regularly, while only 26 percent depend on cars (and motorcycles/motorbikes). Fewer than half the city’s households even own a car or motorcycle. In addition, while “only” 15 percent of all trips are intermodal (that is, involving two or more modes for the same trip), nearly 60 percent of the city’s residents are multimodal (that is, they use different modes for different trips depending on their daily needs and schedules). And they haven’t forgotten active transportation, either: 36 percent of all trips in Zurich are made on foot, and another 6 percent are by bicycle. It would be easy to conclude that Zurich’s extraordinary transportation network was the residue of historical good luck.
One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Federal financing for mass transit was virtually nonexistent until money was set aside in the Housing act of 1961, followed by the Urban Mass Transportation act of 1964, a piece of legislation providing roughly $375 million over a three-year period—a figure paling in comparison to the billions devoted to highway construction.25 it was not until 1973 that the Highway Trust fund was tapped for mass transit expenditures (minus funds for the actual operating costs, which were dropped under the threat of nixon’s veto), and the creation of an analogous Mass Transit account was similarly postponed until 1983. another eight years would pass before the federal government signed off on the intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency act (iSTEa), one of the first pieces of comprehensive legislation to call for the inclusion of national pedestrian and cycling plans in state transportation planning. in other words, the first time walking and bicycling were seriously recognized as national/federal priorities, in terms of funding and the scope of the policy, was more than a century after the invention of the automobile. yet according to the national Center for Bicycling and Walking, more than 40 percent of all state Departments of Transportation had not even complied with iSTEa’s most basic requirement as of 2003: to develop a statewide, long-range plan for bicycles and pedestrians.26 The postwar redevelopment of the United States was problematic not only because it helped transform the metropolis into an autopolis but also because simultaneously it facilitated both mass suburbanization at home and the geopolitical policies necessary to ensure steady supplies of oil from abroad.27 Tragically, these processes occurred almost immediately following a period when public transportation and walking were common, when more than half of U.S. car owners claimed they could do without their cars, and when there were more than 12 million bicycles in use by 1948, up from 9 million in 1940.28 By contrast, cycling continued to find a place in everyday European life, particularly in England, where the cycling industry thrived and bicycles were widely used for both transportation and recreation prior to, and following, World War ii.29 lewis Mumford was among those who spoke to the problem of U.S. automobility as early as the 1950s, seeing cars not as the end result of technological Darwinism but as a problem to be remedied. in addition to penning books on the subject, he used his “Sky line” column in the New Yorker to wage a public battle against auto-centric planning and, more specifically, robert Moses’s catastrophically myopic vision of new york City as a driver’s paradise.30 in 1963, he stated: The motorcar shapes and forms.
news coverage of bicycle transportation increased both quantitatively and qualitatively in recent years for an additional set of interconnected reasons, including the sheer persistence and flak of vocal cycling advocates, the popularity of both urban cycling and physical fitness, and the mainstreaming of several U.S. bicycle advocacy groups in the early 1990s that tapped into the financial resources allotted to metropolitan planning and transportation networks through the intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency act (iSTEa), thereby improving their capacity for activities like lobbying and public relations.49 The last decade has thus seen large advocacy groups effectively publicize national campaigns like Bike-to-Work Week, Safe routes to School, and Bicycle Friendly Communities, as well as more localized bicycle transportation initiatives.50 Smaller, volunteer-based advocacy groups have also been relatively successful at securing news coverage for grassroots community events like pittsburgh’s Bike Fest, initiated in 2005. national broadcast news stories on bicycle transportation are still few and far between, but the trend toward more coverage—and more substantive coverage—is both palatable and likely to increase due to a faltering U.S. economy, instability in the Middle East, and the prospects of oil and gasoline eventually returning to the highs achieved during the summer of 2008 (more than $144 per barrel and $4 per gallon, respectively). at the same time, news media have for the better part of the last three decades helped to produce a stereotype of urban cyclists as reckless, aggressive, and threatening to both pedestrians and motorists. in the following sections i examine these narratives to show how they problematize urban cycling and contribute to an overall climate of hostility against pro-bicycle and/or anti-car advocates in the United States.
World Bank, “China Transport Sector Study” (Washington, DC: 1985); Jun-Meng yang, “Bicycle Traffic in China,” Transportation Quarterly 39, no. 1 (1985): 93–107; Zhang Xunhai, “Enterprise response to Market reforms: The Case of the Chinese Bicycle industry,” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 28 (1992): 111–139. World Bank, “a Decade of action in Transport: an Evaluation of World Bank assistance to the Transport Sector, 1995–2005” (Washington, DC: The international Bank for reconstruction and Development/World Bank, 2007), xvii. ibid., 63. Walter Hook, “Wheels out of Balance: Suggested Guidelines for intermodal Transport Sector lending at the World Bank—a Case Study of Hungary” (new york: institute for Transportation and Development policy, 1996). G. H. pirie, “The Decivilizing rails: railways and Underdevelopment in Southern africa,” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 73, no. 4 (1982): 221–228; H. W. Dick and p. J. rimmer, “Urban public Transport in Southeast asia: a Case Study of Technological imperialism?”
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
This registration of all systems as information systems a priori tracks software's migration from military logistics to consumer footprints. In this enforced translation of any thing into the status of information within a system, all things may possess their worlds and be possessed by their worlds only to the extent that they possess the attributes necessary for intermodal communication with other platform systems. Whether for bits or atoms, numbers or nectarines, no impedance mismatch can disallow the activation of that intermodality, and so compatibility within a given scale as well as the interoperability between scales, becomes itself the critical vernacular definition of computability as an economic technology. As all systems come to mean information systems, then computation, which otherwise might be defined differently, comes to refer to “algorithms holding systems of information together.”
To engineer systems that coordinate the shuttling of units from one point to another with efficiency, adaptability, and flexibility is to compose within the rules laid down by other systems, larger and smaller, with which interaction is required. If two different systems share common protocols, then the subsystems of one can interoperate with subsystems of another without necessarily referring to any metasystemic authority. Systems swap material in this way, such that intermodality and intramodality come to enable one another: no standards, no platform; no platform, no Stack. The design of protocols, platforms and programs can be as speculative as needed, but the generativity of standards remains. Protocological interoperability works not only to componentize tangible things, but also to represent undetermined relations between things, events, and locations and to provide the means to compose that traffic in advance.
Sakamura's stack was constituent and curatorial; Beer's was constitutive and generative. Beer's model posited a nested series of socioeconomic scales, from worker to nation, through which regulated information would be reported, analyzed, and governed. Sakamura's model distributes operations among widely dispersed components sharing data directly or indirectly for separate uses (e.g., industrial, civic, interpersonal) and so lubricating intermodal communication between people and people, people and things, and things and things. Beer's and Sakamura's visions are asymptotic. Both sought to design a platform infrastructure that would integrate a national society by integrating its material economies into a master computational system, but each is animated by a different conception of that task. Beer's assignment was to help engineer a new nation into being through cybernetics, and so the key diagrams of his stack depict the socioeconomic scales that would come to participate through that system.
Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell
1960s counterculture, AltaVista, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce
Jobs and manufacturing processes have been exported out of the United States to economically desperate and Western-dominated countries such as Mexico, Haiti, El Salvador, China, Korea, Poland, Thailand, and Turkey, many of which have been forced by U.S.-led “structural adjustment” programs to become, more than ever before, the cheap labor pool for the wealthy world. Trade agreements privileging U.S., European, and Japanese capital, and the coordination of a rapid, 175 Susan G. D av i s international “intermodal” transport system of ports, shipping, long-distance trucking, and railroads, have accelerated the importation of very cheap goods into the United States.42 These changes in policy and the international division of labor have made mass-market discounters possible. Once again, as the world’s largest retailer, Wal-Mart provides a good example. In 1998, the New York-based National Labor Committee (NLC) found that the company’s subcontracting vendors in Honduras were paying clothing-factory workers forty-three cents an hour, only 54 percent of the cost of bare physical survival in that country.
According to Crawford, the North American system of scaled malls—from neighborhood to community to regional to superregional— accounts for more than 53 percent of all purchases in the United States and Canada. 40. Jackson, “All the World’s a Mall,” 1114. 41. In some cases, clothing and millinery manufacturing took place on the upper ﬂoors of a store building, but still out of sight. 42. On “intermodalism,” see William Leach, Country of Exiles: The Destruction of Place in American Life (New York: Pantheon Books, 1999), 31–57. 43. Honduras staggers under a $4.3 billion foreign debt load (National Labor Committee, “Wal-Mart Sweatshops in Honduras,” Web-published report: http://www.nlcnet.org/ walmart/honwal.html [June 28, 1999]). 44. National Labor Committee, “Behind the Label ‘Made in China,’” Web-published report: www.nlcnet.org/China/imagine.html (June 28, 1999).
., 50 Globalization, 2, 3, 16–20, 23–31, 35, 38–49, 52–56, 60, 63, 68, 118, 165, 175, 181–84, 190, 208–18, 229, 233 Goebbels, Joseph, 227 Great Depression, 94, 165 Gruen, Victor: indoor malls, 172 Guilbaut, Serge, 29, 30, 52 Haacke, Hans, 22, 48, 52–53 Hahn, Ernest, 178 Haiti, 175 Hammer, MC, 119 Hanchett, Thomas, 171 Hanks, Nancy: NEA chair under Nixon, 43 Harlem Renaissance, 108 Harvey, David, 232 Hazard, Katrina, 114 Helms, Jesse, 46, 50 Herman, Edward, 211, 245 Hip-hop, 116–21, 128 Hitchcock, Alfred, 229 Hollywood, 204, 216, 227, 231–33, 238 Honduras, 176 Hong Kong, 3, 176 Hypertext transfer protocol (http), 201 IBM, 185, 205, 240 Identity, 43, 71–78, 87, 108, 119, 141, 155, 175, 182, 244 Ideology, 24–25, 28–39, 45, 50, 98, 155, 188, 217, 236 I Love Lucy, 183, 235 Imagination, 16–17, 20, 72–76, 111, 131, 167 India, 109, 119, 126, 128, 141 Individualism, 14–15, 17, 23, 34, 45, 237–41, 243; paradoxes of, 12–17, 30, 36, 38, 40, 45, 187–89, 235–38, 241, 243 Indonesia, 44, 125 Inequality, 8, 163–64, 171, 177, 197–98, 203, 218–19 Intel, 9, 123–26, 205, 209 255 Index Intellectual property, 1, 109, 225, 228, 233–43 Intermodal transport system, 176 International division of labor, 2, 176 International Olympic Committee (IOC), 148, 150, 153 Internet, 3, 13, 16, 19, 60, 100, 128, 132, 136, 148, 163, 197–224, 238–45 Internet Explorer (IE), 206 Internet service provider (ISP), 202, 207–8 In These Times, 245 Ireland, 64 Italy, 65 Jackson, Kenneth, 173, 191 Jackson, Michael, 109, 113 Jacobson, Marjory, 45 Jameson, Fredric, 128, 134 Japan, 11, 65, 134, 141 Jar Dance, 114 J.
Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby
AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
A good example of this combination can be found at Schneider National, one of North America’s largest truckload, logistics, and intermodal services providers. It’s a complex business, moving close to 18,000 daily loads, utilizing more than 13,000 drivers and 50,000 trailers/containers. To manage and optimize this complexity, Schneider has been implementing various forms of analytical decision-making for a couple of decades. The analytics are increasingly automated as well, from guiding order-acceptance decisions to recommending optimal appointment times to automatically matching loads with drivers. Each hour, Schneider’s planning systems evaluate millions of potential driver tours over a multiday horizon. One person who has stepped into such systems at Schneider is Travis Torrence. He’s an Atlanta-based “Intermodal Dispatch Analyst” at Schneider and has had the job for a couple of years.
Along the way we’ll introduce you to some good examples of people who have successfully stepped into automated systems in their work, including: • Shane Herrell, digital marketer at SAS Institute; • Mike Krans, an expert in insurance underwriting automation; • Andy Zimmermann, a teacher in the New York City schools; • Alex Hafez and Ralph Losey, who have stepped into legal automation in a couple of different ways; • Dr. Doris Day, an example of stepping in with regard to health-care (dermatology) automation; • Edward Nadel, who monitors risk for Internet startup Circle; • Travis Torrence, an intermodal dispatch analyst at the trucking firm Schneider National. Stepping In Has Taken Place Before There have probably always been people who bridged technical and business environments. As long as there have been complex technologies, there have been people who “stepped in” to understand them and to help apply them to solving business and organizational problems. In the industrial revolution, mechanics and technicians invented or improved industrial machinery to make textile mills more effective.
Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport
Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining
Often the increased number of data sources is incremental, rather than a revolutionary advance in capability. For example, at trucking Chapter_08.indd 197 03/12/13 12:57 PM 198 big data @ work Big Data at Schneider National Schneider National, one of North America’s largest trucking, logistics, and intermodal services providers, has been pursuing various forms of analytical optimization for a couple of decades. What has changed in Schneider’s business over the past several years is the availability of low-cost sensors for its trucks, trailers, and intermodal containers. The sensors monitor location, driving behaviors, fuel levels, and whether a trailer/container is loaded or empty. Schneider has been transitioning to a new technology platform over the last five years, but leaders there don’t draw a bright line between big data and more traditional data types.
A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World by William J. Bernstein
Admiral Zheng, asset allocation, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, call centre, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, domestication of the camel, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Gini coefficient, ice-free Arctic, imperial preference, income inequality, intermodal, James Hargreaves, John Harrison: Longitude, Khyber Pass, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, placebo effect, Port of Oakland, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, working poor
The power to regulate commerce among the states eventually gave rise in 1887 to the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which regulated nearly every aspect of long-range transport in the United States, corroded nearly every industry it touched, and stifled American transport innovation until it was finally abolished in 1995. For more than a century, merchants had sought an "intermodal" shipping device that could be seamlessly loaded and unloaded among train, truck, and ship. In 1837 a shipper in Pittsburgh, James O'Connor, devised a boxcar that could be either fitted with train wheels or mounted on a canal barge, and in 1926 the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railway began to "piggyback" trailers onto flatcars. The ICC decided that such intermodal devices fell under its authority and promptly brought their development to a halt. In the mid-1950s, two events revolutionized the technology. The first was the brainchild of a visionary trucking executive, Malcolm McLean: a prototype of the modern shipping container, specifically designed to stack inside a surplus military tanker, chosen because of its relatively rectangular hull.
The first was the brainchild of a visionary trucking executive, Malcolm McLean: a prototype of the modern shipping container, specifically designed to stack inside a surplus military tanker, chosen because of its relatively rectangular hull. The second was a federal court ruling in 1956 that removed intermodal containers from the ICC's purview. The widespread adoption of McLean's new system saw port costs plummet over the next few decades. If international freight had been cheap before 1960, afterward it became practically free-in the unlovely jargon of economics, "frictionless."49 Freed of burdensome tariffs and shipping costs, goods began circulating more freely around the globe. If shirts or cars could be produced ever so slightly cheaper in a given country, then their production would shift there. At the same time that shipping costs were shrinking almost to nothing, Europe was becoming rich.
Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez
Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, éminence grise
McLean was the inventor of the intermodal container, those metal boxes piled into immense heaps on the cargo ships coming from China. The genius of the container is that the entire workflow around transporting physical goods is standardized on the same 8×8×40 box. Manufacturers load goods onto eight-foot-wide palettes straight into the box. The box becomes a freight car when loaded onto railroad wheels, and once it arrives at a ship, it is directly hefted aboard via those immense cranes that dot every modern port. Piled like Legos on the ship, the boxes arrive at another port and are loaded onto a truck frame, and are driven to their destinations. It’s universal: whether the ship docks in Singapore or Oakland, its cargo will be swiftly loaded and unloaded via the magic of containerization. Intermodal containers make our global supply chain possible.
See also investors; venture capitalists (VCs) AdGrok, 113, 140–48 startups, 96, 154–55 VCs, 121 Game of Thrones, 324, 382 Gartrell, Alex, 476 Gates, Bill, 148–49, 151 Ge, Hong, 322–23 geeks, 29, 100, 107–8, 198, 268, 396 General Motors, 14, 25–26, 82 geographic data, 301 Getaround, 241–45 Gil, Elad, 192 Gladwell, Malcolm, 367 Gleit, Naomi, 356, 378 Gmail, 78, 103, 286, 324 go-big-or-go-home ethos, 206, 300 go-big-or-go-home strategy, 206 Golding, William, 444–45 Goldman Sachs credit crash, 425 credit derivatives, 26–27 departing, 29–31 ICE and, 492 joining, 15–16 partnership management structure, 16 post, 102 pricing quant, 16–18, 24, 29, 141, 207 traders’ contests, 21–24 trading credit indices, 14 Google acquisitions, 155 Ads, 85, 164 AdSense, 186, 275 AdWords, 106, 186, 222, 286, 300, 364 AdX, 461 alerts, 228 auction of keywords, 80–83 campus, 290 clickthrough rates, 451 employee pampering, 264 Facebook war, 492–93 Google Plus, 286–90, 308, 431–33, 492–93 Google Ventures, 78, 83 joining, 346 logo, 124 monetization, 186 PMs, 192 as publisher, 39 RTB, 41 scheming, 382 shuttle, 339 TGIF, 348 graffiti office art, 332–35 Graham, Paul (“PG”) advice, 231 essay, 46–47, 52–53 first meeting, 90 genius guru, 98 meeting with, 60–62 mythologies, 99 offer from, 63–64 on saying no, 187, 203 on startups, 87 startups and, 157–60 tsunami, 102 Graham, Robin Lee, 496 greed, 44, 74 Grindr, 487 GrokBar, 84–85, 184 GrokPad, 95, 100 Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web (Adams), 367 Groupon, 78 Growth team, 373–79, 395 Guevara, Che, 354 Gundotra, Vic, 433, 493 H-1B visas, 70 hackers black-hat, 314 culture, 284 ethos, 284 hackathons, 262, 364 hacker way, 408 kludge and, 47 lingo, 84 multipurpose, 92 N00b and, 269 roles, 91 Zuckerberg and, 270 hacking all night, 406 building AdGrok, 123 configuration files, 92 defined, 47 on demo, 48 experience, 186 mobile, 229 people and products, 8 harassment, 66–68 Hart, Camille, 4–5 hashing, 387 hate speech, 315 Hemingway, Ernest, 106 Herodotus, 421 Herzl, Theodor, 496 Hoffman, Reid, 88 hogrammers, 400 home-brewing, 406 Houston, Drew, 175 HTC, 282 hybridizing, 341 Hykes, Solomon, 119 IBM, 20, 70, 148–49, 325 ID for Advertising (IDFA), 485 identity consumption patterns and, 385 Facebook, 382, 440 hashing and, 387 matching, 434, 438, 442, 466 name and, 381–82 online, 265, 477 PII, 395 work, 285 immigrant workers, 68–72 initial public offering (IPO) drawn out process, 247 Facebook, 284, 309, 342, 358, 371, 378, 399 lockout period, 409, 495 reevaluation, 417–20 on Wall Street, 124 Zuckerberg and, 342 Instacart, 50 Instagram product department, 493 user growth curve, 490 Intel, 70, 122 intellectual property, 134–35, 204, 252, 471 InterContinental Exchange (ICE), 492 intermodal container, 447–48 Internet advertising Airbnb, 25 characteristics, 36–37 digital advertising, 448 effectiveness, 386 Facebook, 3–4, 8, 279–81, 299, 309, 317, 362–63, 368–69, 393–403, 460 Google Ads, 85, 164 IAB, 448 mobile, 484, 487 multipronged, 39–40 News Feed, 482–84, 488, 492 opting out, 485 programmatic, 396, 435 stack, 439 technologies, 429, 446, 454 Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), 448 Internet Explorer, 286 Internet Retailer, 173 investors Adchemy, 163 AdGrok, 110–19, 142, 145–47, 161 advertising, 83 angel, 110–13, 115, 117, 154, 206 choosing, 156 common, 397 early stage, 49 money and time, 74 nature of, 115 New York, 101–2 ownership and, 143 pitching to, 53 potential, 140 running game on, 255 YC, 157, 160 iPhones, 74, 198 Irish Data Privacy Audit, 278, 320–23 Islam, 356 Israeli Psychologist, 458, 476 Jacobs, Josh, 438 Java, 181 Jesuits, 456 Jin, Kang-Xing (KX), 209–10, 398 job offers, 252 Jobs, Steve, 112, 149–51, 428 advertising and, 485 genius, 282 Johnson, Mick, 202, 229–31, 332 Johnson, Samuel, 330 Johnston, John, 154 Kayak, 124 Kennedy, John F., 107 Kenshoo, 125 Kesey, Ken, 404 Keyani, Pedram, 262–64, 410 Keys, Alicia, 370 keywords, 80–83, 293 Kildall, Gary, 148–49 Kile, Chris, 145 Kitten initiative, 291–92 launch, 294–95 sausage grinder, 296 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB), 110–11 kludge, 47 Kobayashi, Takeru, 21 Koum, Jan, 491 Lady Gaga, 189, 228 Land of Stateless Machines, 231–32, 237, 481 Laraki, Othman, 192 The Last Judgment, 334 lawsuits Adchemy, 133–39, 141–42, 152, 167–68, 203–4 class-action, 81 expensive feints, 74 legal problems, 317 Lessin, Sam, 1, 444 Lewis, Michael, 16, 199, 422 Lexity, 83 Liar’s Poker (Lewis), 16, 199 lifetime value (LTV), 486–87 Likes, 6, 208–14, 451 limited partners (LPs), 155 Lindsay, Roddy, 335 LinkedIn, 43, 78, 124, 162, 279 Linux, 337 liquidity event, 45 LiveRamp, 386 Livingston, Jessica, 60 localhost, 95 lockdown, 287–88 Logout Experience (LOX), 376–77 Loopt, 160–61, 178 Lord of the Flies (Golding), 444–45 Losse, Katherine, 445 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 271 machine-learning models, 310 Madoff scandal, 16 Mai, Susi, 126–27 MaiTai kiteboarding camp, 126 major life event (MLE), 411 mallet finger, 45 Manifest Destiny, 356 Manikarnika, Shreehari (“Hari”), 389, 400–401 Mann, Jonathan (JMann), 14 mapping, 291, 398, 490 Marcus Aurelius, 42 marimbero, 304–5 Marine Corps Scout Snipers, 298 marketing digital, 388–89 duplicity, 443 marketers, 37, 74 MMA, 448 PMM, 277, 366 Martin, Dorothy, 360–61 Marxism, 359 Match.com, 54, 387 Mathur, Nipun, 210 Maugham, W.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
The same shortcoming is also why, when one asks to see the social center of Houston, one is taken to a mall.bv As we’ve already made clear, the only urban form that efficiently accommodates mass transit is the neighborhood, with its mixed-use center and its five-minute-walk radius. Only within a neighborhood structure will residents readily walk to a bus stop or tram station. The sole alternative to neighborhood-based transit is the park-and-ride, which could bring suburbanites into the city on transit, if it only worked. Unfortunately, park-and-ride is just another way of saying “intermodal shift”—switching from one form of transportation to another. This is a transit engineering bugaboo, since most commuters, once they’ve settled into the driver’s seat, will tend to cruise all the way to their final destination. If transit is to work, its users must start as pedestrians. While park-and-ride has been effective along old established rail corridors such as Philadelphia’s Main Line and the Long Island Railroad, it has not had much success elsewhere.
Department of (HUD) Houston HOV (high-occupancy vehicle) lanes Howard, Ebenezer Howard, Philip ideology, architectural incentives: federal; state income, segregation by incubators Indianapolis infill projects, see urban infill infrastructure; allocation of state funds for; civic institutions as; and development costs; for new towns and villages; required by automobiles, see roadways; taxes and inner cities; amenities of; cleanliness and safety of; greenfield development as drain on; interdependence of suburbs and; investment security in; marketing to investors of; mixed-used development in; physical health of; retail management in; schools in; suburban competition with Institute of Traffic Engineers (I.T.E.) Interior, U.S. Department of intermodal shift intersections; curb radii of interstate highways Jackson, Kenneth Jacobs, Jane Jefferson, Thomas jobs, location of; in new towns and villages Johnson, Lady Bird Journal of Applied Social Psychology Kansas City (Missouri); Country Club District Kay, Jane Holtz Kentlands (Maryland); alleys in; architectural style in; mixed housing types in; street widths in Key West (Florida) Kinko’s Kraus, William Kruse, Jill Kunstler, James Howard labor movement Laguna West (California) Lake Street (Chicago, Illinois) landscaping Langdon, Philip large-lot development Lasch, Christopher Las Vegas latent demand leasing, proactive Le Corbusier Levittown life safety litter; elimination of live/work units loan programs, federal Locally Undesirable Land Uses (Lulus) local municipalities, policies of location, property value based on location-efficient mortgage lofts Long Island Railroad Longmont (Colorado) Los Angeles; automobiles in Loudon County (Virginia) LUTRAQ McCool, Lorne McDonald‘s MacKaye, Benton McMansion Madison (Wisconsin) Maine main streets; of new towns and villages; office parks versus; shopping centers versus malls; underground, in inner cities; see also shopping centers management techniques, II; crime control and; retail Manhattan (New York City); Greenwich Village; Times Square; Upper East Side Mariemont (Ohio) market experts Markham (Ontario) Maryland; see also specific municipalities Mashpee Commons (Massachusetts) mass transit, see public transit master plans; public participation in Meier, Richard merchandising merchants’associations Merrick, George Metropolitan Planning Organizations Miami-Dade County (Florida); Coconut Grove; Little Havana; Metro-Rail; Miami Beach; Pro Player Stadium; South Beach Middleton Hills (Wisconsin) mile-square grid Minneapolis—St.
Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George
Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning
Standardization was not a new concept: ancient Romans tried it when they shipped liquids in amphorae. In the nineteenth century coal was transported in wooden boxes on canal barges. McLean’s spark was to call on an engineer, Keith Tantlinger, to create a new design that could be seamlessly stacked and locked, using twist-locks. This new box could fit trains, trucks, cranes and ships alike. This ‘intermodality’ made perfect commercial sense, and labour unions hated it. Dockers in particular were furious. McLean claimed his box system reduced labour by two-thirds, reducing dockworkers’ workload, salary and power. This labour force could be powerfully obstructive when it chose, often instigating strikes that became national. In a 1950 survey assessing the popularity of 30 professions among the British public, dockers came 29th.
Ships that carried many boxes would have to be bigger, with deeper draughts. New ports had to be built: New York’s maritime wharfs – too shallow, too narrow – became useless, and the massive Greater Port of New York–New Jersey was constructed instead. The rewards of containerization were too great for the dockers to defeat change. Before containers, transport costs ate up to 25 per cent of the value of whatever was being shipped. With the extreme efficiencies that intermodality brought, costs were reduced to a pittance. A sweater can now travel 3000 miles for 2.5 cents; it costs a cent to send a can of beer. In hard economic times, when there is more supply than demand, shipping a container can cost nothing. By his junior officer days, the captain was in favour of boxes. They looked like a simpler life. ‘No more general cargo, all the work involved, no more gear, cranes, derricks, nothing.
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
Regardless of whether they had widespread solidarity, high levels of class consciousness or an optimal organisational form, they achieved success by being able to insert themselves into and against the flow of capitalist accumulation. In fact, the best predictor of worker militancy and successful class struggle may be the workers’ structural position in the economy. For example, within the early logistics infrastructure, dockworkers found themselves occupying a key point in the circulation of capital. Intermodal transport – the transferring of goods between ships, trains and trucks – was labour-intensive and costly.65 Lodged in a key passage through which goods had to circulate, the longshoremen who carried out the work controlled a major point of leverage. The result was that dockworkers were incredibly militant and lost more work days to labour disputes than almost any other industry.66 The famed strength of unions like the United Automobile Workers also arose from their structural position in the production process and the importance of the car industry to the national economy.
Strikes at these points, such as in the Pou Chen Group in China, pose a real threat to capitalist interests by blocking off an entire supply chain.69 At the other end of that chain, retail distribution is also primed for significant militant action, providing rich opportunities for the disruption of contemporary capitalism’s reliance on just-in-time logistics.70 The significance of such points of leverage can hardly be overestimated. But the past century has seen the conscious and unconscious winnowing away of these points of leverage. The development of shipping containers enabled the automation of intermodal transport;71 the globalisation of logistics facilitated capital’s ability to move factories in response to strikes; and the shift to oil as the primary energy source drastically reduced the number of choke-points available for political action. Today, the classic points of leverage have largely disappeared, necessitating a new round of experimentation and strategic reflection. Experimentation is necessary precisely because politics is a set of dynamic systems, driven by conflict, and by adaptations and counter-adaptations, leading to tactical arms races.
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Califano had irritated the president from the beginning. He had opposed the new Department of Education that Carter proposed and had his own ideas about national health insurance and much else. Blumenthal posed other problems. He liked the limelight and claimed that he was the architect of economic policy. Adams was forced out because he was not a supporter of transportation deregulation. He preferred intermodal transportation planning. Schlesinger and Attorney General Griffin B. Bell had indicated that they wanted to leave, but Carter included them with the men who were fired. Carter then made his thirty-four-year-old aide, Hamilton Jordan, White House chief of staff. Not only did the energy story take a backseat to the political story, which was a lot more appealing and comprehensible to reporters, but the public could wonder about the soundness of an energy plan which was put together by men who were then fired.40 Nevertheless, the Congress embraced the energy program, approving the Energy Security Corporation in June 1980.
He believed that the ICC’s pricing regulations were outmoded, that the separation of trucking, railroad, maritime, and airline regulations was inefficient, but that new government power could plan for the future of the U.S. economy. Richard Nixon, too, tried to create superagencies to facilitate a more coherent transportation system. Carter’s first secretary of transportation, Brock Adams, renewed ideas of intermodal planning. Carter, who fired Adams in July 1979, opted instead for what he called a “free enterprise” solution. Mark H. Rose, Bruce E. Seely, and Paul F. Barrett, The Best Transportation System in the World (Columbus: Ohio State University, 2006), 137, 195–211. 125. Alan Brinkley, End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995). 126. Kahn, “Memorandum to the President,” Sept. 11, 1980, file 9/17/80 , box 205, Staff Secretary papers, Jimmy Carter Library and Museum, Atlanta, Ga. 127.
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning
In the next few years, one after another of the Bells’ would-be rivals withered and died, and all the while Bell representatives murmured about the challenges of surviving in a competitive industry. Indeed, the only companies that would manage to survive as challengers in telephony were the cable firms, who had wires of their own running into every home, and whom the Act of 1996 had freed to become an intermodal competitor, the only kind the Bells couldn’t destroy. Nevertheless, within a decade after the Telecommunications Act of 1996, history had repeated itself, and the Bells once again ruled the telephone system unperturbed. The idea of inducing “fierce” competition over Bell’s proprietary wires, like the fledgling companies that had taken the bait, was utterly dead. Wiping out the competition was only half the dream, however, and during this time the Bells were reaching, none too discreetly, for something even bigger than collective control: the reconstitution of the great Bell system itself.
In an age more reliant than ever on telecommunications media, the more concentrated the power over information and communications, the easier it is for government to indulge its temptation to play Big Brother. With everyone in the country now connected, the fewer the parties that need to be persuaded to cooperate, the greater the risk. With the convergence of all communications by virtue of interconnected networks (aka intermodality), the reconstituted giants of telephony are closer to possessing a master switch than Vail himself could have dreamed. Those are the unremarked costs of the return of the empire. THE CYCLE By 2007, Ed Whitacre had fulfilled his mission, and his destiny. Most of the Bell system was back in place in the world’s largest communications firm, with him at the helm. At age sixty-five, with nothing left to prove, he announced his retirement.21 In accordance with the custom of the early twenty-first century, it would be the occasion for a very sizable payout, over $200 million, making it clear that even if money isn’t the only motivation for building an information empire, it is certainly among the rewards.
Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K
Your QUEST team associates thank you, too, because your idea helps to meet your annual waste-cutting goal and increases their paychecks as well as yours. Lina Marshall, one of our yarn preparation associates in my hometown of West Point, wondered out loud why we were buying Cool Fuel (gasoline with an added green tax) to offset the travel of our sales force but not for that of our plant workers? These offsets went to build wind farms, finance a major trucking company’s transition from all trucks to intermodal (trucks plus rail) operations, even to pioneer CO2 sequestration in oil fields. Lina asked a good question, and it set off a chain of events that resulted in our Cool CO2mmute Program. In it we split the cost with our associates to plant trees that offset the CO2 emissions produced by their daily commutes to and from work. The first year 1,500 were planted. By 2008, that number had grown to 11,573!
For each gallon of fuel burned, twenty-five pounds of CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere, requiring Interface to offset more than 16,000 metric tons of CO2. Maybe it’s a bit complicated, but we offset tons of CO2 as we burn gallons of gas. Using the rebate from fuel purchases, Interface buys CO2 credits from a variety of sources to offset these emissions. The credits come from a blended portfolio of social and environmental projects, including projects for renewable energy, carbon sequestration, intermodal transport, and climate-neutral product manufacturing in other industries. Cool CO2mmute was designed as a way for every associate, no matter where they work, to “walk the talk” on our journey up Mount Sustainability and to show others the way. Launched in 2002, Cool CO2mmute opened up the same possibilities of offsetting car travel for all Interface associates. It is a voluntary program that’s up and running at several facilities to offset the CO2 emissions generated by employees driving their own cars to and from work.
The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu
air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl
In the Ancient Mediterranean era, these included grain, wine, olive oil, fish sauce and paste, salt, and, to a lesser extent, honey, and spices (some of which came from as far away as India and China). Over time, the development of ever better means of transportation (improved sailing ships, canals, and barges; coal, gasoline, diesel, residual fuel oil and kerosene-powered rail locomotives, boats, ships, trucks, and cargo planes; and intermodal shipping containers) and improvements in old ways of preserving food and the development of new ones (from fermenting, drying, smoking, salting, and pickling to canning, juicing, chilling, freezing, and irradiation) provided urban consumers first—and rural consumers later—an ever broader range of commodities that had traveled over long distances, from pickled herrings, salted and dried cods, sugar, coffee, tea, and cocoa to canned fruits, frozen meat and eventually fresh produce, meat, fish, seafood, dairy products, and eggs.18 Apart from increased diversity and volume of supply, advances in transportation also equalized prices between locations.
Last Trains: Dr Beeching and the Death of Rural England by Charles Loft
Charged with integrating rail, canals, bus services and public long-distance road haulage in the national interest while making enough money to cover its costs ‘taking one year with another’, the BTC had been given an enormous task. A small body whose members were generally past the peak of their professional abilities, it oversaw a vast undertaking, the structure of which, divided into executives responsible for railways, docks and waterways, hotels, London Transport, road haulage and buses, was hardly conducive to either inter-modal coordination or central direction. In particular the Railway Executive, which accounted for around 80 per cent of the business, was eager to go its own way. Establishing the new organisation was a complicated process and by 1951 the Commission had yet to complete the acquisition of road haulage companies. Just keeping services running in the post-war economic environment was a significant challenge.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
●This paragraph and the next restate one of the principal arguments to be found in Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck’s Suburban Nation, where the discussion is made in much greater detail. ●Park-and-ride thrives only in cities where driving downtown is prohibitively expensive in terms of money or time, since people who begin their commutes in a car are loath to make the dreaded intermodal shift unless punishment awaits (Duany, Plater-Zyberk, and Speck, Suburban Nation, 138–39). ●No quick Shoupista pricing fix here: Dallas is so overpaved that its super-cheap parking—typically a dollar per hour—is actually the free-market rate. ■This conclusion was supported by the study “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from U.S. Cities,” published by Gilles Duranton and Matthew Turner at the University of Toronto, which finds that “extensions to public transit are not appropriate policies with which to combat traffic congestion” (34).
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, illegal immigration, index fund, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
The new economy of online retailing and e-commerce, rising exports, and more tourism, goods, services, and people whizzing around the world, which has already done so much to spur growth, demands better infrastructure of all types. The Panama Canal is undergoing a $5.25 billion widening and expansion program that will allow for the passage of larger ships. That means U.S. ports will have to be upgraded. If the volume of trade continues to rise, if exports are to double, then rail, trucking, intermodal, and shipping infrastructure will have to expand as well. To attract and handle more tourists, American airports need a facelift and major internal surgery; they have to become as efficient as their counterparts overseas. These are signs that the United States is falling behind, especially when countries such as China are making splashy, highly visible infrastructure investment. In its 2009 Infrastructure Report Card, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that the United States needed to invest $2.2 trillion in infrastructure over five years, and that only $903 billion of that total had been budgeted.
carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, Google Earth, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, intermodal, Isaac Newton, means of production, microbiome, Panamax, post-Panamax, profit motive, Skype, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, traveling salesman
Of course, a modern freighter like the Ottawa, or the China, or the Ever Laurel resembles a sailboat about as much as a 747 does a hang glider. Spars and canvas have given way to seventy-thousand-horsepower engines that burn two hundred metric tons of fuel per day. Wooden hulls have given way to steel, the astrolabe and sextant to gyrocompasses and satellites. And yet, today’s cargo vessels also take riskier routes. When the trucking magnate Malcolm McLean perfected the humble intermodal shipping container in the early fifties, he revolutionized the stolid shipping industry. Containerization introduced efficiencies and economies of scale that made shipping fees plummet. The only way to make more money was to increase volume by making bigger vessels deliver more cargo faster. Hulls had to be enlarged—by 2006 they would exceed 1,300 feet in length, 340 feet longer than the QE2.
Cyclopedia by William Fotheringham
Dick Poole’s End-to-End Eats = Between Land’s End and John O’Groats in 1965 Poole got through 2 pounds of fruitcake, 11 packets of malt loaf, a gallon of rice and fruit salad, 7 pints of Complan, 12 oranges, 8 pints of coffee, 13 pints of tea, and 8 pints of Ribena. ENVIRONMENT Cycling is now a recognized means of lowering one’s carbon footprint. The figures speak for themselves—100 calories takes a cyclist 3 miles, a car all of 280 feet. In 2009 research indicated that if cycling use in cities doubles from 4 percent of journeys to 8 percent, there would be a total drop of 1.1 percent in carbon emissions. If those journeys are intermodal (public transport + bike), the figure can go up to 1.8 percent because greater distances can be covered. On the other hand, cycling as a pastime rather than a means of transport is by no means carbon friendly. Driving from London to the south of France with a bike on the roofrack creates 360 kgm of CO2; taking the train and hiring a bike creates 100 kgm; flying with the bike in the hold creates 850 kgm, more than heating the average house for a year.
Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs
agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population
Government action provides the foundations for long-term economic growth by ensuring that key parts of the social and physical infrastructure are in place and working effectively. At a low level of economic development, government responsibilities involve investing in basic infrastructure, especially roads, power, primary schools, clinics, and water and sanitation. At the next stage, the government must concern itself with highways, Internet connectivity, containerization, and intermodal transport (the interface of sea-, air-, and land-based freight). At a still later stage, the government must invest heavily in scientific capacity and higher education. At all stages of development, the government must also ensure that the basic conditions of a functioning market-based economy are in place. These include a relatively stable monetary unit, a banking system adequately buffered against banking crises, reasonable physical security for persons and property, a rudimentary legal system to enforce contracts and property rights, and a modest level of official corruption that is kept from getting out of hand.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar
The containers would need to be equipped with smart tags and sensors for identification and sorting. The entire system, from warehousing to transport to end users, would need to operate by the same standard technical protocols to assure easy passage from one point to another. On the Logistics Internet, conventional point-to-point and hub-and-spoke transport would give way to distributed, multisegment, intermodal transport. Instead of one driver handling the entire load from the production center to the drop off and then heading to the nearest location to pick up a shipment designated for delivery on the way back home, the delivery would be distributed. The first driver might deliver the shipment to a hub close by and then pick up another trailer and shipment and head back home. A second driver would pick up the shipment and deliver it to the next hub down the line, whether it be at a truck port, railyard, or airport, until the entire shipment arrived at the destination.
The Great Railroad Revolution by Christian Wolmar
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, collective bargaining, cross-subsidies, intermodal, James Watt: steam engine, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban sprawl
The act finally deregulated the rail industry, repealing the legislation that had created the Interstate Commerce Commission nearly a century previously. It was fifty years too late, but was passed just in time to save the industry from collapse. At last, the railroads could set their own rates for carriage, which meant they could ensure that they were high enough to allow them to invest in improvements and earn their shareholders a reasonable rate of return. The carriage of coal, grain, cars, and intermodal containers—which could be used on both trucks and trains—grew rapidly, as the railroads were able to offer flexible and more attractive rates. The railroads were also allowed to close lines without seeking permission, which meant they could mothball unprofitable routes. The results were immediate. In 1981 Conrail made a small profit, and other railroads set about rationalizing their operations.
Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day
The walls that divided “us” from “them” in the Cold War era meant that global exports of physical goods (measured as a share of global gross domestic product, GDP) were no higher in 1973 (12 percent) than they had been in 1913 before the outbreak of World War I.6 No higher, despite the many big, new catalysts of cross-border trade introduced in those intervening 60 years, including the invention of wide-body passenger and cargo jets and a commercial airline industry, intermodal container shipping, mass domestic and international telephony, an international gold standard to eliminate exchange rate risk from international money movements and the multinational corporation. Once the walls came down, the flow of merchandise became a cascade—far greater in volume and variety than during the previous half-century, and mutually reinforcing as new markets and production centers connected into the global economy.
The Fissured Workplace by David Weil
accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business process, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield management
This coincided with the adoption of similar technologies in retailing (by Walmart and others) to transform how those companies handled information and coordinated logistics.6 Schneider Logistics was launched in 1993 to focus on the rapidly growing business of handling the flow of products and materials in the manufacturing and retail sectors, winning a contract to provide General Motors with logistics support for its part suppliers in 1994.7 It used its access to its own network of trucks, trailers, and drivers, major intermodal facilities and equipment, and sophisticated communication systems. Its core competency, which makes it attractive to customers like Walmart, is its expertise in handling imported goods arriving in shipping containers from ports and processing those goods so that they can be efficiently shipped to retail stores.8 With the rapid growth in goods arriving from offshore in the 1990s, retailers like Walmart needed to find efficient means to process, transport from docks, and unload that stock from shipping containers used for ocean transportation, and then sort, record, repack, and load those goods for transportation to regional distribution centers or directly to stores.
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey
And as noted above, financing for good business ideas has become more available thanks to fundamental changes in the financial industry. In most countries, access to capital is no longer the insurmountable barrier to the creation or expansion of a new company as it once was. The ramifications are nearly endless, ranging from staffing requirements to insurance costs to the ability to move operations from site to site quickly. Containerization has streamlined shipping and allowed efficient, reliable intermodal transportation of goods of all kinds. In 2010, the volume of container traffic was more than ten times that in 1980.25 Almost all of the technologies that we either see in museums (the steam engine) or take for granted (the radio) represented a disruption in their time. But today’s technological revolution is unequalled in scope, touching almost every human activity in the world at dizzying speed.
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
“Commercial Ships Spew Half as Much Particulate Pollution as World’s Cars,” NASA Earth Observatory, February 26, 2009 (earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/view.php?id=37290). 27. “Large Cargo Ships Emit Double Amount of Soot Previously Estimated,” Science Daily, July 11, 2008 (sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07 /080709103848.htm). 28. John W. Miller, “The Mega Containers Invade,” The Wall Street Journal, January 26, 2009 (online.wsj.com/article/SB123292489602813689.html). 29. America’s Freight Challenge, p. 13. 30. Freight and Intermodal Connectivity in China, a report sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, May 2008, pp. 19–23 (international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl08020/pl08020.pdf). 31. Ibid., p. 23. 32. Ibid., p. 31. 33. America’s Freight Challenge, pp. 18–19. 34. Ibid., p. 19. 35. Ibid. 36. “Quantification of the Health Impacts and Economic Valuation of Air Pollution from Ports and Goods Movement in California,” California Air Resources Board, April 20, 2006 (arb.ca.gov/planning/gmerp/gmerp.htm). 37.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
Globalization and the American South. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005. Collier, Paul. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. ———. The Plundered Planet: Why We Must—and How We Can—Manage Nature for Global Prosperity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Conway, H. McKinley. The Airport City and the Future Intermodal Transportation System. Atlanta: Conway Publications, 1977. ———. The Airport City: Development Concepts for the 21st Century. Rev. ed. Atlanta: Conway Publications, 1980. Cooley, Charles H. “The Theory of Transportation.” Publications of the American Economic Association 9, no. 3 (May 1894): 13–148. Corn, Joseph J. The Winged Gospel: America’s Romance with Aviation, 1900–1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl
However, in a long personal conversation, after reading the draft of my analysis, he did not disagree with my interpretation of the project of an “architecture of nudity,” although he conceived it rather as an innovative attempt to bring together high-tech and classic design. We both agreed that the new architectural monuments of our epoch are likely to be built as “communication exchangers” (airports, train stations, intermodal transfer areas, telecommunication infrastructures, harbors, and computerized trading centers). 86 For a useful debate on the matter, see Lillyman et al. (1994). 87 Castells (1972: 496ff). 88 For an updated social and spatial, illustrated history of Belleville, see the delightful book by Morier (1994); on urban renewal in Paris in the 1970s, see Godard et al. (1973). 89 Boyer (1994). 90 Jacobs (1993). 91 Machimura (1995: 16).
Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn
affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional
It was a bit figurative to say that the footprints should be kept inviolate down to bedrock, because PATH trains had always run through this area, and Seymour said that the PATH trains were still likely to run along tracks that cross beneath the footprint of the South Tower. The families of the victims were nonetheless incensed at how insensitive the Port Authority was to their concerns. Had they seen the never-released eighty-page final master plan, their ire would have been unfathomable because the PA had placed a “Grand Hall” for the new intermodal transportation and retail center that officials saw as an essential hub for lower Manhattan directly over the complete footprint of the North Tower. Pedestrians would have been diverted around the footprint by a circular colonnade that was part of an interior pedestrian street and public-space system providing access to the retail center and other on-site uses, including a memorial. From the circular central space, entrances and exits radiated outward connecting every street and open space within the site.