42 results back to index
Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama
active measures, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K
Space does not allow me to do his work justice. A superb introduction to his work is Inglehart and Welzel (2005). 18.The World Values Survey maintains an active website with all of its surveys, data, and a lot of academic analysis (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). For example, questions from the 2005–2006 wave of the World Values Survey (2005) ask on a ten-point scale, from “not at all” to “a great deal,” how much freedom of choice or control subjects feel they have over their lives. Another series of questions asks respondents to rate family, friends, leisure time, politics, work, and religion on a scale of “not important at all” to “very important.” 19.The bulleted points are excerpted from World Values Survey (n.d.) and slightly edited for readability. Also on the site is the Inglehart-Welzel cultural map, which shows how culturally similar countries cluster on their two dimensions.
Remarkable data comes from Ronald Inglehart, a political scientist at the University of Michigan.17 Inglehart is the founder and former president of the World Values Survey, a series of large-scale surveys of national values that he and his colleagues had the foresight to begin in the early 1980s. It spans four decades, all six inhabited continents, 97 countries, and 400,000 respondents. The survey asks about people’s values, beliefs, and aspirations. It considers work, family, religion, happiness, government, and environment.18 Over the years, Inglehart and his colleagues have dug deep into this mountain of data and found striking patterns. They found, for example, that mass individual aspirations correlate with modernization, economic development, and democratization. Here is the heart of their conclusions, excerpted from the World Values Survey website: •Much of the variation in human values between societies boils down to two broad dimensions: a first dimension of “traditional vs. secular-rational values” and a second dimension of “survival vs. self-expression values.”
They are followed closely by Luxembourg, Denmark, and the Netherlands.46 The same set of countries is at the top in terms of humanitarian aid contributions per citizen, with Luxembourg coming in at $114 per citizen per year in 2008, and Norway, Sweden, Ireland, and Denmark following.47 It’s no accident that these countries all register very high on both secular-rational and self-expression values in the World Values Survey. Perhaps they’ve saturated those scales and are moving into a more compassionate dimension. I don’t mean to suggest that any significant part of the world is transcending into some sage-like state of pure altruism.48 Foreign aid programs have plenty of problems. And the desire for glory through activism can be just as strong as that for glory through wealth. Many activists put on a mantle of public service but still seek recognition or hero status.49 There are, however, hopeful signs.
The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter
Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game
While Bhutan may be a happy nation, this probably has less to do with the many dimensions of their index than with their material wealth. In 1980, Bhutan’s GDP per person was 10 percent higher than India’s. Today it is 75 percent higher. In 2009, as the rest of the world slumped, Bhutan grew 6.9 percent. In 2008 the Bhutanese economy grew by a fifth. Like other countries around the world, it has grown happier as it has grown richer. The World Values Survey, a set of polls performed around the world over the past twenty years, found that the happiest country in the world is rich Denmark. The least happy is poor Zimbabwe. The 2006 Gallup World Poll asked adults in 132 countries to rank their satisfaction with life on a scale of zero to ten. The citizens of Togo, whose gross domestic product per person is only $832, ranked their satisfaction at just above three.
Madha Suresh, and T. Vasantha Kumaran, eds., Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India, December 15-17, 2003 (Chennai, India: Department of Geography, University of Madras and Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University), pp. 451-464. Evidence of the different Swiss and Chinese attitudes toward the environment is drawn from the 2005-2008 wave of the World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/, accessed 08/01/2010). The relation between sulfur-dioxide emissions and income is found in Gene Grossman and Alan Krueger, “Economic Growth and the Environment,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 110, No. 2, 1995 (converted to 2009 dollars using GDP deflator). SO2 emissions in the United States are drawn from the Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/air/sulfurdioxide/, accessed 08/01/2010).
The statistic about Japan’s high prices comes from Robert Lipsey and Birgitta Swedenborg, “Explaining Product Price Differences Across Countries,” NBER Working Paper, July 2007. 165-168 Where Culture Comes From: Discussion of the economic implications of trust draws from Jeff Butler, Paola Giuliano, and Luigi Guiso, “The Right Amount of Trust,” CEPR Discussion Paper, September 2009; and the World Values Survey, 2005-2008 wave (www.wvsevsdb.com/wvs/WVSAnalizeSample.jsp, accessed 07/18/2010). Different views on the deformed lips of Mursi girls are from Mursi Online, Oxford University Department of International Development (www.mursi.org/); and Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales, “Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 20, Spring 2006, pp. 23-48.
The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
And that suggests that much as certain elements of the American character have remained constant through our history, the remarkable changes that have defined the last several decades may have also had an impact on what we want both from our government and, more broadly, from our interpersonal relationships. Getting to the bottom of the relationship between governance and circumstance has been a central issue for University of Michigan professor Ronald Inglehart for several decades. His research has focused on which foundations offer the most fertile environment for freedom and the rule of law. To that end, Inglehart helped to devise, promote, and expand what has come to be known as the World Values Survey, a global opinion poll that for thirty years has compared personal attitudes against more traditional indicators such as economic growth and political stability. Inglehart’s work has rendered some remarkable conclusions. Maybe most important, it largely buttresses the anecdotal observation that was made so plain after Saddam Hussein was deposed in Iraq: representative government often takes hold only after a society has satisfied many of its citizens’ more basic needs.
Democracy doesn’t emerge, as the Bush administration hoped, as the result of pressure from above; it’s not a plug-and-play utility. Rather, representative government is more like a flower that needs to be nurtured before it blooms. And amid the sectarian conflagration that emerged in the aftermath of the American-led invasion, it was almost impossible to stand up the kind of dominion many of the operation’s proponents had envisioned. Specifically, Inglehart’s analysis of World Values Survey data reveals that democracy is properly understood as a stop along a continuum that tracks a population’s economic development. As he and his colleague Christian Welzel have argued, once basic concerns about safety and security are satisfied, societies develop an increasing taste for “choice, autonomy, and creativity.”6 By some measure, that insight can explain the broader sweep of American history.
The same shift in attitude has been reflected in who has, in fact, gotten hitched: in 2008, 15 percent of marriages in the United States were between spouses of different races, a figure six times over the percentage in 1960.8 The question is whether this wholesale evolution of American opinion—one that celebrated “choice and autonomy” unlike the previous bigotry—would have emerged without the growing prosperity of American life. We can hope so. But as the World Values Survey reveals, our improving circumstances almost surely played an important role. Had Americans been preoccupied with a different set of worries, the iniquities that prompted the civil rights movement might well have been left unaddressed, as they had been for decades before. Demographic snapshots bear out this distinction, with people living in more and less prosperous circumstances embracing entirely different political agendas even beyond fiscal concerns.
Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
., ‘People’s Opium?’ 19. Barro and McCleary, ‘Religion and Economic Growth’. 20. World Bank, World Development Indicators online. 21. Ferguson, ‘Economics, Religion and the Decline of Europe’. 22. Data from the Conference Board Total Economy Database, September 2010, http://www.conference-board.org/data/economydatabase/. See also OECD.Stat and various OECD publications. 23. World Values Survey Association, World Values Survey. 24. Chesterton, Short History, p. 104. 25. Bruce, God is Dead, p. 67. 26. Data from http://www.cofe.anglican.org/news/pr2009.html. 27. See Brown, Death of Christian Britain, esp. p. 191. See also the essays in McLeod and Ustorf (eds.), Decline of Christendom. 28. Bruce, God is Dead, p. 65. 29. Davie, Religion in Britain, pp. 119, 121. 30. Davie, Europe: The Exceptional Case, pp. 6f. 31.
., Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study (New York, 1926) Taylor, James Hudson, Hudson Taylor: The Autobiography of a Man Who Brought the Gospel to China (Minneapolis, 1987) Thompson, Phyllis, China: The Reluctant Exodus (Sevenoaks, 1979) Tolstoy, Leo Nikolayevich, The Kingdom of God is within You (Charleston, SC, 2008 ) Trevor-Roper, Hugh, ‘Religion, the Reformation and Social Change’, in Hugh Trevor-Roper, Religion, the Reformation and Social Change (London, 1967), 1–46 Viner, Jacob, Religious Thought and Economic Society (Durham, 1978) Ward-Perkins, Bryan, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford, 2005) Weber, Marianne, Max Weber: A Biography (New Brunswick, 1988) Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. P. Baehr and G. C. Wells (London 2002 ) Woodberry, Robert D., ‘The Shadow of Empire: Christian Missions, Colonial Policy, and Democracy in Postcolonial Societies’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of North Carolina (2004) World Values Survey Association (www.worldvaluessurvey.org), World Values Survey 1981–2008 Official Aggregate v.20090901 (2009), Aggregate File Producer: ASEP/JDS, Madrid Yihua Xi, ‘Patriotic Protestants: The Making of an Official Church’, in Jason Kindopp and Carol Lee Hamrin (eds.), God and Caesar in China: Policy Implications of Church–State Tensions (Washington, DC, 2004), 107–21 Young, Cristobal, ‘Religion and Economic Growth in Western Europe: 1500–2000’, working paper (Princeton, 2009) Zakaria, Fareed, The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad (New York, 2003) Zhao Dunhua, ‘Recent Progress of Christian Studies Made by Chinese Academics in the Last Twenty Years’, in H.
Europeans built the continent’s loveliest edifices to accommodate their acts of worship. They quarrelled bitterly over the distinction between transubstantiation and consubstantiation. As pilgrims, missionaries and conquistadors, they sailed to the four corners of the earth, intent on converting the heathen to the true faith. Now it is Europeans who are the heathens. According to the most recent (2005–8) World Values Survey, 4 per cent of Norwegians and Swedes and 8 per cent of French and Germans attend a church service at least once a week, compared with 36 per cent of Americans, 44 per cent of Indians, 48 per cent of Brazilians and 78 per cent of sub-Saharan Africans. The figures are significantly higher for a number of predominantly Catholic countries like Italy (32 per cent) and Spain (16 per cent). The only countries where religious observance is lower than in Protestant Europe are Russia and Japan.
Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War
Waley 1938, 187; Lau 1979, 128; Watson 2007, 100 93. I am most grateful to Justin Winslett for clarifying my formulation of this point 94. Rawls 2006, 15. The particular sense in which Rawls uses the word ‘reasonable’ is discussed on pages 48–54 95. Rawls 2006, 389 96. World Values Survey, Wave 6, 2010–2014, http://perma.cc/Z2R6-Q3QC; World Values Survey, Wave 5, 2005–2009, http://perma.cc/EG48-B7M9; World Values Survey, Wave 4, 1999–2004, http://perma.cc/TMJ5-5L4Y. In the fourth and fifth waves of the World Values Survey, the third option was ‘Give people more say’. This was changed to ‘Giving people more say in important government decisions’ in the sixth wave. See Figure 7. East Asian Barometer Survey of Democracy, Governance and Development, data for China 2008, data for Taiwan, 2006: http://perma.cc/H9EW-HN6G 97.
The 2010–2014 results for a few selected countries are shown in Figure 7, and the trend across the first years of the twenty-first-century in Figure 8. Figure 7. What priority for free speech? Respondents were asked: ‘If you had to choose, which one of the things on this card would you say is most important?’ Source: World Values Survey, 2010–2014. Figure 8. Support for free speech, 1999–2014 The percentage is formed by aggregating the two free speech answers of Figure 7: ‘Protecting freedom of speech’ and ‘giving people more say’. Source: World Values Survey, 1999–2014. These polling results are no more than suggestive. After all, people were being asked to rank four good things. India, where (in the 2005–2009 polling) only 19 percent opted for one of the two free speech answers, against 27 percent for maintaining order and 40 percent for fighting rising prices, is nonetheless one of the world’s noisiest, most argumentative societies, with a raucously outspoken media.
It is obviously true that there are fewer doctrines than there are people, but many of us are a kind of one-woman or one-man ‘overlapping consensus’ of doctrines drawn from various sources and developed in our interactions with other individuals. Another way of trying to get at foundational differences is therefore to look at aggregated individual opinions, through opinion polls. The evidence here is not abundant, partly because authoritarian regimes seldom allow sensitive questions about free speech to be put to their citizens, but we do have some. The World Values Survey has asked the following question in a number of countries across three successive ‘waves’ of polling: If you had to choose, which one of the things on this card would you say is most important? • Maintaining order in the nation • Giving people more say in important government decisions [or, in the two earlier waves, simply ‘give people more say’] • Fighting rising prices • Protecting freedom of speech Perhaps unsurprisingly, a larger proportion of people in democracies tended to favour some combination of ‘protecting freedom of speech’ and ‘giving people more say’ over ‘maintaining order in the nation’ and ‘fighting rising prices’.
accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
So we shall just have to continue believing that bankers’ bonuses and preposterous remuneration packages for chief executives are bad for society, not that they are bad for the bankers and chief executives.46 THE SOCIAL CORROSIVENESS OF INEQUALITY The second area in which there is evidence for the damage caused by great inequality is trust. As I will point out in chapter 5, “trust,” an abstract concept like social capital, is hard to define and measure. The figures used derive from the World Values Survey, or similar national surveys, which ask respondents whether they agree that “most people can be trusted.” Wilson and Pickett present cross-country correlations (and also for U.S. states) showing a negative correlation between levels of trust and the degree of inequality, although with quite wide variation around the line of best fit between these two variables. The reported level of trust in the United States and elsewhere has declined substantially over time.47 Much of the attention on this point has focused on the United States, where Robert Putnam struck a chord with the publication of his book Bowling Alone.
See nature European Union, 42, 59, 62, 162–63, 177, 219 Evolution of Cooperation, The (Axelrod), 118–19 “Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism, The” (Trivers), 118 externalities, 15, 70, 80, 211, 228–29, 249, 254 Facebook, 289 face-to-face contact, 7, 147, 165–68 fairness: altruism and, 118–22; antiglobalization and, 115; bankers and, 115, 133, 139, 143–44; behavioral econoics and, 116–17, 121; bonuses and, 87–88, 115, 139, 143–44, 193, 221, 223, 277–78, 295; capitalism and, 134, 137, 149; consequences for growth, 135–36; criticism of poor and, 142; democracy and, 141; emotion and, 118–19, 137; game theory and, 116–18, 121–22; government and, 121, 123, 131, 136; gratitude and, 118; growth and, 114–16, 121, 125, 127, 133–37; happiness and, 53; health issues and, 137–43; high salaries and, 130, 143–44, 193, 223, 277–78, 286, 296; inequality and, 115–16, 122–43; innate sense of, 114–19; innovation and, 121, 134; morals and, 116–20, 127, 131, 142, 144, 221; philosophy and, 114–15, 123; politics and, 114–16, 125–31, 135–36, 140–44; productivity and, 131, 135; Putnam on, 140–41; self-interest and, 114–22; social corrosiveness of, 139–44; social justice and, 31, 43, 53, 65, 123, 164, 224, 237, 286; statistics and, 115, 138; superstar effect and, 134; sustainability and, 115; technology and, 116, 131–34, 137; tit-for-tat response and, 118–19; trilemma of, 13–14, 230–36, 275; trust and, 139–44, 150, 157, 162, 172, 175–76; ultimatum game and, 116–17; unequal countries and, 124–30; wage penalties and, 133; well-being and, 137–43; World Values Survey and, 139 Fama, Eugene, 221–22 faxes, 252 Federal Reserve, 145 Ferguson, Niall, 100–101 financial crises: actions by governments and, 104–12; bubbles and, 3 (see also bubbles); capitalism and, 6–9 (see also capitalism); contracts and, 149–50; crashes and, 3, 28, 161, 244, 283; current, 54, 85, 90–91, 145; debt legacy of, 90–92; demographic implosion and, 95–100; goodwill and, 150; government debt and, 100–104; Great Depression and, 3, 28, 35, 61, 82, 150, 208, 281; growth debt and, 85–86; historical perspective on, 3–4; institutional blindness to, 87–88; intangible assets and, 149–50; intrusive regulatory practices and, 244; pension burden of, 92–95; as political crisis, 8–9; statistics of, 145; stimulus packages and, 91, 100–103, 111; structural change and, 25; total cost of current, 90–91; trust and, 88–89 (see also trust); weightless activities and, 150; welfare burden of, 92–95 Financial Times, 257 Fitzgerald, F.
Treasury, 100 utiltarianism, 31–32, 78, 237 U2, 194–98 values, 18; anomie and, 48, 51; balance and, 12–17; bankers and, 211, 213, 217, 223, 226–28, 233; capitalism and, 209–13, 218, 226, 230–32, 235–36; capitalism and, 230–38 (see also capitalism); consumption and, 229, 236; culture and, 230–38; decentralization and, 275; democracy and, 230–38; efficiency and, 210, 215–16, 221–35; face-to-face contact and, 7, 147, 165–68; freedom and, 237–38; globalization and, 210–11, 235; governance and, 211, 217, 238; government and, 14, 210–11, 215–20, 225–26, 229–30, 234; gross domestic product (GDP) and, 212, 218, 232; growth and, 13, 210–13, 222, 231–36; innovation and, 210, 216, 220, 236; institutions and, 240–42, 246–47, 258–60; intangible assets and, 149–52, 157, 161, 199–201; market failure and, 226–30; measurement and, 209, 212–13; merits of markets and, 211–17; morals and, 185, 210, 213, 220–25, 230–33; philosophy and, 237–39; policy recommendations for, 275–84; politics and, 209–13, 217–18, 223–24, 231–34, 237–38; price chasm and, 207–8; productivity and, 212–13, 224; Protestant work ethic and, 13–14, 236; public choice theory and, 220; public deliberation and, 258–60; public service and, 295; rational calculation and, 214–15; reform and, 218, 233, 275–78, 295; revalorization and, 275; role of government and, 14–15; self-interest and, 214, 221; statistics and, 13; stewardship and, 78, 80, 275; technology and, 212–13, 216, 218, 233–34, 237–38; World Values Survey and, 139 Veblen, Thorsten, 22–23 Velvet Revolution, 239 volunteering, 46–49, 205–7, 214, 249, 269, 287 von Bismarck, Otto, 112 voters, 12, 16; declining turnout of, 175; happiness and, 23, 33, 43; increased turnout and, 260, 285; institutions and, 242, 251, 258, 260, 297; Internet and, 260; knowledge levels of, 288; legitimacy and, 297; measurement and, 190, 206; nature and, 57, 61, 68–69, 76; posterity and, 86, 96, 100, 106, 111; technological effects on, 288–89; trust and, 175, 286; values and, 224, 233–34, 258 Waal, Frans de, 119 Wall Street, 147, 221 Wall Street (film), 221 Warwick Commission on International Financial Reform, 164 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 119–20 Weber, Axel, 99 Weber, Max, 236 weightless activities, 150 welfare, 310n25; aging population and, 4, 94–95, 105–6, 109, 112–13, 206, 267, 280, 287, 296; fairness and, 116, 127, 131, 136–37; growth and, 9–12; happiness and, 9–12, 24–26, 29–32, 35–36, 39–42, 50–53; inequality and, 4–5, 11, 17 (see also inequality); institutions and, 239–43, 259; markets and, 211–25; measurement and, 181–86, 193, 207; nature and, 57–58, 61–62, 71–75, 78–84; policy recommendations for, 270–71, 275–77, 286, 290, 296; posterity and, 85, 89–100, 103, 106, 111–12; trust and, 171, 175; values and, 209, 211, 217, 228, 231–38 well-being, 137–43 Western culture, 2, 16, 18, 181–82, 235; aging populations in, 94–95; anomie and, 48, 51; anxiety and, 1, 25, 47–48, 136–38, 149, 174; corrosion of trust in, 150, 156, 171–75, 255–56; downshifting and, 11, 55; Easterlin Paradox and, 39–44; government debt and, 104 (see also government debt); happiness and, 22–23, 26, 40, 48, 50–51; hedonic treadmill and, 40; increased management complexities of, 244; Industrial Revolution and, 27, 149, 290, 297; institutions and, 243–44, 255–58; nature and, 57–66, 76; policy recommendations for, 268–69, 273, 275, 278, 284–85, 287; prosperity and, 86, 94–97, 104–9; Slow Movement and, 27–28, 205; voter turnout and, 175; weightless activities and, 150 Whitehall Studies, 139 Wikipedia, 205, 291 Wilkinson, Richard, 137–40 Willetts, David, 98–99 Williamson, Oliver, 17, 220, 242, 250, 254, 261 Wolf, Naomi, 34 Wolfers, Justin, 41 World Bank, 38, 81, 163–64, 176, 211 WorldCom, 145 World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge, and Policy, 38 World Trade Organization (WTO), 162–63, 215, 297 World Values Survey, 139 World War II era, 4, 91, 97, 106, 141, 164, 257, 270, 281, 283 zero–sum games, 118 Zimbabwe, 89, 110, 122
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey
., International Economic Relations: Proceedings of the Third Congress of the International Economic Association (London: Macmillan, 1969), pp. 1–11, quoted at http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/ reser_e/cadv_e.htm. The mathematician in question was Stanislaw Ulam. 5 Frank W. Taussig, “Abraham Lincoln on the Tariff: A Myth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 28, no. 4 (August 1914), pp. 814–20. 6 World Values Survey online database (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/). 7 This can be seen in the cross-tabs that World Values Survey makes available online—ibid. 8 Anna Maria Mayda and Dani Rodrik, “Why Are Some Individuals (and Countries) More Protectionist Than Others?” European Economic Review, 49 (August 2005), pp. 1393–1430. 9 So Adam Smith was not correct when he famously wrote, in defense of free trade, that “What is prudence in the conduct of every private family, can scarce be folly in that of a great kingdom”—Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Bk.
Netville exhibited, as one resident put it, “a closeness that you don’t see in many communities.” What was supposed to have unleashed global engagement and networks had instead strengthened local social ties. As powerful as information and communication technologies are, we should not assume that they will lead us down the path of global consciousness or transnational political communities. Distance matters. Our local attachments largely still define us and our interests. The World Values Survey periodically polls random samples of individuals around the world on their attitudes and attachments. A recent round of surveys asked people in fifty-five countries about the strength of their local, national, and global identities. The results were similar across the world—and quite instructive. They reveal that attachment to the nation state overwhelms all other forms of identity. People see themselves primarily as citizens of their nation, next as members of their local community, and only last as “global citizens.”
_r=2). 22 Nick Hornby, Juliet, Naked (New York: Penguin, 2009). 23 This account is based on Keith Hampton, “Netville: Community On and Offline in a Wired Suburb,” in Stephen Graham, ed., The Cybercities Reader (London: Routledge, 2004), pp. 256–62. I owe the reference to this study to Nicholas A. Christakis and James H. Fowler, Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives (New York: Little, Brown, 2009). 24 The data that I summarize here come from the World Values Survey databank at http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/ services/index.html. 11. Designing Capitalism 3.0 1 For a detailed statistical analysis of differences between European and American attitudes toward inequality, see Alberto Alesina, Rafael Di Tella, and Robert MacCulloch, “Inequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?” Journal of Public Economics, vol. 88, nos. 9–10 (August 2004), pp. 2009–42. 2 This argument is developed in Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Democracy Realized: The Progressive Alternative (London and New York: Verso, 1998). 3 There is a very large literature on the comparative economic performance of democracies versus non-democracies.
The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger by Richard Wilkinson; Kate Pickett
basic income, Berlin Wall, clean water, Diane Coyle, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, offshore financial centre, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
The Harwood Group, Yearning for Balance: Views of Americans on consumption, materialism, and the environment. Takoma Park, MD:Merck Family Fund, 1995. 2. United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 3. R. Layard, Happiness. London: Allen Lane, 2005. 4. World Bank, World Development Report 1993: Investing in health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. 5. European Values Study Group and World Values Survey Association, European and World Values Survey Integrated Data File, 1999–2001, Release 1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2005. 6. United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 7. G. D. Smith, J. D. Neaton, D. Wentworth, R. Stamler and J. Stamler, ‘Socioeconomic differentials in mortality risk among men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial: I.
The data we present in this chapter suggest that this intuition was sound: inequality is divisive, and even small differences seem to make an important difference. INCOME INEQUALITY AND TRUST Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show that levels of trust between members of the public are lower in countries and states where income differences are larger. These relationships are strong enough that we can be confident that they are not due to chance. The international data on trust in Figure 4.1 come from the European and World Values Survey, a study designed to allow international comparisons of values and norms.5 In each country, random samples of the population were asked whether or not they agreed with the statement: ‘Most people can be trusted.’ The differences between countries are large. People trust each other most in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands; Sweden has the highest levels of trust, with 66 per cent of people feeling that they can trust others.
(p. 359) In another article, Putnam says: the causal arrows are likely to run in both directions, with citizens in high social capital states likely to do more to reduce inequalities, and inequalities themselves likely to be socially divisive.26 Taking a more definite stance in his book, The Moral Foundations of Trust, Eric Uslaner, a political scientist at the University of Maryland, believes that it is inequality that affects trust, not the other way round.27 If we live in societies with more social capital, then we know more people as friends and neighbours and that might increase our trust of people we know, people we feel are like us. But Uslaner points out that the kind of trust that is being measured in surveys such as the European and World Values Survey is trust of strangers, of people we don’t know, people who are often not like us. Using a wealth of data from different sources, he shows that people who trust others are optimists, with a strong sense of control over their lives. The kind of parenting that people receive also affects their trust of other people. In a study with his colleague Bo Rothstein, Uslaner shows, using a statistical test for causality, that inequality affects trust, but that there is ‘no direct effect of trust on inequality; rather, the causal direction starts with inequality’.28, p. 45 Uslaner says that ‘trust cannot thrive in an unequal world’ and that income inequality is the ‘prime mover’ of trust, with a stronger impact on trust than rates of unemployment, inflation or economic growth.27 It is not average levels of economic wellbeing that create trust, but economic equality.
The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef
big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
Though my new job paid less than the one I had seven years earlier at the distillery, I was nonetheless now crossing the threshold into this world. While many people equate middle-class with middle-class consumption, discussions about exactly what constitutes the middle class rarely address income. Being or feeling middle-class is about much more than numerical data. It’s a world view, a sensibility, a sense of self. But, curiously, it’s a sense of self that cuts across incomes. In a 2006 World Values Survey, more than a thousand Americans were asked which income decile they thought they were part of, with each decile representing 10 percent of the population (that is, the highest decile contained the top 10 percent of the population’s income earners, and each subsequent decile contained the next, lower, income group). The survey was designed to gauge perceptions of socio-economic standing rather than actual income.
On the face of it, these seem like exactly the kinds of values a just and fair class identity should be based on and are in line with the principles expressed by most existing progressive organizations and people. However, in a section of his book called ‘Post-Scarcity Effect,’ Florida looked at the work of Ronald Inglehard, a political science professor at University of Michigan who conducted his own world-values survey that found there was ‘a worldwide shift from economic growth issues to lifestyle values, which [Inglehard] sometimes refers to as a shift from “survival” to “self-expression” values.’ This can happen in industrial work too. Thinking back to the collective world view I shared with my fellow Windsorites, survival was always part of our identity – when would the ‘big one’ happen and what would we do?
Social Capital and Civil Society by Francis Fukuyama
Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, p-value, Pareto efficiency, postindustrial economy, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transaction costs, World Values Survey
I do not want to engage in a prolonged discussion of the so-called Putnam debate in this context, except to use it to illustrate some of the difficulties involved in measuring social capital. Putnam has been very ingenious in coming up with a wide variety of statistical measures of social capital, both in Making Democracy Work and in “Bowling Alone.” These include information on groups and group membership, such as that coming from the General Social Survey, survey research on values (such as the World Values Survey) concerning perceptions of honesty and trust, and measures of political participation such as voter registration and newspaper readership. Putnam has collected time-series and cross- 38 4 The Tanner Lectures on Human Values sectional data on groups from sports clubs and choral societies to trade unions and political parties. Much of the debate over Putnam’s research concerns the empirical validity of his basic finding that American social capital has been declining over the past two generations.
Others relate it to particular events that took place at the time, such as the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the war in Vietnam, or the series of scandals that engulfed American presidents from the late 1960s on. That there has been a massive cultural shift in many postindustrial societies from greater emphasis on community to greater emphasis on individualism should be obvious to anyone who has lived through this peroid.51 Ronald Inglehart’smassive and longrunning World Values Survey at the University of Michigan docu49 In a survey of the existing empirical studies of the relationship between welfare and illegitimacy in the United States, Murray himself notes that the relationship is weak for the period after the mid-1970s when average benefit levels in real terms began to decrease, and weaker for blacks than for whites. See Charles Murray, “Welfare and the Family: The U.S.
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
He thought everything was great.63 Finally, the most mature form of empathic response is the ability to experience an entire group of people or even other species as if their distress were one’s own.64 Often this happens when one empathizes with an individual’s plight and that plight is indicative of what his or her whole group experiences; for example, abused women or certain religious minorities or gay men, who all suffer at the hands of the dominant culture. The universalizing of empathy to include whole groups and categories of beings approaches the notion of a universal consciousness. The World Values Survey, which will be discussed in Chapter 11, shows a clear trend toward the universalizing of empathy among the younger generations, at least in the more developed nations of the world. Fundamental changes in parenting and attachment behavior, longer periods of adolescence, more exposure to diverse peoples, communities, and cultures, greater global connectivity, increasing economic interdependence, and more cosmopolitan lifestyles have all contributed to the universalization of empathic consciousness.
For panentheism, God is “right here,” even as God is also more than “right here.”38 Yet the central narratives of the world’s great religions—Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism—remain, for the most part, disembodied and extraworldly, cutting off empathic extension and the search for connectivity and God’s immanence. In the Age of Empathy, spirituality invariably replaces religiosity. Spirituality is a deeply personal journey of discovery in which embodied experience—as a general rule—becomes the guide to making connections, and empathy becomes the means to foster transcendence. The World Values Survey and countless other polls show a generational shift in attitudes toward the divine, with the younger generation in the industrialized nations increasingly turning away from institutionalized religiosity and toward personal spiritual quests that are embodied in nature and empathic in expression. Reason too can be salvaged from its disembodied Enlightenment roots and be recast within an embodied empathic frame.
It would be difficult to even imagine such a question being asked in the 1952 presidential contest between Dwight D. Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. The empathy question in the presidential polling is reflective of a sea change in human values that has taken place over the course of the past fifty years around the world. Much of that change has been chronicled and recorded in global public opinion surveys. Among the most detailed of the studies is the World Values Survey, conducted by Ronald Inglehart et al. at the University of Michigan. The researchers began tracking opinion shifts in eighty countries representing 85 percent of the world’s population in 1981. The most recent survey was conducted in 2005. Over the course of nearly a quarter-century of surveying, Inglehart and his colleagues have seen a transformation take place in human consciousness unlike at any other time in human history.
The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten
Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey
A 1993 Gallup International “Health of the Planet Survey” covering twenty-four nations found a substantial concern for the environment among people of both industrial and developing nations, with majorities agreeing that protecting the environment is more important than economic growth.7 The World Values Survey, which gathered longitudinal data from forty-three countries from 1970 to 1994, found that residents of countries that achieve signiﬁcant economic security show a strong inclination to challenge traditional sources of authority, including government, science, and organized religion, in favor of greater freedom of selfexpression and personally examined values. The World Values Survey data reveal a growing acceptance of equal rights for women, a greater interest in the quality of life relative to pursuit of material gain, and an increasing sense of the importance of family life to individual and community well-being.
Civil War, 191 U.S. Constitution, 182, 187 U.S. State Department, 192, 195 U.S. Supreme Court, 186 U.S. Treasury Department, 136–137, 239 value of money, 139 values alignment with authentic, 84 Christian, 339 of Earth Community, 55, 319–320 family, 221–222, 329, 337 Institute for American Values, 282 liberal and conservative, 31, 298, 328, 340 moral, 225, 324, 329 progressive, 339 surveys of U.S., 79–80 World Values Survey, 80 VA (Veterans Administration), 64 van Gelder, Sarah, 14, 357 Vazquez, Tabare, 356 Veterans Administration (VA), 64 violence, 37, 65, 66, 265, 285, 297, 307 Virginia, Bacon’s Rebellion, 168–169 vocations, 297 voting/voters integrity of voting machines, 348 numbers of women voting, 323 right to vote, 348 voter base, 221–223 voting rights, 187, 215 wage increases, 213 wages, inadequate, 226 Walker, David, 202 walking away from the king, 174–178, 356 Wallerstein, Immanuel, 65–66 Wallis, Jim, 261 War of 1812, 190–191 wars.
See also gender perspectives in ancient Athens, 146 Daughters of Liberty, 176 equality for, 202, 203–204 in his-story, 106–107 historical roles of, 94 job and family issues, 226 leadership by, 323–324 partnership relations, 37 rejection of social roles deﬁnitions, 323 rights of citizenship, 187 runaway wives, 168 spiritual identity of, 104–105 subjugation of, historic, 112 subordination of, by men, 105–106 When God Was a Woman (Stone), 98 women-led societies, 99, 323 workers, isolation from rulers of, 57–58 working class, 206–212 399 World Anti-Slavery Convention, 204 World Bank, 136–137, 194, 195, 227, 239 World Health Organization (WHO), 64 World Social Forum, 87 World Trade Organization (WTO), 12, 87, 136, 195, 228, 239 World Values Survey, 80 worldview(s) creation of, 76 inclusive, 47 Integral World view, 47 mature, 52 of modern culture, 256 Western religious, 254 World War II, 134–135, 194–196, 200, 217 World Wide Web, development of, 82 World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 59 WTO (World Trade Organization), 12, 87, 136, 195, 228, 239 WWF (World Wildlife Fund), 59 YES! A Journal of Positive Futures, 14, 20, 357 YMCA, 282 Zinn, Howard, 166 This page intentionally left blank About the Author Dr.
How Much Is Enough?: Money and the Good Life by Robert Skidelsky, Edward Skidelsky
banking crisis, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, lump of labour, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, union organizing, University of East Anglia, Veblen good, wage slave, wealth creators, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
In other words, the happiness of the rich is an expression of their satisfaction at being top of the pile, the unhappiness of the poor their frustration at being bottom. Since the rich remain at the top and the poor remain at the bottom whatever the income of society as a whole, average happiness levels do not change. (Imagine, by way of analogy, a queue on an escalator; the woman at the back of the queue remains at the back, even as the queue itself moves forwards.) Chart 7. Happiness According to Income Position in the UK Source: World Values Survey, 2005–8 Psychological experiments appear to confirm that relative, not absolute, income is what matters most to people. When Harvard students were asked to choose between two imaginary worlds—one in which they earned $50,000 a year against an average of $25,000, the other in which they earned $100,000 a year against an average of $200,000—the majority opted for the former.8 This may look like an expression of vanity, and no doubt it is in part, but there are reasons aside from vanity for wanting to be top of the pile.
As we saw in Chapter 1, average incomes in the UK have doubled over the past thirty years, but the median income—that is, the income of the person in the middle of the distribution—has shifted much less. The gains have been predominantly at the very top. Thus even if absolute income does matter for happiness, the statistics may reflect the feelings of the majority whose absolute income has stagnated. Chart 8. Happiness and Income by Country Source: World Values Survey, 2005–9 Chart 8 shows GDP and happiness for a wide variety of countries at various points in the 1990s. As can be seen, the unhappiest countries all have average incomes of less than $15,000 a year, after which point there seems to be little correlation.9 These data suggest a modification of Easterlin’s original thesis. Beneath a certain threshold, it seems, absolute income does matter for happiness.
Cultural biases may therefore compromise the accuracy not just of international but of national surveys too. Then there is the problem of translation. Happiness researchers must assume that the English word “happy” has synonyms or near-synonyms in other languages across the globe; otherwise, comparisons are meaningless. But this is not always the case. Take xingfu, the word used in the Chinese version of the World Values Survey. Xingfu implies a favorable condition of life, with an emphasis on strong family relations. One is not xingfu while playing tennis or eating an orange. And it would be an abuse of terms, not just a psychological error, to call a prostitute or ageing playboy xingfu.* Xingfu, in short, is closer in meaning to the ancient Greek eudaimon than to the modern English “happy.”14 Other languages raise similar difficulties.
The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce
3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
He advised a new ‘responsible nationalism’, which would ‘begin from the idea that the basic responsibility of government is to maximize the welfare of its citizens, not to pursue some abstract concept of the global good’.76 The global elites, in other words, need to catch up with how most people view the world – not the other way round. I believe what Summers is saying now is closer to the truth. According to the World Values Survey, people identify far more strongly with their nation than with a global identity. The two exceptions were Colombia, which has been racked by a brutal civil war for more than a generation, and Andorra, which has fewer than eighty thousand people. The more we cede power to global bodies, the more virulent the backlash against globalisation. Dani Rodrik, one of the world’s leading international economists, talks of the global trilemma.77 We cannot simultaneously pursue democracy, national determination and economic globalisation.
I call it the Reaction. It is pretty clear which direction the Western elites are bending. Davos is no fan club for more democracy. Having hived off many areas that were once under democratic control (such as monetary policy and trade and investment), post-2016 Western elites now fear they have not gone far enough. But elite disenchantment with democracy has been rising for many years. According to the World Values Survey, which offers the most detailed take on the state of global public opinion, support for democracy has plummeted across the Western world since the fall of the Berlin Wall.52 This is particularly true of the younger generations. For a long time, academics assumed that rising signs of disaffection with democracy were simply a reflection of dislike of the government of the moment. Government legitimacy may have been on the wane, but regime legitimacy was still robust.
Stuffocation by James Wallman
3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar
“Four out of five were materialistic in 1970” Ronald Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies”, American Political Science Review Vol. 65, No. 4, December 1971. For updates since then, see Ronald Inglehart, “Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006”, West European Politics Vol. 31, Nos. 1–2, January–March 2008; also, the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Many make sense of the shift to less materialistic values by referring to Abraham Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review Vol. 50, No. 4, 1943. Also, read about a generational shift to post-materialism in David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011. Advertising agency research This research was conducted by an advertising agency called Euro RSCG Worldwide, which, in the time it’s taken me to write the book, has become Havas Worldwide.
My reading, of course, is that conspicuous living is replacing conspicuous consumption in its importance for our status and our lives. Is Experientialism the Answer to Stuffocation? Ron Inglehart Again, Ron Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies”, American Political Science Review Vol. 65, No. 4, December 1971. To see the shift away from materialistic values, see the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). The changing make-up of our economy Compare the type of items in Simon Kuznets, National Income, 1929-32 (Cambridge, MA: NBER, June 1934) with those in today’s economies. Consider also, Francisco J Buera and Joseph P Kaboski. “The Rise of the Service Economy”, American Economic Review Vol. 102, No. 6, 2012. For an easy introduction, see the video infographic “The iPhone Economy” at www.nytimes.com.
Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici
Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Industrial Labor Relations Press, 1990. Women and Health, United States. Public Health Reports, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, 1980. Work in America. A report of a special task force to the Secretary of HEW (Health Education and Welfare). Boston: MIT Press, 1975. World Investment Report. Transnational Corporations and Integrated International Production. New York: United Nations, 1993. World Values Survey. Data from the World Values Survey. http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org. The Worst: A Compilation Zine on Grief and Loss 1 (2008). http://www.theworstcompzine.blogspot.com Zajicek, Edward K., Toni Calasanti, Cristie Ginther, and Julie Summers. “Intersectionality and Age Relations: Unpaid Care Work and Chicanas.” In Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking, edited by Toni M. Calasanti and Kathleen F. Slevin, 175-97.
The Antidote: Happiness for People Who Can't Stand Positive Thinking by Oliver Burkeman
And we cringe, surely rightly, when we hear well-heeled celebrities speak in rapt tones about the simple joys of having nothing – as when, for example, Coleen Rooney, television presenter and footballer’s wife, told an interviewer: ‘I find it so inspiring when you see people from poorer countries on TV: they just seem so happy with their lives, despite their lack of material things … in the future, I plan to visit somewhere like Africa.’ The problem with merely dismissing this entire outlook as wrong or misguided, though, is that it appears to be at least partly true. International surveys of happiness – including several reputable research projects such as the World Values Survey – have consistently found some of the world’s poorest countries to be among the happiest. (Nigeria, where 92 per cent of the population lives on less than two dollars a day, has come in first place.) Survey data from the Afrobarometer research project, which monitors more than a dozen African countries, including Kenya, has indicated ‘unusual levels of optimism among the poorest and most insecure respondents’ in those places.
‘Things are not permanent’: Ibid. ‘It’s clear that poverty has crippled Kibera’: From Jean-Pierre Larroque, ‘Of Crime and Camels’, blog post at mediaforsocialchange.org/blog/of-crime-and-camels 22 July 2001 ‘I find it so inspiring when you see people’: See ‘Colleen “Inspired” by Poor People’, unbylined article at www.metro.co.uk/showbiz/22368-coleen-inspired-by-poor-people International surveys of happiness: All World Values Survey data is accessible at www.worldvaluessurvey.org. Also see, for example, ‘Nigeria Tops Happiness Survey’, unbylined BBC News article, 2 October 2003, at news. bbc.co.uk/2/hi/3157570.stm Survey data from the Afrobarometer project: A good overview of this research is Carol Graham and Matthew Hoover, ‘Poverty and Optimism in Africa: Adaptation or Survival?’, prepared for the Gallup Positive Psychology Summit, October 2006, accessible at brookings.edu/views/papers/graham/20061005ppt.pdf According to mental health researchers: The study is by the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Consortium, entitled ‘Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys’, and was reported in ‘Global Study Finds Mental Illness Widespread’, unbylined Associated Press report, 7 July 2004.
The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey
For all those people except individuals in the top quintile of income, greater inequality is correlated with a reduction in protest participation, and that result holds across a data set of twenty-five different European democracies. Political interest, the frequency of political discussion, and participation in elections also all tend to be lower in situations with higher income inequality. Similarly, a global study based on the World Values Survey found that support for democracy was relatively low when inequality was high; thus, engagement also might be low under those conditions.8 I’ve heard many a question about when the next revolutionary Thermidor is coming to the United States, but the data suggest a different story. Since 1970, American survey respondents show no greater preference for government redistribution. Furthermore, two notable groups show considerably weaker support for redistributive ideas and policies over time.
See Latzer (2016, p. 102) and also Bell (1962 , chapter 8 and in particular p. 151). 4. For those pie charts, see Roeder, Eisen, and Bowling (2015, p. 6). On the parallel with Canada, see Latzer (2016, p. 247). 5. “Beyond Distrust” (2015). 6. On declining trust across the two parties, see, for instance, Haidt and Hetherington (2012). 7. See, for instance, Purtill (2016) and Silver (2016). 8. See Solt (2008, 2015). On the World Values Survey, see Krieckhaus, Son, Bellinger, and Wells (2014). 9. See Ashok, Kuziemko, and Washington (2015). In general these trends are robust long-run trends and they do not require the particular start date of 1970. 10. On female education and the number of children, see Hazan and Zoabi (2015). 11. See Global Peace Index 2016 (2016) and also Freedom in the World (2016). 12. See Cline (2014).
Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier
airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game
(6) This is a simplification of something Lord Kelvin said: I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the state of Science, whatever the matter may be. (7) Or, as Lord Acton said over 100 years ago: “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Chapter 17 (1) In some ways, this is similar to Kierkegaard's leap of faith, the non-logical acceptance of belief required for most religions. (2) The World Values Survey measures impersonal trust in about 70 different countries by asking the question: “Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?” The Scandinavian countries reported the highest level of trust (60% in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark believe most people can be trusted), while countries like Peru, Turkey, Rwanda, and Trinidad and Tobago reported the lowest.
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Bayesian statistics, cognitive bias, end world poverty, endowment effect, energy security, experimental subject, framing effect, hindsight bias, impulse control, John Nash: game theory, loss aversion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, pattern recognition, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, ultimatum game, World Values Survey
It does not seem, however, that socioeconomic inequality explains religious extremism in the Muslim world, where radicals are, on average, wealthier and more educated than moderates (Atran, 2003; Esposito, 2008). 9. http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=258. 10. http://pewforum.org/surveys/campaign08/. 11. Pyysiäinen & Hauser, 2010. 12. Zuckerman, 2008. 13. Paul, 2009. 14. Hall, Matz, & Wood, 2010. 15. Decades of cross-cultural research on “subjective well-being” (SWB) by the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org) indicate that religion may make an important contribution to human happiness and life satisfaction at low levels of societal development, security, and freedom. The happiest and most secure societies, however, tend to be the most secular. The greatest predictors of a society’s mean SWB are social tolerance (of homosexuals, gender equality, other religions, etc.) and personal freedom (Inglehart, Foa, Peterson, & Welzel, 2008).
., 48 witchcraft, 129–30 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 131 women: antisocial behavior and, 215n89 bride burning, 42 burqas for and veiling of, 27, 42, 42–45, 65, 74, 196n9, 207n17 forced marriage of, 42, 43 genital mutilation of females, 27, 42, 46 health issues of, 47 as priests, 34–35 as property of men, 50, 207n17 Taliban’s goals regarding, 37 See also rape World Values Survey, 231–32n15 worst possible misery for everyone, 38–42, 204n22 Wright, N. T., 166 Zaidel, E., 216n104 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Sam Harris is the author of the New York Times bestsellers The End of Faith and Letter to a Christian Nation. The End of Faith won the 2005 PEN Award for Nonfiction. His writing has been published in over fifteen languages. He and his work have been discussed in Newsweek, TIME, The New York Times, Scientific American, Nature, Rolling Stone, and many other publications.
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey
But the decline of trust wouldn't be peculiar to a place or government, Inglehart wrote. "We are witnessing a downward trend in trust in government and confidence in leaders across most industrial societies."17 Inglehart then tested his theory. Beginning in 1970, he conducted surveys around the globe, looking for signs of a culture shift. His first poll studied a half-dozen countries. Now his World Values Survey includes eighty societies that encompass more than 75 percent of the world's population. Inglehart has found that not all cultures change as fast or as much as others. The Nordic cultures are the most "post-materialist," while Americans are stubbornly traditional. (Here Inglehart diverges somewhat from Maslow, who proposed that his hierarchy of needs would operate cross-culturally. Inglehart has found that local culture alters the order of importance of social needs—a fact, as we will see, that is particularly evident in the United States.)
Evans, [>] Wohlgemuth, Arlene, [>]–[>], [>] n Women, in Congress, [>] n, and gender gap, [>], [>] n, [>], and marriage gap, [>] n, [>]–[>], and presidential election (2004), [>] Women's rights, [>], [>], [>]. See also Abortion Woodfill, Jared, [>] Wooldridge, Adrian, [>], [>] n Woolston, Thomas, [>] Working class. See Class; Employment, Labor unions and strikes World Council of Churches, [>], [>], [>] World Values Survey, [>]–[>] Wuthnow, Robert, [>] Xerox, [>] n Yablonski, Jock, [>] n Yankelovich, Daniel, [>] Yankelovich Partners, [>], [>] n, [>]–[>], [>], [>] Yarmuth, John, [>]–[>] Yoga, [>] Young, H. Edwin, [>], [>] Young, James Sterling, [>]–[>] Zuniga, Markos Moulitsas, [>], [>] Footnotes * Sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld, working in the 1940s, saw the same kind of policy-free connection between parties and people.
Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom
agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, bioinformatics, brain emulation, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, cosmological constant, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, delayed gratification, demographic transition, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, epigenetics, fear of failure, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, iterative process, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, new economy, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, prediction markets, price stability, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, social graph, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
An ethical evaluation might take into account many other factors as well. Even if all the workers were constantly well pleased with their condition, the outcome might still be deeply morally objectionable on other grounds—though which other grounds is a matter of dispute between rival moral theories. But any plausible assessment would consider subjective well-being to be one important factor. See also Bostrom and Yudkowsky (forthcoming). 23. World Values Survey (2008). 24. Helliwell and Sachs (2012). 25. Cf. Bostrom (2004). See also Chislenko (1996) and Moravec (1988). 26. It is hard to say whether the information-processing structures that would emerge in this kind of scenario would be conscious (in the sense of having qualia, phenomenal experience). The reason this is hard is partly our empirical ignorance about which cognitive entities would arise and partly our philosophical ignorance about which types of structure have consciousness.
Chinese Glazes: Their Origins, Chemistry and Re-creation. London: A. & C. Black. World Bank. 2008. Global Economic Prospects: Technology Diffusion in the Developing World 42097. Washington, DC. World Robotics. 2011. Executive Summary of 1. World Robotics 2011 Industrial Robots; 2. World Robotics 2011 Service Robots. Retrieved June 30, 2012. Available at http://www.bara.org.uk/pdf/2012/world-robotics/Executive_Summary_WR_2012.pdf. World Values Survey. 2008. WVS 2005-2008. Retrieved 29 October, 2013. Available at http://www.wvsevsdb.com/wvs/WVSAnalizeStudy.jsp. Wright, Robert. 2001. Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny. New York: Vintage. Yaeger, Larry. 1994. “Computational Genetics, Physiology, Metabolism, Neural Systems, Learning, Vision, and Behavior or PolyWorld: Life in a New Context.” In Proceedings of the Artificial Life III Conference, edited by C.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Should they even try? Beyond the Hedonic City Our rejection of the experience machine carries us back to the deeper notion of happiness for which the Greeks argued. So does the evidence from the emerging field of happiness economics, where Kahneman’s peers have tried to understand what influences the happiness of entire societies, drawing on data produced by census reports and polls such as the massive World Values Survey and the Gallup World Poll. These surveys don’t simply measure affect, or people’s relative cheeriness in the moment. They ask how people feel about their entire life.* The hope is to distill eudaimonia down to a number that can be compared with just about any variable, from income to unemployment to the length of our commutes and the number of friends we have, and then to understand all the ingredients that combine to create life satisfaction.† These surveys are fueling a revolution in economics, partly because they contest the power of massive advances in spending power to make societies happier.
But since his late-career conversion to happiness economics, Helliwell prefers to introduce himself as Aristotle’s research assistant, and he tends to begin his lectures with a sing-along version of the children’s song “The More We Get Together, the Happier We’ll Be.” He has evidence to back that song up; and cities, countries, and the United Nations are listening. Helliwell and his team have run several iterations of the World Values Survey and the Gallup World Poll through their statistical grinders and have found that when it comes to life satisfaction, relationships with other people beat income, hands down. For example, these polls asked people if they had a friend or relative to count on when needed. Just going from being friendless to having one friend or family member to confide in had the same effect on life satisfaction as a tripling of income.
air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, young professional
The percent of the population living in cities in China remained at only about 3 to 4 percent long after Europe had passed 10 percent early in the Industrial Revolution. Chinese family-firms remain an important form of enterprise in China today. As another scholar wrote about modern China: “you trust your family absolutely, your friends and acquaintances to the degree that mutual dependence has been established. With everybody else you make no assumptions about their good will.”34 We have some data on cultural values today from the World Values Survey.35 We can see the insider/outsider distinction on trust, using China and Great Britain from the 2005 Survey for comparison (Figure 6.1). If behaving amorally outside the family is acceptable, as in China, the expectation is that everyone will act accordingly, and anyone outside the family is then not to be trusted, not even “somewhat.” More generalized moral behavior in Europe, using Great Britain as an example, supports more willingness to trust other religious groups and other nationalities, including strangers.
For the rest of the world, it is difficult to boil down individualistic values to a single survey question that will translate across cultures. It is so difficult that most global surveys do not even try. We are stuck with some very indirect measures of individualism. FIGURE 6.1Percent saying they trust different groups “completely” (black) or “somewhat” (gray) in China and Great Britain. (Prepared using 2005 data from World Values Survey.)36 * * * Berkeley researchers Yuriy Gorodnichenko and Gerard Roland have used a survey measure of individualist values that a Dutch researcher named Geert Hofstede originally applied to IBM employees around the world and that has since been validated in broader samples. As they describe it: the individualism score measures that individuals are supposed to take care of themselves as opposed to being strongly integrated and loyal to a cohesive group.
Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey
As such, the preponderance of questions about physical symptoms in the early questionnaires, such as about having trouble sleeping, and physical aches and pains – gradually gave way to much more direct questions about how people felt. By the seventies and early eighties, a number of cross-national surveys emerged that asked questions about respondents’ happiness and life satisfaction, such the Eurobarometer and the World Values Survey (WVS). The data showed marked and stable differences between countries. But as this data came through, new methodological questions were raised. One question was whether linguistic and cultural differences led respondents to interpret happiness differently. The easy conclusion was that national differences were measurement error, rather than anything deeper. Policymakers were also sometimes dismissive because of the lack of responsiveness of the happiness data.
(page numbers in italics refer to illustrations) advertising: and alcohol 100–1 and humour 100 and shock 98–100, 100 and smoking 99, 100 airport expansion 98 alcohol 100–1, 127 and calories 100 and pregnancy 126–7 Alexander, Danny 281 anaesthetics 17 ‘animal spirits’ 207, 210, 211 Aos, Steve 282 Ariely, Dan 96–7, 134, 325 Aristotle 221, 240 Armstrong, Hilary 34 Asch, Solomon 26 ASH (Action on Smoking and Health) 189 Ashford, Maren 57, 83 attentional spotlight 83–4 Ayres, Ian 142 Bazerman, Max 134, 325 Beales, Greg 36 Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) (see also nudging): arguments lost by 212–14 becomes social-purpose company 350 beginnings of x–xi, 50–8, 56, 58, 341 current numbers employed by xiii, 341 current trials by 341 expansion of xiii governments follow 11 initial appointments to 56–7, 56 initial scepticism towards 9 most frequent early criticisms of 333 naming of x–xi, 52–3 objectives of 54–5 and transparency, efficacy and accountability, see under nudging and webpage design 275–9, 276 World Bank’s request to 125 year of scepticism experienced by 274 behavioural predators 312–13 Benartzi, Shlomo 64 benefits, see welfare benefits Bentham, Jeremy 221–2 BIG lottery 283 ‘Big Society’ 43, 50, 142, 250 BIT, see Behavioural Insights Team Blair, Tony 151, 225 and behavioural approaches in government 302 Brown takes over from 36, 260–1 review into tenure of 34 Strategy Unit of 31 Tories’ admiration of 50 Bogotá 135, 146 Bohnet, Iris 123 Britton, John 188 Brown, Gordon 34 becomes PM 36, 260–1 Byrne, Liam 47 Cameron, David 151 BIT set up by 8 and Coalition Agreement 38 and data transparency 159 Hilton appointed by 43 and randomised controlled trials 274 and response to notes 186 and smoking 194 and well-being 225–8, 227, 250 car tax 3, 91, 92, 275–8 carrier bags 23 Centre for Ageing Better 282 Centre for Local Economic Growth (LEG) 282, 288 Chand, Raj 146 charities 116–20, 142–4, 144 and reciprocity 116 Chetty, Raj 64 childbirth, see pregnancy and childbirth Cialdini, Robert 34–6, 47, 107–8, 109, 113, 121–2, 308, 312 Clegg, Nick, and Coalition Agreement 38 Cochrane, Dr Archie 269–71, 295, 297 Cochrane Collaboration 271 cocktail-party effect 86 cognitive dissonance 21 cognitive psychology 27–9, 28 Colbourne, Tim 215 College of Policing 282, 289 Collins, Kevan 283, 285 Community First 254–5 commuting 219–20, 263–4 conflict and war 20–1, 27, 87, 344–5 consumer feedback 161–9, 167 improvements driven by 168–9 in public sector 163–9, 167 cooling-off periods 77 Council Tax 95 crime prevention (see also theft): ‘scared straight’ approach to 266–8, 267 and ‘What Works’ institutes 289 Darley, J. 27, 110 data transparency 153–84 and better nudges 179–80 and consumer feedback 161–9, 167 improvements driven by 168–9 in public sector 163–9, 167 and food labelling 172, 178 and machine-readable code 154, 157, 159 and RACAP 157 in restaurants 178 and understandable information 176–9 on cancer 178–9 on car safety 177–8 on financial products 177 and utility suppliers 154–60, 155 Davey, Ed 157 Deaton, Angus 243 decision fatigue 141 Deep Blue 7 Diener, Ed 231 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) 272 discontinuity design 161–2 doctors’ handwriting 72, 72 Dolan, Paul 47–8, 220 Down, Nick 113 drivers’ behaviour 18, 18 Duckworth, Angela 247 Dunn, Elizabeth 220, 237, 250, 256 Durand, Martine 243 Dweck, Carol 343 e-cigarettes 188–97, 193, 215 estimated years of life saved by 195, 216 and non-smokers 193–4 and quit rates 192–3, 193 by socio-economic grouping 195 Early Intervention Foundation (EIF) 282 EAST (Easy, Attractive, Social, Timely) framework 10, 60, 149, 349 Attractive 80–105, 81, 85, 94 Easy 62–79, 68, 72, 73 and jobcentres 200 Social 106–25, 115, 118, 120, 122 (see also social influence) Timely 126–49, 129 Easterlin, Richard 238 eating habits 139, 171, 307 (see also obesity/weight issues) and choice 306–7 and food pyramid/plate illustrations 41, 41 and food tax 301–2 and healthy/unhealthy food 41, 82, 101–2, 216, 302 ‘mindless’ 171 Economic and Social Research Council 283 economy, UK 205–12 econs 6–7, 178, 223 education 137, 282 financial 64 further 146–7 and timely intervention 146–7 and ‘What Works’ institutes 283–7, 284, 286 Educational Endowment Foundation (EEF) 282, 283–7, 284, 286 Effectiveness and Efficiency (Cochrane) 295 endowment effect 140 Energy Performance Certificate 179 energy ratings 135 energy and utility suppliers, see utility suppliers Enterprise Bill 159 Epley, Nick 260–1 established behaviour, see habits ethnicity, and recruitment 137–9, 344 experimental government 266–98, 270, 272, 276 and crime prevention 266–8, 267 ethics of 325–8 (see also nudging: and accountability) and growth vouchers 279–80 and organ donation 275–9, 276 and overseas health-aid programmes 273 and radical incrementalism 291 and ‘What Works’ institutes 281–90, 292–4 Centre for Ageing Better 282 Centre for Crime Reduction 289 Centre for Local Economic Growth (LEG) 282, 288 Early Intervention Foundation (EIF) 282, 288 Educational Endowment Foundation (EEF) 282, 283–7, 284, 286 experimental psychology 24–6 farmers 145 ‘fat tax’ 301–2 (see also eating habits) fertiliser 145 Feynman, Richard 296, 297 financial crisis 45, 46, 206, 336 (see also UK economy) financial products 177, 206 fines, collecting 3–4, 52, 89, 90–1 Fischhoff, Baruch ix Fisher, Ronald 291 Fiske, Susan 84, 86, 325, 345 food pyramid/plate illustrations 41, 41 forms, prefilling 73–4 fossils 35 Frederick the Great 15, 16 Freud, Lord 279 Gallagher, Rory 55, 88–9, 158, 197–8, 204, 343, 349 gender equality, and company boards 123 Genovese, Kitty 109–10 Gigerenzer, Gerd 178 Gilbert, Danny 139, 220 Gino, Francesca 347 giving 116–20, 142–4, 144, 250 God Complex 269 Gove, Michael 287 Grant, Adam 347 Green Book 46, 228, 258, 259 Grice, Joe 233 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 222–4, 255 (see also UK economy) Grove, Rohan 211 growth vouchers 279–80 Gyani, Alex 197–8, 203, 204, 343, 349 habits: and early intervention 128–32 key moments to prompt or reshape 132–9 and tax payments 131 Hallsworth, Michael 48, 113 Hancock, Matthew 279 hand washing 99, 140 happy-slave problem 231 Haynes, Laura 56–7 hearing 25 Heider, Fritz 345 Helliwell, John 226–7, 232 Henry VIII 17 herd instinct 161 Heywood, Sir Jeremy 2, 215, 217, 281 The Hidden Wealth of Nations (Halpern) 44 Highway Code 20 Hillman, Nick 165 Hilton, Steve x, 43–4, 51, 53–4, 159, 190, 214, 215, 225–6, 247, 250 and randomised controlled trials 274 hindsight bias ix HMRC 2–3, 8, 87–8, 89, 113, 115, 118, 120, 181–2 (see also tax payments) BIT member’s secondment to 113 non-tax-related business communications sent via 210–11 and online tax forms 74 and randomised controlled trials 274 Homer, Lin 210 honesty 133–4 honours 98 horses’ behaviour 18–19, 19 hospitals: and doctors’ handwriting 72, 72 and patient charts 72–3, 73 Hume, David 221 Hunt, Stefan 209 Hurd, Nick 250 Hutcheson, Francis 221 hyperbolic discounting 139 imprinting 128–9, 129 infant development 128–30 (see also pregnancy and childbirth) and early mother–child ‘meshing’ 129 (see also imprinting) in geese 128–9, 129 and mother’s depression 129 Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (Cialdini) 34–5, 312 Inglehart, Ronald F. 229 Inland Revenue, see HMRC Institute for Government 40, 46–50 J-PAL 294 jobcentres 120–1, 197–205, 200, 201, 343, 349 (see also unemployment) John, Peter 96 The Joyless Economy (Scitovsky) 223 judges 140 Kahneman, Daniel 27, 29–30, 32, 48, 220, 226, 230 BIT’s work commended by 11 Kasparov, Garry 7 Kennedy, Robert F. 218, 222 Kettle, Stuart 125 Keynes, John Maynard 210, 211–12 King, Dom 48, 72 Kirkman, Elspeth 121, 146 knife crime 122 Kuznets, Simon 222 Laibson, David 64–5, 245, 307 Latene, B. 27, 110 Layard, Richard 225, 242, 248 Lazy Town 82 Legatum Institute 242–3 letters/messages, simplifying 71–3 and handwriting 72 in hospitals 72–3, 73 and prefilled forms 73–5 Letwin, Oliver 213, 217, 281, 295 Life satisfaction (discussion paper) 225 (see also well-being) Linos, Elizabeth 137, 344 List, John 286 litter 23, 35, 94, 107–8, 114 Loewenstein, George 307, 324, 345 loft/wall insulation 3, 75–6 Lorenz, Konrad 128–9, 129 lotteries, as incentive 94–6 Luca, Michael 161–2, 166, 177 Lyard, Richard 238 Lyons, Michael 250 MacFadden, Pat 34 Mackenzie, Polly 51, 215 Major, John 46 Manzi, James 295–6 Marcel, Anthony 136 Martin, Steve 113 Matheson, Jill 227 Mayhew, Pat 66 Mazar, Nina 347 Meacher, Michael 224 mental health 246–9 Merkel, Angela 243 midata, see data transparency Milgram, Stanley 26, 327 Miliband, Ed 34 military recruitment advertising 87 Milkman, Katherine 323 Mill, John Stuart 221 MINDSPACE framework 49–50, 50, 60, 72 motorcycle helmets 66–7 Mulgan, Geoff 225, 301–2 Mullainathan, Sendhil 343 National Citizenship Service (NCS) 251–2, 251 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 195, 271, 281, 290 Nesta 350 Nguyen, Sam 55, 197–8, 343 The Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle) 240 nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) 193, 193 (see also smoking) 9/11 28 Norton, Mike 256, 347 Nudge (Thaler, Sunstein) ix–x, 6–7, 39, 157, 234 Nudge Unit, see Behavioural Insights Team nudging (see also Behavioural Insights Team; EAST framework): and accountability 324–5 and experimentation, ethics of 325–8 and the public voice 328–32, 329 defined and discussed 22–4 and efficacy 304, 315–24 and familiarity with approach 319–24 relative 318–19 improving, with better data 179–80 rediscovery of 13 and subconscious priming 136 and transparency 304–15 and behavioural predators 312–13 and choice 306, 314–15 and effective communication vs propaganda 307–11, 311 Nurse Family Partnership 129 Obama, Barack 39–40, 254 acceptance speech of 38 Obama, Michelle 101 obesity/weight issues 101, 170–3, 307 (see also eating habits) in children, levelling of 173 and food labelling 172 and ‘mindless’ eating 171 O’Donnell, Sir Gus (later Lord) 45–6, 47, 57, 225, 227, 227, 242, 258 OECD 293, 340 Office of War Information (US) 21 Olds, David 130 online shopping 109 Ord, Toby 273 organ donation 9, 37, 52, 275–9 Orwell, George 309, 311 Osborne, George 45 and data transparency 159 O’Shaughnessy, James 247 Overman, Henry 288 Paley, William 221 paternalism x, 33, 51, 316 Pelenur, Marcos 135 pensions xii, 9, 62–5, 331 and choice 307 PMSU’s paper on 33 people’s parliaments 332 perception 24–5, 25 Personality responsibility and behaviour change (discussion paper) 301–2 police, ethnic recruits into 137–9, 344 potato consumption 15–16 pregnancy and childbirth 126–7 (see also infant development) Prescott, John 302 Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit (PMSU) 31–3, 47, 53, 225, 337 and Personality responsibility and behaviour change paper 301–2 psychological operations (PsyOps) 30, 308–9, 333 Putnam, Robert 253 radical incrementalism 291 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) 8, 113, 132, 182, 252, 270, 274–5, 283, 297–8, 339 and HMRC 274 Raseman, Sophie 157 RECAP 157 recycling 35 Red Tape Challenge 57 Reeves, Richard 51 Revenue and Customs, see HMRC road fuel 23 road traffic, see vehicles Roberto, Christine 101, 178 Rogers, Todd 146, 321 Rolls-Royce 208 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 21 Ruda, Simon 125, 137, 214, 344 Sainsbury, Lord (David) 46–7 Sanders, Michael 57, 116, 119, 142–3, 146 Scheving, Magnús 81, 82–3 Scitovsky, Tibor 223 Scott, Stephen 247 Seligman, Marty 232, 247 Sen, Amartya 231 Service, Owain 2, 56, 69 Sesame Street 101 Shadbolt, Sir Nigel 158 Shafir, Eldar 343, 345 sight 24–5, 25 Silva, Rohan x–xi, 43–5, 51, 53–4, 159 Singer, Tania 345 small businesses 205–9 passim (see also UK economy) smart disclosure 157 smoke detectors 99 smoking 9, 23, 99, 100, 138 and e-cigarettes 188–97, 193, 215 estimated years of life saved by 195, 216 and non-smokers 193–4 and nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) 193 and pregnancy 126–7 prevalence of 189 and quit rates 192–3, 193 by socio-economic grouping 195 SNAP framework 48 social influence 26–7, 106–25 and bystander intervention 110 dark side of 109–10 and litter 107–8, 114 norms of: descriptive vs injunctive 108 picking apart 107–11 in policy 111–15 and online shopping 109 and personal touch 119–21 and reciprocity 115–17 social psychology 107 Soman, Dilip 337 Southern Cross station staircase 85 speed bumps 76–7 Sportacus 81–3, 81 Stanford Prison 26–7 Steinberg, Tom 254 stickk.com 142 subconscious priming 136 suicide 67–9, 68, 77 Sunstein, Cass ix–x, 6–7, 22, 39–42, 44, 57, 73, 305, 307, 314 and RACAP 157 supermarkets 80–1, 84, 86, 171–2 and food labelling 173, 178 Sutherland, Rory 187–8 tailored defaults. 307 tax payments 3, 8, 23, 52, 87–8, 88, 89, 112–14, 118, 120, 131, 181–2 in Central America 125 Council Tax 95 and habits 131 and lottery incentive 96–7 and online tax forms 74–5 and randomised controlled trials 274 road duty 3, 91, 92, 275–8 social-norm-based approach to 113, 115 Tetlock, Philip 192 Thaler, Richard 6–7, 22, 39, 44, 50, 51, 53, 57, 305 and BIT’s name 53 and RACAP 157 theft (see also crime prevention): mobile phones 173–6, 174, 175 and target-hardening 78, 214 vehicles: cars 169–70 motorcycles 66–7 time, perception of 128 time-inconsistent preferences 128, 139–45 Times 301–2 tobacco, see smoking Turner Lord (Adair) xii, 33, 331 Tversky, Amos 27, 29, 230 UK economy 205–12, 215, 216 (see also financial crisis; Gross Domestic Product) unemployment 120–1, 122, 197–205, 200, 201, 216, 343, 349 (see also jobcentres) and well-being 255–6 utilitarianism 221–2 utility suppliers: and data transparency 154–60 switching among 153–4, 155–6, 155, 160, 213 vehicles 18–20 safety of 177–8 and speeding 76–7, 92–5, 100 varied penalties for 147 thefts of: cars 169–70 motorcycles 66–7 Victoria, Queen 17 visas 132 Vlaev, Ivo 48 Volpe, Kevin 320 voter registration 95–6 Walsh, Emily 123 Wansink, Brian 171, 306 war 20–1 war and conflict 20–1, 27, 87, 344–5 weight, see obesity/weight issues welfare benefits 8 and conditional cash transfers 135, 145 and timing of payments 135 well-being 218–65 and community 249–55, 251 and commuting 219–20, 263–4 by country 229, 238, 243 drivers of 235–41 material factors 237–9 social factors 239–41 (see also well-being: and community) sunny disposition 235–7 early concepts of 220–2 and GDP 222–4, 255 and governance and service design 258–62 and happy-slave problem 231 and income, work and markets 255–7 and Life satisfaction paper 225 measuring 222–4 big questions concerning 231–3 subjective 228–31 and mental health 246–9 and National Citizenship Service programme 251–2, 251 by occupation 244 and policy 242–3, 258 subjective 224, 228–31 and giving 250 (see also giving) by occupation 244–5 and prostitutes 231–2 UK government’s programme on 226–8, 233–5, 234, 240 unemployment’s effects on 255–6 and utilitarianism 221–2 What Works institutes 281–90, 292–4, 340 Centre for Ageing Better 282 Centre for Crime Reduction 289 Centre for Local Economic Growth (LEG) 282, 288 Early Intervention Foundation (EIF) 282, 288 Educational Endowment Foundation (EEF) 282, 283–7, 284, 286 When Harry Met Sally 160–1 ‘wicked problems’ 170 Willetts, David 165 World Bank 125, 293, 309, 340 World Values Survey (WVS) 229 yelp.com 161–2 Young, Lord 279 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS THERE ARE MANY people who deserve thanks and credit for the work and results of the Behavioural Insights Team that this book describes, and a rather shorter list for the writing and editing of the book itself. There are a number of people who deserve explicit credit for the creation and early support of the team, many of whom I hope I remembered to mention in section 1.
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
Younger people are much more likely to be first- and secondgeneration Americans of non-European ancestry and able to speak English and other languages.30 In short, old folks today not only just don’t get it, they can’t even speak it. But for those seeking to acquire, wield, or retain power in the United States and Europe, an understanding of the mindsets and expectations of these new constituencies will be essential. A number of global public opinion surveys are providing a clearer picture of the extent and velocity of these attitudinal changes. Since 1990, the World Values Survey (WVS) has been tracking changes in people’s attitudes in over eighty countries containing 85 percent of the world’s population. In particular, Ronald Inglehart, the director of the WVS, and several of his co-authors, notably Pippa Norris and Christian Welzel, have documented profound changes in attitudes concerning gender differences, religion, government, and globalization. One of their conclusions about these changes in peoples’ mentality is that there is a growing global consensus regarding the importance of individual autonomy and gender equality as well as a corresponding popular intolerance for authoritarianism.31 On the other hand, there is ample survey evidence pointing toward an equally profound but more worrisome attitudinal trend: in mature democracies (Europe, the United States, Japan), public confidence in leaders and institutions of democratic governance such as parliaments, political parties, and the judiciary not only is low but shows a secular decline.32 Reflecting on this trend, Jessica Mathews, the president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, noted that [t]he American National Election Studies group has been asking Americans the same question roughly every two years since 1958: “Do you trust the government in Washington to do what is right, all or most of the time?”
(Domhoff), 48 Wikileaks, 13, 100, 101, 130 Wilson, Scott, 119 Winfrey, Oprah, 8 Wohlforth, William, 136 Wolfe, Alan, 38 Women, 25, 33, 65, 66, 69, 70, 198 Wood, David, 214 Wood Ion, Heather, 211 Wooldridge, Adrian, 37 Woolworths, 169 Woods, Tiger, 7, 28, 207–208 World Bank, 8, 55, 56, 144, 180, 184, 206, 227, 244 World Chess Federation, 2 World Health Organization, 13, 145 World 3.0 (Ghemawat), 166 World Trade Organization, 156 World Values Survey (WVS), 67 Worldview, 65 World War I, 42, 114, 116 World War II, 45, 46, 83, 108, 114, 116–117, 136, 138, 158 postwar years, 253, 254 Yadlin, Amos (General), 121, 125 Yahoo, 212, 213 Yale, 139, 193 Yéle Haiti, 210 Yemen, 80, 110, 149 260 Young people, 14, 51, 57, 66–67, 69–70, 204 YouTube, 28, 79, 134, 179 Yugoslavia, 81, 157 Zakaria, Fareed, 140 Zambia, 187 Zambrano, Lorenzo, 175 Zara retailer, 44, 159, 176–177 Zawahiri, Ayman al-, 127 Zeitung Online, 215 Zimbabwe, 57, 150 Zoellick, Robert, 55 Zunz, Oliver, 43 261
Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future by Robert B. Reich
Berlin Wall, declining real wages, delayed gratification, Doha Development Round, endowment effect, full employment, George Akerlof, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mortgage debt, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, sovereign wealth fund, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, World Values Survey
WHY CAN’T WE BE CONTENT WITH LESS? 1 “Many of the so-called comforts of life”: Henry David Thoreau, Walden; or, Life in the Woods (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1854), p. 15. 2 “The people of this country need”: John S. Ellsworth, Jr., “The Depression Generation,” The North American Review 234 (October 1932). 3 University of Michigan researcher Ronald Inglehart: See Ronald Inglehart, Christian Welzel, and Roberto Foa, World Values Survey: Happiness Trends in 24 Countries, 1946–2006, January 2008. 4 In 1943, behavioral scientist Abraham Maslow: The original article appeared in Psychological Review 50, no. 4 (1943): 370–96. See also Janet Simons, Donald Irwin, and Beverly Drinnien, Psychology: The Search for Understanding (New York: West Publishing Company, 1987). 5 Before the Great Recession: See press release: Annals of Internal Medicine, University of Chicago Medical School Press, December 6, 2004. 6 In 2007, Americans spent a whopping $23.9 billion: J.
23andMe, 8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, attribution theory, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, dark matter, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, Googley, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, post scarcity, Ray Kurzweil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Singularitarianism, smart grid, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, X Prize
Todd Johnson, editor of the World Religion Database published by Brill, explains that “the world is less religious today than in 1900, but more religious since 1970 because of a resurgence of religion in post-communist countries and eastern Europe” (see Figure 7.1).15 This complements research conducted by Harvard University political scientist Pippa Norris and University of Michigan political scientist Ronald Inglehart, who directs the World Values Survey. They write, “The world as a whole now has more people with traditional religious views than ever before—and they constitute a growing proportion of the world’s population.”16 If such data weren’t surprising enough, some scholars have shown that belief in an afterlife has increased in the United States, a wealthy and developed nation that has always been highly religious.17 Research published by the University of Chicago’s Andrew M.
autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey
., Australia, Canada, Japan, and South Korea found strong links between inequality and reduced happiness, social mobility, and election turnouts and greater desire for status. Correlations between crime and social participation are less clear cut; poverty has a higher adverse effect across the board than inequality. 21. Ironically, people in countries where equality is high, like Germany and Norway, are the least likely to take personal credit for success. In the U.S., by contrast, people are less likely (as the World Values Survey shows) to consider their successes a product of luck or circumstance. 22. Jonathan D. Ostry, Andrew Berg, and Charalambos G. Tsangarides, “Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth,” IMF (April 2014). http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/sdn/2014/sdn1402.pdf 23. Wilkinson and Pickett’s findings caused quite a stir, but since the publication of The Spirit Level there have been dozens more studies confirming their thesis.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
One wants to protect the value of one’s property from rapacious and/or incompetent governments, and is more likely to have time to participate in politics (or to demand the right to participate) because higher income provides a better margin for family survival. A number of cross-national studies have shown that middle-class people have different political values from the poor: they value democracy more, want more individual freedom, are more tolerant of alternative lifestyles, etc. Political scientist Ronald Inglehart, who has overseen the massive World Values Survey that seeks to measure value change around the world, has argued that economic modernization and middle-class status produce what he calls “post-material” values in which democracy, equality, and identity issues become much more prominent than older issues of economic distribution. William Easterly has linked what he labels a “middle class consensus” to higher economic growth, education, health, stability, and other positive outcomes.
Illinois Waisman, Carlos Waldersee, Alfred von Wales Wallis, John Wang Qishan wantok Ward, Artemus War of the Pacific War of the Triple Alliance wars; in Europe; Japan and; in Latin America Washington, George Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) Weber, Eugen Weber, Max Weberian states Weingast, Barry welfare states Wells, H. G. West Papua Wilberforce, William William of Orange Wilson, James S. Wilson, Woodrow “winner-take-all” society Wolfenson, James Woolcock, Michael workers working class; conversion into middle class; voting by World Bank; Worldwide Governance Indicators World Bank Institute World Values Survey World War I World War II; Japan’s defeat in Wrong, Michela Wu Zhao Xi Jinping Yamagata Aritomo Yang, Dali Yang, Hongxing Yanukovich, Viktor Yar’Adua, Umaru Musa Yemen Yrigoyen, Hipólito Yugoslavia Zaire Zakaria, Fareed Zambia Zanzibar Zenawi, Meles Zhao, Dingxin Zhou Enlai Zhu Yuangzhang Zimbabwe ALSO BY FRANCIS FUKUYAMA The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy State-Building: Governance and World Order in the Twenty-first Century Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity The End of History and the Last Man About the Author Francis Fukuyama is the Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at Stanford University’s Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.
A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy by Joel Mokyr
Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Copley Medal, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Deng Xiaoping, Edmond Halley, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, framing effect, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, hindsight bias, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land tenure, law of one price, Menlo Park, moveable type in China, new economy, phenotype, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, survivorship bias, the market place, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, ultimatum game, World Values Survey, Wunderkammern
As noted, both theorists and applied economists have shown a growing interest in the economics of culture. Among the theoretical works by economists on the origins of culture are the pathbreaking papers by Bisin and Verdier (1998, 2011), which for the first time brought to economics the important work on cultural evolution done by scholars of cultural anthropology and population dynamics. The empirical work on the economics of culture depends heavily on data from the World Values Survey, Gallup World Poll, and similar data (Guiso, Sapienza, and Zingales, 2006; Tabellini, 2008, 2010; Deaton, 2011). This work has successfully addressed a whole set of issues of supreme importance to economists such as household behavior and female labor force participation, corruption, and migration (Fernández, 2011). It also draws heavily on experimental data, which suggest that culture modifies behavior in many ways that qualify and nuance the standard economic assumptions of individual utility maximization in such obvious set-ups as simple ultimatum games (Bowles, 2004, pp. 110–19).
., 51 water power, 143 Watson, Foster, 137 Watt, James, 109, 125, 277, 268, 274 weak ties, 191, 296 Weber, Max, 230, 231, 234 Weberian values, and economic growth, 122 Webster, Charles, 86, 87, 94, 159, 194, 229, 235, 238 Webster, John, 235 Wedgwood, Josiah, 66, 84, 185, 277, 283 Weismann, August, 44 Weismann barrier, 25 Wesson, Robert, 164 Western Christianity, 170 Western knowledge, Chinese attitudes toward, 312 Westfall, Richard, 106, 109, 115, 203, 206, 232 Westman, Robert, 158 Westminster Abbey, Newton’s epitaph in, 111 Whigs, 229 Whiston, William, 100, 110 White, Andrew Dickson, 133, 150 White, Lynn, 119, 135, 136, 142, 143 on economic growth, 17 White, Michael, 100 Wieland, Christoph Wieland, 243 Wilkins, John, 87, 93, 94, 153, 155, 229, 238, 255 Williams, David, 68 Williams, George, 30 Willis, Thomas, 91 Willughby, Francis, 94, 229 Wilson, Andrew, 143 Winter, Sidney, 22 Wiseman, Richard, 91 witchcraft, 220 Withers, Charles, 265 Wittenberg, University of, 173, 174 Woeßmann, Ludger, 127 Wolff, Christian, 245 women, and the Republic of Letters, 199 Wong, Bin, 287, 289 Woodside, Alexander, 292, 304, 305, 307, 322 Woodward, Hezekiah, 235 Wootton, David, 55, 160, 201, 213, 216, 218, 248, 270, 272, 318 World Values Survey, 13 Worm, Ole, 158, 240 Wotton, William, 95, 198, 253 Wren, Christopher, 87 Wright, Thomas, 222 wunderkammern, 153 Wuthnow, Robert, 174, 180, 276 Xu Guangqi, 326, 328, 333 Xue, Melanie Meng, 294, 327 Xunzi, 298, 319, 330 xylography, 293 Yan Roju, 328 Yan Yuan, 303 Yang Guangxian, 312 Yates, Frances, 73, 210 Yongle Dadian, 332 Yongle emperor, 300, 332 Yongzheng emperor, 313, 334 Young, Arthur, 276, 328 Yuan dynasty, 299-301, 308, 314 Yuchtman, Noam, 127 Zaccaria, Francesco Antonio, 131 Zagorin, Perez, 76, 78, 79, 132, 233 Zak, Paul J., 13 Zamenhof, Lazar, 257 Zelin, Madeleine, 291 Zheng He, 309 Zhou dynasty, 136 Zhu Shunshui, 311 Zhu Xi, 300, 302, 303, 308, 324, 330 as a cultural entrepreneur, 336 neo-Confucian orthodoxy, 309, 323 triumph of ideas, 308 Zilibotti, Fabrizio, 7, 236 Zilsel, Edgar, 136, 138 Ziman, John, 22, 31, 62 Zingales, Luigi, 13, 14 Zittel, Claus, 78 zoology, 91 Zuñiga, Diego de, 212 zunshi, concept of, 295 Zurich, 171, 204 Zurndorfer, Harriet, 326
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey
Cultural Heritage: A Classification of Countries by Denomination Countries P % C % PC % O % M % OM % S % T % CL Anglo-American Countries USA Australia New Zealand 36 48 60 25 26 14 61 74 74 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 18 3 4 80 79 78 P P P Western European Countries Norway Sweden Finland West Germany Spain 82 81 80 39 1 1 5 3 33 82 83 86 83 72 83 1 1 2 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 2 5 2 1 0 4 1 1 1 1 89 92 86 74 84 P P P C T Central European Countries East Germany Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Slovenia Croatia 18 2 10 17 2 0 5 39 73 55 69 82 23 40 83 72 71 82 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 24 43 86 75 75 85 T C C C C C Baltic Countries Estonia Latvia Lithuania 10 19 2 0 18 77 10 37 79 16 18 4 0 0 0 16 18 4 2 5 2 28 60 85 T P C South-Eastern European Countries (Mainly Orthodox) Yugoslavia 1 6 7 64 Romania 2 5 6 87 Bulgaria 1 1 2 53 8 0 12 72 87 64 2 3 1 81 96 67 O O O South-Eastern European Countries (Mixed-Muslim) Macedonia 0 1 1 45 Bosnia-Herzegovina 2 14 16 26 Albania 0 6 6 20 24 27 67 69 53 87 0 1 0 70 70 93 O M M 5 0 0 0 53 56 54 83 1 1 0 1 54 63 62 84 O O O O Eastern European Countries Russia Ukraine Belarus Moldova 0 0 0 0 0 6 8 0 0 6 8 0 48 56 54 83 P = Protestant; C = Catholic; PC = sum of Protestant + Catholic; O = Orthodox; M = Muslim; OM = sum of Orthodox + Muslim; S = Sects; T = proportion of respondents mentioning a denominational affiliation; CL = generalized denominational classification. Cell entries are data generated by the World Values Survey 1995–1999. Source: Dieter Fuchs and Hans-Dieter Klingemann, “Eastward Enlargement of the European Union and the Identity of Europe” (Berlin: Veröffentlichungsreihe der Abteilung Institutionen und sozialer Wandel des Forschungsschwerpunkts Sozialer Wandel, Institutionen und Vermittlungsprozesse des Wissenschaftszentrums Berlin für Sozialforschung, September 2000), 13. 68 Chapter 3 The debate within Germany on the role of Europe after World War II may have given Thatcher—and Ridley—grounds for Germanophobia.
Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
“Soak the rich” policies have seldom been popular among the less well-off in America, not necessarily because they have great sympathy for the rich but perhaps because the poor see themselves eventually becoming rich: Horatio Alger’s stories of ordinary people attaining great success in the land of limitless opportunity had broad appeal.18 Although such optimism may always have been unrealistic, the gulf between the possible and the practical might have been small enough in the past that Americans could continue dreaming. According to the World Values Survey, 71 percent of Americans believe the poor have a good chance of escaping poverty, while only 40 percent of Europeans share this belief.19 These differences are particularly surprising because cross-country studies suggest that people in the United States are not much more mobile across income classes than in European countries, and indeed the bottom 20 percent of earners may be unusually immobile in the United States.20 Nevertheless, the idea of income mobility was deeply ingrained in the past.
Economists and the Powerful by Norbert Haring, Norbert H. Ring, Niall Douglas
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, central bank independence, collective bargaining, commodity trading advisor, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, diversified portfolio, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, law of one price, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Renaissance Technologies, rolodex, Sergey Aleynikov, shareholder value, short selling, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey
The researchers examined the relationship between the strength of people’s family ties and their attitudes toward labor market regulation. If workers are not mobile, ﬁrms with regional labor market power can take advantage of their immobility and push down their wages. Thus, the authors argue, individuals with strong family ties should prefer regulated labor markets to avoid the need to move and to limit the market power of ﬁrms. Answers from the “World Values Survey” indeed show that countries with strong family ties implement more stringent labor market regulations. They also show that, within countries, individuals with strong family ties are more likely to believe that job security is a critical feature of a job and would like government regulation to ensure it (Alesina et al. 2010). In summary, employment protection is not only and not predominantly a question of efﬁciency but a question of whose interests are to be served, labor’s or employers’, and who can obtain government and public support to push their interests.
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
Huntington (eds.) (2000), Culture Matters – How Values Shape Human Progress (Basic Books, New York); the articles in the ‘Symposium on “Cultural Economics”’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2006, vol. 20, no. 2. 21 Landes (1998), p. 516. 22 M. Morishima (1982), Why Has Japan Succeeded? – Western Technology and the Japanese Ethos (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This argument has been popularized by Fukuyama (1995). 23 Based on their analysis of the World Value Survey data, Rachel McCleary and Robert Barro argue that Muslims (together with ‘other Christians’, that is, Christians that do not belong to the Catholic, the Orthodox or the mainstream Protestant churches) have exceptionally strong beliefs in hell and after life. See their article, ‘Religion and Economy’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2006, vol. 20, no. 2. 24 It is said that, of the nine names of Allah, two mean the ‘just one’.
A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberation theology, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey
These ‘happiness’ studies allow us to get around a lot of problems involved in measuring living standards: what needs to be included in the measurement; how we assign values to difficult-to-measure elements that affect our living standards (even though this has not stopped people from coming up with things like ‘political freedom index’); and what weight to give to each element. The best-known of this type of study are the Gallup Happiness Survey and the World Values Survey. Many people question whether happiness can be, and indeed should be, measured at all. The fact that happiness may be conceptually a better measure than income does not mean that we should try to measure it. Richard Layard, the British economist who is a leading scholar trying to measure happiness, defends such attempts by saying, ‘If you think something matters you should try to measure it [italics added].’3 But other people disagree – including Albert Einstein, who once famously said, ‘Not everything that counts can be measured.
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
Huntington (eds.) (2000), Culture Matters – How Values Shape Human Progress (Basic Books, New York); the articles in the ‘Symposium on “Cultural Economics”’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2006, vol. 20, no. 2. 21 Landes (1998), p. 516. 22 M. Morishima (1982), Why Has Japan Succeeded? – Western Technology and the Japanese Ethos (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This argument has been popularized by Fukuyama (1995). 23 Based on their analysis of the World Value Survey data, Rachel McCleary and Robert Barro argue that Muslims (together with ‘other Christians’, that is, Christians that do not belong to the Catholic, the Orthodox or the mainstream Protestant churches) have exceptionally strong beliefs in hell and after life. See their article, ‘Religion and Economy’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2006, vol. 20, no. 2. 24 It is said that, of the nine names of Allah, two mean the ‘just one’.
The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game
For good overviews of public opinion on key values issues, see "Issues in the 2000 Election: Values," The Washington Post/Kaiser Family Foundation/ Harvard University, September 2000; "Pew Values Update: American Social Beliefs 1997–1987," The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, 20 April 1998; and "American Values: 1998 National Survey of Americans on Values," Washington Post/Kaiser/Harvard Survey Project. See also the General Social Survey and the World Values Survey. In addition, see The Post-Modernity Project, The State of Disunion: 1996 Survey of American Political Culture (Ivy, Va.: In Medias Res Foundation, University of Virginia, 1996); Daniel Yankelovich, "How Changes in the Economy Are Reshaping American Values," in Henry J. Aaron, Thomas E. Mann, and Timothy Taylor, eds., Values and Public Policy (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1994);and Alan Wolfe, One Nation After All: What Middle-Class Americans Really Think About (New York: Penguin Books, 1998).
Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells
access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game
And, over a span of time, the more they would use the Internet, the more their degree of autonomy would enhance. There is indeed a virtuous circle between the technologies of freedom and the struggle to free the minds from the frames of domination. These findings are in cognitive coherence with a 2010 study in Britain, conducted by sociologist Michael Willmott on the basis of the global data obtained from the World Values Survey of the University of Michigan. He analyzed 35,000 individual answers between 2005 and 2007. The study showed that Internet use empowers people by increasing their feelings of security, personal freedom, and influence: all feelings that have a positive effect on personal well-being. The effect is particularly positive for people with lower income and less qualifications, for people in the developing world, and for women.
Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, endogenous growth, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, long peace, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
Political societies are not what the laws make them, but what sentiments, beliefs, ideas, habits of the heart [in his famous phrase from Democracy in America], and the spirit of the men who form them prepare them in advance to be. . . . The sentiments, the ideas, the mores [moeurs] . . . alone can lead to public prosperity and liberty.”21 Tocqueville’s and my belief finds support in the magnificent tables of the World Value Survey, in which researchers such as Matteo Migheli have found evidence for example of great differences in attitudes towards state intervention in Western vs. formerly Communist Europe.22 In 1973 North and Robert Paul Thomas boldly stated the hypothesis that has so charmed other economists: “Efficient economic organization is the key to growth; the development of an efficient economic organization in Western Europe accounts for the rise of the West.
America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven
British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K
Lowe-Porter (London: Penguin, 1978), p. 291. 2. The phrase is that of Lipset, American Exceptionalism; see also Minxin Pei, "The Paradoxes of American Nationalism," Foreign Policy (May-June 2003). 3. Michael Lind, The Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), pp. 100-102, 140-161, 215216, etc. 4. Figures for 1999 from World Values Survey, quoted in Pei, "The Paradoxes of American Nationalism." For the 1985 figures, see Richard Rose, "National Pride in Cross-cultural Perspective," International Social Science Journal 37, no. 1 (1985). For the 2003 figures, see Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Views of a Changing World 2003, Washington, DC. See also Lipset, American Exceptionalism, p. 51; and Tom W. Smith and Lars Jarkko, National Pride: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (Chicago: National Opinion Research Center, 1998).
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
The authors found that many countries exposed to climate-related natural disasters also have less developed information systems, as well as populations with relatively low levels of education: both factors would further reduce concern about climate change. 20. In 2005 Televangelist John Hagee and others saw Hurricane Katrina as God's punishment on New Orleans for tolerating such ‘abominations’ as Gay Pride parades and clinics that offer abortions. For earlier ‘peccatogenic’ explanations, see ch. 1 above. 21. Bankoff, Cultures, 3; Kvaløy, ‘The publics' concern’, based on data collected from the 2005–9 ‘World Values Survey’, quotations from pp. 11, 13–14, and 18. The authors asked respondents how serious they considered not only global warming but also ‘loss of plant or animal species or biodiversity’ and ‘pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans’. Almost everywhere, concern for the last category came top, with global warming either second or last (p. 17). The findings strikingly parallel those of Diamond, Collapse, ch. 14, ‘Why do some societies make disastrous decisions?’