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Machinery of Freedom: A Guide to Radical Capitalism by David Friedman
back-to-the-land, Fractional reserve banking, hiring and firing, jitney, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, means of production, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog
To apply my solution to a major city requires a private company willing to invest a million dollars or so in hardware and a few million more in advertising and organization. The cost is low because my transit system is already over 99 percent built; its essence is the more efficient use of our present multibillion dollar investment in roads and automobiles. I call it jitney transit; it can most easily be thought of as something between taxicabs and hitch-hiking. Jitney stops, like present-day bus stops, would be arranged conveniently about the city. A commuter heading into town with an empty car would stop at the first jitney stop he came to and pick up any passengers going his way. He would proceed along his normal route, dropping off passengers when he passed their stops. Each passenger would pay a fee, according to an existing schedule listing the price between any pair of stops. Would this be an efficient transportation system?
Furthermore, cars already exist and are being driven hither and yon in great numbers; the additional cost of jitney transit is merely the cost of setting up the stops and arranging price schedules and the like. Would commuters be willing to carry passengers? Given certain conditions, which I will deal with later, yes; the additional income from doing so would be far from trivial. Assume a charge of $2 a head. A commuter who regularly carried four passengers each way, five days a week, would make $4,000 a year — no mean sum. He would also convert his automobile, for tax purposes, into a business expense. There are two difficulties with jitney transit. The first is safety; the average driver is not eager to pick up strangers. This might be solved by technology. The firm setting up the jitney stops could issue magnetically coded identification cards to both drivers and potential passengers; in order to get such a card, the applicant would have to identify himself to the satisfaction of the company.
The cost of such security measures would be trivial compared to the cost of any of the current mass transit schemes. Four hundred jitney stops would blanket Chicago, with one every half mile in each direction. If the sign and the card reader cost $2,500 for each stop, the total cost would be a million dollars. The other difficulty is political. Many large cities have regulations of one sort or another to control cabs and cab drivers; these would almost certainly prohibit jitney transit. Changes in such regulations would be opposed by bus drivers, cab drivers, and cab companies. Local politicians might be skeptical of the value of a mass transit system whose construction failed to siphon billions of dollars through their hands. Jitneys are not, as it happens, a new idea. They are a common form of transportation in much of the world.
The Docks by Bill Sharpsteen
affirmative action, anti-communist, big-box store, collective bargaining, Google Earth, intermodal, inventory management, jitney, Just-in-time delivery, new economy, Panamax, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, strikebreaker, women in the workforce
From there, the cargo was raised out of the hatch, known as “topping the boom,” and swung over the ship’s deck onto the â•¯ â•¯ 190â•… /â•… The Hold Men dock, where the other half of the gang waited to unload the lift board. They piled the cargo on the dock, where clerks counted the boxes and confirmed that the cargo matched the manifest. A jitney, a truck with a small cab, waited to take the cargo away to the warehouse for temporary storage. Jitneys, sometimes called Fordsoms, had magneto engines that made an incredible racket when revved up, but they were powerful little trucks, able to pull a four-wheeler loaded with cargo. To support the load, the four-wheelers had heavy rubber wheels and were connected to the jitney with a hook called a stinger, named for the obvious pain it would inflict if it landed on someone’s foot. Once they took the cargo to the warehouse, the jitney drivers brought back an empty four-wheeler for another load. It may have been a simple process in theory, but it was backbreaking enough to grind down the hold men over time until, even if they needed the work, their bodies had nothing left.
As work rules evolved over the years, eventually a gang of eight could sit out half the day—two men in the hold working, two men on the dock working, while the others watched. In the same vein, longshoremen embraced the concept of multiple handling, which stipulated that cargo coming off a ship must actually touch the so-called skin of the dock. Thus once a loaded lift board was set down on the dock, the cargo couldn’t go anywhere until it had been hauled off the pallet onto the dock by longshoremen and then onto a jitney’s four-wheeler by Teamsters, who had jurisdiction at the time over loading and unloading trucks and trains. â•¯ â•¯ â•¯ â•¯ â•¯ The Hold Menâ•… /â•… 193 In fairness, this also allowed clerks to easily check the cargo against their manifests before it went to the warehouse. But even the union recognized there was something less than efficient about the practice, and it no doubt occurred to everyone involved that a lift board could be loaded directly onto or off a four-wheeler.
Waterfront jobs went from father to son like a valuable inheritance. That was the tradition in San Pedro, and no matter how seductively some other vocation called, you listened to your father first. He tried taking accountant classes at night school, but that fizzled, and he became a full-time clerk whose main ambition was to stay alive, always an issue for a clerk standing amid the swinging cargo loads and rushing jitneys. He also had to wonder whether this was such a great deal: back then, clerks barely worked during the slow winter times, and he had to collect unemployment occasionally to pay the bills. It helped that he was single and could live simply. Just the same, the job had a basic honesty about it he liked. The hold man might have been the foundation on which moving cargo rested, but so much of shipping’s operation pivoted around the clerk.
airport security, blood diamonds, colonial rule, credit crunch, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, jitney, market clearing, Occupy movement, the market place
Given his infatuation with love monkeys and the fact that he still lives with his parents, I don’t object. The weekend festivities kick off in local style—a private jitney from the hotel to the Hobbit House. Not to be confused with the Hampton Jitney, a Manila jitney is a semi-open-air hybrid between a taxi and a bus, constructed from old World War II vehicles that the US government abandoned in the Philippines at the end of the war, complete with long bench seating. They have become a ubiquitous symbol of the local culture and tend to be ornately painted and operated by colorful street entrepreneurs. Typically, they are used to haul lower-class people long distances to their soul-crushing jobs, while crammed into an aluminum cattle car and forced to endure sweltering heat, shocking pollution, and agonizing traffic. Tonight, the jitney is like a Disney ride tour of the Valley of Ashes for a dozen investment bankers, most of whom clear seven-figure bonuses.
He then proceeds to hold it up. “Wow, do you know how ginormous this would make my cock look?” Check please! Apparently, the Hobbit House isn’t what it once might have been, or perhaps never was. It’s quite possible that we have mistaken it for the Ringside Bar in Makati, home (to this day) of midget wrestling, boxing, tossing and all-around belittling. Having been abruptly asked to leave, it’s time to jitney over to Burgos Street, the reddest street in the red-light district that is Manila. This is primarily the reason we’re staying in Makati—Burgos Street is a strip of provocative neon lights and poorly lit bars for expats who seek the company of exotic Filipina girls, while watching dance shows and consuming cheap booze. That sounds terrible, and it’s actually much worse than that. Walking around, it’s impossible not to be accosted by door girls, mama-sans, freelance “masseuses,” and other purveyors of the dark arts of Asia.
They shoo out all the riffraff, without allowing any “takeout,” and then lock the doors so that it’s just the twelve of us and thirty or forty girls. It’s an open bar, with clothing optional and the “dibs” rule in effect. My first move is to send one of the girls out to buy some plastic cups and Ping-Pong balls, which are unsurprisingly easy to find in Makati. I make sure she knows to invite our jitney driver back with her to come in and help himself. The Philippines is 98.5% Catholic, but he doesn’t seem to require much convincing. After Beer Pong slowly descends into stakes that are too punitive and sordid to recount, we move on to Liar’s Dice. But we play that every weekend in Hong Kong, and it’s too hard to stop the girls from signaling to each other. I don’t blame them for cheating. After Beer Pong, they’re petrified of the consequences of losing.
Kiln People by David Brin
Risk isn't what realflesh is for. But this time, what choice was there? Real people still occupy some of the tallest buildings, where prestigious views are best appreciated by organic eyes. But the rest of Old Town has become a land of ghosts and golems, commuting to work each morning fresh from their owners' kilns. It's an austere realm, both tattered and colorful as zeroxed laborers file off jitneys, camionetas, and buses, their brightly colored bodies wrapped in equally bright and equally disposable paper clothes. We had to finish our raid before that daily influx of clay people arrived, so Blane hurriedly organized his rented troops in predawn twilight, two blocks from the Teller Building. While he formed squads and passed out disguises, his ebony lawyer-golem dickered with a heavily armored cop -- her visor raised as she negotiated a private enforcement permit.
Carelessly, the yellows never even bothered to check what tools I might have tucked away under pseudoflesh! Escaping turned out to be much easier than breaking in -- (too easy?) -- though Beta soon recovered and gave chase. Now I was back and victorious, right? Shutting down this operation must be a real blow to Beta's piracy enterprise. So why did I feel a sense of incompletion? Strolling away from the traffic noise -- a braying cacophony of jitney horns and bellowing dinos -- I found myself confronting an alley marked by ribbons of flickertape, specially tuned to irritate any natural human eye. "Stay Out!" the fluttering tape yammered. "Structural Danger! Stay Out!" Such warnings -- visible only to realfolk -- are growing commonplace as buildings in this part of town suffer neglect. Why bother with maintenance when the sole inhabitants are expendable clay people, cheaply replenished each day?
Nowadays shopping is either a chore -- you ask House to arrange deliveries -- or else you do it for pleasure, strolling in person along tree-lined avenues like Realpeople Lane, where balmy venturi breezes flow all year round. Either way, it's hard to picture why our parents did it in sunless grottos. A fluorescent-lit catacomb is no proper world for human beings. So now malls are set aside for the new servant class. Us clayfolk. Jitneys and scooters zip around the vast parking structure, conveying fresh dittos to clients all over town. And not just any dittos. Most bear specialized colors. Snow white for sensuality. Ebony for undiluted intellect. A particular scarlet that's oblivious to pain ... and another that experiences everything with fierce intensity. Few of these creatures return to their point of origin when the élan cells run down.
Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
The first stage of sinisterly titled Operation Murambasvina ("Drive Out Trash") in early May was a police assault on the city's 34 flea markets. One police official reportedly urged his men: "From tomorrow, I need reports on my desk saying that we have shot people. The President has given his full support for this operation so there is nothing to fear. You should treat this operation as war."64 And the police did. Stalls and inventories were systematically burned or looted, and more than 17,000 traders and jitney drivers were arrested. A week later, the police began to bulldoze shacks in MDC strongholds as well as in pro-Mugabe slums (Chimoi and Nyadzonio, for instance) that were located in areas coveted for redevelopment. In one case, Hatcliffe Extension west of Harare, the police evicted 63 Asian Coalition for Housing Rights, "Housing by People in Asia," as well as press releases from the Asian Human Rights Commission and Urban Poor Consortium (see Urban Poor website: www.urbanpoor.or.id). 64 Munyaradzi Gwisai, "Mass Action Can Stop Operation Murambasvina," International Socialist Organisation (Zimbabwe), 30 May 2005; BBC News, 27 May 2005; Guardian, 28 May 2005; Los Angeles Times, 29 May 2005.
Simultaneously, bicycle commuters have been penalized by new license fees, restrictions on using arterial roads, and the end of the bicycle subsidies formerly paid by work units.33 The result of this collision between urban poverty and traffic congestion is sheer carnage. More than one million people — two-thirds of them pedestrians, cyclists, and passengers — are killed in road accidents in the Third World each year. " People who will never own a car in their life," reports a World Health Organization researcher, "are at the greatest risk."34 Minibuses and jitneys, often unlicensed and poorly maintained, are particularly dangerous: in Lagos, for example, the buses are known locally as danfos and molues, "flying coffins" and "moving morgues."35 Nor does the snail's pace of traffic in most poor cities reduce its lethality. Although cars and buses crawl through Cairo at average speeds of less than 10 kilometers per hour, the Egyptian capital still manages an accident rate of 8 deaths and 60 injuries per 1000 32 Sperling and Clausen, "The Developing World's Motorization Challenge," p. 3. 33 Example of Beijing in Sit, Beijing, pp. 288—89. 34 Study by WHO-funded Road Traffic Injuries Research Network, quoted in Detroit Free Press, 24 September 2002. 35 Vinand Nantulya and Michael Reich, "The Neglected Epidemic: Road Traffic Injuries in Developing Countries," British Journal of Medicine 324 (11 May 2002), pp. 1139—41.
A 1992 survey of Dar-es-Salaam estimated that the majority of the city's more than 200,000 petty traders were not the famed Mama Lishe (female food vendors) of ethnographic lore but simply unemployed youth. The researchers noted: "In general, informal petty business is the employment of last resort for the most economically vulnerable city residents."29 Moreover, informal and small-scale formal enterprises ceaselessly war with one another for economic space: street vendors versus small shopkeepers, jitneys versus public transport, and so on.30 As Bryan Roberts says about Latin America at the beginning of the twenty-first century, "the 'informal sector' grows, but incomes drop within it."31 Competition in urban informal sectors has become so intense that it recalls Darwin's famous analogy about ecological struggle in tropical nature: "Ten thousand sharp wedges [i.e., urban survival strategies] packed close together and driven inwards by incessant blows, sometimes one wedge being struck, and then another with greater force."
Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton
clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal
Bus manufacturers considered electric railways their chief customers, and assured them that the bus was an adjunct to streetcars.7 Street railways operated most city buses; their industry associa- Traffic Efficiency versus Motor Freedom 151 tion estimated that “practically all major city bus operations in the country” were run by the railways and their subsidiaries.8 Railroads bought trucks from manufacturers who marketed them as specialized supplements to freight trains. “Bulk and distance haulage is exclusively a steam railroad function,” said a truck manufacturer in 1924. “We would much rather have the railroad for a customer than a competitor.”9 The front line of battle was not between road and rail; rather, it divided regulated and unregulated modes. The most regulated vehicle in cities was the streetcar; for a time its greatest rival was the unregulated jitney.10 Their fight was an early sign of growing rivalry between those modes of transportation regulated as public utilities (whether on rails or not) and those not so regulated. Under the stress of increasing traffic congestion, regulated modes tried to expand the sphere of such regulation to other modes, while other modes fought against the application of public utility principles in urban transportation.
Older regulatory failures persisted—for example, railways had to charge the same for long and short hauls and for peak and off-peak service. But with the new pressures, the railways could no longer afford such inefficiencies. Bankruptcies crested in 1919, when 51 street railways were turned over to receivers.5 These stresses cast a shadow of popular suspicion over regulation itself. Street railways took refuge in their franchise protections, bandied them at upstarts such as jitney operators and independent bus companies, and demanded fare increases, while the quality of service declined. State public service commissions generally granted fare increases. Riders smelled a rat. Defenders of state regulation complained of a “public attitude toward utility commissions” that “has been critical rather than constructive, reflecting a feeling of uneasiness and distrust.” They noticed with frustration that the wartime fare increases “were looked upon with suspicion, even though the cost of other commodities and services was rising.”
Powell, “Function of the Motor Truck in Reducing Cost and Preventing Congestion of Freight in Railroad Terminals,” Annals 116 (Nov. 1924), 87–89; Graham, “Recent Developments in Highway Transport,” 14. See also F. W. Fenn, “Transportation–the Keynote of Prosperity,” American City 23 (Dec. 1920), 598–600). 10. Howard L. Preston, Automobile Age Atlanta: The Making of a Southern Metropolis, 1900–1935 (University of Georgia Press, 1979), 55–63; Ross D. Eckert and George W. Hilton, “The Jitneys,” Journal of Law and Economics 15 (Oct. 1972), 293–325. 11. See esp. Barrett, The Automobile and Urban Transit, esp. 211–212, and Albro Martin, Enterprise Denied: Origins of the Decline of American Railroads, 1897–1917 (Columbia University Press, 1971), and Railroads Triumphant: The Growth, Rejection, and Rebirth of a Vital American Force (Oxford University Press, 1992). For a concise and skillful analysis of a closely analogous problem, see Christopher J.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Cities that wish to be pedestrian-friendly and fully developed should eliminate this ordinance immediately and provide public parking in carefully located municipal garages and lots. Parking must be considered a part of the public infrastructure, just like streets and sewers. Consideration of the pedestrian scale must also play a role in the provision of transit. Diesel-belching buses are a poor substitute for benevolent streetcars, trolleys, and jitneys. Where laying track is not affordable, the city should consider small electric trams, which have brought new life to cities such as Chattanooga and Santa Barbara. The reader will notice that, in discussing the physical form of the city, we have not once advocated the use of brick sidewalks, festive banners, bandstands, decorative bollards, or grassy berms (“the Five B’s”). The quick fix of the eighties, the Five B’s now decorate many an abandoned downtown, along with the latestmodel light poles, trash cans, and decorative tree grates.
As such, each is equipped with nothing but the slowest roads, and contains a local “pocket park”—often no bigger than a single house lot—located within a three-minute walk of every dwelling. The neighborhood thus grants freedom of motion and a certain degree of autonomy even to its youngest citizens. MAKING TRANSIT WORK The neighborhood structure is naturally suited for public transit, be it light rail, trolleys, buses, or jitneys. But there are also three rules that transit must follow in order to appeal to users, regardless of the urban framework: 1. Transit must be frequent and predictable. The challenge is not to prove this obvious principle but to create a transit system in which frequency is economically viable. This objective can be achieved only at certain densities; studies suggest that a minimum of seven units per acre is necessary if transit is to be self-supporting.dd For lower densities, the careful organization of neighborhood centers, to be served by smaller vehicles, can result in a successful network.
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management
Horses contributed to the symphony of urban noise—hooves clattering and scrapping on the streets, wagons rattling and banging, wheels creaking, harnesses jingling, horses whinnying, neighing, groaning, and bugling.114 Within a decade the electric streetcar had replaced the horsecar. It took longer for the automobile to replace public transit, but the initial threat of the automobile to the established fixed-rail regime was already widespread by 1910 in the form of the “jitneys,” unlicensed taxicabs which operated in a free-for-all to cruise the routes of the streetcars and pick up passengers, especially those loaded with packages. The streetcar operators were particularly irked to see that the jitneys paid no taxes and faced no regulations.115 The first motor bus arrived on New York’s 5th Avenue in 1905, but the development of the motor bus was surprisingly slow. The initial bus designs were converted trucks, with a center of gravity high off the ground. The first motor bus approximating modern design was introduced by the Fageol brothers in Oakland, California, in 1920 in the form of the “Fageol Safety Coach.”
The map appears in Hugill (1982, figure 4, p. 345). 112. Details about the construction and design of the Merritt Parkway are provided by Radde (1993). He describes (pp. 6–9) Robert Moses’s parkway systems on Long Island and in Westchester County as precursors of the limited access highways. 113. A detailed U.S. highway map dated October 23, 1940, appears in Kaszynski (2000, p. 133). 114. Greene (2008, p. 174). 115. Details about jitneys come from Miller (1941/1960, p. 150–53). 116. Details about the Fageol motor coach are in Miller (1941/1960, pp. 154–56). 117. In table 5–1, a rail trip in 1940 between Los Angeles and New York took less than half the time, two days and eight hours, plus a layover of up to ten hours in Chicago. 118. Airlines accounted for 2 percent and railroads for the remaining 70 percent. 119. Greene (2008, p. 265). 120.
See income inequality infant mortality, 50, 61; contaminated milk and, 81; germ theory and, 219; improvements in (1870–1940), 206, 208, 209, 211, 213, 244–45, 322, 463; racial differences in, 484 infectious diseases, 210, 213–15, 218, 462 information technology (IT), 325; from 1870 to 1940, 202–5; in GDP, 441–42; on Internet, 460; news, 433–35; newspapers and magazines for, 174–77; post-World War II, 411; telegraph for transmission of, 178–79; in Third Industrial Revolution, 577, 578 Ingram, Edgar, 167 Ingrassia Paul, 382 injuries: industrial, 270–73; railroad-related, 238 innovation: as cause of Great Leap Forward, 555–62; future of, 567, 589–93; history of, 568–74; since 1970, 7; total factor productivity as measurement of, 2, 16–18, 319, 537 installment loans, 296, 317 insurance, 288, 289; fire and automobile, 307–9, 317; health insurance, 230, 235–36, 487–95; life insurance, 303–7, 317; workers’ compensation, 230, 272–73 Intel (firm), 445, 453 internal combustion engines, 131, 149–50, 374; as General Purpose Technology, 555–56; See also automobiles Internet, 442–43, 453–57, 459–60, 578; digital music on, 436; early history of, 643; e-commerce using, 457–58; smartphones for, 438; as source of news, 434, 435; video streaming on, 436–37 Interstate Commerce Act (1887), 313 Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 313, 318 Interstate Highway System, 159, 375, 389–93, 407; automotive safety and, 385–86 interurbans, 149 inventions: by decade, 556; forecastable, 593–601; patents for, 312–13, 570–74; sources of, 570 iPhone, 577 iPod (MP3 player), 435–36 iron and steel industries, 267–69; industrial accidents and deaths in, 271 iTunes, 435–36, 579 J. C. Penney (department store), 90, 294 Japan, 562 The Jazz Singer (film), 201, 202 Jefferson, Thomas, 210 Jell-O (firm), 73 jet aircraft, 393, 398–99 JetBlue (firm), 598 jitneys, 160 Jobs, Steve, 452, 567 Johns Hopkins Medical School, 233 Johnson, Lyndon B., 419 joint replacement surgery, 466 Jolson, Al, 201 Jorgenson, Dale, 543, 636 The Jungle (Sinclair), 82, 221–22, 267, 313 Kaiser, Henry, 549 Kansas City (Missouri), 219 Katz, Lawrence, 15, 284, 624–25, 636 KDKA (radio station), 192, 193 Keeler, Theodore, 403 Kellogg, J. Harvey, 74 Kendrick, John, 545 Kennedy, John F., 419 Kennedy, Rose, 230 Kevin, Murphy, 212 Keynes, John Maynard, 258 Khrushchev, Nikita, 357 Killeffer, D.
The Big Book of Words You Should Know: Over 3,000 Words Every Person Should Be Able to Use (And a Few That You Probably Shouldn't) by David Olsen, Michelle Bevilacqua, Justin Cord Hayes
jambalaya (jam-buh-LIE-uh), noun A spicy Cajun dish featuring rice cooked with ham, sausage, chicken, shrimp, or oysters, and seasoned with herbs. Anna had so much ham left over from Easter dinner that she decided to try to whip up a JAMBALAYA. jejune (ji-JOON), adjective Dull or lackluster. Jejune can also mean immature or lacking in insight. Ralph’s JEJUNE fantasies of stardom brought only laughs of derision from his friends. jitney (JIT-nee), noun A small car or bus charging a low fare. Grandpa told us stories of how he used to make his living driving a JITNEY around town. jocund (JOK-und), adjective Given to merriment. Someone who possesses a cheery disposition is jocund. Tim’s JOCUND personality made him the life of the party. judicature (JOO-di-kuh-choor), noun The authority of jurisdiction of a court of law. The rank, function, or authority of a judge is referred to as the judge’s judicature.
The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon
But it was a calculated withdrawal, from the life of the Republic, from its machinery. Whatever else was being denied them out of hate, indifference to the power of their vote, loopholes, simple ignorance, this withdrawal was their own, un-publicized, private. Since they could not have withdrawn into a vacuum (could they?), there had to exist the separate, silent, unsuspected world. Just before the morning rush hour, she got out of a jitney whose ancient driver ended each day in the red, downtown on Howard Street, began to walk toward the Embarcadero. She knew she looked terrible knuckles black with eye-liner and mascara from where she'd rubbed, mouth tasting of old booze and coffee. Through an open doorway, on the stair leading up into the disinfectant-smelling twilight of a rooming house she saw an old man huddled, shaking with grief she couldn't hear.
Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons by Peter Barnes
Albert Einstein, car-free, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, jitney, new economy, patent troll, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra
They’d grow more food organically and sell more through farmers’ markets and urban buying clubs, cutting out middlemen and keeping more of their products’ value. For nonperishables, consumers would shop more on the Internet and less at drive-and-haul malls. Thanks to eBay, Craigslist, and similar services, they’d also buy more secondhand goods and dump fewer into landfills. More workers would ride bikes, jitneys, and trains, and work online from home. Cities would favor footpower, suburbs would reorganize around transit hubs, and new 152 | MAKING IT HAPPEN forms of co-housing would spread. All these changes would be profitable and even exciting. And they’d proceed with relative smoothness if we placed the global atmosphere in trust. On the other hand, if we leave our atmosphere as an unmanaged waste dump, our glorious industrial party will abruptly end, brought to its knees by oil price shocks, climate disasters, or a monetary panic.
Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth
accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile
“If you stop okada in Nigeria today, people will suffer,” he said. “With this business we are helping people.” Buses are the other common form of mass transit in Lagos, and, as with okada, this huge enterprise, with tens of thousands of vehicles, is a System D creation. Once upon a time decades ago, this was a public system. The government owned the molue—large buses that fit thirty or forty people—and danfo—smaller jitneys that fit between a dozen and twenty, depending on how the seating is installed. But the authorities walked away from public transportation. In desperation, the bus system was kept alive by the National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW)—but in the most haphazard manner you can imagine. The union essentially bought the city’s fleet of seventy-five thousand buses. “The source of funds was people who are big and successful in government and business,” explained Alhaji Rasaq Olusola Ahmed, the assistant secretary of one of the union’s branches in the Lagos neighborhood of Mushin.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration
It rotted the linings of storage tanks, and was half as potent as gasoline per volume, so you'd have to lug around twice as much fuel in your car. 2 1 3 ... T H E G E O G R A P H Y O F N O W H E R E Hydrogen was a pipe dream. Solar, for now, was a joke. In short, there was no real alternative to gasoline, but a lot of people seemed to be banking on the hope that "they'll come up with something. " In the meantime, the AQMD plan would require employers to arrange for car pooling, or even operate their own jitney fleets to reduce the number of total vehicles on the road. That was the transportation component of the plan. Next there was a whole burdensome set of new restrictions on industrial activities-and in the 1980s Southern California had become America's leading man ufacturing region. Many common industrial solvents were out, because they evaporated easily. Ditto paints based on petroleum distillates.
Anton Chekhov, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, Jane Jacobs, jitney, megastructure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
Cohan, a child of Broadway if ever there was one, wrote an impromptu and thoroughly disgusted ditty: It means the increase in honky-tonk joints, The blast of the radios from the amplifiers hanging over dance-hall doorways, The pedlers and the barkers shouting at the top of their lungs: “Buy a balloon an’ act natural”; “Come in and see the great flea circus”; “This way for a good time, folks”; “No tights in this show”; “Plenty of seats in the first balcony; ‘She Kissed Him to Death’ just starting”; “Magnificent love story; bring the children.” The decline of Broadway provoked Stanley Walker, hard-boiled city editor, into a mighty blast of dismay. The street, he wrote, “has degenerated into something resembling the main drag of a frontier town. . . . There are chow-meineries, peep shows for men only, flea circuses, lectures on what killed Rudolf Valentino, jitney ballrooms and a farrago of other attractions which would have sickened the heart of the Broadwayite of even ten years ago.” The great old chophouses had given way to penny restaurants, “where a derelict just this side of starvation may get something known as food for as little as one cent.” The very faces on the street had become grotesque: “cauliflower ears, beggars, sleazy crones, skinny girls who would be out of place in even the cheapest dance hall, twisted old men, sleek youths with pale faces, the blind and the maimed.”
Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden
Instead the Americans photographed them and interrogated them and then put them in jail. Abdi kept his job but for a different reason. He could hear waves of gunfire crackling over the city, and heard the fight was at the Bakara Market. At Brown & Root, all Somali employees were sent home. “Something has happened,” Abdi was told. Abdi lived with his family between the market and the K-4 traffic circle, which was just north of the Ranger base. The rickety jitneys, so crammed with passengers that the American soldier called them “Kling-on Cruisers” (a nod to Star Trek), were still running up Via Lenin. The sounds of gunfire increased and the sky was thick with helicopters speeding low over the rooftop, flying great looping orbits over the market area. There were bullets snapping over his head when he got home. He found his father there with his two brothers and sister.
On the Road by Jack Kerouac
“The ace of spades is far away from him. The heart cards always surround him—the queen of hearts is never far. See this jack of spades? That’s Dean, he’s always around.” “Well, we’re leaving for New York in an hour.” “Someday Dean’s going to go on one of these trips and never come back.” She let me take a shower and shave, and then I said good-by and took the bags downstairs and hailed a Frisco taxi-jitney, which was an ordinary taxi that ran a regular route and you could hail it from any corner and ride to any corner you want for about fifteen cents, cramped in with other passengers like on a bus, but talking and telling jokes like in a private car. Mission Street that last day in Frisco was a great riot of construction work, children playing, whooping Negroes coming home from work, dust, excitement, the great buzzing and vibrating hum of what is really America’s most excited city—and overhead the pure blue sky and the joy of the foggy sea that always rolls in at night to make everybody hungry for food and further excitement.
Wireless by Stross, Charles
anthropic principle, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, Buckminster Fuller, Cepheid variable, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, cosmic microwave background, epigenetics, finite state, Georg Cantor, gravity well, hive mind, jitney, Khyber Pass, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, peak oil, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, security theater, sensible shoes, Turing machine
If by some mischance she were to visit the Emir’s palace and find Sir sans Jeremy, it might be more than trivially embarrassing.” “Dash it all, you’re right. I suppose I’ll have to pack the bloody pachyderm, won’t I? What a bore. Will he fit in the trunk?” Miss Feng sighed, very quietly. “I believe that may be a remote theoretical possibility. I shall endeavor to find out while Sir is enjoying himself not dying.” “Try beer,” I called as I picked up my surf board and climbed aboard the orbital delivery jitney. “Jeremy loves beer!” Miss Feng bowed as the door closed. I hope she doesn’t give him too much, I thought. Then the gravity squirrelizer chittered to itself angrily, decided it was on the wrong planet, and tried to rectify the situation in its own inimitable way. I lay back and waited for orbit. I wasn’t entirely certain of the wisdom of my proposed course of action—there are few predicaments as grim as facing a mammoth with a hangover across the breakfast table—but Miss Feng seemed like a competent sort, and I supposed I’d just have to trust her judgment.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
They exert a powerful gravitational pull on the young and the ambitious, and we are drawn to them by the millions, in search of opportunities to work, live, and socialize with each other. While in the end it took slightly longer than the original forecast, by the spring of 2009, most likely in one of China’s booming coastal cities or the swelling slums of Africa, a young migrant from the hinterlands stepped off a train or a jitney and tipped the balance between town and country forever.2 Cities flourished during the twentieth century, despite humanity’s best efforts to destroy them by aerial bombardment and suburban sprawl. In 1900, just 200 million people lived in cities, about one-eighth of the world’s population at the time.3 Today, just over a century later, 3.5 billion call a city home. By 2050, United Nations projections indicate, the urban population will expand to nearly 6.5 billion.4 By 2100, global population could top 10 billion, and cities could be home to as many as 8 billion people.5 This urban expansion is the biggest building boom humanity will ever undertake.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, jitney, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve
I was assigned to become expert in sharia and assist in the conversion of Citibank’s operations from Western banking to Islamic banking. I arrived in Karachi in February 1982 and went to work. Citibank’s country head, Shaukat Aziz, later prime minister of Pakistan, would occasionally pick me up at my hotel. In monsoon season, we would barrel through flooded Karachi streets choked with ubiquitous decorated buses and three-wheeled jitneys, speeding past vendors spitting bright red betel nuts they chewed for a buzz. As I told these tales to the fund manager, I noticed his face became taut and his stare serious. He motioned me to a corner of the deck away from the other guests. He leaned forward and said sotto voce, “Look, it seems you know a lot about Islamic finance and you know your way around Pakistan.” My local knowledge was a little rusty since these things had happened decades before; still, I replied, “Yeah, I worked hard at that.
The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Sixth Annual Collection by Gardner Dozois
augmented reality, clean water, computer age, cosmological constant, David Attenborough, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, financial independence, game design, gravity well, jitney, John Harrison: Longitude, Kuiper Belt, Mahatma Gandhi, Paul Graham, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Skype, stem cell, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, urban renewal, Wall-E
Quivera’s handlers’ suits squirted me a bill for his rescue—steep, I thought, but we all knew which hand carried the whip—and their principals tried to get him to sign away the rights to his story in acquittal. Quivera laughed harshly (I’d already started de-cushioning his emotions, to ease the shock of my removal) and shook his head. “Put it on my tab, girls,” he said, and climbed into the lander. Hours later he was in home orbit. And once there? I’ll tell you all I know. He was taken out of the lander and put onto a jitney. The jitney brought him to a transfer point where a grapple snagged him and flung him to the Europan receiving port. There, after the usual flawless catch, he was escorted through an airlock and into a locker room. He hung up his suit, uplinked all my impersonal memories to a data-broker, and left me there. He didn’t look back—for fear, I imagine, of being turned to a pillar of salt. He took the egg-case with him.
Cadillac Desert by Marc Reisner
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, clean water, Golden Gate Park, hacker house, jitney, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, Works Progress Administration
Then, on August 14, the hard black rock of Cataract Canyon reemerged from the crust of the earth. “The river enters the gneiss!” wrote Powell. Downriver, they heard what sounded like an avalanche. Soap Creek Rapids, Badger Creek Rapids, Crystal Creek Rapids, Lava Falls. Nearly all of the time, the creeks that plunge down the ravines of the Grand Canyon will barely float a walnut shell, but the flash floods resulting from a desert downpour can dislodge boulders as big as a jitney bus. Tumbled by gravity, the boulders carom into the main river and sit there, creating a dam, which doesn’t so much stop the river as make it mad. Except for the rapids of the Susitna, the Niagara, and perhaps a couple of rivers in Canada, the modern Colorado’s rapids are the biggest on the continent. Before the dams were built, however, the Colorado’s rapids were really big. At Lava Falls, where huge chunks of basalt dumped in the main river create a thirty-foot drop, waves at flood stage were as high as three-story houses.
affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight
In contrast to the illustrious family names of the past, lucrative employment in major corporations now confers great status and privilege.175 For hybrids who put in long hours in the office, the ability to move freely around the metropolitan region and avoid the worst congestion and delays was crucial. There are few places in the region that are more time-consuming and irksome to reach than the Hamptons, at the eastern end of Long Island, especially during the summer weekend crunches. A one-way Long Island Rail Road ticket during rush hour cost $10.50 in 1989 and fares on Hampton Jitney buses started at $15. For $69, however, one could catch a commercial flight from LaGuardia Airport to the Hamptons, an option that more and more travelers were choosing as the economy picked up.176 According to the general manager of a commuter airline that operated between LaGuardia Airport and the East Hampton Airport, passengers on this route constituted “a unique group” of “business executives, Wall Street brokers, professionals, artists, celebrities” who were “time-conscious people who want to maximize their time.”177 In 1989 Andy Sabin, an Upper East Sider who was the vice chairman of the New York Commodities Exchange and the principal owner of a large precious-metals refiner and recycler, said that he had been flying from the city to his summer place almost every weekend for the past fifteen years.