Peace of Westphalia

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pages: 756 words: 120,818

The Levelling: What’s Next After Globalization by Michael O’sullivan

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, cloud computing, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, global value chain, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, liberal world order, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, private military company, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, tulip mania, Valery Gerasimov, Washington Consensus

These wars devastated parts of Europe; for instance, in Germany, violence and disease wiped out a third of the urban population and nearly two-thirds of the rural population. The Thirty Years’ War was perhaps the most damaging conflict Europe has endured outside the world wars. In 1648, however, the Thirty Years’ War and the Eighty Years’ War were brought to an end by a series of treaties collectively referred to as the Peace of Westphalia. The Peace of Westphalia, masterminded by the French cardinal Jules Mazarin, constituted a vast logistical exercise, with nearly two hundred states and statelets attending. The treaties that make up the Peace still mark the landscape of international relations and are seen as setting down the principles for the recognition of the nation-state as we understand it. The Peace recognized the right of the leader (prince) of each state and statelet to anoint an official religion and the right of those whose (Christian) religion did not conform to the official state religion to enjoy the right to practice their religion.

It also provides ammunition for many scaremongers, and warnings—with some reason—that the world will soon revisit the bleak 1930s are now commonplace. There is plenty in our history books to both inform and mislead us as to what might happen next to our societies. However, one period I am drawn to is the middle of the seventeenth century and its momentous events. The end of the Thirty Years’ War through the Peace of Westphalia gave rise to the concept of nation-states as we know them. It was also a moment when laws and institutions were formed and began to be respected. In England and, later, the United States and France, the first stirrings of democracy arose, along with the notion of popular rule. My own country, Ireland, is bounded by these three Atlantic powers, and much of its history has been determined by its relationship with them.

This kind of conference, though not unprecedented in history (think of the 1924 and 1953 debt conferences that allowed Germany debt relief), would be highly unusual and would be both a sign and an acknowledgment of how bloated debt levels have become. Such a conference would be part of the laying down of the initial rules of the game for a multipolar world. Like the system put in place by the historic Peace of Westphalia (1648), it could be one where nation-states bear greater responsibility, in this case for their financial health. The overriding aim would be to encourage risk bearing rather than risk sharing of debt, in much the same way that Westphalia encouraged individual states and statelets to bear political and identity risk. This world treaty on financial risk could be crafted along the lines of existing large-scale environmental or nuclear weapons deals.


pages: 461 words: 139,924

The Habsburgs by Martyn Rady

Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, night-watchman state, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, spice trade, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise

On the back of the peace treaty, the Dutch West India Company rapidly succeeded in taking over and enlarging the Central African slave trade. In the half century after Westphalia, about fifty thousand African slaves went through the Dutch ‘processing plant’ at Curaçao in the southern Caribbean for onward shipment to the Spanish New World and its Pacific Ocean territories. The Peace of Westphalia may have brought an end to the Thirty Years War, but it also promoted the violence of the worldwide traffic in African slaves that would ultimately claim more than twelve million lives.19 14 THE ABNORMAL EMPIRE AND THE BATTLE FOR VIENNA The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 had left it unclear what the Holy Roman Empire was. Thanks to the work of the French philosopher Jean Bodin (1530–1596) political power was now understood in terms of an indivisible sovereignty exercised over a defined territory. But where sovereignty lay in the empire was uncertain, and one author (Johann Jacob Moser) wrote no fewer than seventy volumes trying to unravel the conundrum.

But the enemy was divided, with the governments in Stockholm and Paris frequently at odds over strategy and distrustful of each other’s motives. By promising to let the French king, Louis XIV, have a free hand in Spain and to maintain neutrality in the war on the Pyrenees, Ferdinand was able to convince his principal adversary to negotiate. A hefty promise of cash brought the Swedes round.18 The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years War in 1648, was mostly concerned with nuts and bolts—what borders should be changed, whose rights to territory affirmed, and whether the dukes of Bavaria should be allowed to keep the title of elector, originally conveyed upon them by a grateful Ferdinand II in 1623. It affirmed, however, that the princes of the Holy Roman Empire might choose their own religion and admitted Calvinism as one option, but it allowed their subjects the right to practise their own beliefs too (within certain limits).

In future, disputes over church property and the extent of freedom of conscience were to be a matter for the courts to decide—and the central court of the empire was specifically renewed to this end, with equal numbers of Protestant and Catholic judges appointed. An important exemption was won, however, by Ferdinand III, which meant that he was not obliged to permit freedom of worship in his territories. The labour of reconversion to Catholicism that had been undertaken in Bohemia and the Austrian lands was not, therefore, to be reversed. The Peace of Westphalia aimed to achieve ‘a general peace in Christendom’, on which account it has been celebrated as providing the first ‘European constitution’ and as marking a crucial moment in the evolution of modern Europe. But it was a global peace treaty, too, since its provisions included the settlement of all conflicts between Habsburg Spain and the Dutch United Provinces, ‘upon the sea and other waters, as upon the land… in the East and West Indies, and in Brazil, as well as upon the coasts of Asia, Africa and America.’


pages: 330 words: 83,319

The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder by Sean McFate

active measures, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, hive mind, index fund, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero day, zero-sum game

Olson, “The Continuing Irrelevance of Clausewitz,” Small Wars Journal, 26 July 2013, http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/the-continuing-irrelevance-of-clausewitz. 6. Terms used interchangeably: This book treats “conventional,” “regular,” and “symmetrical” war as the same. Similarly, it uses the terms “nation-state” and “state” interchangeably. 7. Peace of Westphalia: The consensus view among political scientists is that the Peace of Westphalia represents the birth of the modern world order. However, the language of the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, which compose the Peace, do not articulate an international system of states. Rather, they are merely a ceasefire that twentieth-century scholars have reified into fact. For more, see Stephen D. Krasner, “Westphalia and All That,” in Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, ed.

The armies of Sweden, then a superpower, destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages, and 1,500 towns in Germany alone. Disease and famine were rampant, and tens of thousands of people became refugees, wandering the plains of Europe and getting picked off by bands of roving mercenaries. Rape was routine. By the war’s end, eight million were dead and most of central Europe was wiped out. The continent took a century to recover. Out of this inferno came the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which gave birth to a new international order, one uniquely ruled by states. Prior to that moment, Europe was a medieval free-for-all. Anyone with money could wage war, and everyone did. Kings, aristocratic families, cities, and even popes hired mercenary armies to do their bidding, no matter how petty. War was everywhere, all the time, and so was human suffering. It was the Wild West.

See World powers, new types of Nigeria, 135, 140, 143, 150, 152 Nihilists, 13 Nineveh Plain Protection Units, 145 Nisour Square massacre, 121–22, 129 Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 136 Nonwar wars, 64–70 Norman Conquest, 126 Normandy Invasion, 1, 234, 249 North Korea, 70, 81, 109, 216, 245 NSC-68, 78 Nuclear arms race, 21, 78–79, 188 Nuclear weapons, 9, 16, 48, 66, 103 Nusra Front, 135–36 Obama, Barack, 130, 131, 158, 167–68 Occupy Wall Street, 160, 165 Oil companies, hiring of mercenaries, 136, 152, 155 Oligarchs, 134, 153 Olmert, Ehud, 241–43 Olson, William J., 21, 48 One percenters. See Super-rich On War (Clausewitz), 29 “Operational art,” 234 Operation Lentl, 97 Operation PBSUCCESS, 210–11 Operation Zapad-81, 104 Opium Wars, 180 Opportunity costs, 46 Orange Revolution, 112–13 Pakistan, 41, 245 Panetta, Leon, 15 Paracel Islands, 60, 68 Paramilitaries, 149, 177–78 Patton, George S., 1, 234, 248–49 “Peaceful resolution,” 7–8 Peace of Westphalia, 30–31, 265n “Peace.” See also War and peace “victory” vs., 221–22 Pearl Harbor attack, 19, 64, 249 Peloponnesian War, 74, 212 Perry, Oliver Hazard, 33 Pershing, John J., 18 Petraeus, David, 90–92, 93, 97, 163 Pham Xuan An, 226 Pichai, Sundar, 51 Plausible deniability, 8, 41, 117, 191, 198, 199, 205, 207, 209, 213, 246 Political scientists, 76 “Political solution,” 7–8 Politics and corporations, 165–68 Praetorianism, 157, 192–93 Prince, Erik, 129 Prince, The (Machiavelli), 123–24, 126 Privateers, 136–37 Private military industry.


pages: 190 words: 56,531

Where We Are: The State of Britain Now by Roger Scruton

bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, Corn Laws, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Fellow of the Royal Society, fixed income, garden city movement, George Akerlof, housing crisis, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, old-boy network, open borders, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, sceptred isle, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, web of trust

Where citizens are appointed to administer the state, the result is ‘republican’ government.3 And citizenship has been the most evident gift of the modern nation state, in which people accept a territorial definition of membership in place of the religious and dynastic definitions that had led to the conflicts which tore Europe apart at the Reformation. In this sense the ‘subjects’ of our Queen are also citizens, and in some respects more obviously citizens than many other European nationals. This does not mean that all nation states are composed of citizens. In several of the nation states that emerged from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 the people were not citizens but subjects, in the traditional understanding of that term. Subjection is the relation between the state and the individual that arises when the state need not account to the individual, when the rights and duties of the individual are undefined or defined only partially and subject to erasure, and when there is no rule of law that stands higher than the state.

It is not an identity that is everywhere shared by Muslims, whose religion, in its more vehement forms, refuses to admit the legitimacy of secular government or the equality of all subjects, regardless of sex or creed. Of course, Muslims too can adopt a national conception of their public duties, and define their social membership in secular terms. But in doing so they are adopting an identity that is at best only implicit in their faith. Three and a half centuries of civilization since the Peace of Westphalia have erased many of the linguistic, geographical and cultural boundaries that lay across our continent. It is safe to say, however, that the sense of national identity remains, and maintains its hold over the European psyche. The sense of a pan-European identity is more exalted, more a matter of brain than heart, more aspirational and also, for that very reason, more elusive and fragile. The identity bestowed by territory and self-government is profound and self-evident; that nourished by wider historical, ethical and cultural ties is more tentative and in a way more inspiring.

W. here manif pour tous here Marxism here, here Mason, Paul here May, Theresa here membership, concept of here Mendelssohn, Felix here Mendelssohn, Moses here Merger Treaty (1967) here Merkel, Angela here, here metric system here military power here Mill, John Stuart here, here Miłosz, Czełsaw here Minsk agreement negotiations here Mitscherlich, Alexander and Margarete here Mitterand, Francois here Monnet, Jean here, here multiculturalism here, here see also globalization Murray, Douglas here Muslims see Islam Napoleon Bonaparte here nation states here, here, here, here, here, here National Trust here, here nationalism here, here nationality/nationhood here, here, here, here NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) here, here neighbourhood and home here Netherlands here, here network psyche here, here see also business in cyberspace New Zealand here, here Nightingale, Florence here ‘no popery’ riots here nostalgia, accusations of misplaced here Occupiers’ Liability Act (1957) here, here Odyssey (Homer) here Ofsted here oikophilia here, here oikophobia, impact of here, here, here, here, here oikos here Orwell, George here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Ostrom, Elinor here Owen, Robert here, here Paris, France here, here, here Parliament, British here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also Brexit patriotism here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here peace, maintenance of here Peace of Westphalia (1648) here, here Peasant’s Revolt (1831) here People’s Dispensaries here Pericles here popular culture here, here, here pornography, internet here ‘Pride of Derby’ case (1952) here Protestant Irish here Protestant Succession here, here Protestantism here, here Provincial Medical and Surgical Association here Public Health Act (1875) here Putin, Vladimir here racism, accusations of here, here, here, here Ramblers Association/The Ramblers here real estate here Reform Bill (1832) here Reformation here, here refugee crisis here religionin Britain here, here Christianity here, here creed communities here law and here, here see also Islam Renan, Ernest here, here Rivers Pollution Prevention Acts (1876 and 1893) here Roberts, Andrew here Robespierre, Maximilien here Roman-law here, here Rorty, Richard here Ruskin, John here Sartre, Jean-Paul here Saudi Arabia here, here Scotland here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Scottish National Party here Second World War here, here Serroy, Jean here sexual inequality here Shari’ ah law here, here Shaw-Lefevre, George here Shi’a Islam here Single Market, European here, here Smith, Adam here social contract here, here social media here, here see also network psyche sovereignty here, here, here, here, here, here Spain here Spectator magazine here Spengler, Oswald here Starkey, David here Statute of Forcible Entry (1381) here Sturgeon, Nicola here subjection here Sunni Islam here territory, shared see nationality/nationhood terrorism here, here, here, here, here The Times here Thompson, E.


pages: 443 words: 125,510

The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities by John J. Mearsheimer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, Clive Stafford Smith, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal world order, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Peace of Westphalia, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs

Wedgwood, The Thirty Years War (London: Jonathan Cape, 1938); Peter H. Wilson, The Thirty Years War: Europe’s Tragedy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011). Regarding the importance of the Treaty of Westphalia for beginning the age of sovereignty, see Leo Gross, “The Peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948,” American Journal of International Law 42, no. 1 (January 1948): 20–41. Some scholars, however, challenge Gross’s interpretation. See Andreas Osiander, “Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth,” International Organization 55, no. 2 (April 2001): 251–87; Derek Croxton, “The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty,” International History Review 21, no. 3 (September 1999): 569–91. I agree with Daniel Philpott’s assessment “that Westphalia signals the consolidation, not the creation ex nihilo, of the modern system.

Sovereignty may have helped put an end to those deadly religious wars, but it did not stop the European states from engaging in balance-of-power politics, which led them to violate the norm whenever they thought their vital interests were at stake. Nor was the concept of sovereignty meant to apply outside Europe, an exception that left the European great powers free to build empires throughout the world. So sovereignty had little effect on the behavior of European states for roughly two hundred years after the Peace of Westphalia.19 With the growth of nationalism—in Europe during the nineteenth century and in the colonial empires during the twentieth century—sovereignty became a more meaningful concept. Nationalism, which is all about self-determination, says that the people living inside a state’s borders have the right to determine their own fate, and no outside power has the right to impose its views on another nation-state.

But the principle of non-interference must be qualified in important respects.”21 Five years later, in March 2004, as he was trying to justify the Iraq war, Blair referred back to his Chicago speech: “So, for me, before September 11th, I was already reaching for a different philosophy in international relations from a traditional one that has held sway since the treaty of Westphalia in 1648; namely that a country’s internal affairs are for it and you don’t interfere unless it threatens you, or breaches a treaty, or triggers an obligation of alliance.”22 In May 2000, the German foreign minister Joschka Fischer told a Berlin audience: “The core concept of Europe after 1945 was and still is a rejection of the European balance-of-power principle and the hegemonic ambitions of individual states that emerged after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, a rejection that took the form of a closer meshing of vital interests and the transfer of nation-state sovereign rights to supranational European institutions.”23 This theme has resonated widely in the academic world, as reflected in books with titles such as Beyond Westphalia? State Sovereignty and International Intervention and The End of Sovereignty? The Politics of a Shrinking and Fragmenting World.24 Given its power and its deep-seated commitment to liberal principles, the United States has spearheaded the post–Cold War assault on sovereignty.


pages: 518 words: 143,914

God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is Changing the World by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Brooks, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

The quotations above come from a speech made by Cromwell to the English Parliament in 1656. A year later Parliament passed an oath of loyalty in which English Catholics were asked to disown the pope and most of the canons of Catholic belief, or face losing two-thirds of their worldly goods. Bloody though Cromwell’s religious wars had been, especially in Ireland, the worst in Europe in terms of religion was largely over. For that, people had to thank the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Thirty Years’ War that preceded the treaty had brought astonishing destruction, more destruction than the Black Death as Protestants and Catholics slaughtered each other by the millions. The treaty laid down the foundations of the modern state system by giving each ruler the right to determine how God was worshipped within their own territory. This not only brought an end to the era of religious wars between Christians, with their bloody fanaticism, by, in effect, forbidding one country to make war on another country for religious reasons; it led to the secularization of foreign policy.

This not only brought an end to the era of religious wars between Christians, with their bloody fanaticism, by, in effect, forbidding one country to make war on another country for religious reasons; it led to the secularization of foreign policy. In his monumental study History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe (1866), W. E. H. Lecky, one of the great Irish public intellectuals of the Victorian age, celebrated the Peace of Westphalia as one of the turning points in European history:It was in this way that, in the course of a few centuries, the foreign policy of all civilized nations was completely and finally secularized. Wars that were once regarded as simple duties became absolutely impossible. Alliances that were once deemed atrocious sins became habitual and unchallenged. That which had long been the center around which all other interests revolved, receded and disappeared, and a profound change in the actions of mankind indicated a profound change in their belief.7 The ending of the wars of religion was indeed a huge achievement.

Discussions of modernization were dominated by secular questions. Does modernization entail democratization? Or are enlightened autocracies better at ensuring stability and growth? And what is the proper relationship between governments and the market? Few had time to think about God when there were so many earthly things to worry about. The roots of this ignorance reach right back to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Europe’s wars of religion proved so bloody that the Continent’s rulers devised an elaborate set of rules to keep religion out of warfare. There have been plenty of bloody evils to deal with since, including fascism and communism, but they have been secular evils. During that long religious cease-fire, diplomats became thoroughly secularized. Those diplomats who preserved an interest in religion regarded it as a purely private affair—rather like a taste for bondage—and certainly not something that ought to feature in their policy calculations.


pages: 872 words: 135,196

The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security by Deborah D. Avant

barriers to entry, continuation of politics by other means, corporate social responsibility, failed state, hiring and firing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rolodex, The Nature of the Firm, trade route, transaction costs

For a start down this path, see Kimberly Marten, Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). Introduction 27 from the beginning of the twelfth century, and from the end of the thirteenth century through the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 virtually all force was allocated through the market. Furthermore, the rise of the state did not immediately preclude the market allocation of violence. Early modern states both delegated control over force to commercial entities and participated in the market as both suppliers and purchasers. In the era before the rise of the state, market allocation of force prevailed and virtually all force was contracted.65 Stretching from the twelfth century through the Peace of Westphalia, military contractors employed forces that had been trained within feudal structures (and were frequently licensed by feudal lords) and then contracted with whomever could pay – Italian city states, the pope, emerging states, other feudal lords, and more.66 In many cases, the contractor would earn the revenue for these forces, but sometimes the money went into government hands.

As Philip Cerny puts it, “the more that the scale of goods and assets produced, exchanged, and/or used in a particular economic sector or activity diverges from the structural scale of the national state – both from above (the global scale) and from below (the local scale) – and the more these divergences feed back into each other in complex ways, then the more that the authority, legitimacy, policy making capacity, and 84 85 Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996); Laura Reed and Carl Kayson, Emerging Norms of Justified Intervention (Cambridge, MA: Committee on International Security Studies, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993); Fernando Teson, Humanitarian Intervention: an Inquiry into Law and Morality (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Transaction Publishers, 1988). Cohen, “Defending America’s Interest in the Twenty-First Century.” Van Creveld builds this notion when he argues that the nature of war as we have known it since the Peace of Westphalia is changing. Unless the state can muster its capacity to confront low intensity conflict, it will destroy the basis of state authority and break down the divisions between public and private, crime and war, etc. Pretending that war against other states is the only real war and that past conventions will dictate the future, fallacies he attributes to Clausewitz, will cause the demise of the state.

Kayode 4, 6 Fennell, James 4 Fenning, Richard 131 feudal lords 25, 27, 246 Finer, Samuel E. 68 fit see reinforcing process foreign military sales (FMS) 129 foreign policy by proxy 4, 65, 68, 152, 155 absence in South Africa 167 Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) 205 Frasure, Bob 153 Frederick, Nicholas, and Duncan (FND) 19, 160 Freeman, Jody 53, 55 Friedman, Milton 191 Fynwest 18 Game Rangers’ Association 210 Gantz, Peter 238 Garamba National Park 39, 77, 204–15, 237 Gardiner, Colonel Sam 259 Geneva Convention 232 Geolink 17 Global Development Four (GD4) 20 Global Impact 18 Global Options 18 Global Risk Holdings 20 globalization 31, 32–34, 144, 229, 257–58 GOAL 16 Goma Camps 39, 77, 192–203 governance 36, 63, 73, 79, 204, 230 role by commercial actors 190, 191–92 networked 241–43 Gowa, Joanne 135 Grant, Bruce 155 Gray Security 20, 160 Grunberg, Michael 86 Guenee, Bernard 245 Gulf War 6, 19, 29 guns for hire see mercenaries Gurkha Security Guards 18 in Sierra Leone 84–86, 96, 98, 225–26 Haliburton see Kellogg, Brown, and Root Hart Group 233 Hauser, Robert 195 Held, David 228–29 305 Henderson, David 191–92 Herbst, Jeffrey 221 Heritage Oil and Gas 159 Hobbes, Thomas 46 Hoffman, Jerry 131 Holbrook, Richard 153 Holy Roman Empire 230, 250 human rights see international norms/ values, human rights Human Rights Watch 189 Hungary 148 Huntington, Samuel 41 Hussein, Saddam 259 Ibis Air 18, 19 ICI Oregon 19, 20, 147, 149, 156 imperial force 244 information asymmetry 58, 59 Institut Zaı̈rois pour le Conservation de la Nature (IZCN became IUCN) 205, 206 institutional mechanisms see mechanisms of control institutional theory 38, 58, 72–76 model 40, 78, 79, 81, 145, 179–80, 229–30 and the US 132 see also new institutionalism institutionalization 55 interest motivated 72 International Alert 187 International Business Leaders’ Forum 197 international civilian police 20, 127 International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries 230 International Defense and Security (IDAS) 18 International Law Concerning the Conduct of Hostilities 232 international law 52, 53, 69, 188, 230 and private security 230–36 and South Africa’s Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act 164–67 see also laws of war International Monetary Fund (IMF) 34, 35, 119 international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) 30, 38, 50, 69, 71–72, 73–74, 76, 148, 159, 170 Index as value motivated actors 71–72 literature on 179 in Iraq 2 and financing security 256 humanitarian INGOs 192–203 conservation INGOs 204–15 and Chad-Cameroon Pipeline 241 international norms/values 5, 43–44, 53, 54, 60–61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 74–75, 76, 81, 130, 178, 181, 200, 219 and British PSCs 174–75 and American PSCs 157 conservation 207, 215 and extractive companies 191 human rights 61–76, 161, 181, 221, 224 and EO 164 and EO in Sierra Leone 96, 113 and MPRI in Croatia 110–13 rule of law 51, 61 and Sandline in Sierra Leone and South African PSCs 166 see also international law; laws of war international organizations (IOs) 50, 69, 148, 159, 257 International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) 222 International Port Services Training Group 18 International Rhino Foundation 206–15 Iran/Contra Scandal 115 Iraq 8, 29, 67, 121, 147, 157, 160, 170, 226, 233, 256, 260 participation of South African PSCs in 166, 237 Iraqi Army 1, 18, 130, 131 Iraqi Police 131 Italian City States 27, 230, 250 IUCN see Institut Zaı̈rois pour le Conservation de la Nature Jacobite Rebellion 28 Janowitz, Morris 42, 51–52 Jones, Bruce 196 Jupiter Mining Company 93 just war 246 Kabbah, Ahmed Tejan 95–98, 171, 173, 175 Kabila, Laurent 208 Kagame, Paul 195 Index Kaldor, Mary 251 Kamajors (Kamajoisia) 88–98, 171 Kaplan, Robert 34 Karzai, Hamid 20, 123 KAS Enterprises 18 Keegan, John 3 Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) 20, 22, 147, 148, 149, 156, 262 Kemp, Elizabeth 209 KMS 169 Koroma, Johnny Paul 92–93, 96 Kosovo 201, 222 laws of war 51, 236 Levden 18 Levi, Margaret 1, 46 Liberalism 54 136 liberal values 52 see also international values Liberia 152 Lifeguard Security 20, 88, 93, 159, 160, 166 Liutingh, Lafras 87 logic of appropriateness 50, 54 logic of consequences 54 Logicon 18 Lonhro 85 Machiavelli, Niccolò 249 Mandela, Nelson 158, 164, 165 Mansfield, Count Von 249 March, James 254 market for force 25–30, 30–38, 39, 65–70, 219, 253 implications of 3–7, 53 from the US 146–49 transnational 7–22, 166, 175–77 McNeill, William 247, 250 mechanisms of control 6, 38, 56–57, 72, 79, 180, 230, 262 market 39, 67, 219–28 consumer 67, 144–45 consequential 6, 54, 70, 71, 143, 154, 178, 179 see also budgetary control, monitoring, screening and selection social 6, 55, 68–69, 71, 75, 178, 179 see also education, military professionalism: military professional norms and standards 306 mercenaries 8, 22–23, 29, 69, 172, 222, 227, 231, 247, 249 guns for hire/soldiers of fortune 4, 121, 213, 222 mercenary reputation 85 and Sandline 94 see also private armies Mesic, Stipe 108 Migdal, Joel 57, 82 military contractors 27, 28–30, 245–47 military effectiveness 59, 61, 62, 136, 139–40, 224–25 in Sierra Leone 114–96 in Croatia 110 in the US 138 see also control of force, functional control; reinforcing process of control Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA) 234, 235 Military Professional Resources International (MPRI, now part of L-3 Communications) 9, 18, 19, 20, 35, 122, 124, 129, 131, 134, 148, 152–55, 221, 245 in Angola 150 in Croatia 101–13, 128, 156, 255 Croatian Army Readiness Training Program 106 in Equatorial Guinea 150 in Nigeria 188 ROTC training in US 117–20, 121, 130 with KLA 222 military professionalism 42, 51–52, 61, 76, 130 and DSL 9 emerging international standard for 52, 222–24, 251 and EO training 91, 113 in Garamba 207–08 military professional networks 61, 62, 63, 64 military professional norms and standards 81–82, 118–19, 157, 200, 204, 219, 221, 223, 253 military professionals 52, 60, 63, 249 of MPRI in Nigeria 188 PSCs and 5, 61 PSCs in Britain 174 307 of Sandline in Sierra Leone 95 of MPRI in Croatia 112–13 militias 224 Milošević, Slobodan 153 Minnow, Martha 18, 23, 53 Mobile 16 Mobutu, President 17, 194, 196 Momoh, Joseph 83 monitoring 56, 57, 58, 66, 133, 222 difficulties for parliament in Croatia 106 in US 155 monopoly over force 25, 46, 66, 69 collectively held among states 145, 228, 253, 264 that emanates from state territory 143, 144 Montgomery, William 107 Mozambique 85, 170, 171 multi-lateral institutions 34, 37–38, 229, 238, 240 Multiple principles 75–76 in Garamba 204 in Sierra Leone 97–98 Musah, Abdel-Farau 4, 6 neomedievalism 262 new institutionalism 6, 45, 57, 254 see also institutional theory, model; economic institutionalism, sociological institutionalism Nigeria 39, 77, 255 oil in 182–92, 237 non-state actors 3, 31, 36–37, 70, 76, 78, 178 debate among 78, 190, 200–203, 212–15, 253 identity of 76, 190–91, 203, 218, 237 see also international non-government organizations, transnational corporations non-state financing for security see privatization of security, financing Norman, Sam Hinga 96 norms see social norms and practices North, Douglas 46 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 34, 37, 109, 129, 130, 139, 148 Index Partnership for Peace Program (PfP) in Croatia 102, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 131, 139 Northbridge 169, 173 O’Brien, Kevin 163, 166 O’Gara Protective Services 18 Obasanjo, Olusegun 188–95 Olsen, Johan 254 Olson, Mancur 46 OMB Circular A-76 35, 115 Omega Support Limited 160 Omega Training Group 122 Operation Iraqi Freedom 18, 132, 152, 238 Organi 8 186 Organization for African Unity (OAU) 161–63 Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) 34 Ottoway, Marina 191 oversight see monitoring Pacific Architects and Engineers (PA&E) 19, 20 Papua New Guinea 170, 174 paramilitary forces 70, 71, 224 Parsons, Talcott 2, 239 patrimonial authority 58 Patriot Act 234, 235 peace dividend 35 Peace of Westphalia 25, 27 Penfold, Peter 173 Petronas 241 Picula, Tony 109 Pinkertons 22 political market failures 135 Powell, Walter 223 Prince of Wales Business Leaders’ Forum see International Business Leaders’ Forum private armies 4, 30 private security see privatization of security, market for force private security companies (PSCs) 1–3, 5, 8, 23–24, 29–30, 36, 37, 38, 40, 53, 54, 55, 58–65, 76, 77, 81, 129–31, 220, 259–60, 261 American PSCs 146 British PSCs 167 Index private security companies (PSCs) (cont.) commercial reputation and interest 85, 110 cowboy model 226–28 in Garamba 209 in Goma Camps 198–200 in Iraq 21–22, 239–40 nationality of personnel 2 services offered 16–22, 48 South African PSCs 158–67 “starched shirt” model 226, 228 private security consultant to WWF 211–12 private security industry 3–7 characteristics of 144 consumer demand for 144–45 revenues 8 privatization 22, 24–25, 32, 35–36, 38, 40, 47, 57, 58, 78, 80–81 privatization of security 39, 40, 49, 253, 254, 256, 259, 263 and the control of force 3, 4–5, 6–7, 40, 43 financing of security 70–76, 78, 178–218 see also market for force professional military see military professionalism public 23–24 public goods 27, 34, 62, 155 public institutions 46–48, 61–62, 76, 81, 140, 146 in South Africa 167 public sphere 3 public/private divide 23 choice 24 comparison between 4, 43 Ramsbotham, General Sir David 9 rational legal authority 45, 59, 63, 71 rationalist 56 rebel forces 70, 71 redistribution of power 60, 91–92, 145 in Croatia 110 in Sierra Leone 114–15 in the US 146 Redlich, Fritz 246 Refugees International 238 regulation 65–70, 144, 145 dilemmas of 144–45, 177 308 in Britain 170, 173, 175 in late Middle Ages 246 in South Africa 161 in US 149–51 reinforcing process of control 6, 7, 40–45, 56–57, 61, 62, 63, 65, 72, 76, 82, 113, 120, 136–38, 139–40, 218, 255, 256 in Italian City States 250 uncertainty of 251–52 Reno, Will 92, 185, 251 rent seeking 58 rentier state 181 Research Triangle Institute 2, 239 Resistancia Nacional Mocambicana (RENAMO) 172 Revolutionary United Front (RUF) 84 Robertson, Lord 222 Ron, James 201 Rubicon, International 169 SAIC 18, 121, 122, 124 Saladin 169 sanctioning 43, 58, 71 Sandline 17, 18, 19, 169 in Sierra Leone 92, 97, 98, 171, 172, 174–75, 232, 237 Saracen 19, 159, 160, 166, 210–11, 213 Saro-Wiwa, Ken 184, 186, 236 Saudi Arabia 152 Saudi Arabian forces 148 Saxena, Rakesh 93, 95 Schakowsky, Jan 129 screening and selection 56, 59, 133 Secrets 18 September 11th 7, 34, 160 service industries 66 Seven Years War 28 Sewell, John 102 Shearer, David 5, 6, 52–53, 55–56, 238 Shell, Royal Dutch 16, 77, 184–85, 187, 188–92, 236, 255 Shell business principles 190 Shell police 184 Shibata 160 Sierra Leone 7, 39, 68, 77, 139, 160, 170, 171, 172, 174–75, 225–26, 232, 237, 240, 255 and contracting for security services 82–98 309 Sierra Leone Army (RSLMF) 85–98 Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP) 84 Silver Shadow 19 Silverstein, Ken 4, 5, 156 Singer, Peter 16, 155 Sky Air Cargo Service 171 Sobel 84 social norms and practices 3, 49, 51, 63, 75, 81, 134, 143, 145 socialization 56 sociological institutionalism 49–54, 71, 79 soldiers of fortune see mercenaries Soruss 89 South Africa 39, 67, 77, 145, 220, 256, 260, 262 and citizens working illegally in Iraq 163, 235 human security 162, 158 Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act 161–63, 165 regulation of security service exports 157–67 regulatory environment 161 South African Defense Force (SADF) 164, 211 South African National Defense Force (SANDF) 211 Southern Cross Security (SCS) 19, 160, 166 sovereign transactions/services 47–49, 54, 58, 61, 81 sovereignty 43, 52, 59, 257–58, 264 Soyster, Harry “Ed” 104 Spicer, Tim 227–31 standards 56, 68, 71, 74 see also military professionalism: military professional norms and standards state, the 18, 23–24, 27, 45, 46, 257–58 definition of 1 state building 63, 76 see also strong states, weak states Stevens, Siaka 83, 84 Stirling, Sir David 169 Strasser, Valentine 89 Strategic Resources Corporation 160 strong states 7, 59, 60, 71, 256, 259 as distinguished from weak states in contracting for security 81–82 Sudan 160, 209 Index Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) 205, 209 Sumairco 19 Susak, Gojko 101, 106 Taliban 224 Tallman, Gary 227 TASK International 21 Taylor, Charles 94 Terry, Fiona 196–97, 200, 201 Thatcher, Margaret 35 Thirty Years War 245, 247, 250 Thomson, Janice 30, 247 threat environment 21, 33–34, 62 THULE Global Security International 20 tip of the spear 16–22 Titan 2, 235 Tito 98 Total Security Services International 149 transaction cost economics 46–49 TransAfrica Logistics 159 transnational corporations (TNCs) 30, 38, 71, 72, 74, 76, 148, 180–192, 257 transnational market see market for force transparency 60, 74, 82, 154 Trojan Securities International 18, 21 Tudjman, Franjo 99–108, 139, 153 United Kingdom see Britain United Nations 34, 37, 69, 170, 171, 198, 199, 203 and private security 9, 198–200, 237–38 and South African PSCs 166 United Nations Department of Peace Keeping (DPKO) 195–200 United Nations Global Compact 187 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 195–97, 201–02 United Nations peace missions 29, 37 and DSL 9 and private security 7, 19, 149 UNAMSIL 95 United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Use of Mercenaries 230–31 United States 1, 4, 7, 29, 31–32, 38, 39, 77, 139, 145, 220–28, 256, 259–61, 262 Index United States (cont.)


pages: 7,371 words: 186,208

The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times by Giovanni Arrighi

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial rule, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, double entry bookkeeping, European colonialism, financial independence, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, profit maximization, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, reserve currency, spice trade, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

In the course of their earlier struggle for national independence from Spain, the Dutch had already established a strong intellectual and moral leadership over the dynastic states of northwestern Europe, which were among the main beneficiaries of the disintegration of the medieval system of rule. As systemic chaos increased during the Thirty Years War, “[t]he threads of diplomacy [came to be] woven and unwoven at the Hague” (Braudel 1984: 203) and Dutch proposals for a major reorganization of the pan-European system of rule found more and more supporters among European rulers until Spain was completely isolated. With the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, a new world system of rule thus emerged: The idea of an authority or organization above sovereign states is no longer. What takes its place is the notion that all states form a world-wide political system or that, at any rate, the states of Western Europe form a single political system. This new system rests on international law and the balance of power, a law operating between rather than above states and a power operating between rather than above states.

For the first time, the objective of all previous capitalist states to be the master rather than the servant of the global balance of power was fully, if temporarily, realized by the leading capitalist state of the epoch. In order to manage the global balance of power more effectively, the United Kingdom took the lead in tightening the loose system of consultation between the great powers of Europe which had been in operation since the Peace of Westphalia. The result was the Concert of Europe which, from the start, was primarily an instrument of British governance of the continental balance of power. For about thirty years after the Peace of Vienna the Concert of Europe played a secondary role in the politics of continental Europe relative to the “hierarchies of blood and grace” that had formed the Holy Alliance. But as the Alliance disintegrated under the rising pressure of democratic nationalism, the Concert quickly emerged as the main instrument of regulation of interstate relations in Europe (cf.

For eighty years — that is, up to the end of the Thirty Years War — the finances of Imperial Spain were thus subjected to a major and growing drain, which strengthened the Dutch rebels and weakened Spain absolutely and relative to subordinate and competing territorialist organizations, France and England in particular. And as the imperial center weakened, wars and rebellions proliferated until the Peace of Westphalia institutionalized the emerging European balance of power. Throughout these struggles the primary source of Dutch wealth and power was control over supplies of grain and naval stores from the Baltic. These supplies had been made absolutely essential to the conduct of war by land and sea in Europe by the exhaustion of competing Mediterranean supplies in the first half of the sixteenth century.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The longer-term effect is that it becomes impossible to specify who is a dispassionate observer, and who a judge and decision maker. The name for this convergence of political and scientific authority is “technocracy.” The first technocrats The English Civil War ended in 1651, three years after the Peace of Westphalia had brought the Thirty Years War to a close. A remarkable feature of the decades that followed is the speed with which the modern state emerged, displaying many of the characteristics that distinguish it today. The Peace of Westphalia produced the basic principle of modern interstate relations: that each state would be recognized as having complete and unchallenged sovereignty within its own recognized borders. To transgress this was to shift from a state of “peace” to a separate one of “war,” with no legal scope for ambiguity between the two.

., Martin Luther, 21, 224 knowledge economy, 84, 85, 88, 151–2, 217 known knowns, 132, 138 Koch, Charles and David, 154, 164, 174 Korean War (1950–53), 178 Kraepelin, Emil, 139 Kurzweil, Ray, 183–4 Labour Party, 5, 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Lagarde, Christine, 64 Le Bon, Gustave, 8–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25, 38 Le Pen, Marine, 27, 79, 87, 92, 101–2 Leadbeater, Charles, 84 Leeds, West Yorkshire, 85 Leicester, Leicestershire, 85 Leviathan (Hobbes), 34, 39, 45 liberal elites, 20, 58, 88, 89, 161 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173, 196, 209, 226 Liberty Fund, 158 Libya, 143 lie-detection technology, 136 life expectancy, 62, 68–71, 72, 92, 100–101, 115, 224 Lindemann, Frederick Alexander, 1st Viscount Cherwell, 138 Lloyds Bank, 29 London, England bills of mortality, 68–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 127 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 EU referendum (2016), 85 Great Fire (1666), 67 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 and gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 78 housing crisis, 84 insurance sector, 59 knowledge economy, 84 life expectancy, 100 newspapers, early, 48 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 plagues, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 127 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 London School of Economics (LSE), 160 loss aversion, 145 Louis XIV, King of France, 73, 127 Louisiana, United States, 151, 221 Ludwig von Mises Institute, 154 MacLean, Nancy, 158 Macron, Emmanuel, 33 mainstream media, 197 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 Manchester, England, 85 Mann, Geoff, 214 maps, 182 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210, 211 marketing, 14, 139–41, 143, 148, 169 Mars, 175, 226 Marxism, 163 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 179 Mayer, Jane, 158 McCarthy, Joseph, 137 McGill Pain Questionnaire, 104 McKibben, William “Bill,” 213 Megaface, 188–9 memes, 15, 194 Menger, Carl, 154 mental illness, 103, 107–17, 139 mercenaries, 126 Mercer, Robert, 174, 175 Mexico, 145 Million-Man March (1995), 4 mind-reading technology, 136 see also telepathy Mirowski, Philip, 158 von Mises, Ludwig, 154–63, 166, 172, 173 Missing Migrants Project, 225 mobilization, 5, 7, 126–31 and Corbyn, 81 and elections, 81, 124 and experts, 27–8 and Internet, 15 and Le Bon’s crowd psychology, 11, 12, 16, 20 and loss, 145 and Napoleonic Wars, xv, 127–30, 141, 144 and Occupy movement, 5 and populism, 16, 22, 60 and violence, opposition to, 21 Moniteur Universel, Le, 142 monopoly on violence, 42 Mont Pelerin Society, 163, 164 moral emotion, 21 morphine, 105 multiculturalism, 84 Murs, Oliver “Olly,” ix Musk, Elon, 175, 176, 178, 183, 226 Nanchang, Jiangxi, 13 Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), 126–30 chappe system, 129, 182 and conscription, 87, 126–7, 129 and disruption, 170–71, 173, 174, 175, 226 and great leader ideal, 146–8 and intelligence, 134 and mobilization, xv, 126–30, 141, 144 and nationalism, 87, 128, 129, 144, 183, 211 and propaganda, 142 Russia, invasion of (1812), 128, 133 Spain, invasion of (1808), 128 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Audit Office (NAO), 29–30 national citizenship, 71 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 national sovereignty, 34, 53 nationalism, 87, 141, 210–12 and conservatism, 144 and disempowerment, 118–19 and elites, 22–3, 60–61, 145 ethnic, 15 and health, 92, 211–12, 224 and imagined communities, 87 and inequality, 78 and loss, 145 and markets, 167 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145, 197, 198 and war, 7, 20–21, 118–19, 143–6, 210–11 nativism, 61 natural philosophy, 35–6 nature, 86 see also environment Nazi Germany (1933–45), 137, 138, 154 Netherlands, 48, 56, 129 Neurable, 176 neural networking, 216 Neuralink, 176 neurasthenia, 139 Neurath, Otto, 153–4, 157, 160 neurochemistry, 108, 111, 112 neuroimaging, 176–8, 181 Nevada, United States, 194 new atheism, 209 New Orleans, Louisiana, 151 New Right, 164 New York, United States and climate change, 205 and gross domestic product (GDP), 78 housing crisis, 84 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 knowledge economy, 84 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 New York Times, 3, 27, 85 newspapers, 48, 71 Newton, Isaac, 35 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 217 Nixon, Robert, 206 no-platforming, 22, 208 Nobel Prize, 158–9 non-combatants, 43, 143, 204 non-violence, 224 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 123, 145, 214 North Carolina, United States, 84 Northern Ireland, 43, 85 Northern League, 61 Northern Rock, 29 Norwich, Norfolk, 85 nostalgia, xiv, 143, 145, 210, 223 “Not in my name,” 27 nuclear weapons, 132, 135, 137, 180, 183, 192, 196, 204 nudge techniques, 13 Obama, Barack, 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158, 172 Obamacare, 172 objectivity, xiv, 13, 75, 136, 223 and crowd-based politics, 5, 7, 24–5 and death, 94 and Descartes, 37 and experts, trust in, 28, 32, 33, 51, 53, 64, 86, 89 and Hayek, 163, 164, 170 and markets, 169, 170 and photography, 8 and Scientific Revolution, 48, 49 and statistics, 72, 74, 75, 82, 88 and telepathic communication, 179 and war, 58, 125, 134, 135, 136, 146 Occupy movement, 5, 10, 24, 61 Oedipus complex, 109 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 Ohio, United States, 116 oil crisis (1973), 166 “On Computable Numbers” (Turing), 181 On War (Clausewitz), 130 Open Society and Its Enemies, The (Popper), 171 opiates, 105, 116, 172–3 opinion polling, 65, 80–81, 191 Orbán, Viktor, 87, 146 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 72 Oxford, Oxfordshire, 85 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 Oxford University, 56, 151 OxyContin, 105, 116 pacifism, 8, 20, 44, 151 pain, 102–19, 172–3, 224 see also chronic pain painkillers, 104, 105, 116, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 parabiosis, 149 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Paris Commune (1871), 8 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Paul, Ronald, 154 PayPal, 149 Peace of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 peer reviewing, 48, 139, 195, 208 penicillin, 94 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 pesticides, 205 Petty, William, 55–9, 67, 73, 85, 167 pharmacology, 142 Pielke Jr., Roger, 24, 25 Piketty, Thomas, 74 Pinker, Stephen, 207 plagues, 56, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 95 pleasure principle, 70, 109, 110, 224 pneumonia, 37, 67 Podemos, 5, 202 Poland, 20, 34, 60 Polanyi, Michael, 163 political anatomy, 57 Political Arithmetick (Petty), 58, 59 political correctness, 20, 27, 145 Popper, Karl, 163, 171 populism xvii, 211–12, 214, 220, 225–6 and central banks, 33 and crowd-based politics, 12 and democracy, 202 and elites/experts, 26, 33, 50, 152, 197, 210, 215 and empathy, 118 and health, 99, 101–2, 224–5 and immediate action, 216 in Kansas (1880s), 220 and markets, 167 and private companies, 174 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145 and statistics, 90 and unemployment, 88 and war, 148, 212 Porter, Michael, 84 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 111–14, 117, 209 post-truth, 167, 224 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 power vs. violence, 19, 219 predictive policing, 151 presidential election, US (2016), xiv and climate change, 214 and data, 190 and education, 85 and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 79, 145 and inequality, 76–7 and Internet, 190, 197, 199 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and Russia, 199 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 prisoners of war, 43 promises, 25, 31, 39–42, 45–7, 51, 52, 217–18, 221–2 Propaganda (Bernays), 14–15 propaganda, 8, 14–16, 83, 124–5, 141, 142, 143 property rights, 158, 167 Protestantism, 34, 35, 45, 215 Prussia (1525–1947), 8, 127–30, 133–4, 135, 142 psychiatry, 107, 139 psychoanalysis, 107, 139 Psychology of Crowds, The (Le Bon), 9–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25 psychosomatic, 103 public-spending cuts, 100–101 punishment, 90, 92–3, 94, 95, 108 Purdue, 105 Putin, Vladimir, 145, 183 al-Qaeda, 136 quality of life, 74, 104 quantitative easing, 31–2, 222 quants, 190 radical statistics, 74 RAND Corporation, 183 RBS, 29 Reagan, Ronald, 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 real-time knowledge, xvi, 112, 131, 134, 153, 154, 165–70 Reason Foundation, 158 Red Vienna, 154, 155 Rees-Mogg, Jacob, 33, 61 refugee crisis (2015–), 60, 225 relative deprivation, 88 representative democracy, 7, 12, 14–15, 25–8, 61, 202 Republican Party, 77, 79, 85, 154, 160, 163, 166, 172 research and development (R&D), 133 Research Triangle, North Carolina, 84 resentment, 5, 226 of elites/experts, 32, 52, 61, 86, 88–9, 161, 186, 201 and nationalism/populism, 5, 144–6, 148, 197, 198 and pain, 94 Ridley, Matt, 209 right to remain silent, 44 Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 160, 166 Robinson, Tommy, ix Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 52 Royal Exchange, 67 Royal Society, 48–52, 56, 68, 86, 133, 137, 186, 208, 218 Rumsfeld, Donald, 132 Russian Empire (1721–1917), 128, 133 Russian Federation (1991–) and artificial intelligence, 183 Gerasimov Doctrine, 43, 123, 125, 126 and information war, 196 life expectancy, 100, 115 and national humiliation, 145 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 and social media, 15, 18, 199 troll farms, 199 Russian Revolution (1917), 155 Russian SFSR (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 155, 177, 180, 182–3 safe spaces, 22, 208 Sands, Robert “Bobby,” 43 Saxony, 90 scarlet fever, 67 Scarry, Elaine, 102–3 scenting, 135, 180 Schneier, Bruce, 185 Schumpeter, Joseph, 156–7, 162 Scientific Revolution, 48–52, 62, 66, 95, 204, 207, 218 scientist, coining of term, 133 SCL, 175 Scotland, 64, 85, 172 search engines, xvi Second World War, see World War II securitization of loans, 218 seismology, 135 self-employment, 82 self-esteem, 88–90, 175, 212 self-harm, 44, 114–15, 117, 146, 225 self-help, 107 self-interest, 26, 41, 44, 61, 114, 141, 146 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 sentiment analysis, xiii, 12–13, 140, 188 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 shell shock, 109–10 Shrecker, Ted, 226 Silicon Fen, Cambridgeshire, 84 Silicon Valley, California, xvi, 219 and data, 55, 151, 185–93, 199–201 and disruption, 149–51, 175, 226 and entrepreneurship, 149–51 and fascism, 203 and immortality, 149, 183–4, 224, 226 and monopolies, 174, 220 and singularity, 183–4 and telepathy, 176–8, 181, 185, 186, 221 and weaponization, 18, 219 singularity, 184 Siri, 187 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 slavery, 59, 224 smallpox, 67 smart cities, 190, 199 smartphone addiction, 112, 186–7 snowflakes, 22, 113 social indicators, 74 social justice warriors (SJWs), 131 social media and crowd psychology, 6 emotional artificial intelligence, 12–13, 140–41 and engagement, 7 filter bubbles, 66 and propaganda, 15, 18, 81, 124 and PTSD, 113 and sentiment analysis, 12 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 weaponization of, 18, 19, 22, 194–5 socialism, 8, 20, 154–6, 158, 160 calculation debate, 154–6, 158, 160 Socialism (Mises), 160 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 South Africa, 103 sovereignty, 34, 53 Soviet Russia (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 177, 180, 182–3 Spain, 5, 34, 84, 128, 202 speed of knowledge, xvi, 112, 124, 131, 134, 136, 153, 154, 165–70 Spicer, Sean, 3, 5 spy planes, 136, 152 Stalin, Joseph, 138 Stanford University, 179 statactivism, 74 statistics, 62–91, 161, 186 status, 88–90 Stoermer, Eugene, 206 strong man leaders, 16 suicide, 100, 101, 115 suicide bombing, 44, 146 superbugs, 205 surveillance, 185–93, 219 Sweden, 34 Switzerland, 164 Sydenham, Thomas, 96 Syriza, 5 tacit knowledge, 162 talking cure, 107 taxation, 158 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 technocracy, 53–8, 59, 60, 61, 78, 87, 89, 90, 211 teenage girls, 113, 114 telepathy, 39, 176–9, 181, 185, 186 terrorism, 17–18, 151, 185 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 emergency powers, 42 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 suicide bombing, 44, 146 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Thames Valley, England, 85 Thatcher, Margaret, 154, 160, 163, 166 Thiel, Peter, 26, 149–51, 153, 156, 174, 190 Thirty Years War (1618–48), 34, 45, 53, 126 Tokyo, Japan, x torture, 92–3 total wars, 129, 142–3 Treaty of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 trends, xvi, 168 trigger warnings, 22, 113 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 Trump, Donald, xiv and Bannon, 21, 60–61 and climate change, 207 and education, 85 election campaign (2016), see under presidential election, US and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 145 inauguration (2017), 3–5, 6, 9, 10 and inequality, 76–7 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and March for Science (2017), 23, 24, 210 and media, 27 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and Paris climate accord, 207 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 Tsipras, Alexis, 5 Turing, Alan, 181, 183 Twitter and Corbyn’s rallies, 6 and JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x and Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x and Russia, 18 and sentiment analysis, 188 and trends, xvi and trolls, 194, 195 Uber, 49, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 192 UK Independence Party, 65, 92, 202 underemployment, 82 unemployment, 61, 62, 72, 78, 81–3, 87, 88, 203 United Kingdom austerity, 100 Bank of England, 32, 33, 64 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 Brexit (2016–), see under Brexit Cameron government (2010–16), 33, 73, 100 Center for Policy Studies, 164 Civil Service, 33 climate-gate (2009), 195 Corbyn’s rallies, 5, 6 Dunkirk evacuation (1940), 119 education, 85 financial crisis (2007–9), 29–32, 100 first past the post, 13 general election (2015), 80, 81 general election (2017), 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 79 immigration, 63, 65 Irish hunger strike (1981), 43 life expectancy, 100 National Audit Office (NAO), 29 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 and opiates, 105 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 and pain, 102, 105 Palantir, 151 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 quantitative easing, 31–2 Royal Society, 138 Scottish independence referendum (2014), 64 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 Thatcher government (1979–90), 154, 160, 163, 166 and torture, 92 Treasury, 61, 64 unemployment, 83 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 World War II (1939–45), 114, 119, 138, 143, 180 see also England United Nations, 72, 222 United States Bayh–Dole Act (1980), 152 Black Lives Matter, 10, 225 BP oil spill (2010), 89 Bush Jr. administration (2001–9), 77, 136 Bush Sr administration (1989–93), 77 Bureau of Labor, 74 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 3, 136, 151, 199 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 Civil War (1861–5), 105, 142 and climate change, 207, 214 Clinton administration (1993–2001), 77 Cold War, see Cold War Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 176, 178 Defense Intelligence Agency, 177 drug abuse, 43, 100, 105, 115–16, 131, 172–3 education, 85 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 137 Federal Reserve, 33 Fifth Amendment (1789), 44 financial crisis (2007–9), 31–2, 82, 158 first past the post, 13 Government Accountability Office, 29 gross domestic product (GDP), 75–7, 82 health, 92, 99–100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 115–16, 158, 172–3 Heritage Foundation, 164, 214 Iraq War (2003–11), 74, 132 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Kansas populists (1880s), 220 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173 life expectancy, 100, 101 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210 McCarthyism (1947–56), 137 Million-Man March (1995), 4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 Obama administration (2009–17), 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158 Occupy Wall Street (2011), 5, 10, 61 and opiates, 105, 172–3 and pain, 103, 105, 107, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 presidential election (2016), see under presidential election, US psychiatry, 107, 111 quantitative easing, 31–2 Reagan administration (1981–9), 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 Rumsfeld’s “unknown unknowns” speech (2002), 132 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 and torture, 93 Trump administration (2017–), see under Trump, Donald unemployment, 83 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 World War I (1914–18), 137 World War II (1939–45), 137, 180 universal basic income, 221 universities, 151–2, 164, 169–70 University of Cambridge, 84, 151 University of Chicago, 160 University of East Anglia, 195 University of Oxford, 56, 151 University of Vienna, 160 University of Washington, 188 unknown knowns, 132, 133, 136, 138, 141, 192, 212 unknown unknowns, 132, 133, 138 “Use of Knowledge in Society, The” (Hayek), 161 V2 flying bomb, 137 vaccines, 23, 95 de Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban, 73 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 Vesalius, Andreas, 96 Vienna, Austria, 153–5, 159 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 violence vs. power, 19, 219 viral marketing, 12 virtual reality, 183 virtue signaling, 194 voice recognition, 187 Vote Leave, 50, 93 Wainright, Joel, 214 Wales, 77, 90 Wall Street, New York, 33, 190 War College, Berlin, 128 “War Economy” (Neurath), 153–4 war on drugs, 43, 131 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Watts, Jay, 115 weaponization, 18–20, 22, 26, 75, 118, 123, 194, 219, 223 weapons of mass destruction, 132 wearable technology, 173 weather control, 204 “What Is An Emotion?”


pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

In the other part of the country units of two sepa­ rate armies from the war in Liberia have taken up residence, as has an army of Sierra Leonian rebels. The government force fighting the rebels is full of renegade commanders who have aligned themselves with disaffected village chiefs. A premodern formlessness governs the battlefield, evoking the wars in medieval Europe prior to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ushered in the era of organized nation-states. As a consequence, roughly 400,000 Sierra Leonians are internally displaced, 280,000 more have fled to neighboring Guinea, and another 100,000 have fled to Liberia, even as 400,000 Liberians have fled to Sierra Leone. The third largest city in Sierra Leone, Gondama, is a displaced-persons camp. With an additional 600,000 Liberians in Guinea and 250,000 in the Ivory Coast, the borders dividing these four countries have become largely meaningless.

., India: A Wounded Civilization, 34 Napoleonic Wars, 128-34,136,140, 153-54,184 National Academy of Sciences, 53 National Interest, The, 54,157 nationalism, 93, 111, 141 national security, 174 and environmental degradation, 19-26 and peace, 174,182 Special Forces activities, 105-10 National Security Council, 138 nation-states, 7,18,40, 81 border erosion, 7-8,40,130 and cartography, 37-43 future of, 43-57 rise of, 8, 38 Nazism, 48, 72, 73, 99,100,101-3, 128,129,133-35,170,174 Kissinger on, 133-35 New Delhi, 27, 51 New York Times, 177 Niebuhr, Reinhold, 65,137 Niger, 14 Nigeria, 4-5,14-15,16,19, 21, 39, 114 Nile River, 20, 53 Nixon, Richard, 132 on China, 132-33,148-50 on Vietnam, 132-33,140,145-52, 155 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 101,106,171,178,180, 182 nuclear weapons, 129,130 0 oil, 15, 67, 71,101,106,182 Iranian, 36, 67 oligarchy, 60, 95-98 of ancient Greece, 60-61, 95-96 Omaha, 85, 94 Ortega y Gasset, José, The Revolt of the Masses, 172-73,184,185 Ottoman Empire, 33, 34,102,130 P Paine, Thomas, 61 Pakistan, 51-52,114 government, 52, 72, 73-74, 78 Inter-Services Intelligence Agency, 109-10 Palmer, Dave R., 1974: America, Its Army, and the Birth of the Nation, 68 Panama, 139 patriotism, 92-93,116 I N D E X peace, 41,169-85 Cold War, 171,177-78 dangers of, 169-85 future of, 184-85 and pleasure, 172-73 and United Nations, 176-83 Peace of Westphalia, 8 Pearl Harbor attack, 101,110 Pentagon, 44-45,124,138 Pericles, 61, 76 Peru, 49 government, 63-64, 75, 76 philanthropy, 88 Pipes, Richard, 133 Poland, 69 political science, 129, 149,158, 167-68 early, 170 "politics," shrinking domain of, 83-89 Polybius, 60-61, 76,113 polygamy, 6-7,11 population growth, 6-7,18,19, 36, 42, 45-46, 51, 97,122 in China, 25-26 and environmental degradation, 21-24 in India, 51 and violence-prone youths, 76-78 in West Africa, 6-18, 55 postmodernism, 43-44, 94 Pot, Pol, 99,100 Powell, Colin, 105 Powell Doctrine, 123 private armies, in West Africa, 7,49, 81 Probus, 113 Modern, 61 rain forest, in West Africa, 7-9 Rawlings, Jerry, 70 Reagan, Ronald, 133,137,139 realism, 129 in Conrad's Nostromo, 157-68 Hobbesian, 72-73, 75-76 and Henry Kissinger, 129-55 vs. peace, 169-85 Reformation, 46 refugee migrations, 7, 26, 27, 35 religion, 6,19, 27, 46, 59-60, 73, 93 Edward Gibbon on, 115-16 in Turkey, 30-37 and war, 47-48 in West Africa, 6,15, 35 see also specific religions Renaissance, 38 Republican Right, 136,181-82 revolution, Kissinger on, 133-41 Ritter, Carl, 50 Rockefeller, John D., 88 Romania, 114,135,182 Rome, 92, 98 Augustan Peace, 171 Edward Gibbon on collapse of, 111-17 Russell, Bertrand, 91 Russia, 14, 63, 77,114,120,145,182 democracy in, 64, 67 Revolution, 134 see also Soviet Union, former Rwanda, 68-69 mass murder in, 68-69, 99-101 S Quandt, William B., Decade of Decisions: American Policy Toward the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967-1976, 151 Quebec, 56 Qureshi, Moin, 74 195 R Rabin, Yitzhak, 57,151 Rahe, Paul A., Republics Ancient and proportionalism, 119-25 0 / Sachs, Jeffrey, 77 St.


pages: 548 words: 147,919

How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, different worldview, disruptive innovation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

True, the human species has always muddled through, but the muddling through has generally been a slow, brutal, and agonizing process. Think of the major inflection points in the modern international order: the Peace of Westphalia, or the post–World War II creation of the U.N. Charter system. Despite the teleological fervor of some history and international law books, the bursts of creativity and change symbolized by the emergence of the post-Westphalian nation-state or the U.N. system were not the happy culmination of decades or centuries of peaceful evolution.1 On the contrary, these dramatic changes in the international system arose out of cataclysm. The religious wars that wracked Europe before the Peace of Westphalia left nearly a third of the population dead in much of Central Europe.2 World Wars I and II were nearly as devastating, leaving tens of millions dead and many of Europe’s great cities in ruins.3 Out of the ashes, we developed new categories, new rules, and new institutions, ones that worked better—for a time, at least.

Since prehistory, groups of human beings have found a very wide range of ways to organize themselves into societies. The world has seen tribes, sects, feudal kingdoms, city-states, and religious empires, among other modes of social organization. The idea of the territorial nation-state as the locus of authority, within a system of formally equivalent similar states, is of quite recent vintage. It was not until 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War, that the modern international system of sovereign states began to develop. Even after this symbolic starting point, it took centuries of conquest and many more wars before anything truly resembling today’s state system took shape. In Europe, state consolidation was rarely peaceful: consider the three wars of the German unification, or the bloody excesses of the Italian unification.

Reuben Johnson, “Russia’s Hybrid War in Ukraine ‘Is Working,’ ” IHS Jane’s 360, February 26, 2015, www.janes.com/article/49469/update-russia-s-hybrid-war-in-ukraine-is-working; Kevin McCaney, “Russia’s Hybrid Warfare Tactics Gain Upper Hand in Ukraine,” Defense Systems, March 24, 2015, http://defensesystems.com/articles/2015/03/24/russia-hybrid-warfare-ukraine-nato.aspx. Part V: Managing War’s Paradoxes 1. See Derek Croxton, “The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty,” International History Review 21(1999): 569, 582. 2. Thomas H. Greer and Gavin Lewis, A Brief History of the Western World (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 398. 3. “WWI Casualty and Death Tables,” PBS, accessed February 8, 2014, www.pbs.org/greatwar/resources/casdeath_pop.html. 4. See Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony Greenwald, Blind Spot: Hidden Biases of Good People (New York: Delacorte, 2013). 5.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Trust is the glue of a successful free society; fear is the currency of the autocrat. It is the former that is most desperately needed. By this measure – the most important of all – Trump is an unabashed autocrat. The more resistance he encounters, the more he will sow mistrust. Technology is Trump’s friend. Science is his enemy. The first great modern age of science found its counterpart in the relationship between states. The Peace of Westphalia, which was born in 1648, set in motion a new system in which each state could choose its own confessional character, Protestant or Catholic. Each also pledged to respect the internal character of other states while respecting the rights of their religious minorities. Westphalia brought an end to the Hobbesian war of all against all that had reduced Europe to cinders. It set up a diplomatic mech­anism that could be likened to Newton’s laws of physics.16 The same principle underlay the post-Napoleonic Concert of Europe that kept the peace for almost a century.

(essay), 5, 14, 181 Garten, Jeffrey, From Silk to Silicon, 25 Gates, Bob, 177–8 gay marriage issue, 187, 188 gender, 57 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 72 Genghis Khan, 25 gentrification, creeping, 46, 48, 50–1 Georgia, Rose Revolution (2003), 79 Germany, 15, 42, 43, 57, 78, 115; far-right resurgence in, 139–40; and future of EU, 180; Nazi, 116, 117, 155, 171; post-war constitution, 116; rise of from late nineteenth century, 156–7; Trump’s attitude towards, 179–80; vocational skills education, 197 gig economy, 62–5 Gladiator (film), 128–9 Glass, Ruth, 46 global economy: centre of gravity shifting eastwards, 21–2, 141; change of guard (January 2017), 19–20, 26–7; emerging middle classes, 21, 31, 39, 159; end of Washington Consensus, 29–30; fast-growing non-Western economies, 20–2; Great Convergence, 12, 13, 24, 25–33; Great Divergence, 13, 22–5; Great Recession, 63–4, 83–4, 192, 193; new protectionism, 19–20, 73, 149; ‘precariat’ (‘left-behinds’), 12, 13, 43–8, 50, 91, 98–9, 110, 111, 131; rapid expansion of China, 20–2, 25–8, 157, 159; spread of market economics, 8, 29; West’s middle-income problem, 13, 31–2, 34–41; see also globalisation, economic; growth, economic globalisation, economic: China as new guardian of, 19–20, 26–7; Bill Clinton on, 26; in decades preceding WW1, 155; Elephant Chart, 31–3; Friedman’s Golden Straitjacket, 74; Jeffrey Garten’s history of, 25; and global trilemma, 72–3; and multinational companies, 26–7; need to abandon deep globalisation, 73–4; next wave of, 32; radical impact of, 12–13; and stateless elites, 51, 71; and Summers’ responsible nationalism, 71–2; and technology, 55–6, 73, 174 Gongos (government-organised non-governmental organisations), 85 Google, 54, 67 Gordon, Robert, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, 57–8, 59–61 Graham, Lindsey, 134 Greece: classical, 4, 10, 25, 137–8, 156, 200; overthrow of military junta, 77 Greenspan, Alan, 71 growth, economic: and bad forecasting, 27; as Bell’s ‘secular religion’, 37; and digital economy, 54–5, 59, 60; Elephant Chart, 31–3; emerging economies as engine of, 21, 30, 31, 32; Golden Age for Western middle class, 33–4, 43; Robert Gordon’s thesis, 57–8, 59–61; and levels of trust, 38–9; as liberal democracy’s strongest glue, 13, 37, 103, 201–2; out-dated measurement models, 30–1; technological leap forward (from 1870), 58–9; West’s middle-income problem, 13, 31–2, 34–41 Hamilton, Alexander, 78 Harvard University, 44–5 healthcare and medicine, 35, 36, 42, 58, 59, 60, 62, 102, 103, 198 Hedges, Chris, Empire of Illusion, 125 Hegel, Friedrich, 161–2 Heilbroner, Robert, 10 Hispanics in USA, 94–5 history: 1930s extremism, 116–17; Chinese economy to 1840s, 22–3; Fukuyama’s ‘end of history’, 5, 14, 181; Great Divergence, 13, 22–5; Hobson’s prescience over China, 20–1; and inequality, 41–3; and journalists, 15; Keynes’ view, 153–5; Magna Carta, 9–10; of modern democracy, 112–17; nineteenth-century protectionism, 78; nineteenth-century European diplomacy, 7–8, 155–6, 171–2; non-Western versions of, 11; Obama on, 190; Peace of Westphalia (1648), 171; populist surge in late-nineteenth-century USA, 110–11; post-war golden era, 33–4, 43; post-war US foreign policy, 183–4; technological leap forward (from 1870), 58–9; theories of, 10–11, 14, 190; Thucydides trap, 156–7; utopian faith in technology, 127–8; Western thought on China, 158–9, 161–2; ‘wrong side of history’ language, 187–8, 190, 191–2; Zheng He’s naval fleet, 165–6; see also Cold War; Industrial Revolution Hitler, Adolf, 116, 128, 171 Hobbes, Thomas, 104 Hobsbawm, Eric, 5 Hobson, John, 20, 22–3 Hofer, Norbert, 15–16 homosexuality, 106, 107, 109–10 Hong Kong, 163–4 Hourly Nerd, 63 Hu Jintao, 159 Humphrey, Hubert, 189 Hungary, 12, 82, 138–9, 181 Huntington, Samuel, The Clash of Civilizations, 181 Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World, 128, 129 illiberal democracy concept, 119, 120, 136–7, 138–9, 204 India: caste system, 202; circular view of history, 11; colonial exploitation of, 22, 23, 55–6; democracy in, 201; future importance of, 167, 200–1; and Industrial Revolution, 23–4; internal migration in, 41; as nuclear power, 175; and offshoring, 61–2; pre-Industrial Revolution economy, 22; rapid expansion of, 21, 25, 28, 30, 58, 200, 201–2; Sino-Indian war (1962), 166; as ‘young’ society, 39, 200 Indonesia, 21 Industrial Revolution, 13, 22, 23–4, 46, 53; non-Western influences on, 24–5; and steam power, 24, 55–6 inequality: decline in post-war golden era, 43; and demophobia, 122–3; forces of equalisation, 41–3; global top 1 per cent, 32–3, 50–1; growth of in modern era, 13, 41, 43–51; in India, 202; in liberal cities, 49–51; in nineteenth century, 41; and physical segregation, 46–8; urban–hinterland split, 46–51 infant mortality, 58, 59 inflation, 36 Instagram, 54 intelligence agencies, 133–4 intolerance and incivility, 38 Iran, 175, 193, 194 Iraq War (2003), 8, 81, 85, 156 Isis (Islamic State), 178, 181, 182–3 Islam, 24–5; Trump’s targeting of Muslims, 135, 181–3, 195–6 Israel, 175 Jackson, Andrew, 113–14, 126, 134 Jacobi, Derek, 128–9 Japan, 78, 167, 175 Jefferson, Thomas, 56, 112, 163 Jobs, Steve, 25 Johnson, Boris, 48, 118–19 Jones, Dan, 9 Jospin, Lionel, 90 journalists, 15, 65 judiciary, US, 134–5 Kant, Immanuel, 126 Kaplan, Fred, Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War, 176–8 Kennedy, John F., 146, 165 Kerry, John, 8 Keynes, John Maynard, 153–5, 156 Khan, A.Q., 175 Khan, Sadiq, 49–50 Kissinger, Henry, 14, 162, 166 knowledge economy, 47, 61 Kreider, Tim, 111 Krugman, Paul, 162 Ku Klux Klan, 98, 111 labour markets: and digital revolution, 52–5, 56, 61–8; and disappearing growth, 37; driving jobs, 56–7, 63, 191; gig economy, 62–5; offshoring, 61–2; pressure to postpone retirement, 64; revolution in nature of work, 60–6, 191–3; security industry, 50; status of technical and service jobs, 197–8; and suburban crisis, 46; wage theft, 192; zero hours contracts, 191 Lanier, Jaron, 66, 67 Larkin, Philip, 188 Le Pen, Marine, 15, 102, 108–10 League of Nations, 155 Lee, Spike, 46 Lee Teng-hui, 158 left-wing politics: and automation, 67; decline in salience of class, 89–92, 107, 108–10; elite’s divorce from working classes, 87–8, 89–95, 99, 109, 110, 119; in France, 105–10; Hillaryland in USA, 87–8; and ‘identity liberalism’, 14, 96–8; McGovern–Fraser Commission (1972), 189; move to personal liberation (1960s), 188–9; populist right steals clothes of, 101–3; Third Way, 89–92; urban liberal elites, 47, 49–51, 71, 87–9, 91–5, 110, 204 Lehman Brothers, 30 Li, Eric, 86, 163–4 liberalism, Western: Chinese hostility to, 84–6, 159–60, 162; crisis as real and structural, 15–16; declining belief in ‘meritocracy’, 44–6; declining hegemony of, 14, 21–2, 26–8, 140–1, 200–1; elites as out of touch, 14, 68–71, 73, 87–8, 91–5, 110, 111, 119, 204; and ‘identity liberalism’, 14, 96–8; linear view of history, 10–11; Magna Carta as founding myth of, 9–10; majority-white backlash concept, 12, 14, 96, 102, 104; psychology of dashed expectations, 34–41; scepticism as basis of, 10; and Trump’s victory, 11–12, 28, 79, 81, 111; ‘wrong side of history’ language, 187–8, 190, 191–2; see also democracy, liberal Lilla, Mark, 96, 98 Lincoln, Abraham, 146 Lindbergh, Charles, 117 literacy, mass, 43, 59 Lloyd George, David, 42 Locke, John, 104 London, 46, 47, 48, 49–50, 140 Los Angeles, 50 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 133 Magna Carta, 9–10 Mahbubani, Kishore, 162 Mailer, Norman, Miami and the Siege of Chicago, 189 Mair, Peter, 88, 89, 118 Mann, Thomas, 203 Mao Zedong, 163, 165 Marconi, Guglielmo, 128 Marcos, Ferdinand, 136 Marshall, John, 134 Marshall Plan, 29 Marxism, 10, 11, 51, 68, 106, 110, 162 Mattis, Jim, 150–1 May, Theresa, 100, 152, 153 McAfee, Andrew, 60 McCain, John, 134 McMahon, Vince and Linda, 124, 125 McMaster, H.


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Specifically, she continued, a royal decision to wage war – even a war of aggression – obliged everyone to obey because sovereigns could discern the true interests of the state better than their subjects.36 Most European monarchs received an education crafted explicitly to reinforce these attitudes. They studied history (national, Classical and occasionally foreign) primarily ‘to examine how each prince had acted well or badly’ and to learn how to ‘ascertain what our subjects are hiding from us’. Thus on hearing that France had signed the peace of Westphalia in 1648, Louis XIV's preceptor seized the chance to give his 10-year-old charge a crash course in German history, and especially on the history of the Rhineland (which Louis would later spend vast resources trying to annex); while during the Fronde revolt of 1648–53, Louis read chronicles that described how his predecessors had overcome rebellious nobles.37 Princely instruction in language and geography was also utilitarian.

They had gained control of all England by Christmas, and, although Louis declared war, the new ruler of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic forged alliances with Spain, the Holy Roman Emperor and other German rulers explicitly to deprive France of all its gains since the Peace of the Pyrenees. Although the Republic remained at war with France for most of the next 25 years, it survived as an independent state for over a century. The ‘Swiss Revolution’ The Dutch Republic was not the only state that prospered during – and partly because of – the Thirty Years War: another beneficiary was the Swiss confederation. In 1648, although the Peace of Westphalia stopped short of granting the 13 Swiss cantons (and some associated territories) sovereign status, it recognized their ‘exemption’ from the laws and institutions of the Holy Roman Empire – in effect making them independent. This did not, however, make them unified: each canton maintained a unique relationship with the others. The million or so inhabitants of the confederation spoke four different languages (German, French, Italian and Romansch, with many dialects of each) and professed different creeds (some were Catholics; most belonged to one of the Protestant creeds; a few had lords of one faith and subjects of another).

First, it benefited several towns because it caused a massive influx of refugees who brought with them both wealth and economic skills: by 1638, the 7,500 refugees in the city of Basel almost outnumbered the native residents. Second, in 1633 and again in 1638 German armies violated Swiss neutrality, leading several cities to embark on an expensive defence programme, building or improving their fortifications and increasing the number of their defenders. Until 1648, the prosperity created by the Thirty Years War made such military spending bearable; but while the Peace of Westphalia brought security, it ended prosperity. German demand for Swiss produce, including soldiers, plunged; and the refugees from Germany returned home, causing a collapse in both urban house prices and overall tax revenues. Coincidentally France, which had paid the cantons a ‘retainer’ both to hold troops as a strategic reserve and to prevent them from serving another power, defaulted on its payments because of its own fiscal problems (see chapter 10).


pages: 270 words: 71,659

The Right Side of History by Ben Shapiro

Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, Filter Bubble, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, means of production, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, white picket fence, women in the workforce

Second, atheism and agnosticism saw a dramatic upswing among intellectuals thanks to the rise in religious fundamentalism: both Lutheranism and Calvinism were, at least in part, responses to the perceived secularization of the Catholic Church. And the Catholic Church moved to mitigate such religious insurgencies by cracking down on its own tendencies toward secular learning. Religion did become more of an obstacle to secular learning as Catholic homogeneity receded. Finally, the fragmentation of control by the Catholic Church led to more room to breathe for dissenters. The Peace of Westphalia was explicitly designed to promote more religious freedom for minority religions—and that also allowed new, agnostic philosophies to flourish. The earliest signs of a philosophical movement breaking with Judeo-Christian morality and Aristotelian virtue came from Machiavelli. An active and rigorous debate rages on about whether Machiavelli was a religious man or a covert atheist—but suffice it to say that his reverence for the Bible was questionable.

Philosopher Yoram Hazony defends nation-states built on two principles: first, what he terms the “moral minimum required for legitimate government,” which would include “minimum requirements for a life of personal freedom and dignity for all”; second, the “right of national self-determination,” rights accruing to nations “cohesive and strong enough to secure their political independence.” A multiplicity of nation-states can be a guarantee against universal tyranny, and a guarantor of philosophical, legal, and political diversity. It was respect for such diversity that brought about the Peace of Westphalia. American exceptionalism fulfills Hazony’s criteria: the Declaration of Independence and Constitution operate as creedal unifiers, and a shared history and culture operate as the glue holding together the nation.19 But nationalism can also be a force for evil. Nationalism turns toxic when it fails to reach that moral minimum—when it tyrannizes its own citizens, or locks people out based on immutable characteristics.


pages: 518 words: 128,324

Destined for War: America, China, and Thucydides's Trap by Graham Allison

9 dash line, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, game design, George Santayana, Haber-Bosch Process, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, long peace, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, one-China policy, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, UNCLOS, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

During the war, Swedish troops occupied half of Germany, and its triumphs were reflected in a favorable settlement at the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. Sweden became the most powerful country in northern Europe and the third-largest country on the Continent (behind Russia and Spain). What historians call Sweden’s Age of Greatness lasted into the early eighteenth century. 5. DUTCH REPUBLIC VS. ENGLAND Period: Mid- to late seventeenth century Ruling power: Dutch Republic Rising power: England Domain: Global empire, sea power, and trade Outcome: Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–74) By the time the Dutch Republic was granted full recognition of its independence at the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, it had already emerged as Europe’s preeminent trading power. Its dominance of the seas and nascent colonial empire soon brought the republic into conflict with the English, who expanded their holdings in North America and their trading presence in the East Indies.

See hierarchies Oregon (battleship), 99 Orwell, George, 120, 175, 201 Ottoman Empire, 249–52, 263–64 Ottoman-Hapsburg wars, 250 P Pacific Command, 170–71, 174–75, 178 Pacific Ocean, 8, 91–92, 99–102, 131, 150, 171, 235, 255, 266–80, 313 n7, 340 n12 See also specific powers and wars Paine, Thomas, 142 Pakistan, 60, 125, 228–29, 331 n10 Panama, 94, 99–102, 313 n4, 317 n58, 317 n60, 317 n65 Panama Canal, 99–102, 273 Paracel Islands, 127, 227 paranoia, 40, 44, 54 See also ruling power syndrome Paris Agreement, 230, 338 n25 Parker, Geoffrey, 341 n37 Parthenon, 32 patriotism, 117, 122 See also national identity Pax Americana, 237 peace at Aix-la-Chapelle, 260 peace at Versailles, 198 Peace of Westphalia, 254–55 Pearl Harbor, 43–47, 74, 171, 181, 279–81 Peloponnesian League, 34–35 Peloponnesian War, viii, xiv, xv, xviii, 28–30, 33, 37–38 Penlington, Norman, 104 People’s Daily, 157 People’s Liberation Army. See PLA (People’s Liberation Army) Pericles, 28, 35–38, 40, 43, 155, 212, 225, 233 Permanent Court of Arbitration, 151, 191 See also The Hague Perry, Matthew, 47 Persian Empire, 29–31, 60, 264 Persian wars, 29–31, 33, 38 Pescadores Islands, 270 Petraeus, David, 3 Peyrefitte, Alain, 134 Philip II (king), 249 Philip IV (king), 249 Philippines, 45, 93–94, 96, 127, 131, 151, 170, 173, 235, 315 n35 Phillipsburg, 258 Pillsbury, Michael, 129 Pitt, William, 141, 262 PLA (People’s Liberation Army), 130–31, 158–60, 167, 171, 175, 177–78, 183, 325 n79 Plato, 28 Plutarch, 30 Poland, 206, 222, 253, 264 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 253 Politburo, 120, 157 Pomerania, 254 populism, ix, 175, 194, 230–31 Port Arthur, 45, 48, 74, 271 Portugal, 187–91, 225, 245–47, 331 n8, 339 n2, 340 n8, 340 n12 Potidae, 36 PPP (purchasing power parity), 10–11, 118, 291 n25 preemptive attacks, 49, 74, 155, 280, 335 n59 Prince Eugene of Savoy.


pages: 372 words: 92,477

The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cashless society, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Norman Macrae, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, open economy, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, pension reform, pensions crisis, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit maximization, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, too big to fail, total factor productivity, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, zero-sum game

They also tolerated the existence of representative institutions such as estates and parliaments, institutions that were sorely tested at times, to be sure, as monarchs tried to accumulate more and more power, but that nevertheless survived and reemerged to assert their interests. Europe’s nation-states also succeeded in containing the problem that had threatened to tear them asunder during the first half of Hobbes’s life: wars of religion. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 not only put an end to the bloody Thirty Years’ War. It also announced a radical new principle in European affairs: cuius regio eius religio (whose realm, his religion). Princes were sovereign when it came to religion within their own borders but had no right to interfere with the ­religious affairs of other kingdoms. This peace finally established the doctrine of raison d’état as the guiding principle of European diplomacy.

., 220 “Old Corruption,” 6, 49, 51, 58, 149, 185, 227, 256, 268, 269 Oldham, John, 195 Olivares, Count-Duke, 37 Olson, Mancur, 109–10, 111 Olson’s law, 111–15, 117, 124, 237 On Liberty (Mill), 55, 59, 69 Open Society and Its Enemies, The (Popper), 83 Open University, 180 opinion, freedom of, 224 Orban, Viktor, 254 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 186 Ornstein, Norman, 125–26, 227 Orwell, George, 71 Ottoman Empire, 35 Our Enemy, the State (Nock), 177 Packard, David, 105 Paine, Thomas, 21, 43–44 Pall, Niti, 206 Palme, Olof, 170, 175 Palo Alto, Calif., 105, 106 Papademos, Lucas, 259 Parag, Khanna, 218 Parliament, British, 31, 43 Party, The (McGregor), 151 Party for Freedom, Dutch, 259 patronage, 50, 52–53, 222, 237, 240 Paul, Ron, 34 payroll withholding tax, 82 Peace Corps, 216 Peace of Westphalia (1648), 38 Pearson, Karl, 68 Peel, Robert, 51, 54 pensions, 16, 267 Asian expansion of, 141–42 in Brazil, 18 in California, 113, 115, 119–20, 130 in China, 156, 183 defined-benefit vs. defined-contribution systems of, 184 as entitlements, 79, 184, 243 in Scandinavia, 171, 173, 184 spiking of, 184 as unfunded liabilities, 14, 119 People’s Action Party, Singapore, 134, 137–38 Peterson, Pete, 131 Peterson Foundation, 255 Peterson Institute for International Economics, 154 PetroChina, 152, 154, 155 Philippines, health insurance in, 141 Philippon, Thomas, 239 philosophical radicals, 48, 49, 85, 181 physician’s assistants, 204 Plato, 250, 255, 260, 264 pluralism, 211–14 police, technology and, 181–82 Political Economy (Mill), 57 political parties, declining membership in, 11, 261 politics: government bloat and, 10–11 money in, 256–58 polarization of, 11–13, 100, 124–27, 164, 255, 256 talent flight from, 127 Pomperipossa effect, 170 poor, poverty: failure of welfare state programs for, 87–89 public spending as biased against, 122–24 welfare state and, 68 Popper, Karl, 83 population: aging of, 15, 122–23, 124, 165, 174, 178, 183–84, 232, 241–42 urban shift of, 149, 218 Porter, Michael, 131 Portugal, public spending in, 99–100 Potter, Laurencina, 65–66 Potter, Richard, 65 Principles of Political Economy (Mill), 55 Pritchett, Lant, 147 private life, freedom of, 224 privatization, 8, 94, 96, 234–37 Procter & Gamble, 190 productivity, 178 Baumol’s disease and, 110 in public vs. private sectors, 18–20, 177, 285 state capitalism and, 154 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 148, 206–7 Progressive Party, 72 progressivism, 240 as self-defeating, 229–30 property rights, 40, 43, 224 Proposition 13, 91, 92, 107 Protestants, 38 public sector, 76, 89, 115, 177, 180 technology and, 180 Pudong, China, 1–5, 8 Pune, India, 218–19 Pure Food and Drug Act (U.S., 1906), 72 Putin, Vladimir, 144, 153, 253 Pythagorean theorem, 31 Qianlong, Emperor of China, 41 racism, 88 Rauch, Jonathan, 231 Reagan, Ronald, 8, 28, 88, 91–92, 97, 198 Friedman and, 86 small-government ideology of, 95 see also Thatcher-Reagan revolution reason, religion as opponent of, 48 Reform, 203 Reformation, 48–49 Reinfeldt, Fredrik, 184 religion: freedom of, 224 reason as opponent of, 48 rent control, 82 rent seeking, 239 “Report on Manufacturers” (Hamilton), 150 Republic, The (Plato), 250 Republican Party, U.S., 123, 236–37 increased taxes opposed by, 100, 255 tax rises approved by, 12 Reshef, Ariell, 239 retirement age, 184–85, 242 Reykjavik City Council, 261 Ricardo, David, 49 Richelieu, Cardinal, 37 Right, 82, 93 government bloat and, 10–11, 98 government efficiency and, 187 and growth of big government, 10, 95, 98, 228, 230–31 privatization and, 234, 236–37 welfare services opposed by, 88, 185 rights: Fourth Revolution and, 270 liberal state’s expansion of, 7, 48, 49, 51 in nation-state, 30, 43–44 of property, 40, 43, 224 protection of, as primary role of liberal state, 45 see also freedom Rights of Man, The (Paine), 44 Ripley, Amanda, 206–7 road pricing, 217 Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 10, 83, 86 Rodrik, Dani, 262 Romney, Mitt, 217 “Roofs or Ceilings” (Friedman), 82 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 72–73, 252 Roosevelt, Theodore, 71–72, 258 rotten boroughs, 51, 125, 227, 251, 257, 269 see also gerrymandering Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 44, 45 Rousseff, Dilma, 153 Royal Society, 42 Rumsfeld, Donald, 77, 253 Russia, 71 China and, 152 corruption in, 186 failure of democracy in, 253, 262 privatization in, 96 Singapore model admired by, 144 state capitalism in, 153, 154 Russian Revolution, 45 Rwanda, 144 Sacramento, Calif., 105, 106, 127 Sahni, Nikhil, 200 St.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hedonic treadmill, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, scientific worldview, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

The formal recognition in international law of the sovereign rights of territorial states came in the form of a peace agreement in 1648 that ended the thirty-year war between Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics. The Peace of Westphalia recognized the irreconcilable differences between the various branches of Christianity and granted territorial rulers sovereign authority within their own domains to establish matters of religion, while restricting the rights of other countries to intervene in what was hereafter to be considered an internal matter within each respective country. The essential points laid out in the Peace of Westphalia, although modified over the course of the next three centuries, remained pretty much the same until the end of World War II.67 The treaty recognized that the world is made up of autonomous and independent states and that each state is sovereign over the internal affairs within its fixed territory.

Martin Luther, and the reformers who followed, encouraged the mass production of bibles in vernacular so that each Christian convert could be versed in God’s word and be prepared to stand alone before his or her maker, without having to rely on the Church’s emissaries—the priesthood—to interpret God’s will. The Great Schism of Christianity, beginning with the Reformation and followed by the Counter-Reformation, the Thirty Years’ War, and the Peace of Westphalia—which helped establish the modern notion of national sovereignty—changed the social and political face of Europe.47 But the full economic impact of the print revolution had to await the invention of the steam engine by James Watt in 1769.48 The print revolution converged with the coal, steam, and rail revolution to create the First Industrial Revolution. Between 1830 and 1890, in both Europe and North America, print communications underwent a revolution.

oil OPEC embargo shortages old science Old Testament Ong, Walter online network relationships On the Aesthetic Education of Man (Schiller) “On the Basis of Morality” (Schopenhauer) open-source code open system optics oral cultures Origin of Species, The (Darwin) orphans Ortega y Gasset, José Orton, William ostracization ostracism Oxford University oxygen Pachauri, Rajendra Kumar Pagels, Elaine Pakistan Palazzo Strozzi (Florence) Paleolithic people pamphlets panentheism Panksepp, Jaak parasocial relationships parenting cultural variability in “good enough” historical views of in late Middle Ages nurturing, and materialism in Roman Empire in Romantic era Paris partially closed system Passion of the Christ, The (film) patent law pathogens Patriarcha (Filmer) patriarchy Patten, Bernard Pauline Christians Paul, Saint Peace of Westphalia peak global oil peak globalization peer-to-peer sharing peer production Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music, The People of the Book per capita income perfectibility performance contract Pergamon Perinbanayagam, Robert permafrost melt Persian Gulf personal growth personal history personality perspective, in art perspective-taking petrochemicals Pew (research center) Internet and American Life Project 2007 report poll on homosexuality survey on blogging survey on women’s progress Philips (company) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Philosophy of Electrical Psychology, The (Dods) Philosophy of Money, The (Simmel) physiological synchrony Piaget, Jean Picasso, Pablo pioneer stage plant cultivation plants Plato play empathy and pretend playgrounds Pliocene era Polanyi, Karl Polanyi, Michael polytheism poor Port Huron statement posture post-World War II society poverty power grids Power of Empathy, The (Ciaramicoli and Ketcham) power plant buildings Preface to Plato (Havelock) preindustrial societies preschooler Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, The (Goffman) pretend play Prigogine, Ilya primates Prince, The (Machiavelli) Princess of Wales (Lady Diana Spencer) Principles of Psychology, The (James) print cultures print revolution print text privacy private property process questions Procter & Gamble progress proletariat property property rights Protestant Reformation Protestants Protestant work ethic proto-industrial revolution protospeech Psychiatry psychoanalysis psychodrama psychological consciousness psychology Psychology Today public schools public service Purple Rose of Cairo, The (film) putting-out system quality of life quality time Quispel, Gilles Ra radio railroads Rain Man (film) Ramachandran, Vilayanur Randall, John H., Jr.


pages: 329 words: 102,469

Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West by Timothy Garton Ash

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, clean water, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, postnationalism / post nation state, Project for a New American Century, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Taylor wrote a book about nineteenth-century European diplomacy, he called it The Struggle for Mastery in Europe. Perhaps one day another historian will write The Struggle for Mastery in Asia. Wars between these Asian “strategic rivals” are not likely, writes Kissinger, “but neither are they excluded.”62 Against this somber interpretation, several counterarguments are advanced. First, these Asian states may look like the European nation-states that emerged after the seventeenth-century Peace of Westphalia, but they are informed by different spirits—Confucian, Buddhist, Muslim, or Hindu. The region is “dressed in Westphalian clothes but . . . not performing according to a Westphalian script.”63 Second, their overwhelming imperative is domestic economic modernization. In a globalized economy, dependent on volatile capital markets, this requires states to behave differently. In any case, Japan has, under American tutelage, long practiced pacific multilateral cooperation, though combined with statist protectionism at home.

How on earth we establish whether there is such a real and present danger is something we shall all have to wrestle with—especially after this claim was made about Saddam’s Iraq, on the authority of secret intelligence, and turned out to be untrue. What qualifies as genocide is also a matter for the most serious debate.17 But intervention is not justified simply to end a dictatorship. There are good reasons why statesmen from the signatories of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 to the authors of the U.N. Charter in 1945 set such store by respect for state sovereignty and nonintervention. If I think I’m justified in invading your country, you may equally well feel you’re justified in invading mine. Or someone else’s. President Putin plainly felt encouraged by America’s unilateral action over Iraq to continue his oppression of Chechnya; and China felt it had a freer hand in Tibet.


pages: 354 words: 105,322

The Road to Ruin: The Global Elites' Secret Plan for the Next Financial Crisis by James Rickards

"Robert Solow", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, cellular automata, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, jitney, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, Pierre-Simon Laplace, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, price anchoring, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, reserve currency, RFID, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, stocks for the long run, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transfer pricing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

Now traditional warfare over land, titles, and wealth had the added element of deep religious division between Catholic princes and those supporting Protestant devotions. The late-sixteenth-century religious wars culminated in the Thirty Years’ War of the early seventeenth century. From 1618 to 1648, Europe devoured itself in its first demonstration of total war since antiquity. Civilian populations were starved and slaughtered and cities destroyed in ways not seen since the pagans. What ended the desolation was the Peace of Westphalia, from which emerged the modern state system of sovereignty and diplomacy we have had ever since. Under the Westphalian system, states existed within recognized borders. Each state’s sovereignty was recognized by others. Principles of noninterference were agreed. Religious differences between states were tolerated. States might be monarchies or republics. Permanent state interest, or raison d’état, was the organizing principle of international relations.

Only with the rise of concentrated political entities such as France, Sweden, Russia, and England in the sixteenth century did large-scale system dynamics appear. Increased density functions led to three great systemic collapses—the Thirty Years’ War, the Napoleonic Wars, and the twentieth-century world wars. Each collapse was followed by a concerted effort to stabilize the system with agreed rules of the game. The solution to the Thirty Years’ War was the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which established the modern sovereign state system and enshrined raison d’état as a guide to statecraft in place of religion and the divine right of kings. The resolution of the Napoleonic Wars led to the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna on June 9, 1815. The Final Act reduced French power, yet was not overly punitive toward France. The Congress of Vienna laid the foundation for modern diplomacy and the practice of the balance of power in international relations.


pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The next chapter explains how, by the twentieth century, the world got to the point where—according to the conventional wisdom—power required size, and no better, more effective, and more sustainable way existed to exercise power than through large centralized and hierarchical organizations. CHAPTER THREE HOW POWER GOT BIG An Assumption’s Unquestioned Rise TAKE YOUR PICK AS TO WHEN THE STORY BEGINS. WAS IT 1648, WHEN the Peace of Westphalia ushered in the modern nation-state, in place of the post-medieval order of city-states and overlapping principalities? Was it 1745, when a French aristocrat and commercial administrator named Vincent de Gournay is said to have coined the term bureaucracy? Or perhaps it was 1882, when a constellation of small oil firms in the United States were melded into the gigantic Standard Oil—amid the rise of new large-scale industries, and foreshadowing a great wave of mergers one decade later that would end the heyday of small, local, family-firm capitalism and install a new order based on giant corporations?

See also ExxonMobil Okolloh, Ory, 100 Oligarchies/oligopolies, 49, 50, 218, 221 Olson, Mancur, 226 Omega, 102 One Foundation, 207 One Million Voices Against FARC, 100 OPEC, 29 Oracle, 167 Orange Revolution, 103 Oren, Amir, 121 Ornstein, Norman, 67 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 88, 183, 185, 201, 249, 254 Orszag, Peter, 223 Orwell, George, 48 Outsourcing, 44, 69, 133, 177, 181, 182, 202 Oxfam, 206, 207, 211 Pakistan, 80, 100, 115, 123, 131, 148 Palestine, 149 Pan Am, 169 Pandora, 212 Paraguay, 155, 209 Pape, Robert, 140 Park, Jay, 149 Parliamentary systems, 30, 78, 89, 91 Partido Popular, 96 Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol, 96 Patrick, Stewart, 138 Patronage, 41, 45 Paulson, John, 101, 161, 190 Pax Americana, 141, 143 Peace, 121, 133, 135, 136, 137, 224 Peace of Westphalia, 35 Peet’s Coffee, 175 Pei, Minxin, 77–78 Pennsylvania State University, 87 Pentagon, 46, 123 Pepsi, 27, 36, 169 Perception, 24, 27 Pereira, Rinaldo, 196 Personal care and hygiene sector, 31 Persuasion, 11, 16, 26, 73 Perth, 181 Pet-food recall, 165 Pew surveys, 68, 147–148, 195, 196 Pharmaceutical companies, 181, 182 Pharr, Susan, 67 Philanthropy, 8, 16, 29, 42, 134, 193, 194, 205–211, 217 venture philanthropy, 208–-209, 210 Philippines, 9, 83, 84, 103, 113, 115, 195 Phillipon, Thomas, 164 Phillips, Tom, 196 Physical assets, 174–175 Pinkovskiy, Maxim, 55 Pinochet, Augusto, 99 Pirates, 12, 29, 107, 110, 118, 126, 226 Pitt, Brad, 207 Pius XII (Pope), 108 Plattner, Marc, 103 Plischke, Elmer, 152–153 Plutocrats, 75 Poland, 12, 82, 84, 92, 151, 152, 172 Polga-Hecimovich, John, 94 Police, 10, 23, 51, 115, 126 Political science, 38 Politics, 4, 10, 13, 16, 29, 31, 61, 63, 102, 219 fragmentation of, 78, 80, 82, 90, 94, 103, 224 geopolitics, 5, 12, 13, 149–150, 157, 235 and gridlock, 77, 80, 223, 242 legal rulings in, 99–100 mandates in, 88, 91, 238 national, 76–106 paralysis of, 222–224 political bosses, 6, 91 political competition, 85, 123, 252–254, 253–254(figs.)


Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination by Adom Getachew

agricultural Revolution, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, failed state, financial independence, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, land tenure, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade

Stephen Krasner, “Rethinking the Sovereign State Model,” in Empires, Systems and States: Great Transformations in International Politics, ed. Michael Cox et al. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 17–­43; Benno Teschke, The Myth of 1648: Class, Geopolitics, and the Making of Modern International Relations (New York: Verso, 2003); Sebastian Schmidt, “To Order the Minds of Scholars: The Discourse of the Peace of Westphalia in International Relations Literature,” International Studies Quarterly 55 (September 2011): 601–­23; Jennifer Pitts, “Intervention and Sovereign Inequality: The Legacy of Vattel,” in Just and Unjust Military Intervention: Euro­ pean Thinkers from Vitoria to Mill, ed. Stefano Recchia and Jennifer M. Welsh (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 134–­35. 51. Emerson, From Empire to Nation, 289; Plamenatz, On Alien Rule, 28.

Scharf, Michael. “Earned Sovereignty: Juridical Underpinnings.” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 31 (Summer 2003): 373–­86. Schaller, Dominik, and Jürgen Zimmerer. “Settlers, Imperialism, Genocide: Seeing the Global without Ignoring the Local—­Introduction.” Journal of Genocide Research 10 (June 2008): 191–­99. Schmidt, Sebastian. “To Order the Minds of Scholars: The Discourse of the Peace of Westphalia in International Relations Literature.” International Studies Quarterly 55 (September 2011): 601–­23. Schmitt, Carl. The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum. Translated by G. L. Ulmen. 1950. New York: Telos, 2003. Scott, David. Conscripts of Modernity: The Tragedy of Colonial Enlightenment. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ——— —. “On the Moral Justification of Reparations for New World Slavery.”


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Nowhere is this approach more compelling, indeed, than in relation to the notion of state money. WESTFAILURE Scholars in the international relations field conventionally use the term “Westphalian” to describe an international order consisting of territorially bounded, independent sovereign states whose interests and goals are held to transcend those of individual citizens or rulers. The Peace of Westphalia is a term that refers to the series of treaties signed in May to October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster, ending the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic. As a model of global order, the Westphalian system is underpinned by recognition of the fundamental right of a state to political self-determination, the assumption of states’ legal equality, and the principle that no state should intervene in the internal affairs of another.

See also death of God; eternal return; Übermensch Nigeria, 301 ninety-nine percent, 3, 129–30, 370–71 nihilism, 141, 142 Nishibe, Makoto, 345 Nixon, Richard, 45, 98–99, 244 Nixon shock, 45n Nobel Prize, 330 nomos, 262, of the Earth, 222, 223 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 239 nonpecuniary values, 287, 294 North, Peter, 373 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 239 Nostradamus, 49 Nuer, 284 numismatics, 165; sociological, 34 nummus, 223, 262 occultism, 7, 11; and capital, 56, 154 Occupy movement, 1, 3, 50, 130n55, 201, 267, 370 Oedipus complex, 149, 150, 230 Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 20n Old Glory Mint, 361 one trillion dollar platinum coin, 385, 386, 387, 392 optimal currency area (OCA), 20, 253 order of worth, 200 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Orléan, André, 19, 43–46, 250; on Mauss, 32 Ortega y Gasset, José, 247 overaccumulation, in Bataille, 176; in Baudrillard, 192; and financialization, 61n22; in Harvey, 68, 166, 243; Marxian concept of, 65, 88, 205 overbanking, 122, 124 overproduction, 57, 73 Owen, Robert, 342 Pan, 77, 246 panic, etymology, 77n; financial, 77 paradox of thrift, 208, 347, 348 parallax view, 80–81, 205 Park, Robert, 319 Parsons, Talcott, 8, 34, 230, 276n patriarchy, 336 Patton, Paul, 227 Paulhan, Jean, 172n payday loans, 325 PayPal, 378, 380n Peace of Westphalia, 216 Pecunix, 42, 316 Peebles, Gustav, 304–5 peer-to-peer (P2P) currencies, 105, 365, 370 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 247, 316 peer-to-peer (P2P) payment networks, 365 pension fund socialism, 77 pension funds, 59, 68, 75, 110, 129n52, 132, 221, 243 pensioners, 2, 22, 72, 77, 88, 126 perfect money, 14, 30, 197, 315, 316, 317–22, 326, 328–30, 339, 341, 356–57, 375, 382 perfect society, 30, 315, 316, 320–21, 322, 326, 329–30, 351 Perroux, François, 207 philanthropy, 166 Pixley, Jocelyn, 315n Plato, 200, 313 Platonism, 322, 326 Plender, John, 50 Poe, Edgar Allen, 185 poetry, 313, 314, 331 Polanyi, Karl, 13, 36, 57n16, 271, 279–86, 291, 292, 294, 299, 306; on the double movement, 128, 280, 311; on embeddedness, 279, 280–81, 285; on fictitious commodities, 279–80; on formal versus substantive approaches to the economy, 285; The Great Transformation, 279, 282, 284, 286; on limited and general purpose money, 279, 282–83, 285, 286, 325, 373; on the market, 372, 279–81; on money and language, 297; on planned laissez-faire capitalism, 280 Polillo, Simone, 218–19 Polybius, Histories, 239 Ponzi, Charles, 117n Ponzi finance, 58, 117n, 118, 199; and Bitcoin, 368 Ponzi stage, 120.

See also First World War; Second World War; Vietnam War; violence war against terror, 43 Warburton, Peter, 199 Warren, Josiah, 342 Warwick, University of, 73n30 waste, 12–13, 151; and the gift, 186; and money, 175, 184, 204; versus utility, 164 Wave and Pay, 377 Weber, Florence, 292 Weber, Max, 109, 247, 276n, 292, 302, 317; on capitalism and religion, 143, 155, 175; on charisma, 247; on Knapp, 103; on money and the modern state, 217; on prices, 109n25; The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 156, 175; on taxation, 217 Weimar inflation, 131n57, 142, 224, 387 welfare. See social welfare Wendt, Alexander, 220 Wergild, 24, 302 Western Union, 380n Westphalia. See Peace of Westphalia Westphalian system, 216–27, 238 Where’s George?, 226 Wherry, Frederick, 164n Whuffie, 214, 316, 381 WikiLeaks, 380n Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 390 workers, 59, 72, 73, 74, 75–76, 77, 81, 242, 244, 345, 352; and cooperatives, 84; and consumers, 81, 86, 356; in Proudhon, 353–54; in the public sector, 77, 88, 126. See also migrant workers; workers’ associations; workers’ movement workers’ associations, 323–24 workers’ movement, 81n World Bank, 241 world money, 70, 298 World Trade Center (WTC), 197–98 World Trade Organization (WTO), 99, 239, 241 Wray, Randall, 103, 300, 359–60, 374; on the Eurozone, 107n, 255; and Ingham, 110–11; on Knapp, 104, 359; and neochartalism, 106–8 Wriston, Walter, 392, 393 writing, 36, 37, 41n, 42, 297; versus speech, 180–81.


pages: 1,477 words: 311,310

The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 by Paul Kennedy

agricultural Revolution, airline deregulation, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, imperial preference, industrial robot, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, long peace, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, oil shock, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, zero-sum game

The struggle against the Turks went on decade after decade; Spain’s attempt to crush the Revolt of the Netherlands lasted from the 1560s until 1648, with only a brief intermission, and is referred to in some books as the Eighty Years War; while the great multidimensional conflict undertaken by both Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs against successive coalitions of enemy states from 1618 until the 1648 Peace of Westphalia has always been known as the Thirty Years War. This obviously placed a great emphasis upon the relative capacities of the different states to bear the burdens of war, year after year, decade after decade. And the significance of the material and financial underpinnings of war was made the more critical by the fact that it was in this period that there took place a “military revolution” which transformed the nature of fighting and made it much more expensive than hitherto.

Secret peace negotiations at various levels were carried out in parallel with military campaigns on various fronts, and each power consoled itself with the thought that another victory would buttress its claims in the general settlement. The end of the Thirty Years War was, in consequence, an untidy affair. Spain suddenly made peace with the Dutch early in 1648, finally recognizing their full independence; but this was done to deprive France of an ally, and the Franco-Habsburg struggle continued. It became purely a Franco-Spanish one later in the year when the Peace of Westphalia (1648) at last brought tranquillity to Germany, and allowed the Austrian Habsburgs to retire from the conflict. While individual states and rulers made certain gains (and suffered certain losses), the essence of the Westphalian settlement was to acknowledge the religious and political balance within the Holy Roman Empire, and thus to confirm the limitations upon imperial authority. This left France and Spain engaged in a war which was all to do with national rivalries and nothing to do with religion—as Richelieu’s successor, the French minister, Mazarin, clearly demonstrated in 1655 by allying with Cromwell’s Protestant England to deliver the blows which finally caused the Spaniards to agree to a peace.

In 1643, the year of the great French military victory over Spain at Rocroi, government expenditure was almost double its income and Mazarin, Richelieu’s successor, had been reduced to even more desperate sales of government offices and an even stricter control of the taille, both of which were highly unpopular. It was no coincidence that the rebellion of 1648 began with a tax strike against Mazarin’s new fiscal measures, and that such unrest swiftly led to a loss in the government’s credit and to its reluctant declaration of bankruptcy.59 Consequently, in the eleven years of Franco-Spanish warfare which remained after the general Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the two contestants resembled punch-drunk boxers, clinging to each other in a state of near-exhaustion and unable to finish the other off. Each was suffering from domestic rebellion, widespread impoverishment, and dislike of the war, and was on the brink of financial collapse. It was true that, with generals like d’Enghien and Turenne and military reformers like Le Tellier, the French army was slowly emerging to be the greatest in Europe; but its naval power, built up by Richelieu, had swiftly disintegrated because of the demands of land warfare;60 and the country still needed a solid economic base.


pages: 165 words: 47,320

The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon

anti-communist, Golden Gate Park, jitney, job automation, Peace of Westphalia

Postulating then some militant faction proclaiming the great moment finally at hand. Advocating a takeover by force, while their enemy was vulnerable. But conservative opinion would care only to continue in opposition, exactly as the Tristero had these seventy years. There might also be, say, a few visionaries: men above the immediacy of their time who could think historically. At least one among them hip enough to foresee the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia, the breakup of the Empire, the coming descent into particularism. “He looks like Kirk Douglas,” cried Bortz, “he's wearing this sword, his name is something gutsy like Konrad. They're meeting in the back room of a tavern, all these broads in peasant blouses carrying steins around, everybody juiced and yelling, suddenly Konrad jumps up on a table. The crowd hushes, 'The salvation of Europe,' Konrad says, 'depends on communication, right?


pages: 850 words: 224,533

The Internationalists: How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World by Oona A. Hathaway, Scott J. Shapiro

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, bank run, Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, humanitarian revolution, index card, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game

See, e.g., Leo Gross, “The Peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948,” American Journal of International Law 42, no. 1 (1948): 20–41; Stephen D. Krasner, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999). 24. See Andreas Osiander, “Sovereignty, International Relations and the Westphalian Myth,” International Organization 55, no. 2 (Spring 2001): 251–87; Ronald Lesaffer, “The International Dimension of the Westphalia Treaties: A Juridical Approach,” in 350 años de la Paz de Westfalia, 1648–1998. Del antagonismo a la integración en Europa. Ciclo de conferencias celebrado en la Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid 9 de marzo a 30 de noviembre de 1998, eds. García García et al. (Madrid: Biblioteca Nacional, 1999), 291–310; Derek Croxton, “The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty,” The International History Review 21, no. 3 (1999): 569–91.

Plettenberg may have been predominantly Protestant, but it was a town in the Catholic Rhineland, which was in turn a region of the Protestant Reich. Germany itself was sandwiched between Catholic France and Orthodox Russia. Schmitt therefore spent his formative years at the center of a series of confessional Matryoshka dolls. For him, the wars of religion that ravaged Germany did not end in 1648. They simply went underground, threatening to erupt as though the Peace of Westphalia had never been concluded. Carl’s humble origins also alienated him from the ruling, upper-class Protestant elite. Rejecting his father’s advice to enter a trade, he matriculated at the prestigious Humboldt University in Berlin, an unusual move for a young man of his background.29 He excelled in school, but he never felt accepted. “I was an obscure young man of modest origins,” he later wrote, “standing wholly in the dark, I looked from the darkness into a brightly lit room.”30 In 1915, he married the flamboyant Pavla Dorotić, a Viennese dancer who claimed descent from Croatian nobility.


pages: 482 words: 161,169

Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry by Peter Warren Singer

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market friction, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, risk/return, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

The svstem worked best if the hired forces were used in of- fensive operations in foreign provinces; if not, the fiscal costs saved by con- tracting-out were offset by the higher social costs to the employer resulting from the burden that such units placed on local populations.l/ Leaders made sure to keep them away from their homelands whenever possible.48 The ultimate result of the Thirty Years War, however, was that the concept of sovereignty won out against that of empire. The Hapsburg family's power, which had personified the rule by personal empire, was broken, and individual national units began to encroach on its rule. The war had been so devastating that the onlv conceivable resolution was to let each nation de- cide its own internal matters. The following Peace of Westphalia in 1648 solidified the emergence of the state by enshrining the importance of sovereignty over affairs within borders. THE STATE TAKES OVER THE MILITARY MARKET It was in this context that hired armies of foreigners began to be replaced by standing state armies made up of citizens. The ultimate inflection point of this change were the Napoleonic wars starting at the end of the eighteenth century.

Massive accumulations of soldiers, machinery, and WHY SFCURITY HAS BFFN PRIVATI/FD Ol money were once required to take full advantage of the tools of conflict. In fact, this necessity lay at the heart of the triumph of the state form.73 However, changes in the nature of weapons technology mean that small groups now possess the ability to wield massive power. The result is that "The steady concentration of power in the hands of states, which began in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, is over, at least for awhile.1*74 At the high intensity level of warfare, the requirement of advanced technology has dramatically increased the need for specialized expertise, which often must be pulled from the private sector. The flip side is that the motivations behind warfare and its impact on the roles of militaries also seem to be in flux. Low intensity conflict, primarily taking place in global areas of transition, has often lost its ideological motivations and instead has become criminalized.


pages: 482 words: 149,807

A History of France by John Julius Norwich

centre right, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, Monroe Doctrine, Peace of Westphalia

* Anet, the work of Philibert de l’Orme, is one of the loveliest châteaux near Paris. It was used as the chief location in Jean Cocteau’s film La Belle et la Bête, and also in the James Bond film Thunderball. † In fact the princes had no right to surrender imperial territory in this way; they – and Henry – were lucky to get away with it. The region did not technically become part of France until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. * Francis of Guise was a remarkable man indeed. In 1545, when the French were besieging Boulogne – which had been taken by Henry VIII in the previous year – he had been struck with a lance through the bars of his helmet. The lance had been snapped off leaving six inches of its shaft and the steel tip piercing both his cheeks. However, the duke remained firmly in his saddle, riding back unassisted to his tent.

That was the moment when a mob of angry Parisians burst into the royal palace and demanded to see their young king. They were led into Louis’s bedchamber, where the terrified child – he was still only ten – pretended to be asleep. The sight of him seemed to settle them, and they quietly took their leave; but the incident had left everyone badly shaken, and the court moved for safety to Rueil – then a village, now a western suburb of Paris. At this point the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia allowed the Duke of Enghien – later known as the Grand Condé – to return to the capital, where he immediately agreed to help Anne to restore the king’s authority. Fortunately he still had his army with him. He attacked the rebels, and after a few skirmishes the two sides reached an agreement. The Peace of Rueil was signed and the court returned with relief to Paris. Condé, however, was not satisfied with his victory.


The Rough Guide to Brussels 4 (Rough Guide Travel Guides) by Dunford, Martin.; Lee, Phil; Summer, Suzy.; Dal Molin, Loik

Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, low cost airline, Peace of Westphalia, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning

He was, however, unable to advance any further north and the Low Countries were divided into two – the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces – beginning a separation that would lead, after many changes, to the creation of Belgium and the Netherlands. 255 CONTEXTS | A history of Brussels most of western Europe. Finally, the Habsburgs were compelled to accept the humiliating terms of the Peace of Westphalia, a general treaty whose terms formally recognized the independence of the United Provinces and closed the Scheldt estuary, thereby crippling Antwerp. By these means, the commercial pre-eminence of Amsterdam was assured and its Golden Age began. The Thirty Years’ War had devastated the Spanish Netherlands, but the peace was perhaps as bad. Politically dependent on a decaying Spain, economically ruined and deprived of most of its more independent-minded citizens, the country turned in on itself, sustained by the fanatical Catholicism of the CounterReformation.

Politically dependent on a decaying Spain, economically ruined and deprived of most of its more independent-minded citizens, the country turned in on itself, sustained by the fanatical Catholicism of the CounterReformation. Literature disappeared, the sciences vegetated and religious orders multiplied to an extraordinary degree. In painting, artists – such as Rubens – were used to confirm the ecclesiastical orthodoxies, their canvases full of muscular saints and angels, reflecting a religious faith of mystery and hierarchy; others, such as David Teniers, retreated into minutely observed realism. The Peace of Westphalia had also freed the king of France from fear of Germany, and the political and military history of the Spanish Netherlands after 1648 was dominated by the efforts of Louis XIV to add the country to his territories. Fearful of an over-powerful France, the United Provinces and England, among others, determinedly resisted French designs and, to preserve the balance of power, fought a long series of campaigns beginning in the 1660s.


pages: 592 words: 161,798

The Future of War by Lawrence Freedman

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Glasses, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Markoff, long peace, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, the scientific method, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

There was an impressively detailed edifice of legal rules dealing with the entire phenomenon of war from the opening of hostilities to the signing of the peace, plus all stages in between—including conduct on the battlefield, the occupation of enemy territory, relations with neutral powers, treatment of prisoners and spies, medical treatment for the wounded and much else.9 So long as the rules were followed then acts rightly considered criminal in all other circumstances became legal and were even celebrated. As the international system assumed the autonomy and sovereignty of states, there was no higher authority to adjudicate on whether a particular war was unjust or improper. Since the 1648 ‘Peace of Westphalia’, which concluded the deadly Thirty Years War, it was understood that the best way to avoid war was for states to mind their own business. The interests of states would be interpreted by whoever happened to be in charge at any particular time, on the dictum ‘cuius regio eius religio’ (‘whose realm, his religion’). These interests, however, also had meaning and durability well beyond the personalities and whims of particular rulers.

See Organization of African Unity Obama, Barack, xvi, 119, 249, 261–262, 269 Obama Administration, drones and, 242–244 O’Hanlon, Michael, 190 oil, 161–163, 259–260 On the Beach (film), 76 On the Beach (Shute), 74 On the Origins of War (Kagan), 114–115 On Thermonuclear War (Kahn), 78–79, 87–88 Oneal, John, 139 Operation Barbarossa, 62, 66, 82, 279 Organization of African Unity (OAU), 150–151 See also African Union Orwell, George, 68, 105 outer space, Cold War and, 89 Oxfam, 214 Pacific War, 63–66 See also Pearl Harbor Pakistan, 149, 165–166, 243, 261, 269, 273, 281 See also A Q Khan network Palestine, 149, 180–181 Panetta, Leon, 235 Paris, Roland, 172–173 Paris Commune, 3, 17 Parkes, Walter, 232, 234 peace, Africa and, 218–219 See also capitalist peace; democratic peace; territorial peace; war, abolishment of peace movements, 24–26, 111–112 See also Quakers Peace of Westphalia, 28 peacekeeping Africa and, 170–173 France and, 172 intervention and, 169–174 Iraq and, 174 UK and, 171–172 UN and, 169–174, 179 Yugoslavia and, 169 See also United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus Pearl Harbor, 63–66, 78, 118, 279 cyberwar and, 235 11 September 2001 and, 182 nuclear war and, 82, 90 Peierls, Rudolf, 71 People’s Wars, 143 Peters, Ralph, 191 Petraeus, David, 194, 196–197 Philippines, 38 See also Philippines War, Second Philippines War, Second, 38 Picasso, Pablo, 60 Pinker, Steven, xi–xv, 131 Platoon (film), 177 poisoned gas, 56–59 Pol Pot, 126, 166 Poland, 52, 60 political science, 195 politics, counter-insurgency and, 194–196 popular support, 16–18, 197–199, 208 Portugal, 142, 159 Posen, Barry, 191 poverty, xv PRIO.


Lotharingia: A Personal History of Europe's Lost Country by Simon Winder

British Empire, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia

These agreements, known collectively as the Peace of Westphalia, among many other things recognized that the Swiss were no longer part of the Empire – a major breakthrough as the Swiss had spent the war armed to the teeth waiting to be the next item on Ferdinand’s agenda. It also formalized an important left-over piece of business: during the disastrous attempt back in 1551 by various Protestant German princes to rebel against Charles V, the bribe offered by them to the French to intervene in return for the Imperial ‘Three Bishoprics’ had done nothing to help their cause. The French had nonetheless swept in (led by a man called Anne, perhaps oddly) and had held on to the territories ever since in a legal limbo. It was almost a century later then that the Peace of Westphalia acknowledged this transfer. Toul, with its spectacular cathedral, would fall into obscurity: but the confirmed French ownership of Metz and Verdun would have a rich, complex future.


pages: 265 words: 71,143

Empires of the Weak: The Real Story of European Expansion and the Creation of the New World Order by Jason Sharman

British Empire, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, European colonialism, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land tenure, offshore financial centre, passive investing, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, profit maximization, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs

These changes included a higher proportion of musketeers, a further increase in the proportion of officers to rank and file in order to execute more complex tactical maneuvers, more drill, the centralization of command, and the formation of military training academies and libraries. As such, from the 1590s at the latest, the Ottomans fought the most advanced forces Europe had to offer in and around Hungary. Though Agoston sees a process of centralization in the Habsburg domains, even after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the financial and military support of the distinctly confederal Holy Roman Empire remained important. It is very hard to see this entity fitting the template of the centralized sovereign state. Yet for all their complexity, the Habsburg domains were notably more unified than the seven provinces of the Netherlands (described by one prominent historian as more of an alliance than a federation),21 each with its own separate navy, regiments, and veto on common decisions.


pages: 212 words: 68,690

Independent Diplomat: Dispatches From an Unaccountable Elite by Carne Ross

barriers to entry, cuban missile crisis, Doha Development Round, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, iterative process, meta analysis, meta-analysis, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, stakhanovite, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

But as long as governments wish to hold sway in international policy and decision-making, they must continually reaffirm not only their own but each other’s legitimacy to speak for their countries, even when the government is as undemocratic as, say, Muammar Gadhafi’s in Libya. Perhaps one reason why this habit persists is because of the way that diplomacy evolved. From its origins in Classical times, through the Middle Ages and the development of the state-based system of the Peace of Westphalia, diplomats represented — and negotiated between — discrete entities: cities, provinces and later states. In contrast to today, the business between them was limited to relatively narrow areas like war and peace, and trade. These were important but they did not have the character of the massive and diverse contacts and interactions (words which do not by themselves adequately convey the complex and dynamic nature of these flows) of today’s world.


pages: 281 words: 71,242

World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer

artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism

Although the battlefield made its own contribution to the corpse count, the aftermath of war was terrible, too. Dysentery, typhus, and plague conquered the German principalities. Famine and demographic collapse followed battle, some four million deaths in total. The worst-clobbered of the German states lost more than half of their population. Leibniz was born as Europe negotiated the Peace of Westphalia ending the slaughter, so it was inevitable that he trained his prodigious intellectual energies on reconciling Protestants and Catholics, crafting schemes to unify humanity. Prodigious is perhaps an inadequate term to describe Leibniz’s mental reserves. He produced schemes at, more or less, the rate he contracted his diaphragm. His archives, which still haven’t been fully published, contain some two hundred thousand pages of his writing, filled with spectacular creations.


Germany Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, double helix, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sensible shoes, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence

Stadium tours include a visit to the club’s museum (389 2900; adult/child €5/3; 10am-7pm Tue-Fri, to 5pm Sat & Sun). To get to the stadium, take tram 302 to Veltins Arena from Gelsenkirchen Hauptbahnhof. MÜNSTER & OSNABRÜCK Catholic Münster and protestant Osnabrück are forever linked – at least in the minds of suffering middle-school history students – as the dual sites chosen to sign the Peace of Westphalia, the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War (one of the longest and comparatively most destructive wars in history). Today you can find echoes of the event in both towns. Münster 0251 / POP 279,800 Watch out! You might get run down by a bike in Münster and that’s just one example of the exuberance found in this entrancing town. In fact, when strolling around Münster’s Altstadt, it’s hard to imagine that nearly everything you see is only 60 years or so old.

Changing exhibits are drawn from the collection of some 800 graphic works, including a near complete series of Picasso’s lithographs. PRINZIPALMARKT The most interesting street in Münster’s Altstadt is the Prinzipalmarkt, lined by restored Patrician town houses with arcades sheltering elegant boutiques and cafes. The key building here is the Gothic Historisches Rathaus Offline map Google map, with its elegant filigree gable. In 1648, an important subtreaty of the Peace of Westphalia was signed here, marking the first step in ending the calamitous Thirty Years War. To the left, the beautifully porticoed Renaissance building is the Stadtweinhaus Offline map Google map (City Wine House). Just south of Prinzipalmarkt is the Münster Arkaden Offline map Google map, a small and elegant shopping mall with striking marble flooring and a central glass dome. Friedenssaal HISTORIC SITE Offline map Google map (Hall of Peace; 492 2724; Rathaus, Prinzipalmarkt 8-9; adult/child €2/1.50; 10am-5pm Tue-Fri, to 4pm Sat & Sun) The spot where the subtreaty was signed is a splendidly wood-carved hall in the Rathaus.

Today the museum shares an entrance with the Kulturgeschichtliches Museum (entry included in price), which has graphics cabinets, also designed by Libeskind, holding works by Albrecht Dürer. The local Museum of Cultural History adjoins. MARKT & AROUND Much of the Altstadt is a humdrum shopping district but wander around and you’ll find some gems. Rathaus HISTORIC BUILDING (Markt; 8am-6pm Mon-Fri, 9am-4pm Sat, 10am-4pm Sun) It was on the Rathaus steps that the Peace of Westphalia was proclaimed on 25 October 1648, ending the Thirty Years’ War. The preceding peace negotiations were conducted partly in Münster, about 60km south, and partly in the Rathaus’ Friedenssaal (Peace Hall). On the left as you enter the Rathaus are portraits of the negotiators. Also have a look around the Schatzkammer (Treasure Chamber) opposite, especially for the 13th-century Kaiserpokal (Kaiser goblet).


pages: 686 words: 201,972

Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol by Iain Gately

barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, corporate raider, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haight Ashbury, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Louis Pasteur, megacity, music of the spheres, Norman Mailer, Peace of Westphalia, post-work, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, working poor

Their rise to eminence had, in historical terms, been exceptionally rapid: Prior to 1566, their nation was a patchwork of duchies and bishoprics under the control of Spain. However, over the following decades, seventeen of these entities, mostly Protestant, combined together to form the United Provinces, and with the assistance of England they established a republic and drove the Spaniards from their lands. Overseas, meanwhile, they appropriated a number of Portuguese colonies and founded, as in America, new stations of their own. By 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia, a pan-European settlement of various conflicts, was agreed and their nation recognized, they had trading posts in Manhattan, the Caribbean, Africa, India, Sri Lanka, and various Indonesian Islands. They carried Virginian tobacco to Europe, African slaves to the Americas, French wine and brandy everywhere, and they had a near monopoly on Asian spices. Their modus operandi, backed up by force if necessary, was similar wherever they traded.

National Council for Education on Alcohol (NCEA) National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) National Minimum Drinking Age Act National Prohibition Party Native Americans and alcohol use and arms sales effects of alcohol on Franklin on and grape juice and laws regulating alcohol and New World colonization and the Whiskey Rebellion Nazi Party neoconservatism Neolithic era Nero New Amsterdam New England New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New Orleans, Louisiana New South Wales New Testament New York Alcoholics Anonymous chapter and the American Revolution and Dickens’ travels distillation in laws on Native American alcohol use and Prohibition and the rum trade taverns in New York Assembly New Zealand Newfoundland Nile River Nineteenth Amendment nitrokegs Noah noble rot (Botrytis cinerea) nonimportation agreements Norfolk Island Normandy Norsemen North Africa North Carolina Northumbria Norway Nova Albion Nuremburg, Germany O’Brien, Tim Ocean City, New Jersey Octavian oenology Ohio Oktoberfest The Old Drinker (Metsu) Old Testament Oldmixon, John Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act O’Neill, Eugene Ontario opium ordinaries Oregon O’Reilly, Don Alexander Orion Brewing Company Orkney Island Orwell, George Osiris Osmond, Humphrey Ostrogoths Ovid Oxford University P. Diddy Page, Benjamin Palestine palm wine Paris, France Parker, Dorothy Parkman, Francis Parliament Passover Pasteur, Louis patent medicines Paterson, William Patuxet Paul Masson winery Paul the apostle Paulinus of Nola Pawnee Indians Peace of Westphalia Pearl, Raymond S. Penfold, Christopher Rawson Penn, William Pennsylvania- People’s Republic of China Pepys, Samuel Perestroika Pereverzev, Vladimir Borisovich Permissive Act Pernod Pershing, John J. Persia Peru Pétain, Philippe Petronius Arbiter peyote Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia College of Physicians Philippines Phillip, Arthur phylloxera vastatrix Physiology of Taste (Brillat-Savarin) Picasso, Pablo Picts pilsner beers pinard wine piracy Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Place, Francis plague Plato Platt, Hugh Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger plonk Plymouth Colony Plzen, Czechoslovakia Poe, Edgar Allan Poland Pollock, Jackson Polo, Marco polygamy polytheism Pope, Alexander port Port Jackson, Australia Port Royal, Jamaica porter Porter, David Portugal Pound, Ezra Prague, Czech Republic Praxiteles prehistoric brews Presbyterians presidios Presley, Elvis Preston Temperance Society Priapus Priestley, Joseph Prince Edward Island privateers Procope (coffee shop) Prohibition Prohibition Party Prometheus prostitution Protestantism Protz, Roger Prussia public houses (pubs) and coffee shops and leisure time and the Licensing Act in London and ordinaries Orwell’s idea of and political unrest and settlement of Australia sin associated with and vertical integration and wartime restrictions and World War pulque Punic War Puritans Pushkin, Aleksandr Putin, Vladimir Putnam, Isaac Quakers quality control Quartering Act Quebec quintessence Raleigh, Walter Ramsay, Allan rap music Reagan, Ronald Reformation refrigeration Reinheitsgebot Rémy Martin Renaissance Republican Party resinated wines restaurants Restoration Revere, Paul Reynière, Alexandre Balthasar Grimnod de la Rheingau region Rhode Island Rhône Valley rice wine Richard (Richard the Lionheart) Ridge Vineyards Riesling wines Rimbaud, Arthur Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Roanoke settlement rock ’n’ roll music Rodrigues, Joāo Roẹderer, Louis Roman Catholic Church Roman civilization and the Bacchus cult and barbarian invasions and Britain and Christianity divided and entertainment and gender issues and Judaism and the Renaissance sacked Senate Roman civilization (continued ) and viticulture and warfare Romantic movement Roosevelt, Franklin Delano Rosee, Pasqua Rothko, Mark Rothschild, Philippe de Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Royal Navy Royal Society RU- rum in African rituals and the American Revolution- and Barbados and Benjamin Franklin and New England and piracy and the Royal Navy and settlement of Australia and the slave trade and Washington and World War Rum Regiment (New South Wales Corps) rum-runners Rush, Benjamin Russia Saccharomyces Safer, Morley Sahagun, Bernadino de Saint-Évremond, Marquis de sakazuki ritual sake Salem, Massachusetts saloons Salt Lake City, Utah Samnite civilization samogon Samuel Adams Ale San Francisco, California San Juan Capistrano, California Santa Anna, Antonio ópez de Santa Clara, California Santa Fe Trail Santo Domingo Sapporo Brewing Company Saracens Sasanids Sassoon, Siegfried Saxons Schlitz, Joseph Schlitz Company Schubert, Max Schwann, Theodor Schweppe, Jacob Scotland Scott, George Scythians Sedgwick, Robert Sedley, Bill Selective Service Act Semele Senegal Serra, Junipero Seven Years’ War Shakespeare, William Shelley, Percy Sherry (“sack”) Shias Shinto Shiva Sicily Sickert, Walter Silenus Skara Brae settlement slavery and Dickens and emancipation and New Orleans and the rum trade and sugar production and the temperance movement Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania Smart, J.


pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning

Guénon was a “primordial” Traditionalist, a believer in the idea that certain ancient religions, including the Hindu Vedanta, Sufism, and medieval Catholicism, were repositories of common spiritual truths, revealed in the earliest age of the world, that were being wiped out by the rise of secular modernity in the West. What Guénon hoped for, he wrote in 1924, was to “restore to the West an appropriate traditional civilization.” Guénon, like Bannon, was drawn to a sweeping, apocalyptic view of history that identified two events as marking the beginning of the spiritual decline of the West: the destruction of the Order of the Knights Templar in 1314 and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Also like Bannon, Guénon was fascinated by the Hindu concept of cyclical time and believed that the West was passing through the fourth and final era, known as the Kali Yuga, a six-thousand-year “dark age” when tradition is wholly forgotten. The antimodernist tenor of Guénon’s philosophy drew several notable followers who made attempts during the twentieth century to re-enchant the world by bringing about this restoration.


pages: 310 words: 85,995

The Future of Capitalism: Facing the New Anxieties by Paul Collier

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, bonus culture, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, centre right, Commodity Super-Cycle, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, greed is good, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, negative equity, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, too big to fail, trade liberalization, urban planning, web of trust, zero-sum game

But, historically, the most damaging forms of oppositional identity have been large-group identities such as ethnicity, religion and nationality. They have led to pogroms, jihad and world war. Few societies have suffered more from such oppositional identities than Germany. In the seventeenth century the Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants utterly devastated what had been a prosperous society. It was resolved eventually by the Peace of Westphalia, which in essence switched the salience of identity from religion to nationality. It indeed restored peace, but eventually took Germany into the hell of National Socialism, the Holocaust, world war and defeat. Unsurprisingly, most Germans now want a larger identity and so are enthusiastic Europeans. But Europe is not just a lump of land on to which a polity can be fitted. As we have seen, the polity is better able to function if the units of political power coincide with shared identity.


pages: 333 words: 86,628

The Virtue of Nationalism by Yoram Hazony

Berlin Wall, British Empire, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, Mahatma Gandhi, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, urban planning, Westphalian system

The Scottish national covenants of the same time, modeled on the Jewish national covenants of the Bible, were similarly motivated. The self-image of these Protestant peoples as rightfully independent in the face of imperial opposition was often explicitly modeled on biblical Israel’s effort to wrest its national and religious freedom from the dictates of Egyptian and Babylonian universal empire.23 The Thirty Years’ War, ending in the peace of Westphalia in 1648, is often said to have been a “war of religion” fought between Protestants and Catholics. But this is not quite right. The war actually pitted the emerging national states of France, the Netherlands, and Sweden (nations that were, respectively, Catholic, Calvinist, and Lutheran) against German and Spanish armies devoted to the idea that universal empire reflected God’s will, and that such empire alone could bring true well-being to mankind.


pages: 295 words: 92,670

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown

Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, charter city, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Peace of Westphalia, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, UNCLOS

Many of the local German and Dutch nobility were Protestant and received financial and military aid from other regions sympathetic to their cause, such as Denmark, France and Sweden. In the mid-seventeenth century this conflict culminated in the terrible struggle known as the Thirty Years War (1618 to 1648), in which the resulting devastation and plundering killed somewhere between a quarter and more than a third of the population of central Europe. The Thirty Years War did not end until the Peace of Westphalia, when the nations agreed that local princes would have the right to establish the official religion in their state, but would respect variations of the faith. This agreement effectively ended the temporal and political power of the papacy in Europe. In a not entirely coincidental corollary, western Europe was divided into two groups: nations that were the beneficiaries of the Treaty of Tordesillas and those that were excluded, and this division coincided with religious affiliation.


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

And while these powers were often in conflict with each other, they all ultimately shared the same view of the rest of the world: it was there to be discovered, exploited and colonized for their individual and collective benefit. It was the beginning of what might loosely be described as ‘post-Columbus’ globalization. Yet while there were attempts to create lasting stability – ranging from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 through to the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 – post-Columbus globalization was always vulnerable to imperial rivalries. For a while, the British Empire, in all its pomp, appeared to provide an answer: its enthusiasm for free trade – enforced by the long arm of the Royal Navy – opened up a remarkable web of commercial connections worldwide. Other nations, however, understandably wanted their share of the spoils, most obviously the Russians in the nineteenth century and the Germans in the first half of the twentieth.


Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System by Alexander Betts, Paul Collier

Alvin Roth, anti-communist, centre right, charter city, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, global supply chain, informal economy, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rising living standards, risk/return, school choice, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, urban planning, zero-sum game

This chapter therefore aims to make sense of the institutional trajectory of the refugee regime, and explore which elements have endured because they have value and which have lasted simply because of inertia or lack of imagination. A REFUGEE REGIME FOR COLD WAR EUROPE For as long as there have been political communities, there have been persecuted groups forced to flee in search of rights. Since the establishment of nation-states in Europe following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, governments have sought ways to govern refugee movements. The Huguenots, for example, as Protestants expelled from France following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, were accepted as refugees in Britain. Throughout the revolutions of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, European states worked bilaterally to ensure safe passage and population exchange for the victims of state formation and dissolution who better fitted the ethnic or religious criteria of newly emerging states.


pages: 1,014 words: 237,531

Escape From Rome: The Failure of Empire and the Road to Prosperity by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, disruptive innovation, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, mandelbrot fractal, means of production, Network effects, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, secular stagnation, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, zero-sum game

This in turn intensified international disunity as states grew more homogeneous and Europe as a whole less so.70 Religious ruptures contributed to this process. The Reformation ended the hegemonic status of the Catholic Church and fostered closer linkages between religious establishments and states. Henry VIII’s separation from the church in 1534 as well as the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, both of which acknowledged rulers’ rights to determine their state religion, were symbolic milestones. In this more sharply fractured environment, state formation, institutional development, and economic growth proceeded in tandem. According to a variety of metrics, the economies of the North Sea region performed best.71 Urban real wages offer some of the most robust evidence. In the Late Middle Ages, the purchasing power and living standards of workers had markedly improved as a result of the shift in the ratio of capital to labor brought about by the Black Death: mass mortality raised the price of labor relative to that of fixed assets.

See also Catholic Church parliamentarianism, 14, 350–51, 376 Parthasarathi, Prasannan, 585n191, 587n221 Parthians, 100, 223, 299–300, 521, 560n5, 601n36 pastoralists, 255, 274, 281, 283, 287, 295, 299, 301–2, 306, 568n40, 569n45 patent law, 486–87 patriarchal structures, 498, 544n31 patrimonialism, 68, 225–27, 366, 544n31 Paul, gospels of, 518–19, 523 Peace of Augsburg (1555), 370–71 Peace of Westphalia (1648), 371 Pechenegs, 290, 291 Pepin, 154 Pepin the Short, 160 Peroz I (Sasanian king), 300 Philip II (Habsburg ruler), 195, 199, 201–3, 202, 213, 378 Philippi, battle of (42 BCE), 79 Philippines, 444, 445 Phoenicians, 429, 431–32 Phrygian language, 311 Pines, Yuri, 323–26, 328, 574nn27–29, 575n33, 585n185 Poland: Mongol incursion into, 175–77, 180–81, 185, 187; Pact of Koszyce, 350; in tenth century, 268 political economy, 387, 392, 413, 442, 470, 486–88, 581n110 Pollack, Sheldon, 484 Polybius, 546n57 polycentrism: in Central America, 46; church’s role as driver of, 348, 519–20; defined, 530; development dynamics of, 339, 419, 497, 510; Enlightenment and, 473–79; essential to (Second) Great Divergence and Industrial Revolution, 15, 337; intermittent in imperial settings, 17; Mongol presence in Europe and, 190; overseas exploration and, 449–53; in post-Roman Europe, 12, 16, 37, 43, 214, 338, 501, 503, 508; significance of, 9, 338–44, 339; tax practices and, 256.


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

The whole exercise was fairly shoddy and embarrassing.1 And yet for those who believe that the world will only prosper (or even survive) in the twenty-first century if it can develop new forms of global government, the European Union is genuinely inspirational. For the Union is by far the most advanced example in the world of “supranational government”—that is, of laws and governing structures whose authority crosses international boundaries and transcends the principle of “national sovereignty” on which international politics has been based ever since the Peace of Westphalia ended Europe’s wars of religion in 1648. The “European project” has progressed remarkably since its origins in 1951 as a coal and steel community. By 2008, a European Union of twenty-seven nations had been established, with a queue of aspirant members stretching from Turkey to Iceland. The EU long ago established the vital principle that European law, administered by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, has supremacy over the national laws of the twenty-seven member states of the Union.


pages: 363 words: 108,670

Galileo's Daughter: A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith and Love by Dava Sobel

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, cognitive dissonance, Dava Sobel, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, germ theory of disease, Hans Lippershey, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Louis Pasteur, Murano, Venice glass, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Peace of Westphalia, retrograde motion

* When Urban died on July 29, 1644, the people of Rome expressed their resentment of his last expensive war, begun in Castro in 1641, by demolishing a statue of him in the courtyard of the Collegio Romano. “The pope died at quarter past eleven,” a diarist noted, “and by noon the statue was no more.” The Thirty Years’ War, which had raged on despite Urban’s interventions, finally ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. * Within one more generation, the great chain of government that had dominated Tuscany’s political structure since the fourteenth century would die out with the last Medici grand duke, Gian Gastone, in 1737. Bibliography Allan-Olney, Mary. The Private Life of Galileo, Compiled Principally from His Correspondence and That of His Eldest Daughter, Sister Maria Celeste. London: Macmillan, 1870.


pages: 378 words: 120,490

Roads to Berlin by Cees Nooteboom, Laura Watkinson

Berlin Wall, centre right, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, rent control

And now I understand why the former King of Prussia and the later Alter Kaiser, who both resided in one and the same body, came to unveil this statue in 1875 (and also why those Trabants are here): it created the impression that a single, uninterrupted line ran from Hermann to Wilhelm, as though the land stretching out beneath my feet had not for centuries been a grab bag of earldoms and kingdoms, with everything that implies. “Immer zerrissen und geteilt,” said Hölderlin, always torn apart and divided—and the numbers back him up: at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, three hundred German states were recognized as sovereign, each with its own court, its own despot, enlightened or otherwise, and the accompanying officialdom and cult of obedience, which was to have such dramatic consequences even into the twentieth century. Arminius. Hermannsdenkmal (Hermann Monument), Teutoburg Forest Hermann was of course not called Hermann, but Arminius.


pages: 420 words: 124,202

The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention by William Rosen

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, All science is either physics or stamp collecting, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, computer age, Copley Medal, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, delayed gratification, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flynn Effect, fudge factor, full employment, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, iterative process, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, moral hazard, Network effects, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Simon Kuznets, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, zero-sum game, éminence grise

This was something like being born in Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1975: When Otto was sixteen years old, the armies of the last great religious war in European history began marching and countermarching across Germany, enforcing orthodoxy at the end of a pike in what became known as the Thirty Years War. Magdeburg, which had been a bastion of Protestantism ever since Martin Luther had visited in 1524, became a target for the armies of the Catholic League, not once, but half a dozen times; in 1631, the troops of Count Johann Tilly sacked the city, killing more than twenty thousand. By the time the various treaties that comprised the Peace of Westphalia were signed in 1648, the city was home to fewer than five hundred war-weary survivors. One of them was Otto Gericke, home from his studies in Leipzig, Jena, and Leiden, now a military engineer who was enlisted to help rebuild the city, and had been named one of its four mayors. He was, entirely as one might expect, eager to turn his talents to more peaceful pursuits. Though evidently unaware of the details of Torricelli’s experiments, he was headed down the same path, intending to demonstrate the power of a vacuum and therefore the weight of air.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

Toward the end of the Middle Ages, a new technology changed the world by spreading knowledge and communication to the masses. But like the Internet today, the printing press back then also spread disorder, sparking the Reformation and then a series of long wars that left Europe devastated and over eight million dead. Through this period, the governing structures of the old world, such as empires, confederations, and dukedoms, found that they couldn’t keep up. In a process that crystallized at the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the modern bureaucratic nation-state took over. Each nation’s sovereignty was embodied by a government that monopolized legitimate force within these its borders and ensured that the national economy ran smoothly, setting up everything from national currency to taxes. The governments of today’s world are largely creations of these centuries past. The challenge is that much like the dukedoms and empires of old, the state as we once knew it is having a hard time keeping up with new actors and new technologies.


pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

A civilized war was one fought for the sake of peace: at some point the cowboys were supposed to give way to the sheriffs. For Roosevelt, the civilized actors in international affairs were charged with keeping the peace, with beating back the black chaos of savagery and barbarism and eventually with translating barbarism into civilization. To this degree, imperialism was a civilizational good in Roosevelt’s view. The outlines of a civilized peace had been drawn in the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and after the Napoleonic Wars at the Congress of Vienna. Diplomacy existed to perpetuate the peace, and a balance of power in Europe was gradually to be applied to the entire world—by enticement and commerce if possible, and by force and imposition if necessary. When Teddy Roosevelt was president, the preponderance of Western power was near absolute, with Japan the one rising Asian power.


Germany by Andrea Schulte-Peevers

Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, computer age, credit crunch, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, place-making, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Skype, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence

* * * The name Habsburg (Hapsburg) originates from Habichts Burg (literally ‘Hawk Castle’), the spot on the Rhine (in present-day Switzerland, immediately across the border from Germany) from where the great Swabian family first hailed. * * * But the religious issue refused to die. Rather, it degenerated into the bloody Thirty Years War, which Sweden and France had joined by 1635. Calm was restored with the Peace of Westphalia (1648), signed in Münster and Osnabrück, but it left the Reich – embracing more than 300 states and about 1000 smaller territories – a nominal, impotent state. Switzerland and the Netherlands gained formal independence, France won chunks of Alsace and Lorraine, and Sweden helped itself to the mouths of the Elbe, Oder and Weser Rivers. * * * The first potato was planted in Germany in 1621, the Gregorian calendar was adopted in 1700 and Germany’s first cuckoo clock started ticking in 1730

Changing exhibits are drawn from the collection of some 800 graphic works, including a near complete series of Picasso’s lithographs. PRINZIPALMARKT The most interesting street in Münster’s Altstadt is the Prinzipalmarkt, lined by restored Patrician town houses with arcades sheltering elegant boutiques and cafes. The key building here is the Gothic Historisches Rathaus, with its elegant filigree gable. In 1648, an important subtreaty of the Peace of Westphalia was signed here, marking the first step in ending the calamitous Thirty Years War. You can visit the splendidly wood-carved hall where the historic moment took place; it’s called the Friedenssaal (Hall of Peace; 492 2724; Prinzipalmarkt 8-9; adult/concession €1.50/1; 10am-5pm Tue-Fri, 10am-4pm Sat & Sun). As you exit, the beautifully porticoed Renaissance building on your right is the Stadtweinhaus (City Wine House).

In 1944, after several years in exile, arrest in Belgium and successful escape in France, he was denounced and finally deported from Belgium to Auschwitz, where he died. Today the museum shares an entrance with the Kulturgeschichtliches Museum (entry included in price), which has graphics cabinets, also designed by Libeskind, holding works by Albrecht Dürer. MARKT & AROUND It was on the Rathaus (admission free; 8am-8pm Mon-Fri, 9am-4pm Sat, 10am-4pm Sun) steps that the Peace of Westphalia was proclaimed on 25 October 1648, ending the Thirty Years’ War. The preceding peace negotiations were conducted partly in Münster, about 60km south, and partly in the Rathaus’ Friedenssaal (Peace Hall). On the left as you enter the Rathaus are portraits of the negotiators. Also have a look around the Schatzkammer (Treasure Chamber) opposite, especially for the 13th-century Kaiserpokal (Kaiser goblet).


The Rough Guide to Prague by Humphreys, Rob

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, clean water, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, Johannes Kepler, land reform, Live Aid, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, sexual politics, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile

The Catholics eventually drove the Saxons out, but for the last ten years of the war Bohemia became the main battleground between the new champions of the Protestant cause – the Swedes – and the imperial Catholic forces. In 1648, the final battle of the war was fought in Prague, when the Swedes seized Malá Strana, but failed to take Staré Město, thanks to stubborn resistance on the Charles Bridge by Prague’s Jewish and newly Catholicized student populations. The Counter-Reformation and the Dark Ages 234 The Thirty Years’ War ended with the Peace of Westphalia, which, for the Czechs, was as disastrous as the war itself. An estimated five-sixths of the Bohemian nobility went into exile, their properties handed over to loyal Catholic families from Austria, Spain, France and Italy. Bohemia had been devastated, with towns and cities laid waste, and the total population reduced by almost two-thirds; Prague’s population halved. On top of all that, Bohemia was now decisively within the Catholic sphere of influence, and the full force of the Counter-Reformation was brought to bear on its people.


pages: 934 words: 135,736

The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 by Mary Fulbrook

Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, coherent worldview, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, joint-stock company, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, Sinatra Doctrine, union organizing, unorthodox policies

In the days of the politically decentralized 'Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation', the multiplicity of German lands ranging from the more important secular and ecclesiastical principalities and city states through to the minuscule fiefdoms of 'independent imperial knights' formed an interdependent system over which the emperors (often pursuing dynastic interests outside the Empire) never quite gained central control. The cultural and political conflicts involved in the Reformation of the sixteenth century helped to institutionalize the decentralization of the German lands. Religious differences coincided and overlapped with political conflicts to confirm this diversity in the course of the seventeenth century, in the series of conflicts which formed the so-called Thirty Years War (161848). Yet the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 was effectively able only to seal a stalemate: neither religious uniformity nor political centralization was achieved. The territorial rulers enjoyed sovereignty within their own states, while still remaining formally subordinate to the Emperor. Clashes among states competing for domination in the emerging European state system continued in the 'age of absolutism' of the later seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.


pages: 311 words: 168,705

The Rough Guide to Vienna by Humphreys, Rob

centre right, ghettoisation, Peace of Westphalia, strikebreaker, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Nevertheless, the new creed flourished under the relatively liberal reign of Maximilian II (1564–76), and only after Rudolf II (1576–1612) moved the capital to Prague, leaving Archduke Ernst in charge of Vienna, did repressive measures force a turning of the tide. When the Thirty Years’ War broke out in 1618, Vienna was well on the way to becoming a Catholic city again, thanks partly to the Jesuits’ stranglehold on the education system. By the time of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the city, which had emerged from the war relatively unscathed, was firmly under the grip of the Counter-Reformation, and those Viennese who would not renounce their Protestantism were forced into exile. The Siege of 1683 That the city managed to survive the Siege of 1683 was no thanks to Emperor Leopold I (1657–1705), a profligate, bigoted man whose reign marked the beginning of the Baroque era in Vienna.


pages: 688 words: 147,571

Robot Rules: Regulating Artificial Intelligence by Jacob Turner

Ada Lovelace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, Basel III, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, effective altruism, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, friendly fire, future of work, hive mind, Internet of things, iterative process, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Loebner Prize, medical malpractice, Nate Silver, natural language processing, nudge unit, obamacare, off grid, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

Discussed in Francois Rigaux, “Hans Kelsen on International Law”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 9, No. 2 (1998), 325–343. 139Ryan Goodman, “Human Rights Treaties, Invalid Reservations, and State Consent”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 96 (2002), 531–560; Alan Boyle and Christine Chinkin, The Making of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). 140This is referred to as the “Westphalian Model”, following the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, ending the 30 Years War by affirming the individual control of States over their internal affairs. 141Russell Hittinger, “Social Pluralism and Subsidiarity in Catholic Social Doctrine”, Annales Theologici, Vol. 16 (2002), 385–408, 396. 142“Subsidiarity”, EUR-Lex (official website for EU law), http://​eur-lex.​europa.​eu/​summary/​glossary/​subsidiarity.​html, accessed 9 December 2017.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

The World Wide Web was born in 1989, the same year the Berlin Wall fell, which feels like an appropriate turning point to mark the shift from the Westphalian world to the supply chain world.*8 The seventeenth-century Thirty Years’ War represented a transition from the fragmented medieval disorder to the modern system of nation-states in which European monarchs agreed to respect each other’s territorial sovereignty. Today we remember the 1648 Peace of Westphalia not so much for who won (basically no one!) as for ushering in the system of sovereign states that has framed international relations for nearly four centuries. But there is nothing immutable about this system, and its reality has rarely lived up to its (theoretical) ambitions. Instead, supply-demand dynamics have always driven our social organization. For fifty thousand years since the end of the last ice age, the human diaspora has been organizing itself into polities of ever-shifting shapes and sizes that combine vertical authority across horizontal territory, from empires and caliphates to duchies and chiefdoms.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

The modern metropolis retrieves the capacity to empower neighborhoods and nurture civic engagement, but at the same time holds out the prospect of networked global integration: that is the promise of glocality. As the scale of national societies once outgrew the polis, today the scale of global problems is outgrowing the nation-state. The state had a good run. It was an adaptive institution that combined a new sense of national identity with a focus on legislative sovereignty that overcame religious divisiveness and imposed secular unity following the Peace of Westphalia (1648). It prospered for centuries afterward. With the help of a social contract theory that presupposed an act of original consent justifying the state’s power, it allowed democracy to prosper as well. But the radical interdependence of the globalized twenty-first-century world has now outrun it and pushed cities back into the limelight. Nation-state sovereignty has become an obstacle to solving problems.


pages: 740 words: 161,563

The Discovery of France by Graham Robb

Brownian motion, deindustrialization, Honoré de Balzac, Louis Pasteur, New Economic Geography, Peace of Westphalia, price stability, trade route, urban sprawl

Chronology 1532 Union of Brittany to France. 1539 Decree of Villers-Cottereˆts makes French the official language of all legal documents. 1589–1610 Reign of Henri IV; Basse-Navarre, Foix and Auvergne (Comte´) joined to France. 1610 Accession of Louis XIII: ruled 1624–43; Cardinal de Richelieu (d. 1642) chief minister. 1620 Be´arn joined to France. 1643 Accession of Louis XIV; ministry of Cardinal Mazarin (1643–61). 1648 Peace of Westphalia: France acquires parts of Alsace and Lorraine. 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees: France acquires Roussillon and neighbouring regions, most of Artois and parts of Flanders. 1661–1715 Reign of Louis XIV. Conquests in Flanders, Franche-Comte´ and Alsace. Incorporation of Nivernais and the Dauphine´ d’Auvergne. 1667–82 Construction of the Canal du Midi. 1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 1702–10 War of the Camisards (persecution of Protestants in the Ce´vennes). 1715–23 Regency of Philippe d’Orle´ans. 1726–43 Ministry of Cardinal de Fleury. 1741 June – Windham expedition to Chamonix. 1743–74 Reign of Louis XV. 1756–1815 Publication of the Cassini map of France. 1766 Incorporation of Lorraine. 1768 Genoa cedes Corsica to France. 1774 Accession of Louis XVI. 1775 Public coaches permitted to use staging posts. 1786 8 August – First recorded ascent of Mont Blanc. 1789 14 July – Fall of the Bastille.


pages: 1,178 words: 388,227

Quicksilver by Neal Stephenson

Danny Hillis, dark matter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, retrograde motion, short selling, the scientific method, trade route, urban planning

In Grantham lived an apothecary, name of Clarke, an indefatigable pesterer.” “Then why’d you go to him?” “He’d been pestering me with letters, wanting me to deliver certain necessaries of his trade. He’d been doing it for years—ever since sending letters had become possible again.” “What made it possible?” “In my neck of the woods—for I was living in a town in Saxony, called Leipzig—the peace of Westphalia did.” “1648!” Ben says donnishly to the younger boy. “The end of the Thirty Years’ War.” “At his end,” Enoch continues, “it was the removal of the King’s head from the rest of the King, which settled the Civil War and brought a kind of peace to England.” “1649,” Godfrey murmurs before Ben can get it out. Enoch wonders whether Daniel has been so indiscreet as to regale his son with decapitation yarns.

“But what has this to do with Liselotte?” “Liselotte is the grand-daughter of the Winter Queen—who, some say, sparked the Thirty Years’ War by accepting the crown of Bohemia. At any rate the said Queen spent most of those Thirty Years just yonder, in the Hague—my people sheltered her, for Bohemia was by then a shambles, and the Palatinate, which was rightfully hers, had fallen to the Papists as a spoil of that war. But when the Peace of Westphalia was finally signed, some forty years ago now, the Palatinate was returned to that family; the Winter Queen’s eldest son, Charles Louis, became Elector Palatinate. Various of his siblings, including Sophie, moved there, and set up housekeeping in Heidelberg Castle. Liselotte is the daughter of that same Charles Louis, and grew up in that household. Charles Louis died a few years ago and passed the crown to the brother of Liselotte, who was demented—he died not long ago conducting a mock-battle at one of his Rhine-castles.


pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

Whole cultures of farming, of weaving and knitting, of cooking, preserving and fermenting, of storytelling and music-making, have grown out of the peasant family’s struggle to keep body and mind alive in hard times. What the skeleton is to anatomy, the peasant is to history, its essential, hidden support. The eighteenth century would demonstrate that each of these three ways of owning the land—serfdom, peasantry, and private property—had a distinct social and political outcome, and the differences were exaggerated by a unique concept enshrined in the Peace of Westphalia that ended the religious bloodletting. It was summed up in the phrase Cujus regio, eius religio, literally “whose kingdom, his religion,” meaning that within a state’s boundaries a ruler’s authority ranked above any external power. To later generations, this pragmatic phrase crystallized the concept of the nation-state, although it would be more accurate to call it “the territorial state.”


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

And more than anything I have said about the United States and Europe, everything I say about China is subject to this proviso: ‘At the moment, but it will change’. The Chinese party-state claims the right to control all expression within its frontiers on three grounds, which we might call Westphalian, Huntingtonian and Orwellian.99 Like other postcolonial states, it places a high value on the kind of sovereignty that scholars have traditionally associated with Europe’s 1648 Peace of Westphalia—hence ‘Westphalian’. It promotes the idea of ‘information sovereignty’, and its national security law passed in 2015 specifically includes ‘maintaining cyberspace sovereignty’. The official news agency Xinhua quoted an expert’s comment that ‘cyberspace now constitutes the fifth dimension of the nation’s sovereignty, in addition to land, sea, air and space’.100 It also justifies its different standards on the kind of deep-seated civilisational difference that Samuel Huntington emphasised in his influential book The Clash of Civilisations—hence ‘Huntingtonian’.


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Unpopular legislation was subject to oral or written remonstrances by local officials to the king’s court. The power of the sovereign courts was limited, however, by the fact that the king could convene what was known as a lit de justice after a parlement’s failure to register legislation and force the law through anyway.20 The sovereign courts could do little more than embarrass the crown through their remonstrances. The system faced a grave crisis after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 when the accumulated arrears of the Thirty Years’ War led the government to attempt to continue wartime levels of taxation in times of peace. The refusal of the Parlement de Paris to register new taxes initially led Mazarin to back down and withdraw the intendants from most provinces, but the subsequent arrest of the parlement’s leaders sparked a general insurrection known as the Fronde.21 The Fronde, which unrolled in two phases between 1648 and 1653, represented the ultimate sanction that both traditional local elites and the nobility held over the monarchy: armed resistance.


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Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The reason it was able to do so was that the Prussian state that was the precursor of modern Germany engaged in a series of life-and-death military struggles with its neighbors over an extended period of time, just like the Qin state that unified China in 221 B.C. War, as we saw in Volume 1, creates incentives for efficient, meritocratic government that ordinary economic activity does not and therefore is one important path to state modernity. Warlordism is probably an appropriate term to describe the state of much of Germany at the time of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 that brought to an end the Thirty Years’ War. At that time, the area constituted by modern Germany was fragmented into dozens of small sovereign entities, nominally unified under a transnational structure known as the Holy Roman Empire. What gave this region its warlord character was the fact that very few of these entities were strong enough to tax their own territories through a regular bureaucracy, raise a professional army, or create a monopoly of force that could reliably enforce their laws.


pages: 1,072 words: 237,186

How to Survive a Pandemic by Michael Greger, M.D., FACLM

coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, double helix, friendly fire, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, inventory management, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, phenotype, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, statistical model, stem cell, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, Westphalian system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

“Failure to comply could mean up to six months in jail.”2445 When authorities went to forcibly round up ducks and chickens in the region, they were reportedly met by hostile farmers armed with pitchforks and axes.2446 Part of the problem may be that existing international law on infectious disease control is archaic, formed many decades ago, long before mass global travel. The World Health Organization, for example, can only issue “soft law” recommendations, rather than binding obligations. This outmoded system of international relations in general dates back to the seventeenth-century Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years War. The Westphalian system is built upon the principle of absolute national sovereignty.2447 “Many governments see it [disease prevention] as an internal business,” said the WHO’s director-general. “There is a basic gut feeling that this is my problem, I will deal with it in my way. Now, in a globalized world, any disease is one airplane away. It is not a provincial or national issue, it’s a global issue.”2448 The World Trade Organization has more powers than the World Health Organization.2449 Analogous to FEMA during the Hurricane Katrina crisis, the WHO also lacks the authority to investigate outbreaks without an invitation.2450 For SARS, though, the WHO did issue its first ever travel advisory in fifty-five years.2451 The ensuing political backlash over lost trade and tourism may explain some of the deference to member nations in somewhat downplaying the immediacy of the current pandemic threat.2452 In the understated fashion typical to international law journals, one review concluded, “The soft law process on infectious disease control has not been working well.”2453 “We have as much chance of stopping a pandemic as we would of putting a curtain around Minnesota and keeping out winter.”


pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra

Geoffrey Parker argues that the reason the Far Eastern powers were not victims in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of Europe’s “military revolution”—cannon-proof fortifications and volley firing of muskets—is that they had already had the revolution—in Japan’s case decades and in China’s centuries before.31 Yet by 1800 Japan, after nearly two centuries of artificial isolation, and despite a trickle of “Dutch learning” into the country, was a century behind. Around 1600 Western mathematics embarked on two centuries of betterment in the solution of actual physical problems, such as the pendulum or the arc of a cannonball, at the same time that Japanese mathematics became as ornamental as Western mathematics became after 1800.32 The negotiations 1646–1648 for the Peace of Westphalia bringing an end to the Thirty Years War involved fully 156 political entities, only 16 of which were nation-states of a usual and modern form. The treaty indeed gave force to the convention of “sovereignty” in international law, the principle that internal affairs of states were their own business—a principle that a century before would have been thought absurd.33 The historian of China Kenneth Pomeranz asks in a forthcoming book why China is so big, answering the question with reference to ideas—public rhetoric, ideology.


From Peoples into Nations by John Connelly

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, oil shock, old-boy network, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, Transnistria, union organizing, upwardly mobile, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Šmeral wrote in December 1913 that if Austria-Hungary were divided after some future war, perhaps Bohemia would achieve the vaunted Bohemian state’s right, but Czechs would be independent only temporarily—like Albania, booty for some victorious hegemon of the future. “If Austria-Hungary should not survive,” he feared, “a new thirty years’ war would come upon Europe, and, once again, as before the Peace of Westphalia, Bohemia would be the center point of the suffering.”71 No major politicians thought of leaving the dual monarchy, and the one Czech party advocating full independence got a single seat in the Reichsrat in 1911.72 CHAPTER 11 Peasant Utopias: Villages of Yesterday and Societies of Tomorrow In 1939 the Austrian Jewish novelist Stefan Zweig began work on a nostalgic memoir, The World of Yesterday, about his youth in the Habsburg monarchy, an infinitely more civilized place than what came later, where law and order were respected, and where citizens of differing ethnicity lived in peace, freely traveling east to west as if boundaries did not exist.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Rummel puts the death toll at 5.75 million, which as a proportion of the world’s population at the time was more than double the death rate of World War I and was in the range of World War II in Europe.40 The historian Simon Schama estimates that the English Civil War killed almost half a million people, a loss that is proportionally greater than that in World War I.41 It wasn’t until the second half of the 17th century that Europeans finally began to lose their zeal for killing people with the wrong supernatural beliefs. The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years’ War in 1648, confirmed the principle that each local prince could decide whether his state would be Protestant or Catholic and that the minority denomination in each one could more or less live in peace. (Pope Innocent X was not a good sport about this: he declared the Peace “null, void, invalid, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all time.”)42 The Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions began to run out of steam in the 17th century, declined further in the 18th, and were shut down in 1834 and 1821, respectively.43 England put religious killing behind it after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.


Europe: A History by Norman Davies

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl

Similar problems surround the label of the ‘Age of Absolutism’ which political historians apply to this same period. One might easily be led to imagine that most European rulers of the time either enjoyed absolute powers or at least sought to do so. Such, alas, was not the case. Europeans in the Age of Absolutism were no more uniform absolutists than they were uniform rationalists. In the century and a half between the Peace of Westphalia and the French Revolution, the map of Europe underwent few radical changes. Each of the wars of the period ended with a certain amount of territorial trading. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713), in particular, caused a stir; and the first partition of Poland-Lithuania (1773) signalled the onset of an avalanche. The unification of the island of Great Britain (1707) confirmed the emergence of an important new unit.