Peace of Westphalia

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The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security by Deborah D. Avant

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barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, failed state, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rolodex, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, trade route, transaction costs

For a start down this path, see Kimberly Marten, Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). Introduction 27 from the beginning of the twelfth century, and from the end of the thirteenth century through the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 virtually all force was allocated through the market. Furthermore, the rise of the state did not immediately preclude the market allocation of violence. Early modern states both delegated control over force to commercial entities and participated in the market as both suppliers and purchasers. In the era before the rise of the state, market allocation of force prevailed and virtually all force was contracted. 65 Stretching from the twelfth century through the Peace of Westphalia, military contractors employed forces that had been trained within feudal structures (and were frequently licensed by feudal lords) and then contracted with whomever could pay – Italian city states, the pope, emerging states, other feudal lords, and more. 66 In many cases, the contractor would earn the revenue for these forces, but sometimes the money went into government hands.

As Philip Cerny puts it, “the more that the scale of goods and assets produced, exchanged, and/or used in a particular economic sector or activity diverges from the structural scale of the national state – both from above (the global scale) and from below (the local scale) – and the more these divergences feed back into each other in complex ways, then the more that the authority, legitimacy, policy making capacity, and Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996); Laura Reed and Carl Kayson, Emerging Norms of Justified Intervention (Cambridge, MA: Committee on International Security Studies, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993); Fernando Teson, Humanitarian Intervention: an Inquiry into Law and Morality (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Transaction Publishers, 1988). 84 Cohen, “Defending America’s Interest in the Twenty-First Century.” Van Creveld builds this notion when he argues that the nature of war as we have known it since the Peace of Westphalia is changing. Unless the state can muster its capacity to confront low intensity conflict, it will destroy the basis of state authority and break down the divisions between public and private, crime and war, etc. Pretending that war against other states is the only real war and that past conventions will dictate the future, fallacies he attributes to Clausewitz, will cause the demise of the state.

Gulf War 6, 19, 29 181 guns for hire see mercenaries ExxonMobile 236, 241–42 Gurkha Security Guards 18 in Sierra Leone 84–86, 96, 98, 225–26 Falconer 20, 159 Fallows, James 136 Haliburton see Kellogg, Brown, and Root Fallujah 22, 239–40 Hart Group 233 FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Hauser, Robert 195 Colombia) 233 Held, David 228–29 305 Index Henderson, David 191–92 as value motivated actors 71–72 Herbst, Jeffrey 221 literature on 179 Heritage Oil and Gas 159 in Iraq 2 Hobbes, Thomas 46 and financing security 256 Hoffman, Jerry 131 humanitarian INGOs 192–203 Holbrook, Richard 153 conservation INGOs 204–15 Holy Roman Empire 230, 250 and Chad-Cameroon Pipeline 241 human rights see international norms/ international norms/values 5, 43–44, 53, values, human rights 54, 60–61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 74–75, Human Rights Watch 189 76, 81, 130, 178, 181, 200, 219 Hungary 148 and British PSCs 174–75 Huntington, Samuel 41 and American PSCs 157 Hussein, Saddam 259 conservation 207, 215 and extractive companies 191 Ibis Air 18, 19 human rights 61–76, 161, 181, 221, 224 ICI Oregon 19, 20, 147, 149, 156 and EO 164 imperial force 244 and EO in Sierra Leone 96, 113 information asymmetry 58, 59 and MPRI in Croatia 110–13 Institut Zaı¨rois pour le Conservation rule of law 51, 61 de la Nature (IZCN became IUCN) and Sandline in Sierra Leone 205, 206 and South African PSCs 166 institutional mechanisms see mechanisms see also international law; laws of war of control international organizations (IOs) 50, 69, institutional theory 38, 58, 72–76 148, 159, 257 model 40, 78, 79, 81, 145, 179–80, International Peace Operations Association 229–30 (IPOA) 222 and the US 132 International Port Services Training see also new institutionalism Group 18 institutionalization 55 International Rhino Foundation 206–15 interest motivated 72 Iran/Contra Scandal 115 International Alert 187 Iraq 8, 29, 67, 121, 147, 157, 160, 170, International Business Leaders’ Forum 197 226, 233, 256, 260 international civilian police 20, 127 participation of South African PSCs in International Convention against the 166, 237 Recruitment, Use, Financing and Iraqi Army 1, 18, 130, 131 Training of Mercenaries 230 Iraqi Police 131 International Defense and Security Italian City States 27, 230, 250 (IDAS) 18 IUCN see Institut Zaı¨rois pour le International Law Concerning the Conduct Conservation de la Nature of Hostilities 232 international law 52, 53, 69, 188, 230 Jacobite Rebellion 28 and private security 230–36 Janowitz, Morris 42, 51–52 and South Africa’s Regulation of Foreign Jones, Bruce 196 Military Assistance Act 164–67 Jupiter Mining Company 93 see also laws of war just war 246 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 34, 35, 119 Kabbah, Ahmed Tejan 95–98, 171, 173, international non-governmental 175 organizations (INGOs) 30, 38, 50, Kabila, Laurent 208 69, 71–72, 73–74, 76, 148, 159, 170 Kagame, Paul 195 Index 306 Kaldor, Mary 251 mercenaries 8, 22–23, 29, 69, 172, 222, Kamajors (Kamajoisia) 88–98, 171 227, 231, 247, 249 Kaplan, Robert 34 guns for hire/soldiers of fortune 4, 121, Karzai, Hamid 20, 123 213, 222 KAS Enterprises 18 mercenary reputation 85 Keegan, John 3 and Sandline 94 Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) 20, 22, see also private armies 147, 148, 149, 156, 262 Mesic, Stipe 108 Kemp, Elizabeth 209 Migdal, Joel 57, 82 KMS 169 military contractors 27, 28–30, 245–47 Koroma, Johnny Paul 92–93, 96 military effectiveness 59, 61, 62, 136, Kosovo 201, 222 139–40, 224–25 in Sierra Leone 114–96 laws of war 51, 236 in Croatia 110 Levden 18 in the US 138 Levi, Margaret 1, 46 see also control of force, functional Liberalism 54 136 control; reinforcing process of liberal values 52 control see also international values Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act Liberia 152 (MEJA) 234, 235 Lifeguard Security 20, 88, 93, 159, Military Professional Resources 160, 166 International (MPRI, now part of L-3 Liutingh, Lafras 87 Communications) 9, 18, 19, 20, 35, logic of appropriateness 50, 54 122, 124, 129, 131, 134, 148, logic of consequences 54 152–55, 221, 245 Logicon 18 in Angola 150 Lonhro 85 in Croatia 101–13, 128, 156, 255 Croatian Army Readiness Training Machiavelli, Niccolò 249 Program 106 Mandela, Nelson 158, 164, 165 in Equatorial Guinea 150 Mansfield, Count Von 249 in Nigeria 188 March, James 254 ROTC training in US 117–20, 121, market for force 25–30, 30–38, 39, 65–70, 130 219, 253 with KLA 222 implications of 3–7, 53 military professionalism 42, 51–52, 61, from the US 146–49 76, 130 transnational 7–22, 166, 175–77 and DSL 9 McNeill, William 247, 250 emerging international standard for 52, mechanisms of control 6, 38, 56–57, 72, 222–24, 251 79, 180, 230, 262 and EO training 91, 113 market 39, 67, 219–28 in Garamba 207–08 consumer 67, 144–45 military professional networks 61, 62, consequential 6, 54, 70, 71, 143, 154, 63, 64 178, 179 military professional norms and see also budgetary control, monitoring, standards 81–82, 118–19, 157, 200, screening and selection 204, 219, 221, 223, 253 social 6, 55, 68–69, 71, 75, 178, 179 military professionals 52, 60, 63, 249 see also education, military of MPRI in Nigeria 188 professionalism: military PSCs and 5, 61 professional norms and standards PSCs in Britain 174 307 Index of Sandline in Sierra Leone 95 Partnership for Peace Program (PfP) in of MPRI in Croatia 112–13 Croatia 102, 106, 108, 109, 111, militias 224 112, 113, 131, 139 Milosěvic´, Slobodan 153 Northbridge 169, 173 Minnow, Martha 18, 23, 53 Mobile 16 O’Brien, Kevin 163, 166 Mobutu, President 17, 194, 196 O’Gara Protective Services 18 Momoh, Joseph 83 Obasanjo, Olusegun 188–95 monitoring 56, 57, 58, 66, 133, 222 Olsen, Johan 254 difficulties for parliament in Olson, Mancur 46 Croatia 106 OMB Circular A-76 35, 115 in US 155 Omega Support Limited 160 monopoly over force 25, 46, 66, 69 Omega Training Group 122 collectively held among states 145, 228, Operation Iraqi Freedom 18, 132, 253, 264 152, 238 that emanates from state territory 143, Organi 8 186 144 Organization for African Unity (OAU) Montgomery, William 107 161–63 Mozambique 85, 170, 171 Organization for Security and Cooperation multi-lateral institutions 34, 37–38, 229, in Europe (OSCE) 34 238, 240 Ottoway, Marina 191 Multiple principles 75–76 oversight see monitoring in Garamba 204 in Sierra Leone 97–98 Pacific Architects and Engineers (PA&E) Musah, Abdel-Farau 4, 6 19, 20 Papua New Guinea 170, 174 neomedievalism 262 paramilitary forces 70, 71, 224 new institutionalism 6, 45, 57, 254 Parsons, Talcott 2, 239 see also institutional theory, model; patrimonial authority 58 economic institutionalism, Patriot Act 234, 235 sociological institutionalism peace dividend 35 Nigeria 39, 77, 255 Peace of Westphalia 25, 27 oil in 182–92, 237 Penfold, Peter 173 non-state actors 3, 31, 36–37, 70, 76, Petronas 241 78, 178 Picula, Tony 109 debate among 78, 190, 200–203, Pinkertons 22 212–15, 253 political market failures 135 identity of 76, 190–91, 203, Powell, Walter 223 218, 237 Prince of Wales Business Leaders’ Forum see also international non-government see International Business Leaders’ organizations, transnational Forum corporations private armies 4, 30 non-state financing for security private security see privatization of security, see privatization of security, financing market for force Norman, Sam Hinga 96 private security companies (PSCs) 1–3, 5, norms see social norms and practices 8, 23–24, 29–30, 36, 37, 38, 40, 53, North, Douglas 46 54, 55, 58–65, 76, 77, 81, 129–31, North Atlantic Treaty Organization 220, 259–60, 261 (NATO) 34, 37, 109, 129, 130, American PSCs 146 139, 148 British PSCs 167 Index 308 private security companies (PSCs) (cont.)

 

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How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

True, the human species has always muddled through, but the muddling through has generally been a slow, brutal, and agonizing process. Think of the major inflection points in the modern international order: the Peace of Westphalia, or the post–World War II creation of the U.N. Charter system. Despite the teleological fervor of some history and international law books, the bursts of creativity and change symbolized by the emergence of the post-Westphalian nation-state or the U.N. system were not the happy culmination of decades or centuries of peaceful evolution.1 On the contrary, these dramatic changes in the international system arose out of cataclysm. The religious wars that wracked Europe before the Peace of Westphalia left nearly a third of the population dead in much of Central Europe.2 World Wars I and II were nearly as devastating, leaving tens of millions dead and many of Europe’s great cities in ruins.3 Out of the ashes, we developed new categories, new rules, and new institutions, ones that worked better—for a time, at least.

Since prehistory, groups of human beings have found a very wide range of ways to organize themselves into societies. The world has seen tribes, sects, feudal kingdoms, city-states, and religious empires, among other modes of social organization. The idea of the territorial nation-state as the locus of authority, within a system of formally equivalent similar states, is of quite recent vintage. It was not until 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War, that the modern international system of sovereign states began to develop. Even after this symbolic starting point, it took centuries of conquest and many more wars before anything truly resembling today’s state system took shape. In Europe, state consolidation was rarely peaceful: consider the three wars of the German unification, or the bloody excesses of the Italian unification.

Reuben Johnson, “Russia’s Hybrid War in Ukraine ‘Is Working,’ ” IHS Jane’s 360, February 26, 2015, www.janes.com/article/49469/update-russia-s-hybrid-war-in-ukraine-is-working; Kevin McCaney, “Russia’s Hybrid Warfare Tactics Gain Upper Hand in Ukraine,” Defense Systems, March 24, 2015, http://defensesystems.com/articles/2015/03/24/russia-hybrid-warfare-ukraine-nato.aspx. Part V: Managing War’s Paradoxes 1. See Derek Croxton, “The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty,” International History Review 21(1999): 569, 582. 2. Thomas H. Greer and Gavin Lewis, A Brief History of the Western World (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 398. 3. “WWI Casualty and Death Tables,” PBS, accessed February 8, 2014, www.pbs.org/greatwar/resources/casdeath_pop.html. 4. See Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony Greenwald, Blind Spot: Hidden Biases of Good People (New York: Delacorte, 2013). 5.

 

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The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

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Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

In the other part of the country units of two sepa­ rate armies from the war in Liberia have taken up residence, as has an army of Sierra Leonian rebels. The government force fighting the rebels is full of renegade commanders who have aligned themselves with disaffected village chiefs. A premodern formlessness governs the battlefield, evoking the wars in medieval Europe prior to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ushered in the era of organized nation-states. As a consequence, roughly 400,000 Sierra Leonians are internally displaced, 280,000 more have fled to neighboring Guinea, and another 100,000 have fled to Liberia, even as 400,000 Liberians have fled to Sierra Leone. The third largest city in Sierra Leone, Gondama, is a displaced-persons camp. With an additional 600,000 Liberians in Guinea and 250,000 in the Ivory Coast, the borders dividing these four countries have become largely meaningless.

., India: A Wounded Civilization, 34 Napoleonic Wars, 128-34,136,140, 153-54,184 National Academy of Sciences, 53 National Interest, The, 54,157 nationalism, 93, 111, 141 national security, 174 and environmental degradation, 19-26 and peace, 174,182 Special Forces activities, 105-10 National Security Council, 138 nation-states, 7,18,40, 81 border erosion, 7-8,40,130 and cartography, 37-43 future of, 43-57 rise of, 8, 38 Nazism, 48, 72, 73, 99,100,101-3, 128,129,133-35,170,174 Kissinger on, 133-35 New Delhi, 27, 51 New York Times, 177 Niebuhr, Reinhold, 65,137 Niger, 14 Nigeria, 4-5,14-15,16,19, 21, 39, 114 Nile River, 20, 53 Nixon, Richard, 132 on China, 132-33,148-50 on Vietnam, 132-33,140,145-52, 155 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 101,106,171,178,180, 182 nuclear weapons, 129,130 0 oil, 15, 67, 71,101,106,182 Iranian, 36, 67 oligarchy, 60, 95-98 of ancient Greece, 60-61, 95-96 Omaha, 85, 94 Ortega y Gasset, José, The Revolt of the Masses, 172-73,184,185 Ottoman Empire, 33, 34,102,130 P Paine, Thomas, 61 Pakistan, 51-52,114 government, 52, 72, 73-74, 78 Inter-Services Intelligence Agency, 109-10 Palmer, Dave R., 1974: America, Its Army, and the Birth of the Nation, 68 Panama, 139 patriotism, 92-93,116 I N D E X peace, 41,169-85 Cold War, 171,177-78 dangers of, 169-85 future of, 184-85 and pleasure, 172-73 and United Nations, 176-83 Peace of Westphalia, 8 Pearl Harbor attack, 101,110 Pentagon, 44-45,124,138 Pericles, 61, 76 Peru, 49 government, 63-64, 75, 76 philanthropy, 88 Pipes, Richard, 133 Poland, 69 political science, 129, 149,158, 167-68 early, 170 "politics," shrinking domain of, 83-89 Polybius, 60-61, 76,113 polygamy, 6-7,11 population growth, 6-7,18,19, 36, 42, 45-46, 51, 97,122 in China, 25-26 and environmental degradation, 21-24 in India, 51 and violence-prone youths, 76-78 in West Africa, 6-18, 55 postmodernism, 43-44, 94 Pot, Pol, 99,100 Powell, Colin, 105 Powell Doctrine, 123 private armies, in West Africa, 7,49, 81 Probus, 113 Modern, 61 rain forest, in West Africa, 7-9 Rawlings, Jerry, 70 Reagan, Ronald, 133,137,139 realism, 129 in Conrad's Nostromo, 157-68 Hobbesian, 72-73, 75-76 and Henry Kissinger, 129-55 vs. peace, 169-85 Reformation, 46 refugee migrations, 7, 26, 27, 35 religion, 6,19, 27, 46, 59-60, 73, 93 Edward Gibbon on, 115-16 in Turkey, 30-37 and war, 47-48 in West Africa, 6,15, 35 see also specific religions Renaissance, 38 Republican Right, 136,181-82 revolution, Kissinger on, 133-41 Ritter, Carl, 50 Rockefeller, John D., 88 Romania, 114,135,182 Rome, 92, 98 Augustan Peace, 171 Edward Gibbon on collapse of, 111-17 Russell, Bertrand, 91 Russia, 14, 63, 77,114,120,145,182 democracy in, 64, 67 Revolution, 134 see also Soviet Union, former Rwanda, 68-69 mass murder in, 68-69, 99-101 S Quandt, William B., Decade of Decisions: American Policy Toward the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967-1976, 151 Quebec, 56 Qureshi, Moin, 74 195 R Rabin, Yitzhak, 57,151 Rahe, Paul A., Republics Ancient and proportionalism, 119-25 0 / Sachs, Jeffrey, 77 St.

 

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Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

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Specifically, she continued, a royal decision to wage war – even a war of aggression – obliged everyone to obey because sovereigns could discern the true interests of the state better than their subjects.36 Most European monarchs received an education crafted explicitly to reinforce these attitudes. They studied history (national, Classical and occasionally foreign) primarily ‘to examine how each prince had acted well or badly’ and to learn how to ‘ascertain what our subjects are hiding from us’. Thus on hearing that France had signed the peace of Westphalia in 1648, Louis XIV's preceptor seized the chance to give his 10-year-old charge a crash course in German history, and especially on the history of the Rhineland (which Louis would later spend vast resources trying to annex); while during the Fronde revolt of 1648–53, Louis read chronicles that described how his predecessors had overcome rebellious nobles.37 Princely instruction in language and geography was also utilitarian.

They had gained control of all England by Christmas, and, although Louis declared war, the new ruler of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic forged alliances with Spain, the Holy Roman Emperor and other German rulers explicitly to deprive France of all its gains since the Peace of the Pyrenees. Although the Republic remained at war with France for most of the next 25 years, it survived as an independent state for over a century. The ‘Swiss Revolution’ The Dutch Republic was not the only state that prospered during – and partly because of – the Thirty Years War: another beneficiary was the Swiss confederation. In 1648, although the Peace of Westphalia stopped short of granting the 13 Swiss cantons (and some associated territories) sovereign status, it recognized their ‘exemption’ from the laws and institutions of the Holy Roman Empire – in effect making them independent. This did not, however, make them unified: each canton maintained a unique relationship with the others. The million or so inhabitants of the confederation spoke four different languages (German, French, Italian and Romansch, with many dialects of each) and professed different creeds (some were Catholics; most belonged to one of the Protestant creeds; a few had lords of one faith and subjects of another).

First, it benefited several towns because it caused a massive influx of refugees who brought with them both wealth and economic skills: by 1638, the 7,500 refugees in the city of Basel almost outnumbered the native residents. Second, in 1633 and again in 1638 German armies violated Swiss neutrality, leading several cities to embark on an expensive defence programme, building or improving their fortifications and increasing the number of their defenders. Until 1648, the prosperity created by the Thirty Years War made such military spending bearable; but while the Peace of Westphalia brought security, it ended prosperity. German demand for Swiss produce, including soldiers, plunged; and the refugees from Germany returned home, causing a collapse in both urban house prices and overall tax revenues. Coincidentally France, which had paid the cantons a ‘retainer’ both to hold troops as a strategic reserve and to prevent them from serving another power, defaulted on its payments because of its own fiscal problems (see chapter 10).

 

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The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

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The formal recognition in international law of the sovereign rights of territorial states came in the form of a peace agreement in 1648 that ended the thirty-year war between Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics. The Peace of Westphalia recognized the irreconcilable differences between the various branches of Christianity and granted territorial rulers sovereign authority within their own domains to establish matters of religion, while restricting the rights of other countries to intervene in what was hereafter to be considered an internal matter within each respective country. The essential points laid out in the Peace of Westphalia, although modified over the course of the next three centuries, remained pretty much the same until the end of World War II.67 The treaty recognized that the world is made up of autonomous and independent states and that each state is sovereign over the internal affairs within its fixed territory.

Martin Luther, and the reformers who followed, encouraged the mass production of bibles in vernacular so that each Christian convert could be versed in God’s word and be prepared to stand alone before his or her maker, without having to rely on the Church’s emissaries—the priesthood—to interpret God’s will. The Great Schism of Christianity, beginning with the Reformation and followed by the Counter-Reformation, the Thirty Years’ War, and the Peace of Westphalia—which helped establish the modern notion of national sovereignty—changed the social and political face of Europe.47 But the full economic impact of the print revolution had to await the invention of the steam engine by James Watt in 1769.48 The print revolution converged with the coal, steam, and rail revolution to create the First Industrial Revolution. Between 1830 and 1890, in both Europe and North America, print communications underwent a revolution.

oil OPEC embargo shortages old science Old Testament Ong, Walter online network relationships On the Aesthetic Education of Man (Schiller) “On the Basis of Morality” (Schopenhauer) open-source code open system optics oral cultures Origin of Species, The (Darwin) orphans Ortega y Gasset, José Orton, William ostracization ostracism Oxford University oxygen Pachauri, Rajendra Kumar Pagels, Elaine Pakistan Palazzo Strozzi (Florence) Paleolithic people pamphlets panentheism Panksepp, Jaak parasocial relationships parenting cultural variability in “good enough” historical views of in late Middle Ages nurturing, and materialism in Roman Empire in Romantic era Paris partially closed system Passion of the Christ, The (film) patent law pathogens Patriarcha (Filmer) patriarchy Patten, Bernard Pauline Christians Paul, Saint Peace of Westphalia peak global oil peak globalization peer-to-peer sharing peer production Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music, The People of the Book per capita income perfectibility performance contract Pergamon Perinbanayagam, Robert permafrost melt Persian Gulf personal growth personal history personality perspective, in art perspective-taking petrochemicals Pew (research center) Internet and American Life Project 2007 report poll on homosexuality survey on blogging survey on women’s progress Philips (company) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Philosophy of Electrical Psychology, The (Dods) Philosophy of Money, The (Simmel) physiological synchrony Piaget, Jean Picasso, Pablo pioneer stage plant cultivation plants Plato play empathy and pretend playgrounds Pliocene era Polanyi, Karl Polanyi, Michael polytheism poor Port Huron statement posture post-World War II society poverty power grids Power of Empathy, The (Ciaramicoli and Ketcham) power plant buildings Preface to Plato (Havelock) preindustrial societies preschooler Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, The (Goffman) pretend play Prigogine, Ilya primates Prince, The (Machiavelli) Princess of Wales (Lady Diana Spencer) Principles of Psychology, The (James) print cultures print revolution print text privacy private property process questions Procter & Gamble progress proletariat property property rights Protestant Reformation Protestants Protestant work ethic proto-industrial revolution protospeech Psychiatry psychoanalysis psychodrama psychological consciousness psychology Psychology Today public schools public service Purple Rose of Cairo, The (film) putting-out system quality of life quality time Quispel, Gilles Ra radio railroads Rain Man (film) Ramachandran, Vilayanur Randall, John H., Jr.

 

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The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Wave and Pay, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Nowhere is this approach more compelling, indeed, than in relation to the notion of state money. WESTFAILURE Scholars in the international relations field conventionally use the term “Westphalian” to describe an international order consisting of territorially bounded, independent sovereign states whose interests and goals are held to transcend those of individual citizens or rulers. The Peace of Westphalia is a term that refers to the series of treaties signed in May to October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster, ending the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic. As a model of global order, the Westphalian system is underpinned by recognition of the fundamental right of a state to political self-determination, the assumption of states’ legal equality, and the principle that no state should intervene in the internal affairs of another.

See also death of God; eternal return; Übermensch Nigeria, 301 ninety-nine percent, 3, 129–30, 370–71 nihilism, 141, 142 Nishibe, Makoto, 345 Nixon, Richard, 45, 98–99, 244 Nixon shock, 45n Nobel Prize, 330 nomos, 262, of the Earth, 222, 223 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 239 nonpecuniary values, 287, 294 North, Peter, 373 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 239 Nostradamus, 49 Nuer, 284 numismatics, 165; sociological, 34 nummus, 223, 262 occultism, 7, 11; and capital, 56, 154 Occupy movement, 1, 3, 50, 130n55, 201, 267, 370 Oedipus complex, 149, 150, 230 Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 20n Old Glory Mint, 361 one trillion dollar platinum coin, 385, 386, 387, 392 optimal currency area (OCA), 20, 253 order of worth, 200 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Orléan, André, 19, 43–46, 250; on Mauss, 32 Ortega y Gasset, José, 247 overaccumulation, in Bataille, 176; in Baudrillard, 192; and financialization, 61n22; in Harvey, 68, 166, 243; Marxian concept of, 65, 88, 205 overbanking, 122, 124 overproduction, 57, 73 Owen, Robert, 342 Pan, 77, 246 panic, etymology, 77n; financial, 77 paradox of thrift, 208, 347, 348 parallax view, 80–81, 205 Park, Robert, 319 Parsons, Talcott, 8, 34, 230, 276n patriarchy, 336 Patton, Paul, 227 Paulhan, Jean, 172n payday loans, 325 PayPal, 378, 380n Peace of Westphalia, 216 Pecunix, 42, 316 Peebles, Gustav, 304–5 peer-to-peer (P2P) currencies, 105, 365, 370 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 247, 316 peer-to-peer (P2P) payment networks, 365 pension fund socialism, 77 pension funds, 59, 68, 75, 110, 129n52, 132, 221, 243 pensioners, 2, 22, 72, 77, 88, 126 perfect money, 14, 30, 197, 315, 316, 317–22, 326, 328–30, 339, 341, 356–57, 375, 382 perfect society, 30, 315, 316, 320–21, 322, 326, 329–30, 351 Perroux, François, 207 philanthropy, 166 Pixley, Jocelyn, 315n Plato, 200, 313 Platonism, 322, 326 Plender, John, 50 Poe, Edgar Allen, 185 poetry, 313, 314, 331 Polanyi, Karl, 13, 36, 57n16, 271, 279–86, 291, 292, 294, 299, 306; on the double movement, 128, 280, 311; on embeddedness, 279, 280–81, 285; on fictitious commodities, 279–80; on formal versus substantive approaches to the economy, 285; The Great Transformation, 279, 282, 284, 286; on limited and general purpose money, 279, 282–83, 285, 286, 325, 373; on the market, 372, 279–81; on money and language, 297; on planned laissez-faire capitalism, 280 Polillo, Simone, 218–19 Polybius, Histories, 239 Ponzi, Charles, 117n Ponzi finance, 58, 117n, 118, 199; and Bitcoin, 368 Ponzi stage, 120.

See also First World War; Second World War; Vietnam War; violence war against terror, 43 Warburton, Peter, 199 Warren, Josiah, 342 Warwick, University of, 73n30 waste, 12–13, 151; and the gift, 186; and money, 175, 184, 204; versus utility, 164 Wave and Pay, 377 Weber, Florence, 292 Weber, Max, 109, 247, 276n, 292, 302, 317; on capitalism and religion, 143, 155, 175; on charisma, 247; on Knapp, 103; on money and the modern state, 217; on prices, 109n25; The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 156, 175; on taxation, 217 Weimar inflation, 131n57, 142, 224, 387 welfare. See social welfare Wendt, Alexander, 220 Wergild, 24, 302 Western Union, 380n Westphalia. See Peace of Westphalia Westphalian system, 216–27, 238 Where’s George?, 226 Wherry, Frederick, 164n Whuffie, 214, 316, 381 WikiLeaks, 380n Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 390 workers, 59, 72, 73, 74, 75–76, 77, 81, 242, 244, 345, 352; and cooperatives, 84; and consumers, 81, 86, 356; in Proudhon, 353–54; in the public sector, 77, 88, 126. See also migrant workers; workers’ associations; workers’ movement workers’ associations, 323–24 workers’ movement, 81n World Bank, 241 world money, 70, 298 World Trade Center (WTC), 197–98 World Trade Organization (WTO), 99, 239, 241 Wray, Randall, 103, 300, 359–60, 374; on the Eurozone, 107n, 255; and Ingham, 110–11; on Knapp, 104, 359; and neochartalism, 106–8 Wriston, Walter, 392, 393 writing, 36, 37, 41n, 42, 297; versus speech, 180–81.

 

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

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additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

To appreciate just how profound this transformation is, and how much it reverses the tide of history, we need to review why and how power got big in the first place. The next chapter explains how, by the twentieth century, the world got to the point where—according to the conventional wisdom— power required size, and no better, more effective, and more sustainable way existed to 38 exercise power than through large centralized and hierarchical organizations. 39 CHAPTER THREE HOW POWER GOT BIG An Assumption’s Unquestioned Rise 1648, WHEN the Peace of Westphalia ushered in the modern nation-state, in place of the post-medieval order of city-states and overlapping principalities? Was it 1745, when a French aristocrat and commercial administrator named Vincent de Gournay is said to have coined the term bureaucracy? Or perhaps it was 1882, when a constellation of small oil firms in the United States were melded into the gigantic Standard Oil—amid the rise of new large-scale industries, and foreshadowing a great wave of mergers one decade later that would end the heyday of small, local, familyfirm capitalism and install a new order based on giant corporations?

See also ExxonMobil Okolloh, Ory, 100 Oligarchies/oligopolies, 49, 50, 218, 221 Olson, Mancur, 226 Omega, 102 One Foundation, 207 One Million Voices Against FARC, 100 OPEC, 29 Oracle, 167 Orange Revolution, 103 Oren, Amir, 121 Ornstein, Norman, 67 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 88, 183, 185, 201, 249, 254 Orszag, Peter, 223 Orwell, George, 48 Outsourcing, 44, 69, 133, 177, 181, 182, 202 Oxfam, 206, 207, 211 Pakistan, 80, 100, 115, 123, 131, 148 Palestine, 149 Pan Am, 169 Pandora, 212 Paraguay, 155, 209 Pape, Robert, 140 Park, Jay, 149 Parliamentary systems, 30, 78, 89, 91 Partido Popular, 96 Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol, 96 Patrick, Stewart, 138 Patronage, 41, 45 Paulson, John, 101, 161, 190 Pax Americana, 141, 143 Peace, 121, 133, 135, 136, 137, 224 Peace of Westphalia, 35 Peet’s Coffee, 175 Pei, Minxin, 77–78 Pennsylvania State University, 87 251 Pentagon, 46, 123 Pepsi, 27, 36, 169 Perception, 24, 27 Pereira, Rinaldo, 196 Personal care and hygiene sector, 31 Persuasion, 11, 16, 26, 73 Perth, 181 Pet-food recall, 165 Pew surveys, 68, 147–148, 195, 196 Pharmaceutical companies, 181, 182 Pharr, Susan, 67 Philanthropy, 8, 16, 29, 42, 134, 193, 194, 205–211, 217 venture philanthropy, 208–-209, 210 Philippines, 9, 83, 84, 103, 113, 115, 195 Phillipon, Thomas, 164 Phillips, Tom, 196 Physical assets, 174–175 Pinkovskiy, Maxim, 55 Pinochet, Augusto, 99 Pirates, 12, 29, 107, 110, 118, 126, 226 Pitt, Brad, 207 Pius XII (Pope), 108 Plattner, Marc, 103 Plischke, Elmer, 152–153 Plutocrats, 75 Poland, 12, 82, 84, 92, 151, 152, 172 Polga-Hecimovich, John, 94 Police, 10, 23, 51, 115, 126 Political science, 38 Politics, 4, 10, 13, 16, 29, 31, 61, 63, 102, 219 fragmentation of, 78, 80, 82, 90, 94, 103, 224 geopolitics, 5, 12, 13, 149–150, 157, 235 and gridlock, 77, 80, 223, 242 legal rulings in, 99–100 mandates in, 88, 91, 238 national, 76–106 paralysis of, 222–224 political bosses, 6, 91 political competition, 85, 123, 252–254, 253–254(figs.) political liberalization, 250–254 political participation, 241–243, 250 political parties, 6, 12, 21, 29, 30, 33, 41, 51, 54, 64, 68, 77, 88–89, 93, 95, 99, 103–104, 105, 196, 220, 223, 228, 229, 232, 239– 241, 242, 243, 252 political pluralism, 247 political power, 6, 77, 78, 80, 94, 100, 105, 220, 242, 247, 250 and wars, 118, 143 Polity Project/Polity Score, 250–251, 252(fig.)

 

pages: 165 words: 47,320

The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon

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anti-communist, Golden Gate Park, jitney, job automation, Peace of Westphalia

Postulating then some militant faction proclaiming the great moment finally at hand. Advocating a takeover by force, while their enemy was vulnerable. But conservative opinion would care only to continue in opposition, exactly as the Tristero had these seventy years. There might also be, say, a few visionaries: men above the immediacy of their time who could think historically. At least one among them hip enough to foresee the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia, the breakup of the Empire, the coming descent into particularism. “He looks like Kirk Douglas,” cried Bortz, “he's wearing this sword, his name is something gutsy like Konrad. They're meeting in the back room of a tavern, all these broads in peasant blouses carrying steins around, everybody juiced and yelling, suddenly Konrad jumps up on a table. The crowd hushes, 'The salvation of Europe,' Konrad says, 'depends on communication, right?

 

pages: 494 words: 28,046

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam

We should rule out from the outset, however, two common conceptions of this order that reside on opposing limits of the spectrum: first, the notion that the present order somehow rises up spontaneously out of the interactions of radically heterogeneous global forces, as if this order were a harmonious concert orchestrated by the natural and neutral hidden hand of the world market; and second, the idea that order is dictated by a single power and a single center of rationality transcendent to global forces, guiding the various phases of historical development according to its conscious and all-seeing plan, something like a conspiracy theory of globalization.1 United Nations Before investigating the constitution of Empire in juridical terms, we must analyze in some detail the constitutional processes that have come to define the central juridical categories, and in particular 4 THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE PRESENT give careful attention to the process of the long transition from the sovereign right of nation-states (and the international right that followed from it) to the first postmodern global figures of imperial right. As a first approximation one can think of this as the genealogy of juridical forms that led to, and now leads beyond, the supranational role of the United Nations and its various affiliated institutions. It is widely recognized that the notion of international order that European modernity continually proposed and reproposed, at least since the Peace of Westphalia, is now in crisis.2 It has in fact always been in crisis, and this crisis has been one of the motors that has continuously pushed toward Empire. Perhaps this notion of international order and its crisis should be dated from the time of the Napoleonic Wars, as some scholars claim, or perhaps the origin should be located in the Congress of Vienna and the establishment of the Holy Alliance.3 In any case, there can be no doubt that by the time of the First World War and the birth of the League of Nations, a notion of international order along with its crisis had been definitively established.

Although they do not use the term ‘‘Empire,’’ we see the work of numerous authors oriented in this direction; they include Fredric Jameson, David Harvey, Arjun Appadurai, Gayatri Spivak, Edward Said, Giovanni Arrighi, and Arif Dirlik, to name only some of the best known. 1.1 WORLD ORDER 1. Already in 1974 Franz Schurmann highlighted the tendency toward a global order in The Logic of World Power: An Inquiry into the Origins, Currents, and Contradictions of World Politics (New York: Pantheon, 1974). 416 NOTES TO PAGES 4 – 7 2. On the permutations of European pacts for international peace, see Leo Gross, ‘‘The Peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948,’’ American Journal of International Law, 42, no. 1 (1948), 20–41. 3. Danilo Zolo, Cosmopolis: Prospects for World Government, trans. David McKie (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1997), is the one who expresses most clearly the hypothesis that the paradigm of the project of the new world order should be located back in the Peace of Vienna. We follow his analysis in many respects. See also Richard Falk, ‘‘The Interplay of Westphalia and Charter Conception of International Legal Order,’’ in C.

 

pages: 686 words: 201,972

Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol by Iain Gately

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barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haight Ashbury, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, megacity, music of the spheres, Peace of Westphalia, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, working poor

Their rise to eminence had, in historical terms, been exceptionally rapid: Prior to 1566, their nation was a patchwork of duchies and bishoprics under the control of Spain. However, over the following decades, seventeen of these entities, mostly Protestant, combined together to form the United Provinces, and with the assistance of England they established a republic and drove the Spaniards from their lands. Overseas, meanwhile, they appropriated a number of Portuguese colonies and founded, as in America, new stations of their own. By 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia, a pan-European settlement of various conflicts, was agreed and their nation recognized, they had trading posts in Manhattan, the Caribbean, Africa, India, Sri Lanka, and various Indonesian Islands. They carried Virginian tobacco to Europe, African slaves to the Americas, French wine and brandy everywhere, and they had a near monopoly on Asian spices. Their modus operandi, backed up by force if necessary, was similar wherever they traded.

National Council for Education on Alcohol (NCEA) National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) National Minimum Drinking Age Act National Prohibition Party Native Americans and alcohol use and arms sales effects of alcohol on Franklin on and grape juice and laws regulating alcohol and New World colonization and the Whiskey Rebellion Nazi Party neoconservatism Neolithic era Nero New Amsterdam New England New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New Orleans, Louisiana New South Wales New Testament New York Alcoholics Anonymous chapter and the American Revolution and Dickens’ travels distillation in laws on Native American alcohol use and Prohibition and the rum trade taverns in New York Assembly New Zealand Newfoundland Nile River Nineteenth Amendment nitrokegs Noah noble rot (Botrytis cinerea) nonimportation agreements Norfolk Island Normandy Norsemen North Africa North Carolina Northumbria Norway Nova Albion Nuremburg, Germany O’Brien, Tim Ocean City, New Jersey Octavian oenology Ohio Oktoberfest The Old Drinker (Metsu) Old Testament Oldmixon, John Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act O’Neill, Eugene Ontario opium ordinaries Oregon O’Reilly, Don Alexander Orion Brewing Company Orkney Island Orwell, George Osiris Osmond, Humphrey Ostrogoths Ovid Oxford University P. Diddy Page, Benjamin Palestine palm wine Paris, France Parker, Dorothy Parkman, Francis Parliament Passover Pasteur, Louis patent medicines Paterson, William Patuxet Paul Masson winery Paul the apostle Paulinus of Nola Pawnee Indians Peace of Westphalia Pearl, Raymond S. Penfold, Christopher Rawson Penn, William Pennsylvania- People’s Republic of China Pepys, Samuel Perestroika Pereverzev, Vladimir Borisovich Permissive Act Pernod Pershing, John J. Persia Peru Pétain, Philippe Petronius Arbiter peyote Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philadelphia College of Physicians Philippines Phillip, Arthur phylloxera vastatrix Physiology of Taste (Brillat-Savarin) Picasso, Pablo Picts pilsner beers pinard wine piracy Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Place, Francis plague Plato Platt, Hugh Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger plonk Plymouth Colony Plzen, Czechoslovakia Poe, Edgar Allan Poland Pollock, Jackson Polo, Marco polygamy polytheism Pope, Alexander port Port Jackson, Australia Port Royal, Jamaica porter Porter, David Portugal Pound, Ezra Prague, Czech Republic Praxiteles prehistoric brews Presbyterians presidios Presley, Elvis Preston Temperance Society Priapus Priestley, Joseph Prince Edward Island privateers Procope (coffee shop) Prohibition Prohibition Party Prometheus prostitution Protestantism Protz, Roger Prussia public houses (pubs) and coffee shops and leisure time and the Licensing Act in London and ordinaries Orwell’s idea of and political unrest and settlement of Australia sin associated with and vertical integration and wartime restrictions and World War pulque Punic War Puritans Pushkin, Aleksandr Putin, Vladimir Putnam, Isaac Quakers quality control Quartering Act Quebec quintessence Raleigh, Walter Ramsay, Allan rap music Reagan, Ronald Reformation refrigeration Reinheitsgebot Rémy Martin Renaissance Republican Party resinated wines restaurants Restoration Revere, Paul Reynière, Alexandre Balthasar Grimnod de la Rheingau region Rhode Island Rhône Valley rice wine Richard (Richard the Lionheart) Ridge Vineyards Riesling wines Rimbaud, Arthur Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Roanoke settlement rock ’n’ roll music Rodrigues, Joāo Roẹderer, Louis Roman Catholic Church Roman civilization and the Bacchus cult and barbarian invasions and Britain and Christianity divided and entertainment and gender issues and Judaism and the Renaissance sacked Senate Roman civilization (continued ) and viticulture and warfare Romantic movement Roosevelt, Franklin Delano Rosee, Pasqua Rothko, Mark Rothschild, Philippe de Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Royal Navy Royal Society RU- rum in African rituals and the American Revolution- and Barbados and Benjamin Franklin and New England and piracy and the Royal Navy and settlement of Australia and the slave trade and Washington and World War Rum Regiment (New South Wales Corps) rum-runners Rush, Benjamin Russia Saccharomyces Safer, Morley Sahagun, Bernadino de Saint-Évremond, Marquis de sakazuki ritual sake Salem, Massachusetts saloons Salt Lake City, Utah Samnite civilization samogon Samuel Adams Ale San Francisco, California San Juan Capistrano, California Santa Anna, Antonio ópez de Santa Clara, California Santa Fe Trail Santo Domingo Sapporo Brewing Company Saracens Sasanids Sassoon, Siegfried Saxons Schlitz, Joseph Schlitz Company Schubert, Max Schwann, Theodor Schweppe, Jacob Scotland Scott, George Scythians Sedgwick, Robert Sedley, Bill Selective Service Act Semele Senegal Serra, Junipero Seven Years’ War Shakespeare, William Shelley, Percy Sherry (“sack”) Shias Shinto Shiva Sicily Sickert, Walter Silenus Skara Brae settlement slavery and Dickens and emancipation and New Orleans and the rum trade and sugar production and the temperance movement Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania Smart, J.

 

pages: 295 words: 92,670

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown

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Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, charter city, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Peace of Westphalia, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, UNCLOS

Many of the local German and Dutch nobility were Protestant and received financial and military aid from other regions sympathetic to their cause, such as Denmark, France and Sweden. In the mid-seventeenth century this conflict culminated in the terrible struggle known as the Thirty Years War (1618 to 1648), in which the resulting devastation and plundering killed somewhere between a quarter and more than a third of the population of central Europe. The Thirty Years War did not end until the Peace of Westphalia, when the nations agreed that local princes would have the right to establish the official religion in their state, but would respect variations of the faith. This agreement effectively ended the temporal and political power of the papacy in Europe. In a not entirely coincidental corollary, western Europe was divided into two groups: nations that were the beneficiaries of the Treaty of Tordesillas and those that were excluded, and this division coincided with religious affiliation.

 

pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

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Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

The whole exercise was fairly shoddy and embarrassing.1 And yet for those who believe that the world will only prosper (or even survive) in the twenty-first century if it can develop new forms of global government, the European Union is genuinely inspirational. For the Union is by far the most advanced example in the world of “supranational government”—that is, of laws and governing structures whose authority crosses international boundaries and transcends the principle of “national sovereignty” on which international politics has been based ever since the Peace of Westphalia ended Europe’s wars of religion in 1648. The “European project” has progressed remarkably since its origins in 1951 as a coal and steel community. By 2008, a European Union of twenty-seven nations had been established, with a queue of aspirant members stretching from Turkey to Iceland. The EU long ago established the vital principle that European law, administered by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, has supremacy over the national laws of the twenty-seven member states of the Union.

 

pages: 363 words: 108,670

Galileo's Daughter: A Historical Memoir of Science, Faith and Love by Dava Sobel

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Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, cognitive dissonance, Dava Sobel, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, germ theory of disease, Hans Lippershey, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, Murano, Venice glass, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Peace of Westphalia, retrograde motion

* When Urban died on July 29, 1644, the people of Rome expressed their resentment of his last expensive war, begun in Castro in 1641, by demolishing a statue of him in the courtyard of the Collegio Romano. “The pope died at quarter past eleven,” a diarist noted, “and by noon the statue was no more.” The Thirty Years’ War, which had raged on despite Urban’s interventions, finally ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. * Within one more generation, the great chain of government that had dominated Tuscany’s political structure since the fourteenth century would die out with the last Medici grand duke, Gian Gastone, in 1737. Bibliography Allan-Olney, Mary. The Private Life of Galileo, Compiled Principally from His Correspondence and That of His Eldest Daughter, Sister Maria Celeste. London: Macmillan, 1870.

 

pages: 420 words: 124,202

The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention by William Rosen

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Albert Einstein, All science is either physics or stamp collecting, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, computer age, Copley Medal, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, delayed gratification, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flynn Effect, fudge factor, full employment, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, iterative process, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, moral hazard, Network effects, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Simon Kuznets, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, éminence grise

This was something like being born in Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1975: When Otto was sixteen years old, the armies of the last great religious war in European history began marching and countermarching across Germany, enforcing orthodoxy at the end of a pike in what became known as the Thirty Years War. Magdeburg, which had been a bastion of Protestantism ever since Martin Luther had visited in 1524, became a target for the armies of the Catholic League, not once, but half a dozen times; in 1631, the troops of Count Johann Tilly sacked the city, killing more than twenty thousand. By the time the various treaties that comprised the Peace of Westphalia were signed in 1648, the city was home to fewer than five hundred war-weary survivors. One of them was Otto Gericke, home from his studies in Leipzig, Jena, and Leiden, now a military engineer who was enlisted to help rebuild the city, and had been named one of its four mayors. He was, entirely as one might expect, eager to turn his talents to more peaceful pursuits. Though evidently unaware of the details of Torricelli’s experiments, he was headed down the same path, intending to demonstrate the power of a vacuum and therefore the weight of air.

 

pages: 311 words: 168,705

The Rough Guide to Vienna by Humphreys, Rob

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centre right, ghettoisation, Peace of Westphalia, strikebreaker, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Nevertheless, the new creed flourished under the relatively liberal reign of Maximilian II (1564–76), and only after Rudolf II (1576–1612) moved the capital to Prague, leaving Archduke Ernst in charge of Vienna, did repressive measures force a turning of the tide. When the Thirty Years’ War broke out in 1618, Vienna was well on the way to becoming a Catholic city again, thanks partly to the Jesuits’ stranglehold on the education system. By the time of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the city, which had emerged from the war relatively unscathed, was firmly under the grip of the Counter-Reformation, and those Viennese who would not renounce their Protestantism were forced into exile. The Siege of 1683 That the city managed to survive the Siege of 1683 was no thanks to Emperor Leopold I (1657–1705), a profligate, bigoted man whose reign marked the beginning of the Baroque era in Vienna.

 

The Rough Guide to Prague by Humphreys, Rob

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, clean water, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile

The Catholics eventually drove the Saxons out, but for the last ten years of the war Bohemia became the main battleground between the new champions of the Protestant cause – the Swedes – and the imperial Catholic forces. In 1648, the final battle of the war was fought in Prague, when the Swedes seized Malá Strana, but failed to take Staré Město, thanks to stubborn resistance on the Charles Bridge by Prague’s Jewish and newly Catholicized student populations. The Counter-Reformation and the Dark Ages 234 The Thirty Years’ War ended with the Peace of Westphalia, which, for the Czechs, was as disastrous as the war itself. An estimated five-sixths of the Bohemian nobility went into exile, their properties handed over to loyal Catholic families from Austria, Spain, France and Italy. Bohemia had been devastated, with towns and cities laid waste, and the total population reduced by almost two-thirds; Prague’s population halved. On top of all that, Bohemia was now decisively within the Catholic sphere of influence, and the full force of the Counter-Reformation was brought to bear on its people.

 

pages: 934 words: 135,736

The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 by Mary Fulbrook

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Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, full employment, joint-stock company, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, Sinatra Doctrine, union organizing, unorthodox policies

In the days of the politically decentralized 'Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation', the multiplicity of German lands ranging from the more important secular and ecclesiastical principalities and city states through to the minuscule fiefdoms of 'independent imperial knights' formed an interdependent system over which the emperors (often pursuing dynastic interests outside the Empire) never quite gained central control. The cultural and political conflicts involved in the Reformation of the sixteenth century helped to institutionalize the decentralization of the German lands. Religious differences coincided and overlapped with political conflicts to confirm this diversity in the course of the seventeenth century, in the series of conflicts which formed the so-called Thirty Years War (161848). Yet the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 was effectively able only to seal a stalemate: neither religious uniformity nor political centralization was achieved. The territorial rulers enjoyed sovereignty within their own states, while still remaining formally subordinate to the Emperor. Clashes among states competing for domination in the emerging European state system continued in the 'age of absolutism' of the later seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

 

pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Toward the end of the Middle Ages, a new technology changed the world by spreading knowledge and communication to the masses. But like the Internet today, the printing press back then also spread disorder, sparking the Reformation and then a series of long wars that left Europe devastated and over eight million dead. Through this period, the governing structures of the old world, such as empires, confederations, and dukedoms, found that they couldn’t keep up. In a process that crystallized at the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the modern bureaucratic nation-state took over. Each nation’s sovereignty was embodied by a government that monopolized legitimate force within these its borders and ensured that the national economy ran smoothly, setting up everything from national currency to taxes. The governments of today’s world are largely creations of these centuries past. The challenge is that much like the dukedoms and empires of old, the state as we once knew it is having a hard time keeping up with new actors and new technologies.

 

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

The World Wide Web was born in 1989, the same year the Berlin Wall fell, which feels like an appropriate turning point to mark the shift from the Westphalian world to the supply chain world.*8 The seventeenth-century Thirty Years’ War represented a transition from the fragmented medieval disorder to the modern system of nation-states in which European monarchs agreed to respect each other’s territorial sovereignty. Today we remember the 1648 Peace of Westphalia not so much for who won (basically no one!) as for ushering in the system of sovereign states that has framed international relations for nearly four centuries. But there is nothing immutable about this system, and its reality has rarely lived up to its (theoretical) ambitions. Instead, supply-demand dynamics have always driven our social organization. For fifty thousand years since the end of the last ice age, the human diaspora has been organizing itself into polities of ever-shifting shapes and sizes that combine vertical authority across horizontal territory, from empires and caliphates to duchies and chiefdoms.

 

pages: 1,178 words: 388,227

Quicksilver by Neal Stephenson

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Danny Hillis, dark matter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, retrograde motion, short selling, the scientific method, trade route, urban planning

In Grantham lived an apothecary, name of Clarke, an indefatigable pesterer.” “Then why’d you go to him?” “He’d been pestering me with letters, wanting me to deliver certain necessaries of his trade. He’d been doing it for years—ever since sending letters had become possible again.” “What made it possible?” “In my neck of the woods—for I was living in a town in Saxony, called Leipzig—the peace of Westphalia did.” “1648!” Ben says donnishly to the younger boy. “The end of the Thirty Years’ War.” “At his end,” Enoch continues, “it was the removal of the King’s head from the rest of the King, which settled the Civil War and brought a kind of peace to England.” “1649,” Godfrey murmurs before Ben can get it out. Enoch wonders whether Daniel has been so indiscreet as to regale his son with decapitation yarns.

“But what has this to do with Liselotte?” “Liselotte is the grand-daughter of the Winter Queen—who, some say, sparked the Thirty Years’ War by accepting the crown of Bohemia. At any rate the said Queen spent most of those Thirty Years just yonder, in the Hague—my people sheltered her, for Bohemia was by then a shambles, and the Palatinate, which was rightfully hers, had fallen to the Papists as a spoil of that war. But when the Peace of Westphalia was finally signed, some forty years ago now, the Palatinate was returned to that family; the Winter Queen’s eldest son, Charles Louis, became Elector Palatinate. Various of his siblings, including Sophie, moved there, and set up housekeeping in Heidelberg Castle. Liselotte is the daughter of that same Charles Louis, and grew up in that household. Charles Louis died a few years ago and passed the crown to the brother of Liselotte, who was demented—he died not long ago conducting a mock-battle at one of his Rhine-castles.

 

pages: 740 words: 161,563

The Discovery of France by Graham Robb

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Brownian motion, deindustrialization, Honoré de Balzac, Louis Pasteur, New Economic Geography, Peace of Westphalia, price stability, trade route, urban sprawl

Chronology 1532 Union of Brittany to France. 1539 Decree of Villers-Cottereˆts makes French the official language of all legal documents. 1589–1610 Reign of Henri IV; Basse-Navarre, Foix and Auvergne (Comte´) joined to France. 1610 Accession of Louis XIII: ruled 1624–43; Cardinal de Richelieu (d. 1642) chief minister. 1620 Be´arn joined to France. 1643 Accession of Louis XIV; ministry of Cardinal Mazarin (1643–61). 1648 Peace of Westphalia: France acquires parts of Alsace and Lorraine. 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees: France acquires Roussillon and neighbouring regions, most of Artois and parts of Flanders. 1661–1715 Reign of Louis XIV. Conquests in Flanders, Franche-Comte´ and Alsace. Incorporation of Nivernais and the Dauphine´ d’Auvergne. 1667–82 Construction of the Canal du Midi. 1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 1702–10 War of the Camisards (persecution of Protestants in the Ce´vennes). 1715–23 Regency of Philippe d’Orle´ans. 1726–43 Ministry of Cardinal de Fleury. 1741 June – Windham expedition to Chamonix. 1743–74 Reign of Louis XV. 1756–1815 Publication of the Cassini map of France. 1766 Incorporation of Lorraine. 1768 Genoa cedes Corsica to France. 1774 Accession of Louis XVI. 1775 Public coaches permitted to use staging posts. 1786 8 August – First recorded ascent of Mont Blanc. 1789 14 July – Fall of the Bastille.

 

pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus

Unpopular legislation was subject to oral or written remonstrances by local officials to the king’s court. The power of the sovereign courts was limited, however, by the fact that the king could convene what was known as a lit de justice after a parlement’s failure to register legislation and force the law through anyway.20 The sovereign courts could do little more than embarrass the crown through their remonstrances. The system faced a grave crisis after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 when the accumulated arrears of the Thirty Years’ War led the government to attempt to continue wartime levels of taxation in times of peace. The refusal of the Parlement de Paris to register new taxes initially led Mazarin to back down and withdraw the intendants from most provinces, but the subsequent arrest of the parlement’s leaders sparked a general insurrection known as the Fronde.21 The Fronde, which unrolled in two phases between 1648 and 1653, represented the ultimate sanction that both traditional local elites and the nobility held over the monarchy: armed resistance.

 

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

The reason it was able to do so was that the Prussian state that was the precursor of modern Germany engaged in a series of life-and-death military struggles with its neighbors over an extended period of time, just like the Qin state that unified China in 221 B.C. War, as we saw in Volume 1, creates incentives for efficient, meritocratic government that ordinary economic activity does not and therefore is one important path to state modernity. Warlordism is probably an appropriate term to describe the state of much of Germany at the time of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 that brought to an end the Thirty Years’ War. At that time, the area constituted by modern Germany was fragmented into dozens of small sovereign entities, nominally unified under a transnational structure known as the Holy Roman Empire. What gave this region its warlord character was the fact that very few of these entities were strong enough to tax their own territories through a regular bureaucracy, raise a professional army, or create a monopoly of force that could reliably enforce their laws.

 

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

And more than anything I have said about the United States and Europe, everything I say about China is subject to this proviso: ‘At the moment, but it will change’. The Chinese party-state claims the right to control all expression within its frontiers on three grounds, which we might call Westphalian, Huntingtonian and Orwellian.99 Like other postcolonial states, it places a high value on the kind of sovereignty that scholars have traditionally associated with Europe’s 1648 Peace of Westphalia—hence ‘Westphalian’. It promotes the idea of ‘information sovereignty’, and its national security law passed in 2015 specifically includes ‘maintaining cyberspace sovereignty’. The official news agency Xinhua quoted an expert’s comment that ‘cyberspace now constitutes the fifth dimension of the nation’s sovereignty, in addition to land, sea, air and space’.100 It also justifies its different standards on the kind of deep-seated civilisational difference that Samuel Huntington emphasised in his influential book The Clash of Civilisations—hence ‘Huntingtonian’.

 

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Rummel puts the death toll at 5.75 million, which as a proportion of the world’s population at the time was more than double the death rate of World War I and was in the range of World War II in Europe.40 The historian Simon Schama estimates that the English Civil War killed almost half a million people, a loss that is proportionally greater than that in World War I.41 It wasn’t until the second half of the 17th century that Europeans finally began to lose their zeal for killing people with the wrong supernatural beliefs. The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years’ War in 1648, confirmed the principle that each local prince could decide whether his state would be Protestant or Catholic and that the minority denomination in each one could more or less live in peace. (Pope Innocent X was not a good sport about this: he declared the Peace “null, void, invalid, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all time.”)42 The Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions began to run out of steam in the 17th century, declined further in the 18th, and were shut down in 1834 and 1821, respectively.43 England put religious killing behind it after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.