Works Progress Administration

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Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

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Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

., 8 electronic books, 68, 71, 80, 115 Ellsberg, Daniel, 16, 17, 20, 84–89, 91–96, 101, 103–4, 106, 109–10, 114, 116 Engelbart, Douglas, 100, 121 Enron, 97 Erewhon (Butler), 143 Facebook, 74, 116 fanac Fan History Project, 147 Farm Securities Administration (Department of Agriculture), 13 faxes (facsimile transmissions), 84, 104, 123, 125–27, 133 Federal Theater Project (Works Progress Administration), 75 Federal Writers Project (Works Progress Administration), 13, 75 Flickr, 134 Folger, Henry Clay, 63 Ford, Gerald Ford, 97 Foucault, Michel, 19, 87, 157n71 Franklin, Benjamin, 25, 74, 144 Freedom of Information Act, 97 Fulbright, J. William, 91 Gardner, Jared, 142 Garnett, Alex, 132–33 Gascoigne, Bamber, 112 Gelb, Leslie, 89, 91, 93 “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” 72–74, 107–8, 170n68 Gernsback, Hugo, 146 Geschke, Charles, 123 glasnost, 95 Goble, Mark, 61, 64 Golden Days for Boys and Girls, 142 Google, 58, 74, 116, 132, 134, 166n3 Graham, Martha, 13 Gras, Norman, 58, 61 Gray, L.

., 142, 143 Guillory, John, 2, 5, 19, 152n16, 153n24, 154n43 Gutenberg, Johannes, 7, 8, 79, 153n29 Habermas, Jürgen, 30 Hamilton, Charles, 46 Hamlet (Shakespeare), 6 Hardt, Michael, 31 Harpel, Oscar, 20, 38–52, 63, 77, 81, 116–17, 137, 139–41; Harpel’s Typograph, Or Book of Specimens, 38–44, 46–47, 51, 52, 81, 87, 116, 123, 137–39, 163n65; Poets and Poetry of Printerdom, 43, 45, 46, 50, 81, 137–38 Harper, Richard, 7, 111, 128, 130, 152n9 Harris, Elizabeth, 52 Harrison, Thomas, 138–41, 145–46 Hayles, N. Katherine, 69 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 97 Hilderbrand, Lucas, 109 Hinman, Charlton, 85 Historical Records Survey (Works Progress Administration), 62, 75–78 History E-­Book Project, 80 Howells, William Dean, 36 Humanities E-­Book Database, 80, 169n52 Huntington, Henry E., 63 Huntington Library, 73 Illustrated Catalogue of Ruling Machines &c (W. O. Hickok), 23 Immortal Storm, 146 Index of American Design (Works Progress Administration), 64 Information Transfer Experiments (­Intrex), 120 Inland Printer, 45, 71 Institut International de Bibliographie, 59 International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 59 International Standards Organization, 118 International Typographical Union, 25, 45 Jackson, Virginia, 103 Jenkins, Henry, 15, 137 job printing and printers, 11–12, 16, 24– 27, 30, 36–51, 56, 81, 135, 138–40 Johns, Adrian, 8, 9, 113 Johnson, Barbara, 29 Joint Committee on Materials for Research (ssrc and acls), 14, 54–62, 66, 72–73, 79–81 Joseph, Miranda, 141 Journal of Documentary Reproduction, 61 Kafka, Ben, 16, 31, 158n4 Kafka, Franz, 19 Kahana, Jonathan, 60 Keen, Andrew, 137 Kelsey Press Co., 52 Kelty, Christopher, 98 Kinko’s case, 107 Kirschenbaum, Matthew, 7, 69, 118, 134 Labussière, Charles Hippolyte, 16 Lacan, Jacques, 29 INDEX    207 Laney, Francis Towner, 147–48 Lange, Dorothea: “Migrant Mother,” 62 Lanier, Jaron, 11, 111, 116 Larcom, Lucy, 50 Latour, Bruno, 5–6, 152n7, 176n64, 178n6 letterpress printing, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 36, 52, 66, 70, 81, 84, 113, 119, 137 Levi, Primo, 130 Levy, David, 7, 17, 169n55, 174n35 Library of Amateur Journalism, 184n6 Library of Congress, 47, 72, 73 Lions, John, 16, 17, 83–85, 97–100, 107, 110.

Interestingly, a similar semantics inhabits the more widely used term “documentary,” which designates the genre—or metagenre, in Jonathan Kahana’s helpful formulation26—that was so characteristic of the 1930s. The Great Depression made “a documentary approach” seem compulsory somehow,27 and social documentary in particular emerged as a cardinal form of cinema, photography, literature, dance, theater, and other arts, both with state sponsorship—under the aegis of the Works Progress Administration (wpa ) and the Farm Security Administration—and without. “The power of social documentary comes,” Kahana writes, “from its allegorical displacement of particular details onto the plane of general significance”—that is, its alignment of granular particularities and critical syntheses, along with its persistent interrogation of the effects and conditions of such an alignment.28 60    CHAPTER TWO “Documentary”—like “document”—is of course a capacious term.


pages: 283 words: 81,163

How Capitalism Saved America: The Untold History of Our Country, From the Pilgrims to the Present by Thomas J. Dilorenzo

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banking crisis, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In 1929 Hoover devoted a sizable chunk of the federal budget—half a billion dollars, or 13 percent of the total budget—to public works spending. At the same time he pressured state governments to increase their own public works spending. By 1931, total government public works spending would be as high as at any other point in the decade—this despite the fact that FDR employed some ten million bureaucrats in government public works jobs with his Public Works Administration, Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and the rest.23 The negative effects of Hoover’s public works spending were almost immediately apparent. All this government spending took money out of the private sector, extracted through taxes. (Hoover even rescinded a minuscule 1 percent temporary tax relief program.) As a result, private-sector spending, which could have reinvigorated the economy, declined.

Economic fascism, says Twight, seeks to “empower an elite to determine the specific purposes that other individuals in the society are compelled to serve”; it “is the antithesis of limited government and individualism,” as it “uncompromisingly seeks to obliterate individual rights”; its view of capitalism is “regulated capitalism” and “government intervention in the economy on a massive scale”; it “supplants . . . market considerations with political considerations” with only “perfunctory regard for economic costs or consumers’ wishes”; it uses the language of “the national interest” to justify myriad government interventions; and it “attempts to fuse management and labor, molding them into a monolithic instrument for achieving whatever government officials decree to be the national interest.”41 MAKING MATTERS WORSE: THE SECOND NEW DEAL On January 4, 1935—only a few months before the U.S. Supreme Court ruled most of the First New Deal unconstitutional—FDR announced his Second New Deal. The principal additions were the Social Security Act, the National Labor Relations Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act (the minimum-wage law), the Works Progress Administration, and punitive taxes imposed ostensibly to punish “economic royalists” and other entrepreneurs whom Roosevelt wanted to blame for the country’s troubles. Every one of these programs was a drain on the private sector and/or an impediment to employment. As such, they all made the Great Depression even worse. The Social Security payroll tax and the two labor laws increased the cost to employers of hiring workers, which led to higher unemployment.

There is no free lunch: every dollar the government spends on some kind of make-work program must necessarily depress genuine, market-driven economic growth because resources are diverted from the private to the governmental sector. That is why, despite the fact that the federal budget more than doubled in eight years, the Depression did not end and, indeed, unemployment was higher in 1938 than it was in 1931. FDR’s vaunted “jobs” programs unequivocally destroyed jobs. Government “jobs” programs, such as the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps, can only destroy private-sector jobs in order to “create” government make-work jobs. And since government bureaucrats spend the taxpayers’ money much more inefficiently than the taxpayers themselves do, government jobs that are “created” usually destroy several private-sector jobs. For example, the federal government’s own General Accounting Office has estimated that some federal jobs programs have provided $14,000-per-year jobs at a total cost of more than $100,000 per job, once one accounts for all the administrative expenses.

The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival by Dr. Stephen R Palumbi Phd, Ms. Carolyn Sotka M. A.

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California gold rush, clean water, glass ceiling, land tenure, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

Monterey Public Library, CA: Monterey. “You could call her an early-day conservationist”: in Monterey Herald, May 11, 1968. “Big windows, commanding a broad expanse of bay”: in Monterey Herald, April 1931. page 64 “There was a packed house every time the council met”: p. 16 in Game and Gossip. Platt’s revision of the city’s operation: p. 16 Game and Gossip. Protection of the sea in the hands of Pacific Grove: Works Progress Administration 1937. New bill creates marine refuge at local station (WPA Historical Survey of the Monterey Peninsula Project #4080 MS, File 41, May 13), CA: Monterey, Monterey Public Library. page 65 Julia “molested” by Mr. McDougall: in Grove at High Tide, January 17, 1931. Original deed null and void: p. 17 in Game and Gossip. Platt destroyed gate padlock and opened the beach: Grove at High Tide, January 17, 1931, Pacific Grove Museum archives.

“Though the conflict diminished, the smells . . . probably worsened”: p. 212 in Chiang, C. 2004. Monterey-by-the-Smell: Odors and social conflict on the California coastline. Pacific Historical Review 73:183–214. page 81 Sea anemones grown up along the rock at Hopkins: G. Haderlie in personal communication Carolyn Sotka, November 2004. Healthy shores in Pacific Grove if the Monterey problems were solved: Works Progress Administration. 1937. New Bill Creates Marine Refuge at Local Station (WPA Historical Survey of the Monterey Peninsula Project #4080 MS, File 41, May 13), CA: Monterey, Public Library), 4. page 82 Julia’s new state law: see the Pacific Grove City ordinances, Chapter 14.04, “All the waterfront of the city, together with those certain submerged lands in the Bay of Monterey contiguous thereto, as set forth and particularly described in that certain act of the Legislature of the State of California entitled, ‘An act granting to the City of Pacific Grove the title to the waterfront of said City together with certain submerged lands in the Bay of Monterey contiguous thereto,’ approved by the Governor June 9, 1931, are hereby established as a refuge for the protection of certain kinds of marine life hereinafter mentioned and as a marine garden of the city and reference is hereby made to said act of the Legislature for a particular description of said waterfront and 192â•… â•… Notes said submerged lands” [Ord. 210 N.S. §5-401(1), 1952].

We can find no record of this in Julia’s writings. page 83 Julia gained legal authority to manage the Pacific Grove shoreline and police its access: p. 4 in WPA, 1937a. Julia’s plan for the refuge to be the center for scientific research and nursery: p. 4 in WPA, 1937a. “From where the tiny larvae may swim”: p. 4, WPA, 1937a. page 84 Julia crafted the Pacific Grove Marine Gardens: Works Progress Administration. 1937. New Bill Creates Marine Refuge at Local Station (WPA Historical Survey of the Monterey Peninsula Project #4080 MS, File 41, March 24), CA: Monterey, Public Library), 1. page 85 “Civic dignitaries traditionally accompany the body of a Mayor to its last resting place”: T. J., “Julia Platt: Lady Watchdog,” Game and Gossip (formerly What’s Doing) (Monterey, CA: Monterey Public Library, California History Room), 16.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In addition to the common fear of the tramp lay an economic concern: since the Federal Transient Program did not fund hospitalization, towns worried that they would have to bear the expense of caring for so many destitute, and often sick, men. And some wondered what would happen when the federal funds dried up and they were left with hundreds of men with nowhere to live and nothing to do. The fear was not unfounded, for when the program, along with other emergency relief measures of the early New Deal, ended in 1935 (while the Depression raged on), few men from the camps were able to secure coveted Works Progress Administration jobs (less than half the men in New York camps could), and were back to where they had begun, older, but no better prepared to provide for themselves and their families. Some towns loaded up their transients into trucks and brought them to the next state or county. And on they marched.107 The Kindness of Strangers We have seen how those with little have nonetheless shared what they had with their poor friends and neighbors.

Men who had never in their lives asked for, or accepted, a cent of alms refused to believe that the situation had gone into permanent reverse. It made no difference to them in what pretty words the unattractive fact of their dependency was dressed. It was charity and they didn’t like it. They were accustomed to making a return for their livelihood. It was a habit they liked, and from which they chiefly drew their self-respect. The family of a man working on a Works Progress Administration project looks down its nose at neighbors who take their relief straight. We can talk all we want to about some coming civilization in which work will be outmoded, and in which we shall enjoy a state of being rather than one of action, but contemporary sentiment is still against “a man who gets something for nothing.” Those who voluntarily take something for nothing are put in jail. Those who are forced to accept charity, no matter how unwillingly, are first pitied, then disdained.37 Lenny Del Genio looked back on the period:Relief then was a disgrace.

Blacks were barred from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) jobs, too, and were less likely to have landlords who were willing to electrify their buildings. Few Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) jobs went to black youths.46 In the early 1930s, the Red Cross tried to provide food and clothing, but even this was resisted by the planters, just as they later resisted federal aid, until many came to realize that they could use relief as an excuse to lower the wages they were paying.47 To accommodate plantation owners, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and other projects were often suspended at harvest time, to ensure an ample supply of cheap labor. When the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) did reach the South, whites were more likely to receive cash, and blacks were more likely to receive only food. Yet many programs achieved successes in distributing benefits to the neediest cases. This angered planters, since, as one said, “by helping the worst, it puts a premium on improvidence and idleness.”


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Some parts of the stimulus package seem to be more of the same—trying to prop up the old, failed economy. That strategy simply won’t work—but we could waste a lot of money and time trying. Instead, we need a new direction for our economy.” Faced with an even more devastating economic crisis, FDR responded with a large-scale public works program, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Works Progress Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps—programs that gave us much of the infrastructure that needs to be updated today.27 But instead of doing something similar—and instead of constructing a new economic vessel capable of navigating the stormy seas of the twenty-first century—we chose to grab a bucket and try to bail out the old sinking ship. Moving forward, the price we’ll pay for getting it wrong is extremely high.

Since August 2008, more than 150,000 state and local jobs have been eliminated, and the states’ combined budget gap for fiscal 2010 and 2011 is $380 billion.20, 21 The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities estimates that state and local deficits could cost the country an entire point off the GDP, which would, in turn, lead to the loss of another 900,000 jobs next year.22 This is why the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) recommends the federal government spend $150 billion on aid to state and local governments over the next year and a half, an investment that would save up to 1.4 million jobs.23 Congress and the president should also push through a muscular plan to create public-service jobs. “The federal government could provide jobs by … providing jobs,” writes Paul Krugman.24 “It’s time for at least a small-scale version of the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration.… There would be accusations that the government was creating make-work jobs, but the W.P.A. left many solid achievements in its wake. And the key point is that direct public employment can create a lot of jobs at relatively low cost.” In fact, the EPI estimates that one million jobs designed to “put unemployed Americans back to work serving their communities” could be created with an investment of $40 billion a year for three years.25 This approach is also favored by Princeton’s Alan Blinder.26 “Direct public-service employment is straightforward,” he says.


pages: 267 words: 71,123

End This Depression Now! by Paul Krugman

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airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gordon Gekko, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, mortgage debt, paradox of thrift, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Of the rest, a large chunk consisted of funds to extend unemployment benefits, another chunk consisted of aid to help sustain Medicaid, and a further chunk was aid to state and local governments to help them avoid spending cuts as their revenues fell. Only a fairly small piece was for the kind of spending—building and fixing roads, and so on—that we normally think of when we talk of stimulus. There was nothing resembling an FDR-style Works Progress Administration. (At its peak, the WPA employed three million Americans, or about 10 percent of the workforce. An equivalent-sized program today would employ thirteen million workers.) Still, almost $800 billion sounds to most people like a lot of money. How did those of us who took the numbers seriously know that it was grossly inadequate? The answer is twofold: history plus an appreciation of just how big the U.S. economy is.

., 153 Treasury bills, 153 Trichet, Jean-Claude, 186, 188, 195, 196 Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), 116 trucking industry, deregulation of, 61 Two-Income Trap, The (Warren and Tyagi), 84 Tyagi, Amelia, 84 UBS, 86 unemployment, 114, 198, 208 austerity policies and, xi, 189, 203–4, 207, 237–38 churning and, 9 college graduates and, 11–12, 16, 37, 144–45 confidence and, 94–96 definitions of, 7–8 demand and, 33, 47 in depression of 2008–, x, 5–12, 24, 110, 117, 119, 210, 212 in Europe, 4, 17, 18, 172, 176, 229, 236 government spending and, 209, 212 in Great Depression, 38 historical patterns of, 128–29 as involuntary, 6 lack of skills and, 35, 36–38 liquidity traps and, 33, 51, 152 Obama administration and, 110, 117 post-2009 decreases in, 4, 210, 211, 211, 229 prosperity and, 9 sense of well-being and, 6 stagflation and, 154 wages and, 52–53, 164–65 among youth, 11, 18, 229 see also job-creation policies unemployment, long-term, 9–10 in Great Depression, 38 health insurance and, 10 loss of skills in, 144 self-esteem and, 10–11 stigma of, 10, 15–16, 144 unemployment insurance, 10, 120, 121, 144, 216, 229 in Europe, 176 unionization, decline in, 82 United Kingdom, 59, 183 austerity programs in, 190, 199–202 depression of 2008– in, 199–202 EEC joined by, 167 government debt as percentage of GDP in, 139, 140, 140, 192 interest rates in, 182–83, 201 lend-lease program and, 39 turn to right in, 83 United States: as “center-right” country, 224 China’s trade with, 221 government debt as percentage of GDP in, 139, 140, 192 net international investment position of, 44 post-2009 recovery in, 4 pre-World War II military buildup in, 35, 38–39 risk of default by, 139 S&P downgrade of, 140 social safety net in, 10, 216 turn to right in, 83 universal health care, 18 Vanity Fair, 71 Very Serious People, xi, 190, 205 wages: devaluation and, 169–70, 180–81 downward nominal rigidity of, 164–65, 181 unemployment and, 52–53, 164–65 Wall Street (film), 80 Wall Street Journal, 134, 138 Warren, Elizabeth, 84 wars, economies and, 233–37 Weill, Sandy, 85 well-being, sense of, 5–6 unemployment and, 6 workers: as lacking skills, 35, 36–38 layoffs of, 41 technology as creating redundancies of, 36 see also unemployment Works Progress Administration, 121 World War II, 50, 107 government spending in, 148, 234–35, 235 lend-lease program in, 39 military buildup prior to U.S. entry into, 35, 38–39 U.S. debt after, 141 Yale University, 93 Yardeni, Ed, 132 Yglesias, Matthew, 87–88, 225 youth, unemployment among, 11, 18, 229 zero lower bound, of interest rates, 33–34, 51, 117, 135–36, 147, 151, 152, 163, 231, 236 Zimbabwe, 150 Zuckerberg, Mark, 78 Zuckerman, Mort, 95 Copyright © 2012 by Melrose Road Partners All rights reserved First Edition For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to Permissions, W.


pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In the words of Bob Noyce, “The money doesn’t seem real. It’s just a way of keeping score” (http://www.stanford.edu/class/e140/e140a/content/noyce.html, originally published by Tom Wolfe in Esquire, December 1983). 16. Matt Taibbi, “The Great American Bubble Machine,” Rolling Stone, April 5, 2010, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-great-american-bubble-machine-20100405. 17. Works Progress Administration, in 1939 renamed the Work Projects Administration. 18. John M. Broder, “The West: California Ups and Downs Ripple in the West,” Economic Pulse, New York Times, January 6, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/06/us/economic-pulse-the-west-california-ups-and-downs-ripple-in-the-west.html. 19. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/53/U3HH.html, accessed December 31, 2014. 20. For an example, see Heidi Shierholz and Lawrence Mishel, “A Decade of Flat Wages,” Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper #365, August 21, 2013, http://www.epi.org/publication/a-decade-of-flat-wages-the-key-barrier-to-shared-prosperity-and-a-rising-middle-class/. 21.

See income; salaries Wall Street, 51–53, 57–58, 95 Walmart, 139–40, 142–43 average revenue per employee, 139, 177 employee numbers, 116 warehouses, 101–2, 134–35 box unloading, 39 chaotic storage tracking, 135, 144 Waterloo, battle of (1815), 58 water quality, 168 Watson (IBM AI computer program), 26, 31, 36, 39, 150, 198 Watson Research Lab (IBM), 19 wealth, 3, 12, 109–19, 127, 132 from assets ownership, 14–15, 174–76 benefits of, 165–66 civic responsibility and, 58 disparities in, 164–65, 169–70, 176, 180–87 distribution of, 186 factors in creating, 12 fairer distribution of, 86–87 Forbes ranking of, 109, 113 HFT program transfer of, 57, 91 lifestyle embodiments of, 57, 109, 110–11, 112, 114 luxury item sales and, 117–18, 165–66 philanthropy and, 58, 113, 118–19 power from, 114–15 reinvestment vs. spending of, 117 super-wealthy and, 11, 111–13, 116–19, 118–19, 164–65 synthetic intellects’ accumulation of, 91–92 top 1 percent holders of, 11, 111–13 worker median salary and, 116 websites: advertising sale of space on, 64–72 electronic surveillance of visits to, 9, 64–75 individually targeted ads, 64–75 user identifier, 65, 66 WebTV, 127 weeding, 144 Weisel, Thom, 115 welfare recipients, 170 Wellington, Duke of, 58 Wellpoint, 150 wide-area high-bandwidth wireless communication, 126–27 wildfire extinguishers, 44 Winster.com, 119, 122–23, 124 wireless communications, 45 words, shifted meanings of, 191–92, 198, 203 workforce. See labor market working poor, 119–21 working women, 172 work-life balance, 171 workplace, 48 robot danger potential, 37–38 WPA (Works Progress Administration), 170 Yahoo, 67 Yeats, William Butler, 48 Zandi, Mark, 117 Zuckerberg, Mark, 223n15


pages: 219 words: 61,720

American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

I think what most people don’t understand is that government policy hurts growth and makes the jobs crisis worse not by spending too much money, but by spending on the wrong things in the wrong way. Focusing on “how much” instead of “how” and “where” is a mistake. Think back to the stimulus debate in 2009. I think most Americans understand that the nearly $1 trillion plan that Congress and President Obama passed didn’t work as promised. Adjusted for inflation, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was bigger than the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration, which was supposed to help end the Great Depression. It was bigger than the Marshall Plan, which helped rebuild Europe and contain Soviet communism after World War II. All told, the federal government spent about five times as much on the 2009 stimulus as we spent to put Neil Armstrong on the moon in 1969.4 Does anyone really think the stimulus was money well spent? No way. Not even close.

Think of the majestic public works projects of the New Deal era: The Hoover Dam helped bring water and power to Las Vegas and much of Southern California. Bigger still was the Triborough Bridge, connecting Manhattan to Queens and the Bronx by way of the Harlem River, Bronx Kill, and Hell Gate along the East River. The Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco Bay Bridge were both New Deal projects, and all were American made. Even the more modest projects the Works Progress Administration accomplished during the worst years of the Great Depression are worth celebrating: 78,000 new bridges and viaducts, and improvements on 46,000 more; 572,000 miles of rural roads and 67,000 miles of city streets; 39,000 new and remodeled schools; 2,500 hospitals; 12,800 playgrounds.4 Dwight Eisenhower and a bipartisan Congress in the 1950s decided the national economy would reap huge benefits from the Interstate Highway System.


pages: 261 words: 78,884

$2.00 A Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America by Kathryn Edin, H. Luke Shaefer

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, ending welfare as we know it, future of work, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, impulse control, indoor plumbing, informal economy, low-wage service sector, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

If these predictions are correct, the seemingly endless hunt for work won’t just be the lot of the $2-a-day poor; many in America will be joining them. If that is the case, we need to think bigger. Much bigger. If the private sector isn’t up to the task of producing enough jobs, one could make a strong argument that government itself ought to create a substantially larger share of the jobs than it does now—jobs like those provided by the Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression. Certainly, there is ample work to be done in our communities. The nation’s infrastructure is badly out-of-date in many places—often crumbling, sometimes downright dangerous. The National Park Service and state and local park districts are underfunded; this limits hours and upkeep. Safe, stimulating day care centers—the kind of environments our toddlers and preschoolers require to thrive—are too few.

See also Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) American attitudes about, 14–15, 17, 19 awareness of, 32–33, 170–71 benefit reductions with income, 97–98 block grant funding of, 24–28 demise of, 8–33 dependency created by, 14–17 duration of use of, 18 eligibility requirements for, 170–71 housing costs and, 4–5 impact of on poverty levels, 7–8 inadequacy of for survival, xiv–xv isolation created by, xx, 127, 158, 171–73 other aid programs and, 8–9 poor people isolated from, xx reasons for failure to apply for, 2, 8, 31–33, 47–48, 170–71 safety net provided by, 7–8, 10 time cost of, 2–3, 6–7 time limits on, xv, 7, 19–21, 25, 27–28, 41, 42 utilization rates of, 7–8, 17 values alignment with, 157–58, 171 welfare queens, 15–16 welfare reform, 10–11 aftermath of, 29–32 aid spending since, 9 based on employment stability, xxiii–xxiv caseloads after, 28–29 cash removed from, 25–28 Clinton in, 17, 20–29 Ellwood on, 18–20 future of, 157–74 low-wage job conditions and, 61–62 poverty increased by, 26–28, 132 Reagan on, 10–11, 15–17 Republican plan for, 24–29 rise of $2-a-day poverty since, xiv–xviii utilization rates since, 7–8 working conditions affected by, 61–62 work opportunity and, 158–72 work requirements in, 7, 17, 19–20, 24–25, 30–31 “white glove tests,” 14 WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), xii Williams, Lynetta, 131–32 Wilson, William Julius, xx work ethic, 44–47, 57–59, 80, 89, 125, 157–58 workforce statistics, 124–27 work loading, 46, 61–62 work scheduling instability. See also just-in-time scheduling Works Progress Administration, 161 World Bank, xvi YouthBuild, 94 Zedlewski, Sheila, 26–27 zoning laws, 166 About the Authors KATHRYN J. EDIN, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, is the coauthor of Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage and Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work.


pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler

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Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Emergency Management Agency DEW Distant Early Warning Line DRP District Response Plan EAPs Emergency Action Papers ExComm Executive Committee of the NSC FBS Federal Buildings Services FCC Federal Communications Commission FCDA Federal Civil Defense Administration FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency GSA General Services Administration HEW Department of Health, Education and Welfare ICBM intercontinental ballistic missile IRBM intermediate range ballistic missile JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JEEP Joint Emergency Evacuation Plan MDW Military District of Washington NAWAC National Warning Control System NBS National Bureau of Standards NCPC National Capital Planning Commission NCRPC National Capital Regional Planning Council NDAC National Damage Assessment Center NEACP National Emergency Airborne Command Post NSC National Security Council NSRB National Security Resources Board OCD Office of Civilian Defense OCDM Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization ODM Office of Defense Mobilization OEP Office of Emergency Planning OPAL Operation Alert OWI Office of War Information PEF Presidential Emergency Facilities PEOC Presidential Emergency Operations Center RACES Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service SAC Strategic Air Command SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan SLBM submarine-launched ballistic missile TVA Tennessee Valley Authority WASP Washington Area Survival Plan WHEP White House Emergency Plan WHMO White House Military Office WPA Works Progress Administration Acknowledgments I’m grateful for the help of many people and institutions. For financial support of my research, I thank the Eisenhower World Affairs Institute; the Harry S. Truman Library Institute; the National Endowment for the Humanities; the Organization of American Historians and the White House Historical Association; and the University of Wisconsin, Platteville. My research benefited greatly from the guidance of dozens of archivists and librarians.

In many ways, they found themselves thrown into a race in which they couldn’t even place, let alone win. 1 By the Bomb’s Imaginary Light On June 11, 1940, several thousand workers gathered at points along the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers in or across from Washington, D.C.: the Washington Navy Yard, Anacostia Naval Air Station, Washington National Airport. Their job was to fortify the defenses of sites vital to national security.1 The laborers were neither soldiers nor sailors—they drew modest paychecks from the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a New Deal agency that hired the unemployed to work on public projects. In 1940, the Great Depression lingered still, and most Americans were preoccupied with jobs and bills, not national defense, even though war raged in Europe. Nazi forces were about to march into Paris, and the Luftwaffe prepared to terrorize Britain. Americans weren’t ignorant of these events, but on the other side of the Atlantic, the war seemed remote, unreal, contained.

Washington National Airport, 1, 11, 45, 86 Washington Navy Yard see Naval Gun Factory white flight, 2, 29–30, 145–7, 225 n.49 White House East Wing, 15 reconstruction of, 69–75 security of during World War II, 15–16 shelters, 15, 68–75, 87, 98, 113, 155, 186–7 Signal Agency, 155–6, 162 White House Emergency Information Program, 177, 182 White House Emergency Plan (WHEP), 113, 132, 170, 177 White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., 6, 167 Whittington, Will, 59–60 Wiley, Alexander, 24–5, 36, 64 Wilson, Charlie, 124–5, 132 Winslow, Lorenzo S., 68–75 Works Progress Administration, 11, 14 World War I, 12–13, 97, 139, 180 World War II civil defense during, 12–15 effects on Washington, D.C., 11–12, 14, 16–17 Young, Gordon Russell, 45–7, 115, 124 Young, John Russell, 45, 57 zero milestone marker, 33–5, 37–9, 42, 102–4, 136, 141, 143, 147, 151, 184


pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

For these men and women, Newman argued, the federal government ought to create public works programs. It was, she felt, an entirely legitimate function of government to backstop employment when the private sector faltered. Massive public works investment was done in the early years of the New Deal, to stunning effect—with the large, mechanized infrastructure projects of the Public Works Administration and then the labor-heavy projects of the Works Progress Administration, putting 4 million people back to work within a matter of months and providing those men and women with cash in their pockets that rapidly circulated throughout the entire economy. As a result of this stimulation, private employers then added another 4 million jobs. From 1933 to 1937, unemployment in America declined from 25 percent to 9 percent of the workforce. What would the price tag for such a program be today?

Newman’s son, Steven Attwell, a graduate student of the history of public policy at the University of California at Santa Barbara, thought he had some answers. Having crunched the numbers and then, he said, having run his estimates by experts at the American Enterprise Institute and Brookings Institution, he argued that one could have used the $787 billion that the 2009 stimulus package cost to create a large-scale public works program, along the lines of the Works Progress Administration, that would have been able to employ up to 20 million people, thus largely eliminating the huge well of unemployment and joblessness that bubbled up in the wake of the financial crisis and that has so stubbornly refused to go away. In contrast, he reminded audiences, the hodgepodge of investments and employment subsidies that the 2009 legislation unleashed cost a fortune and only created, or saved, between 3 and 4 million jobs.

., 103, 127 Washington State, 149, 250 Wealth accumulation of, 64–65 concentration of, 26–27, 32–34, 53–54 and tax cuts for the wealthy, 207 and tax increases on the wealthy, 39–40, 82, 287–288 Weber, Max, 64 Welfare, 12, 44–45 barriers to accessing, 105 (see also under Social programs) and benefit cuts, 117 and benefit levels, decline in, 105–110 See also individual social programs; Safety net; Social programs Welfare system, history of, 66–82 Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community (King), 79 Williams, Mark and Theresa, 169–170 Wisconsin, 180 Wisconsin Women’s Business Initiative (WWBI), 253 Women, 25, 82 Work trust fund, 201 Workers’ compensation, 71, 201 “Workfare for Food Stamps?” (DiMause), 222 Working poor, 30–31 Works Progress Administration, 302, 303 Wright, Pastor Royce, 178 WWBI. See Wisconsin Women’s Business Initiative Wyoming, 107 Youdelman, Sondra, 222, 223 Zelleke, Almaz, 249–251, 290–291 Zerzan, Barbara, 108–109 Ziliak, Jim, 55–56, 131–132, 153, 204–205, 218 Founded in 2000, Nation Books has become a leading voice in American independent publishing. The inspiration for the imprint came from the Nation magazine, the oldest independent and continuously published weekly magazine of politics and culture in the United States.


pages: 514 words: 153,092

The Forgotten Man by Amity Shlaes

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anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Frederick Winslow Taylor, invisible hand, Mahatma Gandhi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, short selling, Upton Sinclair, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

The usual rebuttal to this from the right is that Hoover was a good man, albeit misunderstood, and Roosevelt a dangerous, even an evil one. The stock market of the 1920s was indeed immoral, too high, inflationary—and deserved to crash. Many critics on the right focus on monetary policy. Another set of critics focuses on Roosevelt’s early social programs. They argue that New Deal programs such as the Works Progress Administration of the Civilian Conservation Corps spoiled the United States and accustomed Americans to the pernicious dole. Yet a third set of critics, an angry fringe, has argued that Roosevelt’s brain trusters reported to Moscow. Stalin steered the New Deal and also pulled us into World War II, in their argument. For many years, now, these have been the parameters of the debate. It is time to revisit the late 1920s and the 1930s.

Congress in any case would do his work for him, restoring programs that had been in place before he cut them back in 1933. He also created new constituent groups. Roosevelt disliked handing out money to the poor. He wanted, as he said, to “quit this business of relief.” Instead he would create work now in other ways. That summer—the summer of 1935—Hopkins was spending the first dollars in the Works Progress Administration, a program that would, the papers said, start 100,000 projects and hire by the millions over the coming months. General Johnson would be the administrator, a job to replace his old post at the NRA. Here, Hopkins and Ickes, always competitive, were going head-to-head in an alphabet competition: Ickes had his PWA, and now Hopkins had the WPA. The WPA work was project-oriented: WPA staffers ran hospitals and dug ditches, opened libraries and served a million school lunches a day.

Speaking at a meeting of advertisers, he talked about the lexicon of the New Deal. He praised the New Deal—up to 1935. Since then, however, there had arisen “new and fantastic counterparts” to the early New Deal. These later counterparts were too intrusive, and Moley could not approve of them. In May the city itself provided reminders of the conflicts inherent in the New Deal. Roosevelt had created the Works Progress Administration to help labor; the same thought was behind his signature of the NIRA and the Wagner Act. But he had warned that the government would not always be able to afford to pay for the jobs. Now Roosevelt wanted to balance the budget, and some WPA jobs had to go. Instead of accepting the change, as perhaps Roosevelt expected them to do, the WPA workers were mimicking their private-sector brothers and striking.

Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government by Robert Higgs, Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr.

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Alistair Cooke, clean water, collective bargaining, credit crunch, declining real wages, endowment effect, fiat currency, full employment, hiring and firing, income per capita, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Tracing governmental employment during the 1930s, one encounters unusual complications. To tell this tale one must decide what to do about the "emergency workers." These people worked on programs administered by such emergency work-relief agencies as the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Youth Administration, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (under which a state relief agency operated in each of the states), the Civil Works Administration, and the Works Progress Administration. At the time they were not considered ordinary governmental employees. Subsequently economic statisticians counted them as unemployed members of the labor force, creating confusion and controversy among economists who study how the labor market operated during the Great Depression. 4 If one follows the conventional practice, counting the emergency workers Framework 26 20 18 Q) 16 () .E 14 0 .0 ~ 12 c: .~ .; ·0 10 '0 C Q) 8 () 6 Q; a. 4 2 o 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 Years Figure 2.3 All Government Civilian Employees as Percentage of Civilian Labor Force, 1900-1984 as unemployed, then the government's share of the civilian labor force appears to have remained almost constant during the 1930s, falling slightly between 1931 and 1933 before rising slowly to 7.2 percent in 1939.

The Tennessee Valley Authority, created during the legislative rush of the Hundred Days, joined with the massive hydroelectric projects in the West to make the federal government a major producer and seller of electricity-positions it has never relinquished. Federally sponsored workrelief programs-starting with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, the Civil Works Administration, and others in 1933 and blending into the Works Progress Administration in 1935-established a precedent for making the federal government the "employer of last resort." The commitment was reaffirmed by the Employment Act of 1946 and most recently by the Humphrey-Hawkins Act of 1978. A variety of make-work "training" schemes in the 1960s and the diverse jobs supported under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act in the 1970s testify to the enduring importance of the welfare-employment first provided by the federal government in 1933.7 7 The agricultural relief program struck down by the Butler decision came back to life, without the constitutionally offensive tax on processors, as the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 and the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938.

., 102-103, 118, 148- 149, 158 White, William Allen, 78 Whitney, Eli, 71 Wiebe, Robert, 84, 90, 114 Wilson, William B., 143 Wilson, William L., 97 Wilson, Woodrow, 106, 110, 113, 117-118, 127-129, 132-133, 135, 139-140, 154,157-158,196-198,205,246. See also Progressive Era; World War I Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, 97 Wilson v. New, 118-121, 182 350 Witte, John F., 150 . Wood, Leonard, 127-128 Work-or-fight order, 218 Work relief, proposals in 1890s, 85-86 Works Progress Administration, 25, 190 World Bank, 260 World War I, 123-158, 196-198 World War II, 196-236, 245, 259 Index Yakus v. United States, 221-222 Yeager, Leland, 9, 243 Youngstown case, 246 Zaller, John, 15 Zeigler, Harman, 46, 69 PRAISE FOR Crisis and Leviathan "Insightful, compelling, and clear. Higgs breaks new ground in explicating the most important socio-political trend of our time-the growth of American government."


pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

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1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Dos Passos wrote the manifesto for their second season: “Towards a Revolutionary Theatre,” in which he called for a theater that “draws its life and ideas from the conscious sections of the industrial and white collar working classes which are out to get control of the great flabby mass of capitalist society and mold it to their own purpose.” These radicals sought to change content and theatrical form. The new social theater would be “somewhere between a high mass . . . and a Barnum and Bailey’s circus.” During the New Deal, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) recruited Hallie Flanagan in 1935 to become the head of the Federal Theatre Project. This effort, which brought radicals and liberals together, became an effective tool for social change and perhaps was the last potent counterweight to the propaganda state. Production costs and scenic effects were limited. Money was used to pay salaries to the artists. Ticket prices were low. Theater suddenly became available to people across the country.

Conference of Catholic Bishops Van Agtmael, Peter Van Itallie, Jean-Claude Vietnam War and protest Violence Wall Street bailouts and Bell and communists manipulation and dishonesty on and Obama and World War I, Wallace, Graham Wallace, Henry Walling, William English Walzer, Michael War brutal and savage reality of and liberal class veterans See also Afghanistan war; Iraq war; Permanent war; World War I; World War II Warhol, Andy Warren, Earl Watergate Weather Underground Weavers Weber, Max Weisman, Fred Welfare Welles, Orson Wellstone, Paul West Bank White, Edward Douglas Whyte, William H. Wicker, Ireene Wieseltier, Leon WikiLeaks Wilson, Woodrow Winfrey, Oprah Wolin, Sheldon Women’s rights and equality Woods, Tiger Works Progress Administration (WPA) World War I, and conscription and crumbling of antiwar movement declaration of war end and aftermath of and end of liberal era and end of progressivism and industrial warfare and intellectuals and mass culture and mass propaganda and nationalism and repression of dissent World War II, Wright, Ann Wright, Ronald Yemen YouTube Yugoslavia Zuspann, Gary Zwally, Jay Nation Books New York www.nationbooks.org Copyright © 2010 by Chris Hedges Published by Nation Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group 116 East 16th Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10003 Nation Books is a co-publishing venture of the Nation Institute and the Perseus Books Group All rights reserved.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

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AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

These have included reducing interest rates to make investment less risky; committing to purchases of goods and services by government agencies; funding infrastructural upgrades that require private sector labor; subsidizing the hiring of some workers; and providing federal credits for hiring. More directly, many governments have simply expanded their own payrolls to keep people gainfully employed. Most famously, in the United States, job creation in the time of the Great Depression took the form of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s executive order in 1933, it was a federal assistance program that put unemployed Americans to work directly on government-funded infrastructure projects and other community-improving efforts. Part of the WPA included a series of programs focused on arts and cultural programs, which nurtured the careers of artists and writers like painter Jackson Pollock and playwright Arthur Miller.

Department of Defense (DOD), 66 “Using the Head and Heart at Work” (Sadler-Smith), 117 Vanguard Group, 198–99, 223 augmentation approach, 88, 208, 210–11, 214, 217–20 Personal Advisor Services, 210–11, 213, 221 preparing employees, 219–20 technology vendors for, 213 Vardakostas, Alex, 205 Varshney, Lav, 122 Veale, Tony, 126 Warley, Richard, 183 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 18–19 Washington Mutual (WaMu), 89–91, 95 Wealthfront, 198, 213 Weaver, John Frank, 228, 229 Weikart, David, 118 Weinberg, Bruce, 7 Wells, H. G., 18 Wenger, Albert, 246–47 Wenger, Brittany, 46 Wiener, Norbert, 26–27, 64 Williams, Anson, 75 Wilson, Jim, 131 Wolfram, Stephen, 57 Wolfram Research, 57 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 238, 240, 243 World Economic Forum (WEF), survey, 7 World Poll, 7–8 “World Without Work, A” (Thompson), 242 Wozniak, Steve, 112 writing, 24, 126. See also journalism human-generated, 127 Scheherazade program, 126 What-If Machine (WHIM), 126 X.ai, 3 Xchanging, 49, 221, 222–23 XL Catlin, 131 Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, 116, 117 Yeager, Chuck, 67 Zimmermann, Andy, 132, 139 Zinsser, William, 118 Zipcar, 100–102, 195 Zuin, Daniela, 183–85 ABOUT THE AUTHORS THOMAS H.

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

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A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration

., 217, 238-44, 270 history of, 241-42 Laurance Rockefeller and, 242-43 science economy of, 243 Woodstock Country Club, 243 Woodstock Inn, 243 Woodward Avenue (Detroit, Mich.), 190-91, 194, 247 Woolworth, F. W., 53 Woolworth Building (New York, N. Y. ), 75 Worcester, Mass. , 78 Wordsworth, William, 157 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 98 World War I, 67, 74, 76, 90, 100103, 180 art influenced by, 70-71 World War II, 76, 95, 100, 108, 165, 169, 193, 194, 212, 255 Atlantic City, N.J., as affected by, 228-30 national economy and, 103-4 WPA (Works Progress Administration), 98 Wren, Christopher, 63, 157 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 74, 164-65 Wright, Orville, 199 Wright, Wilbur, 199 Yaro, Robert, 264, 267 Yellow Coach company, 91 zoning, 34, 51-52, 55, 136, 169-70, 240, 246, 248, 255 cities and, 34, 51-52 countryside and, 264-65 development and, 263-65 farms and, 170 in Great Britain, 263 houses and, 169-70 Kentlands and, 258 "large lot," 170 local boards and, 259 in Los Angeles, Calif. , 209 mandatory open spaces and, 267 optional, 267 in Portland, Oreg. , 201-2 in Seaside, Fla., 256-57 suburbs and, 51-52, 55, 113-14, 117-18 3 0 3 M About the Author JAMES HOWARD KUNSTLER is the author of eight novels.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

By the 1930s, with a subway line running under the boulevard, the three-hundred-plus neo-Tudor, Art Deco, and Art Moderne apartment buildings that lined it had become an extremely attractive place for immigrant families that had graduated from entry-level neighborhoods like the Lower East Side or Bensonhurst. Half my father’s family that emigrated from Poland between world wars ended up in the area. Even the Great Depression couldn’t destroy the Grand Concourse. The authors of the 1939 WPA Guide to New York commissioned by the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration wrote, “The Grand Concourse is the Park Avenue of middle-class Bronx residents, and a lease to an apartment in one of its many large buildings is considered evidence of at least moderate business success. The thoroughfare . . . is the principal parade-street of the borough, as well as a through motor route” (emphasis added). The “through motor route” description, and the date it was made, are both significant.

., 115 Walk scores, 115–118, 124–125 Walkability, 241–242 in Barcelona, 120–122 in Batesville, Arkansas, 120 in Chicago, 148–151 in Columbus, Ohio, 131–134 and Complete Streets, 151–152 and connectivity, 160 and innovative signals and beacons, 149 and leading pedestrian intervals, 149, 149n in Los Angeles, 117, 125–131 in New York City, 117, 134–139 in Oklahoma City, 139–141 in Pasadena, California, 125 in Portland, Oregon, 118–119, 120 and safety, 122–124 in San Francisco, 117, 119 in San Jose, 119–120 and shopping, 117 and sidewalks, 124 in Tampa, 141–142 and traffic, 123–125 and walk scores, 115–118, 124–125 in Washington, DC, 117 See also Walking Walkable and Living Communities Institute, 120 Walker, Jarrett, 69, 86, 160–161 Walking, 89–93, 156, 177 versus commuting by car or public transit, 93–97 versus driving, and positive contacts, 98–101 versus driving, and unfamiliar streets, perspectives on, 97–98 and the false goodbye, 143 health (physical and mental) benefits of, 93–97, 134 insights about, 142–152 and intelligence, 96–97 and memory and cognition, 96–97 and platooning, 145–146 and self-organizing system, 146 and shy distance, 147 and sidewalks, 147 and speed-density relationships, 146 and traffic flow, 144–146, 145n See also Cycling; Exercise; Health; Walkability Walking (Trevelyan), 94–95 Walkonomics, 116 Walkshops, 148 Wardrop Equilibrium, 106 Wardrop John Glen, 106 Washington, DC, walkability in, 117 West Side Highway, 45–46, 48, 57, 59, 230 Whitcomb, Morgan, 76–77 Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (film), 8, 9 Whyte, William “Holly,” 143–144 Wider versus narrower lanes, safety of, 58, 59–60, 60n Wiggins, Cynthia, 217–218 Williamsburg Bridge, and repair or rebuild debate, 56–60, 229 Woodbridge, Virginia, 76 Works Progress Administration, 29 World Trade Center, terror attack against, 92 World War I, 66 World War II, 15–16, 66 World’s Columbian expositions, 28 WPA Guide to New York City, 28, 30 Wright, Henry, 158 Wyoming, 190 Zak, Paul, 98–99 Zero-car family, 83 Zillow, 115–116 Zimride, 199 Zipcar, 75, 83 Zupan, Jeff, 146–147 Zurich aversion to cars in, 176, 177, 180 cycling and walking in, 177 as global city, 173–174 in-pavement sensors in, 179, 179n parking in, 177–180 streetcars and trolleybuses vs. cars, motorcycles/motorbikes in, 176 transportation network in, 174–180, 208–209 Zurich Public Transport, 208–209 Marquee Photography SAMUEL I.


pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

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back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

But the experimental communities, nearly two-thirds of which were in the South, did not do at all well. Though not under the supervision of the Resettlement Administration, Arthurdale, in the abandoned coal-mining region of Reedsville, West Virginia, was one notable lightning rod. Constantly in the news because it was the pet project of Eleanor Roosevelt, this experimental community was accused of wasting money and Works Progress Administration man-hours. A reporter for the Saturday Evening Post argued that the community was not even functioning as an organ of relief because the screening process was geared toward accepting only those applicants whose success seemed assured, rather than bringing in the folks who most needed government assistance. In the end, Congress ensured the failure of Arthurdale by refusing to support a factory that would have produced furniture for the U.S.

Eric Hinderaker, Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1763–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 239–40, 244, 246; Holly Mayer, “From Forts to Families: Following the Army into Western Pennsylvania, 1758–1766,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 130, no. 1 (January 2006): 5–43, esp. 13, 21, 23–24, 36–38, 40. 9. On Colonel Henry Bouquet, see Bouquet to Anne Willing, Bedford, September 17, 1759, in The Papers of Colonel Henry Bouquet, ed. Sylvester E. Stevens et al., 19 vols. (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical Commission and Works Progress Administration, 1940–44), 3:371–72, 4:115–16. 10. For various meanings of “squat” and “squatting,” see Oxford English Dictionary; Melissa J. Pawlikowski, “‘The Ravages of a Cruel and Savage Economy’: Ohio River Valley Squatters and the Formation of a Communitarian Political Economy, 1768–1782” (paper presented at the Society of Historians of the Early American Republic, July 17, 2011, in possession of the author).

., 159 Wild River, 253 William the Conqueror, 80 Wilmot, David, 147 Wilson, Alex (journalist), 251 Wilson, Alexander (ornithologist), 113–14, 116 Wilson, Charles Morrow, 213 Wilson, Gretchen, 304 Wilson, Milburn Lincoln, 213–17, 223 Winning of the West, The (Roosevelt), 191 Winthrop, John, 5, 6, 10–12, 29–31, 35, 64 Win tribe, 200 Wirt, William, 102 Wister, Owen, 192 Wolfe, Tom, 280 women, 115, 170, 178–79, 183, 311 in American colonies, 27–28, 36–37, 40–41 childbearing by, 66–67, 100, 192–95, 203, 318 eugenics and, 192–97, 203 Wood, Grant, 234, 234 Woodbury, Levi, 142 Woodmason, Charles, 110 Woodruff, Judy, 284 Works Progress Administration, 221 World of Our Fathers (Howe), 276 World War I, 197–98, 202, 209 World War II, 223, 246 Yorba Linda, Calif., 245–46 You Can’t Sleep Here (Newhouse), 210 Young, Andrew, 282, 302 Looking for more? Visit Penguin.com for more about this author and a complete list of their books. Discover your next great read!


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Wright was laid off when the Great Depression drastically reduced the business of Chicago’s mail-order houses, and he began a peripatetic stream of jobs, selling life insurance on commission, cleaning streets, digging ditches, and eventually working for the Michael Reese Hospital. He apparently got that job because he had caught the eye of the wife of the great urban sociologist Louis Wirth. She also got him work writing the history of Illinois for the New Deal Works Progress Administration. He moved to New York in 1937, working on the WPA publication New York Panorama, which remains a wonderful description of big-city living. In 1938, the year after he came to New York, he won a $500 prize for a short story. His first book, a collection of stories called Uncle Tom’s Children, was published by Harper and Company. He won a Guggenheim Fellowship to write Native Son, and with that, he became a literary lion.

House of Lords: Routledge, Cains. 79 Carlos Slim ... dry goods store: Mehta, “Carlos Slim”; Carlos Slim Helú, biography of, www.carlosslim.com/biografia_ing.html. 79 “in a regime of ignorance”: Stigler, Organization of Industry, 206. 80 The great African-American writer... economic opportunity: Rowley, Richard Wright, 4 (birth), 40 (final move to Memphis—he had lived there briefly earlier), 48-49 (move to Chicago). 80 “I headed north ... beneath the stars”: Wright, Black Boy, 285. 80 In Chicago ... to do some writing: Rowley, Richard Wright, 55-60. 80 Even more important ... “help you to write”: Wright, “I Tried to Be a Communist.” 80 Wright was laid off... Louis Wirth: Rowley, Richard Wright, 62-68. 80 She also got him work ... Works Progress Administration: Ibid., 108-9. 81 e moved to New York ... big-city living: Ibid., 124 (move), 144 (Panorama). 81 In 1938 ... Harper and Company: Ibid., 138. 81 Guggenheim Fellowship to write Native Son: Ibid., 164. 81 A Southern sharecropper ... $445 a year: Braunhut, “Farm Labor Wage Rates in the South,” 193. 81 A black worker ... $5 a day: Raff and Summers, “Did Henry Ford Pay Efficiency Wages?”


pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

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air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

The station owner let him use an old trailer that had been rusting in the yard. McLean Trucking Company opened for business in March 1934, with McLean, still running the service station, as the sole driver. Soon after, family ties helped once more when a local man agreed to sell McLean a used dump truck on installments of three dollars a week. With the truck, McLean won a contract to haul dirt for the Works Progress Administration, a federal public-works program that at one point employed more than eleven hundred people in Robeson County. Even after hiring a driver, McLean earned enough to buy a new truck to haul vegetables from local farms. According to a much repeated tale, one trip found McLean so poor that he couldn’t afford to pay the toll at a bridge along the way; he left a wrench with the toll collector as a deposit, redeeming it after selling his load in New York.4 This rags-to-riches tale fails to do justice to McLean’s immense ambition.

.: culture of; and flat rates; McLean purchase of; move of to New Jersey; ships of; shipyard of; and subsidies. See also McLean Industries; Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation; Sea-Land Service Weldon, Foster Wellington, New Zealand Westmoreland, William wharves; vertical piers Whirlpool Corporation whiskey shipments Whitehall Club White Star Line wholesaling Winston-Salem, NC Works Progress Administration World Bank Wriston, Walter Xerox Corp. Yokohamajapan Yom Kippur War York, PA Younger, Kenneth Zim Line


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

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banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Roosevelt emphasized government's new role, saying that "the aim of this whole effort is to restore our rich domestic market by raising its vast consuming capacity.... The pent-up demand of the people is very great and if we can release it on so broad a front, we need not fear a lagging recovery."47 The NIRA was followed by the Civil Works Administration in 1933 and 1934, which found jobs for more than 4 million unemployed workers. 48 In 1935 Roosevelt launched a still more ambitious job creation effort-the Works Progress Administration, or WPA. The aim of the WPA was to stimulate immediate consumer purchasing power by initiating what the Roosevelt administration called "light projects," programs that were labor-intensive, cost little to implement, and could be completed quickly. The idea was to use more manpower than materials and machinery and to get paychecks in the hands of as many laborers as possible, as quickly as possible.

(Willhelm), 79 Wilkinson, George, 195 Wilkinson, John, 123 Willhelm, Sidney, 77, 79, 80 Williams, Lynn, 224, 230 Wilson, William Julius, 76 Winpisinger, William, 8, 135 Womack, James, 94-95, 96, 99,100 Woolridge, Charles, 45 Workforce college graduates in the, 172 creation of the knowledge class, 174-76 creation of new cosmopolitans, 172-77 decline in wages for the, 168, 170 de-skilling of the, 182- 86 example of how trickle-down technology does not work, 165-66 impact of de-unionization on the, 168 impact of globalization on the, 169 impact of restructuring on middle management, 7, 170-72 part-time jobs for, 167-68 statistics on unemployment! underemployed, 166-67 two-tier system, 190- 94 violence, 196 Works Progress Administration (WPA),30 Workweek, reasons for an increase in hours in the, 223 Workweek, shortened historical development of, 221-23 labor's view of, 229-30 need for management to give in to, 229-33 public's interest in, 233 - 35 recent demands for, 224-27 share the work movement and, 26-29 women and, 234 World fairs, 48-49 World Labour Report, 201 Wyss, David, 34 Xerox, 148 XLAYER,114 Young, Jeffrey, 9 Youth violence, 209-11 Zaire, third/volunteer sector in, 283 Zalusky, John, 229-30 Zenith, 204-5 Zhirinovsky, Vladimir, 214-15 Zuse, Konrad, 64


pages: 482 words: 147,281

A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California Earthquake of 1906 by Simon Winchester

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Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, California gold rush, Golden Gate Park, index card, indoor plumbing, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, place-making, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, supervolcano, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

Crocker, 1907 The San Francisco Disaster Photographed: Fifty Glimpses of Havoc by Earthquake and Fire. New York: C. S. Hammond, 1906 Sonoma County Emergency Operations Plan. Santa Rosa, CA: Sonoma County Department of Emergency Services, 2000 William Lettis and Associates. Seismic Hazard Evaluation: Proposed Portola Valley Town Center, 765 Portola Road, Portola Valley, CA. Walnut Creek: William Lettis, 2003 Works Progress Administration. The WPA Guide to California: The Federal Writers’ Project Guide to 1930s California. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984 A Glossary of Possibly Unfamiliar Terms and Concepts Alquist–Priolo This term, used with easy familiarity by many Californians today, refers to the 1972 Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, which was sponsored by the Democrat state senator for Santa Clara, Alfred Alquist, and the Republican state assemblyman for Ventura, Paul Priolo.

* Any white passengers had their passports inspected, with courtesy, on board ship. * Father of Henry Cowell, the great American composer. * The legislators have evidently held mixed feelings about the murals, first displaying them in the capitol rotunda, then demoting them to storage, finally bringing them back – but this time to a smaller rotunda in the basement, where they will probably remain for good. * Such as the Works Progress Administration and the Federal Writers’ Project of the Depression years. Had the artists of the time not been supported, many would likely have starved. Such was not the case in San Francisco in 1906: artists could always push off to places less likely to be ruined, and evidently did. * These were the Chronicle and the Mills buildings and the Merchants’ Exchange: all three would be badly damaged in 1906


pages: 144 words: 55,142

Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook by Cherie L. Weible, Karen L. Janke

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Firefox, information retrieval, Internet Archive, late fees, optical character recognition, pull request, transaction costs, Works Progress Administration

Sensitive to cost, libraries often choose to limit service models at the cost of user preference; this restriction is obvious in the case of mandating electronic delivery for articles in order to reduce the cost of printing, but less obvious in the case of home delivery. Home delivery of physical books has a long history and will become a reality again. Though many are familiar with bookmobiles, few know that in 1935, during the Great Depression, Kentucky’s Pack Horse Library Project was established as one of the Works Progress Administration’s programs in eastern Kentucky.7 To provide reading materials to rural communities of eastern Kentucky, librarians would ride horses or mules, walk, or even row boats to deliver books and magazines to homes. By 1939, the thirty Packhorse “libraries” served over 48,000 families—almost 181,000 individuals—with 889,694 book circulations (amazing considering that they only had 154,846 books available) and 1,095,410 magazine circulations (again amazing—they only had 229,778 magazines).8 Past efforts such as these help us realize what our users want and what we are capable of.


pages: 142 words: 45,733

Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel

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anti-communist, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

In any complex economy they support more or less double their number, not to mention underwriting all war, luxury, art, and thought. No one capable of doing anything economically valuable need be a charity case in receiving a living wage. Article 3 would stipulate the state’s responsibility for achieving full employment. The most traditional object of public employment is public works of the kind associated with the Work Progress Administration. Between 1936 and 1939, the WPA spent about 2 percent of GDP per year in employing two and half million people to build over 4,000 schools and 130 hospitals, and to repair or pave 280,000 miles of road. The stimulus of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act has been, by contrast, timorous and wasteful. According to Doug Henwood in his invaluable Left Business Observer: At most … ARRA has “saved or created”—a spongy concept—a number of jobs equal to about 0.5 percent of total employment … And this has come at a cost of almost $250,000 a job!


pages: 183 words: 17,571

Broken Markets: A User's Guide to the Post-Finance Economy by Kevin Mellyn

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banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, lump of labour, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, seigniorage, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, Yogi Berra

So would a plan to let the financial, especially the mortgage, markets clear through actually finding a bottom at which assets would find ready buyers.The window for bold action with bipartisan support was there, as it was in 1933. Whatever one thinks of the New Deal, Roosevelt treated the Depression as a national emergency equivalent to war and focused on nothing else in his famous 100 days. One of Roosevelt’s best early strokes was the Bank Holiday of 1933, which halted the implosion of the banking system. Public assistance programs and direct government make-work programs such as the Works Progress Administration (WPA) also made sense in the face of unemployment rates that were above 20 percent. This is the sort of direct action the electorate no doubt expected in 2009. Instead, the Democrats seemed to have gambled that the financial crisis would cause the public to welcome a vast extension of the federal government’s size and scope, just as the 1930s crisis had done. The result was a year-long, bruising fight over expanding the already extensive federal government control over the health care industry, or more accurately health insurance.


pages: 261 words: 64,977

Pity the Billionaire: The Unexpected Resurgence of the American Right by Thomas Frank

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, bonus culture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, financial innovation, housing crisis, invisible hand, Naomi Klein, obamacare, payday loans, profit maximization, profit motive, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, union organizing, Washington Consensus, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Obama and scandals of 1980s and self-pity and TARP and Tea Party as protection for truculent attitudes of Wall Street Journal Walsh, Michael “War of the Worlds” (radio drama) Washington, D.C., September 12, 2009 rally. See also 9/12 Project Washington Mutual Washington Post Weekly Standard Welles, Orson We Read the Constitution movement We the Living (Rand) Weyrich, Paul What Can I Do? (Crist) Wilentz, Sean Williams, Mark Wilson, Edmund Wilson, Woodrow Wizard of Oz (film) Works Progress Administration (WPA) World War I World War II Wriston, Walter YouTube About the Author THOMAS FRANK is the author of The Wrecking Crew, What’s the Matter with Kansas?, and One Market Under God. A former opinion columnist for the Wall Street Journal, Frank is the founding editor of the Baffler and a monthly columnist for Harper’s. He lives outside Washington, DC. ALSO BY THOMAS FRANK The Wrecking Crew What’s the Matter with Kansas?


pages: 206 words: 70,924

The Rise of the Quants: Marschak, Sharpe, Black, Scholes and Merton by Colin Read

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Albert Einstein, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of penicillin, discrete time, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Henri Poincaré, implied volatility, index fund, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market clearing, martingale, means of production, moral hazard, naked short selling, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, The Chicago School, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Works Progress Administration, yield curve

Fischer trained to be an engineer and moved early in his career to Washington, DC to take up the job as a manager and engineer with the Potomac Electric Power Company. Following in his father’s footsteps, he quickly obtained a law degree by studying evenings. It was in Washington that he met Elizabeth Clarke (Libby) Zemp. Like the Black clan, Libby too could trace her roots on her mother’s side to preRevolutionary times, also an the side of the South. Libby had left her native South Carolina to find work in Washington for the Roosevelt-era Works Progress Administration. They soon married, and Libby emerged as emotional and spiritual center of the family, the same role that Fischer’s mother Marianna had served when Fischer was a child. Fischer Sheffey Black Jr. was the first child of the marriage. When he was born on January 11, 1938, in Washington, DC, his young family was enjoying an almost rural life on four acres of land in Falls Church, not far outside of Washington.


pages: 760 words: 218,087

The Pentagon: A History by Steve Vogel

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Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, cuban missile crisis, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

McCloy, an astute Wall Street lawyer, had been recruited by Stimson earlier that year and quickly earned a reputation as the secretary’s top troubleshooter. Stimson told McCloy they needed someone with the “necessary drive” to speed up the construction program. “If only a good man could be found the problem would be solved,” Stimson said. But who? The secretary’s attention was directed to a dynamic Army Corps of Engineers lieutenant colonel, Brehon Somervell, who had turned around the Works Progress Administration program in New York City in four years as administrator. Stimson instructed McCloy to check with his New York connections about Somervell’s temperament and ability. McCloy found Somervell had a “reputation as a driver and almost fearless energetic builder…. They all added up to the conviction that whatever the form of the organization, he was the man to head it.” Somervell was already slotted for a humdrum assignment with a training command in the Midwest, but Marshall intervened.

Stimson wanted to see this man for himself. I suppose the fellow who built the Pyramids was efficient, too None of Brehon Somervell’s seven predecessors had fared well trying to tame New York City’s work-relief system. “Several had resigned in despair or disgust, one had died, probably of overwork, and none had lasted a year,” the New Yorker noted. There was no doubt that the New York office of the Works Progress Administration—the New Deal agency providing emergency public employment for the nation’s jobless—was in dire need of assistance. The New York WPA was one of the largest employers in the nation, providing jobs for 200,000 workers, and it spent one out of every seven WPA dollars in the nation. The program was grossly inefficient, in part because of its immensity but also because the city was home to powerful unions and left-wing parties that drew their support from the huge ranks of unemployed.


pages: 710 words: 164,527

The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order by Benn Steil

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, fiat currency, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, margin call, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, open economy, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, psychological pricing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, seigniorage, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, the market place, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration

Keynes’s General Theory had been published in 1936, and his ideas spread to Washington quickly. In particular, the view that governments should not hesitate to use deficit spending to counteract a recession—mainstream today, but widely considered irresponsible pre-Keynes—had gained influential supporters within the administration, including Harry Hopkins, director of the Federal Surplus Relief Administration and the Works Progress Administration (becoming Secretary of Commerce in 1938); Herman Oliphant, general counsel in Treasury; and Marriner Eccles (whose ideas predated Keynes), chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. White himself was forthright in opposing balanced-budget orthodoxy. “It would be wrong,” he argued in a meeting with Morgenthau and Viner in October 1937, “to balance the budget by deflationary measures such as increasing taxes or reducing government expenditures.”79 But Morgenthau was unswayed on the benefits of raising federal spending—a position from which he never deviated, even years later.

Hoover, John Edgar (1895–1972). American domestic intelligence official. Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1924–72. Alerted Truman, who distrusted him, to the existence of Soviet espionage networks at the highest levels of the U.S. government. Hopkins, Harry (1890–1946). American government official. Director, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 1933–35; director, Works Progress Administration, 1935–38; secretary of commerce, 1938–40. One of FDR’s closest advisers, he helped formulate the New Deal and was a key architect of the Lend-Lease program. Hull, Cordell (1871–1955). American statesman. Secretary of state, 1933–44. An ardent supporter of free trade who believed that the economic and political crises of the 1930s were largely attributable to protectionist policies. Was determined to eliminate the British system of imperial preference.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For this reason, traditional architecture may no longer be considered simply in its own terms but instead as representative of a traditional outlook and all that implies. dg By this logic, Classicism is verboten because of its attractiveness to the Third Reich, British imperialists, and Southern slave owners, among others—including, paradoxically, democratic Greeks, Jeffersonian Republicans, and the Works Progress Administration under Roosevelt. Unfortunately, this sort of guilt-by-association quickly turns into a no-win game. For example, modernism was appropriated by some of the worst totalitarian regimes, so by the same logic, it should no longer be an acceptable style. One can imagine a future in which, as every new style eventually becomes associated with some villain government or evil corporation, the only acceptable style remaining is the one that hasn’t been invented yet.


pages: 366 words: 109,117

Higher: A Historic Race to the Sky and the Making of a City by Neal Bascomb

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buttonwood tree, California gold rush, hiring and firing, margin call, market bubble, Ralph Waldo Emerson, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

., Skyscrapers: A Social History of the Very Tall Building in America (McFarland & Company, 1996) Einbinder, Harvey, An American Genius: Frank Lloyd Wright (Philosophical Library, 1986) Eksteins, Modris, Rites of Spring: the Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age (Houghton Mifflin, 1989) Ellis, Edward Robb, The Epic of New York City (Coward-McCann, 1966) Emery, Edwin, and Henry Ladd Smith, The Press and America (Prentice-Hall, 1954) Empire State, Inc., Commemorating the Completion of Empire State (1931) ———, Empire State: A History (Selecting Printing Company, 1931) Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration in New York City, The WPA Guide to New York City: A Comprehensive Guide to the Five Boroughs of the Metropolis—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond (The New Press, 1992) Fenske, Gail G., The “Skyscraper Problem” and the City Beautiful: The Woolworth Building (Arizona State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1988) Ferriss, Hugh, The Metropolis of Tomorrow (I. Washburn, 1929) Fitzgerald, F.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

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autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

But neither, given the historical trend, is there any rational argument against enlarging the federal payroll to make room for a jobs program that would provide time-limited work for middle-and lower-income people struggling to find employment. This program would be especially helpful during recessions, but given routine job dislocations even in flush times, it would also be helpful during economic expansions. (Ehrenreich did the reporting for Nickel and Dimed, it’s worth remembering, during the tech boom.) The New Deal’s Works Progress Administration (later called the Work Projects Administration) is an obvious model. During the Great Depression it built roads and bridges, provided social services, and even made some lasting contributions to the arts. (Today the urgent public-works need isn’t the creation of new roads and bridges but the repair of existing infrastructure.) Over the course of its seven-year life the WPA created 3 million jobs per year at a cost of $10.7 billion, or the equivalent of $171 billion today.


pages: 347 words: 112,727

Rust: The Longest War by Jonathan Waldman

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Anton Chekhov, computer age, David Brooks, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Golden Gate Park, index card, Isaac Newton, Mason jar, pez dispenser, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration, Y2K

She’d been built in 1886, on top of Fort Wood, on Bedloe’s Island, and after two weeks of orphanage, was initially overseen by the US Light-House Board, which was part of the Treasury Department. She spent fifteen years in that agency’s care, and then twenty-three years under the War Department, before she was declared a national monument. Nine years later she was transferred to the National Park Service. In other words, a half century transpired before anyone with a sense of preservation took over caring for her. One of the first things the NPS did, with the Works Progress Administration, in 1937, was replace parts of her corroded iron frame. Good preservationists, they replaced iron bars with similar iron bars. But, because all of the work was done from the inside of the statue, they used self-tapping screws, rather than rivets. You could say they botched the job. Since then, the statue hadn’t received much better care; the monument hadn’t had an official superintendent since August 1964.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Ultimately, these programs were merged into the Resettlement Administration and then the Farm Security Administration, and included not only cooperative communities but also planned suburban settlements.22 Relief also meant having the government directly employ millions of people, setting an example for future administrations that government-sponsored public service was possible and beneficial.23 The Public Works Administration (PWA), later renamed the Works Progress Administration (WPA), employed 8 million people and spent over $10 billion on roads, bridges, post offices, stadiums, and airports.24 It employed writers, artists, actors, musicians, and historians in the largest government-funded cultural project in the history of the United States. The interviews that historians conducted with former slaves have been a cornerstone of historical research on slavery since their publication, helping to counteract an interpretation of slavery that included almost no African American voices.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

There are plenty of inventive financial arrangements that could put sustainability and civic responsibility front and center, yet so far they mostly go untried. In the digital realm, who stands for the public interest? The state remains the most powerful entity that can be employed to advance the cause of sustainable culture. Americans, however, are deeply skeptical of the government’s involvement in culture and the arts. The exceptions have been few and far between, including the Works Progress Administration (WPA) of the New Deal and the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and Public Broadcasting in the 1960s. With the founding of these institutions, the United States joined the rest of the developed world in providing state subsidy to creative endeavors. Direct government support of the arts petered out after the Cold War, during which fear of a Soviet planet prompted a variety of cultural outreach programs at the behest of the State Department, a concerted effort to contrast American dynamism to the drab Eastern Bloc.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management

One Wyoming ranch woman called the day when electricity arrived my Day of Days because lights shone where lights had never been, the electric stove radiated heat, the washer turned, and an electric pump freed me from hauling water. The old hand pump is buried under six feet of snow, let it stay there! Good bye Old Toilet on the Hill! With the advent of the REA, that old book that was my life is closed and Book II is begun.77 Other New Deal programs were developed to provide jobs and reduce unemployment. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) at its peak in 1938 created 3 million jobs, equal to about 7 percent of the labor force. The WPA specialized in infrastructure—roads and public buildings—and is credited with constructing many of today’s U.S. post offices.78 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) hired mainly young men, limited in number to 330,000 at any one time, to do manual work that focused on the planting of trees, increasing the amenities of national parks, and otherwise improving the infrastructure of government-owned land.

., 201 War of 1812, 4 washing machines, 121, 356–60 water, 57, 95; diffusion of running water in homes, 114; for farmhouses, 113; fluoridation of, 486–87; indoor plumbing, 122–25; mortality rates and, 215–16; running water, 216–17 water systems, 51 Watson (computer program), 593 Watt, James, 568 WCBW (television station), 413 wealth, 620 Weber, Adna, 104 Welty, Eudora, 166 Western Union, 179 Westinghouse, George, 192 Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, 128, 192 Wetzel, Donald, 450 Wheatstone, Charles, 177 White Castle (restaurant firm), 76, 167 white-collar employment, 256; in 1870, 56; after 1940, 501–3; gender differences in, 509 whites: families among, 631; as homicide victims, 241; life expectancy among, 210; literacy rates among, 174–75; Murray on decline of, 632 Whole Foods, 343 Wiener, Norbert, 592 Wi-Fi, on airplanes, 406–7 Wikipedia, 456, 579 Wilde, Oscar, 219 Wilson, Woodrow, 261 Windows 95 (operating system), 454 window screens, 113, 207 wireless telephony (radio), 21, 191, 192, 197 Wise, David, 493 The Wizard of Oz (film), 202, 421 WNBT (television station), 413 Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), 223 women: birth control for, 486; childbirth by, 229–31; clothing for (1870), 43; in colleges, 510–12; elderly, in labor force, 253; as housewives, 275–78; in labor force, 32–34, 248, 286–87, 326, 499, 504–10, 521, 526, 628, 642; in Ladies’ Protective Health Association, 221; market-purchased clothing for, 85–88; medical care for, 477; participation in labor force of, 249–50; ratio of men to, 630–31; social life of (1870), 49–50; tastes in clothing for, 350; teenagers (1870), 58; trapped at home (1870), 106; as victims of violence, 475–76; work hours of, 260; in working class (1870), 56; work of, 273–74 Wood, Edith Elmer, 303 Woolworth Building (New York), 90 Woolworth’s (chain stores), 90 Worcestershire sauce, 73 WordPerfect (word processing software), 453 word processors, 452 work: in 1870, 52–57; from 1870 to 1940, 254–58; after 1940, 498–504, 526; of American farmer, 261–66; by children, 282–85; in iron and steel industries, 267–69; in mining industry, 266–67; quality of, 10; wages for, 278–82; of women, 273–74; work week and hours, 258–61; See also employment workers’ compensation (WC), 230, 272–73 workforce. See labor force working class: American, versus European (1870), 29; housing for, 102–4, 111; life of (1870), 56–57; Riis on, 97 working hours, 10, 258–61, 325; in 1940, 520; decline in, 13–14, 326–27; eight-hour day, 543 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 315 World War II: aircraft production during, 397; contribution to Great Leap of, 537; economy during, 548–53; food rationing during, 335; Great Leap Forward and, 563–64; movies during, 414–15; productivity increase during, 18, 540, 546–47; radio news broadcasts of, 197, 413–14; women in labor force during, 504 World Wide Web, 454, 459; See also Internet Wozniak, Steve, 452 Wright Brothers, 568 Xerox Company, 442, 451 X-rays, 226 yellow journalism, 177 Young, David M., 144 youth: in 1870, 58–59; in labor force, 248, 251–52; social media used by, 457; after World War II, 499–500 YouTube, 456 zoning laws, 649 Zuckerberg, Mark, 457, 567 Zworykin, Vladimir, 412–14 THE PRINCETON ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE WESTERN WORLD Joel Mokyr, Series Editor Growth in a Traditional Society: The French Countryside, 1450–1815 by Philip T.


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

The Corporation’s subsidiaries included the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Electric Home and Farm 286 NOTES TO PAGES 32 – 3 4 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Authority, the RFC Mortgage Company, the Federal National Mortgage Association, and the Export-Import Bank. Its loans fiÂ�nanced New Deal programs like the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Works Progress Administration. Torbjorn Sirevag, The Eclipse of the New Deal (New York: Garland, 1985), 79; Timmons, Jesse H. Jones, 279–82. Bethany E. Moreton, “The Soul of the Service Economy: Wal-Mart and the Making of Christian Free Enterprise” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 2006), 47–49. Jesse H. Jones to the American Bankers Association, Chicago, September 5, 1933, quoted in Timmons, Jesse H. Jones, 200. Jesse H.


pages: 376 words: 118,542

Free to Choose: A Personal Statement by Milton Friedman, Rose D. Friedman

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, bank run, banking crisis, Corn Laws, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, invisible hand, labour mobility, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, school vouchers, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The New Deal also included programs to provide security against misfortune, notably Social Security (OASI: Old Age and Survivors Insurance), unemployment insurance, and public assistance. This chapter discusses these measures and their later progeny. The New Deal also included programs intended to be strictly temporary, designed to deal with the emergency situation created by the Great Depression. Some of the temporary programs became permanent, as is the way with government programs. The most important temporary programs included "make work" projects under the Works Progress Administration, the use of unemployed youth to improve the national parks and forests under the Civilian Conservation Corps, and direct federal relief to the indigent. At the time, these programs served a useful function. There was distress on a vast scale; it was important to do something about that distress promptly, both to assist the people in distress and to restore hope and confidence to the public.


pages: 526 words: 155,174

Sixty Days and Counting by Kim Stanley Robinson

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dumpster diving, energy security, full employment, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, urban decay, Works Progress Administration

Let’s admit the free market botched this and we need to put our house in order. Health shouldn’t be something that can bankrupt you. It’s not a market commodity. Admitting that and moving on would remove one of the greatest fears of all. Another thing we could do would be to institute full employment. Government of the people, by the people, and for the people could offer jobs to everyone who wants one. It would be like the Works Progress Administration during the Depression, only more wide-ranging. Because there’s an awful lot of work that needs doing, and we’ve got the resources to get things started. We could do it. One of the more interesting aspects of full employment as an idea is how quickly it reveals the fear that lies at the heart of our current system. You’ll notice that anytime unemployment drops below 5 percent the stock market begins to flag, because capital has begun to worry that lower unemployment will mean “wage pressure,” meaning management faces a shortage in supply of labor and has to demand it, has to bid for it, pay more in competition, and wages therefore go up—and profits down.


pages: 369 words: 121,161

Alistair Cooke's America by Alistair Cooke

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Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, British Empire, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, interchangeable parts, joint-stock company, Maui Hawaii, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

He had in the meantime shoved through Congress huge federal loans for public works, and at the same time he gave the industrial worker who had been hounded by company spies the right to organize and bargain. He handed out hard dollars to the unemployed and took three million youngsters off the streets to build highways and plant ten million trees. He mobilized actors in a federal theater and, in the happiest inspiration of the Works Progress Administration, hired unemployed scholars, writers, and local historians to produce several hundred volumes of guidebooks to the states. He stopped the automatic production of groaning farm surpluses, paid the Southern farmers to diversify their crops and built enormous dams to hold the flooding of the great river valleys – and then made the valleys flower through electricity and controlled irrigation.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

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affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional

Roosevelt held that the free market should always be adjusted and regulated by government to meet the social needs of society. In his annual message to Congress in 1935, FDR argued that “Americans must forswear the conception of the acquisition of wealth which, through excessive profits, creates undue private power over private affairs and, to our misfortune, over public affairs as well.” His Works Progress Administration, ostensibly a massive employment relief program, also funded films, plays, and art projects dedicated to driving home this new message to a disheartened public. Murals depicted people working together to build bridges and grow food, while movies celebrated the communities and cooperatives that defined New Deal America. Corporations fought back. Edward Bernays, once an operative for Woodrow Wilson, turned against government and, along with other corporate public-relations men, sought to discredit FDR’s collectivism by showing how it threatened the personal freedom of individuals.


pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

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affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, income inequality, informal economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

However, they maintain that their proposal is an improvement over the current system, “which offers a minimum wage if you find a job, but leaves millions of poor persons searching for work and many others poor even though they have jobs.” The final proposal under consideration here was advanced by the perceptive journalist Mickey Kaus of The New Republic. Kaus’s proposal is modeled on the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a large public works program announced in 1935 by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his State of the Union address. The public works jobs that Roosevelt had in mind included highway construction, slum clearance, housing construction, rural electrification, and so on. As Kaus points out: In its eight-year existence, according to official records, the WPA built or improved 651,000 miles of roads, 953 airports, 124,000 bridges and viaducts, 1,178,000 culverts, 8,000 parks, 18,000 playgrounds and athletic fields, and 2,000 swimming pools.


pages: 406 words: 115,719

The Case Against Sugar by Gary Taubes

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, epigenetics, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, the scientific method, Works Progress Administration

Russell suggested that some item of the diet was “markedly flesh-producing,” but without making any speculations about what it might be. Hrdlička had also weighed and measured some 250 Pima children, equally split between boys and girls, and reported that these children were lean, if not very lean (on average), by today’s standards. In 1938, a University of Arizona anthropologist weighed over two hundred Papago men applying for jobs in the Works Progress Administration and recorded that they, too, were lean, with an average weight of 158 pounds. Surveys of Papago children in the early 1940s and again in 1949 made no mention of obesity, although average weights increased by twenty pounds or more in both boys and girls between the two surveys. As for diabetes, if it was present among the Pima in the early years of the twentieth century, neither Russell nor Hrdlička had thought it worth mention.


pages: 501 words: 145,097

The Men Who United the States: America's Explorers, Inventors, Eccentrics and Mavericks, and the Creation of One Nation, Indivisible by Simon Winchester

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British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, Donner party, estate planning, Etonian, full employment, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, James Watt: steam engine, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Plutocrats, plutocrats, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

There were as many as a hundred such bodies, some of them so small and hidden from view as to escape government audit; some massive, with gigantic budgets that were rammed through Congress by presidential fiat (and later found to have been unconstitutional—except that by then they had done their job of helping lift America out of the Depression). The bigger of the alphabet agencies ranged from the AAA, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, a vital part of FDR’s farm-relief program, down to the WPA, the Works Progress Administration. For eight years, the WPA provided gainful employment for millions of jobless Americans, undertaking all manner of public works. Writers wrote government-supported books, poets performed in government-backed slams, and artists and musicians were commissioned to beautify hitherto unadorned corners of federally administered property. Buried deep within this thick catalog of big government is the one agency that amply settled the hash of such profiteers as Samuel Insull.


pages: 1,336 words: 415,037

The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, zero-coupon bond

His mother told him this story, although, he notes, “she may have been garnishing it just a bit.” But others recall the notebook. 15. In letters like one to his son Clarence in January 1931, he analyzed the effect of railroad automation on unemployment and suggested that the best solution for the Great Depression was a great public-works project. It seems ironic that he and his son Howard became such foes of Roosevelt when he initiated the Works Progress Administration after the next election. 16. Ernest Buffett letter to Fred and Katherine Buffett, undated, “ten years after you were married,” circa June 1939. 17. He died young, in 1937, in an auto accident in Texas. 18. Coffee with Congress, radio interview with Howard, Leila, Doris, and Roberta Buffett, WRC Radio, October 18, 1947, Bill Herson, moderator. (Note: This description is based on a tape of the broadcast.) 19.

Omaha to Have Belated Party,” Omaha World-Herald, August 9, 1933; “Nebraska Would Have Voted Down Ten Commandments, Dry Head Says,” Omaha World-Herald, November 15, 1944; “Roosevelt Issues Plea for Repeal of Prohibition,” Associated Press, July 8, 1933, as printed in Omaha World-Herald. 26. U.S. and Nebraska Division of Agricultural Statistics, Nebraska Agricultural Statistics, Historical Record 1866–1954. Lincoln: Government Printing Office, 1957; Almanac for Nebraskans 1939, The Federal Writers’ Project Works Progress Administration, State of Nebraska; Clinton Warne, “Some Effects of the Introduction of the Automobile on Highways and Land Values in Nebraska,” Nebraska History quarterly, The Nebraska State Historical Society, Vol. 38, Number 1, March 1957, page 4. 27. In Kansas, a banker sent to foreclose on a farm turned up dead, shot full of .22-and .38-caliber bullets and dragged by his own car. “Forecloser on Farm Found Fatally Shot,” Omaha World-Herald, January 31, 1933.


pages: 389 words: 210,632

Frommer's Oregon by Karl Samson

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airport security, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Works Progress Administration

One of the first settlers to visit Mount Hood was Samuel Barlow, who in 1845 had traveled the Oregon Trail and was searching for an alternative to taking his wagon train down the treacherous waters of the Columbia River. Barlow blazed a trail across the south flank of Mount Hood, and the following year he opened his trail as a toll road. The Barlow Trail, though difficult, was cheaper and safer than rafting down the river. The trail is now used for hiking and mountain biking. During the Great Depression, the Works Progress Administration employed skilled craftsmen to build the rustic Timberline Lodge at the tree line on the mountain’s south slope. Today the lodge is a National Historic Landmark and is the main destination for visitors to the mountain. The lodge’s vista of Mount Hood’s peak and of the Oregon Cascades to the south gets my vote for the state’s most unforgettable view. Don’t expect to have this mountain all to yourself, though.

Frommer's San Diego 2011 by Mark Hiss

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airport security, California gold rush, car-free, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, New Journalism, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration

You can also check out the HMS Surprise, which had a star turn in the film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World; a Soviet-era B-39 attack submarine; the Californian, a replica of a 19th-century revenue cutter; the Medea, a 1904 steam yacht; and the Pilot, which served as San Diego Bay’s official pilot boat for 82 years. From this vantage point, you get a fine view of the: 2 County Administration Center This complex was built in 1936 with funds from the Works Progress Administration, and was dedicated in 1938 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The 23-foot-high granite sculpture in front, Guardian of Water, was completed by Donal Hord—San Diego’s most notable sculptor—in 1939; it depicts a stoic woman shouldering a water jug. The other side of the building features carefully tended gardens. On weekdays, the building is open from 8am to 5pm; there are restrooms and a cafeteria inside.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

The New Deal in the United States started to follow this prescription. Welfare legislation had been much more common in Europe than in the United States with its traditional partiality to individual liberty and self-help. In his famous “first hundred days,” President Franklin Delano Roosevelt shepherded through Congress laws giving direct relief to the jobless. Next came funding for work projects, later incorporated into the Works Progress Administration and the Public Works Administration, which built everything from aircraft carriers to schools, bridges, and roads. Millions entered the government’s payroll, constructing post offices, public art, and conservation projects. The major effort to coordinate industrial policies, the National Recovery Act, ran afoul of one of the strongest and most distinctive American values, the commitment to freedom over social planning, to individual rights over the general welfare.


pages: 898 words: 253,177

Cadillac Desert by Marc Reisner

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, clean water, Golden Gate Park, hacker house, jitney, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, Works Progress Administration

(Because of Ickes’s high-pitched squawk of a voice, Roosevelt, in private, called him Donald Duck.) Ickes ran not only the Interior Department—in which were the Bureau of Reclamation, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Park Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Service—but the Public Works Administration as well. The PWA was a catch basin of programs with a chameleon identity (it was also known as the Civil Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration) and interchangeable leaders (first Harry Hopkins, then Ickes, then Hopkins again). In a few years, it had overseen the building of the Lincoln Tunnel, the Washington Zoo, the Triborough Bridge, Fort Knox, Denver’s water-supply system, a deepwater port at Brownsville, Texas, the huge Camarillo Hospital in southern California, and the causeway to Key West. It built a dozen fantasyland bridges along Oregon’s coast highway.


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

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agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Yankees were “shrewd and set in their ways,” Poles “slow-witted” and “stubborn and phlegmatic,” Jews “ambitious” but “aggressive and loud,” Italians “slow learning” and “emotional and temperamental” but musically and artistically inclined, African-Americans were carefree and happy, and (like Italian children) gifted in music and art. Carl F. Butts and Joseph Young, “Education in Connecticut: A Study of Public, Parochial, and Sunday School Education in Connecticut, with Emphasis on the Ethnic Factors” (Peoples of Connecticut Ethnic Heritage Project, Works Progress Administration, Federal Writers’ Project, New Haven Division, April 1939), box 37, folder 134:5a, 264 –65; Manuscripts and Archives, University of Connecticut Libraries, Storrs. Lassonde, “Learning to Forget.” Enrollments in the elementary schools ranged from 100 to a few hundred pupils, and between 1,500 and 2,000 students attended the junior high schools. The enrollment at Hillhouse was 4,261, and enrollment at Commercial High School stood at 2,036 in 1930.


pages: 603 words: 186,210

Appetite for America: Fred Harvey and the Business of Civilizing the Wild West--One Meal at a Time by Stephen Fried

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, City Beautiful movement, estate planning, glass ceiling, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, indoor plumbing, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, refrigerator car, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

BY 1935, THE DEPRESSION seemed as if it might be starting to lift, in response to a barrage of economic innovations from Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, which was entering its second phase. Some of the New Deal programs became permanent parts of the American economy, such as Social Security, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the FDIC, which insured bank deposits. Others had lasting impact, like the Works Progress Administration, which among its many jobs programs created public art all across the country. And some were experiments that ultimately failed, including the price and wage controls attempted under the short-lived National Recovery Administration (NRA), an attempt to create a “code of fair competition” for each industry. While declared unconstitutional in 1935, some of the NRA rules lived on in the 1936 Robinson-Patman Act, which made “fair trade” the law of the land, prohibiting discount prices or rebates of any sort.


pages: 756 words: 228,797

Ayn Rand and the World She Made by Anne C. Heller

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, conceptual framework, greed is good, laissez-faire capitalism, Milgram experiment, Mont Pelerin Society, New Journalism, open borders, price stability, profit motive, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, wage slave, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, young professional

By the time the play had closed on April 4, 1936, three days before the publication of her novel, theatrical rights had been sold to producers in London, Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, Switzerland, Poland, and elsewhere. A return engagement was already filling seats in the El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles, and a road show was about to open in Chicago. Somewhat ironically, Watkins had negotiated a contract with Franklin Roosevelt’s new federal Works Progress Administration to bring performances of the play to local theaters across the country. Although by 1936 Rand strongly disapproved of Roosevelt and his New Deal programs, the WPA provided her with royalties of ten dollars per performance, a small fortune, throughout the later 1930s. And because the play’s single courtroom setting made for easy staging, it also became a favorite of privately run summer-stock companies, generating a sometimes larger, sometimes smaller stream of income until her death.


pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond

., 342n8 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 27, 31 Toyota, 106, 207, 402n113 Trade Act (1934), 94, Trade Act (1974) 151, 156, 164 224–5 Trade Expansion Act (1962), 125 transnational capitalist class, 11, 345n26 Treasury, Department of (US), 10, 13–7, 21, 32, 42, 48–9, 86–7, 119, 123–30, 134, 145, 151, 156–8, 170, 208, 214–6, 237–40, 243, 247, 251, 256–63, 266–70, 280–1, 313–6, 320–5, 335–6 1951 accord with Federal Reserve, 86, 122, 239, 369n76 and ‘An American Proposal,’ 362n3 and approaching 2007 crisis, 312–14, 439n.46 and Asian Crisis, 18, 247–61, 422n66 and Bretton Woods, 70–80, 366n42, 367n50 and deregulation, 178, 399n75 and the dollar crisis, 123–7, 130–1, 381n37, 382n46, 395n19 Exchange Stabilization Fund (ESF), 250, 252–3, 257 and IMF, 428n37 and New Deal, 61, 361n74 international division of, 250 failure containment, 18, 248, 266, 268, 302, 321–2, 332 lender of last resort, 250, 302 listening post for Wall Street, 250–1 Mexican bailout, 250–4, 420n21 under Obama, 320–4 See also banks/banking; bonds; crisis; finance; OCC Treaty of Detroit, 83–4 Treaty of Rome, 100, 113 Trilateral Commission, 163 Tripartite Monetary Agreement (1936), 72, 366n39 Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP 2008), 316–7 Truman, Harry, 86, 93–4, 105, 226, 360n62 Truman Doctrine, 94–5 Truth-in-Lending Act (1968), 142 Turkey, 51, 97, 105, 217, 231, 281, 287, 301, 303, 429n47 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 29 UK See Britain United Nations. 74, 97, 116, 156, 332 Charter of Economic Right (1974), 144, 219 Underwood Tariff (1913), 49 unemployment, 27, 29, 52, 54, 56, 59, 61, 80, 127, 133, 138, 140–1, 152, 165, 167–9, 171, 182–3, 197, 202, 260, 291, 304, 310, 321, 326, 329, 368n61, 397n46 unions, 29, 33–4, 52, 58–61, 82–4, 97, 103, 115, 136, 141, 171, 259, 271, 337, 398n66 attack on, 60, 82–4, 106, 127–8, 165, 172, 177 collective bargaining, 58–60, 83–4, 121, 136, 171 rank-and-file militancy, 83, 137, 171 strikes, 33, 58–61, 82–4, 127–8, 136, 140–1, 165, 171–2, 198, 258–9, 337 wage militancy, 104, 172, 385n17 weakness of, 171, 187, 205, 269, 337–8, 394n11, 397n46 See also individual unions United Auto Workers (UAW), 83–4, 136, 171, 397n46 US: balance of payments, 14, 19, 52, 74, 76–7, 118, 125–7, 129, 147–8, 156, 182, 224–5, 292, 300, 311, 313 banker for the world, 124, 126 Civil War, 27–9, 32 Constitution, 26, 32 economic restructuring (1980s–90s), 187–93 exports, 16, 34–5, 45, 49, 70, 80, 98, 100, 127, 207, 209–11, 229, 283, 291 films, 25, 50 food aid, 125, 156, 408n87 foreign production in, 210, 226, 281 isolationism misleading, 45–6, 50 as new ‘Great Power’ 36, 63, and imperialism, 1, 6–7, 11, 67–8, 87, 90, 232 early industrialization, 27–8 imports, 12, 19, 52, 70, 81, 89, 99–100, 151, 181, 188, 190, 207, 214, 225, 229, 283, 291, 334 lender of last resort, 250 Navy, 36, 47, 353n50 and global oil security, 103 trade deficits, 12, 17, 19, 183, 208, 291, 300 supports rivals, 89, 112, 201–2 unique responsibilities of, 334 United States Trade Representative (USTR), 17, 182, 280, 224, 226, 231–2 Underwood Tariff (1913), 152 Van Harten, Gus, 232 Venezuela, 215, 241 Versailles Treaty, 356n15 Vietnam War, 127, 129, 133, 143, 421n36 Vittoz, Stanley, 360n58 Vogel, David, 387n34 Vogel, Steven, 397n52 Volcker, Paul, 14, 18, 87, 124–6, 130–1, 141, 145, 152, 155, 163, 167–73 175, 177–81197, 206, 214–5, 236, 239, 262, 301, 305, 320, 322, 3 388n49, , 435n15 Volcker shock, 14, 127, 138, 163, 168–73, 178–9, 206–7, 214, 249, 397nn43–4 Volcker Rule, 323 Volkswagen, 101, 202 Wade, Robert, 429n33 Waddell, Brian, 361n68, 362n77, 365n30 Wagner Act (1935), 59–61, 361n63 Walker, Richard, 348n8 Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010), 322 See also Dodd–Frank Act Wal-Mart, 289 Walters, Andrew, 442n95 Warburg, Paul, 43 Warner, John DeWitt, 43 Washington, George, 25 Washington Consensus, 239, 282 Washington Mutual, 315 Watergate, 145 Watson, Justin, 142 Weiss, Linda, 422n57 White, Harry Dexter, 72, 74–6, 78, 80, 123, 240, 365n27, 366n39, 366n41, 367n48, 369n76 Williams, William Appleman, 343–4n16, 353n50 Williamson, John, 239, 388n53 Wilson, Woodrow (administration of), 45–8, 356n11, 356n15 Wilkins, Myra, 30 Wolf, Martin, 264, 320 Wood, Ellen Meiksins, 342n12 Woodcock, Leonard, 143 Wooley, John, 382n29 World Trade Center, 301 World War I (Great War), 5, 25, 29, 41–5, 48–54, 57–8, 76, 79, 81, 282, 330, 339 World War II, 7, 10–12, 26–7, 45–6, 49, 63, 69–72, 79–82, 89, 94, 128–9, 142, 195–6, 207, 224, 228, 318–9 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 60 World Bank, 9, 18, 91, 122 146, 220, 223, 239, 269, 278, 339, 418n2, 418n83, 424n95, 428n37 conception of, 75, 78 ‘effective states’ 18, 220, 241–2 and Mexican bailout, 254 Nixon vs, 155 protests against, 271 US dominates, 391n96 voting power in, 76 World Trade Organization (WTO), 17, 220, 223, 229–30, 233, 276, 291, 293–4, 296, 300 Yeo, Edwin, 158–9 yen, 203–4–207–10, 255, 261 Zetsche, Dieter, 201 Copyright First published by Verso 2012 © Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin 2012 All rights reserved The moral rights of the authors have been asserted 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Verso UK: 6 Meard Street, London W1F 0EG US: 20 Jay Street, Suite 1010, Brooklyn, NY 11201 www.versobooks.com Verso is the imprint of New Left Books Epub ISBN-13: 978-1-84467-945-4 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Panitch, Leo.


pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves. New York: Franklin Watts, 1974. Tragle, Henry I. The Southampton Slave Revolt of 1831. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1971. Wiltse, Charles M., ed. David Walker’s Appeal. New York: Hill & Wang, 1965. *Woodward, C. Vann. Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966. Works Progress Administration. The Negro in Virginia. New York: Arno Press, 1969. 10. THE OTHER CIVIL WAR Bimba, Anthony. The Molly Maguires. New York: International Publishers, 1970. Brecher, Jeremy. Strike! Boston: South End Press, 1979. *Bruce, Robert V. 1877: Year of Violence. New York: Franklin Watts, 1959. Burbank, David. Reign of Rabble: The St. Louis General Strike of 1877. Fairfield, N.J.: Augustus Kelley, 1966.