transatlantic slave trade

103 results back to index


pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Annual slave shipments increased fourfold between 1650 and 1800 (see figure 2.2).44 In Africa, valuable European imports (such as cotton, salt, knives, brassware, and liquor) were offered as incentives for the creation of a highly organized system of slave-raiding, internal trade, and transportation in the West African states of Asante, Dahomey, Benin, and Oyo (in present-day Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria, respectively). The influx of flintlock firearms into Africa in the mid-seventeenth century gave slave raiders the tools of coercion to carry out their trade.45 Figure 2.2. Estimates of slave exports to America from Africa, I 662-1867. Herbert S. Klein. 1999. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 208, appendix table A. I. The transatlantic slave trade was one element of a trade network that European powers used to ensure a balance of payments—that their imports would be roughly equivalent to their exports. Exported manufactured goods would be traded at African ports for slaves. Slaves would be sold in the plantation regions of the Americas, and sugar, tobacco, and other agricultural goods would be shipped either to New England or to Europe.

The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 3rd ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan: 51. 39. David Northrup. 2003. “Free and Unfree Labour Migration, 1600–1900: An Introduction,” Journal of World History 14(2): 125–130. 40. Herbert S. Klein. 1999. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 41. Ibid.: 140, table 6.2. 42. Manning, 2005: 135. 43. See Harzig, Hoerder, and Gabaccia, 2009: 35. 44. Jan S. Hogondorn. 1984. “Review Essay: The Economics of the African Slave Trade,” Journal of American History 70(4): 854–861. 45. Hogondorn, 1984. 46. Barbara L. Solow. 2001. “The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A New Census,” The William and Mary Quarterly 58(1): 9–16. 47. Scheidel, 1997, cited in Nathan Nunn. 2008. “The Long-Term Effects of Africa's Slave Trade,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123(1): 139–176. 48.

Similarly large numbers of slaves that had been brought to work on the sugar plantations of Bahia, Brazil, were later moved farther south to establish coffee and other plantations.42 Others escaped and moved or were freed, occasionally finding passage to Africa, but more often establishing independent settlements in Brazil and elsewhere. The dramatic escalation of the transatlantic slave trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was related to other movements connected to Europe's ascendance. Economic growth in Europe drove colonizer migrations; these merchants and soldiers mobilized and controlled local labor for production; and the expansion of mines and plantations generated demand for external labor.43 This demand was initially met with a steady and increasing supply of slaves. Figure 2.1. African slave trade routes, 1500-1900. David Eltis and David Richardson. 2009. An Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Once slave shipments started in the early seventeenth century, the high profitability of tobacco, cotton, and sugar plantations increasingly depended on slaves.


pages: 565 words: 164,405

A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World by William J. Bernstein

Admiral Zheng, asset allocation, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, call centre, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, domestication of the camel, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, ice-free Arctic, imperial preference, income inequality, intermodal, James Hargreaves, John Harrison: Longitude, Khyber Pass, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Port of Oakland, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, working poor, zero-sum game

Calculated from Eltis, 50, table 2-2. 75. Philip Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 69, 81. 76. Paul Bairoch, Economics and World History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 146. 77. Curtin, The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex, 39-40. 78. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006),90-91. 79. Ellis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas, from 176, table 7-3. 80. Quoted in Davis, Inhuman Bondage, 92. 81. Professor Curtin produced the first scientific census with the publication of his landmark The Atlantic Slave Trade in 1967. His basic conclusions were largely confirmed and refined by Professor Eltis; see The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas; "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," William And Marv Quarterly, 58, no. 1 (January 2001): 17-46, and David Eltis and David Richardson, "Prices of African Slaves Newly Arrived in the Americas, 1673-1865: New Evidence on Long-Run Trends and Regional Differentials," in David Eltis, ed., Slavery in the Development of the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 181-211. 82.

His basic conclusions were largely confirmed and refined by Professor Eltis; see The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas; "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," William And Marv Quarterly, 58, no. 1 (January 2001): 17-46, and David Eltis and David Richardson, "Prices of African Slaves Newly Arrived in the Americas, 1673-1865: New Evidence on Long-Run Trends and Regional Differentials," in David Eltis, ed., Slavery in the Development of the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 181-211. 82. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade, from 268, table 77. For a more recent, and perhaps more accurate, quantitative assessment of the transatlantic slave flow, see Eltis, "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," 17-46. 83. Davis, Inhuman Bondage, 80. 84. Ibid., I 1-12, 40-4 1. 85. Michael Tadman, "The Demographic Cost of Sugar: Debates on Slave Societies and Natural Increase in the Americas," American Historical Review, 105, no. 5 (December 2000): 1556. 86. Ibid., 1554-1555, 1561. 87.

So massive was this involuntary migration that as early as 1580, slaves constituted well over half of voyagers to the New World; by 1700, three-quarters; and by 1820, 90 percent. Truly, the settlement of the Americas would not have been possible without black slaves, who constituted fully 77 percent of those who crossed the Atlantic before 1820.83 Only after the mid-nineteenth century, when the institution was finally outlawed, did the majority of immigrants have white skin. Figure 10-2. Annual Transatlantic Slave Trade Surprisingly, only about four hundred thousand-about 4.5 percentcame to the British North American colonies. Table 10-1, which summarizes the proportions of slaves arriving in the New World according to destination and the proportions of their descendants living there in 1950, lays out the puzzle. First, note that in spite of the fact that the United States and Canada received fewer than one slave in twenty, these two nations now contain nearly one in three of their descendants.


The Year 1000: When Explorers Connected the World―and Globalization Began by Valerie Hansen

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, financial innovation, Google Earth, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, polynesian navigation, seigniorage, South China Sea, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

Judith White (1976): 19 (8-cubic-meter cube), 56 (gold exports to Europe 1500–1520). Wangara: Ivor Wilks, “Wangara, Akan and Portuguese in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries,” Journal of African History 23.3 (1982): 333–49; Wilks translates the original, P. de Cenival and Th. Monod, Description de la Côte d’Afrique de Ceuta au Sénégal par Valentim Fernandes (1506–1507) (1938): 84–87. Atlantic slave trade: Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, 36–37 (Table 2.3 Estimates of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450–1600), 40 (Atlantic trade). Chapter Six: Central Asia Splits in Two Thanks to Arezou Azad (University of Birmingham), George E. Malagaris (Oxford), Lance Pursey (University of Birmingham), Irina Shingiray (Oxford), and Naomi Standen (University of Birmingham) for their help with this chapter. Only after 1500: Hugh Kennedy, Mongols, Huns, and Vikings: Nomads at War (2002): 208–11.

What happened in one place profoundly affected the residents of other distant regions. New pathways bound together different parts of the globe, and trade goods, people, and religions all moved along those pathways. The ongoing demand for slaves in Constantinople (modern Istanbul), Baghdad, Cairo, and other cities resulted in the forced movement of millions of people from Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia—hundreds of years before the transatlantic slave trade began. Globalization profoundly affected those who never left home. Once a ruler converted—and many did around 1000—many of their subjects adopted the new faith as well. People living on both the Southeast Asian mainland and the islands gave up their traditional occupations to work full-time to supply Chinese consumers, both rich and poor, with spices and fragrant woods. As foreign merchants increasingly benefited at the expense of local businessmen, the world’s first anti-globalization riots and attacks on the newly wealthy broke out in cities such as Cairo, Constantinople, and Guangzhou.

Almost all of the sources of slaves were in non-Muslim lands located near the borders of the Abbasid empire, which makes perfect sense. Once slave traders had obtained slaves, they brought them the shortest possible distance and sold them. The volume of the trans-Saharan slave trade before 1500 was massive, but it’s hard to pin down exact figures because there are no sources like those documenting the transatlantic slave trade. Because the ships that brought slaves to the Americas listed them on manifests, or passenger lists, historians have been able to calculate that 12.5 million slaves crossed the Atlantic between the start of the slave trade in the early 1500s and its abolition throughout the British empire in 1833. It is extremely difficult to estimate the number of slaves who moved on foot across the Sahara.


pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn

agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

State Department notes, its estimate doesn’t include “millions of victims around the world who are trafficked within their own national borders.” In contrast, in the peak decade of the transatlantic slave trade, the 1780s, an average of just under eighty thousand slaves were shipped annually across the Atlantic from Africa to the New World. The average then dropped to a bit more than fifty thousand between 1811 and 1850. In other words, far more women and girls are shipped into brothels each year in the early twenty-first century than African slaves were shipped into slave plantations each year in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries—although the overall population was of course far smaller then. As the journal Foreign Affairs observed: “Whatever the exact number is, it seems almost certain that the modern global slave trade is larger in absolute terms than the Atlantic slave trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was.”

The British antislavery efforts led to a brief war with Brazil in 1850 and to war scares with the United States in 1841 and with Spain in 1853, as well as to sustained tense relations with France. Yet Britain did not flinch. Its example ultimately prompted France to abolish slavery in 1848, inspired the American abolitionists and the Emancipation Proclamation, and pushed Cuba to enforce a ban on slave imports in 1867, in effect ending the transatlantic slave trade. Two scholars, Chaim Kaufmann and Robert Pape, calculate that for sixty years Britain sacrificed an annual average of 1.8 percentage points of its GNP because of its moral commitment to ending slavery. That is an astonishing total, cumulatively amounting to more than an entire year’s GNP for Great Britain (for the United States today, it would be the equivalent of sacrificing more than $14 trillion), a significant and sustained sacrifice in the British standard of living.

In the same way, these days, the “serious issues” are typically assumed to be terrorism or the economy. But the moral issue of the subjugation of women isn’t frivolous today any more than slavery was in the 1790s. Decades from now, people will look back and wonder how societies could have acquiesced in a sex slave trade in the twenty-first century that, as we’ve seen, is bigger than the transatlantic slave trade was in the nineteenth. They will be perplexed that we shrugged as a lack of investment in maternal health caused half a million women to perish in childbirth each year. Leadership must come from the developing world itself, and that is beginning to happen. In India, Africa, and the Middle East, men and women alike are pushing for greater equality. These people need our support. In the 1960s, blacks like Dr.


pages: 532 words: 162,509

The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America by Andrés Reséndez

Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, California gold rush, Columbian Exchange, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Jones Act, planetary scale, Right to Buy, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty

On the holding pens, see the juicio de residencia a los jueces de Apelación (a type of judicial proceeding), 1516, quoted in Mira Caballos, El indio antillano, 265. 51. Both quotes are from Mira Caballos, El indio antillano, 285. For Vázquez de Ayllón’s expeditions, see Hoffman, A New Andalucia, 44. For transatlantic mortality rates, see Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 275–290; and David Eltis and David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 167–187. 52. On the determined resistance of the Carib Indians, see Mira Caballos, El indio antillano, 294–302, and Whitehead, “The Crises and Transformations of Invaded Societies,” 875–888. 53. For the number of Lucayos enslaved, see Mira Caballos, El indio antillano, 289, 391–399; and Keegan, The People Who Discovered Columbus, 218–223.

If we were to add up all the Indian slaves taken in the New World from the time of Columbus to the end of the nineteenth century, the figure would run somewhere between 2.5 and 5 million slaves (appendix 1).9 Such large numbers of enslaved Indians not only approximate the African tragedy in sheer scale but also reveal an even more catastrophic result in relative terms. Without question, both Africans and Indians lost incommensurably. Yet broad comparisons between the two slaveries—still incipient and subject to revision—can provide some useful context. At the height of the transatlantic slave trade, West Africa suffered a population decline of about twenty percent, as it went from about twenty-five million in 1700 to roughly twenty million by 1820. During this time, some six million Africans were shipped to the New World, and at least two million died in raids and wars related to the traffic of slaves. In absolute numbers, this human loss was tremendous. But in relative terms, indigenous peoples of the New World experienced an even more catastrophic decline in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Anyone who reads about the history of northern Mexico or the American Southwest will invariably run into indigenous rebellions prompted by exploitation, raids on Indian communities, and labor coercion. And yet it remains hard to see the forest for the trees. Lacking a sense of the overarching system of enslavement, it is impossible to put such scattered and localized practices in their proper places, just as it would be extremely difficult to make sense of the kidnappings or intertribal warfare of West Africa without reference to the transatlantic slave trade. With The Other Slavery, I hope to provide a broad but detailed portrait of the system of Native enslavement that loomed over North America for four centuries and is a key missing piece of this continental history. Before embarking on this exploration, I feel compelled to issue two caveats. First, this book does not offer a running history of Indian slavery in the Western Hemisphere. Such a gargantuan task—the equivalent of writing the history of African slavery in the New World—could not be accomplished in twenty or even fifty volumes.


pages: 927 words: 216,549

Empire of Guns by Priya Satia

banking crisis, British Empire, business intelligence, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

his cousin Hannah: BCA: MS3101/C/A/1/6/1: Hannah Galton to Susannah Abrahams, April 9, 1751; MS3101/C/A/1/6/8: Hannah Galton to Susannah Abrahams, October 4, [1751–55]; Boston Post Boy, December 12, 1748, www.newspaperabstracts.com/link.php?action=detail&id=61555. He also dealt in: BCA: MS3101/C/D/15/2/1: JF, Nerbel and Co. to Farmer & Galton, September 10, 1752; MS3101/C/D/15/5/11: JF to SG, July 8, 1751; MS3101/C/D/15/5/13: JF to SG, December 10, 1753. “little parcel of”: BCA: MS3101/C/D/15/1/1: SG to JF, May 10, 1755. the Liverpool merchant John Hardman: Rawley and Behrendt, The Transatlantic Slave Trade, 172; Richards, “The Birmingham Gun Manufactory of Farmer and Galton,” 52–54. East India goods: BCA: MS3101/C/C/2/1/18: JF to Joseph Farmer, February 18, 1744. also borrowed from: See, for instance, BCA: MS3101/C/D/15/6/1: Joseph Farmer to SG, September 5, 1750; MS3101/C/D/15/1/1: SG to Joseph Farmer, December 28, 1751. dabbling in his cousin: BCA: MS3101/C/C/2/3/7: Mary Farmer (later Galton) to Joseph Farmer, October 8, 1743.

Journal of Military History 63 (1999): 631–41. ——— . “War-Winning Weapons: The Measurement of Technological Determinism in Military History.” Journal of Military History 54 (1990): 403–34. ———, ed. Technology, Disease and Colonial Conquests, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Essays Reappraising the Guns and Germs Theories. Boston: Brill, 2001. Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History. New York: Norton, 1981. Ray, Arthur. Indians in the Fur Trade: Their Role as Trappers, Hunters, and Middlemen in the Lands Southwest of Hudson Bay, 1660–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974. Reid, Richard. Warfare in African History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Renn, Diana. “Unarmed and Dangerous: On Writing a Thriller with No Guns.” Huffington Post, July 9, 2014, www.huffingtonpost.com/diana-renn/unarmed-and-dangerous-on-_b_5568724.html.

Crime in Early Modern England, 1550–1750. 2nd ed. London: Longmans, 1999. First published 1984. ——— . “Crime in England: Long-Term Trends and the Problem of Modernization.” In The Civilization of Crime: Violence in Town and Country since the Middle Ages, edited by Eric Johnson and Eric Monkkonen, 17–34. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996. Shumway, Rebecca. The Fante and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2011. Sifton, John. “A Brief History of Drones.” The Nation, February 7, 2012, www.thenation.com/article/brief-history-drones. Silverman, David. Thundersticks: Firearms and the Violent Transformation of Native America. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2016. Skeel, C. A. J. “The Letter-book of a Quaker Merchant, 1756–8.” English Historical Review 31 (1916): 137–43.


pages: 452 words: 135,790

Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants by Jane Goodall

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, European colonialism, Google Earth, illegal immigration, language of flowers, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, transatlantic slave trade

Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade, by the British Parliament (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1839). “Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade,” UK National Archives, accessed August 16, 2013, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/africa_caribbean/africa_trade.htm. 6. “12.5 million people” Ibid. “Assessing the Slave Trade: Estimates,” Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, accessed August 16, 2013, http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/assessment/estimates.faces. 7. “mainly from West and Central Africa” David Eltis, “A Brief Overview of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” last modified 2007, http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/assessment/essays-intro-04.faces. 8. “were forced to work on plantations” Ibid. 9. “sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, rice” Ibid.

The development of these plantations thus went hand in hand with the expansion of the colonies—particularly those of Britain, France, Holland, Spain, and Portugal—in tropical and subtropical countries, including those in the Caribbean and the Americas. However, in order to be economically successful, the colonial invaders needed plentiful supplies of cheap labor—and it was this that led to the transatlantic slave trade. The first African slaves were traded by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, and during the following four hundred years or so an estimated 12.5 million people were abducted from their homes, mainly from West and Central Africa, and shipped to the European colonies. Most were forced to work on the plantations. And those plantations not only led to massive human suffering but were (and still are) extremely damaging to the environment.

Norimitsu Onishi, “The Bondage of Poverty That Produces Chocolate,” New York Times, July 29, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/29/world/the-bondage-of-poverty-that-produces-chocolate.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm. Alan Rice, “Life on Plantations,” Revealing Histories: Remembering Slavery, accessed August 23, 2013, http://revealinghistories.org.uk/africa-the-arrival-of-europeans-and-the-transatlantic-slave-trade/articles/life-on-plantations.html. 29. “lured from impoverished Mali” Onishi, op. cit., http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/29/world/the-bondage-of-poverty-that-produces-chocolate.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm. Sudarsan Raghavan and Sumana Chatterjee, “A Taste of Slavery,” [copy], Knight Ridder Newspapers, June 24, 2001, http://vision.ucsd.edu/~kbranson/stopchocolateslavery/atasteofslavery.html. 30.


pages: 547 words: 172,226

Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, working poor

The inclusive model won, and instead of setting up a monopoly, Australian authorities allowed anyone who paid an annual mining license fee to search and dig for gold. Soon the diggers, as these adventurers came to be known, were a powerful force in Australian politics, particularly in Victoria. They played an important role in pushing forward the agenda of universal suffrage and the secret ballot. We have already seen two pernicious effects of European expansion and colonial rule in Africa: the introduction of the transatlantic slave trade, which encouraged the development of African political and economic institutions in an extractive direction, and the use of colonial legislation and institutions to eliminate the development of African commercial agriculture that might have competed with Europeans. Slavery was certainly a force in Sierra Leone. At the time of colonization there was no strong centralized state in the interior, just many small, mutually antagonistic kingdoms continually raiding one another and capturing one another’s men and women.

King Khama, Emperor Joe and the Great White Queen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Parsons, Q. Neil, Willie Henderson, and Thomas Tlou (1995). Seretse Khama, 1921–1980. Bloemfontein, South Africa: Macmillan. Perkins, Dwight H., Steven Radelet, and David L. Lindauer (2006). Development Economics. 6th ed. New York: W. W. Norton and Co. Pettigrew, William (2007). “Free to Enslave: Politics and the Escalation of Britain’s Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1688–1714.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., LXIV: 3–37. ——(2009). “Some Underappreciated Connections Between Constitutional Change and National Economic Growth in England, 1660–1720.” Unpublished paper. Department of History, University of Kent, Canterbury. Phillipson, David W. (1998). Ancient Ethiopia: Aksum, Its Antecedents and Successors. London: British Museum Press. Pincus, Steven C.

Though located in very different parts of the world, Afghanistan, Haiti, and Nepal have much in common institutionally with most nations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are thus some of the poorest countries in the world today. How African institutions evolved into their present-day extractive form again illustrates the process of institutional drift punctuated by critical junctures, but this time often with highly perverse outcomes, particularly during the expansion of the Atlantic slave trade. There were new economic opportunities for the Kingdom of Kongo when European traders arrived. The long-distance trade that transformed Europe also transformed the Kingdom of Kongo, but again, initial institutional differences mattered. Kongolese absolutism transmogrified from completely dominating society, with extractive economic institutions that merely captured all the agricultural output of its citizens, to enslaving people en masse and selling them to the Portuguese in exchange for guns and luxury goods for the Kongolese elite.


pages: 264 words: 74,688

Imperial Legacies by Jeremy Black;

affirmative action, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

., Legacies of British Slave-Ownership: Colonial Slavery and the Formation of Victorian Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014). 18 David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Emancipation (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014). 19 D. Eltis, “The British contribution to the Nineteenth-Century Transatlantic Slave Trade,” Economic History Review 32, no. 2 (1979): 211–27. 20 Peter Grindal, Opposing the Slavers: The Royal Navy’s Campaign against the Atlantic Slave Trade (London: I.B. Tauris, 2016). 21 Richard Huzzey, Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012). 22 Palmerston to Russell, July 21, August 13, 1862, NA. PRO. 30/22/14C fol. 25, 30/22/22 fol. 93; Russell to Earl Crowley, envoy in Paris, 15 Ap. 1865, NA.

He promised an end to the numerous claims and the reversal of any legislation granting special privileges to Maoris. The Maori themselves had markedly expansionist tendencies in the early nineteenth century, as, at the expense of non-Maori, in the Chatham Islands, but, more particularly, at the expense of other Maori. To blame these tendencies on guns obtained by means of trade with Europeans is to make the means the cause, which is inappropriate but parallels the habit of blaming the Atlantic slave trade simply on Europeans rather than allocating due agency to enslavement and sale of Africans by Africans. The legacy of empire came to play a much more polarizing role in Australian public identity and even politics from the 1990s, as the long-standing issue of Aboriginal claims became more central. A conservative position was strongly advanced by John Howard, the prime minister from 1996 to 2007.

Carruthers, Winning Hearts and Minds: British Governments, the Media and Colonial Counter-Insurgency, 1944–1960 (Leicester: Mansell, 1995). 5 Jeremy Black, English Nationalism: A Short History (London: Hurst Publishers, 2018). 6 Patrick Bishop, The Reckoning: Death and Intrigue in the Promised Land (London: HarperCollins, 2014). 7 Times, June 25, 2014. 8 Henry Frendo, Europe and Empire: Culture, Politics and Identity in Malta and the Mediterranean, 1912–1946 (Venera: Midsea Books, 2012), 1–16. CHAPTER 8 — THE SLAVE TRADE AND RACISM 1 Western Times, 6, 13, April 1833. 2 E. Gibson, Two Letters (London, 1727), 10–11. 3 Travis Glasson, Mastering Christianity: Missionary Anglicanism and Slavery in the Atlantic World, 1680–1783 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012). 4 Jeremy Black, The Atlantic Slave Trade in World History (London: Routledge, 2015), The Slave Trade (London: Social Affairs Unit, 2007). 5 Sowande M. Mustakeem, Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2016). 6 Jack P. Greene, Settler Jamaica in the 1750s: A Social Portrait (Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2016). 7 Nuala Zahedieh, “Colonies, copper and the market for inventive activity in England and Wales, 1680–1730,” Economic History Review 66, no. 3 (2013): 805–25. 8 Joseph E.


pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

., Lockwood, D.H., and Caldwell, J.R., 1965, ‘Lactase deficiency in the adult’, The Lancet, 2 January, pp. 14 – 18 Curtin, P.D., 1969, The Atlantic Slave Trade: a Census, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press Curtin, P.D. (ed.), 1967, Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press Curtin, P.D., 1975, Economic Change in Precolonial Africa, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press Curtin, Philip D., 1984, Cross-cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Curtin, Philip D., and Vansina, Jan, 1964, ‘Sources of the nineteenth century Atlantic slave trade’, J. Afr. Hist., vol. 5, pp. 185 – 208 Curtin, P., Feierman, S., Thompson, L., Vansina, J., 1978, African History, London, Longman Curtis, H., and Barnes, N.

., 1963, A History of Domesticated Animals, London, Hutchinson INDEX ANC (African National Congress), 672, 675 Abako (Alliance des Ba-Kongo), 649 Abiola, Chief Moshood, 664 Abir (Anglo-Belgian India-Rubber Company), 538 – 40 Abushiri, 578 Abyssinia, 324 Acacus mountains, 170 Accra, 640 Achebe, Chinua, 275, 368 Achimota College, 621f Addis Ababa, 577, 659f Addo National Park, 253 Aden, 203, 345, 583 Aden, Gulf of, 197 Adowa, 577 Adrar Bous, 155 Adulis, 199f, 201, 202 – 3, 209f, 214, 296 Aegyptopithecus, 32 – 3, 35, 45 – 6 Afar depression, 64, 67 Afonso I, king of Kongo, 366f, 421 Afonso IV, king of Portugal, 325 Afonso V, king of Portugal, 334, 337 ‘African Eve’, 92 African National Congress (ANC), 672, 675 African Plate, 9 African studies, 607 – 8 Afrikaners, 459, 479 – 90, 594ff, 597, 637; see also: Boers; Trekboers; Voortrekkers Afro-Asiatic language family, 107, 174, 176, 178, 297 ‘Afro-European sapiens hypothesis’, 90 – 91, 92 Agadez, 180 Agaja, king of Dahomey, 413 age-grade system, 258 – 9, 275, 278, 360 agriculture/food production: Aksum, 209f, 214; and barter, 262; and cattle herding, 157f, 300f; decline in output, 675 – 6; development of, 142f, 145 – 53, 158 – 60, 161, 163, 243 – 56; and disease, 240 – 41; and education, 620; effect of introduction of cassava and maize, 406; and elephants, 252 – 6; FAO survey, 243; inland Niger delta, 222, 226, 248; Iron Age, 182; and plough, 203, 501; and slave labour, 423; Ukara, 248 – 52; mentioned, 192, 257 – 8; see also: domestication; and under names of individual crops Air mountains, 180 Akan, 336, 385f, 391, 415 Akintola, Chief, 661 Aksum, 199, 200 – 16, 217, 219, 225, 278, 296, 342; see also Axum Albasini, Joao, 497 Albert, Lake, 264 Alexandria, 345 Algarve, 326 Algeria, 76, 91, 580f, 601, 604, 634 Algoa Bay, 458f Alliance des Ba-Kongo (Abako), 649 Almoravids, 277 altitude, 205 aluminium, 220 Álvares, Father Francisco, 290, 356 – 9, 360, 362, 363 amakhanda, 472 Amanitere, Queen, 192 – 3 Amboseli basin, 254 American Anthropological Association, 369 American Colonization Society, 420 American Declaration of Independence, 419 Americas, the, 3, 233, 285, 324, 370 – 71, 372, 383, 405, 470, 519; see also: North America; United States Amersfoort, 447 Amiens, treaty of (1803), 453 amino acids, 208 Amsterdam 389, 408 Anatolia, 178f, 188 Andropogon greenwayi, 101 Anglo-Belgian India-Rubber Company (Abir), 538 – 40 Anglo-Boer war (1899 – 1902), 511 – 12, 587, 594 – 8 Anglo-French agreement (1889), 568 – 9 Anglo-German Treaty (1900), 565f Anglo-Portuguese Treaty, 533f Angola, 141, 338, 371, 385, 399, 409, 411, 432, 469, 521, 532, 548, 569, 580, 582, 613f, 633, 649 Angra Pequena (South-West Africa, now Namibia), 533, 571; see also: Namibia; South-West Africa animals/mammals, characteristics, 29; and climate, 139, 140 – 41; cooling system, 83 – 4; disease, 240 (see also rinderpest); dispersal, 39; domestication, 154, 155 – 7, 160, 164f, 267; in Ethiopia, 206; evolutionary process, 28, 39 – 40, 50 – 51; fat reserves, 123; fossils, 25 – 6, 27, 31, 39, 50 – 51, 57; migrating, 62; moving on four legs, 58; savanna species, 123, 124; and sleep, 129; and vegetation, 100, 101 – 2; see also: livestock; meat; primates; and under names of individual animals Alvares, Francisco, 345 Anopheles gambiae, 239 – 40 Antarctic Plate, 9 Antarctica, 2, 21, 40, 138 antelopes, 39, 121, 124, 236 apartheid, 481, 491, 503, 638, 674f apes, 30 – 31, 39, 45f, 58f, 60f; see also: chimpanzees; primates Arabia, 196f, 198, 202f, 207, 209f, 211, 214, 217, 267, 308, 323 Arabian peninsula, 35, 39 Arabian Sea, 197, 351 Arabic language, 175f Arabic texts, 266, 276 – 7, 279, 360 Arabs, 196, 198, 214, 219, 232, 272, 279f, 282, 304, 307f, 309, 313, 315, 322, 332, 349f, 354, 424, 428 Arctic, 40 Ardrey, Robert, 60 Argentina, 519 Arguim Island, 332f, 334, 384f Aristotle, 285 Ark of the Covenant, 215 – 16 arms sales, 668 – 9 Arnot, Frederick Stanley, 550f arrowheads, 135, 141f, 171 Arthur, President, 532f artistic exression 130 Arusha Accords (1993), 669f Asante, 278, 281, 360, 391f, 398, 414 – 16, 422, 575, 578 Asia, 1, 39, 78, 91, 154, 155 – 6, 164f, 176, 195, 232, 267, 291, 294, 540, 567; see also under names of individual countries Assam hills, 165 assimilados, 627 assimilés, 627, 638 Assyrians, 188, 192 Aswan, 25, 187, 189, 191 Aswan Dam, 142 Atbara River, 192 Athens, 195 Atiya, 191 Atkins, John, 408 Atlantic, 24f, 138, 172, 220, 244, 261, 267, 341, 346, 389, 430, 521, 525, 613f; see also Atlantic slave trade Atlantic Charter (1942), 633, 634f, 636 Atlantic slave trade: and African slave traders, 383 – 95; aftermath of, 410 – 25, 426 – 9; beginnings of, 319, 326, 329f, 331, 333f; climatic context of, 426 – 37; description of, 368 – 82; mentioned, 285, 288, 548 Atlas mountains, 9f, 181 Aubame, Jean, 635 aurochs, 154, 156, 164f, 166f Australasia, 3, 233; see also Australia Australia, 1, 90f, 456; see also Australasia australopithecines/Australopithecus Australopithecus afarensis, 46, 51, 56, 64, 75 Australopithecus a fricanus, 59, 67 Australopithecus ramidus, 67 gracile, 67, 69 robust, 68 – 9, 70, 75 Austria, 525; see also Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, 534f Avignon, 343 Awolowo, Chief Obafemi, 627 Axum, 212, 214f, 216, 290, 359 (see also Aksum); stelae, 212 – 13 Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 623f Azores, 327 Azurara, Gomes Eannes de, 330 BIC see Bushveld Igneous Complex Bab-el-Mandeb straits, 203 Babaleye, Taye, 619 bacteria, fossils of, 19 Bagamoyo, 175, 521, 524 BaGanda: people, 169; language, 364 Bailor-Caulker, Honoria, 368 – 70, 422 Bakongo, 649 Baldaya, Affonso Gonçalvez, 328 Balewa, Sir Abubakar Tafawa, 661f Baluba, 649 Bamako, 567 Bambara, 226, 400 Banana Island, 370 Banana Point, 528 bananas, 291, 292 – 8, 301 Banda, Hastings, 624 Bandiagara: escarpment, 259, 400; plateau, 221 Bani River, 221, 224 Bantu Education Act (1954), 481 Bantu languages, 107, 174, 175 – 6, 177, 297 – 8, 303, 366, 612 Bantu speakers, 177 – 8, 182f, 194, 263, 297 – 8, 433f, 435, 441f, 452, 454, 465, 611 – 12, 660; see also: Bantu languages; and under names of individual ethnic groups baobab trees, 564, 565 – 6 Barawa, 353 Barbados, 373 Barberton Mountain Land, 11f, 17f Barbot, John, 406 Baringo, Lake, 48 Baringo Paleontological Research Project, 49, 52 barley, 207f Barnato, Barney, 505 Barotseland, 463, 544, 546, 548f, 552f, 554f, 556f, 558f, 560 bars, 390 barter, 261f, 383, 390 – 91, 391 – 2 Barue, 575 Basuto, 398, 463, 501 Basutoland, 553 Batavia, 446, 448 Baudouin, king of Belgium, 648, 650 Baumann, Oscar, 582f Bay of Cattle (Bahia dos Vaqueiros), 339 Bechuanaland Protectorate (later Botswana), 114, 553f, 555, 582f, 590; see also Botswana bees, 111f beeswax, export of, 411 Behazin, 578 Beijing, 319, 323 Beira, 308 Beit, Alfred, 505 Belgian Congo, 542, 599, 601, 604, 613f, 615, 631, 633, 636, 642, 643 – 51 Belgium/Belgians, 607, 627; and the Congo, 518, 536, 537 – 8, 540, 542, 599, 601, 604, 631, 642, 643 – 51, 652; and Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi), 613 – 14, 615 – 16, 628 – 9, 630, 665f, 668; see also Leopold II Belingwe Greenstone Belt, 309 Belloc, Hilaire, 578 Bemba, 432, 621 Bengal, 388 – 9 Benguela, 521 Benguela Current, 40, 138, 338 Benin (Dahomey), 321, 336, 360, 371, 385f, 390f, 392, 407, 413, 415, 568f, 587, 660; see also Dahomey Benin, Bight of, 336 Benin City, 289, 413 Benue region, 264 Benue valley, 177, 182 Berber languages, 176 Berbers, 180f, 266, 269; see also Berber languages Bering Straits, 1, 91, 267 Berkeley, University of California at, 91f Berlin Act (1885), 536, 599 Berlin Conference (1884 – 5), 581, 534, 570, 613 Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 26 Berquem, Louis de, 492 Berry, Duke of, 344 Biafra, 663 Biafra, Bight of, 220 Bigo, 300f bilharzia, 236 – 7 Bilma, 265, 269 Bilsen, Antoine A.

In this Situation they are thrown into the Bottom of the Canoe, where they lie in great Pain, and often almost covered with Water. On their landing, they are taken to the Traders Houses, where they are oiled, fed, and made up for Sale.20 The widespread impact of the slave trade on African society can be judged by the fact that in 1850 over 200 different languages were identified among the 40,000 or so former slaves then living in Freetown district.21 Though virtually all had been enslaved after the transatlantic slave trade had been abolished in 1807 – 8, their origins covered most of West and West-central Africa and included even a few outlying areas of East Africa. Not only the languages of the former slaves was noted, but also the manner by which they came to be enslaved. One-third had been ‘taken in war’, most of them in the raids which horsemen from nomadic groups in the Sahel launched against agricultural communities; another third had been kidnapped, either as children in the manner which Olaudah Equiano had described, or as adults travelling outside their homeland.


To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland's Global Diaspora, 1750-2010 by T M Devine

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, deindustrialization, deskilling, full employment, ghettoisation, housing crisis, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land tenure, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, railway mania, Red Clydeside, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce

Engerman, ‘The Slave Trade and British Capital Formation in the Eighteenth Century: A comment on the Williams Thesis’, Business History Review, 46 (1972), pp. 430–43; Roger I. Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810 (London, 1965), pp. 38–57; R. P. Thomas and N. Bean, ‘The Fishers of Men: The Profits of the Slave Trade’, Journal of Economic History, 34 (December, 1974), pp. 885–914; C. H. Feinstein, ‘Capital Accumulation and the Industrial Revolution’, in R. Floud and D. McCloskey, eds., The Economic History of Britain since 1700. Vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1981), p. 131. 4. David Richardson, ‘The British Empire and the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1660–1807’, in P. J. Marshall, ed., The Oxford History of the British Empire. Vol. 2: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1998), p. 461. 5. See inter alia, B. L. Solow, ‘Caribbean Slavery and British Growth.

The table below indicates the minute level of direct Scottish participation in that traffic. Table 1: Known slave voyages direct from Scottish ports, 1706–66 Port Number of voyages Period Port Glasgow 7 c.1717–30 Greenock 14 mainly 1760s Montrose 4 1760s Leith 2 1706; 1764 Total slaves embarked: c.4,500 Sources: M. Duffill, ‘The Africa Trade from the Ports of Scotland 1706–66’, Slavery and Abolition, 24 (December, 2004), pp. 102–22; D. Eltis et al., The Transatlantic Slave Trade. A database on CD-ROM (Cambridge, 1999). This low rate of participation was not caused by any ethnic or moral opposition to the trade, however, as there was little hint until the 1760s of significant opposition to the idea of black men and women being used as slaves.14 Rather the explanation seems to be that London and the English outports were already so well established in the Africa trade by the end of the seventeenth century that during the subsequent decades Scots had to find their primary Atlantic commercial niches in tobacco and sugar importation.

, 2004). Anon., The Depopulation System in the Highlands (Edinburgh, 1849). Anon., ‘Scottish Capital Abroad’, Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, CXXXVI (1884). Anon., That Land of Exiles. Scots in Australia (Edinburgh, 1988). Anon., ‘Demographic Trends in Scotland: A Shrinking and Ageing Population’. ESRC Seminar Series, Mapping the Public Policy Landscape (2004). Anstey, Roger I., The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810 (London, 1965). Anthony, Richard F., Herds and Hinds: Farm Labour in Lowland Scotland, 1900–1939 (Edinburgh, 1997). Armitage, David, ‘The Scottish Diaspora’, in Jenny Wormald, ed., Scotland: A History (Oxford, 2005). Ascherson, Neal, Stone Voices. The Search for Scotland (London, 2002). Bailey, J. D., ‘Australian borrowing in Scotland in the nineteenth century’, Economic History Review, New Series, 12, 2 (1959).


pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson

British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, union organizing, zero-sum game

For once the slave trade had gone, slavery itself could only wither. Between 1808 and 1830 the total slave population of the British West Indies declined from about 800,000 to 650,000. By 1833 the last resistance had crumbled. Slavery itself was made illegal in British territory; the helots of the Caribbean were emancipated, their owners compensated with the proceeds of a special government loan. That did not of course put an end to the transatlantic slave trade or slavery in the Americas. It continued not only in the southern United States but also on a far larger scale in Brazil; all told, around 1.9 million more Africans crossed the Atlantic after the British ban, most of them to Latin America. However, the British did their utmost to disrupt this continuing traffic. A British West Africa Squadron was sent to patrol the African coast from Freetown, with bounties offered to naval officers for every slave they intercepted and liberated.

How an archipelago of rainy islands off the north-west coast of Europe came to rule the world is one of the fundamental questions not just of British but of world history. It is one of the questions this book seeks to answer. The second and perhaps more difficult question it addresses is simply whether the Empire was a good or bad thing. It is nowadays quite conventional to think that, on balance, it was bad. Probably the main reason for the Empire’s fall into disrepute was its involvement in the Atlantic slave trade and slavery itself. This is no longer a question for historical judgement alone; it has become a political, and potentially a legal, issue. In August 1999 the African World Reparations and Repatriation Truth Commission, meeting in Accra, issued a demand for reparations from ‘all those nations of Western Europe and the Americas and institutions, who participated and benefited from the slave trade and colonialism’.

At the time of writing, British servicemen had been stationed in Sierra Leone since May 2000 as peacemakers and peacekeepers. Their mission was, fundamentally, an altruistic one: to help restore stability to a country that had been wracked for years by civil war.* A little less than 200 years ago, a Royal Navy squadron was based in Sierra Leone on a comparably moral mission: to prevent slave ships leaving the African coast for America, and thereby to bring an end to the Atlantic slave trade. This was an astonishing volte face, especially astonishing to the Africans themselves.† After the British first came to Sierra Leone in 1562 it did not take them long to become slave traders. In the subsequent two and a half centuries, as we have seen, more than three million Africans were shipped into bondage on British ships. But then, towards the end of the eighteenth century, something changed dramatically; it was almost as if a switch was flicked in the British psyche.


The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward E. Baptist

banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, creative destruction, desegregation, double helix, financial innovation, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

In 1840, British Prime Minister Robert Peel began to push other European nations to accept a treaty called the Convention of London. This agreement would allow the Royal Navy to search and seize ships flying non-British flags if they were suspected of participating in the Atlantic slave trade.72 The British had already extended this kind of pressure to Texas, which, in return for diplomatic recognition from Britain, had agreed to allow the Royal Navy to stop ships bringing slaves from Cuba to Texas. And actual enforcement of existing treaties banning the Atlantic slave trade would threaten slavery’s viability in Brazil and Cuba. Enforcement would also eviscerate the profits that US citizens were making from the illegal trade. US mercantile firms invested indirectly in slaving voyages to present-day Angola and Nigeria.

Again, a few starting points: Philip Curtin, The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex: Essays in Atlantic History (Cambridge, UK, 1990); Richard Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1972); Peter Wood, Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion (New York, 1973); Leonardo Marques, “The United States and the Transatlantic Slave Trade to the Americas, 1776–1867” (PhD diss., Emory University, 2013). 4. Robert Olwell, Masters, Slaves, and Subjects: The Culture of Power in the South Carolina Low Country, 1740–1790 (Ithaca, NY, 1998), 270. 5. David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1775–1820 (Ithaca, NY, 1975); Donald Robinson, Slavery in the Structure of American Politics, 1765–1820 (New York, 1970); Christine Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginning of the Bible Belt (New York, 1997); Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (New York, 1984 [Library of America]), 289. 6.

Twelve years later, the crews of two storm-damaged English privateers also passed, seeking shelter and a place to sell the twenty-odd enslaved Africans (captured from a Portuguese slaver) lying shackled in their holds. After that first 1619 shipload, some 100,000 more enslaved Africans would sail upriver past Old Point Comfort. Lying in chains in the holds of slave ships, they could not see the land until they were brought up on deck to be sold. After the legal Atlantic slave trade to the United States ended in 1807, hundreds of thousands more enslaved people passed the point. Now they were going the other way, boarding ships at Richmond, the biggest eastern center of the internal slave trade, to go by sea to the Mississippi Valley. By the time a dark night came in late May 1861, the moon had waxed and waned three thousand times over slavery in the South. To protect slavery, Virginia had just seceded from the United States, choosing a side at last after six months of indecision in the wake of South Carolina’s rude exit from the Union.


pages: 522 words: 150,592

Atlantic: Great Sea Battles, Heroic Discoveries, Titanic Storms & a Vast Ocean of a Million Stories by Simon Winchester

British Empire, cable laying ship, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, friendly fire, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Isaac Newton, Louis Blériot, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, supervolcano, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, undersea cable

By chance one of the more famous British piracy trials, and one not conducted at the Admiralty in London but in a corner of West Africa, shed some long-needed light on it. It was a curse of the high seas that was eventually to be among the most severely policed as well, such that in time it was finally abolished. Yet it was an extraordinarily long-lived maritime cargo-carrying phenomenon, the memory of which now scars and shames the world: the unseemly business of the transatlantic slave trade. The Trial of Black Bart’s Men, as it came to be known, took place in 1722, in the dauntingly magnificent-looking, pure white cliff top building that still stands well to the west of the capital of Ghana: the famous Cape Coast Castle. It was adventurous Swedes who first built a wooden structure here, near a coastal village named Oguaa, as a center for gold, ivory, and lumber trading; it next passed into the hands of another unlikely Scandinavian colonizing power, the Danes; and then in 1664 it was captured by the British, who had an enduring colonial interest in West Africa and held on to the Gold Coast—as Ghana was then called—for the next three hundred years.

The final slave ships to cross the ocean were American, the Wanderer and the Clotilde, and they managed to get through the various cordons and blockades in 1858 and 1859 respectively. The last surviving slave from the last arriving slaver died in 1935, in a suburb of Mobile, Alabama. And with the death of this dignified old man from Benin, a ninety-four-year-old named Cudjoe Lewis, so was severed history’s final living link to the transatlantic slave trade, which had begun with the French in Florida and the English in Virginia in the beginning of the sixteenth century and had endured for more than four hundred years. As coda, though, there is one further account worth relating—that of a white American who after crossing the Atlantic became a slave in coastal Africa, and thus provided history with the mirror image of a trade that was otherwise overwhelmingly conducted in the opposite direction.

London: Penguin, 2006. Agnew, David. Fishing South: The History and Management of the South Georgia Fisheries. St. Albans: Penna Press, 2004. Air Ministry. Atlantic Bridge: The Official Account of RAF Transport Command’s Ocean Ferry. London: HMSO, 1945. Amos, William H., and Stephen H. Amos. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. National Audubon Society Nature Guides. New York: Knopf, 1985. Anstey, Roger. The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810. London: Macmillan, 1975. Archibald, Malcolm. Across the Pond: Chapters from the Atlantic. Latheronwheel, Caithness, UK: Whittles Publishing, 2001. Armitage, David, and Michael J. Braddick, eds. The British Atlantic World, 1500–1800. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Armstrong, Warren. Atlantic Bridge: From Sail to Steam to Wings. London: Frederick Muller, 1956.


pages: 285 words: 83,682

The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity by Kwame Anthony Appiah

affirmative action, assortative mating, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, four colour theorem, full employment, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, precariat, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

So Grégoire not only assembled the dozen or more extraordinary counterexamples in his book but reported on a visit to a group of black children brought from Sierra Leone to a school founded in London by William Wilberforce, the great evangelical antislavery campaigner, concluding that, so far as he could tell, “there exists no difference between them and Europeans except that of color.”13 RACE AS RATIONALE Part of the background to the debate about the capacity of the Negro was the explosion of African slavery in Europe’s New World colonies in the Americas. In Amo’s years in Germany, the transatlantic slave trade was rising toward its late-eighteenth-century peak, when some 80,000 people a year were transported in shackles from Africa to the New World. Many historians have concluded that one reason for the increasingly negative view of the Negro through the later eighteenth century was the need to salve the consciences of those who trafficked in and exploited enslaved men and women. As Grégoire put it, bleakly but bluntly, “People have slandered Negroes, first in order to get the right to enslave them, and then to justify themselves for having enslaved them. . . .”14 Many in Europe needed, in short, to believe that the subjugation of black people was justified by their natural inferiority.

Still, this dynamic, in which the idea of race becomes the common currency of negation and affirmation, dominance and resistance, would prove dauntingly difficult to withdraw from. That’s unfortunate. Because there is little doubt that the race idea was associated with moral disasters from its earliest beginnings. Not only did European racial thinking develop, at least in part, to rationalize the Atlantic slave trade, it played a central role—often a pernicious one—in the development and execution of Europe’s nineteenth-and twentieth-century colonial projects; and, with the Nazis, it was central in organizing the systematic genocide of millions and millions of people, Jews and Roma, conceived as inferior races, among them. In the Armenian, Herero, and Rwandan genocides, the language of race played a terrifying role alongside the language of nation.


Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination by Adom Getachew

agricultural Revolution, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, failed state, financial independence, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, land tenure, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade

James, who was his secondary school teacher and had also moved to the United Kingdom, where he wrote and published The Black Jacobins. The seminal history of the Haitian Revolution explicitly linked the nineteenth-­century struggle against slavery in the Americas with the impending anti-­imperial revolutions in Africa. Together with Du Bois’s Black Reconstruction (1935), these texts illuminated the constitutive role of the transatlantic slave trade and slavery in North Atlantic modernity. Williams moved from Oxford to Howard University in 1939, where he joined the political science faculty. At the “Negro Oxford,” he participated in debates about the structuring role of white supremacy in the international order with Ralph Bunche, Alain Locke, Rayford Logan, and Merze Tate.21 Howard and other black colleges and universities functioned as key nodes in black internationalist networks by supporting the research agendas of scholars like Williams, educating a generation of nationalists, and Wor ldm a k ing a fter Empir e [7] connecting African and Caribbean students and intellectuals to an African American public sphere.22 The Nigerian nationalist Nnamdi Azikiwe first enrolled at Howard and took courses with Alain Locke, before completing his degree at Lincoln University in 1930.23 In his first book, Liberia in World Politics, Azikiwe extended the explorations of international racial hierarchy pioneered at Howard by examining modes of imperialism that exceeded alien rule.24 When Azikiwe returned to West Africa, he started a number of newspapers in Accra and Lagos that were modeled on African American newspapers and provided a new forum for West African nationalists.

In its strongest formulation, this argument suggested that the newly independent states were entirely constituted through international political and economic entanglements that could not be escaped or ignored. For instance, Eric Williams and Michael Manley both traced the ways that the Caribbean island states emerged from the institution of colonial plantations. With native peoples and ways of life eradicated in the process of colonization, the Caribbean was reconstituted through the transatlantic slave trade, Indian and Chinese indenture, and colonial trade. As a result, the Caribbean itself was a global formation and could not be disaggregated from the international political and economic relations in which it was embedded. This extreme form of extraversion necessarily required moving beyond national insularity.47 If this account emphasized the specificity of the postcolonial state’s entrapment in global forces, a second argument described the dilemmas anticolonial nationalists faced as an iteration of a more generic predicament.

This view implied that Africans could not rule themselves and their territories in ways that conformed to the standards of modern statehood. European oversight and intervention was constructed as the only mechanism that could secure humanitarian norms in Africa. That the charge of slavery became the idiom through which black self-­government would be undermined should strike us as deeply perverse not only because of Europe’s central role in the transatlantic slave trade and slavery in the Americas but also because of the labor practices that characterized colonial Africa in the twentieth century. Forced labor was a central practice in every colony, so much so that the largest imperial powers—­Britain and France—­successfully lobbied for its exemption from the 1926 Slavery Convention. While the signatories of the convention agreed to suppress the slave trade and abolish slavery as soon as possible, the convention allowed for forced and compulsory labor for public works.115 Moreover, colonial powers represented forced labor as a traditional practice or native custom, recasting a modern system of labor extraction as an indication of African backwardness.116 Thus, the 1930 Forced Labor Convention excluded “traditional practices” such as minor communal services, collective work, compulsory cultivation, and the right of chiefs to levy personal services from its prohibition on forced labor.


pages: 725 words: 221,514

Debt: The First 5,000 Years by David Graeber

Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, David Graeber, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, double entry bookkeeping, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit motive, reserve currency, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, sexual politics, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor, zero-sum game

During the 1760s alone, perhaps a hundred thousand Africans were shipped down the Cross River to Calabar and nearby ports, where they were put in chains, placed on British, French, or other European ships, and shipped across the Atlantic—part of perhaps a million and a half exported from the Bight of Biafra during the whole period of the Atlantic slave trade.55 Some of them had been captured in wars or raids, or simply kidnapped. The majority, though, were carried off because of debts. Here, though, I must explain something about the organization of the slave trade. The Atlantic Slave Trade as a whole was a gigantic network of credit arrangements. Ship-owners based in Liverpool or Bristol would acquire goods on easy credit terms from local wholesalers, expecting to make good by selling slaves (also on credit) to planters in the Antilles and America, with commission agents in the city of London ultimately financing the affair through the profits of the sugar and tobacco trade.56 Ship-owners would then transport their wares to African ports like Old Calabar.

The fifth letter of Hernan Cortes to the Emperor Charles V: containing an account of his expedition to Honduras. London: Hakluyt Society. Cotter, James Finn. 1969. “The Wife of Bath and the Conjugal Debt.” English Language Notes 6: 169-72 Covarrubias, Miguel. 1937. Island of Bali. London: Kegan Paul. Curtin, Phillip D. 1969. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Curtin, Phillip D., and Jan Vansina,. 1964. “Sources of the Nineteenth Century Atlantic Slave Trade.” Journal of African History 5 (2): 185-208. Custers, Peter. 2006. Questioning Globalized Militarism: Nuclear and Military Production and Critical Economic Theory. Monmouth: Merlin Press. Dandamaev, Muhammed. 1984. Slavery in Babylonia, from Nabopolasser to Alexander the Great (626-331 BC). De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

“The Aro trade system in the nineteenth century.” Ikenga 1 (1):11-26, 1 (2):10-21. Elayi, Josette and A. G. Elayi. 1993. Trésors de monnaies phéniciennes et circulation monétaire (Ve-IVe siècle avant J.-C.). Paris: Gabalda. Ellis, Thomas Peter. 1926. Welsh Tribal Law and Custom in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Eltis, David, Stephen D. Behrent, David Richardson, Herbert S. Klein. 2000. The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Database. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Elwahed, Ali Abd. 1931. Contribution à une théorie sociologique de l’esclavage. Étude des situations génératrices de l’esclavage. Avec appendice sur l’esclavage de la femme et bibliographie critique. Paris: Éditions Albert Mechelinck. Elyachar, Julia. 2002. “Empowerment Money: The World Bank, Non-Governmental Organizations, and the Value of Culture in Egypt.” ?


pages: 1,000 words: 247,974

Empire of Cotton: A Global History by Sven Beckert

agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, imperial preference, industrial cluster, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, women in the workforce

., An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 354; Pedro Machado, “Awash in a Sea of Cloth: Gujarat, Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Trade, 1300– 1800,” in Riello and Parthasarasi, The Spinning World, 169; Subramanian, Indigenous Capital, 4. 11. Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages, 1100–1600 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 157. 12. “Assessing the Slave Trade,” The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, accessed April 5, 2013, http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/assessment/estimates.faces. 13. David Richardson, “West African Consumption Patterns and Their Influence on the Eighteenth-Century English Slave Trade,” in Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 304; Joseph C. Miller, “Imports at Luanda, Angola 1785–1823,” in G. Liesegang, H. Pasch, and A. Jones, eds., Figuring African Trade: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Quantification and Structure of the Import and Export and Long-Distance Trade in Africa 1800–1913 (Berlin: Reimer, 1986), 164, 192; George Metcalf, “A Microcosm of Why Africans Sold Slaves: Akan Consumption Patterns in the 1770s,” Journal of African History 28, no. 3 (January 1, 1987): 378–80. 14.

Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch argues that this expansion of slavery in the Americas also led to a “second slavery” in Africa. See Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, “African Slaves and Atlantic Metissage: A Periodization 1400–1880,” paper presented at “2nd Slaveries and the Atlantization of the Americas” colloquium, University of Cologne, July 2012; Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, http://www.slavevoyages.org, accessed January 31, 2013. 24. Alan H. Adamson, Sugar Without Slaves: The Political Economy of British Guiana, 1838–1904 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), 24; Johannes Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 288. 25. See for example, Roger Hunt, Observations Upon Brazilian Cotton Wool, for the Information of the Planter and With a View to Its Improvement (London: Steel, 1808), 3; Morris R. Chew, History of the Kingdom of Cotton and Cotton Statistics of the World (New Orleans: W.

Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power, 131; Hidy, The House of Baring, 3, 185, 298. For the quote see Baring Brothers Liverpool to Francis Baring, Liverpool, July 21, 1833, House Correspondence, record group HC3, file 35,1, in ING Baring Archive, London. For the importance of the Baring cotton operations see other letters in the same folder. For output per cotton plantation worker see David Elits, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (Oxford University Press, 1987), 287. 28. Sam A. Mustafa, Merchants and Migrations: Germans and Americans in Connection, 1776–1835 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), 118; Ludwig Beutin, Von 3 Ballen zum Weltmarkt: Kleine Bremer Baumwollchronik 1788–1872 (Bremen: Verlag Franz Leuwer, 1934), 11, 16; Karl-Heinz Schildknecht, Bremer Baumwollbörse: Bremen und Baumwolle im Wandel der Zeiten (Bremen: Bremer Baumwollbörse, 1999), 8, 9; Friedrich Rauers, Bremer Handelsgeschichte im 19.


The Ages of Globalization by Jeffrey D. Sachs

Admiral Zheng, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, Commentariolus, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, European colonialism, global supply chain, greed is good, income per capita, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, packet switching, Pax Mongolica, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Most African slaves brought to the New World came from the Gulf of Guinea and farther south along the Atlantic coast of Africa, especially present-day Angola, and were sent in largest quantities to Brazil and the Caribbean. Some were sent to North America, where slave labor would take hold as the basis of the cotton empire in the colonies that would become the southern United States after the American War of Independence. 6.7 The Slave Trade from Africa, 1500-1900 Source: Eltis & Richardson, ATLAS OF THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE (2010), Map 1 from accompanying web site, Overview of Slave Trade out of Africa, 1500–1900. Reproduced with the permission of Yale University Press. African slaves powered the new plantation and mining economies of the Spanish, Portuguese, and British colonies, especially in the tropical regions. The most important plantation commodity was sugar, grown in northeast Brazil and the Caribbean, which together accounted for the vast preponderance of slave arrivals to the Americas, and also the Peruvian coast.

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 119 (2015): 56–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2015.07.007. d’Errico, F., and C. B. Stringer. “Evolution, Revolution or Saltation Scenario for the Emergence of Modern Cultures?” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366, no. 1567 (2011): 1060–69. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0340. Eltis, David, and David Richardson. Atlas of The Transatlantic Slave Trade. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Map 1 from accompanying web site, Overview of Slave Trade out of Africa, 1500–1900. Reproduced with the permission of Yale University Press. Everson, S. ed. Aristotle: The Politics and the Constitution of Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Fernihough, Alan, and Kevin HjortshØj O’Rourke. Coal and the European Industrial Revolution.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

.), The Comparative Approach to American History: Slavery (New Jersey, 1969), pp. 121–35 Egnal, M., New World Economies: The Growth of the Thirteen Colonies and Early Canada (New York/Oxford, 1998) Elkins, Stanley, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (Chicago, 1968) Elliott, J. H., Empires of the Atlantic World (New Haven, 2006) Eltis, David, ‘The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment’, William and Mary Quarterly, 58, 1 (January 2001), 17–46 Emmer, P. C. (ed.), Colonialism and Migration: Indentured Labour before and after Slavery (Dordrecht, 1986) Engerman, Stanley L. and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas: Land and Immigration Policies in the New World’, working paper (2008) Fage, J. D., ‘Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History’, Journal of African History, 10, 3 (1969), 393–404 Ferguson, Niall, The War of the World: History’s Age of Hatred (London, 2006) Fernández-Armesto, Felipe, The Americas: A History of Two Continents (London, 2003) Findlay, Ronald and Kevin H.

., Legal Aspects of Landownership in Colonial Spanish America (Tokyo, 1976) Schaefer, Christina, Genealogical Encyclopaedia of the Colonial Americas (Baltimore, 1998) Schwartz, Stuart B., ‘The Colonial Past: Conceptualizing Post-Dependentista Brazil’, in Jeremy Adelman (ed.), Colonial Legacies: The Problem of Persistence in Latin American History (New York/London, 1999), 175–92 ———, Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels: Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery (Champaign, IL, 1995) Thomas, Hugh, The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (London, 1997) Thornton John and Linda Heywood, Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585 (Cambridge, 2007) Tomlins, C., ‘Indentured Servitude in Perspective: European Migration into North America and the Composition of the Early American Labour Force, 1600–1775’, in Cathy Matson (ed.), The Economy of Early America: Historical Perspectives and New Directions (Philadelphia, 2007), 146–82 Ullrick, Laura F., ‘Morillo’s Attempt to Pacify Venezuela’, Hispanic American Historical Review, 3, 4 (1920), 535–65 Walvin, J., Black Ivory: Slavery in the British Empire (Oxford/Malden, MA, 2001) Wang S., N.


pages: 470 words: 137,882

Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents by Isabel Wilkerson

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, clean water, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, desegregation, Donald Trump, global pandemic, Gunnar Myrdal, mass incarceration, Milgram experiment, obamacare, out of africa, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, strikebreaker, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

It would have seemed ridiculous that, in an alternate universe, people would ever be divided by color, given that, clearly, it would have been obvious that height was the determining factor in beauty, intelligence, leadership, and supremacy. The idea of linking disparate groups together on the basis of an arbitrary shared characteristic of being extremely tall or short sounds farcical to us, but only because this characteristic is not the one that has been used to divide humans into seemingly immutable “races.” The idea of race is a recent phenomenon in human history. It dates to the start of the transatlantic slave trade and thus to the subsequent caste system that arose from slavery. The word race likely derived from the Spanish word raza and was originally used to refer to the “ ‘caste or quality of authentic horses,’ which are branded with an iron so as to be recognized,” wrote the anthropologists Audrey and Brian Smedley. As Europeans explored the world, they began using the word to refer to the new people they encountered.

Anyone with the least exposure had to follow an elaborate hazmat protocol virtually out of science fiction and still fear that the exposed tip of a finger cut might condemn them to a virus that assured an agonizing death and for which there was then no widely proven vaccine. It raged through West Africa as the Western world looked on mostly with pity and detachment. What a continent of sorrow, through the Western lens. These were countries siphoned of their populations during the transatlantic slave trade, then conquered and colonized and now still recovering from the destabilization and wars that these upheavals had wrought. To those at a distance, the sad circumstances of these countries, from primeval health systems to ancient burial rites, had brought this plague upon them. The virus spread through contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person who was showing symptoms, and people infected were to be quarantined in isolation wards.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

As a result of recent publicity about the trafficking of people for labor and prostitution, one sometimes hears the statistically illiterate and morally obtuse claim that nothing has changed since the 18th century, as if there were no difference between a clandestine practice in a few parts of the world and an authorized practice everywhere in the world. Moreover, modern human trafficking, as heinous as it is, cannot be equated with the horrors of the African slave trade. As David Feingold, who initiated the UNESCO Trafficking Statistics Project in 2003, notes of today’s hotbeds of trafficking: The identification of trafficking with chattel slavery—in particular, the transatlantic slave trade—is tenuous at best. In the 18th and 19th centuries, African slaves were kidnapped or captured in war. They were shipped to the New World into life-long servitude, from which they or their children could rarely escape. In contrast, although some trafficking victims are kidnapped, for most . . . , trafficking is migration gone terribly wrong. Most leave their homes voluntarily—though sometimes coerced by circumstance—in search of a materially better or more exciting life.

C. 1991. Order without law: How neighbors settle disputes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Ellis, B. J. 1992. The evolution of sexual attraction: Evaluative mechanisms in women. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby, eds., The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Eltis, D., & Richardson, D. 2010. Atlas of the transatlantic slave trade. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Ember, C. 1978. Myths about hunter-gatherers. Ethnology, 27, 239–48. English, R. 2005. The sociology of new thinking: Elites, identity change, and the end of the Cold War. Journal of Cold War Studies, 7, 43–80. Ericksen, K. P., & Horton, H. 1992. “Blood feuds”: Cross-cultural variation in kin group vengeance. Behavioral Science Research, 26, 57–85.

FIGURE 5–3. 100 worst wars and atrocities in human history Source: Data from White, in press, scaled by world population from McEvedy & Jones, 1978, at the midpoint of the listed range. Note that the estimates are not scaled by the duration of the war or atrocity. Circled dots represent selected events with death rates higher than the 20th-century world wars (from earlier to later): Xin Dynasty, Three Kingdoms, fall of Rome, An Lushan Revolt, Genghis Khan, Mideast slave trade, Timur Lenk, Atlantic slave trade, fall of the Ming Dynasty, and the conquest of the Americas. Two patterns jump out of the splatter. The first is that the most serious wars and atrocities—those that killed more than a tenth of a percent of the population of the world—are pretty evenly distributed over 2,500 years of history. The other is that the cloud of data tapers rightward and downward into smaller and smaller conflicts for years that are closer to the present.


pages: 218 words: 63,471

How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets by Andy Kessler

Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, animal electricity, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

As long as England could keep prices for its cloth down, it would both create new markets AND stave off competition from substitution. Growth protected, and created, by its own declining price elasticity. Put that in your pipe and smoke it. We’ll see it again with semiconductors and integrated circuits in another couple of hundred years. Transportation Elasticity, Sea and Rail Even in the early 1800’s, the British Empire got off to a slow start. The transatlantic slave trade was abolished in 1807, but it wasn’t until another 20 years later that the British would declare the slave trade a form of piracy, punishable by death. In 1833, slavery was abolished in the entire British Empire, after a 5-year trial period, leading to the more commonly known date of abolishment in 1838. The delay didn’t hurt the engine. The plantations in the American South still had slaves, until 1865, and were cranking out cotton for the British textile mills.


pages: 232 words: 78,701

I'm Judging You: The Do-Better Manual by Luvvie Ajayi

affirmative action, bitcoin, Burning Man, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, clean water, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Skype, Snapchat, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, upwardly mobile

So not only did you steal someone else’s home and then kill them when they showed you kindness, you went elsewhere and did some more stealing, this time of actual people, and forced them to come to your STOLEN HOUSE to do your work for you. What the fuck, white people? I mean really, what in the ever-loving fuck? By the way, you’re welcome for this “too long; didn’t read” version of imperialism in America. This is why I should teach. Honestly, I wouldn’t do any worse than current textbooks. Like the ones in Texas that used the word “workers” instead of “slaves” in the section about the transatlantic slave trade. As if Black people were at a career fair in Africa where we submitted résumés and asked to be beaten and starved and have our families broken in exchange for a journey across the ocean and NO MONEY. At least I’d try to be a little bit accurate. My point is that the United States does not have a legitimate history of integrity and fairness. It’s been run by villains that make Disney’s look like saints.


Migrant City: A New History of London by Panikos Panayi

Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, financial intermediation, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, multicultural london english, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white flight

They initially received a positive response in the capital but subsequently endured hostility both because of their perceived economic threat and cultural distinctiveness, facing identification with Louis XIV and his foreign policy, from which they had fled.100 Late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century London witnessed the influx of four groups which would remain ever present in the capital and would play a large role in its ethnic diversity. The smallest group consisted of people of African origin, mostly slaves, stemming from the capital’s central role in the development of the transatlantic slave trade. The majority of the 10,000 to 15,000 Africans in Britain at this time lived in London. Most remained slaves who worked as servants, valets and butlers for the upper classes. Free black people, meanwhile, worked in a variety of occupations including road sweeping, fruit vending and street entertainment, while some tried to survive through begging. Males predominated amongst the black population.

In the twenty-first century migrants have become increasingly important because of deregulation and the emergence of the ‘gig economy’, with some of those working in sectors such as cleaning lacking legal status. Black slaves, the Victorian underclass, foreign sailors and the twenty-first-century deregulated migrants all have in common the fact that they remain outside mainstream London employment without regular pay, while also playing a central part in driving the metropolitan economy. Black people began to arrive from the sixteenth century with the development of the transatlantic slave trade and by the eighteenth century between 10,000 and 15,000 may have lived in Britain. They were concentrated especially in London but also in other major slave ports such as Bristol and Liverpool.12 West Indian and American planters brought their slaves back with them because they would not have to pay them (in contrast to white servants), and they also became a status symbol. The treatment of this group varied widely.


pages: 342 words: 88,736

The Big Ratchet: How Humanity Thrives in the Face of Natural Crisis by Ruth Defries

agricultural Revolution, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, double helix, European colonialism, food miles, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, out of africa, planetary scale, premature optimization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, social intelligence, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

Sugarcane, first domesticated in Asia and brought to Europe by the Arabs in the tenth century, stood to become a particularly lucrative crop, and European demand for sugar soared. But human labor to produce the commodity was in short supply in the tropical Americas, and native populations succumbed too readily to disease to be a reliable source for coerced labor. Africans had built up more resistance to Old World diseases. The trade winds that had brought Columbus also carried roughly 12 million Africans to the New World during the transatlantic slave trade between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. The energy subsidy from coerced human labor, at a cost of feeding, transporting, and purchasing the slaves, earned sugar growers heavy profits during this dark time in human history. The brief period of the Age of Discovery, powered by sails harnessing the sun’s energy in the form of wind, ranks as one of the most pivotal eras of all in the history of humanity’s twists of nature.


pages: 334 words: 93,162

This Is Your Country on Drugs: The Secret History of Getting High in America by Ryan Grim

airport security, Alexander Shulgin, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Burning Man, crack epidemic, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, failed state, global supply chain, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, John Markoff, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, mandatory minimum, new economy, New Urbanism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, women in the workforce

They were its foundation. By the late 1800s, levies on alcohol, tobacco, and tea made up almost half of all British government revenue. They financed the country’s imperialist aspirations and, along the way, cost it the American colonies—which financed their own war for independence with tobacco proceeds. The role of opium in furthering British colonial ambitions is well known. Rum propped up the transatlantic slave trade. “With these psychoactive products [colonial powers] paid their bills, bribed and corrupted their native opponents, pacified their workers and soldiers, and stocked their plantations with field hands,” writes David Courtwright in Forces of Habit: Drugs and the Making of the Modern World. By 1906, tens of thousands of opium-containing medical preparations had been patented. In America, producing and selling these nostrums was a massive and far-reaching undertaking, one that helped create the modern advertising industry and the mass media—not to mention the monolithic, multibillion-dollar business that is Big Pharma.


pages: 469 words: 97,582

QI: The Second Book of General Ignorance by Lloyd, John, Mitchinson, John

Ada Lovelace, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, double helix, Etonian, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, out of africa, the built environment, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549

There’s a difference between ‘abolishing’ something and making it a criminal offence. Although slavery was abolished all over the world many years ago, in many countries the reality only changed when laws were introduced to punish slave owners. You might think slavery is a thing of the past and isn’t relevant to modern Britain, but there are more slaves in the world now – 27 million of them – than were ever seized from Africa in the 400 years of the transatlantic slave trade. And forced labour, using migrant workers effectively as slaves (and also outlawed by the Act), is widespread in Britain today. Under the Criminal Law Act 1967, a number of obsolete crimes were abolished in England including scolding, eavesdropping, being a common nightwalker and challenging someone to a fight. It is odd to think that, in the year England won the World Cup, eavesdropping was still illegal but slavery wasn’t.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

By September it had crashed, and in December, Jonathan Swift penned “The South-Sea Project,” which started:Ye wise philosophers, explain What magic makes our money rise, When dropt into the Southern main; Or do these jugglers cheat our eyes? And ended:The nation then too late will find, Computing all their cost and trouble, Directors’ promises but wind, South Sea, at best, a mighty bubble. A REGULARITY THAT stands out in these spurts of overenthusiastic invention is the exuberance of the institutions providing finance. This can be prompted by newly discovered investment opportunities—like the Internet or the transatlantic slave trade. But it can also be fueled by changes in the rules governing financial institutions. During the housing boom, financial inventions like floating rate and reverse amortization mortgages were instrumental in bringing less solvent buyers into the American housing market, creating a whole new class of financial product—the subprime loan. In the years of the bubble’s rise, the monthly payments needed to buy a $225,000 house with a standard thirty-year, fixed-rate mortgage and a 20 percent down payment were about $1,079 a month.


pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

— This book’s argument, in a nutshell, is that Trump, extreme as he is, is less an aberration than a logical conclusion—a pastiche of pretty much all the worst trends of the past half century. Trump is the product of powerful systems of thought that rank human life based on race, religion, gender, sexuality, physical appearance, and physical ability—and that have systematically used race as a weapon to advance brutal economic policies since the earliest days of North American colonization and the transatlantic slave trade. He is also the personification of the merger of humans and corporations—a one-man megabrand, whose wife and children are spin-off brands, with all the pathologies and conflicts of interest inherent in that. He is the embodiment of the belief that money and power provide license to impose one’s will on others, whether that entitlement is expressed by grabbing women or grabbing the finite resources from a planet on the cusp of catastrophic warming.


pages: 341 words: 111,525

Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher

airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Live Aid, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

By the time he died in the late sixteenth century his kingdom was close to collapse, and the region around the mouth of the Congo River turned into a wasteland, plundered by slavers and their ruthless, well-armed African agents. The Portuguese had been followed by slavers from other European nations, including Britain and Holland, who roamed up and down the coastline of west Africa filling the holds of their ships with human cargo. Between the late sixteenth century when the transatlantic slave trade began and the late nineteenth century when European nations finally banned it, the best estimate is that twelve million Africans were forced on board ships and the Congo River mouth was, throughout that entire period, one of the principal sources of slaves. Centuries after it all began, when I visited Sierra Leone, I found evidence of the dominant role played by the Congo in the slave trade.


Wealth and Poverty of Nations by David S. Landes

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, business cycle, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, computer age, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, Francisco Pizarro, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, land tenure, lateral thinking, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

E l l i s , H e n r y . 1 8 1 7 . Journal of the Proceedings of the Late Embassy to China; Compris­ ing a Correct Narrative of the Public Transactions... etc. L o n d o n . R e v i e w e d in t h e Quarterly Review, V o l . 1 7 , N o . 3 4 ( J u l y ) : 4 6 3 - 5 0 6 . Ellis w a s T h i r d C o m ­ missioner o f the embassy. E l t i s , D a v i d . 1 9 8 7 . Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. N e w York: O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s . E l v i n , M a r k . 1 9 7 3 . The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpreta­ tion. S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v . P r e s s . E m m a n u e l , Arghiri. 1 9 7 2 . "White Settler C o l o n i a l i s m a n d the M y t h o f Investment I m p e r i a l i s m , " New Left Rev., 7 3 ( M a y - T u n e ) , 3 5 - 5 7 . . 1 9 7 4 . " M y t h s o f D e v e l o p m e n t v e r s u s M y t h s o f U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , " New Left Rev., 8 5 ( M a y - J u n e ) , 6 1 - 8 2 .

T h e E a s t - I n d i a n a n d C h i n e s e m a r k e t s , t h e c o l o n i ­ s a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , t r a d e w i t h t h e c o l o n i e s , t h e i n c r e a s e in t h e m e a n s o f ex­ c h a n g e a n d in c o m m o d i t i e s g e n e r a l l y , g a v e t o c o m m e r c e , t o n a v i g a t i o n , t o industry, an impulse never before k n o w n , a n d thereby, to the revolutionary e l e m e n t in t h e t o t t e r i n g f e u d a l s o c i e t y , a r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t . ' — M A R X a n d E N G E L S , Manifesto of the Communist Party T he turn of the eighteenth century was both end and beginning. It saw the liquidation of the Dutch East India Company; the pro­ hibition of the British Atlantic slave trade (but not the end of slavery);* the peak and decline o f the sugar bonanza (including revolution and the fall of planters and plantations in Saint-Domingue [now Haiti]); an end to the Old Regime in France; an end to the period of Old Empire. The new era would see Europe lose formal control of territory overseas (Spain would be the big loser) but gain wider economic dominance. Europe would also force its way into territories previously seen as in­ accessible and untouchable (China, Japan), while creating in others (India, Indonesia) a new kind of imperium in its own image.

I n a r e v i e w in t h e American Sociological Review, W i l s o n G e e criticized Williams for e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e r o l e o f slavery " b y c l a i m i n g t h a t it w a s a l m o s t t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o u n ­ d a t i o n s t o n e in t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m o d e r n c a p i t a l i s m . " C i t e d b y S h e r i d a n , " E r i c Williams," p. 3 2 0 . 1 7 . A n s t e y , " C a p i t a l i s m a n d S l a v e r y " ; a l s o his Atlantic Slave Trade. A n s t e y g o e s o n t o e s t i m a t e t h e p a r t o f slave p r o f i t s in B r i t i s h capital f o r m a t i o n at 0 . 1 1 p e r c e n t — " d e ­ r i s o r y . " S t a n l e y E n g e r m a n , " T h e S l a v e T r a d e a n d B r i t i s h C a p i t a l F o r m a t i o n , " plays with the n u m b e r s "under s o m e implausible a s s u m p t i o n s " and c o m e s u p with hypo­ t h e t i c a l figures, s t r o n g l y a n d k n o w i n g l y b i a s e d u p w a r d , r a n g i n g f r o m 2 . 4 p e r c e n t t o 1 0 . 8 p e r c e n t o v e r t h e p e r i o d 1 6 8 8 - 1 7 7 0 , w h i c h h e says " s h o u l d g i v e s o m e p a u s e t o t h o s e a t t r i b u t i n g t o t h e slave t r a d e a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l capital f o r m a t i o n in t h e p e r i o d o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . " H e a l s o c o m p a r e s t h e " g r o s s v a l u e o f slave t r a d e o u t p u t " t o B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i n c o m e a n d c o m e s u p w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 1 p e r c e n t , c l i m b i n g t o 1.7 p e r c e n t in 1 7 7 0 , t o o s m a l l b y itself t o e x p l a i n m u c h .


pages: 366 words: 123,151

The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover

airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal

Named by Portuguese slave traders after Lagos, Portugal, the port on the Algarve through which many slaves were brought to Europe, the settlement on Lagos Island had an active slave market for at least two hundred years. Three and one-half million slaves are estimated to have been taken from pre-colonial Nigeria, of a total of 15 million taken from all of West Africa. Britain shipped more slaves than any other country until 1807, when it declared the transatlantic slave trade illegal and set out to quash it. The tribal rulers of Lagos Island who profited from the trade were slow to conform to the new law, which Britain cited as a justification for annexing Lagos in 1861, making the city a British colony. Southern Nigeria, including Lagos, was joined to the Muslim north in a loose affiliation in 1914. Oil was discovered in the Niger delta in 1959; it quickly supplanted palm oil as a major export.


pages: 326 words: 48,727

Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard

addicted to oil, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning

"Once you've paid to protect [the economic value of New Orleans]," Barry added, "protecting the people who live there is almost a throwaway cost." Of course, abandoning New Orleans would also mean abandoning an irreplaceable jewel of America's history and culture. Founded in 1718 by French Canadian explorer Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, New Orleans is in fact older than the United States. Its riverside market had been a headquarters of the transatlantic slave trade that shaped so much of U.S. history; its musicians gave birth to jazz, America's most original art form. Most infuriating about outsiders' reluctance to help rebuild New Orleans, locals said, was that it was based on misinformation. "It wasn't Hurricane Katrina that put 80 percent of New Orleans underwater, it was the inexcusable failure of our levees," said Sandy Rosenthal, a city resident who cofounded the citizens group Levees.org.


pages: 433 words: 125,031

Brazillionaires: The Godfathers of Modern Brazil by Alex Cuadros

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, big-box store, BRICs, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, family office, high net worth, index fund, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, NetJets, offshore financial centre, profit motive, rent-seeking, risk/return, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, We are the 99%, William Langewiesche

A journalist once asked Eike his favorite business book, and he said, “I don’t read business books. My life is a book.” As the biographer Jorge Caldeira tells it, Mauá was early in sensing a point of inflection in Brazil. Well into the nineteenth century, the country had an antebellum South-style economy with no industry to speak of. But in 1850 Emperor Pedro II bowed to pressure from England and enforced a ban on the transatlantic slave trade, Brazil’s most profitable business. Forced to liquidate their affairs, Rio’s slave traffickers found themselves with a lot of idle cash on their hands. And Mauá was ready to leap on the opportunity. A prosperous Rio merchant, he had recently wound down his import-export firm and raised European capital to invest in ventures that few Brazilians had ever tried before. The most important among them was a bank, Banco do Brasil, for which he held a mega-IPO, selling shares to ex-slavers and imperial senators.


pages: 578 words: 131,346

Humankind: A Hopeful History by Rutger Bregman

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Broken windows theory, call centre, David Graeber, Donald Trump, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hans Rosling, invention of writing, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, placebo effect, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, universal basic income, World Values Survey

‘They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword … and [they] cut themselves out of ignorance.’ This gave him an idea. ‘They would make fine servants … With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.’1 Christopher Columbus – the traveller in question – lost no time putting his plan into action. The following year he returned with seventeen ships and fifteen hundred men, and started the transatlantic slave trade. Half a century later, less than 1 per cent of the original Carib population remained; the rest had succumbed to the horrors of disease and enslavement. It must have been quite a shock for these so-called savages to encounter such ‘civilised’ colonists. To some, the very notion that one human being might kidnap or kill another may even have seemed alien. If that sounds like a stretch, consider that there are still places today where murder is inconceivable.


pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

The second is “Defending Freedom, Defining Freedom: The Era of Segregation, 1877–1968.” The third is “A Changing America, 1968 and Beyond.” It is not a museum of American foreign policy, but foreign policy and international affairs are a part of it. The Columbian themes of navigation and exploration occupy the first of the three history galleries. They are what enabled the fifteenth-century European encounter with Africa, which in turn fostered the transatlantic slave trade and the horrors of the Middle Passage, all of the history that the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair deliberately ignored. Another exhibition room depicts African American participation in American wars, “Double Victory: The African American Military Experience.” Most striking of all is the museum’s juxtaposition of two historical objects. One is a large train wagon built to enforce the laws of segregation, immobile and on solid ground.


pages: 459 words: 138,689

Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor

At first there is rapid population decline in the territories that are invaded. The decline is so great that overall worldwide human population slowdown occurs. Look carefully at the decade prior to 1850 to see proof of this. The “scramble for Africa” took place long after the rise of the European slave trade, which was established to populate the Americas with free labor (free in terms of not wage-paid). The transatlantic slave trade devastated Africa. After the initial shock and destruction, the social structures and norms that had developed over centuries across the continent (and everywhere else in the world that was invaded and colonized), norms that had before produced relatively stable populations, broke down. Then acceleration set in. That acceleration resulted in the huge human population growth, worldwide, from the 1850s to the 1930s. 21.


pages: 97 words: 31,550

Money: Vintage Minis by Yuval Noah Harari

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, European colonialism, Flash crash, greed is good, job automation, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, lifelogging, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, self-driving car, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

When growth becomes a supreme good, unrestricted by any other ethical considerations, it can easily lead to catastrophe. Some religions, such as Christianity and Nazism, have killed millions out of burning hatred. Capitalism has killed millions out of cold indifference coupled with greed. The Atlantic slave trade did not stem from racist hatred towards Africans. The individuals who bought the shares, the brokers who sold them, and the managers of the slave-trade companies rarely thought about the Africans. Nor did the owners of the sugar plantations. Many owners lived far from their plantations, and the only information they demanded were neat ledgers of profits and losses. It is important to remember that the Atlantic slave trade was not a single aberration in an otherwise spotless record. The Great Bengal Famine was caused by a similar dynamic – the British East India Company cared more about its profits than about the lives of 10 million Bengalis.

If there is a single corporation controlling all shoe factories in a country, or if all factory owners conspire to reduce wages simultaneously, then the labourers are no longer able to protect themselves by switching jobs. Even worse, greedy bosses might curtail the workers’ freedom of movement through debt peonage or slavery. At the end of the Middle Ages, slavery was almost unknown in Christian Europe. During the early modern period, the rise of European capitalism went hand in hand with the rise of the Atlantic slave trade. Unrestrained market forces, rather than tyrannical kings or racist ideologues, were responsible for this calamity. When the Europeans conquered America, they opened gold and silver mines and established sugar, tobacco and cotton plantations. These mines and plantations became the mainstay of American production and export. The sugar plantations were particularly important. In the Middle Ages, sugar was a rare luxury in Europe.

The only serious attempt to manage the world differently – Communism – was so much worse in almost every conceivable way that nobody has the stomach to try again. In 8500 BC one could cry bitter tears over the Agricultural Revolution, but it was too late to give up agriculture. Similarly, we may not like capitalism, but we cannot live without it. The second answer is that we just need more patience – paradise, the capitalists promise, is right around the corner. True, mistakes have been made, such as the Atlantic slave trade and the exploitation of the European working class. But we have learned our lesson, and if we just wait a little longer and allow the pie to grow a little bigger, everybody will receive a fatter slice. The division of spoils will never be equitable, but there will be enough to satisfy every man, woman and child – even in the Congo. There are, indeed, some positive signs. At least when we use purely material criteria – such as life expectancy, child mortality and calorie intake – the standard of living of the average human in 2014 is significantly higher than it was in 1914, despite the exponential growth in the number of humans.


pages: 447 words: 141,811

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Graeber, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, global village, greed is good, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, personalized medicine, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, zero-sum game

When growth becomes a supreme good, unrestricted by any other ethical considerations, it can easily lead to catastrophe. Some religions, such as Christianity and Nazism, have killed millions out of burning hatred. Capitalism has killed millions out of cold indifference coupled with greed. The Atlantic slave trade did not stem from racist hatred towards Africans. The individuals who bought the shares, the brokers who sold them, and the managers of the slave-trade companies rarely thought about the Africans. Nor did the owners of the sugar plantations. Many owners lived far from their plantations, and the only information they demanded were neat ledgers of profits and losses. It is important to remember that the Atlantic slave trade was not a single aberration in an otherwise spotless record. The Great Bengal Famine, discussed in the previous chapter, was caused by a similar dynamic – the British East India Company cared more about its profits than about the lives of 10 million Bengalis.

Biologists argued that blacks are less intelligent than whites and their moral sense less developed. Doctors alleged that blacks live in filth and spread diseases – in other words, they are a source of pollution. These myths struck a chord in American culture, and in Western culture generally. They continued to exert their influence long after the conditions that created slavery had disappeared. In the early nineteenth century imperial Britain outlawed slavery and stopped the Atlantic slave trade, and in the decades that followed slavery was gradually outlawed throughout the American continent. Notably, this was the first and only time in history that slaveholding societies voluntarily abolished slavery. But, even though the slaves were freed, the racist myths that justified slavery persisted. Separation of the races was maintained by racist legislation and social custom. The result was a self-reinforcing cycle of cause and effect, a vicious circle.

If there is a single corporation controlling all shoe factories in a country, or if all factory owners conspire to reduce wages simultaneously, then the labourers are no longer able to protect themselves by switching jobs. Even worse, greedy bosses might curtail the workers’ freedom of movement through debt peonage or slavery. At the end of the Middle Ages, slavery was almost unknown in Christian Europe. During the early modern period, the rise of European capitalism went hand in hand with the rise of the Atlantic slave trade. Unrestrained market forces, rather than tyrannical kings or racist ideologues, were responsible for this calamity. When the Europeans conquered America, they opened gold and silver mines and established sugar, tobacco and cotton plantations. These mines and plantations became the mainstay of American production and export. The sugar plantations were particularly important. In the Middle Ages, sugar was a rare luxury in Europe.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

These were the War of the League of Augsburg (1689–1697), War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713), War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739–1741), War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), Seven Years’ War (1756–1763), War of the American Revolution (1777–1783), War of the French Revolution (1792–1800), Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). 2. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (Oxford, 2006), 80; David Eltis, “The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment,” William and Mary Quarterly, 58 (2001). 3. Peter Bakewell, A History of Latin America, 2nd ed. (2004), 153–57. 4. Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik, The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 2nd ed. (Armonk, NY, 2006), 88–89. 5. Arnold Pacey, Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-Year History (Cambridge, 1991), 100. 6. Davis, Inhuman Bondage, 83–85. 7.


pages: 286 words: 87,168

Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel

air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income

Something similar was playing out in the colonies, but there it was taken further still. During the colonial period, the peoples of the global South were routinely cast as ‘nature’: as ‘savages’, as ‘wild’, as less-than-human. Tellingly, the Spaniards referred to Indigenous Americans as naturales. Dualism was recruited in order to justify the appropriation not only of land in the colonies, but of the bodies of the colonised themselves. So too with the Atlantic slave trade. After all, in order to enslave someone, you first have to deny their humanity. Dualism served this purpose brilliantly: Africans and Indigenous Americans were cast as objects in the European imagination, and exploited as such. As the Martiniquan writer Aimé Césaire put it, colonisation is, at base, a process of thingification.42 But there was also something else going on. The colonised were cast as ‘primitive’ precisely because they refused to accept the principles of human-nature dualism.43 In the writings of European colonisers and missionaries we see they were dismayed that so many of the people they encountered insisted on seeing the world as alive – seeing mountains, rivers, animals, plants, and even the land as filled with agency and spirit.

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, this process was accelerated by the large-scale discovery of fossil fuel reserves – first coal and then oil – and the invention of technologies (like the steam engine) to extract and use them. A single barrel of crude oil can perform about 1700kWh of work. That’s equivalent to 4.5 years of human labour. From the perspective of capital, tapping into underground oceans of oil was like colonising the Americas all over again, or a second Atlantic slave trade – a bonanza of appropriation. But it also supercharged the process of appropriation itself. Fossil fuels are used to power giant drills for deeper mining, trawlers for deep-sea fishing, tractors and combines for more intensive farming, chainsaws for faster logging, plus ships and trucks and aeroplanes to move all of these materials around the world at staggering speeds. Thanks to technology, the process of appropriation has become exponentially faster and more expansive.

Every time capital bumps up against barriers to accumulation (say a saturated market, a minimum-wage law, or environmental protections), then like a giant vampire squid it writhes in a desperate attempt to whip those barriers out of the way and plunge its tentacles into new sources of growth.3 This is what is known as a ‘fix’.4 The enclosure movement was a fix. Colonisation was a fix. The Atlantic slave trade was a fix. The Opium Wars against China were a fix. The western expansion of the United States was a fix. Each one of these fixes – all of them violent – opened up new frontiers for appropriation and accumulation, all in service of capital’s growth imperative. In the nineteenth century the global economy was worth a little more than $1 trillion, in today’s money. That means each year capital needed to find new investments worth about $30 billion – a significant sum.


Lonely Planet Jamaica by Lonely Planet

British Empire, buttonwood tree, carbon footprint, estate planning, European colonialism, food miles, jitney, Kickstarter, talking drums, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning

During their few free hours, the slaves cultivated their own tiny plots, and could sell produce at market. In rare instances they might save enough money to buy their freedom, which masters could also grant as they wished. By 1800, however, the slave population of 300,000 outnumbered the free population 20 to one. Matthew Parker's The Sugar Barons is a gripping account of the founding of Britain's Caribbean slave empire, with Jamaica taking center stage. THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE The Atlantic slave trade was dubbed 'the triangular trade.' European merchants sailed to West Africa with goods to exchange for slaves. Although domestic slavery had long been an established part of many African societies, European demand (and trade goods such as firearms) turned African states into asset-strippers, sucking in captives in insatiable numbers, often from tribes living hundreds of miles from African slave ports.

oNational Museum WestMUSEUM ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %940-6402; http://museums-ioj.org.jm/; Sam Sharpe Sq, Montego Bay Cultural Centre; J$400; h9am-5pm Tue-Sun) This well-curated, revamped museum, peppered with period objects, takes you through the history of western Jamaica, from the Cohaba ceremonies of the indigenous Taínos and the arrival of the Spanish, followed by the English, to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the advent of king sugar, Maroon rebellions, emancipation and the development of 20th-century Montego Bay as a tourist destination. A separate room introduces you to the rise of Rastafarianism, the alleged divinity of Haile Selassie and the back-to-Africa movement. Montego Bay Cultural CentreCULTURAL CENTRE ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %940-6402; Sam Sharpe Sq; h9am-5pm Tue-Sun) At the southwest corner of Sam Sharpe Sq you’ll find the copper-domed Civic Centre, an elegant colonial-style, cut-stone building on the site of a ruined colonial courthouse where trials were held in the wake of the Christmas Rebellion of 1831 and where Sam Sharpe was sentenced to death.

On the corner of Market St and Main St, an upturned cannon sprouting a stop sign harks back to Black River's days as a British military garrison. North along Market St is the Zong Massacre memorial ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; Market St), commemorating the 1781 event in which 133 African slaves were thrown overboard by the crew of the Zong slave ship, with the subsequent legal case contributing to the abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Two blocks west of the parish church are the porticoed courthouse ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; 58 High St) and the town hall ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ), with lofty pillars, and beyond that, a simple Roman Catholic church ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; Main St). Also along this section of Main St are three houses that are splendid examples of the Jamaican vernacular style, with jalousies, decorative fretwork and shady verandas: stately 1890s Magdala House ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; Main St), which once belonged to Thomas Leyden, from the town's most powerful family at the time; the 1894 Invercauld Great House ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; High St), which belonged to the other powerful family, the Farquharsons; and Waterloo Great House ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; Main St), the first private house in Jamaica to get electricity.


pages: 522 words: 144,511

Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott

addicted to oil, agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, liberation theology, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

quoted in Charlotte Sussman, “Women and the Politics of Sugar, 1792,” Representations, no. 48 (Autumn 1994), p. 57. 393. Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall, p. xiv. (Italics in original.) This is a comprehensive and dramatic account and analysis of Granville Sharp’s legal battle on behalf of English slaves. 394. Quoted in Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall, p. 209. 395. Quoted in ibid., p. 194. 396. Shyllon, Black Slaves in Britain, p. 188. 397. Quoted in Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, p. 103. 398. Ibid., pp. 114–15. 399. Ibid., p. 127. 400. Codrington College now serves as the religion department of the University of West Indies and an internationally recognized Anglican divinity school. 401. Quoted in Goveia, Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands, p. 268. 402. Quoted in Michael Craton, “Slave Culture, Resistance and the Achievement of Emancipation in the British West Indies, 1783–1838,” in Walvin, Slavery and British Society, p. 109.

Hochschild, “Against All Odds,” p. 10. 413. Cugoano, Narrative of the Enslavement of a Native of Africa. 414. “Valuable Articles for the Slave Trade,” unknown date, www.discoveringbristol.org.uk/showImageDetails.php?sit_id=1&img_id=716. 415. James Gillray, 1792, “Barbarities in the West Indies,” www.discoveringbristol.org.uk/showImageDetails.php?sit_id=1&img_id=2388. 416. Quoted in Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, p. 289. 417. Quoted in Hochschild, “Against All Odds,” p. 10. 418. Anonymous, Remarkable Extracts and Observations on the Slave Trade with Some Considerations on the Consumption of West India Produce, 1792, quoted in Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, p. 183. 419. Quoted in Kitson, “‘The Eucharist of Hell.’” 420. From “London Debates: 1792,” London Debating Societies 1776–1799 (1994), pp. 318–21, British History Online, www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?

Rogers Albert, The House of Bondage or Charlotte Brooks and Other Slaves, Original and Life-like, as They Appeared in Their Old Plantation and City Slave Life; Together with Pen-pictures of the Peculiar Institution, with Sights and Insights into Their new Relations as Freedmen, Freemen, and Citizens. New York: 1890, http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/albert/albert.html. Anton Allahar, Class, Politics, and Sugar in Colonial Cuba. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellon Press, 1990. Roger Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810. London: Macmillan, 1975. Donald W. Attwood, Raising Cane: The Political Economy of Sugar in Western India. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1991. F. R. Augier et al., The Making of the West Indies. London, Trinidad and Tobago: Longman, 1976. Elisabeth Ayrton, The Cookery of England. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1977. Michael Batterberry and Ariane Ruskin Batterberry, On the Town in New York.


pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

(This was so common that “Slav” became the basis of the word slave.) The Atlantic slave trade was different in terms of its sheer scale; it was the industrialisation of brutality. From the start of the trade in the 1440s to its final abolition in the mid-19th century, around 12 million Africans may have been transported to the Americas. Such was their inhumane treatment on the ships that transported them that perhaps 1.5 million died en route. Each slave was given a space around 63 inches (1.6m) high and 52 inches (1.32m) wide. In these crowded conditions, sickness was inevitable. Around a third of the deaths on board were from dysentery, with smallpox the second-biggest killer.11 In one notorious case, 132 sick slaves were thrown overboard to drown so that the owner could claim on the insurance.12 The Atlantic slave trade was driven by economics, not conquest.

His name was Max Factor. Since humans left Africa, they have been on the move. They moved to escape flood, or drought; they moved to find new lands to farm, or seas to fish; they moved to find new opportunities away from their clans or tribes; they moved to escape conquering armies and oppressive states; they moved unwillingly, in the case of the 10 to 12 million Africans subjected to the Atlantic slave trade; they moved as invaders, like the European colonial powers or the Mongol empire; and they moved, as was the case with most immigrants at Ellis Island, in search of a fresh start in a new world. All humans are immigrants, or are descended from them, differing only in the date when we, or our ancestors, arrived at our current home. Over history, these flows have had enormous political and economic significance.

Cipolla, Before the Industrial Revolution, op. cit. 7. Paul Harris, “They fled with nothing but built a new empire”, The Observer, August 11th 2002 8. Boyd Tonkin, “The Huguenots count among the most successful of Britain’s immigrants”, The Independent, June 18th 2015 9. Chanda, Bound Together, op. cit. 10. Paine, The Sea and Civilization, op. cit. 11. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 12. “Living Africans Thrown Overboard”, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1h280.html 13. Robert M. Harveson, “History of sugarbeets”, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, https://cropwatch.unl.edu/history-sugarbeets 14. J. H. Galloway, “The Mediterranean sugar industry”, Geographical Review, vol. 67, no. 2, April 1977 15. Thomas, The Slave Trade, op. cit. 16. Jason W. Moore, “Madeira, sugar, and the conquest of nature in the ‘first’ sixteenth century, Part 1: from ‘island of timber’ to sugar revolution, 1420–1506”, Review (Fernand Braudel Center), vol. 32, no. 4, 2009 17.


Lonely Planet London by Lonely Planet

Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, East Village, Etonian, financial independence, haute couture, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, place-making, post-work, Skype, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent

The tour begins on the 3rd floor (take the lift to the top) with the Roman settlement of Londinium and works its way downwards through the ages. Keep an eye out for the scale model of old London Bridge. Other highlights include Sailortown, a re-creation of the cobbled streets, bars and lodging houses of a mid-19th-century dockside community and nearby Chinatown, and more detailed galleries such as London, Sugar & Slavery, which examines the capital’s role in the transatlantic slave trade. There’s lots for kids here, including the hands-on Mudlarks gallery, where children can explore the history of the Thames, tipping the clipper, trying on old-fashioned diving helmets and even constructing a simple model of Canary Wharf. The museum has special exhibitions every few months, for which there is usually a charge. There’s also a great cafe on site. Don’t Miss… » Sailortown » London, Sugar & Slavery » Docklands at War » New Port New City » Scale model of London Bridge Practicalities » Offline map » www.museumindocklands.org.uk » No 1 Warehouse, West India Quay E14 » admission free » 10am-6pm » Canary Wharf or DLR West India Quay The centrepiece of the Isle of Dogs is Cesar Pelli’s 244m-high Canary Wharf Tower Offline map Google map , which was built in 1991.


pages: 695 words: 194,693

Money Changes Everything: How Finance Made Civilization Possible by William N. Goetzmann

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, delayed gratification, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, invention of the steam engine, invention of writing, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stochastic process, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, wage slave

Queen Anne’s cut was 22.5%. The costs were high, but clearly the British saw it as a vector into the lucrative South America trade. Although the principal business of the South Sea Company was slavery, Defoe—and perhaps his benefactor and governor of the company, Robert Harley—envisioned it as a means to extend Britain’s commercial presence in the Atlantic. The asiento not only gave the transatlantic slave trade to the company, it provided cover to set up factories in South America that could become colonies. The award of the asiento must have been particularly painful to Britain’s Dutch allies in the war. The Dutch West India Company (WIC) had colonies in Surinam and forts in West Africa, where they procured slaves. A significant part of the company’s commerce was the slave trade. Now the British had a new company patterned on the Dutch model, and the right to take over the transatlantic trade in humanity.


pages: 480 words: 112,463

The Golden Thread: How Fabric Changed History by Kassia St Clair

barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, butterfly effect, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Francisco Pizarro, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gravity well, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, out of africa, Rana Plaza, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Works Progress Administration

From the workaday T-shirt and jeans of the beatniks to the most inflated thread-count sheets in luxury Tokyo hotels, cotton is a default fabric choice and one of the most common mediums through which we materially express our status and identity. This was also the case for the people taken from Africa to the Americas to be slaves: it gave them a means to claw back some measure of self-respect and individuality. Cotton – one of the cornerstones of the Atlantic slave trade – was simultaneously a medium through which identities were crafted and asserted.7 Cotton was a common crop throughout Africa. The great Andalusian Arab traveller Al-Bekri, who visited Mali as early as 1068, wrote that ‘Every house had its cotton bush . . . [and] cloths of fine cotton’ were traded by locals for salt, millet, fish, butter, indigo and meat. Olaudah Equiano, who purchased his freedom in 1766 after years of enforced labour and went on to become an author and a prominent anti-slavery advocate, wrote one of the few accounts that mentions his clothing prior to capture.

By the time of the Civil War, many plantations had begun to turn their own cotton crop directly into textiles, rather than exporting it and letting British mills reap the profits. Planters-turned-mill owners could sell finished cloth far cheaper than that shipped over from England. Soon enough, as the domestic market began to grow and flourish, American cotton gained its own independence from British merchants and the Atlantic slave trade.42 The Canadian Tuxedo I wish I could invent something like blue jeans. Something to be remembered for. Andy Warhol, 1975 The city of Elko, Nevada held their fourth annual Silver State Stampede rodeo on 30 June 1951. It was a boisterous affair. The breeze carried competing scents of sugar, hot oil, horse sweat and bravado. In the crowds, women in heeled sandals and cotton dresses linked arms with khaki-clad servicemen; small boys in collared shirts and turned-up Levi’s ogled the bucking cowboys they hoped they would one day emulate.

., ‘Letter from Dr Terrell’, Southern Watchman (Athens, Georgia, 18 January 1855), p. 2 Thatcher, Oliver J. (ed.), The Library of Original Sources (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co., 1907), 1: The Ancient World <http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/hymn-nile.asp> [accessed 5 June 2017] ‘This Is Nike’s First Flyknit Apparel Innovation’, Nike News <https://news.nike.com/news/nike-flyknit-sports-bra> [accessed 9 January 2018] Thomas, Hugh, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (London: Phoenix, 2006) Tillotson, Jason, ‘Eight Years Later, the Super Suit Era Still Plagues the Record Books’, Swimming World, 2018 <https://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/news/eight-years-later-the-super-suit-era-still-plagues-the-record-books/> [accessed 10 January 2018] Tocqueville, Alexis de, Alexis de Tocqueville on Democracy, Revolution, and Society, ed. by John Stone and Stephen Mennell (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1980) ‘Tombs of Meketre and Wah, Thebes’, The Metropolitan Museum of Art <http://www.metmuseum.org/met-around-the-world/?


pages: 378 words: 107,957

Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody by Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, desegregation, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, late capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, neurotypical, phenotype, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade, white flight, women in the workforce

The Bible, for example, written over two thousand years ago in the Mediterranean, where black, brown, and white people were to be found, is filled with moralistic tribalism, but makes almost no mention of skin color. In late medieval England, references to “black” people often simply described the hair color of Europeans now regarded as “white.” While other factors may have contributed, race and racism as we understand them today probably arose as social constructions, made by Europeans to morally justify European colonialism and the Atlantic Slave Trade. European historians have tracked the rise of color-based prejudice over the early modern period, from roughly 1500 to 1800, and argued that prejudice on the grounds of religious difference gave way to racism—a belief in the superiority of some races over others—over the course of the seventeenth century.1 In order to justify the abuses of colonialism and the kidnapping, exploitation, and abuse of slaves, their victims had to be regarded as inferior or subhuman (even if they had converted to Christianity).

Before then, it was generally assumed that traits like skin color were determined largely environmentally, rather than genetically, although the related concepts in ancient Greek (genos) and Latin (genus) along with records from the Chinese and elsewhere indicate that descent wasn’t wholly neglected.2 Secondly, the constructed ideas of race were specifically used to justify the atrocities of European colonialism and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Third—and perhaps most importantly—this was done by emerging forms of scholarship in what we would now call the social sciences and natural sciences although they had neither separated clearly into the disciplines we would now call “anthropology,” “sociology,” and “biology” nor formed what we would now consider rigorous methods. This is important because naturalism and science were rapidly becoming a knowledge-production, thus idea-legitimizing, methodology the likes of which the world had never seen.

This is important because naturalism and science were rapidly becoming a knowledge-production, thus idea-legitimizing, methodology the likes of which the world had never seen. It is the legitimatizing authority of science that, ultimately, postmodernism rails against most vigorously. The rise of the sciences—and of an intellectual and political culture that accepted science as legitimate—together with the horrors of colonialism and the Atlantic Slave Trade, led to new social constructions of race. This, we hear from Theorists today, is the “scientific origin” of racism, which can be taken to mean that these discourses that misapplied very preliminary results from science allowed the first socially constructivist racists to come into existence. In other words, with this oversimplified, overreaching, and self-serving scientific categorization came social constructions associated with extremely low-resolution categories: being black (“blackness”) and being white (“whiteness”), to which value judgments were soon attached.


How to Be Black by Baratunde Thurston

affirmative action, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, drone strike, housing crisis, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, supply-chain management, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

Frances Cress Welsing, when one of the babas called out a boy from Baltimore. The kid was wearing a Los Angeles Raiders NFL Starter jacket. These were the height of cool at the time. The baba, referring to the team logo on the front of the jacket, pointedly asked him, “Brother, why are you wearing that white man over your heart?” None of us thought of Starter jackets that way. We then all got a lecture on economic self-determination, trans-Atlantic slave trading, and the importance of symbolism. As I mentioned, I was in this program at the same time as I was enrolled at Sidwell Friends. I think my mother loved the idea of combining two extreme educational influences that would, in fact, check each other. Too much exposure to Sidwell’s culture, and I might forget where I came from, start to value things foreign to my upbringing, and end up a total disappointment to my community by joining the Republican Party—this was unlikely, given Sidwell’s Quaker origins, but still.

Senghor is also well known for creating the cultural-historical concept of Negritude, which sought to elevate the cultural history of Africa to the same level as that of Europe. In his own way, perhaps Senghor was living the tenets of a book we’d call How to Be African. The trip had more than met my expectations. I did buy a crapload of kente cloth at amazing prices. I ate local foods. I purchased “African art.” I returned to a site of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. I dodged aggressive street vendors who were so persistent as to follow us for a mile. But the absolute moment of magic occurred while my friends and I were swimming in the Atlantic Ocean. The waves were smooth and massive. I was in Africa looking west back to America, and I thought to myself, “I could die now, and be so very happy.” It wasn’t that I had a desire to die. What I felt, though, was a sense of completion, satisfaction, and contentedness I’d never known before that moment.


England by David Else

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

After being in the doldrums for decades, this former hub of shipbuilding, manufacturing and the railways has undergone a transformative regeneration. Crumbling docks have been prettified, cutting-edge restaurants have sprung up, and hotels and designer bars occupy sites that were, until recently, derelict. But despite­ her new-found swagger, Bristol is also a city with a complex past; here you can explore the legacies of engineering genius Isambard Kingdom Brunel as well as those of the transatlantic slave trade. Mix in the work of guerrilla graffiti artist Banksy and a cutting­-edge club scene and you get something real, and just a little rough around the edges. But there’s also a sense that this little sister’s time has come. HISTORY A small Saxon village at the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon became the thriving medieval Brigstow (later Bristol) as the city began to develop a European trade in cloth and wine.

HISTORY A small Saxon village at the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon became the thriving medieval Brigstow (later Bristol) as the city began to develop a European trade in cloth and wine. Religious houses were established on high ground (now the suburb of Temple) above the marshes, and it was from here that celebrated ‘local hero’ John Cabot (actually a Genoese sailor called Giovanni Caboto) sailed to discover Newfoundland in 1497. Over the following centuries, Bristol became one of Britain’s major ports, and grew fat on the proceeds of the transatlantic slave trade (see boxed text), as well as from dealing in cocoa, sugar and tobacco. By the 18th century the city was suffering from competition, from Liverpool in particular. With large ships having difficulty reaching the city-centre docks, some trade moved to new ports at Avonmouth and Portishead instead. Bristol repositioned itself as an industrial centre, becoming an important hub for shipbuilding, as well as the terminus for the pioneering Great Western Railway line from London to the southwest.


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Unlike Americans and Europeans, however, African states did not engage in their ‘continual wars’ for land, but for people: African legal systems did not regard land as private property, so that ‘ownership of slaves in Africa was virtually equivalent to owning land in western Europe or China’.85 Until the mid-seventeenth century, when the ITCZ migrated southwards and the climate of West Africa deteriorated, most of these conflicts for slaves remained small scale and involved elite warriors who fought with javelins and clubs; but thereafter, rulers began to create much larger armies of slaves and mercenaries, armed first with bows and then with muskets, who fought over far larger areas and took far more captives. This change, seen by some subsequent historians as a ‘military revolution’, triggered an arms race in which rulers eager to acquire firearms for their defence traded them for slaves, feeding the dramatic expansion in the transatlantic slave trade as European demand for slaves to work their American sugar plantations escalated. Forced Migration: The African Slave Trade African slavery, which existed long before the Europeans arrived, took two forms. First, rulers used enslavement to remove troublemakers from society: those found guilty of (for example) adultery, witchcraft or theft might be fined more than they could pay and, if their kin-group would not help them, the offenders were sold as slaves (the sale price paid their fine).

., The Manchu Way: The eight banners and ethnic identity in late imperial China (Stanford, 2001) Elman, B. A., From philosophy to philology: Intellectual and social aspects of change in Late Imperial China (Cambridge, MA, 1985) Elman, B. A., A cultural history of civil examinations in Late Imperial China (Berkeley, 2000) Elphick, R., Kraal and castle: Khoikhoi and the founding of white South Africa (New Haven and London, 1977) Eltis, D. and D. Richardson, Atlas of the transatlantic slave trade (New Haven and London, 2010) Elvin, M., The pattern of the Chinese past (Stanford, 1973) Elvin, M., ‘Market towns and waterways: the county of Shanghai from 1480 to 1910’, in G. W. Skinner, ed., The city in late imperial China (Stanford, 1977), 441–73 Elvin, M., ‘Female virtue and the state in China’, P&P, CIV (1984), 111–52 Elvin, M., ‘The man who saw dragons: science and styles of thinking in Xie Zhaozhe's Fivefold Miscellany’, Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, XXV–XXVI (1993–4), 1–41 Elvin, M., ‘Unseen lives: the emotions of everyday existence mirrored in Chinese popular poetry of the mid-seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century’, in R.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

They were forced to perform everyday chores and crafts, to work on the fields or down mines, and they were forced into prostitution. Dick Harrison, a Swedish historian who has written a landmark history of slavery, says that he has yet to find an example of a civilization that did not at some point practise slavery. In academia and in popular debate we tend to focus on particular, modern varieties of slavery, such as the Atlantic slave trade, as I do here, but slavery has always been with us. Between thirty and sixty per cent of Africans were slaves before the Europeans took control of the slave trade there, taken by Arabs or other African tribes.3 In the Bible, slavery is considered a natural, established institution. In the Old Testament, we learn that ‘You may treat them as your property, passing them on to your children as a permanent heritance’ (Leviticus 25:45), and in the New Testament slaves are told to ‘obey your earthly masters with deep respect and fear.

He came to regret this, and concluded that Africans had the same individual rights as the Indians, but this horrible system survived him by more than 300 years. Unlike the indigenous population, African slaves could be continuously replaced by new slaves from Africa as they died, and they became an integral part of the American economy. Perhaps as many as ten million people were taken in the Atlantic slave trade, and the conditions were as brutal as the world had ever seen. Africans were kidnapped and marched to the coast, where they were imprisoned for a long time until a slave ship arrived. Some ten to twenty per cent died in overpacked ships on their way to America, chained by leg irons, handcuffs and neck collars. Perhaps as many as 1.5 million slaves died just on the slave ships. During the Enlightenment, with its attack on hierarchies and traditions, Las Casas’ arguments about self-ownership became widespread among philosophers.


pages: 231 words: 72,656

A History of the World in 6 Glasses by Tom Standage

Berlin Wall, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, Copley Medal, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Lao Tzu, multiplanetary species, out of africa, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

The story of Charles the Bad is taken from Froissart, Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Adjoining Countries. The account of the spread of distilled drinks into western Europe follows Forbes, A Short History of the Art of Distillation; Lichine, New Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits; Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism; and Roueche, "Alcohol in Human Culture." For the origins of the Atlantic slave trade and its relationship to sugar cultivation, see Mintz, Sweetness and Lower; Thomas, The Slave Trade; Hobhouse, Seeds of Change; and Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. The role of spirits in the slave trade is discussed in Thomas, The Slave Trade; Mintz, Sweetness and Power; Harms, The Diligent; and Smith, "Spirits and Spirituality." The account of the origins of rum follows Ligon, A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes; Lichine, New Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits; Mintz, Sweetness and Power; and Kiple and Ornelas, eds., The Cambridge World History of Food.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York: Crown, 1989. Tchernia, Andre. Le vin de ITtalie romaine. Rome: Ecole Franchise de Rome, 1986. Tchernia, Andre, and Jean-Pierre Brun. Le vin romain antique. Grenoble: Glenat, 1999. Tedlow, Robert. New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York : Simon & Schuster, 1997. Thompson, Peter. Rum Punch and Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. A History of Food. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1992. Trager, James. The Food Chronology. New York: Owl Books, 1997. Trigger, Bruce G. Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


Lonely Planet London City Guide by Tom Masters, Steve Fallon, Vesna Maric

Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Clapham omnibus, congestion charging, dark matter, discovery of the americas, double helix, East Village, financial independence, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, Nelson Mandela, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, young professional

The tour begins on the 3rd floor (take the lift to the top) with the Roman settlement of Londinium – don’t miss the delightful Roman blue-glass bowl discovered in pieces at a building site in Prescot St E1 in 2008 – and works its way downwards through the ages. Keep an eye open for the scale mode of the old London Bridge and the Rhinebeck Panorama (1805–10), a huge mural of the upper Pool of London. An excellent new gallery called London, Sugar & Slavery examines the capital’s role in the transatlantic slave trade. Kids adore such exhibits as Sailortown (an excellent re-creation of the cobbled streets, bars and lodging houses of a mid-19th-century dockside community and nearby Chinatown) and the hands-on Mudlarks gallery, where five- to 12-year-olds can explore the history of the Thames, tipping the clipper, trying on old-fashioned diving helmets, learning to use winches and even constructing a simple model of Canary Wharf.


pages: 405 words: 121,999

The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Many of its critics would not be alive today, and certainly not enjoying rich, educated lives, were it not for scientific and technical advances from pharmaceuticals and fertilisers to soap and sewage systems. Yet this awesome achievement should not lead us to overlook the marginalisation and genocide perpetrated against non-European peoples, the decimation of indigenous populations from the Americas to Tasmania, the industrial-scale Atlantic slave trade which treated black people as disposable commodities. The rise in nineteenth-century life expectancy in Britain was a great achievement but the Irish famine should not be forgotten. The fall of child mortality across Europe in the early decades of the twentieth century is to be celebrated but does not compensate for the barbarity of two world wars and the Holocaust. Infant mortality has fallen across the Middle East but this has contributed to the youth and instability of many societies where a mass of young people, unable to integrate into the workplace, resort to fundamentalism and violence.

The African American experience, and the legacy of slavery in particular, is one part of the dark side of this story, the other part being the marginalisation and sometimes genocide committed against the indigenous populations. It is true that slavery had been part of almost every society, and true too that the British were pioneers in abolishing the slave trade and driving it out of the Atlantic. It is true that the Arab slave trade long pre-dated that of the Europeans and outlived it. Yet the sheer industrial scale of the Atlantic slave trade, not only to the US but also to the Caribbean and Brazil, continues to stagger. The value of the lives of those transported was callously disregarded, and in the US slavery lived on and was not abolished until 1865. Thirty years later, black labourers in Alabama still received barely 60% of the nutrition they required.38 The legacy survives, manifest in racial tensions in the US, and until recently in the underpopulation of Africa, although this is now fast reversing.

Moreover, the pace at which fertility falls will have huge implications for the peak population of the planet. Sub-Saharan Africa has more than quintupled its population since the 1950s, from around 180 million to close on a billion. There is powerful evidence that at the earlier date Africa was under-populated, the victim not only of a difficult geography but of centuries of Arab slave-trading and a shorter but more intense period of European and American slaving, which left it denuded. The Atlantic slave trade alone is estimated to have taken 12 million people.32 The Islamic slave trade may have taken as many as 14 million, although some estimates are much lower.33 It is certainly striking to realise that in the continent as a whole in 1950 there were far less than half as many people as there were in Europe, a fact all the more striking when you realise that Africa is three times the size of Europe.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

This led to payouts adding up to £20 million—a figure that, according to The Independent, “represented a staggering 40 per cent of the Treasury’s annual spending budget and, in today’s terms, calculated as wage values, equates to around £16.5bn.” Much of that money went directly into the coal-powered infrastructure of the now roaring Industrial Revolution—from factories to railways to steamships. These, in turn, were the tools that took colonialism to a markedly more rapacious stage, with the scars still felt to this day.48 Coal didn’t create structural inequality—the boats that enabled the transatlantic slave trade and first colonial land grabs were powered by wind, and the early factories powered by water wheels. But the relentless and predictable power of coal certainly supercharged the process, allowing both human labor and natural resources to be extracted at rates previously unimaginable, laying down the bones of the modern global economy. And now it turns out that the theft did not end when slavery was abolished, or when the colonial project faltered.


pages: 325 words: 99,983

Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum

Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Chapter 7: ‘The Audacity of Hope’ 125 the worst possible circumstances: Randall Kennedy, Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word (New York, 2003), p. 3. 125 I couldn’t have the assumptions’: V.S. Naipaul, Reading and Writing: A Personal Account (New York, 2000), p. 37. 126 out of this horrifying traffic: See J. L. Dillard, Black English (New York, 1973). 127 Hawkins enjoyed the approval of the queen: Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1850 (London, 1997), p. 156. 128 Caliban, the demonic slave: The Tempest, Act 2, scene 2, line 197, and Act 1, scene 2, line 363. 129 ‘by having some of every Sort on board’: Dillard, Black English, pp. 73-93. See also Dwight Bolinger, Language: The Loaded Weapon (London, 1980). 129 ‘not a house in Boston’: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 207. 129 a sought-after prize, the Asiento: ibid., p. 237. 130 Defoe had been imprisoned for debt: ibid, p. 236. 130 the conventions of pidgin and creole: Dillard, Black English p. 125. 130 Pope asked the essential question: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 452. 131 She helped prepare literary people’s minds: ibid., pp. 452-3. 131 ‘compass the earth and seas’: Linda Colley, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh (London, 2007), pp. 134-6. 131 used to read prayers twice a day: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 307. 131 was taken up by the king: ibid., p. 465. 132 years of legal wrangling: Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution (London, 2005), p. 46. 132 200 people at a London tavern: ibid., p. 63. 132 Until 1807, when slavery was abolished: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 488. 133 Benjamin Franklin attempted a version: Dillard, Black English, pp. 86-9. 133 the true liberators: Schama, Rough Crossings, p. 65. 133 ‘have a wonderful art of communicating intelligence among themselves’: quoted ibid., p. 74. 133 Black preachers were already telling their congregations: ibid., p. 95. 134 ‘the greatest exodus from bondage’: ibid., p. 108. 134 ‘we should beware how we forfeited’: quoted in Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (London, 2005), p. 353. 135 ‘a negro becomes a freeman’: ibid., p. 354. 135 ‘What to the slave is the Fourth of July?’

Norman Stone, World War One: A Short History (London, 2007). Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London, 1999). Robert and Isabelle Tombs, That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present (London, 2006). A. J. P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (Oxford, 1965). —, The Origins of the Second World War (New York, 1961). Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 (London, 1997). Barbara Tuchman, The Proud Tower (New York, 1965). —, A Distant Mirror (New York, 1978). Edward Vallance, A Radical History of England (London, 2009). Nury Vittachi, Mr Wong Goes West (Crows Nest, NSW, 2008). James Walvin, A Short History of Slavery (London, 2007). Jacob Weisberg, The Bush Tragedy (New York, 2008). Stanley Wells, Shakespeare and Co. (London, 2006).


pages: 372 words: 110,208

Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past by David Reich

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, European colonialism, Google Earth, invention of agriculture, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, supervolcano, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

Deprived of their cultural points of reference, slaves had little ability to organize or resist. Most were sold in South America or the Caribbean, where they were often worked to death. Around 5 to 10 percent were brought to what became the United States. Following the first recorded sale of slaves by Portuguese traders in 1526, the rate of importation into the New World increased, plateauing at around seventy-five thousand per year until the trans-Atlantic slave trade was outlawed—in the British colonies in 1807, in the United States in 1808, and in Brazil in 1850. Today there are hundreds of millions of people in the Americas with African ancestry, the largest numbers in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the United States. The mixing of three highly divergent populations in the Americas—Europeans, indigenous people, and sub-Saharan Africans—that began almost five hundred years ago continues to this day.

Coop, “Parallel Adaptation: One or Many Waves of Advance of an Advantageous Allele?,” Genetics 186 (2010): 647–68. 43. S. A. Tishkoff et al., “Convergent Adaptation of Human Lactase Persistence in Africa and Europe,” Nature Genetics 39 (2007): 31–40. 44. Ralph and Coop, “Parallel Adaptation.” 10 The Genomics of Inequality 1. Peter Wade, Race and Ethnicity in Latin America (London and New York: Pluto Press, 2010). 2. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, www.slavevoyages.org/​assessment/​estimates. 3. K. Bryc et al., “The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans Across the United States,” American Journal of Human Genetics 96 (2015): 37–53. 4. Piers Anthony, Race Against Time (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1973). 5. The first federal census in 1790 recorded 292,627 male slaves in Virginia out of a total male population of 747,610; available online at www.nationalgeographic.org/​media/​us-census-1790/. 6.


pages: 1,048 words: 187,324

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, white picket fence, wikimedia commons, working poor

Also in Tunisia Lac de Gafsa Gafsa · After appearing overnight in 2014, this mysterious desert lake has been dubbed both miraculous and possibly carcinogenic. Dougga Twenty temples, an amphitheater, and a chariot-racing circle are among the highlights at this well-preserved ancient Roman town. West Africa BENIN Ganvie GANVIE, ATLANTIQUE In the 17th and 18th centuries, a portion of present-day Benin was known as the Kingdom of Dahomey. Established by the Fon people, a West African ethnic group, Dahomey became a major part of the Atlantic slave trade following the arrival of the Portuguese. Fon hunters worked with Portuguese slave traders, traveling around the region hunting for people to sell. One of the ethnic groups they targeted was the Tofinu, who lived in what is now central Benin. Knowing that the Fon’s religious beliefs prevented them from venturing into bodies of water, the Tofinu fled their homes and established Ganvie, a community of bamboo huts built atop stilts on Lake Nakoué.

SIERRA LEONE Bunce Island SOUTHERN PROVINCE During the 18th century, the castle at Bunce Island in the Sierra Leone River was a thriving trade hub. European and African traders visited the island to stock up on guns, gold, ivory, and beeswax, but all these products were peripheral to the main activity: the buying and selling of people. Bunce Island was one of about 40 human trading posts in West Africa during the Atlantic slave trade. From 1668 until 1807, its castle served as a warehouse for tens of thousands of West Africans awaiting transport to America and the West Indies. Rice plantation owners in South Carolina and Georgia favored slaves from Bunce Island due to its location on West Africa’s “Rice Coast,” which stretched from what is now Senegal to Liberia. Slave traders would scour the West African rice plantations, kidnap the skilled farmers, and sell them at Bunce Island to slave ships bound for the American South.

Be sure to stop by the House of Shards, a building with an exterior wall covered in broken ceramic plates, tiles, colored glass, and mirrors. 22275 Highway 36, Abita Springs, about an hour north of New Orleans. 30.478082 90.037632 A half-dog, half-alligator cyclist is one of the Mystery House’s longtime inhabitants. Historic Voodoo Museum NEW ORLEANS Though all its offerings are crammed into just two dusty rooms and a hallway, the New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum leaves a lasting impression. Founded in 1972 by local artist Charles Gandolfo, the museum focuses on Louisiana voodoo, which evolved from traditional West African vodun. West Africans brought voodoo to Louisiana during the trans-Atlantic slave trade of the early 18th century. By the mid-19th century, the culture of New Orleans had begun to transform the spiritual practice. Voodoo spirits merged with Catholic saints, rituals gave way to processions, and Creole voodoo queens like Marie Laveau rose to prominence. In 1932, a poorly acted, hastily shot horror movie—White Zombie—featured Bela Lugosi as an evil Haitian voodoo master with a crew of murderous zombies.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

.* Beginning in the 1520s, the rest of Europe experienced another flow of displaced people—this time, as the result of Luther’s Reformation. That violent division of Christendom into Catholics and Protestants produced migration on a scale that Europe had not seen since the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century, and would not see again until the First World War.52 The most infamous mass migration was the Atlantic slave trade, which began within a few years of Columbus’s discovery of the New World and which transplanted over 11 million Africans to the Americas by the mid-nineteenth century. As with the seaborne goods trade, this grim business started off modestly. Some 400,000 Africans had been delivered by the year 1600, forced to join some 250,000 Europeans in their New World colonies.53 But the inhumanity had begun and would balloon in the centuries to come.

Retrieved from english.sz.gov.cn/gi. 50. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations. 51. Ibid. 52. MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). Reformation: Europe’s House Divided, 1490–1700. London: Allen Lane, pp. 60, 648–649. 53. Frankel, Neil A. (2008). “Facts and Figures.” The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery in America. Retrieved from www.slaverysite.com/Body/facts%20and%20figures.htm. 54. World Bank (2013). “Bilateral Migration Matrix 2013.” Migration & Remittances Data. Retrieved from econ.worldbank.org. 55. Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co. 56. Eurostat (2015). “Non-National Population by Group of Citizenship, 1 January 2014.”


Cuba Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, cuban missile crisis, G4S, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Kickstarter, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, urban planning

El Barrio Chino NEIGHBORHOOD One of the world’s more surreal Chinatowns, Havana’s Barrio Chino is notable for its gaping lack of Chinese people, most of whom left as soon as a newly inaugurated Fidel Castro uttered the word ‘socialismo.’ Nevertheless, it’s worth a wander on the basis of its novelty and handful of decent restaurants. The first Chinese arrived as contract laborers on the island in the late 1840s to fill in the gaps left by the decline of the transatlantic slave trade. By the 1920s Havana’s Chinatown had burgeoned into the biggest Asian neighborhood in Latin America, a bustling hub of human industry that spawned its own laundries, pharmacies, theaters and grocery stores. The slide began in the early 1960s when thousands of business-minded Chinese relocated to the US. Recognizing the tourist potential of the area in the 1990s, the Cuban government invested money and resources into rejuvenating the district’s distinct historical character with bilingual street signs, a large pagoda-shaped arch at the entrance to Calle Dragones, and incentives given to local Chinese businesspeople to promote restaurants.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Subsaharan Africa's population at the beginning of the eighteenth century may not have been much more than 90 million (the estimate for the global population in 1700 is 650 million), so that if the number of forced migrants was 15 million, this means that one-sixth of Africa's population was taken to the Americas (Fig. 12-1). Anthropologists reckon that the impact of this terrible, catastrophic event can still be read in Africa's cultural landscapes. Not only were entire areas depopulated by the slave raiders as well as through the fighting that attended the campaign, but the price put on human heads set African against African and WHY GEOGRAPHY MATTERS THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE VOLUME AND DESTINATIONS 1701-1810 Fig. 12-1 rekindled ethnic animosities. Children were orphaned or abandoned by the hundreds of thousands, crops lay unharvested, villages stood deserted if they were not burned. West Africa's forest-to-desert trade collapsed, the Islamized interior states broke up, and everywhere the social order disintegrated. Columns of chained Africans marched from ever-deeper inland "sources" to the coastal embarkation stations, never to see their homeland again.

Begun, D. R., 2003. "Planet of the Apes." Scientific American, 289: 2. Best, A. C. G., and H. J. de Blij, 1977. African Survey. New York: Wiley. Charlemagne, 2003. "Europe's Population Implosion." Economist, 7/19: 42. Clarke, R. A., 2004. Against All Enemies. New York: Free Press, 40. Cohen, J. E., 2003. "Human Population: The Next Half Century." Science, 302: 14, 1172. Curtin, P., 1969. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Cutter, S. L., D. B. Richardson, T. J. Wilbanks, Eds., 2003. The Geographic Dimensions of Terrorism. New York: Routledge. Davis, C. S., 2004. Middle East for Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Davis, S., 2002. The Russian Far East: The Last Frontier. New York: Routledge. de Blij, H. J., 1971. Geography: Regions and Concepts. New York: Wiley.


Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

But despite her newfound swagger, Bristol is also a city with a complex past; here you can explore the legacies of engineering genius Isambard Kingdom Brunel as well as those of the transatlantic slave trade. Mix in the work of guerrilla graffiti artist Banksy and a cutting-edge club scene and you get something real, and just a little rough around the edges. But there’s also a sense that this little sister’s time has come. Return to beginning of chapter HISTORY A small Saxon village at the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon became the thriving medieval Brigstow (later Bristol) as the city began to develop its trade in cloth and wine with mainland Europe. Over the following centuries Bristol became one of Britain’s major ports, and grew wealthy on the proceeds of the transatlantic slave ‘trade’. By the time these shipments of human cargo were finally abolished in the British Empire in 1807, it’s thought 500,000 Africans had been enslaved by Bristol merchants – one fifth of all people kidnapped and sold into slavery by British vessels.


pages: 142 words: 45,733

Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel

anti-communist, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, creative destruction, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

The inaugural use of money, then, wasn’t even to record commercial debts but—in currencies of cloth or metal, whale teeth, or oxen, and sometimes human beings themselves—to betoken “debts that cannot possibly be paid.” In Graeber’s book, a certain literalism about money, an unblushing faith in its capacity to determine or discover genuinely equivalent values, is the mark—or blemish—of commercial economies. The most extreme example is slavery. The buying and selling of people is an ancient practice, yet in the Atlantic slave trade Graeber sees the collision of several of his human economies with a late-model commercial one. Long before trade in human chattel, the Tiv and the Lele possessed the concepts, respectively, of “flesh-debts” and “debt pawns.” A bridegroom might owe his in-laws a sister, or a man who had escaped death owe his rescuer a future son. Still, Graeber claims that the violence implied by titles in human life was, before the impact of commercial economies, more potential than actual.


pages: 513 words: 156,022

Dictatorland: The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, falling living standards, friendly fire, land reform, mandatory minimum, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, Yom Kippur War

At glittering ceremonies in Stockholm, London and the US, emissaries of Saro-Wiwa had accepted human rights awards on his behalf, reading out acceptance speeches he had composed in his prison cell. No, he wouldn’t be able to attend personally, due to the murder charge, but he was humbled nevertheless. ‘We are face to face with a modern slave trade,’ he wrote to one, ‘similar to the Atlantic slave trade in which European merchants armed African middlemen to decimate their people and destroy their societies… As in the Atlantic slave trade, the multinational companies reap huge profits.’ At 9.30 a.m., a Black Maria arrived at the Bori military camp, and Saro-Wiwa, together with his co-defendants, climbed inside. The streets were unusually quiet for that time in the morning. The melon-sellers and water-hawkers might have seen a speeding van splashing through the potholes.


pages: 240 words: 65,363

Think Like a Freak by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Barry Marshall: ulcers, call centre, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, Everything should be made as simple as possible, food miles, Gary Taubes, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, medical residency, Metcalfe’s law, microbiome, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Tony Hsieh, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise

., “Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Risk of Cardiovascular Events,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 306, no. 20 (November 23/30, 2011); Michael H. Alderman, “Evidence Relating Dietary Sodium to Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25, no. 3 (2006); Jay Kaufman, “The Anatomy of a Medical Myth,” Is Race “Real”?, SSRC Web Forum June 7, 2006; Joseph E. Inikori and Stanley L. Engerman, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe (Duke University Press, 1998); and F. C. Luft et al., “Salt Sensitivity and Resistance of Blood Pressure. Age and Race as Factors in Physiological Responses,” Hypertension 17 (1991). / 75 “An Englishman Tastes the Sweat of an African”: Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. Original source: M.


pages: 877 words: 182,093

Wealth, Poverty and Politics by Thomas Sowell

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, European colonialism, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, very high income, War on Poverty

Government Printing Office, 1982), p. 16; François Renault, “The Structures of the Slave Trade in Central Africa in the 19th Century,” The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century, edited by William Gervase Clarence-Smith, pp. 146–165; Paul E. Lovejoy and Jan S. Hogendorn, “Slave Marketing in West Africa,” The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, edited by Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), pp. 221–223, passim; Martin A. Klein, “Introduction: Modern European Expansion and Traditional Servitude in Africa and Asia,” Breaking the Chains, edited by Martin A. Klein, p. 10; James F. Searing, West African Slavery and Atlantic Commerce: The Senegal River Valley, 1700–1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 69. 29.

Alpers, Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), pp. 191–193; R.W. Beachey, The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa, pp. 182, 183, 189. 30. Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 23; Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), pp. 72, 75, 87. 31. Jean W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994), p. 97. 32. Ehud R. Toledano, The Ottoman Slave Trade and Its Suppression: 1840–1890 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 18, 59, 168, 171, 188, 189. 33. See, for example, Eric Williams, Capitalism & Slavery (New York: Russell & Russell, 1961), pp. vii–viii and passim. 34.


pages: 7,371 words: 186,208

The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times by Giovanni Arrighi

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial rule, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, double entry bookkeeping, European colonialism, financial independence, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, profit maximization, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, reserve currency, spice trade, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

“These companies,” we are told, though they may, perhaps, have been useful for the first introduction of some branches of commerce, by making, at their own expence, an experiment which the state might not think prudent to make, have in the long-run proved, universally, either burdensome or useless, and have either mismanaged or confined the trade. (Smith 1961: II, 255) Ironically, and tragically for the peoples of Africa, the earliest beginnings of the nineteenth-century free trade movement can be traced to the Atlantic slave trade. As previously noted, the WIC pioneered the triangular trade that boosted the slave trade to historically new heights, but could not forestall the entry of competitors as the VOC had been able to do in the East Indies trade in fine spices. By the late seventeenth century, an English company, the Royal African Company (chartered in 1672), had THE LONG TWENTIETH CENTURY 253 become the most powerful and most effective of all European companies formed exclusively for the African trade.

Index Page numbers Followed by “F” indicate figures. 9/1 1 terrorist attacks, 384 Abu-Lughod, Janet, 11, 35, 88, 117 accumulation: primitive accumulation, 14, 243, 373; processes 0F, 4; strategies and structures 0F, 224; See also regimes 0F accumulation; systemic cycles 0F accumulation Acheson, Dean, 288, 305 Adair, Serjeant, 268 Adam Smit/o in Beijing (Arrighi), 379, 382, 385 Afghanistan, 330-31, 333 AFrica, 11, 124, 152, 252, 341, 342 Age 0F Capital, 307 Age 0F Gen0ese (1557-1627), 128, 166, 173-74, 193-94 Age 0F the Rothschilds (1866-1931), 17374; See also Rothschild family agriculture, 183-84, 300-301 Akamatsu, Kaname, 344 Amboyna, 158 American Civil War (1860-65), 71, 300, 302-4 American Revolution (1776), 61, 66, 147, 163 Amin, Samir, 289-90, 342 Amsterdam: as central entrepot 0F world trade and commerce, 141, 143-44, 147, 155, 201-2, 206, 209, 215; commercial Fortunes 0F, 135; Enlightenment in, 139; population (1585-1622), 208; position in European world-economy, 141, 163, 167, 195; production and, 183 Amsterdam Bourse, 142, 144, 161-62 anarchy, 31, 32, 64 Anderson, Perry, 38, 180, 181, 202 Anglo-Dutch War (1781-84), 147 Anglo-French Hundred Years War (13371453)» 99, 130, 200, 222 Anglo-Saxon confrontation (1588), 191 Anti-Corn Law Bill (1846), 265 anti-imperialism, 71 anti—market, 21, 26 Antwerp, 83, 131, 134, 152, 195, 207 Aragon, 118-19 Arkwright, Richard, 268 Arrighi, Giovanni, 379, 381, 382, 383, 385 Asia, 36, 342, 358; See also East Asia; South Asia; Southeast Asia asientos, 134, 187 Atlantic slave trade, 252-53 Atlantic trade, triangular, 204, 206 Australia, 343 Baldridge, Malcom, 18 Balibar, Etienne, 32-33 Baltic trade, 135, 137, 155 Bandung,33l Bank 0F England, 216, 217, 322 banking networks, 169-70 banks, 323, 324; See also speczfic ban/es Bantan sultanate, 158-59 Bardi and Peruzzi (firms), 103, 107-8, 127 Barnet, Richard, 82 Barrat Brown, Michael, 180, 181 Batavian Revolution, 147 beautiful times (1896-1914), 178 belle epoques: Edwardian era, 277; European, 334-35; 0F finance capitalism, 373; US, 246, 325, 364, 384; Western, 334-35 Bengal, 257 Bergesen, Albert, 8 Bergsten, Fred, 366, 367 bills ofexchange, 131-32, 134, 156 Birnbaum, Eugene, 312 Bisenzone Fairs, 83, 134, 174, 217, 252 Bismark, Otto von, 273 Black Death, 103, 108 405 406 THE LONG TWENTIETH CENTURY Black Sea, 116-118 Blackburn, Robin, 50 Bloch, Marc, 42 Boli, John, 78 bourgeoisies, 122-23, 186, 187-88, 277 Bousquet, Nicole, 8 Boxer, Charles, 178 Boyer-Xambeau, M.


pages: 280 words: 74,559

Fully Automated Luxury Communism by Aaron Bastani

"Robert Solow", autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, computer vision, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, G4S, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kuiper Belt, land reform, liberal capitalism, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post scarcity, post-work, price mechanism, price stability, private space industry, Productivity paradox, profit motive, race to the bottom, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, working-age population

It would also mean those historically poorer countries along the equator would possess some of the most abundant, cheapest energy on Earth. This, alongside the delivery of UBS, would underpin similar leaps forward in health, education and housing, enabling meaningful development like never before and helping sever the chains of economic dependence that have characterised centuries of plunder and exploitation. Amid recent calls for reparations to atone for the historic injustices of the Atlantic slave trade and European empires, a One World Tax would turn a timely idea into a concrete demand. Wealthier countries must pay for the clean energy of poorer ones. 11 Reforging the Capitalist State It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile. Robert Kennedy Money for Nothing While the state guaranteeing the provision of certain goods has a long history, particularly in the twentieth century, it is the idea of a Universal Basic Income – the ‘UBI’ – which seems to have attracted greater curiosity in recent years.


pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla

British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Diao, Xinshen, Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio and Robinson, Sherman (2003) How Much Does It Hurt? The Impact of Agricultural Trade Policies on Developing Countries (Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute). Doussin, Jean-Pierre (2009) Le Commerce équitable [Fair Trade] (Paris: PUF, Que sais-je ?). Drescher, Seymour (1992) ‘The Ending of Slave Trade and the Evolution of European Scientific Racism’, in Inikori, Joseph E. and Engerman, Stanley L. (eds) The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies and Peoples in Africa, the Americas and Europe (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 361–96). Duménil, Gérard and Lévy, Dominique (2011) The Crisis of Neoliberalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). Elliott, Kimberly A. ( 2010) Open Markets for the Poorest Countries: Trade Preferences that Work. Report of the Center for Global Development Working Group on Global Trade Preference Reform.


pages: 299 words: 79,739

Enemy of All Mankind: A True Story of Piracy, Power, and History's First Global Manhunt by Steven Johnson

British Empire, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, Jeff Bezos, moral panic, Stewart Brand, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, wikimedia commons

British history often conveniently neglects the sheer scale of the company’s involvement in the slave trade during this period, focusing instead on the fact that slavery was largely abolished in England itself—if not in her colonies—by the late 1700s. But as the historian David Olusoga observes, “the Royal African Company transported more Africans into slavery than any other British company in the whole history of the Atlantic slave trade . . . around a hundred and fifty thousand men, women and children passed through the company’s coastal fortresses on their way to lives of miserable slavery.” According to the RAC agent Phillips, Henry Every had built a career for himself in the early 1690s as an interloper, working outside the official monopoly of the RAC, sometimes capturing the English traders themselves along with their African captives.


pages: 282 words: 82,107

An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, carbon footprint, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

It was not until 1503 that the first sugar mill opened on Hispaniola. The Portuguese began production in Brazil around the same time, and the British, French, and Dutch established sugar plantations in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century. After attempts to enslave local people failed, chiefly because they succumbed to Old World diseases to which they had no immunity, the colonists began importing slaves directly from Africa. And so began the Atlantic slave trade. Over the course of four centuries, around eleven million slaves were transported from Africa to the New World, though this figure understates the full scale of the suffering, because as many as half of the slaves captured in the African interior died on the way to the coast. The vast majority of the slaves shipped across the Atlantic—around three quarters of them—were put to work making sugar, which became one of the main commodities in Atlantic trade.


The Rough Guide to England by Rough Guides

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bike sharing scheme, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, Columbine, congestion charging, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Downton Abbey, Edmond Halley, Etonian, food miles, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, period drama, plutocrats, Plutocrats, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl

It’s an enjoyable, unashamedly populist survey, full of memorabilia and anecdotes and casting light on everything from the city’s mercantile history to its festivals and street life. On the ground floor, Bristol Places charts the city’s changing face, taking in its development as a port and the hardships of World War II. On the floor above, Bristol People and the adjoining Bristol Life look at the (often ordinary) folk who have shaped the city, with the former including a small display on Bristol’s links with the transatlantic slave trade (see box above). Afterwards, head out to the long terrace for fantastic harbour views. ss Great Britain Great Western Dockyard, BS1 6TY • Daily: April–Oct 10am–5.30pm; Nov–March 10am–4.30pm • £14 • 0117 926 0680, ssgreatbritain.org Harbourside’s major draw, and one of Bristol’s iconic sights, the ss Great Britain was the first propeller-driven, ocean-going iron ship in the world, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1843.


pages: 288 words: 90,349

The Challenge for Africa by Wangari Maathai

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, deliberate practice, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

Perhaps because of the intensity, frequency, and persistence of these challenges, it has been more difficult for the African spirit to overcome them than it has been for other peoples who experienced similar upheavals. The African leadership often failed to help its people deal with the impact of these experiences and instead tended to deny that they ever happened. Because Africa has not had a culture of writing, it has been easy to promote a culture of forgetting. For instance, few Africans fully understand the history of the Atlantic slave trade, because for many generations this period was kept out of oral or written history and is largely unspoken of in Africa, even though Africans were the victims. If history is not passed orally from generation to generation, and it is not written in history books so that it is deliberately taught to the next generation, it quickly disappears from memory. Those who wrote the history of Africa that is taught in schools were often the perpetrators of the wrongs that were done and wrote from their perspective.


We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade

He said that the British should have ‘pride’ in their past and, that if they were taught to believe what the ‘strident anticolonialists’ said, that could lead to a feeling of guilt which makes the public ‘vulnerable to wilful manipulation’. The British empire, according to Biggar, was ‘morally mixed’; he asserted that ‘just like that of any nation state, pride can temper shame’. He continued: ‘Pride at the Royal Navy’s century-long suppression of the Atlantic slave trade, for example, will not be entirely obscured by shame at the slaughter of innocents at Amritsar in 1919. And while we might well be moved to think with care about how to intervene abroad successfully, we won’t simply abandon the world to its own devices.’ At the time, Biggar was leading a balance sheet project on ‘Ethics and the Empire’ with the purpose of analysing the impact of Britain’s imperial past.


pages: 370 words: 99,312

Can Democracy Work?: A Short History of a Radical Idea, From Ancient Athens to Our World by James Miller

Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto

(In 1840, blacks comprised about 3 percent of Rhode Island’s population.) The delegates would be selected at local meetings. The idea of a People’s Convention caught on. But it turned out that a great majority of the state’s most zealous democrats opposed extending the franchise to black men. Opposition was especially fierce in Newport, which in the eighteenth century had been a major hub of the Atlantic slave trade. When the People’s Convention met that fall, the delegates voted by an overwhelming majority to limit the franchise to white men. It is telling that the new People’s Constitution cast doubt on Thomas Jefferson’s famous assertion that “all men are created equal.” The events in Rhode Island gave a preview of the increasingly bitter American debate over slavery and race—a debate that would be provisionally resolved only by the Civil War, and the leadership of Abraham Lincoln, who almost single-handedly turned the opening lines of the Declaration of Independence into an inviolable set of core principles that guaranteed civil rights to all Americans, regardless of race.


pages: 424 words: 108,768

Origins: How Earth's History Shaped Human History by Lewis Dartnell

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, clean water, Columbian Exchange, decarbonisation, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Google Earth, Khyber Pass, Malacca Straits, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, peak oil, phenotype, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spice trade, supervolcano, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

From these locations it is easier to cross to South America with the southeasterly trade winds and then south down the coast with the Brazil Current for the Brazilian coffee plantations; or follow the northeasterly trades and north equatorial current to the sugar plantations of the Caribbean islands, the cotton plantations of Alabama and Carolina, and tobacco plantations of Virginia. The Atlantic slave trade was banned in 1807, but continued by smugglers until the abolition of slavery with the conclusion of the American Civil War in 1865. By this time over 10 million Africans had been forcibly seized and transported to the Americas,63 many dying in the abysmal conditions on the way or in the first year or two on the plantations. About 40 per cent were taken to Brazil, 40 per cent to the Caribbean, 5 per cent to what became the United States, and 15 per cent to Spanish America.64 The shipping merchants sold their cargo for a profit at each stage of the triangle, and so like an economic perpetual motion machine the system generated huge financial gains for its masters with each turn of the crank.


pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

The consequences of this arrangement for the periphery of the world system were immense. As we will see, Latin America would be stuck in a relationship of economic dependency on Europe even into the 21st century, one marked by declining terms of trade, with the price of Latin America’s exports falling relative to the price of industrial imports from the West. Africa, for its part, suffered a serious loss of labour power to the Atlantic slave trade. What if the sum of the value produced by African slaves in the New World – worth the equivalent of hundreds of trillions of dollars today – was subtracted from Western wealth and added to the total wealth of Africa? Or even just a proportion of this sum, subtracting, for example, the gains that African kings made through the trade?23 Economists often speculate that the global South failed to develop because of a lack of capital.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

One can try to evade the problem by adopting a ‘morality of intentions’. What’s important is what I intend, not what I actually do or the outcome of what I do. However, in a world in which everything is interconnected, the supreme moral imperative becomes the imperative to know. The greatest crimes in modern history resulted not just from hatred and greed, but even more so from ignorance and indifference. Charming English ladies financed the Atlantic slave trade by buying shares and bonds in the London stock exchange, without ever setting foot in either Africa or the Caribbean. They then sweetened their four o’clock tea with snow-white sugar cubes produced in hellish plantations – about which they knew nothing. In Germany in the late 1930s, the local post-office manager might be an upright citizen looking after the welfare of his employees, and personally helping people in distress to find missing parcels.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

Immigrant Groups over Time, 1960–Present,” pie chart at its online “Migration Data Hub.” “The bill will not aggravate”: Kennedy, Hearing of the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary. In the three-and-a-half centuries: American Committee on Immigration Policies, “Our Immigration Laws Protect You, Your Job and Your Freedom” (pamphlet), Washington, D.C., 1965. including a quarter-million slaves: “Voyages,” Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, online at slavevoyages.org/assessment/estimates. In the half-century that followed: Pew Research Center, “Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 Million to U.S., Driving Population Growth and Change Through 2065,” September 28, 2015, 6. Kennedy proposed: Edward M. Kennedy, Selected Readings on U.S. Immigration Policy and Law: A Compendium, 96th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, D.C.: U.S.


The Frayed Atlantic Edge: A Historian’s Journey From Shetland to the Channel by David Gange

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, British Empire, garden city movement, global village, Scientific racism, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile

Historians have made some headway in adapting their ideas, but much less than literary scholars, geographers or social scientists; Timothy Mitchell’s ‘Can the Mosquito Speak?’ remains one of the few convincing historical experiments towards this goal; in relation to this book’s themes, the closest thing yet written is perhaps Marcus Rediker, ‘History from the Below the Water Line: Sharks and the Atlantic Slave Trade’, Atlantic History (2008). 6 There have been several calls to end this situation and rethink the skill sets involved in historical practice, such as Mark Levene, ‘Climate Blues: Or How Awareness of the Human End might Re-instil Ethical Purpose to the Writing of History’, Environmental Humanities (2013), and Daniel Smail, On Deep History and the Brain (2007). 7 For the beginning of a new, more concerted, attempt to write ocean histories, see the volume mentioned above, David Armitage, Alison Bashford and Sujit Sivasundaram, Oceanic Histories (Cambridge, 2018); the work of Sverker Sörlin, on the Arctic ocean, is a particularly insightful contribution combining multiple kinds of history into a genuine study of ocean, not just the maritime movement of people.


pages: 425 words: 117,334

City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast

big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

Putnam, Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis (2015); Kelefa Sanneh and Will Welch, Atlanta: Hip-Hop and the South (2010); David L. Sjoquist, ed., The Atlanta Paradox (2000); Curtis Snow, Snow on Tha Bluff (movie, 2011); Warren St. John, Outcasts United: An American Town, a Refugee Team, and One Woman’s Quest to Make a Difference (2009); Anne Steffani, Unlikely Dissenters: White Southern Women in the Fight for Racial Justice, 1920–1970 (2015); Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 (1997); B. Wardlaw, Coca-Cola Anarchist (2010); Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (2010). Useful Newspapers, Magazines, and Websites Atlanta BeltLine, Inc. (www.beltline.org); Atlanta Black Star; Atlanta Business Chronicle; Atlanta Daily World; Atlanta INtown; Atlanta Journal-Constitution; Atlanta Loop (www.atlantaloop.com); Atlanta Magazine; Atlanta Progressive News (www.atlantaprogressivenews.com); Atlanta Tribune; Atlanta Voice; Bitter Southerner (www.bittersoutherner.com); Creative Loafing; Curbed Atlanta (www.atlanta.curbed.com); Georgia State Signal; Georgia Trends; Saporta Report (www.saportareport.com); Sustainable Communities.


pages: 458 words: 112,885

The Prodigal Tongue: The Love-Hate Relationship Between American and British English by Lynne Murphy

airport security, British Empire, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, joint-stock company, moral panic, pre–internet, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, young professional

Think of Jamaica, for example, where (besides a standard Jamaican English) Patois or Patwa, an English-based creole language, has developed. See if you recognize the famous lines that have been translated into Jamaican Creole here: Wi Faada we iina evn, mek piipl av nof rispek fi yu an yu niem. Mek di taim kom wen yu ruul iina evri wie. Creoles develop under very specific sociolinguistic conditions—the kinds of conditions that were created by the Atlantic slave trade. Speakers of many languages need to communicate with one another. Slave traders frequently made sure that groups of slaves were linguistically diverse in order to prevent them from plotting revolts. With hundreds of languages in West Africa, this was achievable. Access to the language of power is uneven. Few slaves had sufficient exposure to the English of the slave traders and slave holders to learn more than a basic vocabulary, but they had to learn some quickly.


pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman

British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

Within three months in 1756, for example, Thistlewood records that ‘[a slave named] Derby catched eating canes. Had him well flogged and pickled, then made Hector [another slave] shit in his mouth’, that he ‘rubbed Hazat with molasses and exposed him naked to the flies all day, and to the mosquitos all night’, and that he ‘flogged Punch well, and then washed and rubbed in salt pickle, lime juice and bird pepper; made Negro Joe piss in his eyes and mouth’. The horrors of the Atlantic slave trade are now part of school history lessons, the cruelties the British inflicted on fellow human beings rightly taught as a cause of shame. The mechanics of the business, in which tribal chiefs collected captives from further and further into the interior of Africa for sale to the traders, the British creation of marshalling forts on the ‘slave coast’ between the Niger and Volta rivers, the disgusting conditions of the packed slaves on the ‘Middle Passage’ of the triangular trade and, at journey’s end, the presentation of men, women and children like beasts in a market, should all be engraved on the national conscience.


pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Colonizing powers have always used armed forces to protect their commercial assets in the Delta. The role he was playing had changed little from that of an English mariner in the 1660s. Then soldiers were employed by the Royal Navy and sent to protect the ships of the Royal African Company, which were transporting slaves from the creeks of the Delta to the American colonies. For 150 years Britain played a pivotal role in the Atlantic slave trade. After slavery came palm oil plantations. Now the exploited resources are oil and gas. The security liaison officer was about to be caught up in the vortex of violence that has swirled over the Niger Delta for the past four decades. The heart of the crisis is oil—who controls it, who benefits, and who suffers as a result. For forty years the communities of the Niger Delta have been campaigning for a greater share of the oil wealth that has been pumped from under their land.


The Regency Revolution: Jane Austen, Napoleon, Lord Byron and the Making of the Modern World by Robert Morrison

British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, financial independence, full employment, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, New Urbanism, railway mania, stem cell, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, wage slave

For two decades, Freetown on the coast of Sierra Leone had been a settlement for freed black slaves, including escaped slaves from the West Indies (“Maroons”) and American slaves from Nova Scotia who had fought for the British in the American Revolutionary War. The Sierra Leone Company, a commercial enterprise sponsored by a group of wealthy abolitionists, ran the colony from 1792 until 1808, when the British government took direct control and quickly transformed Freetown into the center of British missionary and political power in the region as well as a base from which the Royal Navy suppressed the Atlantic slave trade. Britain extended its reach in West Africa even further in 1816 when its soldiers moved from Sierra Leone north to The Gambia, purchased St. Mary’s Island from the chief of Kombo, and founded the town of Bathurst (Banjul). Named after the colonial secretary, Henry Bathurst, third Earl Bathurst, it became for Britain another power base from which its ships checked the slave trade, its merchants explored trade routes and opportunities, and its missionaries promulgated European ideals and the Christian faith.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

National Bureau of Economic Research, Internet TAXSIM Version 8.2 Home Page, www.nber.org/~taxsim/taxsim-calc8/index.html. Taylor, George Rogers. The Transportation Revolution, 1815-1860. New York: Rinehart, 1951. Taylor, Philip M. Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440-1870. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Thomas, June Manning. “Planning and Industrial Decline: Lessons from Postwar Detroit.” Journal of the American Planning Association 56, no. 3 (Sept. 1990): 297-310. Thomas, Lately. Delmonico’s: A Century of Splendor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967. Thompson, Heather Ann. Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.


pages: 461 words: 139,924

The Habsburgs by Martyn Rady

Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, night-watchman state, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, spice trade, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise

For ‘In winter we negotiate…’, see Geoffrey Parker, Thirty Years’ War (London and New York, 1984), 179; B. Dudík, Schweden in Böhmen und Mähren 1640–1650 (Vienna, 1879), 294–5. 18. For the extent of anti-Habsburg gains, see Konrad Repgen, ‘Ferdinand III.’, in Die Kaiser der Neuzeit 1519–1918, ed. Anton Schindling and Walter Ziegler (Munich, 1990), 142–67 (151). 19. Johannes Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1815 (Cambridge, 1990), 33–45. The text of the peace treaty is given in Latin and German in Tractatus Pacis, Trigesimo Januarii, anno supra millesimum sexcentesimo quadragesimo octavo, Monasterii Westfalorum (1648). For modern verdicts, see Johannes Arndt, ‘Ein europäisches Jubiläum: 350 Jahre Westfälische Frieden’, Jahrbuch für Europäische Geschichte, 1 (2000), 133–58. CHAPTER 14: THE ABNORMAL EMPIRE AND THE BATTLE FOR VIENNA 1.


pages: 618 words: 160,006

Seapower States: Maritime Culture, Continental Empires and the Conflict That Made the Modern World by Andrew Lambert

British Empire, different worldview, Donald Trump, joint-stock company, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, rising living standards, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS

Having secured the tools of seapower, Britain employed its influence to shape a stable, peaceful, balanced European state system, to prevent a renewed hegemonic thrust by France, or Russia, and open the continent for British commerce. The only territories Britain retained were offshore island bases, Malta, Corfu, Heligoland and Mauritius; the latter, once linked to Cape Town, controlled the trade between Europe and Asia. Britain had no desire to extend its occupation into the interior of Africa. Instead it compelled Algiers to end the enslavement of European sailors, and crushed the Atlantic slave trade. Britain exploited technology, money and power to create the first globalised economy. It knocked down trade barriers, by force or by finance, pioneered new forms of capital movement, invented and laid the first global communications network, the submarine telegraph cable, and used it to build new markets. Britain created a world economy to sustain the seapower fleet that made it a great power.


Discover Caribbean Islands by Lonely Planet

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Bartolomé de las Casas, buttonwood tree, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, food miles, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, urban decay, urban sprawl

Slaves were forced to learn the language of the plantation owners, but they blended their own use of it into a hybrid Creole language that was liberally spiced with African terms. To this day, islanders throughout the Caribbean still slip into Creole. Much West Indian music takes its roots from a spirit of rebellion – most prominent is calypso, a sharp, raplike music that was developed by slaves poking fun at their masters. Origins of Slavery The Atlantic slave trade had a scale so overwhelming that it depopulated vast tracts of western Africa. From its origins, starting with Portuguese and Spanish colonists in the 1500s, to the final abolition on Cuba in 1886, an estimated 10 million enslaved African people were brought to the Americas. For the British, who held about 2.3 million slaves, the trade was a lucrative triangular route. Ships sailed from English ports with trinkets and muskets to barter for slaves in Africa.


pages: 1,213 words: 376,284

Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

By the 1760s, it was ten times that, accompanied by millions of pieces of chinaware; by the 1820s, it had doubled again. At a time when the price of wheat and other domestic foods was rising, tea became cheaper and cheaper. In Amsterdam, the wholesale price of coffee plummeted from 10 gulden per kilo at the beginning of the eighteenth century to 1 gulden at its end. In the same period, Britain increased its sugar consumption almost ten times, to 20 pounds per person a year. This was the peak of the Atlantic slave trade that was so crucial for coffee and sugar plantations. On the eve of the abolition of the slave trade, in 1807, the West Indies supplied a quarter of Britain’s total imports. Never again would the colonial world play such a large role in the imperial centre. Malachy Postlethwayt, who worked as a publicist for the Walpole government and the Royal Africa Company, acutely perceived the architecture of the British empire: it was, he wrote in the 1750s, ‘a magnificent superstructure of American commerce and naval power on an African foundation’.36 By the late eighteenth century, the human cost of slave sugar started to cause public outrage, as we shall see in the next chapter.

Curtin, Economic Change in Precolonial Africa: Senegambia in the Era of the Slave Trade (Madison, WI, 1975); Stanley B. Alpern, ‘What Africans Got for their Slaves: A Master List of European Trade Goods ’, History in Africa 22, 1995: 5–43; David Eltis, ‘Trade between Western Africa and the Atlantic World before 1870’, Research in Economic History 12, 1989: 197–239; A. G. Hopkins, An Economic History of West Africa (London, 1973); and Herbert S. Klein, ‘Economic Aspects of the Eighteenth-century Atlantic Slave Trade’, in: The Rise of Merchant Empires, ed. James D. Tracy (Cambridge 1990), 287–310. Eltis’s figures for West Africa show a smaller share for iron than Curtin’s but a similar declining trend. 10. Johann Krapf, quoted in Jeremy Prestholdt, ‘East African Consumerism and the Genealogies of Globalization’, PhD thesis, Northwestern University (Evanston, IL) 2003, 93. See now: Jeremy Prestholdt, Domesticating the World: African Consumerism and the Genealogies of Globalization (Berkeley, CA, 2008). 11.


pages: 508 words: 192,524

The autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X; Alex Haley

desegregation, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, rent control, Rosa Parks, transatlantic slave trade

“_Before_ we could function beyond the humiliation of Southern bigotry-there was Malcolm X. ”_Before_ we could come to know Africa's glorious past-there was Malcolm X. “_Before_ we could find our self-esteem and self-respect-there was Malcolm X. ”And we owe him so dearly in ways our young must never be allowed to forget. "Where we have now the very possibility of courage-we _owe_ Malcolm X. "Where we have the wisdom to search for our history before the Atlantic slave trade-we _owe_ Malcolm X. "Where we have the political integrity to simply stand for something because it is right-we _owe_ Malcolm X. “It is not often that an American government institution honors those who embody a whole and uncompromised truth. But today is one such rare occasion. And I will keep it in my heart for the rest of my life.” *** At that moment, Brother Robinson spoke for all of us, and I will forever carry in my heart the sincerities of that ceremony.


pages: 661 words: 187,613

The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language by Steven Pinker

Albert Einstein, cloud computing, David Attenborough, double helix, Drosophila, elephant in my pajamas, finite state, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, Loebner Prize, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, natural language processing, out of africa, phenotype, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Saturday Night Live, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, Turing test, twin studies, Yogi Berra

Here, one would think, linguistics runs into the problem of any historical science: no one recorded the crucial events at the time they happened. Although historical linguists can trace modern complex languages back to earlier ones, this just pushes the problem back a step; we need to see how people create a complex language from scratch. Amazingly, we can. The first cases were wrung from two of the more sorrowful episodes of world history, the Atlantic slave trade and indentured servitude in the South Pacific. Perhaps mindful of the Tower of Babel, some of the masters of tobacco, cotton, coffee, and sugar plantations deliberately mixed slaves and laborers from different language backgrounds; others preferred specific ethnicities but had to accept mixtures because that was all that was available. When speakers of different languages have to communicate to carry out practical tasks but do not have the opportunity to learn one another’s languages, they develop a makeshift jargon called a pidgin.


pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

“For shame,” wrote Nathaniel Niles of Rhode Island, “let us either cease to enslave our fellow-man or else let us cease to complain of those that would enslave us.” The contradiction led Pennsylvania to legislate in 1780 for the gradual abolition of slavery. “We rejoice that it is in our power to extend a portion of that freedom to others,” ran the preamble, “which hath been extended to us; and a release from that state of thraldom to which we ourselves were tyrannically doomed.” Despite actively promoting the Atlantic slave trade themselves, the British also targeted the contradiction. “How is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of negroes?” demanded Dr. Samuel Johnson. In 1779, Sir Henry Clinton, in command of British forces, offered freedom “to every Negro that shall desert the rebel standard,” and the following year the British switched their strategy from the original sources of rebellion in New England and Pennsylvania to focus on the South, with the same offer of liberty to the enslaved.


pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

These features can be briefly summarized as follows: 1. the appearance of a single global market – not for all but for most widely used products, and also for the supply of capital, credit and financial services; 2. the intense interaction between states that may be geographically very distant but whose interests (even in the case of very small states) have become global, not regional; 3. the deep penetration of most cultures by globally organized media, whose commercial and cultural messages (especially through the language of ‘brands’) have become almost inseparable; 4. the huge scale of migrations and diasporas (forced and free), creating networks and connections that rival the impact of the great European out-migration of the nineteenth century or the Atlantic slave trade; 5. the emergence from the wreck of the ‘bipolar age’ (1945–89) of a single ‘hyperpower’, whose economic and military strength, in relation to all other states, has had no parallel in modern world history; 6. the dramatic resurgence of China and India as manufacturing powers. In hugely increasing world output and shifting the balance of the world economy, the economic mobilization of their vast populations (1.3 billion and 1 billion respectively) has been likened to the opening of vast new lands in the nineteenth century.


pages: 775 words: 208,604

The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality From the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, corporate governance, cosmological principle, crony capitalism, dark matter, declining real wages, demographic transition, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, hiring and firing, income inequality, John Markoff, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, mega-rich, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, universal basic income, very high income, working-age population, zero-sum game

After colonial rule succumbed to local risings triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808, the newly formed states soon passed emancipation laws. In chapter 6 I discussed the violent destruction of slavery in the American Civil War, in which the uncompensated expropriation of slave owners was partly offset by collateral damage to non-elite groups that reduced the overall extent of leveling. Meanwhile, the British suppression of the Atlantic slave trade, essentially an act of state violence, had contributed to the decline of what remained of Latin American slavery. Brazil and Cuba were the main holdouts. In the case of Cuba (and Puerto Rico), it was once again violent conflict that prompted policy change. Revolution in Cuba in 1868 led to emancipation in part of the island during a war that lasted a decade. Reforms curtailed slavery from 1870 until abolition was achieved in 1886.


pages: 1,057 words: 239,915

The Deluge: The Great War, America and the Remaking of the Global Order, 1916-1931 by Adam Tooze

anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, credit crunch, failed state, fear of failure, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, imperial preference, labour mobility, liberal world order, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, price stability, reserve currency, Right to Buy, the payments system, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

The path to a true synthesis lies not only in recognizing that the problems of global leadership faced by the United States after World War I were radically new and that the other powers too were motivated to search for a new order beyond imperialism. The third key point to establish is that America’s own entry into modernity, presumed in such a simple way by most accounts of twentieth-century international politics, was every bit as violent, unsettling and ambiguous as that of any of the other states in the world system. Indeed, given the underlying fissures within a formerly colonial society, originating in the triangular Atlantic slave trade, expanded by means of the violent appropriation of the West, peopled by a mass migration from Europe, often under traumatic circumstances, and then kept in perpetual motion by the surging force of capitalist development, America’s problems with modernity were profound. Out of the effort to come to terms with this wrenching nineteenth-century experience emerged an ideology that was common to both sides of the American party divide, namely exceptionalism.58 In an age of unabashed nationalism, it was not Americans’ belief in the exceptional destiny of their nation that was the issue.


pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra

Better: a long dry spell, the city’s wooden buildings, a strong wind from the southwest, and, if you disdain Irish immigrants, Mrs. O’Leary’s cow. The modern world cannot be explained, I show in the second volume, Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can’t Explain the Modern World, by routine brick-piling, such as the Indian Ocean trade, English banking, canals, the British savings rate, the Atlantic slave trade, natural resources, the enclosure movement, the exploitation of workers in satanic mills, or the accumulation in European cities of capital, whether physical or human. Such routines are too common in world history and too feeble in quantitative oomph to explain the thirty- or hundredfold enrichment per person unique to the past two centuries. Hear again that last, astonishing fact, discovered by economic historians over the past few decades.


pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, global pandemic, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, twin studies, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Thus, while the eighth century’s An Lushan Rebellion and civil war in Tang dynasty China killed “only” 36 million, that represented one sixth of the world’s population—the equivalent of 429 million in the midtwentieth century. When deaths are expressed as a percentage of total population, World War II is the only twentieth-century event cracking the top ten, behind An Lushan, the Mongol conquests, the Mideast slave trade, the fall of the Ming dynasty, the fall of Rome, the deaths caused by Tamerlane, the annihilation of Native Americans by Europeans, and the Atlantic slave trade. Critics have questioned this—“Hey, stop using fudge factors to somehow make World War II’s 55 million dead less than the fall of Rome’s 8 million.” After all, 9/11’s murders would not have evoked only half as much terror if America had 600 million instead of 300 million citizens. But Pinker’s analysis is appropriate, and analyzing rates of events is how you discover that today’s London is much safer than was Dickens’s or that some hunter-gatherer groups have homicide rates that match Detroit’s.


pages: 1,194 words: 371,889

The scramble for Africa, 1876-1912 by Thomas Pakenham

active measures, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, God and Mammon, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

An even more urgent task was to stop the exploitation of Chinese ‘coolies’ in the Transvaal, now being imported as sweated labour for the gold-mines of the Rand. In the general election it was Chinese labour on the Rand, called ‘Chinese slavery’, that had brought the most violent abuse down on the heads of the Unionists, for it was they who had licensed the experiment. In 1904 the Liberals had denounced it as though it was a variant of the eighteenth-century Atlantic slave trade. Campbell-Bannerman called it ‘the biggest scheme of human dumping since the Middle Passage was adopted’.8 Now that they were in power, the Liberals were pledged to save the Chinese from exploitation. The main objection was to the degrading conditions in which the indentured coolies were held. They were confined in compounds for three years without their families, forbidden to take skilled work, prevented from mixing with the rest of the population, and subject to harsh punishment if they tried to escape.


pages: 1,199 words: 384,780

The system of the world by Neal Stephenson

bank run, British Empire, cellular automata, Edmond Halley, Fellow of the Royal Society, high net worth, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, large denomination, MITM: man-in-the-middle, place-making, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

He found no useful information there, save that what they were looking at was rather high up in the air. But he did catch sight again of South Sea House, a very large compound one of whose gates was situated a couple of hundred yards away, on the left side of Bishops-gate. It was bigger, and newer, than the Bank of England. It was, in a way, the Anti-Bank; its collateral, the Thing of Value against which it lent money, was the Asiento: the trans-Atlantic slave trade, wrested from Spain last year in the war. A sudden exclamation came up from the crowd. Dappa glanced to the right, and thought he perceived a trail of black smoke drawn through the air from near the top of the Monument. And then he made a second glance, for the lantern at the top of that colossal spire was disfigured by some sort of jury-rigged block-and-tackle device. A vulgar entertainment for the Mobb, was his guess.


Europe: A History by Norman Davies

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl

It happened some fifty years before Europe’s first contacts with the Americas, and it put European entrepreneurs into a good position for exploiting the new opportunities. In 1501 Spain issued a decree to limit the export of Christian girls to garrison brothels across the Atlantic. In 1515 Spain sent the first consignment of black slaves directly from Africa to America, whilst receiving the first shipment of slave-grown American sugar. More than a century after Goncalvez, a fresh stage of the Atlantic slave trade was reached, when English sea captains broke into the Spanish and Portuguese monopoly. In October 1562 John Hawkins sailed from Plymouth for the coast of Guinea with three ships—the Salomon, the Swallow, and the Jonas. Variously described as a pirate and an admiral, Hawkins established the ‘Great Circuit’, with its threefold profits of English goods sold in Africa, African slaves sold in the Indies, and American products sold in England.