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pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

We expend huge effort to measure the value of activity within borders; it is time to devote equal effort to the benefits of connectivity across them. There are no greater stakes than in the question of moving from a nations-borders world to a flow-friction world. We need a more borderless world because we can’t afford destructive territorial conflict, because correcting the mismatch of people and resources can unlock incredible human and economic potential, because so few states provide sufficient welfare for their citizens, and because so many billions have yet to fully benefit from globalization. Borders are not the antidote to risk and uncertainty; more connections are. But if we want to enjoy the benefits of a borderless world, we have to build it first. Our fate hangs in the balance. RECOMMENDED SITES AND TOOLS FOR MAPPING AJD GEOSPATIAL CONCEPTS http://gisco​nsult​ingse​rvices.​com/ AJD Geospatial Concepts specializes in the organization, analysis, and mapping of geographic data for urban and regional planning; utility, environmental, infrastructure, and transportation management; business and political analysis; and 3-D topographic and flood analysis.

Its takeaway is that infrastructure is destiny: Follow the supply lines outlined in this book to see where the future flows.” —Kevin Kelly, co-founder, Wired “Parag Khanna takes our knowledge of connectivity into virgin territory, providing an entire atlas on how old and new connections are reshaping our physical, social, and mental worlds. This is a deep and highly informative reflection on the meaning of a rapidly developing borderless world. Connectography proves why the past is no longer prologue to the future. There’s no better guide than Parag Khanna to show us all the possibilities of this new hyperconnected world.” —Mathew Burrows, director, Strategic Foresight Initiative at the Atlantic Council, and former counselor, U.S. National Intelligence Council “Reading Connectography is a real adventure. The expert knowledge of Parag Khanna has produced a comprehensive and fascinating book anchored in geography but extending to every field that connects people around the globe.

The Digital Identity Buffet Spreading the Connective Wealth The Global Digital Workforce CHAPTER 15 THE GREAT DILUTION A Mongrel Civilization BOX: China: Imperial Nation-State Global Passports Global Citizens Citizenship Arbitrage CHAPTER 16 WHEN NATURE HAS ITS SAY, GET OUT OF THE WAY Retreat from the Water’s Edge? BOX: Rivers over Borders How to Negotiate with Nature BOX: Measuring the Supply Chain’s Footprint Location, Location, Location CONCLUSION: FROM CONNECTIVITY TO RESILIENCE A New Moral Compass Networks That Run Themselves Building a Borderless World Recommended Sites and Tools for Mapping Map Insert Dedication Acknowledgments Notes Bibliography Map Credits and Sources By Parag Khanna About the Author PROLOGUE The natural consequence of any obsession is passing it on to one’s children. I’ve been collecting globes, maps, and other geographic artifacts since my itinerant childhood. Thus it is hardly a coincidence to have been writing portions of this book while methodically assembling a thousand-piece world map with my daughter.


pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

And like many technology companies before and since, it argued that it couldn’t exert any control over the Internet, in this case to block French users from its site. At the time, according to Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu’s Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World, it seemed entirely possible that France would give in. Internet utopians claimed such censorship was impossible anyway. “It’s not that laws aren’t relevant,” the MIT Media Lab’s cofounder Nicholas Negroponte said at the time, “it’s that the nation-state is not relevant.”7 France, this line of thinking implied, would just have to accept the new reality of a borderless world. But France does not even fully accept the reality of Sunday shop openings. “It became clear,” Goldsmith and Wu write, “that the irrelevance of the nation-state would not go uncontested.”8 When Yahoo! claimed France could not impose its laws on a U.S. company, the advocacy groups that sued it argued back that the United States should not push its free speech laws on France.

Thomas Crampton, “France Weighs Forcing iPods to Play Other Than iTunes,” New York Times, March 17, 2006. 6. Elisabeth Niggemann, Jacques de Decker, and Maurice Lévy, The Net Renaissance: Report of the “Comité des Sages” Reflection Group on Bringing Europe’s Cultural Heritage Online (European Commission, January 2011). 7. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World, p. 3. 8. Ibid. 9. David Hearst, “Yahoo! Faces French Fines for Nazi Auctions,” Guardian, July 24, 2000. 10. Goldsmith and Wu, Who Controls the Internet?, p. 7. 11. Lisa Guernsey, “Welcome to the Web. Passport, Please?” New York Times, March 15, 2001. 12. This idea was introduced during the 1993 negotiations for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and allows France to protect its movie business with quotas. 13.

The Hollywood Economist: The Hidden Financial Reality Behind the Movies. Brooklyn: Melville House, 2010. Epstein, Jason. Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001. Fisher, William W., III. Promises to Keep: Technology, Law, and the Future of Entertainment. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2004. Goldsmith, Jack, and Tim Wu. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. A prescient look at the future of law online and a thoroughly researched rejoinder to anyone who thinks it won’t have one. Goldstein, Paul. Copyright’s Highway: From Gutenberg to the Celestial Jukebox. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2003. An excellent introduction to copyright—thorough enough for almost anyone, but accessible enough for beginners.


pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

This sanguine outlook was an early conceptualisation of the view now associated with Thomas Friedman’s 2005 book The World is Flat. Despite its being entirely at odds with the industrial policies that made Japan rich – policies which Mahathir was supposed to be imitating – the prime minister was so taken with Ohmae’s book The Borderless World that he ordered all around him to read it. Asmat Kamaludin, who became the top bureaucrat at Malaysia’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry in this period, recalls: ‘You felt safe if you were walking around with that book.’156 However, with the benefit of hindsight, the rather hasty, under-researched and breathless tone of The Borderless World was a pointer to the unlikelihood of its prediction that the world was becoming more favourable to the development of poor countries. It was not a good replacement for the work of Friedrich List. Hard-nosed infant industry protection of the kind recommended by List remains the only proven way of pushing a rising state up the technological ladder.

Mahathir could have read the first of the great academic analyses of Japanese industrial policy, Chalmers Johnson’s MITI and the Japanese Miracle, which was published in 1982 just as Look East was being launched. Unfortunately, he did not. Nor did Mahathir read Park Chung Hee’s books about development policy in Korea.145 Instead, he would later read – and tell his underlings to read – a fashionable, pro-globalisation book that was wholly irrelevant to his country’s needs: Kenichi Ohmae’s 1990 tome The Borderless World. Mahathir was mercurial. He launched his biggest industrialisation projects, and then began to sour on Japanese joint venture partners, even before Malaysian bureaucrats had completed a detailed Industrial Master Plan.146 Mahathir’s neglect of export discipline was his first error, and had effects that were quickly apparent. To help pay for its investment programme, the Malaysian government increased its foreign debt from 10 per cent of GDP in 1980 to 38 per cent in 1986.147 But, unlike Korea, Malaysia’s export earnings from manufactured goods grew only slowly.

In the 1990s, by contrast, Ohmae and Mahathir went on to plan and launch the futuristic and widely ridiculed Multimedia Super Corridor and Cyberjaya investment park projects around Kuala Lumpur. These were supposed to foster indigenous high technology through free market, win–win cross-border cooperation, but have done no such thing.157 Instead, the white elephant projects stand as testaments to the naivete – albeit well-meaning naivete – of books like The Borderless World and The World is Flat that suggest that we are moving towards a new developmental paradigm in which the interests of rich and poor nations neatly coincide. Journey 4: Across Malaysia Once again we need to take a drive. This being Malaysia, with a Gini coefficient of around 0.5, the car hire firm despatches a couple of peons to bring a vehicle to the house where I am staying on the west side of Kuala Lumpur.


pages: 334 words: 98,950

Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Most of today’s rich countries regulated foreign investment when they were on the receiving end. Sometimes the regulation was draconian – Finland, Japan, Korea and the USA (in certain sectors) are the best examples. There were countries that succeeded by actively courting FDI, such as Singapore and Ireland, but even they did not adopt the laissez-faire approach towards TNCs that is recommended to the developing countries today by the Bad Samaritans. Borderless world? Economic theory, history and contemporary experiences all tell us that, in order truly to benefit from foreign direct investment, the government needs to regulate it well. Despite all this, the Bad Samaritans have been trying their best to outlaw practically all regulation of foreign direct investment over the last decade or so. Through the World Trade Organisation, they have introduced the TRIMS (Trade-related Investment Measures) Agreement, which bans things like local content requirements, export requirements or foreign exchange balancing requirements.

Bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) between rich and poor countries also restrict the ability of developing countries to regulate FDI.53 Forget history, say the Bad Samaritans in defending such actions. Even if it did have some merits in the past, they argue, regulation of foreign investment has become unnecessary and futile, thanks to globalization, which has created a new ‘borderless world’. They argue that the ‘death of distance’ due to developments in communications and transportation technologies has made firms more and more mobile and thus stateless – they are not attached to their home countries any more. If firms do not have nationality any more, it is argued, there are no grounds for discriminating against foreign firms. Moreover, any attempt to regulate foreign firms is futile, as, being ‘footloose’, they would move to another country where there is no such regulation.

Foreign financial investment brings more danger than benefits, as even the neo-liberals acknowledge these days. While foreign direct investment is no Mother Teresa, it often does bring benefits to the host country in the short run. But it is the long run that counts when it comes to economic development. Accepting FDI unconditionally may actually make economic development in the long run more difficult. Despite the hyperbole about a ‘borderless world’, TNCs remain national firms with international operations and, therefore, are unlikely to let their subsidiaries engage in higher-level activities; at the same time their presence can prevent the emergence of national firms that might start them in the long run. This situation is likely to damage the long-run development potential of the host country. Moreover, the long-run benefits of FDI depend partly on the magnitude and the quality of the spill-over effects that TNCs create, whose maximization requires appropriate policy intervention.Unfortunately, many key tools of such intervention have already been outlawed by the Bad Samaritans (e.g., local content requirements).


pages: 347 words: 99,317

Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity by Ha-Joon Chang

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Most of today’s rich countries regulated foreign investment when they were on the receiving end. Sometimes the regulation was draconian – Finland, Japan, Korea and the USA (in certain sectors) are the best examples. There were countries that succeeded by actively courting FDI, such as Singapore and Ireland, but even they did not adopt the laissez-faire approach towards TNCs that is recommended to the developing countries today by the Bad Samaritans. Borderless world? Economic theory, history and contemporary experiences all tell us that, in order truly to benefit from foreign direct investment, the government needs to regulate it well. Despite all this, the Bad Samaritans have been trying their best to outlaw practically all regulation of foreign direct investment over the last decade or so. Through the World Trade Organisation, they have introduced the TRIMS (Trade-related Investment Measures) Agreement, which bans things like local content requirements, export requirements or foreign exchange balancing requirements.

Bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) between rich and poor countries also restrict the ability of developing countries to regulate FDI.53 Forget history, say the Bad Samaritans in defending such actions. Even if it did have some merits in the past, they argue, regulation of foreign investment has become unnecessary and futile, thanks to globalization, which has created a new ‘borderless world’. They argue that the ‘death of distance’ due to developments in communications and transportation technologies has made firms more and more mobile and thus stateless – they are not attached to their home countries any more. If firms do not have nationality any more, it is argued, there are no grounds for discriminating against foreign firms. Moreover, any attempt to regulate foreign firms is futile, as, being ‘footloose’, they would move to another country where there is no such regulation.

Foreign financial investment brings more danger than benefits, as even the neo-liberals acknowledge these days. While foreign direct investment is no Mother Teresa, it often does bring benefits to the host country in the short run. But it is the long run that counts when it comes to economic development. Accepting FDI unconditionally may actually make economic development in the long run more difficult. Despite the hyperbole about a ‘borderless world’, TNCs remain national firms with international operations and, therefore, are unlikely to let their subsidiaries engage in higher-level activities; at the same time their presence can prevent the emergence of national firms that might start them in the long run. This situation is likely to damage the long-run development potential of the host country. Moreover, the long-run benefits of FDI depend partly on the magnitude and the quality of the spill-over effects that TNCs create, whose maximization requires appropriate policy intervention.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

The New Middle Ages Sitting in one of the glassy towers of the United Nations on New York’s East Side, the world seems very tidy. There are councils for security and human rights, commissions for social development and peace building, a division for women, a program for the environment, and an organization for global health. Name the issue, the United Nations has it covered. But how can an organization that caters to bordered states solve the problems of a borderless world? Are pandemics a health issue, a security issue, or both? Is terrorism a political issue, an economic one, or both? What about crop-killing insect infestations at higher altitudes caused by global warming—should the Food and Agriculture Organization or the UN Environment Program handle that? Surely population growth is a cause of ecosystem stress and poverty; do all three really require separate bureaus?

Then there are the mega-billionaires-cum-philanthropists such as Bill Gates, Richard Branson, and Ratan Tata who combat deadly disease, sponsor African schools, and govern steel factory cities, respectively. They represent the interests of their companies and projects far more than their home nations as such, and millions of lives depend on their good works. They increasingly run their own borderless worlds. From clans to corporations, all of the players active in diplomacy a millennium ago are back. The word “diplomacy” stems from the Greek diploun, meaning “to fold,” and refers to the folded diplomas authorizing entry into foreign territories that emissaries carried inside sealed metal plates. Today, the right business card will do. This isn’t new. In the Middle Ages, diverse merchant communities were a driving force of diplomacy, managing to translate languages, exchange currencies, and trade a cornucopia of goods across Eurasia.


pages: 586 words: 159,901

Wall Street: How It Works And for Whom by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labor-force participation, late capitalism, law of one price, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, random walk, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Star investors — names are omitted to avoid lawsuits — will often let it drop that they think the yen is overvalued, or that they've just bought gold; when the masses act on this information, the position, whatever its initial wisdom, becomes a winner. No unknowing chumps here. capital unbound So far, this review has concentrated on the U.S. While this simplifies things, it's hardly a fair representation of how we invest today. Capital and commodities traverse the globe with remarkable freedom. Though casual observers treat this borderless world as a recent invention, it's more than a little reminiscent of life before World War I. That idyllic world was nicely evoked by John Maynard Keynes (1988, pp. 11-12), no doubt one of these once-charmed Londoners he wrote about: The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, in such quantity as he might see fit, and reasonably expect their early delivery upon his doorstep; he could at the same moment and by the same means adventure his wealth in the natural resources and new enterprises of any quarter of the world, and share, without exertion or even trouble, in their prospective fruits and advantages; or he could decide to couple the security of his fortunes with the good faith of the townspeople of any substantial municipality in any continent that fancy or information might recommend.

These feelings, which I should be sorry to see weakened, induce most men of property to be satisfied with a low rate of profits in their own country, rather than seek a more advantageous employment for their wealth in foreign nations.■*" Ricardo's sentimental patriotism is a long way from the heartless, landless sentiments of Stronach and the Colgate exec. It remains to be seen whether this borderless world is more permanent than the one described by Keynes, or whether war, depression, and/or political rebellion will smash the idyll once again. Recalling Keynes, though, should caution against the common habit of treating the globalized present as something utterly new. The share of exports in Britain's GDP was only a bit higher in 1992 than it was in 1913, and the U.S. of 1996 is no match for either.

Markets, through ignorance, perverseness, or delusion, can impose policies on countries that are inappropriate to national circumstances, and Tobin thinks his lax might reduce this pressure. Attempts to evade the tax, he argued, could be managed by having it administered by the IMF — even making compliance with the tax a condition of membership. Proceeds of the tax could be used for "worthwhile international purposes" — funding the UN, the World Bank, and the IMF, for example. The latter institutions have contributed greatly to creating the borderless world Tobin bemoans, but liberals rarely seem to have problems with contradictions like this. Tobin has also argued for a similar tax on stock trades. Tobin lodged a dissent from the tame official recommendations of the Twentieth Century Fund's (1992) Task Force on Market Speculation and Corporate Governance. The report's centerpiece was a long essay by Robert Shiller (1992) on markets' excessive volatility, and the dangers of taking guidance on how to run real corporations from movements in their stock prices.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

States looking to understand each other’s behavior, academics studying international relations, and NGOs and businesses operating on the ground within sovereign territory will need to do separate assessments for the physical and virtual worlds, understanding which events that occur in one world or the other have implications in both, and navigating the contradictions that may exist between a government’s physical and virtual foreign and domestic policies. It is hard enough to get this right in a world that is just physical, but in the new digital age error and miscalculation will occur more often. Internationally, the result will be more cyber conflict and new types of physical wars, and, as we will now see, new revolutions. 1 We recommend the 2006 book Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World, by Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, which puts forth this scenario with great clarity. 2 Internet Balkans, as we refer to them, are different than intranets. An intranet uses the same Internet protocol technology but is limited to a network within an organization or local area, instead of a network of other networks. Corporate intranets are often protected from unauthorized external access by firewalls or other gateway mechanisms. 3 Smaller incidents, however, do suggest that governments are capable and perhaps comfortable manipulating DNS routing on occasion.

CHAPTER 3 THE FUTURE OF STATES YouTube in Iran: Gwen Ackerman and Ladane Nasseri, “Google Confirms Gmail and YouTube Blocked in Iran Since Feb. 10,” Bloomberg, February 13, 2012, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-02-13/google-confirms-gmail-and-youtube-blocked-in-iran-since-feb-10.html. We recommend the 2006 book Who Controls the Internet?: Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). most users tend to stay within their own cultural spheres: Author’s determination based on ten years as CEO of Google and two as executive chairman. Particular terms like “Falun Gong”: Mark McDonald, “Watch Your Language! (In China, They Really Do),” Rendezvous (blog), International Herald Tribune, the global edition of the New York Times, March 13, 2012, http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/watch-your-language-and-in-china-they-do/.

., 5.1, 7.1 states: ambition of future of Storyful, n Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Stuxnet worm, 3.1, 3.2 suborbital space travel Sudan suggestion engines Summit Against Violent Extremism Sunni Web supersonic tube commutes supplements supply chains Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) surveillance cameras Sweden switches Switzerland synthetic skin grafts Syria, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2 uprising in Syrian Telecommunications Establishment tablets, 1.1, 1.2, 7.1 holographic Tacocopter Tahrir Square, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Taiwan Taliban, 2.1, 5.1, 7.1 TALON Tanzania technology companies, 2.1, 3.1 Tehran Telecom Egypt telecommunications, reconstruction of telecommunications companies Télécoms Sans Frontières television terrorism, terrorists, 4.1, 5.1, con.1 chat rooms of connectivity and cyber, 3.1n, 153–5, 5.1 hacking by Thailand Thomson Reuters Foundation thought-controlled robotic motion 3-D printing, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 5.1 thumbprints Tiananmen Square protest, 3.1, 4.1 Tibet time zones tissue engineers to-do lists Tor service, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 5.1n Total Information Awareness (TIA) trade transmission towers transparency, 2.1, 4.1 “trespass to chattels” tort, n Trojan horse viruses, 2.1, 3.1 tsunami Tuareg fighters Tumblr Tunisia, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 Turkey, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1 Tutsis Twa Twitter, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, nts.1 Uganda Uighurs, 3.1, 6.1 Ukraine unemployment UNESCO World Heritage Centre unique identification (UID) program United Arab Emirates, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 United Kingdom, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1 United Nations, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1 United Nations Security Council, 3.1n, 214, 7.1 United Russia party United States, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1 engineering sector in United States Agency for International Development (USAID) United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 Ürümqi riots user-generated content Ushahidi vacuuming, 1.1, 1.2 Valspar Corporation Venezuela, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1 verification video cameras video chats video games videos Vietcong Vietnam vigilantism violence virtual espionage virtual governance virtual identities, itr.1, 2.1, 2.2 virtual juvenile records virtual kidnapping virtual private networks (VPNs), 2.1, 3.1 virtual reality virtual statehood viruses vitamins Vodafone, 4.1, 7.1 Vodafone/Raya voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) calls, 2.1, 5.1 voice-recognition software, 1.1, 2.1, 5.1 Voilà VPAA statute, n Walesa, Lech walled garden Wall Street Journal, 97 war, itr.1, itr.2, 6.1 decline in Wardak, Abdul Rahim warfare: automated remote warlords, 2.1, 2.2 Watergate Watergate break-in Waters, Carol weapons of mass destruction wearable technology weibos, 62 Wen Jiabao Wenzhou, China West Africa whistle-blowers whistle-blowing websites Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (Goldsmith and Wu), 3.1n Whole Earth Catalog (Brand), 2.1n Wi-Fi networks WikiLeaks, itr.1, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2 Wikipedia, 1.1, 6.1 wikis Windows operating system Wingo, Harry Wired, 203 Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century (Singer), 6.1, 6.2 wisdom of the crowds, 2.1, 6.1 women Women2Drive Campaign women’s rights World Food Program (WFP) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 3.1, 3.2 World Trade Organization (WTO), 3.1, 3.2 World War I World War II World Wide Web, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 worms, 3.1, 6.1 Wu, Tim, n Xbox 360 video-game console Xi Jinping Yahoo!


pages: 675 words: 141,667

Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks (Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise) by Andrew L. Russell

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barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust

Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005); Louis Galambos, “Recasting the Organizational Synthesis: Structure and Process in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries,” Business History Review 79 (2005): 1–37; Louis Galambos, The Creative Society – And the Price Americans Paid for It (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012); Alfred E. Eckes and Thomas W. Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003); John Gray, False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism (New York: The New Press, 2000); Phillipe Legrain, Open World: The Truth About Globalization (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004); Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: Public Affairs, 2011); Stanley Fish, “Anonymity and the Dark Side of the Internet,” January 3, 2011, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/anonymity-and-the-dark-side-of-the-internet (accessed January 17, 2012); Nathan Ensmenger, “The Digital Construction of Technology,” Technology & Culture 53 (2012): 753–776. 5 Friedman, The World Is Flat, 187. 6 Global Times, “The Real Stake in the ‘Free Flow of Information,’” January 22, 2010, http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/editorial/2010–01/500324.html (accessed January 17, 2012). 7 Thomas P.

Michael Froomkin, “Habermas@Discourse.Net: Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace,” Harvard Law Review 116 (2003): 749–873; Simon, Launching the DNS War; Tim O’Reilly, “The Architecture of Participation,” (June 2004), http://oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/articles/architecture_of_participation.html (accessed January 3, 2012). 7 Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering Anniversary Edition (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1995), 40–50. 8 Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); Julian Dibbell, “A Rape in Cyberspace: How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database into a Society,” The Village Voice (December 23, 1993); Andrew L. Russell, “Constructing Legitimacy: The W3C’s Patent Policy,” in Laura DeNardis, ed., Opening Standards: The Global Politics of Interoperability (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2011); Gary Wolf, “Why Craigslist Is Such a Mess,” Wired 17 (2009), http://www.wired.com/entertainment/theweb/magazine/17–09/ff_craigslist (accessed January 3, 2012). 9 On the structure and culture of computing research at ARPA, see Arthur L.

“Standards for Standard Setting: Contesting the Organizational Field.” In Sherrie Bolin, ed. The Standards Edge: Dynamic Tension. Ann Arbor, MI: Sheridan Press, 2004. Garnet, Robert W. The Telephone Enterprise: The Evolution of the Bell System’s Horizontal Structure, 1876–1909. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. Goldsmith, Jack and Tim Wu. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Gooday, Graeme J. N. The Morals of Measurement: Accuracy, Irony, and Trust in Late Victorian Electrical Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Grindley, Peter, David C. Mowery, and Brian Silverman. “SEMATECH and Collaborative Research: Lessons in the Design of High-Technology Consortia.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 13 (1994): 723–758.


pages: 239 words: 45,926

As the Future Catches You: How Genomics & Other Forces Are Changing Your Work, Health & Wealth by Juan Enriquez

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, double helix, global village, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, personalized medicine, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, spice trade, stem cell

Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni and faculty have founded more than 4,000 companies … Generating over $230 billion in yearly sales … Which in terms of national economies … Makes it twenty-third in the world. Millennium Pharmaceuticals alone … A midsize genomics company founded by an MIT professor … Had 1,500 patents pending in 2000 … And was worth more than everything produced … In Lithuania plus Estonia over the course of a year. Many of MIT’s most successful alumni and faculty … Are foreigners who chose to stay in the United States. In a borderless world … Those who do not educate … And keep their citizens … Will lose most intellectual wars. (The United States has gotten lazy in this area … It prefers to import brains rather than generating them in its high schools … More on this later.) The consequences of free trade … In a technology-driven world … Are different from having open borders … In a commodity-driven world economy.


pages: 196 words: 57,974

Company: A Short History of a Revolutionary Idea by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

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affirmative action, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, business process, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, double entry bookkeeping, Etonian, hiring and firing, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mittelstand, new economy, North Sea oil, race to the bottom, railway mania, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Inflation and recession further dented their self-confidence. By the early 1980s, the Americans were on the defensive, pinned back by German multinationals and humiliated by the Japanese (see chapter 7). Trying to view the history of multinationals through nationalistic lenses becomes harder in the final quarter of the twentieth century. This, after all, was a time when the business sections of bookshops groaned with titles such as The Borderless World, The Twilight of Sovereignty, and Sovereignty at Bay. A famous essay in the Harvard Business Review in 1983 by Theodore Levitt argued that “the earth is round but for most purposes, it is sensible to treat it as flat.” That was overstating it. Geography did still matter. In 1995, the top one hundred companies by market valuation included forty-three from the United States, twenty-seven from Japan, eleven from Great Britain, and five from Germany.

Working the Street: What You Need to Know About Life on Wall Street by Erik Banks

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, borderless world, corporate governance, estate planning, greed is good, risk/return, rolodex, telemarketer

That means when you go abroad, you’ll be helping the firm make sure that its foreign outposts remain important—by figuring how to do business and figuring out what business to do, and by making sure the place doesn’t blow up in the process (you know, that tendency to play with very sharp scissors when Mom’s in the other room). In short, you need to make sure that the firm’s foreign presence continues to matter, because in this very global and borderless world, it should matter. YOU GET TO BE YOUR OWN BOSS What’s it really like when you’re thousands of miles away from the Big Machine, from the frenzy, excitement, tension, politics, and intrigue? In a word: great. Within a week of hitting the ground you’ll realize that your responsibilities have just multiplied rapidly and dramatically. You become your own boss. Sure, you may have some local manager that you report to, but if you’re an expatriate transferred from head office, you’re probably representing some function (meaning your “real boss” is back home) or you’re part of a very small team (meaning you’re more senior than you would be back home.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

For example, the FBI asked regulators to hold ofi^ on approving Deutsche Telekom's takeover of VoiceStream, the cellular telephone provider, while it could determine whether the deal would com-pHcate its ability to tap phone calls. While the Bureau's concerns didn't block the deal, it is a measure of how seriously federal agencies—often joined by members of Congress—take the matter of preserving U.S. security prerogatives in a supposedly borderless world. The U.S., of course, expresses no qualms when American telephone companies take over foreign companies; quite the contrary, opening up foreign telecoms markets is one of the most fervent passions of U.S. trade negotiators—mainly for commercial reasons, but the National Security Agency probably isn't displeased either. And even while it lectures other countries on the need to open their markets, the U.S. has never been shy about erecting trade barriers to protect domestic industries.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

NYU Primary Sources (New York, NY), 2011, accessed Feb 9, 2011, http://nyuprimarysources.org/video-library/jay-rosen-and-clay-shirky/. 61 “many wresting power from the few”: Lev Grossman, “Time’s Person of the Year: You,” Time, Dec. 13, 2006, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1569514,00.html. 61 “did not eliminate intermediaries”: Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 70. 62 “It will remember what you know”: Danny Sullivan, “Google CEO Eric Schmidt on Newspapers & Journalism,” Search Engine Land, Oct. 3, 2009, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, http://searchengineland.com/google-ceo-eric-schmidt-on-newspapers-journalism-27172. 62 “bringing the content to the right group”: “Krishna Bharat Discusses the Past and Future of Google News,” Google News blog, June 15, 2010, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, http://googlenewsblog.blogspot.com/2010/06/krishna-bharat-discusses-past-and.html. 62 “We pay attention”: Ibid. 63 “most important, their social circle”: Ibid. 63 “make it available to publishers”: Ibid. 63 Americans lost more faith in news: “Press Accuracy Rating Hits Two Decade Low; Public Evaluations of the News Media: 1985–2009,” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Sept. 13, 2009, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, http://people-press.org/report/543/. 64 “New York Times and some random blogger”: Author’s interview with Yahoo News executive.


pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning

What’s more, its exponents endlessly insisted that despite protestations to the contrary, what the media was calling “globalization” had almost nothing to do with the effacement of borders and the free movement of people, products, and ideas. It was really about trapping increasingly large parts of the world’s population behind highly militarized national borders within which social protections could be systematically withdrawn, creating a pool of laborers so desperate that they would be willing to work for almost nothing. Against it, they proposed a genuinely borderless world. Obviously, these ideas’ exponents did not get to say any of this on TV or major newspapers—at least not in countries like America, whose media is strictly policed by its own internal corporate bureaucrats. Such arguments were, effectively, taboo. But we discovered that there was something we could do that worked almost as well. We could besiege the summits where the trade pacts were negotiated and the annual meetings of the institutions through which the terms of what was called globalization were actually concocted, encoded, and enforced.


pages: 285 words: 78,180

Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life by J. Craig Venter

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Barry Marshall: ulcers, bioinformatics, borderless world, Brownian motion, clean water, discovery of DNA, double helix, epigenetics, experimental subject, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, John von Neumann, Louis Pasteur, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, stem cell, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine

This is a fascinating area that works by layering living cells on a structural matrix in the shape of a blood vessel or a human organ. Whatever we end up calling these devices, I am confident that in coming years we will be able to convert digitized information into living cells that will become complex multicellular organisms or can be “printed” to form three-dimensional functioning tissues. The ability to print an organism remains some way off but will become a possibility soon enough. We are moving toward a borderless world in which electrons and electromagnetic waves will carry digitized information here, there, and everywhere. Borne upon those waves of information, life will move at the speed of light. 12 Life at the Speed of Light The changing of Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies, is very conformable to the Course of Nature, which seems delighted with Transmutations. —Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks (1718)1 When life is finally able to travel at the speed of light, the universe will shrink, and our own powers will expand.


pages: 237 words: 77,224

The Fracture Zone: My Return to the Balkans by Simon Winchester

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, borderless world, invention of movable type, Khyber Pass

Why, the question seemed so pertinent, why create borders anymore? After all, across the rest of Europe, in the North and South and even in much of the once Marxist East, there were everywhere the signs that life was about becoming so very much less complicated. Frontiers were coming down all over Europe. The passport seemed every day less essential. The cry of “Papers!” or of “Documents, please!” became less and less frequently heard. The borderless world seemed a concept well on its way to being born, and at least in Europe itself, there was also the probability, almost a reality now, of that elegant device to be known as the single currency. But here in the Balkans, while elsewhere frontiers were coming down and currencies were becoming melded and melted down into one another, the very opposite was happening. Starting in early summer of 1991, no less than three thousand miles of brand-new European frontiers, de jure and de facto, had actually been drawn, surveyed, and created.


pages: 381 words: 101,559

Currency Wars: The Making of the Next Gobal Crisis by James Rickards

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Asian financial crisis, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, game design, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, high net worth, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, New Journalism, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, time value of money, too big to fail, value at risk, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

Russia and China rose as protocapitalist societies eager to adopt many of the new global norms they saw emerging in Western countries. Economic and political walls were coming down while, at the same time, technology facilitated ease of communication and improved productivity. From the point of view of finance, the world was now borderless and moving quickly toward what legendary banker Walter Wriston had presciently called the twilight of sovereignty. Infinite risk in a borderless world was the new condition of finance. Globalization increased the scale and interconnectedness of finance beyond what had ever existed. While issuance of bonds was traditionally limited by the use to which the borrower put the proceeds, derivatives had no such natural limit. They could be created in infinite amounts by mere reference to the underlying security on which they were based. The ability to sell Nevada subprime mortgage loans to German regional banks after the loans had been bundled, sliced, repackaged and wrapped with worthless triple-A ratings was a wonder of the age.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

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1960s counterculture, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application

Richard Alleyne, “YouTube: Overnight Success Has Sparked a Backlash,” Daily Telegraph, July 31, 2008; Hof, “Maybe Google Isn’t Losing Big Bucks”; Liedtke, “Guessing Game”; An Anthropological Introduction to YouTube, 2008, video available on www.youtube.com; Chris Soghoian, “Why Obama Should Ditch YouTube,” Surveillance State—CNET News, November 24, 2008, http:// news.cnet.com; Chris Soghoian, “White House Exempts YouTube from Privacy Rules,” Surveillance State—CNET News, January 22, 2009, http://news.cnet .com; Marcia Stepanek, “Speaking YouTube,” Cause Global, July 2, 2009, http:// causeglobal.blogspot.com; Siva Vaidhyanathan, “What We Might Lose with GooTube,” MSNBC.com, October 27, 2006; Siva Vaidhyanathan, “Me, ‘Person of the Year’? No Thanks,” MSNBC.com, December 28, 2006. 47. Johnny_mango, “ ‘Lost’ Police Incident Report . . . Is This What Heather Wilson ‘Lost’ 13 Years Ago?” Albloggerque, October 19, 2006, http:// albloggerque.blogspot.com; Vaidhyanathan, “What We Might Lose.” 48. Vaidhyanathan, “What We Might Lose.” 49. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). NOT ES TO PAGES 39–4 3 227 50. Abigail Cutler, “Penetrating the Great Firewall: Interview with James Fallows,” Atlantic, February 19, 2008; James Fallows, “ ‘The Connection Has Been Reset,’ ” Atlantic, March 2008; Ronald Deibert et al., Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008). 51. Thomas Frank, One Market under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism, and the End of Economic Democracy (New York: Doubleday, 2000). 52.


pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy

Ian Hargreaves, Digital Opportunity: A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth 45 (May 2011). 24. This is pretty much the approach taken by Professor Ian Hargreaves in his report Digital Opportunity: A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth 45 (May 2011). 25. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Declaration_of_the_Independence_of_Cyberspace. Cf. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (2008, Oxford University Press. See also Johnny Ryan, A History of the Interent and the Digital Future (2010, Reaktion Books). 26. Francis Gurry,The Future of Copyright, address delivered in Sydney, Australia, February 25, 2011. 27. Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 83 (Harper & Brothers 3d ed. 1950, 2006 paperback) (1942). 28. Sam Ricketson, WIPO Study on Limitations and Exceptions of Copyright Related Rights in the Digital Environment at page 4, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, 9th Session, Geneva, June 23 to 27, 2003, SCCR/9/7 (April 5, 2003).


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

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agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

There are so many ingenious ways to bring life and productivity back to degraded land. Collecting them all in one book is a tremendous public service. Where the Wild Things Were: Life, Death, and Ecological Wreckage in a Land of Vanishing Predators (2008), William Stolzenburg. A well-written and persuasive presentation of essential-predator theory. Life Out of Bounds: Bioinvasion in a Borderless World (1998), Chris Bright. This is the best survey I’ve seen on the impacts of alien-invasive species and what to do about them. The World Without Us (2007), Alan Weisman. Exceptionally thorough field research distinguishes this account of what life gets up to as soon as humans step away. It is a fascinating read. GEOENGINEERING How to Cool the Planet: Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth’s Climate (2010), Jeff Goodell.


pages: 223 words: 10,010

The Cost of Inequality: Why Economic Equality Is Essential for Recovery by Stewart Lansley

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banking crisis, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, call centre, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population

Not only have capital controls been abandoned, ‘we have now taken a full step again beyond that, into a world where capital is not only free to flow across borders, but is actively and artificially encouraged to move,’ writes Nicholas Shaxson in his study of the power of the offshore tax industry, ‘lured by any number of offshore attractions: secrecy, evasion of prudential banking regulations, zero taxes.’158 Soon international capitalism—‘financial liberalisation on steroids’, as Shaxson has described it159—was being driven by the demands of a tsunami of global footloose capital looking for the most lucrative home. In this new borderless world, money poured into the global financial centres, especially London and New York. From there it spiralled round the world often at speed creating wave after wave of hot money flows. The super-rich owners of this money might once have been more closely tied to their own nation, and had a genuine identification with the country where they were born and lived. Today the super-rich are rarely tied to a particular place or nation.


pages: 385 words: 111,807

A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey

This was thanks to the technological revolutions in communications (the internet) and transportation (air travel, container shipping), which were leading to the ‘death of distance’. According to the globalizers, countries now had no choice but to embrace this new reality and fully open up to international trade and investments, while liberalizing their domestic economies. Those who resisted this inevitability were derided as the ‘modern Luddites’, who think they can bring back a bygone world by reversing technological progress (see above). Book titles like The Borderless World, The World Is Flat and One World, Ready or Not summed up the essence of this new discourse. The beginning of the end: the Asian financial crisis The euphoria of the late 1980s and the early 1990s didn’t last. The first sign that not everything was fine with the ‘brave new world’ came with the financial crisis in Mexico in 1995. Too many people had invested in Mexican financial assets with the unrealistic expectation that, having fully embraced free-market policies and having signed the NAFTA, the country was going to be the next miracle economy.


pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

We can and should tell a different story about globalization. Instead of viewing it as a system that requires a single set of institutions or one principal economic superpower, we should accept it as a collection of diverse nations whose interactions are regulated by a thin layer of simple, transparent, and commonsense traffic rules. This vision will not construct a path toward a “flat” world—a borderless world economy. Nothing will. What it will do is enable a healthy, sustainable world economy that leaves room for democracies to determine their own futures. AFTERWORD A Bedtime Story for Grown-ups Once upon a time there was a little fishing village at the edge of a lake. The villagers were poor, living off the fish they caught and the clothing they sewed. They had no contact with the other inland villages, which were miles away and reached only after days of travel through a dense forest.


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

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Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

Europe was now united by a common democratic, capitalist, and consumerist culture. That in turn had dramatically reduced the threat of another world war breaking out on the old continent. The technological euphoria of the Age of Optimism added an extra layer to the theory. The divided world of the cold war had given way to a unified global economy, tied together by high technology. The new technologies empowered individuals and broke down national boundaries. In a “borderless world,” the idea of nation-states going to war seemed positively antediluvian. In his second book on globalization, The World Is Flat, Friedman came up with another version of “democratic peace” theory to illustrate the argument. The “Dell theory of conflict prevention” argued that war between China and Taiwan was made much less likely (impossible, said Friedman) by the fact that they were part of the same high-tech supply chain that manufactured Dell computers.2 Friedman was skillfully popularizing ideas that had been part of liberal theory for many years.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Journal of Communication 52, no. 4 (2002): 731-748. Glassman, James K., and Michael Doran. “How to Help Iran’s Green Revolution.” Wall Street Journal, January 21, 2010. Glenny, Misha. “BlackBerry Is but a Skirmish in the Battle for the Web.” Financial Times, August 6, 2010. Goldsmith, Jack L., and Tim Wu. “Digital Borders.” Legal Affairs (2006): 40. ———. Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Gunaratne, S. A. “De-Westernizing Communication/Social Science Research: Opportunities and Limitations.” Media, Culture & Society 32, no. 3 (2010): 473. Guynn, Jessica. “Twitter Hires Obama Administration’s Katie Stanton.” Los Angeles Times, July 10, 2010. Hardy, Michael. “In-Q-Tel, Google Invest in Recorded Future.” Government Computer News, July 29, 2010. gcn.com/articles/2010/07/29/inqtel-google-fund-web-analysis-firm.aspx.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

The youth-led rebellion, symbolized by young Google executive Wael Ghonim, who became their “leaderless” spokesperson, used social media—Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter—to outflank and outmaneuver the state police and military, and eventually bring down one of the most dictatorial governments in the world. Youth-led street demonstrations using social media also broke out in Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Jordan, Bahrain, and across the Arab region. The Internet generation is demanding an end to autocratic, centralized governance so they can live in an open, transparent, borderless world that reflects the operating norms and practices of the new social media that has come to define the aspirations of youth everywhere. The uproar among youth living in authoritarian countries will only grow more intense in the years ahead, as they demand their right to be part of a global family that is beginning to share knowledge, commerce, and social life across national boundaries. The Internet has made the biosphere the new political boundary and, in the process, has made traditional geo-politics appear more like an anachronism.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

“experiment in anarchy” Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen, The New Digital Age (New York: Knopf, 2013), p. 263. the system’s evolution Vint Cerf, “IETF and the Internet Society,” Internet Society, July 18, 1995, http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/ietf-and-internet-society. US government’s central involvement Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). “diversity of the Internet” United States Department of Commerce, “State of Policy on the Management of Internet Names and Addresses,” National Telecommunications & Information Administration, June 5, 1998, http://www.ntia.doc.gov/federal-register-notice/1998/statement-policy-management-internet-names-and-addresses. continue to perform this role today AFRINIC, “AFRINIC History,” http://www.afrinic.net/en/about-us/origins, accessed February 2013.


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost

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Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

Social Studies of Science 30, no. 2: 163–223. Giles, Jim. 2005. “Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head.” Nature 438: 900–901. Gillies, James, and Robert Cailliau. 2000. How the Web Was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Goldberg, Adele, ed. 1988. A History of Personal Workstations. New York: ACM Press. Goldsmith, Jack L., and Tim Wu. 2006. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, Andrew, and William Aspray, eds. 1997. Facets: New Perspectives on the History of Semiconductors. New York: IEEE Press. Goldstine, Herman H. 1972. The Computer: From Pascal to von Neumann. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gompers, Paul. 1994. “The Rise and Fall of Venture Capital.” Business and Economic History 23, no. 2 (1994), pp. 1–26.


pages: 382 words: 127,510

Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire by Simon Winchester

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borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, laissez-faire capitalism, offshore financial centre, sensible shoes, South China Sea, special economic zone, the market place

Informal Empire is another—the notion that since the old, formal Empires are all now dead, since the systems of unelected Governors and Viceroys and District Commissioners have all passed away, what replaces them is an unstructured kind of imperium, with on the one hand a slew of new and similarly unelected rulers, which in this case are banks, corporations and brands, all operating without restriction in a new and economically borderless world, and on the other hand a vast and disparate body of subject peoples, who are in increasing numbers bound to make use of these banks, corporations and brands and are kept in thrall to them unwittingly, but firmly kept there nonetheless. The benefits of globalisation are proclaimed vociferously by the banks and corporations who are its prime beneficiaries: economies of scale mean that consumer products become cheaper and more widely available; bureaucracy crumbles in the face of corporate-directed efficiency; access to goods and services is more widespread, more democratic, the standard of living everywhere improves—everyone floats higher on an ever-rising tide of global prosperity.


pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income

In the words of Andrew Heal, they will "despise the entry of immigrants whose main entry criterion appears to be their wealth or their lack of it, which, the specious logic goes, makes them welfare burdens." 96 Fear of Freedom The prospect of the disappearance of the nation-state early in the new millennium seems timed to effect the maximum disruption in the lives of suggestible people. This 239 will lead to widespread unpleasantness. More than a few observers have recognized a pattern of reaction that is common among those who feel left out by the prospect of a borderless world. As the larger, more inclusive national grouping begins to break down, with the more mobile "information elite" globalizing their affairs, the "losers and leftbehinds" fall back upon membership in an ethnic subgroup, a tribe, a gang, a religious or linguistic minority. Partly, this is a practical and pragmatic reaction to the collapse of services, including law and order, formerly provided by the state.


pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

The have-nots may be living in the same squalor as their great-great-great-grandparents, but they now do have a television set or Internet connection that allows them to see that it is not that way for everyone. Experts sometimes talk about the “digital divide,” that certain information technologies like the Internet are not being spread around the globe at equal rates. The real divide may instead come from its solution: the more people are connected, the more what separates us becomes visible. The same holds for the cliché of the “borderless world.” Our global economy depends on a free-flowing system of trade, travel, and communication, but it also binds us all together to our greater danger. An outbreak of war or disease in one part of the globe reverberates across the system as never before. Even more, the shared networks give our new century’s warriors and warlords a newfound ability to reach out and touch someone. These new losers may be based in some urban slum or mountain hideout, but they can now organize, plan attacks, or share inspirational propaganda with recruits thousands of miles away.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

The New International Division of Labour: Structural Unemployment in Industrialised Countries and Industrialisation in Developing Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Frock, Roger. Changing How the World Does Business: FedEx’s Incredible Journey to Success—the Inside Story. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2006. Fung, Victor K., William K. Fung, and Yoram (Jerry) Wind. Competing in a Flat World: Building Enterprises for a Borderless World. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Pub., 2008. Gans, Herbert J. People and Plans: Essays on Urban Problems and Solutions. New York: Basic Books, 1968. Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. New York: Anchor Books, 1992. Gilbert, Richard, and Anthony Perl. Transport Revolutions: Moving People and Freight Without Oil. Washington, D.C.: Earthscan, 2010. Gleick, James. Faster: The Acceleration of Just About Everything.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

He left no fingerprints or DNA and was never marked by an exploding dye pack. Importantly, he never needed to physically carry the thousands of pounds of cash out of the bank; it was all accomplished with a mouse and a keyboard. No need for a mask or sawed-off shotgun either; Levin merely hid behind his computer screen and used a circuitous virtual route to cover his digital tracks. The nature of the Internet means that we are increasingly living in a borderless world. Today anybody, with good or ill intent, can virtually travel at the speed of light halfway around the planet. For criminals, this technology has been a boon, as they hop from one country to the next virtually hacking their way across the globe in an effort to frustrate police. Criminals have also learned how to protect themselves from being tracked online. A smart hacker would never directly initiate an attack against a bank in Brazil from his own apartment in France.


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Wave and Pay, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

“Petrodollar Recycling and Global Imbalances.” Speech, CESifo International Spring Conference, Berlin, March 23–24. O’Brien, R. (1992). Global Financial Regulation: The End of Geography, New York, Council on Foreign Relations. O’Rourke, K. (2011). “A Summit to the Death.” Project Syndicate, December 9. http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/a-summit-to-the-death, accessed March 29, 2014. Ohmae, K. (1990). The Borderless World, New York, Harper Collins. Orhangazi, Ö. (2008). Financialization and the US Economy, Cheltenham, U.K., Edward Elgar Publishing. Orléan, A. (2013). “Money: Instrument of Exchange or Social Institution of Value?” Financial Crises and the Nature of Money: Mutual Developments from the Work of Geoffrey Ingham, J. Pixley and G. Harcourt, Eds. Basingstoke, U.K., Palgrave Macmillan: 46–69. Owladi, J. (2010).


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

. —— (1997) Second European Report on Scientific and Technological Indicators, Paris: OECD. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) (US Congress) (1984) Computerized Manufacturing Automation: Employment, Education, and the Workplace, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. —— (1986) Technology and Structural Unemployment, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Ohmae, Kenichi (1990) The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy, New York: Harper. Osterman, Paul (1999) Securing Prosperity. The American Labor Market: How it has Changed and What to do About it, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Owen, Bruce M. (1999) The Internet Challenge to Television, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ozaki, Muneto et al. (1992) Technological Change and Labour Relations, Geneva: International Labour Organization.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies: Chulalongkorn University. Chantavanich, S. (2003a). Culture of Peace and Migration: Integrating Migration Education into Secondary School Social Science Curriculum in Thailand. Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies: Chulalongkorn University. Chantavanich, S. (2003b). Human Security Issues on Migration. In Wan’gaeo, S. (Ed.), Challenges to Human Security in a Borderless World (p. 89– 150). Bangkok, Thailand. Chantavanich, S., et al. (2007). Mitigating Exploitative Situations of Migrant Workers in Thailand. The Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies: Chulalongkorn University. Chantavanich, S., Beesey, A., Amaraphibal, A., Suwannachot, P.,Wangsiripaisal, P., & Paul, S. (2000a). Cross-Border Migration and HIV/AIDS Vulnerability at the Thai-Cambodia Border: Aranyaprathet and Khlong Yai.