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The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989 by Frederick Taylor
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, German hyperinflation, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, the market place, young professional, éminence grise
In the previous five years (19826 inclusive), a total of six deaths occurred on the Berlin Wall. The worst year was 1986, when three died, two of them in a single attempt to crash a truck through from East to West. The escapers perished in a hail of bullets when the truck came to a halt in no man’s land. These killings could not be concealed-many had observed them from the Western side. In the case of the two following deaths, however, the East German authorities took successful measures to make the murders ‘deniable’. Michael Bittner, a 25-year-old bricklayer, had been born on 31 August 1961. He was just a few days younger than the Berlin Wall. Bittner had applied several times to leave the GDR, without success. An hour or so after midnight on 24 November 1986 he approached the 394 / THE BERLIN WALL Wall in the suburban area of Glienicke/Nordbahn, where it bordered on the French sector of West Berlin.
Die Berliner Mauer Geschichte eines Politischen Bauwerks Berlin-Brandenburg, 2004. Frank, Mario. Walter Ulbricht: Eine deutsche Biografie. Munich, 2003. Fulbrook, Mary. Anatomy of a Dictatorship, Inside the GDR 19491989. Oxford, 1995. Gaddis, John Lewis. The Cold War, A New History. New York, 2005. Gearson, John, and Kori Schake (eds). The Berlin Wall Crisis: Perspectives on Cold War Alliances. Basingstoke & New York, 2002. 484 / THE BERLIN WALL Gelb, Norman. The Berlin Wall: Kennedy, Khrushchev and a Showdown in the Heart of Europe. New York, 1988. Grimm, Thomas. Das Politbüro Private Ulbricht, Honecker, Mielke & Co. aus der Sicht ihrer Angestellten. Berlin, 2004. Harrison, Hope M. Driving the Soviets up the Wall. Princeton & Oxford, 2003. HELP e. V. Hilfsorganisation fur die Opfer politsicher Gewalt in Europa (Hrsg.)
The number of paramedical teams on the border was to be increased and stretchers kept ready, one for each section of the Wall. Plans were drawn up so that any wounded escaper could be transported to hospital by the quickest and shortest route.26 In Peter Fechter, the Berlin Wall had found, not its first, but perhaps its greatest martyr. This was a shame from which the East German regime never quite recovered, despite its best, most cunning propaganda efforts. If the Springer media empire had indeed become involved in helping with the costs of the 28 June tunnel (as well as providing a safe location 322 / THE BERLIN WALL for its entrance), its role was to be trumped a few months later by the American broadcasting giant NBC. The network agreed to actually finance an entire escape tunnel in exchange for the exclusive film rights. It paid DM 50,000 ($12,500 then or roughly $100,000 in today’s purchasing power) to a group of tunnel builders including yet another colourful, complicated figure of the escape movement, Hasso Herschel.
Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power by Patrick Major
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, falling living standards, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-materialism, refrigerator car, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine
The Devil was claiming political asylum.³⁴ These witticisms included a high degree of self-deprecation, yet this willingness to see the irony of the situation did something to defuse East Germans’ anger, and reflected a growing identity as long-suffering easterners, but where the barbs were constantly pointed at the regime. ²⁸ Udo Grashoff, ‘In einem Anfall von Depression . . . ’: Selbsttötungen in der DDR (Berlin: Links, 2006), 218–27. ²⁹ Taylor, Berlin Wall, 186–201. ³⁰ Anna Funder, Stasiland: Stories from behind the Berlin Wall (London: Granta, 2003). ³¹ Weber, DDR, 98. ³² Fulbrook, People’s State, 18. ³³ Rita Kuczynski, Mauerblume: Ein Leben auf der Grenze (Munich: Claassen, 1999), 70. ³⁴ Newman, Behind the Berlin Wall, 76. 160 Behind the Berlin Wall Others have compared the numbing process to that of an amputee, as Berliners developed a ‘phantom pain’ and symptoms of ‘hospitalism’.³⁵ One of the rather obvious healing factors was geographic distance from the Wall. Saxons were assigned border duty because they supposedly did not have the same personal ties as Berliners.
Drafting his speech for the fraternal CPSU Plenary of January 1987, Krenz, Honecker’s designated ‘crown prince’, consciously omitted Gorbachevian phras-es, fearing ‘misinterpretation of real internal processes in the Soviet Union, but also in the GDR, if they are schematically applied to the conditions in our land’. Since perestroika pertained only to developing socialism, the GDR, as a ‘developed socialist society’, saw itself as exempt. Krenz casuistically rejected the ¹⁶ Taylor, Berlin Wall, 392–3. ¹⁷ Jeffrey Gedmin, The Hidden Hand: Gorbachev and the Collapse of East Germany (Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1992), 19. ¹⁸ Wilfried Loth, ‘Die Sowjetunion und das Ende der DDR’, in Jarausch and Sabrow (eds.), Weg, 124. ¹⁹ Hertle, Fall der Mauer, 264. ²⁰ Gedmin, Hidden Hand, 50. ²¹ Taylor, Berlin Wall, 400. 232 Behind the Berlin Wall notion of ‘new thinking’ for implying a ‘community of guilt for the explosive international situation’. It was instead chiefly applicable to the imperialist West. Since the party penetrated all levels of society, so it was reasoned, there was an acceptable degree of openness already.
Self-styled ‘freedom fighters’, such as John Runnings, ⁴¹ Ritter and Lapp, Grenze, 147. ⁴² For a selection see Helmut Schmitz, Spray-Athen: Graffiti in Berlin (Berlin: Rixdorfer, 1982); Harry Lorenz, Mauerkunst: Ein Berliner Zeitdokument (Berlin: Edition StadtBauKunst, 1991). ⁴³ Kurt Ausfelder, Kunst oder Chaos? Graffiti an der Berliner Mauer (Darmstadt: Das Beispiel, 1990), 9 and 37. ⁴⁴ Terry Tillmann, The Writings on the Wall: Peace at the Berlin Wall (Santa Monica, CA: 22/7, 1990), 31. The author was a leader of personal growth seminars, teaching pupils ‘how to remove their personal walls’, 13. ⁴⁵ Ausfelder, Kunst oder Chaos? , 69. ⁴⁶ Leland Rice, Up Against It: Photographs of the Berlin Wall (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 11 and 16. ⁴⁷ Ibid., 8. 272 Behind the Berlin Wall used the Wall as a Cold War political noticeboard, announcing the ‘political declaration of war on military authority’ and the end to ‘kaputt diplomacy’. Others used it simply to publicize their own issues, such as the census boycott in 1986, pasting their blank census forms against the concrete.
The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall by Mary Elise Sarotte
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hindsight bias, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, urban decay, éminence grise
., 56 Kochemasov, Vyacheslav, 52, 100–101, 102, 110, 111 Kohl, Helmut, 8, 91, 128, 179 adding territory of GDR to FRG, plan of, 170 and announcement of travel law, reaction to, 122–124 Basic Law, Article 23, allowing new states to join FRG and, 170–171 and Berlin Wall opening, response to, 158, 163–164 election 1990 and, 170 on Honecker, and use of force vs. reforms, 22, 178 and post-Cold War Europe, political structure of, 169–171 refugee crisis and, 25, 26–27 and travel law, draft of, and credit and Berlin Wall opening, 98 Kontraste (television program), 57 Krenz, Egon, 26, 164 and Berlin Wall, opening of, 150 and Berlin Wall, opening of, responsibility for, 177, 178 and Berlin Wall opening, inaccurate information to Gorbachev regarding, 160–161 and Berlin Wall opening, response to, 159–150, 161 and border shootings, ambiguous orders regarding, 16 closure of Bertele’s office and, 94–95 conciliatory rhetoric of, 89–90 on dependency on Western credit, 90 and emigration, and hole variant, 101–102, 103, 105 fate of, after German reunification, 175 fortieth anniversary of founding of PRC and, 43–44 as general secretary of SED, 88 hard-currency slush fund and, 90 and Honecker, coup against, 52–53, 55, 71, 72, 78, 82, 87–88 Leipzig ring road march and, 52–53, 71–72, 73–74 and Leipzig road ring march (October 9), SED recovery from success of, 81–82 New Forum and, 95 November 4 demonstration (East Berlin) and, 95–96 Politburo resignation plan of, 103, 111 Tiananmen Square massacre and, 43–44 on travel and emigration, 17–18 travel concessions of, 90–92 and travel law, and text on permanent emigration and temporary travel, 111–114 and travel law, draft of, 91–92, 93, 95, 100 and travel law, draft of, and free elections, 98 and travel law, Schabowski’s announcement of, 115 Kristallnacht, 114 Krolikowski, Werner, 103 Krüger, Hans-Joachim, 106–109 Kühirt, Theo, 75–76 Kusnetz, Marc, 116–117, 128–131, 151, 166 Kuwait, 179 Kuzmin, Ivan, 157, 158 Kvitsinsky, Yuli, 163 Labs, Helga, 115 Lamprecht, Jerry, 116, 130, 152 Lange, Bernd-Lutz, 55 Lässig, Jochen, 38, 51, 59 Lautenbach, Robin, 145 Lauter, Gerhard, xxiv, 114, 176, 179 and Berlin Wall, opening of, 156 and travel law, and text on permanent emigration and temporary travel, 107–109 and travel law, draft of, 93–94, 96–103, 105–109 and travel law, instructions for announcement of, 109 Lauter, Hans, 94 Leary, Mike, 40 Legal proceedings/investigations, and crimes/abuse by East German regime, 174–175 Legalization of political opposition, instructions to ignore, 19 Leipzig churches in, 89 (see also specific churches) environmental pollution/urban decay in, 47, 57 Leipzig protests/demonstrations, 32–47 activists vs.
See also Refugee crisis Bach, Johann Sebastian, 33 Bachmann, Werner, 137 Baker, James, 121 Banaschak, Manfred, 115 Basic Law, 6 Article 23, allowing new states to join FRG, 170–171 document as kind of “placeholder” for West Germany, 170 Bavaria, 105 Beer Hall Putsch, 114 Beil, Gerhard, 115 Berger, Matthias, 32 Berlin design competitions, 2007 and 2010, and memorial to Berlin Wall opening, 184 Berlin (divided) in 1989, 93 (map) legal authority in, xix movement within, 8 subdivision and occupation of, post-World War II, original intention of, 4–6 Berlin Wall chiseling and hammering of, for souvenir pieces, 166 razing of, 172–173 Berlin Wall, construction of, xxi–xxii death strip and, 11 (photo) justification given for, 8 Berlin Wall, opening of, xvii–xxvi, 109, 147–150, 160 (photo) causes of, xx–xxvi, 177–183, 184 causes of, and historical record and interviews, xxiii, xxv–xxvi causes of, evidence for, xxiii, xxv–xxvi causes of, false claims about, xx, 177 causes of, short-and long-term, 179–180 and climbing of, near Brandenburg Gate (November 9), 150–152 and Cold War Europe, post-, political structure of, 169–171, 176–177 and combination of protest and publicity, power of, 181 and dissidents and loyalists, impact of contributions of, 181, 183 and dog runs, breakdown of, 167 East German regime infighting and, 159 East German regime’s continuing effort to maintain control and, 167 fate of individuals involved in, 172–177 the how and why, xx, xxiii individuals involved in, xxiii–xxv memorials dedicated to, 183–184 motivation for rise of peaceful revolution and, xxiv–xxv, xxv–xxvi and nonviolence, adherence to, 180 number of East Germans crossing and, 167 and outsiders, impact of contributions of, 181, 183 response to, by border guards/soldiers, 161, 164 response to, by East German regime, 159–161 response to, by Soviet Union, 156–158, 159–160 response to, by West Germany, 161–162, 163–165 response to, by Western occupying powers, 162–163 significance of small steps and, 181 as symbol of end of Cold War, xxiv–xxv tragic historical associations of date of, 114 triumphalist assumptions about, cost of, xxv willingness of peaceful revolutionaries to trust and, 180–181 See also Border openings Berlin Wall Foundation, 183–184 Berliner Morgenpost, 119 Bertele, Franz, 32–33 closure of office due to refugees, and, 94–95 Bias of hindsight, and causality in history, xxii–xxiii, 177–178 Bickhardt, Stephan, 63 Bild, 115, 116 Birthler, Marianne, xxiv, 86–87, 96, 184 as director of Stasi Archive, 175 Bitterlich, Joachim, 123 Blackwill, Robert, 98 Bloch, Marc, on causality in history, and bias of hindsight, xxii–xxiii, 177–178 Bohley, Bärbel, 9, 62, 92, 95 Border crossings, 13–16 authority at, 136–137 East German regime retaking control at, 156 economic support payment (transit sum) for, 16 opening of, and “let-off-steam solution” (permanent expulsion from East Germany), 141 people gathering and pressuring border officials at, 138–139 shootings at, false rumors of cessation of, 13 typical border workday at, 136 See also Bornholmer Street border crossing; Invaliden Street border crossing; Sonnenallee border crossing Border guards/soldiers, 136–137 ambiguous orders to shoot and, 11–12, 13, 16 and Berlin Wall opening, response to, 161, 164 legal proceedings against, after German reunification, 174–175 loss of authority/employment of, after German reunification, 172 at November 4 demonstration (East Berlin), and use of bodily violence, 96 patrol dogs and, 11 reward system and, 12 weapons returned by, after German reunification, 172 weapons used by, xix, 10–11, 12–13 See also Armed forces Border openings, 131–139 announcement of, 145 media coverage of, 127–128 passport control at, 136 use of force at, instructions for, 139–140 See also under specific border crossings Border Regiment 36, 161 Bornholmer Street border crossing, 131–138, 132 (photo), 135 (photo) opening of, 139–144, 145–150, 148–149 (photo) opening of, and number of East Germans crossing, 167 opening of, border guard/soldier response to, 164 passport control at, 136 people gathering and pressuring border officials at, 138 razing of checkpoint at, 172–173, 182 (photo) renamed November 9, 1989 Square, 183 “wild pigs” as nickname for “troublemakers” at, 138 See also Border crossings Brandenburg Gate, xvii, xviii, xix–xx, xix (photo), 160 (photo) climbing of Berlin Wall near (November 9), 150–152 East German regime retaking control near, 155–156 scene near, on November 9, 150–152 Brinkmann, Peter, 115, 116, 118 Broadcasters/broadcast networks, 86.
Nikolai Church leaders, 32, 34, 37–41 and Nikolai peace prayers, expulsion from, 38–39 number of, at ring road march (October 9), 71 and post-Cold War Europe, political structure of, dismay over, 171–172 shared suffering and, 180–181 “shoving” by security forces and, 59–62 spirit of cooperation among, 85–87 Stasi and, 35–37 and Stasi files, public access to, 172 Stasi most-wanted list and, 55 See also Protests/demonstrations; specific individuals Dogs. See Patrol dogs Domaschk, Matthias, 61 Dörre, Toralf, 74 DPA (wire service), 124 Draftees as riot police, 54–55 Dresden, 30, 32, 40, 180 Dual-track decision of 1979, 34 Duisberg, Claus-Jürgen, 102 East Berlin. See Berlin (divided); Berlin Wall; Berlin Wall, construction of; Berlin Wall, opening of East German regime and Berlin Wall opening, response to, 159–161 collapse of, xx, xxv collapse of, and document disappearances, 49 control by, 3–4 crimes by, and investigations/legal proceedings, after reunification, 49, 174–175 and retaking of control, near Brandenburg Gate, 155–156 use of force by, 3–4 See also specific leaders East Germans and border controls, reinstatement of, belief in, 165–166 and Soviet troops, confrontations between, 88 East Germany.
Checkpoint Charlie by Iain MacGregor
., 20, 96 escapes to West Berlin arming of border guards to prevent, 90 before Berlin Wall construction, 20, 176, 178 Berlin Wall enhancements to prevent, 104 bricking up of windows to prevent, 61, 91 British troops’ assistance in, 234 control zone around Berlin Wall to prevent, 86 desire to leave East Germany and, 205–06 by East German border guards, 59–60, 229 economic decline and increasing rates of, 240–41 espionage charge in, 19–20 fatalities during, 87–92, 293, 299–302 first fatality in, 54 first fatality involving Berlin Wall in, 60 jumping from apartment windows during, 54, 58, 60–61, 91 last escape in, 207–22 last fatalities in, 228 new right to travel ending need for, 222, 241–44, 245 number of, on first day of Berlin Wall, 56 personal memories of, 20, 57–58, 60, 183–86, 207–22 riots and demonstrations after death during, 89, 90 as symbol of resistance, 60–61 trains checked for, 72 tunnel under Berlin Wall in, 175–76, 181, 183–86 underground sewer and canal networks used in, 178 espionage.
The Saddle Cow: East Germany’s Life and Legacy. Faber & Faber, London, 1992. Millar, Peter. 1989: The Berlin Wall, My Part in Its Downfall. Arcadia Books Limited, London, 2014. Mitchell, Greg. The Tunnels: The Untold Story of the Escapes Under the Berlin Wall. Transworld Publishers, London, 2017. Molloy, Peter. The Lost World of Communism: An Oral History of Daily Life Behind the Iron Curtain. BBC Books, Random House Group, London, 2009. Rottman, Gordon L. The Berlin Wall and the Intra-German Border 1961–89. Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2008. ———. US Army Special Forces, 1952–84. Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 1985. ———. Warsaw Pact Ground Forces. Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 1987. Sarotte, Mary Elise. The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall. Basic Books, New York, 2014. Schneider, Peter. Berlin Now: The Rise of the City and the Fall of the Wall.
., 93–104 Bay of Pigs and, 21, 94 Berlin question with Soviets and, 21–23, 93–94, 96, 97 Berlin visit and speeches of, 97–103 Berlin Wall reaction of, 58 Clay as special envoy of, 76, 77, 80 closing of Berlin border and, 42, 58 escape-attempt deaths and, 89, 91 Soviet missiles in Cuba and, 94–96 Soviet relations with, 21–23, 84, 93 standoff over Allied right of access to East Berlin and, 80, 83–84 test ban treaty and, 21, 96–97, 103 Kennedy, Robert, 84, 98 KGB, 12, 19, 47, 115, 158, 177, 203, 233 Khrushchev, Nikita, 42 Allies’ access to Berlin and, 13, 17 American reaction to Soviet missiles of, 94, 95, 96 anti-Stalinist reforms of, 205 decision to build wall made by, 23, 24 desire to avoid conflict with America and, 84 East Germans and, 125 escape attempts and, 89, 90 Kennedy’s meeting about Berlin question with, 21–22 military operations during building of Berlin Wall and, 47 ouster of, 103 relations between Mao Zedong and, 20 Knackstedt, Adolf, 254 childhood life in Berlin of, 11–12, 25 crowds in streets after Wall opening and, 263 on early days of life with Berlin Wall, 54–55 early intelligence on beginning of Berlin Wall from, 28–29, 38–39 escape-attempt deaths and, 90–92 escaped border guard and, 59–60 first spy assignment in Berlin of, 25–27 Kennedy’s visit to West Berlin and, 98 observations on impact of Berlin Wall by, 53 second assignment in Berlin with refugees by, 27–29 US Army training of, 25–26 Knackstedt, Vera, 12, 26–27, 55, 90, 254–55, 263 Kohl, Helmut, 240, 257, 272–73, 283, 284, 289, 293, 295 Konev, Ivan, 47, 81–82, 84 Korean War, 80, 108, 177 Krenz, Egon, 236, 239, 240, 241, 283 Krivosheyev, General, 158–59 Lajoie, Colonel, 158–59, 160 Landau, Jon, 191, 192, 195, 197 Law, Mitt, 249–50, 253 LeMay, Curtis, 10 liaison officers, 133–54, 161 agreements covering, 134–37 Berlin Wall construction surveillance by, 137 East German detention of, 140–41 East German feelings about, 140, 151 geographic areas covered by, 135–36 injuries and fatalities involving, 144 intelligence gathering by, 133–34, 135, 137, 138–39, 145, 147, 152, 153–54 memories of work as, 137, 138, 140–41, 142–43, 144–45, 145–49, 151–53 mission and structure of, 138 relationships between Soviet commanders and, 144–45 surveillance of, 135, 137, 140, 141, 150 tour missions of, 147–49 training of, 139, 148 value of information from, 153–54 vehicle skirmishes involving, 141–44, 150–51 Liebling, Peter, 59 Lightner, E.
The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Michael Meyer
Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, union organizing
Bush and, 213, 214 dimensions and consequences of, 20–23, 218–219 end of, 4–5, 7, 9–14, 31, 36, 61, 65–66, 70, 75–79, 213 fall of Berlin Wall and, 5–9, 54, 89 impact of, 20–23, 65 perceived victors of, 204 Reagan’s Berlin Wall speech (1987) and, 2–5, 9–14, 16, 27, 215–216 symbolism of Berlin Wall and, 1, 3, 5–9, 15–16, 89, 171 Cold War, The (Lightbody), 222 Cold War History Project, 223, 226, 230 Cold War International History Project, 225 Cold War Project, The (CNN series), 228 COMECON, 229 Comintern, 21 Committee for Historical Justice (Hungary), 85, 230–231 Common Fate Camp, 97–98 Common Market, 21, 93 communism anticommunists and, 29–31 Berlin Wall and. See Berlin Wall G. W. Bush on, 2, 5 fall of, in Bulgaria, 190–191 fall of, in Czechoslovakia, 28, 114, 128, 135–143, 175–190, 205–206 fall of, in GDR, 163–174, 203–205 fall of, in Hungary, 28, 29–39, 41–42, 46, 61, 66–74, 125, 128, 137, 139–140, 143–145, 206–207, 228–231, 236 fall of, in Poland, 28, 35–36, 43–54, 125, 128–133, 137, 139–140, 205 fall of, in Romania, 105–111, 193–201 fall of, throughout Eastern Europe, 41–42, 48, 54, 62, 173–174, 204 oppression in, 36 Reagan and, 13 as term, 224 See also Politburo Constantinescu, Emil, 201 consumer goods, 171–172, 177, 198–199 containment policy, 5, 61 Cooper, Gary, 79 Cornea, Doina, 197–198 counterculture, 21 Cousteau, Jacques, 95 crash of 2008, 218 cult of personality, 110 Cuthbertson, Ian, 228 Czechoslovakia denouement, 205–206 fall of Berlin Wall and, 8 fall of communism in, 28, 114, 128, 135–143, 175–190, 205–206, 233 Prague Spring (1968), 39, 45 refugees from GDR and, 122–123, 135, 141, 148, 152–153 reopening of border with GDR, 158–159 as totalitarian state, 135–143 Velvet Revolution (Prague; 1989), 170, 173, 175–190, 236 Warsaw Pact invasion of (1968), 105–106, 205 See also Prague Dalai Lama, 135, 206 Danner, Mark, 237 Davis, John, 231 DDR Museum (Berlin), 224 death strip (Berlin Wall), 16–18 democracy in Czechoslovakia, 185, 186, 206 in Eastern Europe, 99 in Hungary, 29–32, 41, 55–58, 110, 230–231 in Poland, 58–61, 79–84, 94, 110, 128–133, 225–226, 229–230 Reagan and, 3 U.S., 29, 30, 41 Democratic Forum, 97–99, 99 détente, 5, 61 Deutsche Bank, 73 Diensthier, Jiri, 233 Diepgen, Eberhard, 13 Dietrich, Marlene, 4 Dinescu, Mircea, 197–198 Dissolution (Maier), 163–164, 230–231, 232, 234, 235 Dresden bank runs in, 165 Freedom Train and, 124, 152–153, 154 refugees from GDR and, 117, 124, 135, 152–153, 160 rise of opposition, 152–153, 158 Dubcek, Alexander, 45, 177, 186–187, 226 Duberstein, Kenneth, 11 Dukakis, Michael, 39–40 East Berlin fall of Berlin Wall, 5–9, 65–76, 88–94, 165–173, 203–204 Jubilee of 1989 and, 115, 147–152 May Day (1989), 65–66, 69–70, 228 refugees from GDR and, 119–120, 160–161 rise of opposition, 158 See also Berlin; German Democratic Republic (GDR) Eastern Europe collapse of communism throughout, 41–42, 48, 54, 62, 173–174, 204 revolutions in, 14, 84, 216 Soviet withdrawal from, 12, 38–39, 91 See also names of specific countries East Germany.
Basic facts about the Wall are drawn from many sources, among them: The Wall, Press and Information, Office of Land Berlin, 2000/2001; Bilanz der Todesopfer, Checkpoint Charlie Museum, 1999; Die Berliner Mauer, Fleming/Koch, 1999; Encyclopedia Britannica, Berlin Wall; a variety of Web sites pertaining to the Berlin Wall. Other useful references include Frederick Taylor’s fine history The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961–1989, 2006; Peter Wyden’s tour de force Wall: The Inside Story of Divided Berlin, 1989, which among other things is the source of the Allensbach data on West German attitudes toward the Wall and reunification; William F. Buckley Jr., The Fall of the Berlin Wall, 2004. One of the best travelogues of this genre ever written is Anthony Bailey’s The Edge of the Forest, a reporter-at-large feature published in the June 27, 1983, New Yorker. For the “butcher’s bill” on the Cold War, great credit is owed to the Brookings Institution and its comprehensive Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S.
-Soviet relations and, 40, 60–61, 225, 227, 231 Balcerowicz, Leszek, 130 Balkan war, 213–214 Behr, Edward, 236 Berecz, Janos, 38 Berlin attitudes toward German reunification, 23–28 Berlin Wall in, 15–16. See also Berlin Wall refugees from GDR and, 113–114, 116, 120–121 See also East Berlin; West Germany Berliner Luft, 25 Berlin Wall Berlin airlift and, 4 border guards, 3, 5–10, 15–17, 27, 97–105 Brandenburg Gate, 3, 15, 170, 204 Checkpoint Charlie, 5–6, 9, 10, 16, 24–25, 88–89, 167–170, 175, 204, 223, 235 construction of, 16–17, 66, 68 death strip, 16–18 described, 17–18 fall of (1989), 5–9, 65–76, 88–94, 165–173, 203–204, 221–223 impact on citizens, 16–19, 24–26 9–14, 16, 27, 215–216, 222 refugees from East Germany and, 8–9, 16–17, 24, 27, 66, 97–105, 113–126, 133–135, 142–143, 159–161 remnants remaining, 16 September 11, 1989 border opening, 113–126 symbolism behind, 1, 3, 5–9, 15–16, 89, 171. See also Iron Curtain Berlin Wall, The (Taylor), 223 Bernstein, Leonard, 204 Beschloss, Michael R., 222 Beyond the Wall (Pond), 227, 234 Bill of Rights, U.S., 30 Bismarck Strasse (Berlin), 15 Black Friday (Czech).
Lonely Planet Pocket Berlin by Lonely Planet, Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, G4S, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
It did on 9 November, when a GDR spokesperson mistakenly announced during a press conference on live TV that all travel restrictions to the West would be lifted. Immediately. Amid scenes of wild partying, the two Berlins came together again. Today, only about 1.5km of the Berlin Wall still stands, while a double row of cobblestones embedded in the pavement traces its course. 3 Mauermuseum Museum Offline map Google map The Cold War years, especially the history and horror of the Berlin Wall, are engagingly, if haphazardly, documented in this privately run tourist magnet. The best bits are about ingenious escapes to the West in hot-air balloons, tunnels, concealed car compartments and even a one-person submarine. (Berlin Wall Museum; www.mauermuseum.de; Friedrichstrasse 43-45; adult/concession €12.50/9.50; 9am-10pm; U-Bahn Kochstrasse) Checkpoint Charlie (Click here) DENNIS JOHNSON/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © 4 Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand Museum Offline map Google map This important exhibit on German Nazi resistance occupies the very rooms where high-ranking officers led by Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg plotted the assassination attempt on Hitler on 20 July 1944.
Top Tips › Get a crash course in ‘Berlin-ology’ by hopping on the upper deck of public bus 100 or 200 (€2.30) at Zoologischer Garten or Alexanderplatz and letting the landmarks whoosh by. › For a DIY walk along the path of the Berlin Wall, rent a multimedia Mauerguide (WallGuide; www.mauerguide.com; per day €10). Available at Checkpoint Charlie, the Berlin Wall Memorial and inside the Brandenburger Tor U-Bahn station. Best Walking & Cycling Tours Berlin Walks ( 301 9194; www.berlinwalks.de) Get under the city’s historical skin with the local expert guides of Berlin’s oldest English-language walking tour company. Berlin on Bike ( 4373 9999; www.berlinonbike.de) Repertory includes a superb Berlin Wall bike tour and intriguing ‘nightseeing’ excursions. Brewer’s Berlin Tours ( 0177-388 1537; www.brewersberlintours.com) Purveyors of the epic all-day Best of Berlin tour (foot massage not included) and shorter free tours.
THOMAS WINZ/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Berlin Top Sights Jüdisches Museum (Click here) The 2000-year-old tale of Jews in Germany is a fascinating one, but just as powerful is the heart-wrenching metaphorical language of Daniel Libeskind’s extraordinary zinc-clad museum building. DAVID PEEVERS/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Berlin Top Sights Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer (Click here) It’s rather ironic that Berlin’s biggest tourist attraction no longer exists. To get under the skin of the Berlin Wall mystery, build a visit of this indoor-outdoor memorial into your schedule. KARL F. SCHÖFMANN/IMAGEBROKER © Berlin Top Sights East Side Gallery (Click here) On the longest surviving stretch of the Berlin Wall, more than a hundred international artists have translated their feelings about the barrier’s collapse into powerful murals. JOHN FREEMAN/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Berlin Top Sights Schloss Charlottenburg (Click here) Prussian royals sure knew how to live it up, as you’ll discover on a tour of the fancifully decorated living quarters of this grand palace attached to lushly landscaped gardens.
Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth by Frederick Kempe
Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, index card, Kitchen Debate, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, zero-sum game
General Watson: “Commandant in Berlin,” New York Times, 08/14/1961. There were also times: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 165. Early that morning, Watson: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 165; Cate, The Ides of August, 301–302, 275. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas McCord: Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 229–230, 232. All eyes had then turned: Letter from Colonel Ernest von Pawel to Catudal, August 3, 1977, in Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 234. The deputy chief: Wyden, Wall, 92, from Pawel interview; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 229–230, 232–235. “The Soviet 19th Motorized”: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 160. Adam recalled a more innocent: Interview with Adam Kellett-Long, London, October 15–16, 2008. Under four-power agreements: Smyser, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall, 106; Howard Trivers, Three Crises in American Foreign Affairs and a Continuing Revolution.
O’Donnell suggested an easy: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 118. “There was an ‘Oh, my God!”: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 118; author’s interview with Karl Mautner. The emphasis on West Berlin: Beschloss, Crisis Years, 264; New York Times, 08/03/1961; Der Tagesspiegel, 08/02/1961; Neues Deutschland, 08/02/1961; JFKL, Bundy–JFK, August 4, 1961; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 201–203. Fulbright’s interpretation of the treaty: Ann Tusa, The Last Division: A History of Berlin, 1945–1989. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1997, 257; Washington Post, 07/31/1961; New York Times, 08/03/1961. Early in August, Kennedy: JFKL, Walt W. Rostow OH; Rostow, Diffusion of Power, 231; Beschloss, The Crisis Years, 265; Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 394; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 201. On a sweltering Moscow morning: Harrison, Driving the Soviets up the Wall, 192–194; SAPMO-BArch, ZPA, DY, 30/3682; Uhl and Wagner, “Another Brick in the Wall,” CWIHP Working Paper, published under “Storming On to Paris,” in Mastny, Holtsmark, and Wenger, War Plans and Plliances in the Cold War, 46–71; Aleksandr Fursenko, “Kak Byla Postroena Berlinskaia Stena,” in Istoricheskie Zapiski, no. 4 (2001), 78–79.
The East German newspaper: Washington Post, 09/18/1961; Taylor, The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 263–265. At age twenty-one: Interview with Albrecht Peter Roos, Berlin, October 13, 2008. As a result of August 13: Honoré M. Catudal, Steinstücken: A Study in Cold War Politics. New York: Vantage Press, 1971, 15. East German authorities threatened: New York Times, 09/22/1961; 09/23/1961; Washington Post, 09/22/1961; 09/23/1961; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 139–135; Smyser, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall, 131. Without divulging his plans: Catudal, Steinstücken, 15–16, 106. General Clay spent: Smith, Defense of Berlin, 309–310; Interview with Vern Pike, Washington, D.C., November 17, 2008. By coincidence, European Commander: Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 133–134. A few days later, U.S. troops: Interview with Vern Pike, Washington, D.C., November 17, 2008.
The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd
Berlin is divided just like our world, our time, and each of our experiences.2 Wim Wenders, 1987 To put it crudely, the American foot in Europe had a sore blister on it. That was West Berlin. . . . We decided the time had come to lance the blister of West Berlin.3 Nikita Khrushchev, recalling 1961 When flowers bloom on concrete, life has triumphed. Berlin Wall graffiti Greatest artwork of all time. Berlin Wall graffiti What are you staring at? Never seen a wall before? Berlin Wall graffiti < previous page page_6 file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_6.html [24/03/2011 13:47:05] next page > page_7 < previous page page_7 next page > Page 7 One Berlin Walls The Monument In a rarely visited corner of northern Berlin, piles of concrete debris fill a vast lot. This is not an unusual sight in what geographers call the "gray zones" of a city, those tracts of land somehow disqualified from more valued uses.
< previous page page_ix file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_ix.html [24/03/2011 13:46:55] next page > page_v < previous page page_v next page > Page v Contents Illustrations vii Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 1 Berlin Walls 7 2 Old Berlin 41 3 Metropolis 83 4 Nazi Berlin 127 5 Divided Berlin 175 6 Capital of the New Germany 217 Chronology of Berlin's History 237 Notes 247 Bibliography 257 Index 261 < previous page page_v file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_v.html [24/03/2011 13:46:56] next page > page_vii < previous page page_vii next page > Page vii Illustrations Central Berlin in the 1990s Facing page 1 1 Pieces of Wall, Brehmestrasse, Berlin-Pankow, 1991 8 2 Vendor selling pieces of Berlin Wall 9 3 Berlin's districts 14 4 Berlin Wall being built 17 5 Postcard: "Greetings from Berlin" 20 6 Allied sectors of Berlin 21 7 Crosses at the Wall near the Reichstag 24 8 Memorial to slain border guards, East Berlin 25 9 Berlin Wall, 1983 26 10 Wall graffiti 27 11 East Side Gallery 36 12 Scaffolding and canvas facade on site of royal palace, 1993 42 13 Nikolai Quarter 45 14 Berlin, 1737 49 15 Royal palace 50 16 Marx-Engels-Platz and Palace of the Republic 58 17 Brandenburg Gate, 1898 72 18 Brandenburg Gate, 1959 77 19 Brandenburg Gate, November 1989 78 file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_vii.html (1 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:57] page_vii 20 Reichstag, circa 1901 87 21 Reichstag, after 1945 90 22 Wrapped Reichstag, 1995 93 23 Aerial view of central Berlin, 1939 97 24 Eighteenth-century houses in Potsdam 99 < previous page page_vii file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_vii.html (2 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:57] next page > page_viii < previous page page_viii next page > Page viii 25 Turn-of-the-century apartment buildings, Nürnberger Platz, Berlin-Wilmersdorf 102 26 Britz Horseshoe Estate 104 27 Wertheim department store on Leipziger Platz 113 28 Potsdamer Platz, circa 1930 117 29 Potsdamer Platz, 1972 121 30 Potsdamer Platz and Columbus Haus, circa 1933 123 31 New Reich chancellery 130 32 Removal of chancellery bunker, 1987 131 33 Site of Hitler's bunker, 1995 134 34 Model of "Germania" 136 35 Model of the Great Hall 137 36 Olympic Stadium 143 37 Reich aviation ministry 147 38 Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse and vicinity, circa 1935 155 39 "Topography of Terror" exhibition 161 40 "Topography of Terror" exhibition 161 41 Ruins in Ifflandstrasse, 1949 176 42 Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church and Europa Center 181 43 Karl-Marx-Allee, the former Stalinallee 184 44 Detail of building on former Stalinallee 184 45 Strausberger Platz and former Stalinallee 185 file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_viii.html (1 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:58] page_viii 46 Hansa Quarter 189 47 Marzahn 191 48 Soviet war memorial, Berlin-Treptow 195 49 Lenin monument 196 50 Victory Column 200 51 Ernst Thälmann monument 202 52 Marx-Engels-Forum 205 53 The Neue Wache 219 54 Enlarged version of Käthe Kollwitz's Pietà in the Neue Wache 223 55 Model of Axel Schultes's plan for the Spree Arc government quarter 228 < previous page page_viii file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_viii.html (2 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:58] next page > page_x < previous page page_x next page > Page x < previous page page_x file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_x.html [24/03/2011 13:46:58] next page > page_1 < previous page page_1 next page > Page 1 Introduction Berlin is a haunted city.
This ordinary industrial scene turns extraordinary when a closer look at the concrete reveals an unexpected sight: the famous spraypainted graffiti of the Berlin Wall. In 1991, this lot is a graveyard for a few of the one hundred miles of Wall that had enclosed West Berlin two years before. It is indeed located in a "gray zone" of Berlin, one of many fringe areas created by the presence of the Wall that is now reduced to rubble (fig. 1). The Berlin Wall had been one of the city's premier tourist attractions. More than that, it was probably the most famous structure that will ever stand in Berlin. The Pankow lot, and a few others, contained what was left of it (with a few exceptions, as we shall see). Yet such boneyards were not tourist attractions. Indeed, they were scarcely known at all. If a monument can be decommissioned, that is apparently what has happened with the Berlin Wall. Did the concrete lose its aura when it was removed from its original location?
Berlin by Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, indoor plumbing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
Answer: former US president Ronald Reagan, during a speech in 1987, with the Brandenburger Tor trapped behind the Berlin Wall as a backdrop. Two years later, the Wall was history and the famous gate went from symbol of division to symbol of a reunited Germany. Since then, Pariser Platz, the former wasteland east of the gate, has resumed its historic role as the capital’s ‘reception room’ and is framed by embassies, banks and hotels. BRANDENBURGER TOR Map Pariser Platz; admission free; 24hr; Unter den Linden, 100, TXL So where were you when the Berlin Wall fell? For tens of thousands the answer is ‘at the Brandenburg Gate’. Who can forget the images of the happy throngs sitting atop the hated Wall, sharing champagne and shaking hands with border guards and partying like it was 1999 and not 10 years earlier. * * * THE BERLIN WALL It is more than a tad ironic that Berlin’s most popular tourist attraction is one that no longer exists.
Return to beginning of chapter REUNIFICATION Hearts and minds in Eastern Europe had long been restless for change, but German reunification came as a surprise to the world and ushered in a new and exciting era. The so-called Wende (turning point, ie the fall of communism) came about as a gradual development that ended in a big bang – the collapse of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989 (for a more detailed account of events, see the boxed text). * * * WHAT’S IN A DATE? The Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989, so when it came time to pick a date for a public holiday to mark German reunification it seemed only natural that would be it. Unfortunately, the same date had also played key roles in the fate of German history on two prior, less joyful, occasions. In 1923 Hitler launched his ill-fated Munich coup that landed him in jail where he penned Mein Kampf.
Return to beginning of chapter NEIGHBOURHOODS * * * ITINERARY BUILDER HOW TO USE THIS TABLE HISTORIC MITTE REICHSTAG & GOVERNMENT QUARTER BRANDENBURGER TOR & AROUND ALONG UNTER DEN LINDEN GENDARMENMARKT & AROUND MUSEUMSINSEL A MILE OF HISTORICAL MILESTONES MITTE – ALEXANDERPLATZ AREA BACK TO THE ROOTS MITTE – SCHEUNENVIERTEL JEWISH BERLIN POTSDAMER PLATZ & TIERGARTEN POTSDAMER PLATZ KULTURFORUM TIERGARTEN DIPLOMATENVIERTEL AMBASSADORIAL AMBLE CHARLOTTENBURG & NORTHERN WILMERSDORF SCHLOSS CHARLOTTENBURG AROUND SCHLOSS CHARLOTTENBURG KURFÜRSTENDAMM & AROUND WESTERN CHARLOTTENBURG CHARLOTTENBURG LOOP SCHÖNEBERG KREUZBERG RADICAL KREUZBERG FRIEDRICHSHAIN A SOCIALIST SAUNTER ALONG KARL-MARX-ALLEE PRENZLAUER BERG PRENZLAUER BERG WESTERN SUBURBS DAHLEM & AROUND WANNSEE SPANDAU SOUTHERN SUBURBS NEUKÖLLN TREPTOW KÖPENICK EASTERN SUBURBS LICHTENBERG MARZAHN NORTHERN SUBURBS MOABIT PANKOW WEDDING * * * * * * top picks East Side Gallery Open-air gallery on the longest surviving stretch of the Berlin Wall. Gendarmenmarkt Architecture in harmony on Berlin’s most beautiful square. Holocaust Memorial Accessible yet disorienting football-field-sized labyrinth of grey concrete stelae. Jüdisches Museum A chronicle of trials and triumphs in German Jewish history. Pergamon Museum Pirate’s chest of treasure from ancient civilisations. Reichstag Dome Bird’s-eye Berlin from atop Norman Foster’s masterpiece. Schloss Charlottenburg Prussian palace dripping with precious art and artefacts. Sony Center Eye-popping ‘tented’ complex on the site of the former Berlin Wall. Unter den Linden Phalanx of blockbuster sights peels away the many layers of Berlin history. * * * What’s your recommendation?
1989 The Berlin Wall: My Part in Its Downfall by Peter Millar
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, urban sprawl, working-age population
The night was November 9th, 1989, and the Berlin Wall was coming down. For the first time in a century it seemed the whole world was empathising with the Germans. But for me, on that street corner in Berlin in the midst of the biggest story of my career, the predominant thing on my mind as a Sunday newspaper reporter on a Thursday night was: ‘Damn, this is all happening twenty-four hours too early.’ But then nobody had known it would happen at all. Least of all the intelligence agencies of the West, caught napping on the eve of their greatest ‘victory’, as they would be again on September 11th, 2001, their greatest embarrassment. Not even the men who gave the orders in East Berlin knew it would happen. Not even as they gave them. They had intended something else. Something else entirely. The fall of the Berlin Wall was the triumphant vindication of the ‘cock-up’ theory of history, of what happens when those seemingly immovable objects of political inertia and the status quo get swept away by two irresistible forces: accident and emotion.
My waitresses, my friends and the whole mad mix-up that led to the fall of the Wall, were reserved for the lengthy colour/analysis piece on the Focus pages inside. But even that was not the whole of the story. The Berlin Wall was not just a concrete manifestation of the Iron Curtain, it was its most potent symbol. Almost its soul. Its fall was to bring in its wake the end of the Cold War, the collapse like dominoes of Moscow’s satellite dictatorships in Eastern Europe and finally the implosion of the Soviet Union itself. The year of miracles, 1989, would give the world a new chance, which surely only fools would throw away. 2 The Street of Shame The long and winding road that led me to Checkpoint Charlie on the night the Berlin Wall came down began improbably enough thirteen years earlier on the outskirts of Paris where I was trying to hitch a lift to the Côte d’Azur.
If I looked down, hundreds of feet below our whirling rotors, I could just make out something I would not otherwise have believed possible: a door in the Berlin Wall. And next to it, what else but a doorbell! It was permanently guarded, the pilot explained to me. If a West Berlin allotment-owner fancied spending Sunday afternoon doing a bit of weeding, he rang the bell and an East German soldier escorted him along a track lined with barbed wire fencing to another door in a concrete wall, behind which lay his vegetable plot. When he wanted to come back, he repeated the procedure. ‘I wouldn’t be surprised,’ the pilot said as we wheeled around and headed back towards sanity, ‘if every now and then they slip one of them a cabbage or two.’ As we headed back to the landing ground he showed me one more of the Berlin Wall’s anomalous ‘exclaves’, as bizarre as the isolated allotments: the hamlet of Steinstücken.
The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks
he wondered.9 Back in New York, ABC’s Sam Donaldson announced that the Wall itself had “all but vanished” and, as a result, “freedom’s light is shining.”10 Connie Chung of CBS affirmed the Wall’s sudden transformation from an ugly symbol of repression into “a monument to the abiding dream of people to be free.”11 Print commentary duly echoed such sentiments. According to New York Times columnist Tom Wicker, the fall of the Berlin Wall signified a “glorious victory for the West and the burial of Communism.”12 Reporting from the scene, Times correspondent Serge Schmemann wrote that events there seemed “to sweep away much of the common wisdom and presumptions of the postwar world.” Whatever might happen next, the one sure thing was that “something essential had changed [and] that things would not be the same again.”13 According to the New Republic, “excitement bordering on ecstasy” constituted the only allowable response to the breaching of the Berlin Wall. “There are few times in history when you can say confidently that evil is losing ground to good,” TNR’s editors wrote. “In East Germany evil is now in embarrassed retreat, and it is a retreat whose import can scarcely be exaggerated.”14 Implicit in the festive TV coverage and the unabashed enthusiasm of print journalists was the question that Brokaw alone posed outright: “Is this the beginning of a new age?”
In sum, the imperative of addressing climate change may one day offer a suitable replacement for the disastrously misguided consensus foisted on the American people after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here, in sum, are the makings of a suitable answer to Rabbit Angstrom’s question. That Donald Trump is oblivious to all of this goes without saying. Yet such matters may lie beyond any president’s purview. When all is said and done, presidents don’t shape the country; the country shapes the presidency—or at least it defines the parameters within which presidents operate. Over the course of the last few decades, in our headlong quest to reach the Emerald City, those parameters have become increasingly at odds with the collective well-being of the American people, not to mention of the planet as a whole. Considered in retrospect, it becomes apparent that the fall of the Berlin Wall did not mark the “end of history.” Nor did it constitute a turning point in the history of the United States.
By turning their country over to Donald Trump, those Americans signaled their repudiation of that very consensus. That Trump himself did not offer anything remotely like a reasoned alternative made his elevation to the presidency all the more remarkable. He was a protest candidate elected by a protest vote. In that regard, the 2016 presidential election marked a historical turning point comparable in significance to the fall of the Berlin Wall a quarter century earlier. The Age of Illusions seeks to understand what occurred between those two milestones. The quotation from the writer James Baldwin that introduces this book aptly expresses its overarching theme: promises made, but not kept; expectations raised, but unfulfilled; outraged citizens left with no place to stand. 1 AL, FRED, AND HOMER’S AMERICA—AND MINE Donald Trump was born in June 1946, the son of a wealthy New York real estate developer.
The Cold War: Stories From the Big Freeze by Bridget Kendall
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, open borders, Ronald Reagan, white flight
In local newspapers, the East German authorities claimed that the unrest had been orchestrated by ‘Western agencies’ seeking to undermine the country from within. They condemned the corrosive influence of American popular culture seeping across the border from West Berlin. For eight more years, disaffected East Germans still had an escape route via West Berlin, until the Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 to stop them. Meanwhile, the East German police state tightened its grip. The people would not risk rising up once more against their Communist masters for another 36 years – not until the mass demonstrations of 1989 that began in Leipzig and led to the fall of the Berlin Wall. As part of his National Service, George Flint was dispatched to Berlin to be a driver for BRIXMIS – the British Mission in the Soviet Zone. This gave him, at just 19, an extraordinary close-up view of the troubles of East Germany that led to the uprising.
Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja He remained extremely popular in most of the country. Even in areas where the politicians were against him, among ordinary people he was very much admired. And, of course, Mobutu followed the popular mood in the country by naming him a national hero in 1966. Wung’a Lomami Onadikondo They say that he was unpredictable. That means he was not submissive. ‘If one went, one couldn’t return’ The Berlin Wall (1961) THE BERLIN WALL epitomised the Cold War division of Europe. When it was breached in November 1989, Soviet control in Eastern Europe collapsed virtually overnight. But the simmering tensions that led to its construction had brewed more slowly. From the outset, when East Germany was first established as a separate socialist state by Stalin in 1949, its 900-mile border with West Germany was a problem.
Knowing everything that I know now, having analysed, having read and having lived through this, I can confidently say that a completely different politics could have been carried out, achieving better democracy, and a better glasnost, without demolishing the country and the lives of people. This is the only way I can assess it. ‘They are not so different from us’ The Fall of the Berlin Wall and German Reunification (1989–90) IN THE AUTUMN of 1989 the East German authorities were facing mounting civil unrest and insistent calls for the lifting of controls on emigration to the West. Over the summer, tens of thousands of East German holiday-makers took advantage of Hungary’s decision to dismantle its border fence with Austria and poured into Western Europe. It was the largest exodus of East Germans westwards since the Berlin Wall went up in 1961, and it set in motion a dramatic chain of events that no one was expecting, not in Moscow nor East Berlin nor indeed in the Western world. When East Germany eventually closed its border with Hungary, East Germans wanting to leave trekked across the open border into Czechoslovakia instead and either slipped into Hungary from there or sought sanctuary in the West German Embassy in Prague.
The Secret Lives of Buildings: From the Ruins of the Parthenon to the Vegas Strip in Thirteen Stories by Edward Hollis
A Pattern Language, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, place-making, South China Sea, the scientific method, Wunderkammern
Wilson, Hugh, and Lewis Womersley. Hulme 5 Redevelopment: Report on Design. City of Manchester, 1965. THE BERLIN WALL Beevor, Anthony. Berlin: The Downfall, 1945. Penguin, 2002. “The Berlin Wall: The Best and Sexiest Wall Ever Existed!!” http://berlin-wall.org/. Bernauerstraße Wall Museum. http://www.berlinermauerdokumentationszentrum.de/eng/index_dokz.html. Buckley, William. The Fall of the Berlin Wall. Wiley, 2004. Calvin University German Propaganda Archive. http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/wall.htm. City Guide to the Wall. http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/bauen/wanderungen/en/strecke4.shtml. East Side Gallery. http://www.eastsidegallery.com. Funder, Anna. Stasiland: True Stories from Behind the Berlin Wall. Granta, 2003. The Günther Schabowski Conference. http://www.coldwarfiles.org/files/Documents/1989–1109_press%20conference.pdf.
They’ll storm around us, panting with scorn and anguish, and all of them, exasperated by our proud daring, will hurtle to kill us, driven by a hatred the more implacable the more their hearts will be drunk with love and admiration for us. Injustice, strong and sane, will break out radiantly in their eyes. Art, in fact, can be nothing but violence, cruelty, and injustice. The Futurists. It sounds like a band from Manchester, doesn’t it? The Berlin Wall In Which History Comes to an End HISTORY FOR SALE A young boy sells pieces of the Berlin Wall, Potsdam Square, Berlin, 10 March 1990. THE END OF HISTORY The Parthenon is dissolving into the atmosphere, but preparations have been made for the conclusion of its story. Bernard Tschumi’s new museum at the foot of the Acropolis contains an empty space the same size as the temple, ready to receive its remains should it ever become necessary to transfer them indoors.
History did come to an end of sorts, but not quite as the Marxists or the modernists had planned. The fall of the Berlin Wall on 10 November 1989 concluded what the historian Eric Hobsbawm calls “the little twentieth century,” which began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, ran through the horrors of the trenches, Auschwitz, and Hiroshima, through Nuremberg and the Prague Spring, and finished in Berlin. The events of that night represent the end of history, a term invented by the political economist Francis Fukuyama. Democratic capitalism defeated autocratic communism, bringing the last great ideological conflict to a close once and for all. But unlike the Hulme Crescents, the Berlin Wall, whose spectacular destruction marked Fukuyama’s “end of history,” was not obliterated. Indeed, as hated as it had been, the Wall soon took on something of the preciousness of the marble of the Parthenon, which dissolves and crumbles even as it is gathered.
Burning Down the Haus: Punk Rock, Revolution, and the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Tim Mohr
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sexual politics, side project
Ostpunks, or Eastern punks, ran or worked at most of the places I hung out; they had set up nearly all the first bars and clubs in the East and established in the process the ethos of the fledgling new society being built almost from scratch after the fall of the Berlin Wall. This kaleidoscopic world I had fallen in love with was their world, their creation. At the time I had no idea I would eventually become a writer. But to an American reflexively skeptical toward the Reagan mythology surrounding the end of the Cold War, the story of East German punk seemed unbelievably important—perhaps more important than even the participants themselves realized. Here were the people who had actually fought and sacrificed to bring down the Berlin Wall. My initial belief in the importance of this story was reinforced after I returned to the U.S. and recognized an ominous echo in developments in my own country: mass surveillance on a scale the Stasi could only have dreamed about, the widespread use of insidiously pliable charges like “failure to comply with a lawful order” to make arbitrary arrests, the struggle of protest movements such as Occupy, Black Lives Matter, and #NoDAPL in the face of a complacent or even hostile society.
Revolution. Burning Down The Haus Official youth culture in East Germany: a Free German Youth rally Harald Hauswald / Ostkreuz Agency Introduction By the late 1970s the Berlin Wall—actually two walls with a notorious death strip between them—had been up for little more than fifteen years, but it had already become a fact of life. A generation had grown up with it; its history and the details of its construction barely mattered anymore—it was a booby-trapped concrete reality, the physical embodiment of a division of the world that felt as if it could go on forever. The young on either side accepted the Berlin Wall as permanent—it had always been there and probably always would be. Every aspect of life on the east side of the Wall was hyper-politicized, and nothing more so than popular culture.
The dictatorship was so paranoid about former Eastern punks in West Berlin that the Stasi had continued to secretly monitor the group of Weimar punks who’d been jailed in 1983 for spray-painting graffiti—solidarity, strike back, active resistance—even after they were expatriated following their release from prison; this had led to one of the more bizarre incidents in the history of the Berlin Wall. Thomas Onisseit and his older brother, Jürgen—who, unbeknownst to Thomas and his friends, had gotten them sent to the slammer back in 1983 by snitching to the Stasi—along with a small group of former Weimar punks, had decided at the end of 1986 to paint a white stripe along the entire length of the West side of the Berlin Wall. It could take weeks to complete, but they felt compelled to do it. The Weimar punks hated the way the barrier had become a canvas for self-promotion. Celebrity artist Keith Haring, for example, had recently painted a stretch of the Wall.
Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman
Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game
The most dramatic chapter of the Age of Transformation was about to be written. 6 EUROPE, 1989 THE YEAR OF REVOLUTIONS The single most dramatic event of the Age of Transformation was the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. The wall had divided Europe. It had separated the communist world from the capitalist world, and the Soviet bloc from the democratic world. The sight of thousands of East Germans streaming through the wall and into West Berlin on that November night was the sign that the cold war was over. A single global economic and political system was being formed—a “new world order,” as President George H. W. Bush called it. The fall of the Berlin Wall was a victory for the Western powers and for individual freedom. It was also a victory for Western consumerism. The symbol of the failure of East Germany swiftly became the Trabant, the small, unglamorous, underpowered national car of East Germany, which looked so pathetic next to the powerful Mercedes and BMWs that flaunted the economic power of West Germany.
That is why the first two sections of this book are devoted to the international and intellectual history of the past thirty years. Starting the narrative in 1978 may not seem obvious to all readers. Americans, in particular, have tended to regard the defining moments of recent history as the end of the cold war and the al-Qaeda attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. One of the best recent histories of U.S. foreign policy is subtitled “From 11/9 to 9/11”—the two dates in question marking the fall of the Berlin Wall and the terrorist attack on the United States.12 But the collapse of the Soviet system and 9/11 were part of an even bigger story—the creation of a globalized world economic and political system. The two key events framing that story were the opening of China in 1978 and the 2008 crash. I have divided this thirty-year epoch into two distinct periods. The first section of this book deals with the Age of Transformation, which began in 1978, and explains how and why the world’s major powers all embraced globalization—and how this sparked the rise of China and India.
In Latin America, economic reformers were often at pains to distinguish their modest market-based measures from the “neo-liberalism” of Reagan and Thatcher,25 neither of whom were particularly popular figures south of the Rio Grande after the Falklands War and Reagan’s support of the Contra rebels in Nicaragua. By contrast, Reagan and Thatcher were popular heroes in much of Central and Eastern Europe, a fact that caused a certain amount of pain and confusion to their left-wing and liberal opponents back home. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union took place after Reagan left office. Yet these events cast a retrospective glow of vindication over his presidency. Reagan was able to argue with some justice in his memoirs, published in 1990, that the previous decade had witnessed a “stunning renaissance of democracy and economic freedom”26 around the world. Reagan’s attitude to democracy was, as with Thatcher, more equivocal than either leader would later care to acknowledge.
The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
On 9 November, the morning after the US presidential election, as I tried to make sense of the dawning new reality I recalled that invitation. By eerie coincidence, it was twenty-seven years to the day since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The worm had turned. America had just elected a president who was a big fan of walls and a big admirer of Vladimir Putin. While Putin was surveying his wrecked world in 1989, and we were racing down the Autobahn, Donald Trump was launching a board game. It was called Trump: The Game. With its fake paper money and property-based rules, it bore an uncanny resemblance to Monopoly – except that the number six on the dice was replaced with the letter T. Unsurprisingly, it was a flop. There is no record that Trump said anything positive or negative about the fall of the Berlin Wall. At any rate, all that seemed a long time ago. America had just elected a man who admired the way politics was done in Russia.
On this, if little else, there is no quarrel between the ancients and the moderns. We called it progress, or rather Progress – belief in which is the closest thing the modern West has to a religion. In 1989 its schism was healed. By unifying its booming western wing with the shrivelled post-Stalinist eastern one, there was no longer any quarrel between the present and the present. Shortly before the Berlin Wall fell, Francis Fukuyama published his famous essay, ‘The End of History?’. ‘What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War . . . but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalisation of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government,’ he wrote.1 Though I did not subscribe to Fukuyama’s view of the ideal society I shared his relief.
I had been invited to attend a conference on the ‘polycentric world order’, which is Russian for ‘post-American world’. The conference was hosted by the Primakov Institute, named after the man who had been Russia’s foreign minister and prime minister during the 1990s. Yevgeny Primakov was displaced as prime minister in 1999 by Vladimir Putin. While my friends and I had danced on the rubble of the Berlin Wall, a brooding Putin had watched his world crumbling from 130 miles away, at his KGB office in Dresden, a city in what was still East Germany. Later he would describe the dissolution of the Soviet Union as the ‘greatest geopolitical tragedy of the twentieth century’. It was Primakov who championed the term multipolarity in what at the time seemed like a vain bid to dampen America’s oceanic post-Cold War triumphalism.
Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King
Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
Škoda still benefits from low Eastern European wages, which allow cars to be produced relatively cheaply, but it now also benefits from the technologies, management know-how and cheap international finance available to the Volkswagen Group. Škoda’s experience neatly encapsulates the difficulties in making sense of international trade and investment since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Škoda exports from its Mladá Boleslav assembly plant in the Czech Republic to customers all over the world. It offers competition to other car manufacturers which, in earlier decades, did not have to cope with the cheaper labour available on the eastern side of the Berlin Wall. It provides employment for Czech workers and tax revenues for the Czech government. It also provides employment in its dealerships across the world. Škoda’s profits now go to the shareholders of Volkswagen AG who, in turn, are based in Frankfurt, London, New York and countless other locations.
Changing patterns of trade and investment opportunities around the world provide compelling evidence of this shift. Yet many people are in denial. They still tend to think in the old domestic mindsets. They are slaves to national economic data that, for the most part, include only the most recent domestic economic developments. They are slaves to a world that, in effect, crumbled as Deng Xiaoping opened up China to the global economy at the beginning of the 1980s and as the Berlin Wall collapsed in 1989. During the 1980s, as cumbersome mainframe computers were replaced by PCs, economists began to calibrate statistically the ways in which economies operated. With reams of annual, quarterly, monthly, daily and even intra-day data at their disposal and with significant advances in computing power, they were able to build economic models linked to past reality (and, as the models became more complex, to ‘expected’ future reality).
The resources used per passenger mile are less than 30 per cent of those used in the Comet. This vast improvement in productivity is, of course, good news both for the passengers and the environment. The calculation, however, reflects only technology improvement. In a world of scarce resources, what matters is not so much the improvement in technology but on how many occasions that technology is replicated. Before the arrival of Deng Xiaoping and the collapse of the Berlin Wall, technology replication was limited. Too many countries were shut off from new technologies and, even where they had access, they channelled those technologies into military, rather than civilian, ventures. No longer is this the case. More and more countries are using technology replication to improve the lives of their citizens. It may be that the Airbus A380 is much more fuel-efficient than the Comet, but, with a sevenfold rise in passenger numbers over the last forty years, greater efficiency is still consistent with higher resource utilization.
Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990 by Kristina Spohr, David Reynolds
anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, oil shock, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shared worldview, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
GBPL, BSF, Presidential Correspondence, Memcon, Bush’s meeting Deng Xiaoping, 26 February 1989, https://bush41library.tamu.edu/files/memcons-telcons/1989-02-26--Xiaoping.pdf. 31. Mann, About Face, 178. See also ‘Ambassador Winston Lord’, Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project, 28 April 1998, http://www.adst.org/OH%20TOCs/Lord,%20Winston.pdf. 32. Vogel, Deng Xiaoping, 608; Chen Jian, ‘Tiananmen and the Fall of the Berlin Wall: China’s Path toward 1989 and Beyond’, in Jeffrey A. Engel, ed., The Fall of the Berlin Wall: The Revolutionary Legacy of 1989 (New York, 2009), 111–12. 33. Liang Zhang et al., eds, The Tiananmen Papers (New York, 2002), 143. 34. Mikhail Gorbachev, Sobranie Sochinenii, vol. 15 (Moscow, 2010), 261. 35. Zhang Ganghua and Li Peng, Li Peng liu si ri ji zhen xiang: Fu lu Li Peng liu si ri ji yuan wen (Hong Kong, 2010). 36. Oleg Troyanovskii, Cherez Gody i Rasstoyaniya: Istoriya Odnoi Sem’yi (Over Years and Distances) (Moscow, 1997), 373. 37.
., and Donald Brean, ‘Global Summitry: Its Meaning and Scope’, Global Summitry 1, no. 1 (2015), 1–26 Bange, Oliver, ‘The GDR in the Era of Détente: Conflicting Perceptions and Strategies’, in Poul Villaume and Odd Arne Westad, eds, Perforating the Iron Curtain: European Détente, Transatlantic Relations, and the Cold War, 1965–1985 (Copenhagen, 2010), 57–78 Bange, Oliver, ‘The Stasi Confronts Western Strategies for Transformation 1966–1975’, in Jonathan Haslam and Karina Urbach, eds, Secret Intelligence in the European States System, 1918–1989 (Stanford, CA, 2013), 170–208 Bock, Siegfried, and Karl Seidel, ‘Die Außenbeziehungen der DDR in der Periode der Konsolidierung (1955–1972/73)’, in Siegfried Bock, Ingrid Muth, and Hermann Schwiesau, eds, DDR-Außenpolitik im Rückspiegel: Diplomaten im Gespräch (Münster, 2004), 53–68 Bozo, Frédéric, ‘Détente versus Alliance: France, the United States and the Politics of the Harmel Report (1964–1968)’, Contemporary European History 7, no. 3 (1998), 343–60 Brown, Archie, ‘The Gorbachev Revolution and the End of the Cold War’, in Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds, The Cambridge History of the Cold War, vol. III: Endings (Cambridge, 2010), 244–66 Chen, Jian, ‘Tiananmen and the Fall of the Berlin Wall: China’s Path toward 1989 and Beyond’, in Jeffrey A. Engel, ed., The Fall of the Berlin Wall: The Revolutionary Legacy of 1989 (New York, 2009), 96–131 Chen, Jian, ‘China, the Third World and the End of the Cold War’, in Artemy Kalinovsky and Sergey Radchenko, eds, The End of the Cold War and the Third World: New Perspectives on Regional Conflict (London, 2011), 101–21 Colley, Linda, ‘Britishness and Otherness: An Argument’, Journal of British Studies 31, no. 4 (1992), 309–29 Costigliola, Frank, ‘An “Arm Around the Shoulder”: The United States, NATO and German Reunification, 1989–90’, Contemporary European History 3, no. 1 (March 1994), 87–110 Cox, Michael, and Steven Hurst, ‘“His Finest Hour?”
After the Cuban fiasco, Moscow built up its strategic nuclear arsenal to something approaching parity with the United States. Similarly China, now recovering strongly from the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution, was facing off against the Soviets. The Americans, meanwhile, were bogged down in Vietnam—their first serious check in the Cold War. The triangular configuration of global power was already apparent. In Europe, the Berlin Wall had imposed a new stability, both for Germany and the continent as a whole. All these developments stimulated international dialogue, and summitry should be seen as part of that process: an attempt by key leaders to promote novel forms of engagement in order to make international affairs safer and more predictable. This new era of détente provides the context for part one of our book, entitled ‘Thawing the Cold War’.
The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 by Mary Fulbrook
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, coherent worldview, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, joint-stock company, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, Sinatra Doctrine, union organizing, unorthodox policies
In particular, East Germans, who now no longer needed a visa to travel to Czechoslovakia, also no longer needed a certificate renouncing GDR citizenship to travel to West Germany over the Czech border; so they could, in effect, simply circumvent the Berlin Wall by making a short detour via Czechoslovakia. East Page 332 Germans started pouring out by this route at a rate of about 9000 a day, an average of 375 an hour. It was clear that the Berlin Wall was effectively redundant. On 9 November 1989 seventy-one years to the day since the collapse of Imperial Germany an event of momentous significance occurred, signalling in effect the collapse of the East German communist regime. Towards the end of a late-afternoon press conference, Politburo member and government spokesman Günter Schabowski was asked what the implications of the new freedom to travel were for the status of the Berlin Wall. He responded, wearily, that the Wall would continue to have some sort of function, but of course not the same as before.
Mass dissent had been suppressed; revisionists had been purged from the SED; the building of the Berlin Wall had ended the damaging drain of skilled manpower to the west; and the lack of effective intervention of the western powers, both in 1953 and 1961, indicated that no-one was willing to make an international issue, involving violent confrontation, of the German question. Although not formally recognized as a legitimate separate state by the Federal Republic of Germany whose 'Hallstein doctrine' also meant refusing diplomatic relations with any other country which did recognize the GDR to all intents and purposes East Germany was now an established state. It was moreover one of considerable economic and military importance to the Soviet empire in eastern Europe. And to the people of East Germany, after the building of the Berlin Wall it seemed that they would simply have to make the best of a life to which there was no longer any alternative.
Finally, I would like to thank my husband and three children for suffering and sustaining the research for and writing of this book. Without my husband's unfailing support, and more than equal partnership in parenting, the book could not have been written. Without my children, recounting the fates of those who were born into less fortunate historical circumstances might have been much less meaningful. Page 1 One The Course of German History In those extraordinary months after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, when discussion of the unification of the two Germanies was for the first time in forty years back on the serious political agenda, many voices were raised giving views on 'the German question'. From a variety of quarters, prejudices were aired which had lain dormant along with the memories, gas masks and other relics of the Second World War over the years when the Cold War and the balance of terror had seemed to ensure a fragile peace in a divided Europe.
The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Macrae, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto
The destruction of the Berlin Wall marks another historical watershed, the passage between the Industrial Age and the new Information Age. Never has there been so great a symbolic triumph of efficiency over power. When the walls of San Giovanni fell, it was a stark demonstration that the economic returns to violence in the world had risen sharply. The fall of the Berlin Wall says something different, namely that returns to violence are now falling. This is something that few have even begun to recognize, but it will have dramatic consequences. For reasons we explore in this chapter, the Berlin Wall may prove to be far more symbolic of the whole era of the industrial nation-state than those in the crowd that night in Berlin or the millions watching from a distance understood. The Berlin Wall was built to a very different purpose than the walls of San Giovanni-to prevent people on the inside from escaping rather than to prevent predators on the outside from entering.
A time much like now. 89 Chapter 5 THE LIFE AND HEALTH OF THE NATION-STATE Democracy and Nationalism as Resource Strategies in the Age of Violence "Most important of all, success in war depends on having enough money to provide whatever the enterprise needs." 1 ROBERT DE BALSAC, 1502 THE RUBBLE OF HISTORY On November 9 and 10, 1989, television broadcast to the world scenes of exuberant East Berliners dismantling the Berlin Wall with sledgehammers. Fledgling entrepreneurs among the crowd picked up pieces of the wall that were later marketed to capitalists far and wide as souvenir paperweights. A brisk business in these relics was done for years thereafter. Even as we write, one can still encounter occasional ads in small magazines offering bits of old East German concrete for sale at prices ordinarily commanded by highgrade silver ore. We believe that those who bought the Berlin Wall paper-weights should be in no rush to sell. They hold mementos of something bigger than the collapse of Communism. We believe that the Berlin Wall became the most important pile of historical rubble since the walls of San Giovanni were blasted to smithereens almost five centuries earlier in February 1495.
This requires that the taxes imposed upon the most productive citizens of the currently rich countries be priced at supermonopoly rates, hundreds or even thousands of times higher than the actual cost of the services that governments provide in return. 92 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF THE NATION-STATE The fall of the Berlin Wall was not just a visible symbol of the death of Communism. It was a defeat for the entire world system of nation-states and a triumph of efficiency and markets. The fulcrum of power underlying history has shifted. We believe that the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 culminates the era of the nation-state, a peculiar two-hundred-year phase in history that began with the French Revolution. States have existed for six thousand years. But before the nineteenth century, they accounted for only a small fraction of the world's sovereignties.
Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King
9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
Victorians would be shocked to find that their beloved British Empire – which provided the essential foundations for nineteenth-century globalization – had more or less disappeared by the late 1940s, by which time the UK itself was on the brink of bankruptcy. Those many fans of the Soviet economic system during the 1930s Depression years would doubtless be astonished to discover that the entire edifice began to crumble following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. SOUTHERN SPAIN Even when patterns of globalization endure for many centuries, they can break down remarkably quickly, leading to dramatic changes in fortune. Consider, for example, the history of Andalucía in southern Spain, a story that veered from one seemingly permanent political structure (Islam) to another (Christianity) within just a handful of years. In AD 711, a Muslim Berber force travelled from North Africa across the Mediterranean to reach southern Spain.
The Soviet system provided, through their blinkered eyes, a vision of the future. It was not to be. Soviet living standards rose relative to those in the US in the interwar period – from 20 per cent in 1920 to 35 per cent in 1938 – only to return to 21 per cent in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. They rose again during the Cold War, reaching a peak of 38 per cent of American incomes in 1975, before falling to 31 per cent as the Berlin Wall came down in 1989. The Soviet version of economic progress – the one that Steffens and Shaw believed in so passionately – just didn’t deliver the goods. HOW THE WEST DIDN’T WIN Still, it would be wrong to suggest that the proponents of communism in its various forms were the only ones unable to see clearly into the future. In 1909, Norman Angell published the first edition of The Great Illusion, in which he argued that, thanks to nineteenth-century globalization and the resulting economic interdependency, war between the major nations of the world would be futile.
London and Paris eventually established a tougher ‘Dual Control’ system – which understandably provoked a nationalist backlash and an army revolt.13 To be fair, it has not all been reverse gear in Europe. For many years, former Soviet satellites appeared to have found a home in the European Union’s welcoming democratic arms. Poland, for example, went from strength to strength economically following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Between 1990 and 2015, Polish per capita incomes more than doubled, thanks in large part to major institutional reforms associated with Poland’s efforts to join the EU, a feat it eventually accomplished in 2004. The contrast with Ukraine – stuck in a no man’s land between the European Union and Russia – is striking. In the early 1990s, Ukraine and Poland had roughly similar living standards but, after two decades of both relative and absolute economic decline, Ukrainian per capita incomes had dropped to less than 40 per cent of those in Poland by 2015.14 Yet even in Poland – one of the most visible beneficiaries of Central Europe’s reorientation – developments following the global financial crisis raise doubts about the European Union’s ‘common values’.
The Doomsday Calculation: How an Equation That Predicts the Future Is Transforming Everything We Know About Life and the Universe by William Poundstone
Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Arthur Eddington, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, digital map, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, Elon Musk, Gerolamo Cardano, index fund, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sam Altman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, Turing test
The theme of “Ozymandias” is that glory is fleeting. Nothing lasts. In the summer of 1969, J. Richard Gott III celebrated his Harvard graduation with a tour of Europe. He visited the supreme monument of Cold War anxiety, the Berlin Wall. Standing in the shadow of the landmark, he contemplated its history and future. Would this symbol of totalitarian power one day lie in ruins? This was a matter discussed by diplomats, historians, op-ed writers, TV pundits, and spy novelists. Opinions varied. Gott, who was planning postgraduate work in astrophysics, brought a different perspective. He devised a simple trick for estimating how long the Berlin Wall would stand. He did the math in his head and announced his prediction to a friend, Chuck Allen. The wall would stand at least two and two-thirds more years but no more than twenty-four more years, he said.
Even the whole of the observable universe is now widely believed to be an insignificant speck in a yet-greater multiverse. The cosmic “you are here” dot says we’re smack in the middle of nowhere. The Copernican principle is generally applied to an observer’s location in space, but the delta t argument applies it to an observer’s location in time. Gott began with the assumption that his visit to the Berlin Wall had not taken place at any special moment in the wall’s history. That premise allowed Gott to predict the wall’s future without any expertise on Cold War geopolitics. His 1969 prediction was that there was a 50 percent chance that the wall would stand at least another 2.67 years after his visit but no more than 24 years. Gott published his method in the prestigious journal Nature in 1993, and it ignited a controversy that still burns white hot.
Should that be the correct position, the future (the 25 percent remaining) is only one-third as long as the past (75 percent). Because these two pins bound the middle half of the bar, it’s even odds that the present moment falls inside this range. That means there’s a 50 percent chance that your relationship’s future will be somewhere between one-third and three times as long as its past. Gott used this calculation with his Berlin Wall prediction. This prediction is one of many similar ones you might make. In his Nature article, Gott adopted the 95 percent confidence level that is widely used in science and statistics. To publish a result in a scientific journal, it is generally necessary to show a 95 percent or greater probability that the result is not due to sampling error. You don’t have to be a scientist to appreciate that 95 percent is pretty confident.
Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall
affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning
An Essay on Europe (New York and London: New York University Press, 2011) Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; and Garrelts, Nantke, ‘Cities and refugees: the German experience’, Brookings Institution report, 18 September 2016 Lambert, Charles, ‘French immigration problems’, Foreign Affairs, January 1928 Leuenberger, Christine, ‘Constructions of the Berlin Wall: how material culture is used in psychological theory’, Social Problems, vol. 53, no. 1 (February 2006), pp. 18–37 Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project, Pew Research Center report, 2010 Ross, Corey, ‘East Germans and the Berlin Wall: popular opinion and social change before and after the border closure of August 1961’, Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 39, no. 1 (January 2004), pp. 25–43 Stein, Mary Beth, ‘The politics of humor: the Berlin Wall in jokes and graffiti’, Western Folklore, vol. 48, no. 2 (April 1989), pp. 85–108 Steinmetz, Vanessa, ‘Das sollen Flüchtlinge künftig leisten’, Spiegel Online, 24 May 2016 Chapter 8: UK Bruce, John Collingwood, The Roman Wall (London: J.
CHAPTER 7 EUROPE ‘Today, no walls can separate humanitarian or human rights crises in one part of the world from national security crises in another. What begins with the failure to uphold the dignity of one life all too often ends with a calamity for entire nations.’ – Kofi Annan People gather at the Berlin Wall as it starts to come down, November 1989. EARLY ONE GREY MORNING IN 1979 I BOARDED A MILITARY train in West Germany heading through East Germany to Charlottenburg station in the West German sector of Berlin, formerly the capital of a united Germany. By that time the Berlin Wall had been up for eighteen years and it appeared to be a permanent fixture in our lives, one that would keep us apart for ever. There didn’t seem to be any prospect of living another way – the present was fixed in concrete, barbed wire, part of a conflict that threatened to split enough atoms to kill us all.
Whichever route you choose, you will eventually see something that makes the effort more than worthwhile. When I first gazed over the miles of brickwork snaking along the mountain tops, I was not as overawed as I had been at, say, the Grand Canyon. Nor did I feel overwhelmed, as I was by the world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa in Dubai. I did not feel political ideology emanating from it, as I did when I visited the Berlin Wall at the height of the Cold War. But there was something else. I felt, rightly or wrongly, that I understood China just a little bit better than before. It didn’t make me any sort of expert – far from it – but in that moment I had a much better appreciation of phrases such as ‘ancient culture’ and ‘the greatest feat in human history’, and of the concept that many in the People’s Republic still divide the world into those who are Chinese and those who are not.
The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
To delineate the period we are living through, I combine the hopefulness that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall with the fear and rage that followed the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. This period I call 89/11 (pronounced “eightynine eleven”), and this section of the book will both deﬁne that era’s characteristics and move past the stasis it engendered via the creation of what I term “bespoke futures.”1 What looked like it would be a facile history in 1989—the victory of one sort of built system over another, the triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, capitalism over a command economy—turned out to be vastly more complex. The post-1989 period contained a multitude of features, but one unifying construct was the belief that after the fall of the Berlin Wall and then the Soviet Union itself, not just Communism, but all the countervailing forces against market capitalism were vanquished, and not just for the moment but literally for all time.
Also present is the appropriation of language that happens when you scour science for concepts like “strange attractors,” or when you create portmanteaus such as “plutopian meliorism” and posit that we can now speak of the “Enlightenment Electriﬁed.” Then there is the ﬁnal issue of what kind of language differentiation you need to use in the face of a hybridizing hegemony of “unimodern unimedia.” Of special note in this book is the period between 1989 and 2001, in which all three siblings reached something of a tipping point. After the Berlin Wall came down and the sense of nuclear menace diminished, I stopped looking over my shoulder for the ﬁrst time, expecting clear skies without vapor trails. But the events of 9/11 transformed the H-bomb into the human bomb, and the speciﬁc threat of death from the sky transformed itself xvi THREE SIBLINGS into a free-ﬂoating anxiety about weapons of mass destruction and terror. At that point, television reﬁned new ways of marketing fear as entertainment in a twenty-four-hour news cycle, and the worst excesses of the blogosphere simulated this model, accelerating it into the viral torrent of RSS feeds to mobile phones and “the new” at the click of the browser’s refresh button.
Though jeered at by professional planners of her day—one dismissed her work as “bitter coffee-house ramblings”—Jacobs has certainly had the last laugh, with The Death and Life of Great American Cities utterly upending town planning for more than ﬁfty years through its articulation of precisely what makes a neighborhood worth inhabiting. We will spend at least another generation working out how Jacob’s ﬁne-grained mixtures should function within digital environments, but mining her work for insights into the culture machine does not stop there. Just after the fall of the Berlin wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union, Jacobs wrote Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics, in which she identiﬁes two complementary and opposing moral syndromes: one based on taking (also known as the guardian syndrome), and the other based on trading (or the commercial syndrome). These two are sometimes mutually reinforcing and sometimes in grave opposition, but 85 CHAPTER 4 both are required for a viable culture.
The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov
"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
The fight against communism has supplied the foreign policy establishment with so many buzzwords and metaphors—the Iron Curtain, the Evil Empire, Star Wars, the Missile Gap—that many of them could be raised from the dead to day—simply by adding the annoying qualifiers like “cyber-,” “digital,” and “2.0.” By the virtue of sharing part of its name with the word “firewall,” the Berlin Wall is by far the most abused term from the vocabulary of the Cold War. Senators are particularly fond of the metaphorical thinking that it inspires. Arlen Specter, a Democrat from Pennsylvania, has urged the American government to “fight fire with fire in finding ways to breach these firewalls, which dictatorships use to control their people and keep themselves in power.” Why? Because “tearing down these walls can match the effect of what happened when the Berlin Wall was torn down.” Speaking in October 2009 Sam Brownback, a Republican senator from Kansas, argued that “as we approach the 20th anniversary of the breaking of the Berlin Wall, we must ... commit ourselves to finding ways to tear down ... the cyber-walls.”
Clinton drew a parallel between the challenges of promoting Internet freedom and the experiences of supporting dissidents during the Cold War. Speaking of her recent visit to Germany to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Clinton mentioned “the courageous men and women” who “made the case against oppression by circulating small pamphlets called samizdat,” which “helped pierce the concrete and concertina wire of the Iron Curtain.” (Newseum was a very appropriate venue to give in to Cold War nostalgia. It happens to house the largest display of sections of the Berlin Wall outside of Germany). Something very similar is happening today, argued Clinton, adding that “as networks spread to nations around the globe, virtual walls are cropping up in place of visible walls.” And as “a new information curtain is descending across much of the world ... viral videos and blog posts are becoming the samizdat of our day.”
And to dispel any suspicions that such linguistic promiscuity could be a mere coincidence, Eli Lake, a contributing editor for the New Republic, opines that “during the cold war, the dominant metaphor for describing the repression of totalitarian regimes was The Berlin Wall. To update that metaphor, we should talk about The Firewall,” as if the similarity between the two cases was nothing but self-evident. Things get worse once observers begin to develop what they think are informative and insightful parallels that go beyond the mere pairing of the Berlin Wall with the Firewall, attempting to establish a nearly functional identity between some of the activities and phenomena of the Cold War era and those of today’s Internet. This is how blogging becomes samizdat (Columbia University’s Lee Bollinger proclaims that “like the underground samizdat ... the Web has allowed free speech to avoid the reach of the most authoritarian regimes”); bloggers become dissidents (Alec Ross, Hillary Clinton’s senior adviser for innovation, says that “bloggers are a form of 21st century dissident”); and the Internet itself becomes a new and improved platform for Western broadcasting (New York University’s Clay Shirky argues that what the Internet allows in authoritarian states “is way more threatening than Voice of America”).
The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis
American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, full employment, land reform, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine
KENNAN 1904–2005 PREFACE EVERY MONDAY AND WEDNESDAY afternoon each fall semester I lecture to several hundred Yale undergraduates on the subject of Cold War history. As I do this, I have to keep reminding myself that hardly any of them remember any of the events I’m describing. When I talk about Stalin and Truman, even Reagan and Gorbachev, it could as easily be Napoleon, Caesar, or Alexander the Great. Most members of the Class of 2005, for example, were only five years old when the Berlin Wall came down. They know that the Cold War in various ways shaped their lives, because they’ve been told how it affected their families. Some of them—by no means all—understand that if a few decisions had been made differently at a few critical moments during that conflict, they might not even have had a life. But my students sign up for this course with very little sense of how the Cold War started, what it was about, or why it ended in the way that it did.
There followed, though, a string of setbacks that made Kennedy’s first months in the White House themselves an embarrassment: the failed Bay of Pigs landings against Fidel Castro’s Cuba in April, 1961; the Soviet Union’s success that same month in putting the first man into orbit around the earth; a badly handled summit conference at Vienna in June at which Khrushchev renewed his Berlin ultimatum; and in August East Germany’s unopposed construction of the Berlin Wall. When Khrushchev announced shortly thereafter that the Soviet Union would soon resume nuclear weapons testing with a 100-megaton blast—almost seven times the size of BRAVO—Kennedy had had enough. Drawing on new, copious, and convincing evidence from reconnaissance satellites, he called Khrushchev’s bluff. He let it be known through a spokesman that the Soviet Union’s nuclear and missile capabilities had never come close to surpassing those of the United States: “[W]e have a second strike capability which is at least as extensive as what the Soviets can deliver by striking first.
With West Berlin isolated from East Berlin and East Germany, he had no further need to try to force the western powers out of the city, with all the risks of nuclear war that such an effort would have entailed. He could breathe more easily now, and so too—if truth be told—could western leaders. “It’s not a very nice solution,” Kennedy acknowledged, “but a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war.”54 The president could not resist observing, though, when he himself visited the Berlin Wall in June, 1963, that “we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us.” The ugly structure Khrushchev had erected was “the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system, for all the world to see.”55 X. AND ON the other side of the wall, capitalism was succeeding. No single event, date, or statistic marks the point at which that became clear: what was significant instead was what had not happened since the end of World War II.
Germany Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, double helix, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sensible shoes, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence
Experiencing the country through its food and drink will add a rich layer to your memories (and possibly your belly!). Top of section TOP EXPERIENCES Berlin Wall 1 Few events in history have the power to move the entire world. The Kennedy assassination; landing on the moon; 9/11... And, of course, the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. If you were alive back then and old enough, you will probably remember the crowds of euphoric revellers cheering and dancing at the Brandenburg Gate (Click here). Although little is left of the physical barrier, its legacy lives on in the imagination and in places such as Checkpoint Charlie (Click here), the Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer (Click here) and the East Side Gallery (Click here), with its colourful murals. Berlin Wall street art at Mauerpark DAVID PEEVERS / GETTY IMAGES © Schloss Neuschwanstein 2 Commissioned by Bavaria’s most celebrated (and loopiest) 19th-century monarch, King Ludwig II, Neuschwanstein Palace (Click here) rises from the mysterious Alpine forests like a bedtime storybook illustration.
Of course it’s far more relaxing to pedal around leafy suburbs. The Grunewald forest, for instance, with its many lakes, is a great getaway. Or follow the course of the former Berlin Wall along the marked Berliner Mauerweg. For more ideas, consult the guide published by the bicycle club ADFC (448 4724; www.adfc-berlin.de; Brunnenstrasse 28; noon-8pm Mon-Fri, 10am-4pm Sat; Bernauer Strasse, Rosenthaler Platz). It’s available at its offices, bookshops and bike stores. THE BERLIN WALL It’s more than a tad ironic that Berlin’s most popular tourist attraction is one that no longer exists. For 28 years the Berlin Wall, the most potent symbol of the Cold War, divided not only a city but the world. Shortly after midnight on 13 August 1961 East German soldiers and police began rolling out miles of barbed wire that would soon be replaced with prefab concrete slabs.
START CHECKPOINT CHARLIE FINISH BRANDENBURGER TOR DISTANCE 2KM DURATION 1 HOUR Walking Tour: Walking the Wall For nearly three decades, the Berlin Wall divided a city and its people, becoming the most visible symbol of the Cold War. By now the two city halves have visually merged so perfectly that it takes a keen eye to tell East from West. To give you a sense of the period of division, this walk follows the most central section of the course of the Berlin Wall. For a more in-depth experience, rent the multimedia GPS-integrated WallGuide at Checkpoint Charlie. This is also where our tour kicks off. As the third Allied checkpoint, Checkpoint Charlie got its name from the third letter in the NATO phonetic alphabet. Only weeks after the Berlin Wall was built, US and Soviet tanks faced off here in one of the tensest moments of the Cold War.
Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths
4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, Donald Knuth, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, Sam Altman, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
The Copernican Principle It’s difficult to make predictions, especially about the future. —DANISH PROVERB When J. Richard Gott arrived at the Berlin Wall, he asked himself a very simple question: Where am I? That is to say, where in the total life span of this artifact have I happened to arrive? In a way, he was asking the temporal version of the spatial question that had obsessed the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus four hundred years earlier: Where are we? Where in the universe is the Earth? Copernicus would make the radical paradigm shift of imagining that the Earth was not the bull’s-eye center of the universe—that it was, in fact, nowhere special in particular. Gott decided to take the same step with regard to time. He made the assumption that the moment when he encountered the Berlin Wall wasn’t special—that it was equally likely to be any moment in the wall’s total lifetime.
.* And if we assume that we’re arriving precisely halfway into something’s duration, the best guess we can make for how long it will last into the future becomes obvious: exactly as long as it’s lasted already. Gott saw the Berlin Wall eight years after it was built, so his best guess was that it would stand for eight years more. (It ended up being twenty.) This straightforward reasoning, which Gott named the Copernican Principle, results in a simple algorithm that can be used to make predictions about all sorts of topics. Without any preconceived expectations, we might use it to obtain predictions for the end of not only the Berlin Wall but any number of other short- and long-lived phenomena. The Copernican Principle predicts that the United States of America will last as a nation until approximately the year 2255, that Google will last until roughly 2032, and that the relationship your friend began a month ago will probably last about another month (maybe tell him not to RSVP to that wedding invitation just yet).
If Bayes’s Rule always requires us to specify our prior expectations and beliefs, how could we tell it that we don’t have any? In the case of a raffle, one way to plead ignorance would be to assume what’s called the “uniform prior,” which considers every proportion of winning tickets to be equally likely.* In the case of the Berlin Wall, an uninformative prior means saying that we don’t know anything about the time span we’re trying to predict: the wall could equally well come down in the next five minutes or last for five millennia. Aside from that uninformative prior, the only piece of data we supply to Bayes’s Rule, as we’ve seen, is the fact that we’ve encountered the Berlin Wall when it is eight years old. Any hypothesis that would have predicted a less than eight-year life span for the wall is thereby ruled out immediately, since those hypotheses can’t account for our situation at all. (Similarly, a two-headed coin is ruled out by the first appearance of tails.)
The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, popular capitalism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck
As to America’s two British-fathered siblings, Canada has adopted the US as its new parent and is adjusting accordingly; Australian politics has been in an advanced state of decay ever since the late Gough Whitlam, the prime minister, was removed via an intelligence coup masterminded in London. The country now specializes in battery-farming provincial politicians of a provincial cast with impressive regularity. In all these locations, citizens deserve better. Twenty-five years ago when the Berlin Wall came down, it was not simply the Soviet Union or the ‘communist idea’ or the efficacy of ‘socialist solutions’ that collapsed. Western European social democracy, too, went down. In the face of the triumphalist capitalist storm that swept the world, it had neither the vision nor the determination to defend elements of its own past social programmes. It decided, instead to commit suicide. This was the founding moment of the extreme centre.
The only man giving voice to those who believe in the Union.’ 3 Euroland in Trouble ‘A map of the world that does not include Utopia is not worth even glancing at,’ Oscar Wilde once wrote, ‘for it leaves out the one country at which humanity is always landing. And when humanity lands there, it looks out, and seeing a better country, sets sail. Progress is the realization of Utopias.’ Wilde’s spirit is very much alive in the collective heart of the young who have come out onto the streets in protest against the forms of capitalism that have dominated the world since the Berlin Wall came down in 1989. They shouted their demands against the 1 per cent in New York, against US-backed dictatorship in Cairo, against the corruptions of the extreme centre in Greece and Spain, and for self-determination in Scotland. The European Union – one of the largest economic entities on the planet, occupying a space greater than that of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago – is in a mess. All the cover-ups, the attempts to suggest that all is well, that the sticking plaster heavily applied around the EU’s entire body signals a return to normality, are deeply unconvincing.
In practice NATO became a mechanism, controlled by the United States, whereby its European allies were kept under a military umbrella. And yet it is worth noting that throughout the Cold War years, from 1949 to 1990, NATO never fought a single battle. It was neither tried nor tested. Instead, it was a military propaganda organization, designed to control allies rather than punish enemies. Yet things changed following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Where once the purpose was a defensive show of strength, it now became an offensive test of strength, giving rise to operational shifts and corresponding changes in its command structure. This was on public record at the Welsh summit in 2014. There have been two and a half phases in NATO’s development since 1949. The original members comprised the United States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway and Iceland.
When They Go Low, We Go High: Speeches That Shape the World – and Why We Need Them by Philip Collins
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, Copley Medal, Corn Laws, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, invention of the printing press, late capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rosa Parks, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, Torches of Freedom, World Values Survey
Similar tunes are played by the Danish People’s Party, the Swedish Democrats, the People’s Party of Switzerland and the notoriously Islamophobic Geert Wilders in Holland. In Poland, the Law and Justice Party stands accused of trampling on the country’s constitution to establish an ‘illiberal democracy’ of its own. But the most conspicuous setback for democracy has taken place in Russia. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 there were high hopes for a democratic order in the old Soviet Union, but these hopes faded in 1999 when Vladimir Putin replaced Boris Yeltsin. Putin, a former KGB operative, has since been both prime minister and president twice. He has muzzled the press, imprisoned opponents and presided over the murder of radical journalists, even as the display of democracy has been preserved.
We will see too that in a democracy war needs a purpose beyond the cessation of hostility. The speeches in this chapter are also about the purpose to which peace must be turned. Pericles offers a eulogy to democracy as much as to the departed. Lloyd George defines the land fit for heroes. Wilson imagines a global alliance of democratic nations. Churchill offers blood, sweat, toil and tears to see off the tyrant and Reagan stands to speak on the right side of the Berlin Wall which marks off the free world. In all instances, the war is being fought for a noble purpose, not merely to keep the enemy at bay, but to deepen the commitment to a free nation. The original casus belli – that the nation was in peril – is never enough. The war has to be fought for better politics. The social legislation of the Labour Attlee government between 1945 and 1951 acquired its moral force from the aftermath of war.
His second term was tarnished by the Iran–Contra affair, an arms-for-hostages deal with Iran to funnel money toward anti-communist insurgencies in Central America. Though he initially denied knowing about it, Reagan later announced that it had been a mistake. It was, however, during his second term as president that Reagan forged a diplomatic relationship with Mikhail Gorbachev, chairman of the Soviet Union. This was the context in which Reagan gave the following speech at the Berlin Wall, on the 750th anniversary of the city of Berlin, in which he challenged Gorbachev to tear down the wall. The West German government requested that the president’s schedule be adjusted to allow him to visit Berlin on his way back from an economic summit in Venice. Reagan’s visit brought a protest to the Berlin streets. By some accounts, the 50,000 who gathered the day before Reagan spoke to protest about American foreign policy outnumbered the 45,000 Berliners who attended the speech.
Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar
We move from the toppling of tyrants to an exploration of the deeper fault lines that keep generating the disruptive changes of our time. We also look at these disruptive events from the viewpoint of change-makers: In the face of disruption, what determines whether we end up in moments of madness or mindfulness? The Toppling of Tyrants In the fall of 1989, two weeks before the Berlin Wall crumbled, we took an international student group to East Berlin, where we met with civil rights activists in the basement of a church. At one point, the professor who was with us, peace researcher Johan Galtung, put a prediction on the table: “The Berlin Wall will come down before the end of the year.” Everybody doubted that, including the people who were organizing the resistance against the East German regime. And we were all wrong. The Wall came down and the Cold War came to an end just months after that meeting. Nearly two decades later, in the fall of 2008, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, a global financial services firm, sent shock waves around the globe and within hours brought the financial systems of the United States and Europe to the brink of collapse.
Minutes after the earthquake struck, a tsunami of 46 feet (14 meters) arrived, easily crossing the seawall and knocking out the plant’s emergency power generators. As a consequence, the radioactive fuel began overheating and put the plant on a path toward catastrophic meltdown. As the year went on, the Arab Spring spread across the globe. Muammar Gaddafi was toppled in Libya. The Occupy Wall Street movement, which took inspiration in part from the Arab Spring, staged actions in more than a thousand cities across the globe.3 The collapse of the Berlin Wall, the demise of the Mubarak and Gaddafi regimes, the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and the near-meltdown of the western financial system all share some features: 1. the end of an inflexible, centralized control structure, one that previously had been considered indestructible 2. the beginning of a spontaneous, decentralized grassroots movement of people letting go of their fear and waking up to another level of awareness and interconnectedness 3. the opening of some small cracks in the old system, followed by its crumbling and eventual collapse 4. the rebound of the old forces as soon as the memory of the collapse began to fade away; the old forces tried to obscure the actual root causes of the breakdown in order to extend their privileged access to power and influence (an example is Wall Street’s financial oligarchy) We believe that these kinds of events will keep coming our way.
Social and economic breakdowns and eruptions are very similar in this regard. They tend to show up along the fault lines that divide the collective social body of our communities and societies. Again, we cannot fully predict when or where a disaster will occur, but understanding the space of possibility allows us to be much more attentive to subtle signals that foreshadow bigger events like the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the meltdown of the financial system, and the toppling of authoritarian regimes. What is the geography of the major fault lines that divide the collective socioeconomic body—the sum total of human relationships—today? We believe that there are three major fault lines, concerning three principal relationships that we engage in as human beings: (1) our relationship with nature and our planet; (2) our relationships with one another; and (3) our relationship with ourselves.
Post Wall: Rebuilding the World After 1989 by Kristina Spohr
American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, colonial exploitation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, G4S, Kickstarter, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, price stability, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, software patent, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, uranium enrichment, zero-coupon bond
In his speech during the gala dinner on the 6th, he rebutted accusations that Moscow bore sole responsibility for the continent’s post-war division and he took issue with West Germany for seizing on his reforms to ‘reanimate’ dreams of a German Reich ‘within the boundaries of 1937’. He also specifically rejected demands that Moscow dismantle the Berlin Wall – a call made by Reagan in 1987 and again by Bush in 1989. ‘We are constantly called on to liquidate this or that division,’ Gorbachev complained. ‘We often have to hear, “Let the USSR get rid of the Berlin Wall, then we’ll believe in its peaceful intentions.”’ He was adamant that ‘we don’t idealise the order that has settled on Europe. But the fact is that until now the recognition of the post-war reality has insured peace on the continent. Every time the West has tried to reshape the post-war map of Europe it has meant a worsening of the international situation.’
A seriously rattled Schabowski simply muttered ‘According to my knowledge … immediately, right away.’ Because they had not been given any formal written statement, the incredulous press corps hung on Schabowski’s every word, squeezing all they could out of them. Finally someone asked the fatal question: ‘Mr Schabowski, what is going to happen to the Berlin Wall now?’ Schabowski: It has been brought to my attention that it is 7 p.m. That has to be the last question. Thank you for your understanding. Um … What will happen to the Berlin Wall? Information has already been provided in connection with travel activities. Um, the issue of travel, um, the ability to cross the Wall from our side … hasn’t been answered yet and exclusively the question in the sense … so this, I’ll put it this way, fortified state border of the GDR … um, we have always said that there have to be several other factors, um, taken into consideration.
The two chief catalysts of change were a new Russian leader, with a new political vision, and popular protest in the streets of Eastern Europe. People power was explosive, but not in the military sense – the demonstrators of 1989 demanded democracy and reform, they disarmed governments that had seemed impregnable and, in a human tide of travellers and migrants, they broke open the once-impenetrable Iron Curtain. The symbolic moment that captured the drama of those months was the fall of the Berlin Wall on the night of 9 November. In 1989, everything seemed in flux. Currents of revolutionary change surged up from below, while the wielders of power attempted political reform at the top. The Marxist–Leninist ideology of Soviet communism, once the mental architecture of the Soviet bloc, haemorrhaged credibility and rapidly lost grip. Liberal capitalist democracy now seemed like the wave of the future: while the ‘East’ embarked on a ‘catch-up’ transformation in Western Europe’s image, the world appeared set on a path of convergence around American values.
Roller-Coaster: Europe, 1950-2017 by Ian Kershaw
airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, centre right, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, illegal immigration, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour market flexibility, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, young professional
His action in provoking the Cuban missile crisis, seen to have damaged the Soviet Union’s international standing, was among the reasons for his deposition. So was his authorization of the building of the Berlin Wall. With Khrushchev’s departure, the Cold War lost an erratic, blustering, unpredictable component. Two new Soviet leaders replaced him: Leonid Brezhnev as General Secretary of the Communist Party and Alexei Kosygin as Prime Minister. The shift of power in the Kremlin began a new phase of the Cold War. There would be future points of tension, certainly, but the erection of the Berlin Wall, the defusing of the Cuban crisis and the toppling of Khrushchev saw the worst of the heat evaporate from the Cold War. For a time, in international affairs, Europe remained quiet. LIVING WITH THE BOMB: FEAR OR FATALISM?
The crisis arose when Khrushchev decided in October 1962 to station intermediate- and medium-range nuclear missiles on Cuba. The American leadership continued during the crisis to think that Cuba was also related to the Berlin question – a way of putting pressure on America to give way on West Berlin. This indeed appears to have been an indirect reason for Khrushchev’s dangerous initiative; he remained obsessed with the German question, aware that the Berlin Wall had actually constituted a defeat for the socialist East and a humiliation in the eyes of the world for Marxism-Leninism. But he also had other motives. The impulsive Kremlin chief was acutely aware that the Soviet Union lagged far behind the United States in long-range missile capability. And he was more than sensitive to the fact that American intermediate-range missiles were aimed at the Soviet Union from bases in Britain, Italy and Turkey.
Most of them nonetheless accepted that this would remain for many years an unrealistic expectation. The Adenauer government itself held to national unity as the ultimate objective and refused to recognize the German Democratic Republic as a sovereign state. In practice, however, reunification was a dead letter long before the division of Germany became quite literally concrete with the erection of the Berlin Wall starting in August 1961. By then Adenauer had twice, in 1953 and 1957, won convincing electoral victories. The narrow margins of 1949 had been replaced by a huge increase in support for his party. In the 1957 election to the Bundestag, the Federal Parliament, the CDU and its Bavarian sister-party the CSU (Christian Social Union) won an absolute majority (50.2 per cent of the vote), the only time that any party won such an outright victory in the history of the Federal Republic.
Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West by Timothy Garton Ash
Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, clean water, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, postnationalism / post nation state, Project for a New American Century, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey
These walls are not outside and beyond us, like the Alps or the Rocky Mountains. Minds build them; minds can knock them down. The mind-walls have grown higher and more forbidding since September 11, 2001, the “9/11” of fear that was the true beginning of the twenty-first century. But we can take heart from another 9/11, written European-style, with the day before the month. On the evening of November 9, 1989, citizens began to hack away at the roughcast concrete of the Berlin Wall with whatever they could lay their hands on—and the wall came down. That marked the effective end of the short twentieth century. In Part One of this book, I examine the crisis that has engulfed Europeans and Americans at the start of a new century. I try to establish what has really happened and why. I weigh many sorts of evidence, to confront myths with facts. It turns out that much of today’s disarray can be traced back to the impact of those two very different 9/11s, the fall of the wall in Berlin and the fall of the twin towers in New York.
It is a place where the impact of one great potential conflict of the early twenty-first century—the West versus the Rest—is clearly visible and another, Europe versus America, is most sharply felt. Throughout the Cold War, Germany was the world’s central divided country. Germany, and especially divided Berlin, was a thermometer of the worldwide struggle between the two blocs known as “East” and “West.” Limited though Germany’s sovereignty was, everyone looked with interest (and some nervousness) to see what new ways, if any, the Germans themselves might find to lower the Berlin Wall. Now Britain is the divided country—divided not by a concrete wall, of course, but by what Germans call the Mauer im Kopf, the wall in our heads. Britain is a thermometer—or is it a seismograph?—on whose trembling needle you can measure the improvement or deterioration of relations between Europe and America. Limited though Britain’s effective sovereignty is, everyone looks with interest (though also with much weariness) to see if the British may yet develop new ways to resolve a dilemma with which we have wrestled so ineffectually for more than fifty years.
These two themes sounded, like Wagnerian leitmotifs, through all the early debates about European integration. They grew fainter, more confused, in the music of the 1970s and 1980s, when enlargement from six to twelve member states made the European orchestra more polyphonous, and détente softened the conflict between communist East and anticommunist West; but they were still there in the minds of the men and women who shaped the European project. Then came the fall of the Berlin Wall and that year of wonders, 1989, which saw the threat of Soviet communism softly and suddenly vanish away. What an opportunity—and what a crisis! Fifteen years later, the European Union comprises twenty-five enormously diverse European states, including, incredibly, three Baltic republics which in 1989 were still part of the Soviet Union. It stretches from the Atlantic to the Bug River, from the North Cape to Cyprus.
What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War
They couldn’t tolerate Western democracy, but they couldn’t become the fellow travellers of the communist tyrannies because all the communist regimes and parties accepted the legacy of Stalin, Trotsky’s enemy, to varying degrees. Healy had to look elsewhere and ended up with Saddam Hussein for want of better. The totalitarianism of the Baathist ultra-right was preferable to the real enemy – the liberal version of democracy that permitted him to organize a party and argue his case. His choice anticipated the choices of the twenty-first century. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, hardly any communist tyrannies survived. When people wanted to go from justifiable democratic opposition into fellow travelling with totalitarianism, what else was there to travel with other than the regimes and movements of the ultra-right? I write this with the benefit of hindsight. In 1985, the collapse of the WRP didn’t seem significant to me or anyone else. It delighted the newspapers, but if the Redgraves had not brought their celebrity to the party, few journalists would have been interested.
‘Iraq was a state whose legitimacy was derived from impossibly intertwined circles of complicity and victimhood,’ he wrote long before the invasion. The post-Baathist future was ‘going to be like walking a tightrope, balancing the legitimate grievances of all those who have suffered against the knowledge that if everyone is held accountable who is in fact guilty, the country will be torn apart’. In the Nineties, however, the ranks of those outside Iraq who wanted to overthrow the Baath Party were thin. The Berlin Wall was down and the terrors of the twentieth century appeared to be over. Consumers dedicated their lives to getting and spending, and the liberal-minded among them relaxed and enjoyed their world music and GM-free organic food. Makiya cut a lonely figure as he toured American universities and think tanks trying to prick consciences. In his speeches he declared that it was foolish to regard Iraq as a sovereign nation whose internal affairs were its own business, and not only because of the crimes against humanity the Baathists had committed.
Marxism never got anywhere in Britain where the Left generally meant a Labour Party that true Marxists despised for its boringly ‘reformist’ attempts to make most people’s lives a little bit better. But given the success of Marxism elsewhere, they could dream that a true revolutionary socialist party would supplant Labour. And forty years on, what was left of his Left? Socialism had vanished in the Eighties. Long before the Berlin Wall came down people had stopped thinking about it or seeing it as a plausible answer to the problems of organizing societies. It wasn’t just that communism was clearly finished. In the free world, trade union membership fell, and all left-wing parties with a chance of winning an election stopped pretending that they could and should nationalize the commanding heights of the economy. All around Anderson, the movements that had given purpose to his life were dying or dead, going or gone.
Live and Let Spy: BRIXMIS - the Last Cold War Mission by Steve Gibson
Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, John Nash: game theory, libertarian paternalism, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, unbiased observer, WikiLeaks
It was only on this occasion that I was beginning to ask why was it like this. How had this all come about? The trip from darkness into light, from despair into hope, from the have-nots to the haves was so vividly exemplified by a trip down the Berlin corridor. It was only a simpleton who could not begin to question how and why this arrangement had been devised. A walk along the Berlin Wall served to confound your wildest explanation. It was a mystery and an anachronism. In one’s strangest dreams you couldn’t have come up with a method such as the Berlin Wall for dividing one city into two, splitting communities and families down the middle of their own houses. More bizarre still, a visit to Checkpoint Charlie and its museum revealed that German was still killing German for trying to cross this man-made border from one Germany to another Germany. It was obscene and inexplicable.
Current activity was important because in its most dramatic form it might be part of some larger operation. When put together with other tour observations, Sigint22 and satellite imagery, patterns emerged which could range from routine training exercises at unit level to divisional or larger exercises. On the other hand it needn’t just be exercise. It was Brixmis who observed the first signs of the Berlin Wall going up in 1961, were able to alert the allied military governing authorities and test the resolve of the Khruschev-backed fledgling DDR. Nothing was done and the obscenity that divided families in their own houses was erected over night without challenge. Ian Wellstead, a legendary Brixmis tour officer of the day, observed the first blocks being mortared together and could have kicked them down himself had he been given the nod, but the politicians of the day let it go unchallenged.
I knew that this was what I wanted to do but I still didn’t have a bloody clue as to what this Brixmis organisation actually did. However, it was clear that several strands of my previous education and experience seemed entirely appropriate: my brief dalliance with intelligence at Ashford, my knowledge of both Russian and German languages, plus the fact that I had actually lived in Berlin for three years and understood the Berlin Wall only too well. It all convinced me that Brixmis was going to be my calling. On return from the staff course I resolved to pursue the Brixmis option further. There were no Defence Council Instructions on the subject, which were the normal way of discovering forces-wide policies and schemes, covering everything from training course volunteers to the latest boarding-school allowance rates. If they did need volunteers then they certainly weren’t advertising very hard.
Central Europe Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Defenestration of Prague, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Peter Eisenman, place-making, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, trade route, urban renewal, white picket fence, young professional
The following morning go rafting or canoeing on the Vltava River before exploring the nearby Newcastle mountains by horse or mountain bike. RACHEL LEWIS/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Remembering the Wall, Berlin 9 It’s hard to believe, 20 years on, that the Berlin Wall really cut through this city. The best way to examine its role in Berlin (Click here) is to make your way – on foot or by bike – along the Berlin Wall Trail ( Click here ). Passing the Brandenburg Gate (Click here), analysing graffiti at the East Side Gallery or learning about its history at the Documentation Centre: the path brings it all into context. It’s heartbreaking, hopeful and sombre, and integral to trying to understand Germany’s capital. Berliner Mauerweg (Berlin Wall Trail), Germany DAVID PEEVERS/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Appreciating Budapest 10 Hungary’s capital ( Click here ) has cleaned up its act in recent years.
Charter 77’s group of Prague intellectuals, including the playwright–philosopher Václav Havel, continued their underground opposition throughout the 1980s. By 1989 Gorbachev’s perestroika and the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November raised expectations of change. On 17 November an official student march in Prague was smashed by police. Daily demonstrations followed, culminating in a general strike on 27 November. Dissidents led by Havel formed the Anti-Communist Civic Forum and negotiated the resignation of the Communist government on 3 December, less than a month after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A ‘Government of National Understanding’ was formed, with Havel elected president on 29 December. With no casualties, the days after 17 November became known as Sametová revoluce (the Velvet Revolution).
In June 1948 the three Western Allies introduced a separate currency and administration in their sectors. In response, the Soviets blockaded West Berlin. Only a huge airlift by the Allies managed to keep the city stocked with food and supplies. In October 1949 East Berlin became the capital of the GDR, the German Democratic Republic. The Berlin Wall, built in August 1961, was originally intended to prevent the drain of skilled labour from the East, but soon became a Cold War symbol. For decades East Berlin and West Berlin developed separately, until Hungary breached the Iron Curtain in May 1989; the Berlin Wall followed on 9 November. By 1 July 1990 the wall was being hacked to pieces. The Unification Treaty signed on 3 October that year designated Berlin the official capital of Germany, and in June 1991 the parliament voted to move the seat of government from Bonn back to Berlin.
The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, different worldview, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
The upward trend in the number of natural disasters around the world seems an apt reflection of the financial and economic crisis, and the sense of crisis so many people in many countries feel about their political and business elites.1 We’ve reached the point of Enough. The recent experience of economic growth is that it has destroyed opportunities, either for particular social groups or for future generations. Can it be reshaped in order to continue without incurring such untenable costs? One possible conclusion would be that this point marks the end of the triumphant free market capitalism that has ruled economic policy since the fall of the Berlin Wall and collapse of communism. The financial crisis and subsequent recession have certainly made the role of government more prominent, but mainly as a result of crisis management. Many commentators have argued that the state should reenter economic management in a more deliberate way, given the staggering demonstrations of market failure we’ve experienced.2 I will indeed go on in this part of the book to discuss the many ways in which markets fail, and the policy conclusions to which pervasive market failures point.
But that raises the question of when efficiency and markets should rule, and when by contrast other considerations matter more. There is no definitive answer. It will depend on circumstances. However, the circumstances are changing. The changing structure of the economy is affecting the way markets should be organized. HOW MARKETS FAIL Two decades after the crisis of communism, capitalism seems to be in crisis. Or so it is widely believed. To mark the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall—and around the first anniversary of the onset of the massive financial crisis—the BBC’s World Service commissioned a survey about capitalism covering more than twenty-nine thousand people in twenty-seven countries. Only in two countries—the United States and Pakistan—did more than a fifth of respondents agree that capitalism is working well. Across all twenty-seven countries, only 11 percent thought the system works well as it stands, while 23 percent said it is fatally flawed—rising to 43 percent in France and 38 percent in Mexico.
The last chapter discussed the need for better information to guide policy, and this chapter has discussed the need for clarity about values if social welfare is to be well served by policymakers. The third leg of the Economy of Enough is a set of institutions that ensure that society is governed well, and this is the subject of the next chapter. How might we respond to a general crisis of governance? EIGHT Institutions The recent anniversary of the November 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall brought back emotional memories for Europeans of my generation. Like many children growing up in the Cold War 1960s, I had nuclear nightmares: grey landscapes of ash and devastation with no one else left alive, and the ticking of Geiger counters counting out the rest of eternity. The postwar division of Europe dominated the cultural landscape too. Literature and the arts were shaped by it, as much as politics and diplomacy.
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
“Hysterical prophesies of Soviet domination and the destruction of democracy were common,” noted Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon in Where Wizards Stay Up Late, their lucid history of the Internet’s origins. “Sputnik was proof of Russia’s ability to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles, said the pessimists, and it was just a matter of time before the Soviets would threaten the United States.”22 The Cold War was at its chilliest in the late fifties and early sixties. In 1960, the Soviets shot down an American U-2 surveillance plane over the Urals. On August 17, 1961, the Berlin Wall, the Cold War’s most graphic image of the division between East and West, was constructed overnight by the German Democratic Republic’s communist regime. In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis sparked a terrifying contest of nuclear brinksmanship between Kennedy and Khrushchev. Nuclear war, once unthinkable, was being reimagined as a logistical challenge by game theorists at military research institutes like the RAND Corporation, the Santa Monica, California–based think tank set up by the US Air Force in 1964 to “provide intellectual muscle”23 for American nuclear planners.
With the creation of the Web, concludes John Naughton, the Internet achieved “liftoff.”48 Without Berners-Lee’s brilliantly simple innovation there would be no Google, Amazon, Facebook, or the millions of other websites and online businesses that we use on a daily basis. Without the Web, we wouldn’t all be living in Ericsson’s Networked Society. Tim Berners-Lee wrote his initial Web proposal in March 1989 at CERN. Six months later, a few hundred miles to the northeast of Geneva, the Berlin Wall fell and the Cold War came to an end. Back then, with the dramatic destruction of the Wall in November, it was thought that 1989 would be remembered as a watershed year that marked the end of the Cold War and the victory of free-market liberalism. The Stanford University political scientist Francis Fukuyama, assuming that the great debate between capitalists and socialists over the best way to organize industrial society had finally been settled, described the moment that the Wall came down as the “End of History.”
Silicon Valley has become the new Wall Street because Berners-Lee’s invention has become the vehicle for a twenty-first-century networked model of capitalism that offers astounding financial rewards to its winner-take-all entrepreneurs. “We live at a time when almost everything can be bought and sold,” notes the moral philosopher Michael Sandel about an “era of market triumphalism” that began at the end of the Cold War.104 And the Internet, John Doerr’s “largest legal creation of wealth in the history of the planet,” engineered by Cold War scientists and coming of age in the same year that the Berlin Wall fell, has become particularly fertile ground for the triumphalism of free-market ideologues like Tom Perkins. There’s much, of course, for Perkins to be triumphant about. Larry Page and Sergey Brin are now worth $30 billion apiece because they successfully cornered the market in the buying and selling of digital advertising. Jeff Bezos has made his $30 billion from an Everything Store that offers better pricing and more choice than its rivals.
After Europe by Ivan Krastev
affirmative action, bank run, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, clean water, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, job automation, mass immigration, moral panic, open borders, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, too big to fail, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey, Y Combinator
We were overwhelmed by the opportunities that were suddenly opened up and the newly discovered sense of personal freedom. But we were struck as well by the newly discovered sense of the fragility of all things political. Living through a great disruption teaches you several lessons. The most important is that what defines the direction of history is sometimes a chain of minor events amid a background of big ideas. As the historian Mary Elise Sarotte argues in her book Collapse, the actual opening of the Berlin Wall on the night of November 9, 1989, “was not the result of a decision by political leaders in East Berlin, . . . or of an agreement with the government of West Germany. . . . [It] was not the result of a plan by the four powers that still held ultimate legal authority in divided Berlin. . . . The opening represented a dramatic instance of surprise, a moment when structures both literal and figurative crumbled unexpectedly.
Soon enough, a mafia-style cabal emerges to smuggle old and sick people to neighboring countries to die (since death is still an option elsewhere). Europe’s experience with a world without borders—what we speak of as globalization—resembles Saramago’s imagined flirtation with immortality. It is a tale of a sublime dream turned nightmarish. The immediate post-1989 excitement prompted by the shattering of walls has been replaced by a dizzying anxiety and a demand to build fences. Since the Berlin Wall fell—an event heralded as a world opened up—Europe has put up, or started to erect, 1,200 kilometers of fences expressly designed to keep others out. If only yesterday most Europeans were hopeful about the impact of globalization on their lives, today they are unsettled by a future globalized world. Recent surveys reveal that a majority of Europeans believe that their children will have a tougher life than their own and are convinced that their countries are heading in a wrong direction.
It can’t be explained solely by the influx of refugees or labor migrants. It is, among many other things, also a migration of arguments, emotions, political identities, and votes. The refugee crisis turned out to be Europe’s 9/11. The Migration Crisis: Or Why Hasn’t History Come to an End? A little more than a quarter-century ago, in what now seems like the very distant year of 1989—the annus mirabilis that saw Germans rejoicing on the rubble of the Berlin Wall—an intellectual and US State Department official neatly captured the spirit of the time. With the end of the Cold War, Francis Fukuyama argued, all major ideological conflicts had been resolved. The contest was over, and history had produced a winner: Western-style liberal democracy. Taking a page from Hegel, Fukuyama presented the West’s victory in the Cold War as a favorable verdict delivered by history itself.
Germany by Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, computer age, credit crunch, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, place-making, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Skype, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence
Return to beginning of chapter Charlottenburg The glittering heart of West Berlin during the Cold War, glitzy Charlottenburg has fallen a bit off the tourist radar since reunification. Compared to the wild-child character of the eastern districts, it seems like a middle-aged burgher happy with the status quo. Experimentation is elsewhere. * * * THE BERLIN WALL It’s more than a tad ironic that Berlin’s most popular tourist attraction is one that no longer exists. For 28 years, the Berlin Wall, the most potent symbol of the Cold War, divided not only the city but the world. Construction began shortly after midnight of 13 August 1961, when East German soldiers rolled out miles of barbed wire that would soon be replaced with prefab concrete slabs. The Wall was a desperate measure launched by the GDR government to stop the sustained brain and brawn drain it had experienced since its founding in 1949.
The dismantling of the hated barrier began almost immediately. Only little more than 1.5km of the Berlin Wall still stands as a symbol of the triumph of freedom over oppression. The longest, best-preserved and most interesting stretch is the East Side Gallery (Map), a 1.3km-long section paralleling the Spree, which was turned into an open-air gallery by international artists in 1990. Over the past 20 years, the two city halves have visually merged so perfectly that in many places it takes a keen eye to tell East from West. Fortunately, there’s help in the form of a double row of cobblestones that guides you along 5.7km of the Wall’s course. If you’re feeling ambitious, follow all or sections of the 160km-long Berliner Mauerweg (Berlin Wall Trail; www.berlin.de/mauer, link to English), a signposted walking and cycling path along the former border fortifications with 40 multilingual information stations posted throughout.
In the west the Allies held war-crimes trials in courtroom 600 of Nuremberg’s Court House (open to visitors today). Return to beginning of chapter THE 1950S The economic vision of Bavarian-born (from Fürth), cigar-puffing Ludwig Erhard (1897–1977) unleashed West Germany’s Wirtschaftswunder. Between 1951 and 1961 the economy averaged an annual growth rate of 8%. * * * For an informative overview of the Berlin Wall, see www.berlin.de/mauer on the Berlin city website. * * * Erhard was economic minister and later vice-chancellor in Konrad Adenauer’s government. His policies encouraged investment and boosted economic activity to support West Germany’s system of welfare-state capitalism. He helped create the European Coal and Steel Community to regulate coal and steel production with France, Italy, West Germany and the Benelux countries, and in 1958 West Germany joined the European Economic Community (the EU today).
The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus
Stunted in so many ways, “the totalitarian world produces backwardness because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to create, to enjoy, to worship,” Reagan informed his Berlin audience. Standing before the Berlin Wall, a necessary prop for the speech, Reagan compressed freedom of worship into an anecdote, the story of a “secular structure,” the Alexanderplatz television tower in East Berlin, the tallest structure in East or West Berlin. According to Reagan, the East German authorities kept trying and failing to correct a design flaw in the tower. “Even today when the sun strikes that sphere… the light makes the sign of the cross.” The tower served Reagan as a metaphor for the Christian West, persecuted and irrepressible. Yet Reagan was not simply more religious than JFK had been or more overtly so. He was more conciliatory than Kennedy had allowed himself to be when the Berlin Wall was all of a year old. “We in the West are ready to cooperate with the East to promote true openness, to break down the barriers that separate people, to create a safer, freer world,” Reagan said, though the conciliation was to be on American terms, of course.
The Cold War, however, was in every respect an East-West conflict, synthesizing and combining all the previous conflicts of East and West: Athens versus Persia; Western versus Eastern halves of the Roman Empire; Western Church versus Eastern Church; Christendom versus Islam; the empires of the West versus the Asian East; the democratic Western powers versus their enemies in World War I; and the democratic West versus the Nazis and the Fascisti. When China joined the ranks of the communist countries in 1949, the perfection of the East as a despotic foil to the democratic and anticommunist West was complete.11 After many tribulations, the West triumphed in November 1989. It did not so much defeat as overtake the communist East. The bedraggled, denim-clad citizens of East Germany voyaged westward over the Berlin Wall. The force was no longer there to restrain them. They, too, wanted to be in and of the West, as did many of their counterparts in the Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 the West was austerely alone in victory, far better positioned than it had been in 1918 or 1945. In 1918 and 1945, the enemies of the West had not been subdued. Interwar Germany and the Soviet Union were still poised to wreak havoc, whereas both the West and the Western model were victorious in 1991.
A replica of the Liberty Bell had been installed in West Berlin’s Schöneberg Rathaus (city hall) in 1950, part of a CIA-funded “Crusade for Freedom.” In 1954, Herbert Hoover found his way to Berlin and to the Athenian and imperiled liberty of its residents: “Thanks to the spirit and courage of men under the leadership of two great mayors you can, like the men of ancient Athens, hold your heads high and say: ‘I am a Berliner,’” this unbeliever in the NATO alliance declared. The Berlin Wall matched American rhetoric of a Germany trapped between East and West, communism and capitalism, walled-in authoritarianism and unwalled freedom. These contrasting tensions were obviously worsening in 1962 and early 1963.39 And so, Kennedy scheduled a trip to West Berlin, “the testicles of the West,” as Nikita Khrushchev loved calling the city. En route to Berlin in June 1963, Kennedy was worried not just about the Soviets’ wall but also about French president Charles de Gaulle’s recent attempts to decouple Germany from the transatlantic alliance and to undermine NATO.
Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai
Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War
Whatfollowsis anattempttoexplainitsnature,understandingitinitsownterms andplacingitinthewidercontextofthepoliticsofideologies. Introduction ‘Theattackmusthavealltheshockingsenselessness ofgratuitousblasphemy.’ (Vladimirthediplomat,in JosephConrad,TheSecretAgent) TheBerlinWallandtheTwinTowers Twodramaticeventsofthelasttwentyyearsshareapairoficonic numbers.On/,theWorldTradeCentertowerswererammed byplaneshijackedbyterrorists.On/,adozenyearspreviously, theBerlinWallfacedadifferentkindofassault. TheBerlinWalldidnotfall;itwasdestroyedphysicallybythe bare hands of angry people from both sides of divided Germany separated by the ugly structure, using very crude equipment. It signalledthecollapseofthelastempireofthetwentiethcentury –theCommunistempirecentredinRussia.
. The central terror machine was silenced soon after when Nikita Khrushchev, who had inherited Stalin’s post as general secretary of the Communist Party, told the world how cruel and arbitrary Stalin’srulehadbeenandhowmanypeoplehadperished,mostof themloyalcitizensoftheSovietUnionandalargeproportionof themBolsheviks.ThedestructionoftheBerlinWallsignalledthe end, in Europe at least, of that regime. In the Communist empireinEasternEurope,andintheUSSRitself,collapsed. It did so without a shot being ﬁred by its enemies, without the awesome nuclear arsenal on both sides of the Cold War being alerted, let alone used. The nightmare scenario of the Cold War –theDrStrangelovefantasy–didnotrealiseitself.
Index Abbasidcaliphate Abdullah,KingofJordan Abdullah,Shaikh AbuBakr,Caliph– AbuGhraib Adams,Gerry Afghanistan andBinLaden–,– Clinton’sbombing mujahideen Sovietintervention–,, – Talibanregime Africa Pan-AfricanMovement seealsoindividualcountriesby name Ahmad,SirSyed, al-Qaeda on/ andanarchism background– beliefsseeGlobalIslamism andKashmir natureofterrorism– structure– tactics– typicalstatementsby viewoftheconﬂict worldwideterroristactivities AlexanderII,TsarofRussia Algeria Ali,Caliph,–, Ali,Mohammad Ali,Shaukat AligarhMuslimUniversity AllianceforFreedomforLatin America anarchism,– Anderson,Benedict Angola AngryBrigade Annan,Koﬁ anti-Semitism,,– Anushilan Arabcountries Arabiaasimaginarynation– history– politicalsystems reasonsforhostilitytoIsrael – andreform/modernity– relationswithIsrael– relativewell-being– andSykes–PicotAgreement ()– seealsoindividualcountriesby name Arafat,Yasser ArmyoftheFaithfulseeLashkar-eToiba Arnett,Peter– Asiancrisis() Atatürk,Kemal, Azad,MaulanaAbulKalam Baader-MeinhofGroup Ba’athParty:originsandnature Bakunin,Mikhael Balfour,Arthur, BalfourDeclaration()–, Balkans backgroundtoYugoslavcrisis, BinLadenonBosnia andmujahideen NATOintervention pre-FirstWorldWarnationalism , Yugoslavcrisis, Bangladesh,,–, Barak,Ehud Bates,Stephen Begin,Menachem, Bell,Daniel Bergen,Peter– BerlinWall,fallof() Bhutto,ZulﬁkarAli Bible, BinLadenseeLaden,OsamaBin BlackHands, Blair,Tony, Bosnia,,, Bradlaugh,Chris Britain attitudeto/– BinLadenon, anddismembermentofOttoman Empire–,, endofempire andestablishmentofIsrael multiculturalism reasonsforMuslimhostility religiousdiscrimination– Suezcrisis() waragainstterror,,– Buddhism Burgess,Guy– Burke,Edmund Bush,GeorgeW.,–, Boutros-Ghali,Boutros caliphate declineandabolition– history–,– powerandimportance–, – Calvin,John– Cambodia CampDavidAccords() capitalism anti-capitalistterrorism–, – Communism’schallengeto– Marxon– Catholicism andfundamentalism andsocialreform– Chechnya,,, Cheney,Dick ChiangKaiShek China,,, Christianity ﬁfteenthcentury fundamentalism, andideology–,– Islam’srelationshipto– andmodernity andphilosophy– Reformationandsecularism andsocialreform– seealsoCatholicism;Puritanism Churchill,Winston CIA, Clarke,Charles Clinton,Bill,, ColdWar,endof,– colonialism,,– CominternseeCommunist International Communism andculture– heyday– asideology–,– modernappeal West’sdefeatof– CommunistInternational (Comintern), Crone,Patricia, Curzon,Lord Czechoslovakia:PragueSpring() democracy,andIslam Denmark:cartoonsofMuhammad –, Deobandischool,–, Destutt,AntoineLouisClaude, ComtedeTracy, EastIndiaCompany EastTimor education:Muslim–, Egypt,,, Encounter(magazine) Engels,Friedrich–,,– ETA Ferdinand,Archduke Feuerbach,Ludwig FirstWorldWar–, Florence:Renaissance foreignaffairs,modernconductof – France anddismembermentofOttoman Empire–, endofempire ParisCommune studentrebellion() Suezcrisis() fundamentalism–,– Gandhi,Mohandas,, Garﬁeld,JamesAbram Gaza, genderissues,,– Germany,– Gibson,Mel GlobalIslamism andanti-Semitism– background– defeating– deﬁnition demands– evaluation–,– asideology–,– andNazism reasonsforappeal– globalisation–,–,,–, – Goebbels,Joseph Grey,Lord GuantánamoBay, Guevara,Che GulfWar(), HabsburgEmpire:fateofformer members– Halliday,Fred, Hamas,,, Hastings,Warren Hegel,GeorgWilhelmFriedrich – Hekmatyar,Gulbuddin Herzl,Theodore Hezbollah, Hijaz Hinds,Martin, Hitler,Adolf Hobbes,Thomas Holocaust:effects homosexuality:Westernattitude Hume,David, Huntington,Samuel–, Husayni,Aminal-,Muftiof Jerusalem Hussain,Hasib– Hussein,KingofJordan Husayn,SharifofMecca–,, –, IbnTaymiyya ideology anarchismas– Communismas–,– Islamismas–,– nationalismas,– natureof– originaluseandmeaning– andphilosophy– andreligion– IMFseeInternationalMonetaryFund immigration Muslim andracism imperialism endofEuropeanempires– needtore-examineWestern seealsocolonialism;Habsburg Empire;OttomanEmpire India underEastIndiaCompany imperialgovernmentstructure andKashmir– Khalistanmovement Khilafatagitation Maoistgroupsin modernsuccesses andmodernity,– musicaltradition Muslimsin,,–, nationalintegrity nationalistmovement andPakistan Parsees Partition–, IndianMutiny() Indonesia,,, Inquisition– InternationalMonetaryFund(IMF) , InternationalWorkingmen’s Association,,, Iqbal,Muhammad–, Iran–,, Iran,Shahof,–,– Iran–IraqWar(–),, IranianRevolution(),, –,– Iraq currentstate– invasionof() Kuwaitinvasion(),– republicdeclared andSykes–PicotAgreement () Ireland,– seealsoNorthernIreland Irgun, IrishRepublicanArmy(IRA)–, ,,– Islam countrieswithaMuslimmajority asdistinctfromIslamism, distinctionbetweenArabsand otherMuslims– effectsoflossofcaliphate history–,– andideology andintegration localvariations, andmilitancy andnationalliberation needforgreaterstudyofculture – needtointegratehistoryinto worldhistory– andpoliticalauthority– reasonsforMuslimdecline– andreform/revival– relationshiptoJudaismand Christianity– relativewell-beingofMuslim countries– rulesaboutportraying Muhammad andsecularism– andterrorism,– umma,natureof,– Islamism formsof– seealsoGlobalIslamism Israel –war attackonQana– BinLadenon– functionforGlobalIslamism internaldivisions Israel–Palestineissue– andLebanon origins–,,– reasonsforArabhostility– relationswithArabcountries – andSuezcrisis() Jabotinsky,Ze’ev JesusChrist–,– Jews anti-Semitism,,– fundamentalism Islam’srelationshiptoJudaism – andJesus– nationalistmovementinPalestine inUSA seealsoIsrael jihad:deﬁnition Jinnah,MohammadAli–, Jordan, Juste,Carsten JyllandsPosten(newspaper)– Kashmir,,– Kautsky,Karl Kennedy,JohnF. Kenya Khalidi,Hashimal- Khalistanmovement, Khilafatagitation KhmerRouge Khomeini,AyatollahRuholla, – Khrushchev,Nikita, Koestler,Arthur KuKluxKlan Kuwait:Iraqiinvasion(–), – Laden,OsamaBin abilitiesandtactics–, andAfghanistan– consequencesofideology– demands– evaluationofideology–, – asfaceofal-Qaeda andGlobalIslamism’sideology – asglobalMuslimleader–, negotiationoffer reasonsforstartofconﬂict– viewoftheconﬂict Lashkar-e-Toiba(Armyofthe Faithful) LatinAmerica–, Lawrence,T.E.
Active Measures by Thomas Rid
1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day
The CIA’s skill at political warfare was significant in the 1950s, especially in Berlin, and was, in practice, on par with, or even more effective than, Soviet dezinformatsiya. Western intelligence agencies shunned few risks, using cutouts, front organizations, leaks, and forgeries, as well as a shrewd balance of denials and semi-denials. But just when the CIA had honed its political warfare skills in Berlin, U.S. intelligence retreated from the disinformation battlefield almost completely. When the Berlin Wall went up in 1961, it did more than block physical movement between the West and the East; it also came to symbolize an ever-sharper division: the West deescalated as the East escalated. The third argument of this book is that the digital revolution fundamentally altered the disinformation game. The internet didn’t just make active measures cheaper, quicker, more reactive, and less risky; it also, to put it simply, made active measures more active and less measured.
Langley analysts pointed out that they observed “rather elaborate progressions in prolonged campaigns.”15 These anti-Western disinformation campaigns were aggressive, fast-paced, and used innovative methods that evolved quickly and in unexpected, frightening ways. One such measure exploited a military exercise known as FALLEX 62. In September 1962, NATO held the first exercise that acted out the assumption that World War III could start with a major Soviet attack on Western Europe. The Berlin Wall had just gone up the previous year. FALLEX 62 was equally highly classified and disconcerting: in the scenario, a medium-sized nuclear device is said to have exploded over a German army airfield, followed by several nuclear strikes against airfields and missile bases in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Turkey. Within days, 20 to 30 million people in the United Kingdom and Germany have died. Major American cities are incinerated by multiple H-bombs.
“We were to provide him the weapons, instruct him in welding them into the bottoms of standard Moscow garbage cans, and provide him with a detonator to be activated at our direction.”3 Only with difficulty did his CIA handlers convince Penkovsky that this plan was impracticable. In the end, the GRU colonel was swayed not by strategic considerations but by the disappointing state of nuclear weapons miniaturization at the time. Penkovsky, who spoke little English, was a daring spy. He worked for the CIA and MI6 for sixteen months, from April 12, 1961, to September 4, 1962.4 The Cold War was at its most freezing then; the Berlin Wall went up in June 1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis escalated in the late summer of 1962, pushing the world to the brink of nuclear annihilation. The GRU spy, ambitious to the point of recklessness, passed detailed plans and descriptions of missile launch sites in Cuba to the CIA. Without Penkovsky’s help, the Americans would have struggled to identify Soviet missiles at their launch pads and to track their operational readiness.
EuroTragedy: A Drama in Nine Acts by Ashoka Mody
"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, book scanning, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, loadsamoney, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, pension reform, premature optimization, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, working-age population, Yogi Berra
In October 1989, when Mitterrand continued to berate the chancellor, Kohl responded angrily: “It [the single currency] poses a heap of problems for me, my majority is reluctant, the business community doesn’t want it, the time is not right.”37 Berlin Wall Falls; Kohl Increases Resistance to Monetary Union The Berlin Wall, which had separated East and West Germany since 1961, fell unexpectedly on November 9, 1989. A miscommunication that day by an official of East Germany’s ruling party led East Berliners to believe they could start traveling to the West immediately. Thousands gathered at the checkpoints in the Berlin Wall, and the guards had no alternative but to let people cross into West Germany. The “heavily armed border” opened “literally overnight.”38 Reunification of the two Germanys had seemed a distant goal. Now that goal was within reach.
Chaired by European Commission President Jacques Delors, this new committee made assertive claims about the benefits of a European monetary union but otherwise repeated the Werner Committee’s plan. The Delors Committee completed its report in April 1989, and European leaders agreed to use it as a basis for further action at a summit in Madrid in late June that year. November 9, 1989: The Berlin Wall falls. Although a series of events had undermined the regimes of Eastern Europe, it was ultimately a miscommunication on this day that led many East Germans to rush to a checkpoint in the Berlin Wall, which led to its fall. Later the same month, Chancellor Kohl presented a ten-point plan for reunification. After Kohl reassured the Americans that the German commitment to NATO would remain steadfast, the reunification received the blessing of US President George H. W. Bush. 472 t i m e l i n e of key events December 8– 9, 1989: Summit of European Heads of State or Government, Strasbourg.
He rightly pointed out that a single currency, which would fix exchange rates, was ill suited for countries on divergent economic paths. Kohl plays a central role in this drama. Although he was too young to have fought in World War II, he had seen the war’s destruction and had 8 e u r o t r a g e d y suffered great personal loss. He described himself as the last pro-European chancellor and believed that as memories of the war faded, Germany’s commitment to Europe would diminish. After the Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989, Kohl became the chancellor of German unity, bringing the East and West together. In German politics, he acquired exceptional autonomy and was able to make executive decisions in the manner of American presidents, relying on a small group of close advisers. Riding on his extraordinary authority and invoking the themes of peace and friendship, Kohl came to believe it was his historical role to make a European single currency possible.
The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic
Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen
In fact the graffiti on the rubble beneath the horses is officially sanctioned. It has been carefully transcribed by the artist from the originals in Berlin, as Goodnight’s commentary reassuringly points out: ‘At President Bush’s request, the names of people killed at the Berlin Wall are written on the dove of peace. These names represent over 900 people who were killed trying to escape to the west.’ The source of the figure is not revealed, but it does not match the 82 names recorded as having been killed at the Berlin wall itself during its twenty-eight years of existence. The sheer scale and effort needed to realize the work are presented with more conviction than its content. ‘The life-size horses weigh seven tons between them and took three and a half years to complete,’ she explains, as if to demonstrate that the achievements of the Bush administration are to be measured quantitatively rather than qualitatively.
According to the helpful gloss, there for the benefit of those of us too literal-minded fully to understand the equine allegory, ‘President Bush’s diplomatic skills enabled the hole in the wall to become so large that all of Eastern Europe was set free from communist rule; the Cold War had ended.’ Rival claims are made by the Ronald Reagan Library in California. Both Reagan and Bush have fragments of the authentic Berlin Wall on show to demonstrate their case for claiming that they personally won the Cold War. Over at the Reagan Library, visitors are invited in semi-biblical language to ‘touch a piece of the Berlin wall He sent crashing down, relive the history He made, and look with Him into the limitless future He dared to dream for us’. For all its celebration of the triumph of America over the evil empire, the Bush Library is set in a landscape glittering with paranoia. Highway billboards proclaim the gospel of permanent vigilance in terms Winston Smith would have recognized from 1984, albeit translated to the Internet.
It was still dominated by the smoke-blackened serpentine façade of Erich Mendelsohn’s Columbushaus, a department store and office building from the 1930s that became a base for the Gestapo. The tangle of tramlines and the stone hulks of the buildings whose cliff-like frontages once defined Central Europe’s version of Times Square were still visible. The workers’ riots of 1953 turned the Potsdamer Platz into a battlefield. And finally the building of the Berlin Wall caused the entire area to revert to scrub, inhabited only by wild foxes. What had been the centre of one of Europe’s greatest cities turned into a wasteland at the edge of two provincial backwaters that no longer spoke to each other. The stalemate came to an abrupt end with the reunification of the two Germanys. For Berlin, the destruction of the wall was the urban equivalent of the Big Bang.
From Peoples into Nations by John Connelly
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, oil shock, old-boy network, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, Transnistria, union organizing, upwardly mobile, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce
Still, their control at home was not absolute and depended on the implicit understanding in place after the regime built the Berlin Wall in 1961: the captive population would reward the regime with political conformity in return for a decent standard of living. In the summer of 1989, however, events farther south were suggesting that East Germans were no longer a captive people.2 When they tuned in to Western television in June 1989, East Germans saw Austrian and Hungarian officials apply larger-than-life wire cutters to the barbed wire separating their two countries. With each snip, they were suggesting that the basic calculus of East Germans’ lives had shifted. Hungary was a country they could visit without a passport, and now, it seemed, they might circumvent the Berlin Wall by escaping westward through the Hungarian-Austrian border. In June and July, tens of thousands drove south for “vacation” in Hungary, with the intention of ditching the cars and then crossing the border on foot.
Caldwell and Karrin Hanshew, Germany since 1945: Politics, Culture, and Society (London, 2018); Patrick Major, Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power (Oxford, 2010), 156–159. 3. The determination of some East Germans to escape, and the regime’s determination to stop them, is reflected in the case of Bulgaria, a state that East Germans could visit on holiday. A few dozen tried making it across the forbidding frontier to Greece, either to be apprehended or die. Nevertheless, the East German government sent Stasi agents to Bulgaria to inspect the fortifications there and make sure they were as impenetrable as possible. Christopher Nehring, Tödliche Fluchten über Bulgarien: Die Zusammenarbeit von bulgarischer und DDR-Staatssicherheit zur Verhinderung von Fluchtversuchen (Berlin, 2017). 4. Mary Elise Sarotte, The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall (New York, 2014), 22–29. 5.
The document they circulated became known as Charter 77. One of them, the playwright Václav Havel, also coined an ideal for citizens faced with pressures of self-censorship that would have caused people in 1914 to scratch their heads: living in truth. Historians explored everyday life under Communism more directly after 1989, when Brezhnev’s doctrine was scrapped, along with an edifice dividing Germany’s former capital called the “Berlin Wall,” except for a half-kilometer strip meant to edify tourists. The supposedly evident bankruptcy of this repressive system caused some to talk of an “end of history,” because all countries were destined for free-market liberalism. Now Eastern Europe was connected not only to its own interrupted history but also to the West. As after World War I, ideas and advisors made landfall, often not knowing anything about the region and its complexities, including native traditions of rights and democracy.
Reagan at Reykjavik: Forty-Eight Hours That Ended the Cold War by Ken Adelman
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Sinatra Doctrine, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra
The session was nearly universally condemned, even by those as astute in foreign policy as Richard Nixon, who declared, “No summit since Yalta has threatened Western interests so much as the two days at Reykjavik.” The following year, 1987, Reykjavik received some acclaim when agreements reached over that weekend were signed in the White House as part of a sweeping arms control treaty. Since then—despite the earth-shattering events of the fall of the Berlin Wall, the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and end of the Cold War—Reykjavik has mostly been relegated to a footnote in history, something akin to the Glassboro summit of 1967 between U.S. president Lyndon Johnson and Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin. Specialists have debated the summit’s significance, particularly at four conferences held on its anniversaries, but their debates have largely remained there—among specialists at conferences.
He told a (rather long) story of how, as commander-in-chief, he thought he could not salute, since he wasn’t in uniform. But after the president got official “permission” to do so, he loved saluting the troops. (Ronald Reagan Library) What Time called “the four most famous words of the Reagan presidency” were almost not spoken, owing to opposition from nearly all of Reagan’s aides. But he spoke them anyway, on June 12, 1987, at the Brandenburg Gate, a short distance from the Berlin Wall. Screens had been set up to protect him against any East German sniper. The president called out, “Mr. Gorbachev,” paused, and then repeated the name for emphasis—“Mr. Gorbachev—tear down this Wall!” It had an electrifying effect that day, and was evoked again when the Wall fell two years later. (Ronald Reagan Library) Raisa Gorbachev and Nancy Reagan were mostly just tolerating each other by the time of the welcoming ceremonies for the Gorbachevs’ arrival at the Washington Summit on December 7, 1987.
Flags fluttered, torches burned high, floodlights crisscrossed the skies, à la Nuremberg 1938. Gorbachev listened as Honecker channeled Leonid Brezhnev when blaming the country’s unrest on “the unbridled defamation campaign that is being internationally coordinated against East Germany.” In his own remarks, Gorbachev responded to Reagan’s speech on the other side of the Wall. Someone, Gorbachev remarked, had previously said, “Let the U.S.S.R. get rid of the Berlin Wall, then we’ll believe in its peaceful intentions,” which was a fair summary of Reagan’s main message. But Gorbachev took exception to that someone since “the postwar reality has insured peace on the continent.” While rebuking Reagan and seeming amorous toward Honecker, Gorbachev also signaled the opposite. He communicated to the grouchy old man—perhaps in words, but certainly in deeds—that he was now on his own, that he could no longer expect Soviet troops to bail him out.
Gorbachev by William Taubman
active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, haute couture, indoor plumbing, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Stanislav Petrov, trade liberalization, young professional
But Chancellor Kohl did not use his “authority, political weight and influence” in the way Gorbachev wanted; a mere seventeen days after their conversation, he began a process that ended with West Germany swallowing East Germany the following fall. Long before then, all the other Communist regimes in Eastern Europe had collapsed. In Poland, even before the Berlin Wall fell, the anti-Communist movement, Solidarity, triumphed in June 1989 elections, and a non-Communist prime minister, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, took power in August. In Hungary, the Communist party endorsed a multiparty political system in June. In Bulgaria, the grizzled party boss, Todor Zhivkov, fell on the same day as the Berlin Wall (although he was replaced by a Communist reformer). In Czechoslovakia, the president, by the end of the year, was playwright and longtime dissident Václav Havel. In Romania, dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife were overthrown and executed on December 25, 1989.
CHAPTER 13: 1989: TRIUMPH AND TROUBLE ABROAD 1 The following account is based on Hans-Hermann Hertle, “The Fall of the Wall: The Unintended Self-Dissolution of East Germany’s Ruling Regime,” Cold War International History Project Bulletin, no. 12/13 (Fall/Winter 2001): 131–40, 153–58; also see Mary Elise Sarotte, 1989: The Struggle to Create Post–Cold War Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009), 35–45; Mary Elise Sarotte, The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall (New York: Basic Books, 2014). 2 As East Germans rushed toward the wall, East German leader Krenz contacted Soviet Ambassador Kochemasov, who tried to reach Shevardnadze in Moscow but didn’t get through. He did reach Kovalev at the Foreign Ministry, but when Kovalev insisted on receiving a formal telegram with the news, Kochemasov concluded that meant Moscow did not oppose opening the border. See Haslam, Russia’s Cold War, 390. 3 Grachev, Gibel’ Sovetskogo “titanika,” 161. 4 Personal communication from Gorbachev to the author, October 26, 2012. 5 See William Taubman and Svetlana Savranskaya, “If a Wall Fell in Berlin and Moscow Hardly Noticed, Would It Still Make a Noise,” in The Fall of the Berlin Wall: The Revolutionary Legacy of 1989, ed.
And, as Gorbachev would discover in 1989, the wider world, too, was uglier than the vision of it proclaimed in his UN speech. CHAPTER 12 1989: TRIUMPH AND TROUBLE AT HOME NINETEEN EIGHTY-NINE WAS a pivotal year in the history of Communism and of the whole twentieth century. The liberation of Eastern Europe—a “velvet revolution” in Czechoslovakia, remarkably smooth transitions in Poland and Hungary, bloody in Romania—and the fall of the Berlin Wall led with startling swiftness to the unification of Germany and its accession to NATO the next year. By then, if not before, most observers would agree, the cold war was really over. But the epochal events of 1989 abroad would not have occurred without the domestic developments that preceded and accompanied them in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev’s innovations at home encouraged East Europeans to reform their own versions of Communist rule, or even to free themselves from Communism entirely.
Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum
Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile
Besides, some of the experts we talked to believed that English, like Latin before it, was already showing signs of breaking up into mutually unintelligible variants. The Story of English might turn out to be a last hurrah. We were, of course, dead wrong. The global power and influence of Anglo-American language and culture in the broadest sense was about to hit another new high. When the Cold War ended, after the Berlin Wall came down and once the internet took off in the 1990s, there was an astonishing new landscape to explore and describe. Sometimes during these years the spread of Anglo-American culture seemed like the fulfilment of the ambition expressed by America’s Founding Fathers to play a role ‘among the Powers of the Earth’ derived, as they put it, from ‘the Laws of Nature’. The world had become a planet composed of some 193 countries, all enjoying a greater or lesser familiarity with English and Englishness.
French and European fury against the ‘Anglo-Saxons’ was only intensified by the realisation that, among the new post-war generation of baby boomers, Anglo-American culture was exceedingly desirable. It was probably a futile protest; today it has been calculated that about one-twentieth of day-to-day French vocabulary is composed of anglicismes. For example, a McDonald’s hamburger is simply a ‘McD’. After the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the Cold War moved into a more stable phase, while the United States (but not Britain) fought the threat of Communism in South-East Asia. Britain, meanwhile, had divested itself of almost all its colonial possessions, letting the ‘winds of change’ blow through Africa. Within a decade the ‘self-liquidating empire’ had exchanged hard political power for soft cultural influence.
By the late 1970s the Soviet and American stand-off was nearing its final phase, occasionally referred to as the ‘second Cold War’. Now the Anglo-American hegemony-often hotly disputed by anti-American liberals – was wholly underpinned by rampant capitalism, represented by Margaret Thatcher’s premiership in Britain and Ronald Reagan’s two-term presidency in the United States. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 this new global culture would morph into the worldwide cultural revolution that would become Globish. The eerie decade that preceded the crisis of 2001 was the first in a century in which the world was no longer in the shadow of war. Francis Fukuyama declared ‘the End of History’. It was during this unreal and optimistic hiatus that the little term coined by Jean-Paul Nerrière in 1995, ‘Globish’ – simple, inelegant and almost universal-first gained currency.
The End of the Cold War: 1985-1991 by Robert Service
active measures, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier
G7 leaders in Houston, June 1990 (Photo by Dan Ford Connolly/The LIFE Images Collection/Getty Images) Maps NATO and the Warsaw Pact in 1985 The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1985 Preface The end of the Cold War can now be explored in countless American personal papers, printed collections and online sources. Many are just beginning to be investigated. Soviet material from the Russian vaults is also plentiful even though a lot of it is accessible only in foreign libraries. Diaries and transcripts of meetings and conversations sharpen our picture of a momentous period in world politics. It has become possible, for instance, to trace exactly how Ronald Reagan’s 1987 ‘Berlin Wall’ speech underwent its successive revisions or how Soviet leaders amended their words before finalizing the Party Central Committee minutes.1 The records have to be handled with some caution, not least because politicians filtered what they allowed to be recorded. But it is better to have more archives than fewer. The insights they afford are the foundation stone for this book. For the Soviet side, Party Politburo minutes are found in the ‘working notes’ filed by the General Department of the Secretariat.
He felt free to describe Mitterrand as ‘a cunning one’ – no doubt this was a way of indicating the importance that Moscow was now attaching to Kohl.46 Kohl himself continued to exercise some caution. The Soviet Army retained a menacing presence close to West Germany’s eastern border, and Kohl appreciated the need to hold close to Reagan. He appreciated the American President’s political intuition: ‘He was one of the few visiting statesmen and politicians who sensed physically what it is to divide a nation. When we were here in Berlin and we stood on the Berlin Wall, and he saw this, he compared it to one dividing the human body.’47 A kind of friendship grew between them: ‘It was such a personal relationship. It’s that simple. We had no problems with protocol. We would call each other up from time to time and whenever we would see each other again, it wasn’t a big “to do”.’48 Gorbachëv bided his time about West Germany and welcomed Mitterrand to Moscow in late November 1988.
Gorbachëv retorted that Ceauşescu had courted a financial linkage with the West and now, through no fault of the USSR, was suffering the consequences. While inviting him to mend the old ties with Moscow, he had no illusions about the chances of success with a leader of Ceauşescu’s vanity and arrogance.24 At the Political Consultative Committee, in the heart of East Berlin, Gorbachëv contended that the Berlin Wall required discussion among communist leaderships. Honecker took this badly. He regarded any hint about easing the strict division between the two Germanies with horror.25 Apparently Gorbachëv desired agreement on how to deal with Reagan’s scheduled visit to West Berlin in June 1987. The White House was aspiring to make a big impact: the West Germans had told the French as early as March that the President would give a big speech in front of the Brandenburg Gates and call for the free passage of people and ideas between the two halves of Europe.26 Whether Gorbachëv’s suggestion came from Soviet intelligence or his own intuition is not known.
The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan
"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stocks for the long run, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K, zero-sum game
The postwar liberalization of trade helped open up new low-cost sources of supply; coupled with the development of new financial institutions and products (made possible in part by silicon-based technologies), it facilitated the forward thrust toward global market capitalism even during the years of the cold war. In the following quarter century, the embrace of free-market capitalism helped bring inflation to quiescence and interest rates to single digits globally. The defining moment for the world's economies was the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, revealing a state of economic ruin behind the iron curtain far beyond the expectations of the most knowledgeable Western economists. Central planning was exposed as an unredeemable failure; coupled with and supported by the growing disillusionment over the interventionist economic policies of the Western democracies, market capitalism began quietly to displace those policies in much of the world.
"I do not want to see us move so strongly against inflation that we impede growth," he said. Normally such differences would get aired and resolved behind the scenes. I'd been looking toward building the same collaborative relationship with the White House that I'd seen during the Ford administration and that I knew had existed at times between Reagan and Paul Volcker. It was not to be. Great things happened on George Bush's watch: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the cold war, a clear victory in the Persian Gulf, and the negotiation of the NAFTA agreement to free North American trade. But the economy was his Achilles' heel, and as a result we ended up with a terrible relationship. 113 More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright.
ABOVE: Courtesy of the Ronald Reagan Library; LEFT: Copyright © 1987 by the New York Times Co. Reprinted with permission. G w f l Gl.-T"tf'.iW-***!* ft*™M C i * - I HNEBSSr* N *i I A ^ ^ ^ ^ _ J ^bA^A ^^U • ^ ^ • • t I - - fc rai m m • - - ^ ^ " E_"^'iTi:". -~ • • = - " More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright. History took an astonishing turn when the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989. But even more amazing to me in the following days was the economic ruin exposed by the fall of the wall. By the time Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev made his third visit to the United States during the following spring, the Soviet Union itself had begun to disintegrate. He is shown below with President George H. W. Bush and me in a receiving line at a state dinner in Washington on May 31, 1990.
Border: A Journey to the Edge of Europe by Kapka Kassabova
It may be that all borderlands hum with the frequencies of the unconscious; after all, borders are where the fabric is thin. However, this border region hums with an especially siren-like tone, and distinguishes itself for three reasons. One, because of unfinished business from the Cold War; two, because it is one of Europe’s great wildernesses; three, because it has been a continental confluence ever since there have been continents. My generation in Eastern Europe came of age just as the Berlin Wall came down. This border shadowed my Bulgarian childhood during the last era of ‘Socialism with a human face’, as the unfortunate slogan had it. So it was natural that a journey along the boundary quickly became fairly involving for me. Once near a border, it is impossible not to be involved, not to want to exorcise or transgress something. Just by being there, the border is an invitation. Come on, it whispers, step across this line.
I wanted to know what was happening there, twenty-five years after I had left. If we divide political borders into soft and hard, the border of this book has half a century of Cold War hardness: Bulgaria to the north versus Greece and Turkey to the south marked the cut-off line between the Warsaw Pact countries of the Soviet bloc and NATO member states in the Western sphere of influence. In short, it was Europe’s southernmost Iron Curtain, a forested Berlin Wall darkened by the armies of three countries. It was deadly, and it remains prickly with dread to this day. Now the Greek–Bulgarian border is softened by shared membership of the European Union. The Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–Greek borders have lost their old hardness but acquired a new one: its symptom is the new wire walls erected to stem the human flow from the Middle East. I happened to be there just as the flow was becoming a haemorrhage.
Why couldn’t we – or the German family for that matter – go to Turkey, just down the coast? Why did a German man have to fly over the border in a hot-air balloon, as the apocryphal story went, unless it was actually true (it was)? Because we were living in an open-air prison. A feeling of melancholy revolt began to germinate. Six years later, ‘the sandals’ didn’t have to come all this way to escape because the Berlin Wall fell. Our family crossed the border – though not that one, but some other imaginary border over the Pacific, on the way to a new life in New Zealand, a place defined by beaches of a different kind. It was summer again when I arrived, thirty years later. At Burgas airport, vineyards lined the landing strip and the air smelled of petrol and imminent sex. I had flown from Edinburgh with a holiday airline, the plane full of tattooed men and women loud with laughter and make-up.
The Marshall Plan: Dawn of the Cold War by Benn Steil
Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, imperial preference, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, open economy, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, Transnistria, Winter of Discontent, Works Progress Administration, éminence grise
There is also the challenge that other nations will consider regional economic, political, or security integration initiated by a power like the United States threatening to their own interests. And when the other nation is as large and powerful as Russia, this likelihood raises the prospect of determined interference. Such interference would create dangerous turmoil as NATO and the EU began expanding eastward in the aftermath of the Cold War. Celebration at the fall of the Berlin Wall, November 9, 1989. * * * FOURTEEN * * * ECHOES ON THE NIGHT OF NOVEMBER 9, 1989, enormous crowds began surging toward official crossings on the eastern side of the Berlin Wall. Having received orders not to shoot, twenty-five-year veteran border guard Harald Jäger was running out of options. Bullhorns bellowed warnings that it was not, as a televised statement had said an hour earlier, “possible . . . to go through the border.” This failed to deter the throngs. Jäger improvised a screening process, permitting a few at a time to pass through the Bornholmer Street gate.
“Well,” Albright clarified, “we have been celebrating the 50th anniversary of everything.”44 If historical anniversaries were important for NATO expansion, waiting two years for the eightieth anniversary of the Versailles Treaty would have been more apposite. The treaty heaped humiliations on Germany after World War I, with no clear end in sight, and created the economic and political conditions that led to World War II. Having improbably abandoned communism for democracy and capitalism in a near-bloodless revolution, Russians were, ten years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, feeling similarly humiliated and threatened by an unexpected Western military advance toward their borders.45 The European Union, in contrast to NATO, did have the capacity to provide a “Marshall Plan” for the East but was unwilling. The EU’s focus was on deepening economic and political integration within its existing boundaries. Membership for former Warsaw Pact nations would not come for another seven years.
The combined separatist territories, under effective Russian control, now form a valuable protective arc along Russia’s western and southwestern border.62 Just as Stalin strengthened the Soviet Union’s buffer zone in response to the Marshall Plan, which he expected Washington to supplement with military force, Putin has strengthened Russia’s buffer zone in response to NATO expansion. IN 2016, ON THE OCCASION of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the end of the Cold War, the German daily Bild interviewed Vladimir Putin. What, he was asked, had gone wrong in relations between Russia and the West? “Everything,” Putin responded. “[T]he Berlin Wall fell, but invisible walls were moved to the East of Europe.” Moscow, he insisted, had been promised that “NATO would not expand eastwards,” a reference to alleged commitments from then-NATO secretary general Manfred Wörner and U.S. secretary of state James Baker. But NATO and the United States, Putin said, decided that they alone would “sit on the throne in Europe.” They went back on their word.
Revolting!: How the Establishment Are Undermining Democracy and What They're Afraid Of by Mick Hume
anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, colonial rule, David Brooks, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Slavoj Žižek, the scientific method, We are the 99%, World Values Survey
It is more a divide about democracy: do we stand for democratic decision-making through a defence of popular sovereignty, or will we accept the technocratic governance of the EU? In terms of its own values of freedom, Europe would be far better off without the EU. There are parallels here with the Berlin Wall. When the Wall fell in 1989, there were widespread celebrations. Yet many on the Left were fearful of what would follow, warning that this could only benefit the political Right. Some of us insisted, however, that whatever the short-term turmoil and trouble it unleashed, the Wall had to go if there was to be any hope of European progress and unity. In that sense, the EU now looks rather like a Berlin Wall for the twenty-first century. The anti-EU movement may well be dominated today by those on the Right (that, as suggested above, is largely the pro-EU Left’s own doing). Upheavals such as Brexit will bring uncertainty and instability, at least in the short term.
In the UK and Europe, a Left that was losing touch with the working class and turning on its popular base would help pioneer the displacement of politics into the undemocratic world of Euro courts and commissions. Some forty-five years after the Second World War, Western capitalist democracy arguably reached its highest point of historical supremacy with the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the rival Soviet bloc. Yet even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, there was little evidence of any renewed faith in democracy among the rulers of the Western world. In 1989 American author Francis Fukuyama’s ‘End of History’ thesis was hailed as a statement of the historic triumph of liberal democratic capitalism. Yet there was little real triumphalism in Fukuyama’s argument. He based his case rather on the fact that all the alternatives had been discredited and collapsed.
Yet in 2016 left-wing Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn – a former acolyte of the late Tony Benn and long-term opponent of the EU – signed up to the Remain campaign, along with most of his party’s MPs, members and celebrity fans. What happened in the forty years between to explain this change? The shorthand version of what happened is that the Left in the UK and across Europe lost the political war at home, and so sought refuge in the EU. The defeat of the powerful trade union movement in the 1980s, most notably in the 1984–5 miners’ strike, was followed by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union. That not only destroyed Stalinism, but also dealt a heavy blow to all those on the Left whose politics rested on a paler version of Soviet-style state socialism. Finding it harder to win an argument or connect with a working-class constituency in the UK, the Left seized upon the peaceful pastures of Europe’s courts and commissions as a more fruitful field to work in.
On Nature and Language by Noam Chomsky
What is important is their overwhelming consistency, a fact that has been extensively documented in dissident literature, where it can easily be ignored, as Orwell pointed out in his unknown essay on voluntary censorship in free societies. Although this course is misleading for the reasons mentioned, I will nevertheless illustrate the general pattern with a few current examples. Given the consistency, contemporary examples are rarely hard to find. We are meeting in November 1999, a month that happens to be the tenth anniversary of several important events. One was the fall of the Berlin Wall, which effectively brought the Soviet system to an end. A second was the final large-scale massacre in El Salvador, carried out by US terrorist forces called “the army of El Salvador” – organized, armed, and trained by the reigning superpower, which has long controlled the region in essentially this manner. The worst atrocities were carried out by elite units fresh from renewed US training, very much like the Indonesian commandos who were responsible for shocking atrocities in East Timor, once again, this year – continuing at this very moment, in fact, in camps in Indonesian West Timor.
There is a great deal more to say about the tenth anniversary of the assassination of the Jesuit intellectuals, and the coming twentieth anniversary of the assassination of the Archbishop, and the slaughter of several hundred thousand people in Central America in the years between, mostly by the same hands, with the responsibility tracing back to the centers of power in the self-anointed “enlightened states.” There is also much more to say about the performance of the secular priesthood throughout these awful years and until today. The record has been reviewed in some detail in print, with the usual fate of “unpopular ideas.” There is perhaps little point in reviewing it again, and time is short, so let me turn to the second anniversary: the fall of the Berlin Wall. This too is a rich topic, one that has received a great deal of attention on the tenth anniversary, unlike the destruction of Central America by US terror. Let us consider some of the consequences of the collapse of the Soviet dungeon that largely escaped attention – in the West, not among the traditional victims. One consequence of the collapse of the USSR was an end to nonalignment. When two superpowers ruled the world – one global, the other regional – there was a certain space for nonalignment.
One element of this freedom is access to secret planning documents. The openness does not matter much: the press, and intellectuals generally, commonly adhere to the 172 The secular priesthood and the perils of democracy “general tacit agreement that ‘it wouldn’t do’ to mention” what they reveal. But the information is there, for those who choose to know. I will mention a few recent examples to give the flavor. Immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall, US global strategy shifted in an instructive way. It is called “deterrence strategy,” because the US only “deters” others, and never attacks. This is an instance of another historical universal, or close to it: in a military conflict, each side is fighting in self-defense, and it is an important task of the secular priesthood, on all sides, to uphold that banner vigorously. At the end of the Cold War, US “deterrence strategy” shifted: from Russia, to the South, the former colonies.
The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
But the multiplier effect these forces create and the velocity with which they move make this phenomenon qualitatively different from anything that has come before. Globalization, like capitalism, is powered by the individual impulses of billions of people. It is not the result of someone’s economic reform plan, and it can’t be reversed by decree. In recent years, we’ve been seduced by an argument that goes something like this: It isn’t simply the Berlin Wall that has fallen; globalization’s relentless progress is ripping down all kinds of walls. All that movement across borders will eventually strip nation-states of their power, because governments will never be able to manage the international commercial, political, social, and environmental challenges that globalization creates. Even the governments of the world’s most reclusive states can’t lock their citizens away forever.
Global financial institutions pressed them to embrace U.S.-endorsed liberal economic theories, known collectively as the Washington Consensus.a The results speak for themselves. Between 1980 and 2002, world trade more than tripled. The costs of doing business—especially in transportation and communications—fell sharply. Many protectionist barriers, like tariffs and import quotas, went the way of the Berlin Wall. Tariff rates (as a percentage of total import costs) were halved during this period in America, were more than halved in Europe, and fell by 80 percent in Canada. Following the 1948 inception of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), eight rounds of talks helped create the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. With 153 member states, the WTO promotes international trade and arbitrates commercial disputes.
Before Margaret Thatcher privatized a long list of large companies, British Airways, British Gas, British Steel, British Telecom, and British Petroleum, as well as large shipbuilders, regional water and electricity companies, airport operators, parts of the nuclear and coal industries, and even Rolls-Royce were all publicly owned. Even Thatcher would not privatize Britain’s National Health Service, however, which remains Europe’s largest employer with more than 1.5 million names on the payroll. Mercantilism Had the fall of the Berlin Wall truly marked the final triumph of free-market democracy, the term state capitalism might have quietly passed from the scene. But these words have now taken on a distinctly new meaning, one that will become enormously important for international politics and the global economy over the next ten years. This book defines twenty-first-century state capitalism as “a system in which the state plays the role of leading economic actor and uses markets primarily for political gain.”
Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson
Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, starchitect, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning
A room of one’s own is after all a possession, a commodity, a set of walls that separates us from others. Caryatids from a Venetian edition of Vitruvius, 1511 Brothel in Amsterdam The fetishisation of architecture appears in these stories as a kind of metaphor for the modern condition of reification, but there are cases in which this metaphor is brought to startling life. In 1979 a woman called Eija-Riitta Eklöf Berliner-Mauer married the Berlin Wall, hence her bizarre surname – ‘Berlin Wall’ in German. Mrs Berliner-Mauer is not alone in her tastes, but a vocal member of a group of self-defined ‘Objectum Sexuals’, established by a woman named Erika Eiffel, who is married to . . . well, you can probably guess. The Objectum Sexuals are united by their shared attraction to inorganic objects, especially large architectural structures, although Mrs Berliner-Mauer explains, ‘I also find [that] other manufactured things look good, [such] as bridges, fences, railroad tracks, gates . . .
It is the story of Le Corbusier’s mad passion for the house on the cliff and the resentment of the designer of that house, Eileen Gray. Motionless stone may seem the anaphrodisiac opposite of living flesh, but in this chapter I’ll reveal the secret sex life of buildings, their capacity to enflame and arouse. It’s a story about houses made for lovers, structures that thwart love and people who love buildings themselves. Although some of the characters that populate this story – like the woman who married the Berlin Wall – may seem extreme cases, the fact is that our sex lives mostly take place in architectural surroundings. So what do buildings do to our libidos? Before I try to answer that question, let’s go back to the scene I described above: the sun-drenched beach, the celebrity corpse and, most important of all, the cliff-top villa. Though it was Eileen Gray’s first architectural work, the house at Cap Martin is a superbly accomplished piece of design.
This behaviour, the reductio ad absurdum of fetishism, may seem the province of damaged libidos, but it is merely an extreme consequence of the more general tendency identified by Shakespeare in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. When Pyramus and Thisbe transfer their love to the wall that stands between them, a wall that is for them animated and responsive, they are entering into the Faustian bargain of reification, which animates the world but stills the soul. Mrs Berliner-Mauer is an extreme case, but the Berlin Wall – despite the fact that it cruelly separated many real lovers – had a broader aphrodisiac appeal, as noted by David Bowie in his song ‘“Heroes”’. At first listen it may seem that Bowie is singing about two heroic lovers divided by the Iron Curtain. But listen more closely (and note the quotation marks around the title): he actually describes a pair standing together on one side of the wall, kissing as they imagine the barrier as an eternal, immutable structure, and the possibility of beating the ‘shame’ on the other side, ‘for ever and ever’.
Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day
Scientists alive today outnumber all scientists who ever lived up to 1980, and—in part thanks to them—average life expectancy has risen more in the past 50 years than in the previous 1,000. In the short term, too, history is being made. The Internet, effectively non-existent 20 years ago, linked 1 billion people by 2005, 2 billion people by 2010 and 3 billion people by 2015. Now, over half of humanity is online.3 China has erupted from autarky to become the world’s biggest exporter and economy. India is close behind. The Berlin Wall is gone, and the clash of economic ideologies that defined the second half of the twentieth century is gone with it. All this feels like old news when set against the headlines since the turn of the new millennium: 9/11; devastating tsunamis and hurricanes; a global financial crisis that struck dumb the world’s highest-paid brains; a nuclear meltdown in hyper-safe Japan; suicide bombings in the heart of Paris, City of Love; riots over inequality—and happier events like the explosion of mobile and social media, cracking the human genome, the advent of 3D printing, the breaking of long-standing taboos such as gay marriage, the detection of gravitational waves and the discovery of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars.
Part I lays out the big, hard facts of the age, and rebuts the loose and often irresponsible rhetoric that pervades today’s public discourse. We step back and make clear the connective and developmental forces that defined the Renaissance of five hundred years ago and which, over the past quarter-century, have completely remade the world we live in now. Columbus’s voyages of discovery, the fall of the Berlin Wall—both events highlighted the breakdown of long-standing barriers of ignorance and myth, and the opening of fresh, planet-wide systems of political and economic exchange. The Gutenberg press, the Internet—both shifted the whole of human communication to a new normal: information abundance, cheap distribution, radical variety and wide participation. Developmental forces—gains in health, wealth and education—also underlay human progress then, and lift us now.
At about the same time: England and France ended their Hundred Years War, a violent disruption to daily life that had dragged on since 1337; Constantinople, the ancient Roman capital that had guarded Europe’s eastern frontier for over 1,100 years, finally fell to the new gunpowder cannons of the Ottoman Empire; and the warring Italian powers—Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples and the Papal States—signed into being the Italic League, a mutual nonaggression pact that allowed the whole peninsula to demobilize and invest its energies into peacetime pursuits.12 For similar reasons, we mark 1990 as the approximate start date for the New Renaissance. In the span of just a few years: the Cold War ended, the Berlin Wall fell, China rejoined the world economy and the commercial Internet lit up. Suddenly, the world felt quite different. As we will see in Part I, the hard data shows that this period was different. We loosely bookend the last Renaissance at about 1550. We must follow the evolution of ideas and events for however long it takes to clarify their meaning in the big picture. But in practice, one century gives a healthy perspective on many changes.
The Long Good Buy: Analysing Cycles in Markets by Peter Oppenheimer
"Robert Solow", asset allocation, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, computer age, credit crunch, debt deflation, decarbonisation, diversification, dividend-yielding stocks, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, housing crisis, index fund, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Live Aid, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, Nixon shock, oil shock, open economy, price stability, private sector deleveraging, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, railway mania, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, stocks for the long run, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, tulip mania, yield curve
The shift in approach by the Soviet Union paved the way for the resumption of talks with the United States and the signing of three important treaties in 1987, 1990 and 1991, which resulted in a significant reduction in military spending and, eventually, the mutual reduction of strategic nuclear weapons. Although these reforms were aimed at reversing the bureaucratic structure that had become a major constraint to economic progress, now they are often seen as important catalysts in the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 and, as such, the end of the Cold War and the start of the modern era of globalisation. In the summer of 1989, just a few months before the collapse of the Berlin Wall, as the pressures on the Eastern European communist states intensified, Francis Fukuyama, a US State Department official, wrote a paper titled ‘The End of History’ where he argued, ‘What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.’4 The paper seemed to capture the zeitgeist.
Following the landmark 1978 Chinese reforms that started the ‘household responsibility system’ in the countryside, giving some farmers ownership of their products for the first time, the first ‘special economic zone’ was formed in Shenzhen in 1980. This concept allowed for the introduction and experimentation of more flexible market policies. Although the reforms were slow and not without controversy, by 1984 it became permissible to form individual enterprises with fewer than eight people and, by 1990, a year after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the first stock markets were opened in Shenzhen and Shanghai. The broadening reach of market capitalism seemed assured. The changes of the times brought with them many investment opportunities and a more interconnected world, sparking an optimism that infected stock markets. In 1985, during my first year at work, the Dow Jones stock index in the US rallied by just over 27%, the strongest single year since 1975 (the year of recovery from the crash that followed the oil crisis and deep recession of 1973/1974).
Companies in public ownership in the UK accounted for 12% of GDP in 1979 but only about 2% by 1997.6 By the mid-1990s the trend for privatisation had spread to the rest of Europe, even reaching Socialist-led governments such as that of Lionel Jospin in France, which launched a $7.1 billion initial offering of France Telecom in 1997 and made a $10.4 billion secondary offering a year later (as the fervor for telecom companies accelerated around the expanding technology bubble). The secular trend was punctuated temporarily by a (sharp but short-lived) crash in 1987 before lower interest rates and a continuation of economic growth pushed equities to all-time highs. The continuation of the re-rating of equities was spurred by the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and, soon after, the unravelling of the Soviet Bloc. The Dax, the main German stock market index, surged by 30% between October 1989 and July 1990. As a consequence, a more integrated global economy emerged in the 1990s. Throughout this period, equity markets enjoyed a decline in the discount rate; not only did interest rates stay low as a result of the purging of global high inflation but also the end of the Cold War helped push the equity risk premium down further (the required hurdle rate for investing in risky assets compared with low-risk bonds).
The Last President of Europe: Emmanuel Macron's Race to Revive France and Save the World by William Drozdiak
Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Boeing 737 MAX, Boris Johnson, centre right, cloud computing, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, UNCLOS, working poor
That crusade had advanced steadily under the stewardship of de Gaulle and Konrad Adenauer, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and Helmut Schmidt, and finally François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl. The rocky relations between Paris and Berlin in recent years, however, had left Europe adrift, struggling to cope with the repercussions of the global financial crisis and the resurgence of big-power competition. “I knew this was the key question of our times,” Macron said, describing the state of the world he faced after his election in May 2017. “Nearly thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, I realized we were at a new inflection point with the rise of China, the return of an aggressive Russia, and the retreat of America from global leadership. So where is Europe? Rather than trapped between these superpowers, as a zone to be fought over by others, I believe Europe needs its own renaissance to leap beyond its past and become an autonomous power equal to others. This cannot be done by any single nation-state, but only at a European level, with France and Germany assuming special responsibility to lead the way.”3 Macron’s grand strategy for his presidency was conceived with three goals in mind: to modernize France, to relaunch the drive toward a more unified continent, and to establish Europe as a major power in a multipolar world.
This bloody history seemed to confirm their reputation as “hereditary enemies.” But the postwar vision of building a United States of Europe transformed the destiny of two embattled neighbors. Over the past seventy years, France has provided the political leadership and Germany the economic dynamism that have driven Europe’s remarkable resurrection. Since Germany’s unification after the fall of the Berlin Wall three decades ago, however, that delicate balance of power has shifted. As wartime memories have faded, Germany’s prosperity has made its people more conscious of their own mercantile interests and less willing to make economic sacrifices for their partners. France’s failure to adapt to the rigors of globalized markets has caused its political stature to diminish relative to Germany, whose power has been magnified by an expanded population from formerly communist East Germany.
Wolfgang Schäuble, who loyally served as Kohl’s chief of staff and later as Merkel’s finance minister before becoming president of the Bundestag, was once asked at a dinner party in Berlin if there was any significant difference in their approach to politics. “Merkel is not emotionally invested in Europe in the same way that Kohl and I were,” he replied. Like Merkel, Macron, who was still a child when the Berlin Wall fell, was also personally removed from the agonizing wars that shaped relations between France and Germany, but he did view de Gaulle and Mitterrand as role models for his presidency. His official photographic portrait showed him with a copy of the general’s memoirs in the background. He liked to recall de Gaulle’s words fifty years earlier when he admonished his ministers: “Never forget that for France there can be no alternative but friendship with Germany.”
Rogue States by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus
So the US and UK are now much more free to use force than they were when there was a deterrent. That was recognized right away. But new pretexts are needed. You can no longer say that everything we do is against the Russians. The Berlin Wall fell in November 1989. That ended the Cold War as far as any sane person was concerned. In October 1989, a month before, the Bush administration had released a secret national security directive, now public, in which it called for support for our great friend Saddam Hussein and other comparable figures in the Middle East in defense against the Russians. That was October 1989. In March 1990—that’s four months after the fall of the Berlin Wall—the White House had to make its annual presentation to Congress calling for a huge military budget, which was the same as in all earlier years, except for the pretexts. Now it wasn’t because the Russians are coming, because obviously the Russians aren’t coming, it was because of what they called the “technological sophistication” of Third World powers.
For those who wish to understand the nature of the Cold War, and a good deal of modern history, there could hardly be a more instructive moment than when the Cold War came to an end. The first question is: What happened to NATO, which was established to protect Europe from the hordes of the slave state, according to doctrine? Answer: with no more Russian hordes, NATO rapidly expanded. After the Berlin Wall fell, Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to allow Germany to be unified and to join NATO, a hostile military alliance and the most powerful in history. An astonishing concession in the light of recent history, when Germany alone had virtually destroyed Russia several times. Gorbachev believed that Washington had promised him that NATO would not expand “one inch to the East,” meaning to East Berlin, let alone East Germany.
Also needed are intervention forces aimed at the Middle East, where in past years, “the threats to our interests” that required military intervention “could not be laid at the Kremlin’s door,” contrary to half a century of propaganda, now quietly shelved. Rather, the threats were “radical nationalism,” meaning intolerable independence. With the clouds lifted, the sun shone through briefly, but has been ignored. With Russian support for Cuba ending, the US stepped up its economic warfare, hoping to move in for the kill. Meanwhile within US domains, matters continued routinely. A week after the fall of the Berlin Wall, ending the Cold War, six leading Latin American intellectuals, Jesuit priests, were murdered by an elite Salvadoran battalion, armed and trained by the US, and fresh from renewed US training, acting on direct orders of the High Command. There was little notice, in accord with the Orwellian principle. They were not honored dissidents, just more unpeople, in Orwellian parlance. A few weeks later the US invaded Panama killing unknown numbers of people in the slums that were heavily bombarded, thousands according to Central American human rights organizations.
Unfinished Business by Tamim Bayoumi
algorithmic trading, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, battle of ideas, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Doha Development Round, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, random walk, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, value at risk
It is also crucial to thinking about the future of EMU since exactly the same tensions manifested themselves in Franco-German disagreements about the response to the crisis, with the French wanted to provide emergency support to the crisis countries while the Germans focused on maintaining the discipline implicit in existing rules. The Maastricht Treaty that laid out the road to monetary union was a finely honed compromise that papered over these tensions rather than resolving them. This reflected several dynamics. First, the Treaty was a rushed job that reflected the political imperatives coming from the unexpected fall of the Berlin Wall and the 1989 reunification of Germany. The single currency was created as a defensive reaction to German reunification rather than as a positive affirmation of European integration. Reflecting this speed, the final treaty closely followed the plan created by the earlier Delors Committee that had been dominated by European central bankers. These bankers produced a plan for EMU that focused on ensuring that the new European Central Bank remained independent of political pressures while leaving existing national fiscal and financial arrangements in place.
As one historian of the process has put it, “the outcome looked more like an extension of the principle of international monetary cooperation and coordination—which is exactly what it was”.32 * * * The Maastricht Treaty It was the unanticipated collapse of Soviet control in Eastern Europe later in 1989 that triggered a rapid push for monetary union that embraced the only plan readily available, the one in the Delors Report. On November 28, 1989, just three weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Chancellor Kohl presented a ten-point plan for German unity to the Bundestag without consulting his allies. Two days later, President Mitterrand told German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher that Germany was now a “brake” on European integration and that unless Germany agreed to serious negotiations on a single currency by the end of 1990 it risked a revival of the pre-1913 “triple alliance” between France, Britain, and the Soviet Union.33 Faced with the prospect to diplomatic isolation, Chancellor Kohl agreed to initiate an intergovernmental conference on monetary union at the Strasbourg summit of European leaders on December 8, 1990, just before Mitterrand’s deadline expired.
In the end, supported by a range of special measures and generous statistical interpretations, all of the potential entrants were admitted into monetary union starting on January 1, 1999. * * * The Flawed Single Currency The drive to create a single European currency unexpectedly succeeded largely due to a dose of sheer luck and two underlying dynamics. The good luck was the unexpected fall of the Berlin Wall that created a need to bind a unified Germany more fully to the rest of the European Union, an imperative used to create the single currency. One dynamic was the understanding between Mitterrand and Kohl on the need for progress on greater European monetary integration that allowed crucial decisions to be made without the process getting bogged down in bureaucratic niceties. The other dynamic was that the detailed planning for the single currency was done by technocratic central banks rather than more politicized finance ministries, which allowed the plan to overcome the Economist/Monetarist split that had bedeviled previous efforts to create a single currency.
Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky
"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
Contrary to predictions, however, the system did not collapse, because the next phase of the cycle, again interacting with long-term uptrends that had been forgotten during the period of panic, created the conditions for a rebirth and evolution of capitalism in 2010 and beyond. Because economics is driven by both secular trends and cyclical patterns, we need to start by looking at both sets of forces separately and then consider how they interact. Only in this way can we properly understand why recent events happened and where they may lead. CHAPTER FOUR Annus Mirabilis Why did I free Nelson Mandela in February 1990? Because of the Berlin Wall. Once Communism collapsed in 1989, I felt sure that the ANC would abandon its revolutionary aspirations. This meant we had a chance to negotiate a peaceful end to Apartheid.1 —F.W. de Klerk, president of South Africa, 1989-94 You ask me why India broke out of the Hindu rate of growth in 1991. It is quite simple really. When we saw what happened to the Soviet Union in 1989, we realized that our reliance on central planning had been an historic mistake.
Part III will show how the combination of these cyclical and secular forces interacted with the political ideology of Capitalism 3.3 to trigger a crisis of a kind never seen before. Five vast and irreversible changes transformed the world in the two decades before the crisis, starting in the pivotal year of the late twentieth century—the Annus Mirabilis of 1989. The reason for choosing this starting point will be obvious from the first of these transformations. One, the seventy-year experiment with communism came to an end in November 1989, when the Berlin Wall was demolished. Even more important than the physical break-up of the Soviet bloc was the ideological collapse of Marxism as a political doctrine and of central planning as an idea for organizing economic activity without markets. From 1989 onward, all nations, regardless of their political institutions, their stage of development, or their local traditions, were forced to acknowledge private property, the profit motive, and the voluntary exchange of goods and services through competitive markets as the only plausible basis for economic life.
The World Wars of the first half of the twentieth century had consumed or directly destroyed much of the physical wealth created by three successive generations. As a result, each of these generations was forced to save a large share of its income to invest in the reconstruction of houses, factories, and physical infrastructure that their parents had destroyed. The postwar baby boom generation suffered no such depredations—and the dismantling of the Berlin Wall implied that no such disaster was going to occur in the near future. Even localized wars became far less likely after the end of proxy conflicts in Africa and southeast Asia between the United States and Soviet Union. Meanwhile, the declining value of natural resources and farmland, especially in comparison with the products of technology and intellectual property, reduced the economic incentives for territorial expansion.
City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
It became the most visible and chilling symbol of the Cold War, raising tensions between the superpowers to unprecedented levels. Before 1989, graffiti appeared only on the west face of the Wall, as soldiers shot on sight anyone approaching the eastern side. In the west, the Berlin Wall became famous for its graffiti and artworks. Large lengths were entirely covered in brightly painted murals and slogans, such as Irgendwann fällt jede Mauer (‘Eventually every wall falls’). The graffiti humanised an utterly inhuman structure that divided families as well as a city. Today, after the collapse of the East German regime, little is left of the Berlin Wall. The longest remaining stretch has been turned into a 1.3-kilometre art gallery, the East Side Gallery, at a cost of some €2.2 million.102 It was opened in 2009, on the twentieth anniversary of the Wall’s fall.
There were real fears that the police would open fire. But thankfully this was to be the first successful revolution in German history, one achieved without bloodshed. On 4 November, 500,000 marched in East Berlin, converging on Alexanderplatz to demand elections. Within five days the barriers on the Berlin Wall had been raised, and East Berliners were free to walk the streets of West Berlin, many of them for the first time in their lives. In Czechoslovakia, people were given hope by the fall of the Berlin Wall. Prague’s Wenceslas Square became the stage for their Velvet Revolution. At the centre of the city, this kilometre-long square was where people gathered every day after they had finished work, gaining confidence as their numbers grew, sharing information and news (the public media were not to be trusted), reading the many colourful posters plastered on walls, and – the final act of each day – singing the national anthem.
The introduction of piped, clean drinking water and sewage systems in the late nineteenth century helped free industrialised cities from the scourge of water-borne diseases such as cholera. As well as improvements to urban infrastructure, twentieth-century advances in medical treatments helped eradicate some urban diseases (smallpox) and reduced the threat from others (TB, measles). However, new viruses – such as SARS or the H5N1 influenza virus – continue to pose a real threat to the densely populated megacities of the twenty-first century. The Berlin Wall, photographed in 1986 by French artist Thierry Noir at Bethaniendamm in Berlin-Kreuzberg. In 1984, Noir and Christophe Bouchet had painted this stretch of the Wall, becoming the first artists to use it in this way. The City Wall Walls create the spaces in which we live, separating the public from the private, protecting us from the elements and other people. The walls of buildings guide our route – sometimes straight, sometimes meandering – through the city, shaping the pattern of our urban lives.
Strangers on a Bridge by James Donovan
• • • Shortly thereafter Frederic Pryor arrived in my New York office, accompanied by his mother, father and brother. It was our first meeting. The family graciously presented me with a small crystal paperweight containing an actual piece of rubble from the Berlin Wall and an inscription, signed by the entire family, which reads: This is a piece of the Berlin Wall, from behind which you delivered Frederic on February 10, 1962. The gratitude of the Pryor family will last long after this Wall is a thing of the past. In August, 1962, there was an incident at the Berlin Wall in which an escaping East German youth was shot by VOPOs and left to die within full view of West Berlin spectators. At the height of this crisis a Soviet courier came to the border crossing at Friedrichstrasse and asked for an American Mission officer.
It is from the written records—the original diary expanded from contemporaneous notes, letters to and from Abel and his “family,” the official transcript of court proceedings, and finally, cabled reports to the State Department on my East Berlin mission—that this book has been written. Why did I accept the defense assignment? What was Abel like? Why did our Supreme Court divide 5 to 4 in upholding his conviction? What are the feelings of an American who goes behind the Berlin Wall, without diplomatic status or immunity, to negotiate with the Soviets? Was the final exchange on the Glienicke Bridge in the best national interest of the United States? All these questions, and more, answer themselves in the written records. Sitting alone late one night, back in 1957, I thought of my daily relationship with Abel and wrote in my diary (a little stiffly, I now think): We are two dissimilar men drawn close by fate and American law . . . into a classic case which deserves classic treatment. 1957 * * * “The Abel Spy Trial,” copy of an original lithograph by William Sharp.
He nodded sagely, reflecting satisfaction with the justice of the long sentence and quiet pleasure in my having lost the case. After the luncheon I took a cab to the Harvard Club to meet a Washington contact for my final briefing. I gave him my detailed itinerary for the trip, and he informed me when I could expect official instructions in London. He told me that the East Germans were holding a young American Yale student from Michigan named Frederic L. Pryor for trial on espionage charges. Before the Berlin Wall was erected, Pryor had been doing research in East Berlin to complete his doctorate thesis on trade behind the Iron Curtain. He dug too deeply, obtained some material regarded as confidential, and now the East Germans planned a propaganda trial. The prosecutor had publicly announced he would demand the death penalty for the young American. It was believed that the whole affair was being publicized in the hope of arousing American public opinion in favor of Pryor and thus compelling some form of recognition of the East German government by the United States.
The End of Alchemy: Money, Banking and the Future of the Global Economy by Mervyn King
"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Doha Development Round, Edmond Halley, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, large denomination, lateral thinking, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, yield curve, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
Disequilibrium is the absence of a state of balance between the forces acting on a system. As applied to economics, a disequilibrium is a position that is unsustainable, meaning that at some point a large change in the pattern of spending and production will take place as the economy moves to a new equilibrium. The word accurately describes the evolution of the world economy since the fall of the Berlin Wall, which I discuss in Chapter 1. Radical uncertainty refers to uncertainty so profound that it is impossible to represent the future in terms of a knowable and exhaustive list of outcomes to which we can attach probabilities. Economists conventionally assume that ‘rational’ people can construct such probabilities. But when businesses invest, they are not rolling dice with known and finite outcomes on the faces; rather they face a future in which the possibilities are both limitless and impossible to imagine.
The story of the crisis By the start of the twenty-first century it seemed that economic prosperity and democracy went hand in hand. Modern capitalism spawned growing prosperity based on growing trade, free markets and competition, and global banks. In 2008 the system collapsed. To understand why the crisis was so big, and came as such a surprise, we should start at the key turning point – the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. At the time it was thought to represent the end of communism, indeed the end of the appeal of socialism and central planning. For some it was the end of history.16 For most, it represented a victory for free market economics. Contrary to the prediction of Marx, capitalism had displaced communism. Yet who would have believed that the fall of the Wall was not just the end of communism but the beginning of the biggest crisis in capitalism since the Great Depression?
In recent years, short-term real interest rates have actually been negative because official interest rates have been less than the rate of inflation. And the savings glut pushed down long-term real interest rates to unprecedentedly low levels.21 In the nineteenth century and most of the twentieth, real rates were positive and moved within a range of 3 to 5 per cent. My estimate is that the average ten-year world real interest rate fell steadily from 4 per cent or so around the fall of the Berlin Wall to 1.5 per cent when the crisis hit, and has since fallen further to around zero.22 As the Asian economies grew and grew, the volume of saving placed in the world capital market by their savers, including the Chinese government, rose and rose. So not only did those countries add millions of people to the pool of labour producing goods to be sold around the world, depressing real wages in other countries, they added billions of dollars to the pool of saving seeking an outlet, depressing real rates of interest in the global capital market.
America in the World by Robert B. Zoellick
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Corn Laws, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hypertext link, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty
Kennedy could do so and even stretched further—by assessing both Khrushchev’s problem and offering a distinction that the Soviets might use to solve it. In doing so, however, Kennedy created a new problem that he had not yet fully grasped: whether Berlin, West Germany, and the Western alliance could survive the blow to morale of any perceived retreat from the defense of U.S. rights to all of Berlin.31 The Berlin Wall Shortly after midnight on August 13, Soviet forces ringed Berlin, while the East German police stopped subways and built a barbed wire barrier along the boundary with West Berlin. On August 19, the East Germans started to build a Wall that would divide Berlin for twenty-eight years. Ulbricht had wanted to squeeze the Western allies out and close air corridors so that Berliners, East and West, could not flee.
Reagan’s address was unlike JFK’s impromptu remarks in Berlin; the president had planned, rewritten, and edited the speech with great care.10 The Speech at Westminster Reagan opened with a trip report, leading to his arrival “at home… in your house,” “democracy’s shrine.” One of his two key themes was a shared Anglo-American dedication to the institutions of freedom. He contrasted the homes of liberty with the Berlin Wall, a “dreadful gray gash.” He saluted Solidarity’s resistance to oppression in Poland, “at the center of European civilization.” The president recalled with optimism the Churchillian challenge of the age—the contest between the “not-at-all-fragile flower” of democracy and totalitarianism. He acknowledged great threats, including that of global nuclear war and even extinction. The president committed to work for peace through negotiations to reduce nuclear forces, not just control them.
He was less comfortable with the set speeches that Reagan used skillfully. Bush liked direct, informal outreach to other leaders, with plenty of phone calls and personal notes. The president flattered other leaders with attention. He asked lots of questions. He sought their opinions. I recall being the notetaker for a one-on-one meeting between President Bush and President Francois Mitterrand on the island of St. Martin in mid-December 1989. The Berlin Wall had just fallen, and huge questions about the future of Germany and Europe loomed. Bush arranged separate meetings with Thatcher in Bermuda and with Mitterrand to stay in close personal contact—and to nudge them toward U.S. preferences. After a small group meeting with Mitterrand to discuss breaking events in Europe, Bush added the one-on-one with the French president. Bush opened by commenting on Mitterrand’s knowledge of the Middle East and asking for the French leader’s views.
Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky
"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor
That year “changed everything,” Garton Ash writes. Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms within Russia and his “breathtaking renunciation of the use of force” led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9—and to the liberation of Eastern Europe from Russian tyranny. The accolades are deserved; the events, memorable. But alternative perspectives may be revealing. German chancellor Angela Merkel provided such a perspective—unintentionally—when she called on all of us to “use this invaluable gift of freedom . . . to overcome the walls of our time.” One way to follow her good advice would be to dismantle the massive wall, dwarfing the Berlin wall in scale and length, now snaking through Palestinian territory in violation of international law. The “annexation wall,” as it should be called, is justified in terms of “security”—the default rationalization for state crimes.
Another perspective on 1989 comes from Thomas Carothers, a scholar who served in “democracy enhancement” programs in the administration of former President Ronald Reagan. After reviewing the record, Carothers concludes that all U.S. leaders have been “schizophrenic”—supporting democracy if it conforms to U.S. strategic and economic objectives, thus in Soviet satellites but not in U.S. client states. This perspective is dramatically confirmed by the recent commemoration of the events of November 1989. The fall of the Berlin wall was rightly celebrated, but there was little notice of what happened one week later: on November 16, in El Salvador, the assassination of six leading Latin American intellectuals, Jesuit priests, along with their housekeeper and her daughter, by the elite, U.S.-armed Atlacatl battalion, fresh from renewed training at the JFK Special Warfare School in Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The battalion and its cohorts had already compiled a bloody record through the grisly decade in El Salvador that began in 1980 with the assassination, by much the same hands, of Archbishop Oscar Romero, known as “the voice of the voiceless.”
S. embassy in, 66, 88, 170, 174 Bahrain, 266 bailouts, 238, 272 Bajaur, Pakistan, 119 Baker, Dean, 115, 196, 287 Baker, Gerald, 271 Baker, Jim, 102 ballistic missile defense (BMD) programs, 39–40, 78–79 Balzar, John, 47 Banco del Sur, 135 Barak, Ehud, 35, 41, 281–282 Al-Barakaat, 48 Barnett, Correlli, 28 Barofsky, Neil, 272 Bartels, Larry M., 109 Battle of Mogadishu, 46–47 Beck, Ulrich, 269 Beinin, Joel, 260 ben-Ami, Shlomo, 104 Benghazi, 267 Benn, Aluf, 127 Bergen, Peter, 52 Berle, A. A., 231–232 Berlin Wall, fall of, 177 Biden, Joe, 113, 173, 201 bin Laden, Osama, 52, 275–279, 291, 293–295 biofuels, 22, 23–24 Blair, Tony, 34 Bolivarian Alternative for Latin America and the Caribbean, 135 Bolivia, 135–138, 167, 247 Boone, Peter, 238 Bouton, Marshall, 58 BP, 87 Branfman, Fred, 256–257 Brazil, 22, 247, 268 Brenner, Robert, 235 Bretton Woods system, 107–108 Britain, 22, 85, 134, 148 Broad, William J., 20 Brookings Institute, 242, 256 The Brothers Karamazov (Dostoyevsky), 180–181 Brown, Scott, 191, 192 Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 102 Buergenthal, Thomas, 243 Burke, Jason, 121, 143–144 Bush, George H.
The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, life extension, linear programming, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, nuclear winter, old-boy network, open economy, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game
The original article excited an extraordinary amount of commentary and controversy, first in the United States, and then in a series of countries as different as England, France, Italy, the Soviet Union, Brazil, South Africa, Japan, and South Korea. Criticism took every conceivable form, some of it based on simple misunderstanding of my original intent, and others penetrating more perceptively to the core of my argument.2 Many people were confused in the first instance by my use of the word “history.” Understanding history in a conventional sense as the occurrence of events, people pointed to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Chinese communist crackdown in Tiananmen Square, and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait as evidence that “history was continuing,” and that I was ipso facto proven wrong. And yet what I suggested had come to an end was not the occurrence of events, even large and grave events, but History: that is, history understood as a single, coherent, evolutionary process, when taking into account the experience of all peoples in all times.
If the early twentieth century’s major political innovation was the invention of the strong states of totalitarian Germany or Russia, then the past few decades have revealed a tremendous weakness at their core. And this weakness, so massive and unexpected, suggests that the pessimistic lessons about history that our century supposedly taught us need to be rethought from the beginning. 2 The Weakness of Strong States I The current crisis of authoritarianism did not begin with Gorbachev’s perestroika or the fall of the Berlin Wall. It started over one and a half decades earlier, with the fall of a series of rightwing authoritarian governments in Southern Europe. In 1974 the Caetano regime in Portugal was ousted in an army coup. After a period of instability verging on civil war, the socialist Mario Soares was elected prime minister in April 1976, and the country has seen peaceful democratic rule ever since. The colonels who had been ruling Greece since 1967 were ousted also in 1974, giving way to the popularly elected Karamanlis regime.
In April 1989, a round table agreement led to a power-sharing agreement between the Polish Workers party and the Solidarity trade union. As a result of elections—which the Polish communists also tried unsuccessfully to rig—a Solidarity government came to power in July. In July and August 1989, tens and then hundreds of thousands of East Germans began fleeing into West Germany, leading to a crisis that rapidly led to the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the East German state. The East German collapse then triggered the fall of communist governments in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. By early 1991, all formerly communist states in Eastern Europe, including Albania and the major republics of Yugoslavia, had held reasonably free, multiparty elections. Communists were initially turned out of office everywhere except in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Albania, while in Bulgaria, the elected Communist government was soon forced to step down.5 The political basis for the Warsaw Pact disappeared, and Soviet forces began to withdraw from Eastern Europe.
9-11 by Noam Chomsky
Department of Justice, file A28 851 622, A11 861 810. 30. Graham Allison, “How to Stop Nuclear Terror,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2004. 31. Robertson, Daily Beast, 2011. 9-11 1. Not Since the War of 1812 Based on an interview with Il Manifesto (Italy), September 19, 2001. Q: The fall of the Berlin Wall didn’t claim any victims, but it did profoundly change the geopolitical scene. Do you think that the attacks of 9-11 could have a similar effect? CHOMSKY: The fall of the Berlin Wall was an event of great importance and did change the geopolitical scene, but not in the ways usually assumed, in my opinion. I’ve tried to explain my reasons elsewhere and won’t go into it now. The horrifying atrocities of September 11 are something quite new in world affairs, not in their scale and character, but in the target.
In the recently published Cambridge University History of the Cold War, Latin American scholar John Coatsworth writes that from that time to “the Soviet collapse in 1990, the numbers of political prisoners, torture victims, and executions of non-violent political dissenters in Latin America vastly exceeded those in the Soviet Union and its East European satellites,”16 including many religious martyrs and mass slaughter as well, always supported or initiated in Washington. The last major violent act was the brutal murder of six leading Latin American intellectuals, Jesuit priests, a few days after the Berlin Wall fell. The perpetrators were an elite Salvadoran battalion, who had already left a shocking trail of blood, fresh from renewed training at the JFK School of Special Warfare, acting on direct orders of the high command of the U.S. client state. That act also framed a decade, which opened with the assassination of Archbishop Romero, the “voice for the voiceless,” by much the same hands, while he was reading mass.
The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet
"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, creative destruction, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, off grid, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor
His resignation marked a key political change: It effectively ended the tradition of Chinese leaders ruling like emperors until death.2 It also shifted power from a single supreme leader to the group leadership of the party and effectively marked the beginning of de facto term limits. Imperial strongman rule in China was over. Meanwhile, that very afternoon, five thousand miles away in Berlin, the government of East Germany capitulated to overwhelming upheaval and threw open the country’s western borders for the first time in twenty-eight years. The Berlin Wall was coming down. Political relationships and systems around the world were about to undergo seismic changes—most obviously in Eastern Europe, but also in Namibia and in developing countries around the world. Dictators supported by the United States and the Soviet Union would fall. Proxy wars and conflict that had wreaked havoc in developing countries would decline. Communism as both an economic and political system would lose its last shreds of credibility.
In Kenya, Presbyterian minister Timothy Njoya created an uproar with a 1990 New Year’s Day sermon that criticized the corrupt government of Daniel Arap Moi and called on African governments to follow Eastern Europe and embrace democracy. Archbishop Desmond Tutu called for justice in South Africa and beyond. Citizens in developing countries were not just angry. They were now emboldened. The push to democracy was on. THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY Changes began to unfurl around the world. Namibia gained its independence from South Africa and held its first elections for a new assembly the same day that the Berlin Wall fell. In February 1990—just twelve weeks later—South Africa released Nelson Mandela from jail. The apartheid government, propped up for so long by anticommunist fervor, followed its arch-nemesis the Soviet Union into the dustbin of history. Democracy spread across Africa: to Benin, Mali, Zambia, Lesotho, and Malawi. Czechoslovakia launched its Velvet Revolution against the ruling Communist Party just a week after the Wall fell, and just eleven days later, the government announced it would relinquish power and dismantle the single-party state.
Deng Xiaoping led China for only about fourteen years (1979 through about 1992, although his influence continued for many years thereafter), and while he was never officially head of state, he was indisputably China’s paramount leader, and the first such leader to step down voluntarily from power rather than rule for life. He resigned the last of his formal positions—as chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party—on the morning of the same day that the Berlin Wall fell: November 9, 1989. Since Mao’s death, the average tenure of the chairman of the Communist Party has been just seven years. In just a few decades, China has moved from de facto imperial rule to a form of term limits. At the same time, Chinese citizens have more freedoms than they once had, especially on the economic side, although personal freedoms remain highly restricted. To be sure, full power rests with the party, and there are few checks and balances.
Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky
"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus
PART I Latin America ONE Year 514: Globalization for Whom? Human affairs proceed in their intricate, endlessly varied, and unpredictable paths, but occasionally events occur that are taken to be sharp turning points in history. There have been several in recent years. It is a near platitude in the West that after September 11, 2001, nothing will be the same. The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 was another event accorded this high status. There is a great deal to say about these two cases, both the myth and the reality. But in referring to the 514th year I of course have something different in mind: the year 1492, which did, undoubtedly, direct world history on a radically new course, with awesome and lasting consequences. As we know, the voyages of Columbus opened the way to the European conquest of the Western hemisphere, with hideous consequences for the indigenous population, and soon for Africans brought here in one of the vilest episodes of history.
TWELVE 1989 and Beyond The month of November 2009 was marked by the joyous twentieth-anniversary celebration of what British historian Timothy Garton Ash calls “the biggest year in world history since 1945.” That remarkable year “changed everything,” thanks primarily to Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms within Russia and his “breathtaking renunciation of the use of force…a luminous example of the importance of the individual in history,” leading to the partially open Russian elections of March 1989 and culminating in the fall of the Berlin wall on November 9, which opened the way to liberation of Eastern Europe from Russian tyranny. The general mood was captured well by barrister Matthew Ryder, speaking for the “niners,” the generation that is now providing global leadership, with Barack Obama in the lead, their conception of history having been “shaped by a world changed without guns” in 1989, events that gave them confidence in the power of dedication to nonviolence and justice.1 The accolades for November 9 are deserved, and the events are indeed memorable.
The principles apply in the familiar way to the events of November 1989, and the memories that remain twenty years later. Some alternative perspectives may be instructive. One was provided, unintentionally, by German chancellor Angela Merkel, who called on all of us to “use this invaluable gift of freedom…to overcome the walls of our time.”2 Excellent advice, and we can easily follow it. One good start would be to dismantle the massive wall, dwarfing the Berlin wall in scale and length, which is snaking its way through Palestinian territory in gross violation of international law. Like virtually every state action, the “annexation wall,” as it should be termed, is justified in terms of security. But as is commonly the case, the claim lacks any credibility. If security were the concern, it would be built along the border, and could be made impregnable. The purpose of this illegal monstrosity, constructed with decisive U.S. support and European complicity, is to allow Israel to take over valuable Palestinian land and the main water resources of the region, one part of a much broader annexation project, recognized from the start to be in direct violation of international law, an understanding since confirmed by the World Court.
After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton
AFTER THE BERLIN WALL AFTER THE BERLIN WALL PUTTING TWO GERMANYS BACK TOGETHER AGAIN CHRISTOPHER HILTON First published 2009 The History Press The Mill, Brimscombe Port Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2QG www.thehistorypress.co.uk This ebook edition first published in 2011 All rights reserved © Christopher Hilton, 2009, 2011 The right of Christopher Hilton, to be identified as the Author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This ebook is copyright material and must not be copied, reproduced, transferred, distributed, leased, licensed or publicly performed or used in any way except as specifically permitted in writing by the publishers, as allowed under the terms and conditions under which it was purchased or as strictly permitted by applicable copyright law.
TIMELINE 1945 7 May Germany surrenders 3 July Allied troops take over their four sectors in Berlin 16 July Potsdam Conference begins 2 August Potsdam Conference ends 1946 21 April Communist Party and Social Democrats form the SED (Socialist Unity Party) to rule East Germany 1947 5 June Marshall Plan launched 1948 21 June Deutsche Mark introduced in the West 24 June Berlin blockade and airlift begins 24 July East German Mark introduced 1949 4 April NATO formed 11 May Berlin blockade and airlift ends 24 May FRG (Federal Republic of Germany) founded in the West, merging the American, British and French Zones 7 October GDR (German Democratic Republic) founded in the East from the Soviet Zone, with East Berlin as its capital 1953 16 June GDR workers uprising over increasing work norms 1955 9 May FRG accepted into NATO 14 May Communist states, including the GDR, sign the Warsaw Pact 1958 27 October Walter Ulbricht, GDR leader, threatens West Berlin 10 November Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev says it is time to cancel Berlin’s four-power status 1961 4 June At a summit in Vienna, Khruschev tries to pressure US President John Kennedy to demilitarise Berlin 1–12 August 21,828 refugees arrive in West Berlin 13 August Berlin Wall built 1963 26 June Kennedy visits Berlin and makes his ‘Ich Bin Ein Berliner’ speech 1968 21 August Warsaw Pact countries crush Prague Spring 1970 19 March Willy Brandt visits GDR city Erfurt as part of his Ostpolitik policy 1971 3 May Ulbricht forced to resign, succeeded by Erich Honecker 1972 October Traffic Agreement signed, giving FRG citizens access to the GDR 21 December Basic Treaty signed, the FRG in effect recognising the GDR 1973 18 September The GDR and the FRG admitted to the United Nations 1985 11 March Mikhail Gorbachev elected General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party 1987 12 June Ronald Reagan speaks at the Brandenburg Gate: ‘Mr Gorbachev, tear down this wall.’ 7–11 September Honecker visits FRG 1989 2 May Hungary opens its border with Austria, allowing GDR holidaymakers to cross 7 May GDR elections with 98.85 per cent for the government and widespread allegations of fraud 4 September Leipzig demonstrations begin 30 September GDR citizens in FRG Prague Embassy told they can travel to the West 6 October GDR fortieth anniversary 18 October Honecker forced to resign, succeeded by Egon Krenz 4 November A million people demonstrate in East Berlin 9 November The Wall opens 29 November Chancellor Helmut Kohl issues plan for a ‘confederation leading to a federation in Germany’ 7 December Krenz resigns.
A weekly magazine there gave her visit two pages, two pages on the election campaign of Hilary Clinton and three pages about the work and lectures of Hagen Koch. They asked the question: you complain about human rights in China but what are you doing to Hagen Koch in Germany? So the Federal Press Office came here and they were upset because she had two pages and I had three … Since Koch is guardian of The Wall, what does he think of the twin row of cobblestones? Now they are incorporating little metal plates beside the cobblestones, BERLIN WALL 1961–1989, but they are positioned to be read from the West ... The cobblestones mark the outer Wall, but the real wall for the GDR was the inner Wall, because to the East that was The Wall: if you went to it you were arrested and if you got over it you would be shot. If The Wall had only been where the line of cobblestones is, Walter Ulbricht would have been finally right because he claimed he’d built a wall against evil capitalism – the anti-fascist protection wall – and it directly faced the West.
World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer
artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism
Monopoly is the danger that a powerful firm will use its dominance to squash the diversity of competition. Conformism is the danger that one of those monopolistic firms, intentionally or inadvertently, will use its dominance to squash diversity of opinion and taste. Concentration is followed by homogenization. With food, we only belatedly understood this pattern. • • • I WASN’T ALWAYS SO SKEPTICAL. At my first job, I would eat lunch staring at the Berlin Wall, its impressive thickness, all of its divots and bruises. The wall had defined the impenetrable boundary of an empire; now it casually decorated a new center of power in the world. This section of the wall belonged to Bill Gates and it resided in Microsoft’s cafeteria. My career in journalism began at Gates’s software company. Microsoft had just built a new campus—centered on a quad, with a stream running through it—in the suburbs of Seattle to house all of its newly launched media.
In part, this reflects a changing consensus about the government’s role, a long turn toward the light footprint preached by the libertarians and neoclassical economists at the University of Chicago. But the tech monopolies also represent something novel in the history of American business. To manage the threat, government needs a dramatic updating, a bolder program for regulating the Internet, a whole new apparatus for protecting privacy and the competitive marketplace. But before we can redress the problem, we need to be precise about it and to understand its genesis. In 1989, the Berlin Wall piled into collectible rubble—and the Internet was born in its modern form. The events were spiritually tethered. That idealistic year, capitalism shed its historic competitor, and the Internet began its own journey to the free market. The American government nurtured the nascent Internet—the “inter-network” in the geeked-out parlance of its earliest days. In the 1960s, the Defense Department supplied the grants to start it, to build a communications system that could withstand a Soviet assault.
The health of our democracy demands that we consider treating Facebook, Google, and Amazon with the same firm hand that led government to wage war on AT&T, IBM, and Microsoft—even dismembering them into smaller companies if circumstances (and the law) demand a forceful response. While it has been several generations since we wielded antitrust laws with such vigor, we should remember that these cases created the conditions that nurtured the invention of an open, gloriously innovative Internet in the first place. Nearly thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, after a terrible recession, and decades of growing inequality, regulation hasn’t regained its reputation. In some ways, its stature has receded even further. Large swaths of the left now share the right’s distaste for the regulatory state, a broad sense of indignation over corporations capturing the apparatus of the state. Instead of defending the people against big business, government becomes its servant.
Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker
airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise
The answer came in two parts—first from geopolitics, then from the industry itself. It took nothing less than the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Soviet Empire to open up minds and horizons. The Berlin Wall was the most famous of the barbed-wire barriers erected by eastern and central European puppet governments to cut off their people from their continental neighbors during the Cold War that had pitted the Communist countries against those in the democratic market system of capitalism. Since the end of World War II, the two sides had fought hot wars through proxies in Asia and South America and aimed nuclear weapons at each other in the ultimate standoff for supremacy. The Soviet side lost and the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, marking the beginning of the end of the Cold War. In 1991, the Soviet Union disintegrated.
Rogue gangs and organized crime got footholds in many industries, including tourism and prostitution, when governments were at their weakest. The money was eye-popping and bribes helped the trade dig deep roots. In Eastern Europe underground syndicates took over prostitution in the former Czechoslovakia along the “Highway of Shame” originally patronized by German truck drivers. “Before the dust from the Berlin Wall had even settled, gangsters and chancers were laying the cables of a huge network of trafficking in women,” wrote Misha Glenny in McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld. Estimates from individual countries suggest that these criminal syndicates earn in the hundreds of billions every year. Sex tourism provides anywhere between 2 and 14 percent of the gross domestic products of Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines, according to the U.S.
That could have put a severe dent in Dubai’s plans for tourism, so the sheikh made the wildly risky decision to create an airline just for Dubai that he named Emirates. With $10 million and the help of two British expatriate airline experts, he put his son Sheikh Mohammed, the current ruler, in charge of starting up Emirates and turning it into the region’s star carrier. That was 1986—an auspicious moment in tourism and all the stars aligned in Dubai’s favor. Just as Emirates was getting off the ground, the world opened up after the fall of the Berlin Wall. By the 1990s previously closed economies were jumping into the world markets, especially in Asia: China, India, and Southeast Asia. Emirates saw an opening and got landing rights to fly into these newly developing countries, especially the second- and third-tier cities that had only known puddle-jumper airlines, what the industry called “under-served areas,” which became lucrative markets when the middle classes started flying, on Emirates Airlines.
As the Future Catches You: How Genomics & Other Forces Are Changing Your Work, Health & Wealth by Juan Enriquez
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, creative destruction, double helix, global village, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, personalized medicine, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, spice trade, stem cell, the new new thing
Technology accelerates trends … Be these positive … Or negative. A scary world when … The long term … Is no longer measured … In centuries … Or decades … But in years … And sometimes … In months. It took the telephone 35 years to get into one-quarter of U.S. homes … TV took 26 … Radio 22span> … PCs 16 … The Internet 7.19 (And not just businesses are vulnerable … It took about nine days for the Berlin Wall to fall and for East Germany to effectively disappear … even though East Germany had the strongest economy behind the Iron Curtain … and some of the best scientists … but no freedom to create and build.)20 XI TECHNOLOGY IS NOT KIND … IT DOES NOT SAY “PLEASE” In the last decade of the twentieth century, the global economy bred … Mergers and start-ups on an unprecedented scale … $908,000,000,000 in mergers during 1997 alone … A 47 percent increase over the previous year.
AS THIS BOOK ENDS … YOU SHOULD REMEMBER THE CONCLUSIONS REACHED BY THE AUTHOR … OF A MODESTLY TITLED BOOK CALLED HISTORY OF THE WORLD …16 AFTER ALMOST ONE THOUSAND PAGES … HE CONCLUDES TWO THINGS … HISTORY CHANGES FASTER THAN ONE MIGHT EXPECT … AND HISTORY CHANGES SLOWER THAN ONE MIGHT EXPECT. In the 1960s, many expected flying cars, floating cities, large space stations … by 2001. They did not see the impact of pervasive instant, global, almost free networking … Of a massive proliferation of mostly nonviable states. In 1900 … or before the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 … It was hardly obvious that the United States would become the world’s sole hegemon. (One of the best-selling books in the 1980s? … Ezra Vogel’s Japan as Number One: Lessons for America.) Nor is it obvious where Japan, China, Russia, Brazil, Singapore, the United Kingdom, or the United States will be at the end of the twenty-first century … (The current U.S. mantra: “U.S. as Number One: Lessons for the World” … may sound a little old in 100 years.)
Barrington Brown/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers 7.1 Craig Venter Photograph by Bill Geiger/Courtesy of Craig Venter 7.2 Dr. Leder Courtesy of Phillip Leder, M.D., Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics 7.3 Cloned pigs Reuters NewMedia Inc./CORBIS 8.1 Kasparov Najlah Feanny/Stock Boston/Picturequest 9.1 Buck Fuller Hans Namuth/Photo Researchers 10.1 Factory workers Annie Griffiths Belt/CORBIS 10.2 Berlin Wall AFP/CORBIS 11.1 Bonobos John Giustina/BRUCE COLEMAN INC. ABOUT THE AUTHOR JUAN ENRIQUEZ is the director of the Life Sciences Project at Harvard Business School, where he is building an interdisciplinary center focusing on how business will change as a result of the life sciences revolution. His article in Harvard Business Review, “Transforming Life, Transforming Business,” received a McKinsey Award, which recognizes the best articles published each year in HBR.
State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century by Francis Fukuyama
Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, centre right, corporate governance, demand response, Doha Development Round, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, information asymmetry, liberal world order, Live Aid, Nick Leeson, Pareto efficiency, Potemkin village, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system
One stream of development lead to what Friedrich and Brzezinski (1965) labeled the “totalitarian” state, which tried to abolish the whole of civil society and subordinate the remaining atomized individuals to its own political ends. The right-wing version of this experiment ended in 1945 with the defeat of Nazi Germany, while the left-wing version crumbled under the weight of its own contradictions when the Berlin Wall fell in 1989. The size, functions, and scope of the state increased in nontotalitarian countries as well, including virtually all democracies during the ﬁrst three-quarters of the twentieth century. While state sectors at the beginning of the century consumed little more than 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 4 state-building most Western European countries and the United States, they consumed nearly 50 percent (70 percent in the case of social democratic Sweden) by the 1980s.
Weak or failing states commit human rights abuses, provoke humanitarian disasters, drive 92 weak states and international legitimacy 93 massive waves of immigration, and attack their neighbors. Since September 11, it also has been clear that they shelter international terrorists who can do signiﬁcant damage to the United States and other developed countries. During the period from the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to September 11, 2001, the vast majority of international crises centered around weak or failing states. These included Somalia, Haiti, Cambodia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Congo, and East Timor. The international community in various guises stepped into each of these conﬂicts—often too late and with too few resources—and in several cases ended up literally taking over the governance function from local actors.
., 54 Akerlof, George, 47, 62, 81 Alchian, Armen, 47, 60, 83 American Center for International Labor Solidarity, 89 n6 American exceptionalism, 113 anti-Americanism, 105 Argentina, 9, 15, 19, 36, 57 ﬁscal federalism in, 25 Aristotle, 72 Army, U.S., 54 Asia, growth rates in, 19 Asian economic crisis, 18 authoritarian countries, problems of legitimacy in, 28 authoritarian transition, 27 133 Baird, Zoë, 74 Barings, 71 Barnard, Chester, 78, 80–81 Berle, Adolf, 48 Berlin Wall, 3 Bosnia, x, 93, 103, 116 Brazil, 12, 15, 28, 30 ﬁscal federalism in, 25 Britain, 3, 33, 38 Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 3 Buchanan, James, 49 Bush, George W., 95, 108–109 Cambodia, x, 93 Center for International Private Enterprise, 89 n6 charisma, 67 charter schools, 59 Chile, 35 China, 1, 2 civil society, 30, 60 Clinton, William J., 74 Coase, Ronald, 45–47, 68 Cohen, Michael, 52, 79–81 Cohen, Theodore, 86 134 index colonialism, 2 Common Agricultural Policy (EU), 107 Congo, 93 Corruption Perception Index, 10 Cuba, 39 Cyert, Richard, 52, 79–80 Dayton Accord, 103 de Soto, Hernando, 21 decentralization, 25, 72 democracy, 26–29 Demsetz, Harold, 47, 60 Denmark, 22, 42 Doha Round, 107 Dominican Republic, 39 Douglas, Roger, 13 Douglas, Stephen, 114–115 East Timor, x, 93 Easterly, William, 36 education, public, 58 Egypt, 9, 35, 94 European Union, 106–107, 111, 116 attitudes toward sovereignty, 112 Common Agricultural Policy, 107 defense spending in, 111 failed state problem, 92–93, 97, 100 Fama, Eugene, 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations, 73 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 64 Federal Food Agency (U.S.), 64 federalism, 25, 44, 70 Federalist Papers, 72 Finance Ministry (Japan), 75 Forest Service (U.S.), 64 France, 12, 34, 105 Freedom House, 10 Friedman, Milton, 19 Friedrich, Carl J., 3 Functions of the Executive (Barnard), 78 game theory, 33 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 106 Germany, 12, 31, 35 Nazi, 3 patriotism in, 112 postwar occupation of, 38–39 Glorious Revolution, 33 Greif, Avner, 34 Guantánamo Bay, prisoners at, 105 Haiti, x, 39, 93 Hatch Act, 85 Hayek, Friedrich A., 4, 68, 82 hidden action, 60, 62, 64 Hirschman, Albert O., 59 Hobbes, Thomas, 1 Hong Kong, 19, 38 Hoover, Blaine, 86–87 Hoover, J.
Berlin Now: The City After the Wall by Peter Schneider, Sophie Schlondorff
Berlin Wall, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, young professional
Christian Boros and his family belong to another generation. And, as such, they enjoy what the former German chancellor Helmut Kohl once referred to as “the blessing of a late birth.” WHAT HAPPENED TO THE WALL ANYWAY? While it stood, the Berlin Wall was the city’s most famous and infamous structure. Yet just a year after November 9, 1989, it had already largely disappeared—pulverized or sold off around the world. At best, tourists near Checkpoint Charlie today might encounter a few street vendors selling coins, medals, gas masks, and uniform jackets from the vanished system. A national Berlin Wall Memorial opened on Bernauer Straße twenty years after the fall of the Wall. The location was a point of contention for years. This was where more than three hundred (mostly failed) attempts to flee had been made; this was where—because of the especially solid ground—several escape tunnels had been built.
With what images and headlines would the international media have met such an attempt? Something along the lines of: EAST GERMAN BORDER TROOPS GIVE UP—WALL NOW GUARDED BY WEST BERLIN POLICE! By now, Berlin’s tourism managers have realized that monuments commemorating crimes are not the least of the city’s attractions. Year after year, the Holocaust Memorial registers well over a million visitors; in 2011, 650,000 people gaped at the newly completed Berlin Wall Memorial on Bernauer Straße; that same year, 340,000 tourists chose to visit the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial (the special prison complex of the East German secret service), where they listened to former inmates describe what they had been forced to endure in Stasi prison cells and interrogations. Today, half of Berlin’s tourists come from abroad, and their numbers continue to grow every year.
Yet the authorities in West Berlin were no better; with their postwar dreams of creating a “car-friendly city,” they had razed the ruins of the Vox-Haus, Prince Albrecht Palace, Museum of Ethnology, and Anhalter train station. As a result, Potsdamer Platz had become a building cemetery of sorts, without tombstones. Only older Berliners could still conjure up the ghosts of these former buildings in their minds’ eyes. Until the early 1990s, the square was dominated by the one structure that had replaced the vanished buildings: the Berlin Wall. On the western side of the almost five-hundred-yard-wide desert at the center of the city, a platform surrounded by snack bars and souvenir stands had been put up, from which curious bystanders could observe the Wall. There they stood, looking directly into the binoculars of the border police at their guard posts, who in turn stared straight back into the tourists’ own. Only one building had survived the demolition mania: Weinhaus Huth, a “wine house” built in the early twentieth century by the wine dealer Willy Huth on a lot purchased by his grandfather.
Stasiland: Stories From Behind the Berlin Wall by Anna Funder
Stasiland Stories From Behind the Berlin Wall Anna Funder Dedication For Craig Allchin Epigraph ‘…a silent crazy jungle under glass.’ The Member of the Wedding, Carson McCullers ‘The two of you, violator and victim (collaborator! violin!), are linked, forever perhaps, by the obscenity of what has been revealed to you, by the sad knowledge of what people are capable of. We are all guilty.’ The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist, Breyten Breytenbach ‘Let the jury consider their verdict,’ the King said, for about the twentieth time that day. ‘No, no!’ said the Queen. ‘Sentence first—verdict afterwards.’ Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll Contents Cover Title Page Dedication Epigraph Map of Germany 1945–90 Map of Berlin Wall 1961–89 1 Berlin, Winter 1996 2 Miriam 3 Bornholmer Bridge 4 Charlie 5 The Linoleum Palace 6 Stasi HQ 7 The Smell of Old Men 8 Telephone Calls 9 Julia Has No Story 10 The Italian Boyfriend 11 Major N. 12 The Lipsi 13 Von Schni— 14 The Worse You Feel 15 Herr Christian 16 Socialist Man 17 Drawing the Line 18 The Plate 19 Klaus 20 Herr Bock of Golm 21 Frau Paul 22 The Deal 23 Hohenschönhausen 24 Herr Bohnsack 25 Berlin, Spring 2000 26 The Wall 27 Puzzlers 28 Miriam and Charlie Some Notes on Sources Acknowledgments About the Author Praise for Anna Funder and Stasiland Also by Anna Funder Credits Copyright About the Publisher 1 Berlin, Winter 1996 I am hungover and steer myself like a car through the crowds at Alexanderplatz station.
They know me, I know them. I had a prince once, a von Hohenzollern.’ I think she must use the prince on everyone. But it works—I’m curious. ‘U-huh. Before or after the Wall came down?’ ‘Before. He was over on a day trip from the west. I used to get quite a few westerners you know. He invited me’—she pats her large bosom with a flat hand—‘to his palace. But of course I couldn’t go.’ Of course she couldn’t go: the Berlin Wall ran a couple of kilometres from here and there was no getting over it. Along with the Great Wall of China, it was one of the longest structures ever built to keep people separate from one another. She is losing credibility fast, but her story is becoming correspondingly better. And, suddenly, I can’t smell a thing any more. ‘Have you travelled yourself since the Wall came down?’ I ask. She throws her head back.
‘We were told that with this special nourishment and the medicine, he was likely to be able to develop normally,’ she says. She starts to cry, so silently it is more like leaking. Tears roll down her face and she mops them up. ‘Please,’ she says, ‘eat something.’ I put something in my mouth. I look around for family photographs, but there are none on the walls, and none that I can see in the cabinets. On the night of 12–13 August the Berlin Wall was rolled out in barbed wire. Frau Paul lived then with her husband in this same half-house deep in the eastern sector. They didn’t see or hear anything of what was going on to divide the city but they woke to a changed world. The next time Frau Paul went to the ministry for permission to collect the formula and medicines, it was refused. She remembers pleading with the official, telling him how sick her baby was, and how without these provisions he might die.
I.O.U.: Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay by John Lanchester
asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black-Scholes formula, Blythe Masters, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, George Akerlof, greed is good, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Martin Wolf, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, Own Your Own Home, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, The Great Moderation, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, value at risk
How did we get from an economy in which banks and credit function the way they are supposed to, to this place we’re in now, the Reykjavíkization of the world economy? The crisis was based on a problem, a mistake, a failure, and a culture; but before it was any of those things, it arose from a climate—and the climate was that which followed the capitalist world’s victory over communism and the fall of the Berlin Wall. This was especially apparent to me because I grew up in Hong Kong at the time when it was the most unbridled free-market economy in the world. Hong Kong was the economic Wild West. There were no rules, no income taxes (well, eventually there was a top tax of 15 percent), no welfare state, no guarantee of health care or schooling. Shanty-towns sprawled halfway up the hillsides of Hong Kong island; the inhabitants of those shanties had no electricity or running water or medicine or education for their children.
A more modern view would be that free-market capitalism has an inherent propensity for inequality and for cycles of boom and bust—there’s an extensive body of work studying these cycles. We can note that, in the current case, the practice fit the theory. The biggest boom in seventy years turned straight into the biggest bust. The rest of this book tells the story of how that happened, but there was one essential precursor to all the subsequent events, without which the explosion and implosion would not have occurred in the form they did: and that was the fall of the Berlin wall, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the end of the Cold War. Explicit arguments about the conflict between the West and the Communist bloc were never especially profitable. The camps were too entrenched; the larger philosophical issues tended to be boiled off until nothing but the residue of party politics remained. On the right, it was so obvious that the Communist regimes were mass-murdering prison states that there was nothing further of profit to be discussed.
David Kynaston points out that under communism, children from primary school upward were taught the principles and practice of the system and were thoroughly drilled in how it was supposed to work. There is nothing comparable to that in the capitalist world. The City is, in terms of its basic functioning, a far-off country of which we know little. This climate of thinking informed all subsequent events. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, capitalism began a victory party that ran for almost two decades. Capitalism is not inherently fair: it does not, in and of itself, distribute the rewards of economic growth equitably. Instead it runs on the bases of winner take all and to them that hath shall be given. For several decades after the Second World War, the Western liberal democracies devoted themselves to the question of how to harness capitalism’s potential for economic growth to the political imperative to provide better lives for ordinary people.
Hired: Six Months Undercover in Low-Wage Britain by James Bloodworth
Airbnb, Berlin Wall, call centre, clockwatching, collective bargaining, congestion charging, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, gig economy, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Network effects, new economy, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, post-work, profit motive, race to the bottom, reshoring, Silicon Valley, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, working poor, working-age population
Thus there is much less interest in class politics, and this left sits amicably alongside a middle-class liberalism that does as liberalism does – trembles with a slight terror at the prospect of genuine equality between the classes. We live in harsh and uncaring times partly as a consequence of a tide that has swept across the globe in recent decades. One of the paradoxes of the fall of the Berlin Wall is that, while it represented a revolutionary liberation of human beings from under the yoke of totalitarianism, it also resulted in the unshackling of a particularly virulent strain of capitalism. A pessimist might even argue that the social democratic gains of the twentieth century depended to some extent on the existence of a class of semi-slaves toiling away behind an ‘iron curtain’. Once people had liberated themselves from the power of the commissars, capitalist countries could once again risk antagonising the working poor with little fear of communist subversion.
Aberfan disaster (1966) 170–1 ACAS 38 acid attacks, delivery drivers protest against, London (July, 2017) 256–7 Ackroyd, Peter 249 Admiral Insurance call centre, Swansea 150, 153–64, 180–1, 183, 185–6, 224 commission used as incentive for employees at 162–3 ‘fun’ culture 155, 161–2, 163, 164, 181 management 162–3, 224 performance league tables 183 politics, employee attitudes towards 164 ‘Renewals Consultant’ role 154 share scheme and dividends 159 staff turnover rate 159 training 155, 160–1 unions/collective action and 185, 186 university graduates employed at 153–4 wages/pay 155–6, 158–60, 164, 180 working hours and conditions 155, 160–4, 180–1, 185–6 Age UK 113 Aiden (building site worker) 135–6 Aiden (former miner) 175 Airbnb 217 Alex (former pit mechanic) 55, 57, 62–3 algorithmic management systems 16–17, 209, 210, 211, 217–18, 222, 223, 227, 231, 232, 242, 249 Aman (Uber driver) 236–8, 239–40, 241, 242, 255 Amazon: accommodation, employee 20–2, 24–6 algorithmic management system 16–17 blue badges 20, 41 breaks, employee 12–14, 36, 48, 49–50, 52–3, 64–5 British workers and 31, 33–4, 35–41, 57, 65, 72–3 diet/health of employees 51–2, 64–5, 70–1 disciplinary system 36, 39–41, 42–4 employment agencies, use of 19, 20, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 65–6, 86 see also Transline and PMP Recruitment employment contracts 19–20, 53, 58 food served to employees 12–13, 14, 64 fulfillment centres in former mining areas 54–5 JB’s weekly budget whilst employed at 68–9 migrant labour, use of 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 44, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 61–2, 65, 71–5, 258, 260–1 picker role 14, 16, 18, 19, 49, 65, 119, 258 process guide role 22–3 recruitment process 19–20 Rugeley distribution centre, Staffordshire 11–76, 79, 86, 119, 127, 128, 159, 258 security/security guards 11–13, 47, 48–9, 52 survey of employees, GMB 36 Swansea, warehouse in 145–6, 194 tax paid in UK by 146 tiredness/exhaustion of employees 44, 50–1, 65 transgender employees, treatment of 40–1 wages/salary 18, 19, 37–9, 42–3, 65–6, 68, 69, 70, 159 Amodeo, Michael 223 Anne (pensioner in Cwm) 197–8 anti-depressant medication 188 Armitage Shanks 57 Arora brothers 124–5 Aslam, Yaseen 229–30, 250 Assured Shorthold Tenancy 96 Attlee, Clement 173 ‘austerity’ policies 1–2, 6, 108 B&M Bargains 124–5, 126–30 BBC 138, 157, 173, 236 Bentham, Jeremy 182, 194 Berlin Wall, fall of (1989) 263 Bertram, Jo 235, 250–1 Bevan, Aneurin 144, 149, 192–3, 247 Bezos, Jeff 18 Big Issue, The 122 Big Pit National Coal Museum, Blaenavon 167, 170 Blackpool, Lancashire 77–140, 169, 187 accommodation in 80, 124, 137–8 B&M Bargains warehouse in 124–5, 126–31 Bloomfield district 137 building site work in 135–6 Central Drive 81, 120, 132–3 Golden Mile 121–2 health of residents 137 home care work in 81–90, 106–20, 140 homelessness in 95–105 job centres in 133–5 suicide rates in 100 unemployment in 121–3, 138, 139–40 Blaenau Gwent, Wales 187, 188, 190 see also under individual area and place name Booth, William 205 Brereton Colliery, Staffordshire 55 Brian (former miner) 196 Bryn Colliery, Wales 196 Brynmill, Swansea, Wales 150–1 building site work 121, 124, 135–6 buy-to-let housing market 24 Cadman, Scott 244, 245–6, 247–9 call centres 35, 61, 139, 150, 153–64, 180–6, 192, 199, 224 see also Admiral Insurance call centre, Swansea Cameron, David 259 Cannock Chase 21, 28, 54 capitalism 83, 145, 181 co-opts rebellion against 149 consumerism and 146 debt, reliance on 62 English culture overwhelmed by 32–3, 198–9 fall of Berlin Wall (1989) and 263 ‘gig’ economy and 210, 215, 232 platform capitalism 215 religious fatalism appropriated by 161 care sector: Eastern European migrant labour and 114–15 length of home care visits and 108–9, 110 local authority budget cuts and 107–10 privatisation of social care and 106–8, 109 staff training in 85–6 staffing crisis within 84–5, 119 zero hours contracts and 87 see also home care worker Carewatch UK 81–90, 109, 110, 118, 132, 135, 136, 150, 159 Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) process and 88–90, 109–10 employee reviews of 83–4 employment contracts/conditions 87–8, 118–19 length of care visits and 110 MAR (Medication Administration Record) sheets and 114, 115 recruitment 81–2, 84–5 ‘shadowing’ process 88, 109–10 training 85–6 see also care sector and home care worker Cefn Mawr No. 2, Afan Valley, Wales 171–2 Celcon 57 Centre for Cities 61 Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 153 Chartists 144, 149 China 183, 196–7 Chris (Amazon employee) 20, 21, 22–6, 65 Citizens Advice 243–4 CitySprint 246, 248–9, 251–2 Claire (Amazon employee) 36, 37–41, 50, 53 class: death of 4 erosion of class solidarity 193–4 fall of Berlin Wall and 263 liberalism and 263 scientific theories of 4, 17 see also middle-class and working-class Claudiu (housemate of JB) 22 coalition government (2010–15) 109, 115–16 coal mining: decline of industry 54, 55–6, 58, 144–5, 172–9 danger of/disasters 169–72 General Strike and 173 Miners’ Strike (1984–5) 3, 174–7 South Wales Valleys and 143–4, 147–9, 165–79, 180, 188, 189, 190–1, 193, 195, 196 Thatcher and 174–5, 263–4 collectivism 228 communism 17, 173, 178, 228, 263 Compare the Market 155 Conservative Party 3, 7, 109, 175 consumerism 146 Coombes, B.
Aberfan disaster (1966) 170–1 ACAS 38 acid attacks, delivery drivers protest against, London (July, 2017) 256–7 Ackroyd, Peter 249 Admiral Insurance call centre, Swansea 150, 153–64, 180–1, 183, 185–6, 224 commission used as incentive for employees at 162–3 ‘fun’ culture 155, 161–2, 163, 164, 181 management 162–3, 224 performance league tables 183 politics, employee attitudes towards 164 ‘Renewals Consultant’ role 154 share scheme and dividends 159 staff turnover rate 159 training 155, 160–1 unions/collective action and 185, 186 university graduates employed at 153–4 wages/pay 155–6, 158–60, 164, 180 working hours and conditions 155, 160–4, 180–1, 185–6 Age UK 113 Aiden (building site worker) 135–6 Aiden (former miner) 175 Airbnb 217 Alex (former pit mechanic) 55, 57, 62–3 algorithmic management systems 16–17, 209, 210, 211, 217–18, 222, 223, 227, 231, 232, 242, 249 Aman (Uber driver) 236–8, 239–40, 241, 242, 255 Amazon: accommodation, employee 20–2, 24–6 algorithmic management system 16–17 blue badges 20, 41 breaks, employee 12–14, 36, 48, 49–50, 52–3, 64–5 British workers and 31, 33–4, 35–41, 57, 65, 72–3 diet/health of employees 51–2, 64–5, 70–1 disciplinary system 36, 39–41, 42–4 employment agencies, use of 19, 20, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 65–6, 86 see also Transline and PMP Recruitment employment contracts 19–20, 53, 58 food served to employees 12–13, 14, 64 fulfillment centres in former mining areas 54–5 JB’s weekly budget whilst employed at 68–9 migrant labour, use of 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 44, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 61–2, 65, 71–5, 258, 260–1 picker role 14, 16, 18, 19, 49, 65, 119, 258 process guide role 22–3 recruitment process 19–20 Rugeley distribution centre, Staffordshire 11–76, 79, 86, 119, 127, 128, 159, 258 security/security guards 11–13, 47, 48–9, 52 survey of employees, GMB 36 Swansea, warehouse in 145–6, 194 tax paid in UK by 146 tiredness/exhaustion of employees 44, 50–1, 65 transgender employees, treatment of 40–1 wages/salary 18, 19, 37–9, 42–3, 65–6, 68, 69, 70, 159 Amodeo, Michael 223 Anne (pensioner in Cwm) 197–8 anti-depressant medication 188 Armitage Shanks 57 Arora brothers 124–5 Aslam, Yaseen 229–30, 250 Assured Shorthold Tenancy 96 Attlee, Clement 173 ‘austerity’ policies 1–2, 6, 108 B&M Bargains 124–5, 126–30 BBC 138, 157, 173, 236 Bentham, Jeremy 182, 194 Berlin Wall, fall of (1989) 263 Bertram, Jo 235, 250–1 Bevan, Aneurin 144, 149, 192–3, 247 Bezos, Jeff 18 Big Issue, The 122 Big Pit National Coal Museum, Blaenavon 167, 170 Blackpool, Lancashire 77–140, 169, 187 accommodation in 80, 124, 137–8 B&M Bargains warehouse in 124–5, 126–31 Bloomfield district 137 building site work in 135–6 Central Drive 81, 120, 132–3 Golden Mile 121–2 health of residents 137 home care work in 81–90, 106–20, 140 homelessness in 95–105 job centres in 133–5 suicide rates in 100 unemployment in 121–3, 138, 139–40 Blaenau Gwent, Wales 187, 188, 190 see also under individual area and place name Booth, William 205 Brereton Colliery, Staffordshire 55 Brian (former miner) 196 Bryn Colliery, Wales 196 Brynmill, Swansea, Wales 150–1 building site work 121, 124, 135–6 buy-to-let housing market 24 Cadman, Scott 244, 245–6, 247–9 call centres 35, 61, 139, 150, 153–64, 180–6, 192, 199, 224 see also Admiral Insurance call centre, Swansea Cameron, David 259 Cannock Chase 21, 28, 54 capitalism 83, 145, 181 co-opts rebellion against 149 consumerism and 146 debt, reliance on 62 English culture overwhelmed by 32–3, 198–9 fall of Berlin Wall (1989) and 263 ‘gig’ economy and 210, 215, 232 platform capitalism 215 religious fatalism appropriated by 161 care sector: Eastern European migrant labour and 114–15 length of home care visits and 108–9, 110 local authority budget cuts and 107–10 privatisation of social care and 106–8, 109 staff training in 85–6 staffing crisis within 84–5, 119 zero hours contracts and 87 see also home care worker Carewatch UK 81–90, 109, 110, 118, 132, 135, 136, 150, 159 Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) process and 88–90, 109–10 employee reviews of 83–4 employment contracts/conditions 87–8, 118–19 length of care visits and 110 MAR (Medication Administration Record) sheets and 114, 115 recruitment 81–2, 84–5 ‘shadowing’ process 88, 109–10 training 85–6 see also care sector and home care worker Cefn Mawr No. 2, Afan Valley, Wales 171–2 Celcon 57 Centre for Cities 61 Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 153 Chartists 144, 149 China 183, 196–7 Chris (Amazon employee) 20, 21, 22–6, 65 Citizens Advice 243–4 CitySprint 246, 248–9, 251–2 Claire (Amazon employee) 36, 37–41, 50, 53 class: death of 4 erosion of class solidarity 193–4 fall of Berlin Wall and 263 liberalism and 263 scientific theories of 4, 17 see also middle-class and working-class Claudiu (housemate of JB) 22 coalition government (2010–15) 109, 115–16 coal mining: decline of industry 54, 55–6, 58, 144–5, 172–9 danger of/disasters 169–72 General Strike and 173 Miners’ Strike (1984–5) 3, 174–7 South Wales Valleys and 143–4, 147–9, 165–79, 180, 188, 189, 190–1, 193, 195, 196 Thatcher and 174–5, 263–4 collectivism 228 communism 17, 173, 178, 228, 263 Compare the Market 155 Conservative Party 3, 7, 109, 175 consumerism 146 Coombes, B.
Hubris: Why Economists Failed to Predict the Crisis and How to Avoid the Next One by Meghnad Desai
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, women in the workforce
Could it be that what we had for three-quarters of a century – guaranteed prosperity and rising living standards – are about to disappear and become the experience of these countries who have been stuck in misery for the same long period? As they emerge, are we submerging? Is this the consequence of what is called globalization? Globalization became a buzzword in the 1990s sometime after the fall of the Berlin Wall. It opened up an era of freer capital movements and freer trade across the world. It is hard to remember now that between 1992 and 2007 the developed and emerging economies enjoyed an unprecedentedly long period of growth with low inflation. These good things were attributed to globalization just as much as it is being blamed for the present slump. This was the period economists call the Great Moderation as quarrels among them about how the economy worked ceased after 30 years of debate (of course, they have resumed now).
The prospect was of perpetual high employment and low inflation with sustained income growth. Mervyn (now Lord) King, while he was Governor of the Bank of England, described the future as one of non-inflationary continuous expansion (NICE). The Long Boom The background to these happy thoughts had been the benevolent economic climate in the developed countries for the previous decade or so.1 Once again, political events shaped the economic context. In 1989, the Berlin Wall was smashed by demonstrators. Soon after, the Soviet Union disintegrated and the Eastern European nations abandoned Soviet-style rule and became open democratic economies able to pursue free market policies. The success was not only an ideological one. It had profound economic implications. At a stroke, several markets were added to global trade, leading to expanded profit-making opportunities for businessmen and financial traders alike.
They rely on a combination of longer run forces such as demographic trends and cycles, or bursts of innovation, such as the discovery of gold and silver (relevant for the Gold Standard during the nineteenth century) or innovations in credit creation, as happened in the late twentieth century, or oil/shale discoveries, and also political events which may change the geography of the markets, as the fall of the Berlin Wall did. Kondratieff did, however, cover data going back to the Industrial Revolution. The first Kondratieff cycle has an upswing from the 1780s to 1810/17 and a downward phase from 1810/17 to 1844/51.The next long cycle peaked somewhere between 1870 and 1875 and then entered a downward phase which ended in the 1890s. It is not difficult to bring these projections up to date as I did in Chapter 2 on cycles.
Year 501 by Noam Chomsky
"Robert Solow", anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, long peace, mass incarceration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor
It would not be easy to invent a clearer demonstration of the fraudulence of the Cold War pretext; being doctrinally unacceptable, the conclusions remain invisible (see chapter 6). US opposition to Haitian independence for two centuries also continued, quite independently of the Cold War. Events of the 1980s, notably after the fall of the Berlin wall, also illustrate with much clarity traditional US distaste for democracy and indifference to human rights. We return to details (chapter 8). Another instructive example is Saddam Hussein, a favored friend and trading partner of the West right through his worst atrocities. As the Berlin wall was tottering in October 1989, the White House intervened directly, in a highly secret meeting, to ensure that Iraq would receive another $1 billion in loan guarantees, overcoming Treasury and Commerce department objections that Iraq was not creditworthy.
In a 1988 end-of-year analysis of the Cold War in the New York Times, Dimitri Simes wrote that the impending disappearance of the Soviet enemy offers the US three advantages: first, we can shift NATO costs to European competitors; second, we can end “the manipulation of America by third world nations,” “resist unwarranted third world demands for assistance,” and strike a harder bargain with “defiant third world debtors”; and third, military power can be used more freely “as a United States foreign policy instrument...against those who contemplate challenging important American interests,” with no fear of “triggering counterintervention,” the deterrent having been removed. In brief, the US can regain some power within the rich men’s club, tighten the screws on the Third World, and resort more freely to violence against defenseless victims. The senior associate of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was right on target.30 The fall of the Berlin wall in November 1989 can be taken as the symbolic end of the Cold War. After that, it took real dedication to conjure up the Soviet threat, though habits die slowly. Thus, in early 1990, much excitement was generated by a document published anonymously by University of California Sovietologist Martin Malia, railing about how Brezhnev had “intervened at will throughout the Third World” and “Russia bestrode the world” while “the liberal-to-radical mainstream of Anglo-American Sovietology” regarded Stalinism as having “a democratic cast,” indulging in “blatant fantasies...about democratic Stalinism” and “puerile fetishization of Lenin,” along with a host of similar insights apparently picked up in some Paris café.
Thus, in early 1990, much excitement was generated by a document published anonymously by University of California Sovietologist Martin Malia, railing about how Brezhnev had “intervened at will throughout the Third World” and “Russia bestrode the world” while “the liberal-to-radical mainstream of Anglo-American Sovietology” regarded Stalinism as having “a democratic cast,” indulging in “blatant fantasies...about democratic Stalinism” and “puerile fetishization of Lenin,” along with a host of similar insights apparently picked up in some Paris café. But in the 1990s, only the most disciplined minds can handle this kind of fare with appropriate gravity.31 Much can be learned about the Cold War era by observing what happened after the Berlin wall fell. The case of Cuba is instructive. For 170 years, the US has sought to prevent Cuban independence. From 1959, the pretext for invasion, terror, and economic warfare was the security threat posed by this outpost of the Kremlin. With the threat gone, the reaction was uniform: we must step up the attack. The banner is now democracy and human rights, upheld by political leaders and moralists who have demonstrated their commitment to these values with such integrity over the years, for example, during the murderous US crusade against the Church and others who dared organize the undeserving public in Central America through the 1980s.
Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder
3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game
Classification: LCC HF1583 .C36 2019 | DDC 337.5 — dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018038995 Cover design: George Kirkpatrick Typeset by Newgen in 10.5/13.5 Contents List of Figures, Maps, and Tables Preface Introduction vii ix xiii 1 Eurasian Reconnection and Renaissance 1 2 The Silk Road Syndrome 22 3 Eurasia in the Making 49 4 The Logic of Integration 70 5 Quiet Revolution in China 100 6 Southeast Asia: The First Experiment 122 7 Russia: An Unbalanced Entente 140 8 The New Europe: Deepening Synergies 160 9 Shadows and Critical Uncertainties 185 10 Toward a New World Order 206 11 Prospects and Policy Implications 232 Notes Bibliography Index 253 307 313 This page intentionally left blank Figures, Maps, and Tables figures 1.1 The fall (and rise) of Eurasia (1–2015 AD) 3 5.1 China’s rising share among major Eurasian economies 102 5.2 From exports to a domestic driver— changing demand structure in the Chinese economy (2000 –2017) 103 5.3 China’s steel overcapacity 109 5.4 The reorientation of Eurasian trade: from the US toward China 118 7.1 China’s rising economic scale relative to Russia (1992 –2017) 149 8.1 Rising EU reliance on the Chinese market (1990 –2017) 168 8.2 Rising Chinese investment in Europe 169 maps 1.1 Land vs. sea routes 6 1.2 “Continental Drift” brings Europe and Asia closer in the post–Cold War world 14 2.1 The classic Silk Road 27 2.2 China’s Belt and Road Initiative 45 4.1 China dominates continental overland routes to the West 73 viii Figures, Maps, and Tables 4.2 Sino-Russian maritime access dilemmas 75 4.3 India’s tortured overland options 76 4.4 Contrasting energy supply options for Europe and East Asia 79 4.5 Deepening East-West railway routes across Eurasia 90 6.1 The prospective Kunming-Singapore railway network 131 7.1 China’s multiple pipeline options 144 7.2 The new Eurasian Arctic shipping frontier 146 8.1 Expansion of the European Union (1957–2013) 166 8.2 Germany, the Visegrad Four, and the shadow of Cold War divisions 174 8.3 The Orient/East-Mediterranean corridor 176 8.4 The 16+1 Cooperation Framework Nations 180 tables 1.1 Eurasia’s formidable scale in global context 7 1.2 Top ten most populous countries (2017) 8 1.3 The looming challenge of rising energy consumption in developing Eurasia 8 1.4 Systems of international order 18 3.1 Expanding Central Asian trade with Russia, China, and Turkey 58 4.1 Oil reserves, production, and exports (2017) 80 4.2 Natural gas reserves, production, and exports (2017) 80 6.1 The varied patterns of overseas Chinese presence in Southeast Asia (2011) 125 9.1 WMD prominence across Eurasia 196 Preface The expanses of Eurasia have fascinated me ever since I was a boy. As I was growing up, it was terra incognita— exotic, foreign territory, and much of it off-limits to American citizens. As I began my academic career, the continent was in volatile transition, a world of fragile regimes whose demise opened up intriguing new worlds, epitomized by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the shah’s regime in Teheran. Today, Eurasia is being reconfigured once again. Its western and eastern poles are moving into an ever-deeper embrace, with global political-economic implications. Those fateful developments, unfolding before our eyes, configure the story presented in the pages to follow. A century ago and more ago, a Super Continent began to rise on American shores, its connectivity assured by infrastructure—a transcontinental railway, consolidated by the Golden Spike at Promontory Point (1869), and a canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific, completed across Panama (1914).
Those sanctions deprived the Soviets of valuable foreign exchange, by preventing construction of major energy pipelines from the USSR to the European Union (EU) and Japan. Mikhail Gorbachev, taking power in 1985, understood the structural problems of the Soviet Union, responding with his glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) campaigns. Political turbulence intensiﬁed, however, following the Afghan withdrawal in early 1989, even though the withdrawal extinguished what had been a signiﬁcant cause of previous dissatisfaction. In November 1989 the Berlin Wall went down, without a decisive Soviet response, deepening a sense—both in the Soviet satellites and within the USSR itself—that fundamental change was impending. The Impact and Implications While Gorbachev was vacationing in the Crimea, on August 19, 1991, his vice president, prime minister, defense minister, KGB chief, and other senior officials suddenly attempted a coup. Boris Yeltsin rapidly condemned the attempt and rallied popular support for himself.
Gaidar’s initiatives focused on market-oriented measures like price liberalization and ﬁnancial stabilization, designed to promote a more favorable environment for capital inﬂows and deepened interdependence with the industrialized West.20 In other parts of the “near abroad,” officials likewise pursued policies supportive of foreign investment and expanded international trade. New Linkages and Deepened Ties In the more advanced western regions of the former USSR, the major shortterm impact of the USSR’s collapse and the sudden new market orientation was to deepen interdependence between Russia and noncommunist Europe, especially Germany. In the first two decades following the fall of the Berlin Wall, six former members of the Warsaw Pact and three former republics of the USSR itself joined the EU. This post–Cold War expansion of the EU—the direct consequence of Soviet collapse—had major implications for the nature of Europe itself as well as for Europe’s ties to the broader world. It shifted the geographical center of the EU close to a thousand miles east— from France deep into Germany. It reoriented the supply chains of Europe inward, away from the Atlantic.
The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone
affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise
The Party rewrote its statutes, modifying earlier remarks as to class war and imperialism. Even Xan Smiley, astutest of the foreign correspondents, and the Economist did not notice that something decisive had happened - a forgivable mistake (this writer has reason to hope), given the needle-in-haystack nature of truth in that system. But what was really meant was that Moscow was giving up the Berlin Wall. Within months, Solidarność was discussing a new Poland, and within a few more months the Berlin Wall had indeed gone, and so, thereafter, did everything else go, including, by 1991, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics itself. There was a romantic theory that this had been achieved by ‘We, the People’, a theory that could only elicit a chuckle from the grave of Andropov. The people were Mussorgsky extras, in an operetta where Polish pretenders made trouble for Old Believers.
Georgy Malenkov about to watch Arsenal play Manchester United during a visit to London, March 1956; Nikita Khrushchev and Władysław Gomułka at the United Nations, September 1960; John F. Kennedy and Dwight D. Eisenhower leave the White House for the former’s inauguration, January 1960 25. and 26. The non-Atlantic in the ascendant. Two symbols of Communist glamour: Yuri Gagarin and Fidel Castro; the Berlin Wall at Potsdamer-Platz, August 1962 27. and 28. The Atlantic in trouble. Some of the hundreds of thousands of white settlers fleeing Algeria, May 1962; captured American airmen being paraded through the streets of Hanoi, July 1966 29. and 30. The new Europe. Ludwig Erhard and Charles de Gaulle at a dinner hosted by Konrad Adenauer, September 1962; Willi Stoph and Willy Brandt, May 1970 31. and 32.
The problem became so serious that a French commentator, Pierre Chaunu, reckoned in 1980 that within fifty years there would be no more Germans: it was ‘Mandeville’s bees gone mad’, individualism to the point at which there would be no individuals left. West Germany was saved from herself by East Germany. Here was a warning as to what might happen if the Atlantic link were ever really sundered. Brezhnev might visit Bonn (1978) and talk of our ‘common European home’, but, as Margaret Thatcher later remarked, homes are built with walls, and the Berlin Wall was one too many. The ‘German Democratic Republic’ was an embarrassment. It remained a place where the inhabitants had to be contained by a wall, and a very ugly one at that, complete with minefields and yapping hounds on dog-runs, in case they all decided to move out, as they had done before 1961, when the wall was built. You just needed to travel one or two stops in the underground system, the U-Bahn, and you were in a different world: a brilliant and funny writer (East Germans were much funnier than West Germans), Stefan Wolle, describes ‘the specific smell of the DDR, the composition of which will never properly be analysed’ and ‘the unmistakable harsh, lecturing tone of voice of salesgirls, waiters and People’s Policemen’, the grey plastic telephones, ‘Sibylle’ wall cupboards, the Metallkombinat Zeulenrode, flowered carpets, sagging net curtains.
The Cold War by Robert Cowley
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doomsday Clock, friendly fire, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, transcontinental railway
I knew much more than most people, because while the crisis was on, I happened to bump into a friend from the American embassy staff on a busy street. He told me. Still, I knew too little to be scared that I might be killed by an American nuclear bomb at any moment.” The precarious two weeks of the Cuban Missile Crisis came close to overshadowing the emergency in Europe of a year earlier, the erection of the Berlin Wall. But the Wall never caused the same amount of trepidation, certainly not among ordinary people, nor in Washington or Moscow. The confrontation at Checkpoint Charlie was one of those dicey moments when overly aggressive subordinate commanders got out of control, as they did, with potentially more dangerous consequences, in Cuba. Although the U.S. publicly fumed and blustered and made calming promises of support to West Germany and the beleaguered citizens of West Berlin, Washington was privately relieved.
Staring from a high floor of a building set against the Wall—I was lunching in the headquarters of a prominent West German newsmagazine—I could see nothing but the shabby buildings and empty streets of East Berlin (propaganda, propaganda). An occasional scurrying figure seemed all but swallowed by the voracious chill of Socialist space. Below, against a backdrop of blocked windows, Dobermans strutted with fierce nervous intensity, ready to maul anyone rash enough to cross the intervening space—if, indeed, a fleeing human could get that far. I might as well have been regarding the yard of a huge open-air prison. The Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis occupy central places in the history of the Cold War. Thereafter, with one notable exception, the war scare of 1983 (recalled here by John Prados), the long face-off between the U.S.S.R. and the West “took on,” in the words of the historian John Lewis Gaddis, a certain stability, even predictability, after 1962. Neither side would ever again initiate direct challenges to the other's sphere of influence.
As many feared in 1949, there would be more Berlin crises down the line to test the ties between West Berlin and its Allied protectors. In 1958, Moscow threatened once again to drive the Western Powers out of Berlin and to integrate the entire city into the Soviet-dominated East German state. The fact of the matter, of course, was that the tender testicles of the West had become the loose sphincter of the East—an opening through which thousands of East Germans were fleeing every year. The Berlin Wall that went up in 1961 to stanch the flow was in many ways as cruel as the Berlin Blockade, but it also turned out to be just as double-edged, since it purchased “security” at the price of continued economic stagnation and political oppression. In 1951, Mayor Reuter of West Berlin, which was now a separate political entity and part of the West German state, dedicated a monument in front of Tempelhof Airport to commemorate the airlift of 1948–49.
The Pentagon's Brain: An Uncensored History of DARPA, America's Top-Secret Military Research Agency by Annie Jacobsen
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, John Markoff, John von Neumann, license plate recognition, Livingstone, I presume, low earth orbit, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, place-making, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game
By the 1990s, “with the combined salary of a senior bureaucrat and high-ranking military officer,” he wrote, “I earned as much as a Soviet government minister.” As the tour of the American facilities was taking place, Russia was in a state of pandemonium. The Berlin Wall had come down two years earlier, but the red flag of the Soviet Union still flew over the Kremlin. The geopolitical landscape between the superpowers was in flux. “It wasn’t so clear the [Soviet leaders] weren’t going to re-form,” remembers Dr. Craig Fields, DARPA’s director at the time. “There was a lot of anxiety about the fact that they might re-form.” The two nations had been moving toward normalized relations, but for the Pentagon this was a time of great instability. While the world rejoiced over the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Defense Department had been coping with a myriad of national security unknowns. Would a unified Germany join NATO? How to handle troop reductions throughout Europe?
“The danger of the situation simply getting out of control, from developments or accidents or incidents that neither side—leaders on either side—were even aware of, much less in control of, could have led to war,” says the former CIA officer Dr. Raymond Garthoff, an expert in Soviet missile launches. The information about the Soviet high-altitude nuclear tests remained classified until after the Berlin Wall came down. The Soviet nuclear weapon detonated on October 28, 1962, over Zhezqazghan in Kazakhstan at an altitude of ninety-three miles had a consequential effect. According to Russian scientists, “the nuclear detonation caused an electromagnetic pulse [EMP] that covered all of Kazakhstan,” including “electrical cables buried underground.” The Cuban Missile Crisis made clear that command and control systems not only needed to be upgraded but also needed to be reimagined.
The Internal Look war games trained CENTCOM’s combatant commander and his staff in command, control, and communications techniques. The exercises involved a pre-scripted war game scenario in which U.S. forces would quickly deploy to a location to confront a hypothetical Soviet invasion of a specific territory. In the past, the war games had taken place in Cold War settings like the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Fulda Gap in Germany. In the summer of 1990 the Cold War climate had changed. The Berlin Wall had come down eight months before, and CENTCOM commander in chief General Norman Schwarzkopf decided that for Internal Look 90, U.S. forces would engage in a SIMNET-based war game against a different foe, other than the Soviet Union. A scripted narrative was drawn up involving Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and his military, the fourth largest in the world. In this narrative, Iraq, coming off its eight-year war with Iran, would attack the rich oil fields of Saudi Arabia.
The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David Hoffman
active measures, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, standardized shipping container, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, zero-sum game
Hastily, new rules for travel were drafted by the government, and the plan was to announce them November 10, but inadvertently the decision was read aloud at a government press conference at the end of the day November 9. 13 News reports vaguely suggested that East Germans could get visas to leave the country immediately through border crossings, touching off a frenzy of excitement. Rumors spread that all travel restrictions were being lifted. Thousands of people gathered at the Berlin Wall in the evening. The guards, who had no instructions, just opened the gates, and the Berlin Wall was breached twenty-eight years after it was first erected. The long division of Europe was over. In Washington, reporters were summoned to the Oval Office at 3:34 P.M. Bush was nervously twisting a pen in his hands. He later recalled feeling awkward and uncomfortable. Ever cautious, he was worried that any comments he made could trigger a Soviet crackdown.
Lesley Stahl of CBS News remarked that "this is a sort of great victory for our side in the big East-West battle, but you don't seem elated. I'm wondering if you're thinking of the problems." "I am not an emotional kind of guy," Bush said.14 In Moscow, Chernyaev wrote in his diary the next day, November 10, "The Berlin Wall has collapsed. This entire era in the history of the socialist system is over." After the fall of the wall, even more threatening storms were on the horizon for Gorbachev. The Soviet economy plummeted in 1989; there were acute shortages of goods, along with a grain crisis and declining oil production. Perestroika had not produced better living standards. At a Politburo meeting on the day the Berlin Wall fell, Gorbachev was preoccupied not with Eastern Europe, but the possibility that the Soviet Union would disintegrate, as internal republics began to consider breaking away. The leaders of Estonia and Latvia, two tiny Baltic republics, had told Gorbachev in recent days "they have a feeling that there is no other way than to leave the USSR," Gorbachev told the Politburo. 15 After Bush had waited almost a year to engage Gorbachev, he was now confronted by a confluence of serious troubles: the future of Germany, and indeed Europe, was up for grabs; Gorbachev was in deeper and deeper trouble at home; and arms control negotiations were going nowhere.
Soviet scientists experimented with genetic engineering to create pathogens that could cause unstoppable diseases. If the orders came, Soviet factory directors were ready to produce bacteria by the ton that could sicken and kill millions of people. The book explores the origins and expansion of this illicit, sprawling endeavor, for which Russia has yet to give a full accounting. Much of the writing about the end of the Cold War stops at the moment the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989, or when the Soviet flag was lowered on the Kremlin in December 1991. This book attempts to go further. It begins with the peak of tensions in the early 1980s, leads us through the remarkable events of the Reagan and Gorbachev years and then shows how the Soviet collapse gave way to a race against time, an urgent search for the nuclear and biological hazards that were left behind.
Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War
An adventurous publisher had commissioned a Chinese translation of The File, my book about reading my Stasi file and tracking down those who had spied on me for the East German secret police behind the Berlin Wall. (Ancient European history, you understand. Nothing at all to do with today’s China.) The book had not yet appeared, but the publisher encouraged me to give some pre-publication interviews, including a live ‘micro interview’ on the then vibrant Sina Weibo microblogging site. The online interview was announced in advance and netizens could post questions on a dedicated page. One was: ‘The Berlin Wall has already fallen. Is it possible that the Great Firewall of China will fall as well? If so, under what circumstances?’ By the time we got to the appointed chat time, that post had disappeared, presumably deleted by Sina’s in-house censors.
This book lays out an argument for, and invites a conversation about, free speech in our new cosmopolis. I start from the history of dramatic transformations—technological, commercial, cultural and political—that have occurred since the mid-twentieth century, and with particular intensity since 1989. That year saw no less than four developments that would prove seminal for free speech in the twenty-first century: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the invention of the World Wide Web, the Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa on Salman Rushdie and the strange survival of Communist Party rule in China. History’s horse has not stopped galloping since, and I am always conscious of Walter Raleigh’s injunction that ‘who-so-euer in writing a modern Historie, shall follow truth too neare the heeles, it may happily strike out his teeth’.4 Nonetheless, I maintain that the basic character of the challenges we face in this world of neighbours is now clear.
Lee Bollinger, a First Amendment scholar and longtime president of Columbia University, makes this explicit, arguing that ‘we need to do on a global stage what was done on the US national stage over the 20th century’.81 In a speech delivered in 2010 at the Newseum, a museum of journalism in Washington, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton drew a straight line from the First Amendment to what she called ‘internet freedom’. Citing Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1941 speech enumerating four freedoms—of expression and of worship, from want and from fear—she effectively added a fifth, the freedom to connect. ‘We stand’, she said, ‘for a single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas’. Internet blocking firewalls should come down, as the Berlin Wall came down in 1989.82 The United States has long used respect for freedom of expression and worship as key criteria in rating other states. In 2012, a State Department spokesperson admonished India, the world’s largest democracy, for blocking websites and social media platforms which the Indian government argued were helping to foment intercommunal violence.83 The US government also developed a small programme to fund technologies that would help circumvent internet-blocking firewalls built by authoritarian regimes such as Iran and China.
The European Union by John Pinder, Simon Usherwood
Berlin Wall, BRICs, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, failed state, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, non-tariff barriers, open borders, price stability, trade liberalization, zero-sum game
January 2013 John Pinder Simon Usherwood Abbreviations ACP African, Caribbean, Pacific countries AFSJ area of freedom, security, and justice ALDE Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Benelux Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, and China CAP common agricultural policy CFCs chlorofluorocarbons CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CJHA Cooperation in Justice and Home Affairs Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Coreper Committee of Permanent Representatives CSDP Common Security and Defence Policy EAGGF European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund EC European Community ECB European Central Bank ECJ European Court of Justice (formal title, Court of Justice) Ecofin Council of Economic and Finance Ministers Ecosoc Economic and Social Committee ECR European Conservatives and Reformists ECSC European Coal and Steel Community ecu European Currency Unit (forerunner of euro) EDC European Defence Community EDF European Development Fund EEA European Economic Area EEC European Economic Community EFA European Free Alliance EFD Europe of Freedom and Democracy EFSF European Financial Stability Fund Efta European Free Trade Association ELDR European Liberals, Democrats, and Reformists EMS European Monetary System Emu Economic and Monetary Union ENP European Neighbourhood Policy EPC European Political Cooperation EPP–ED European People’s Party and European Democrats ERDF European Regional Development Fund ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism ESCB European System of Central Banks ESDP European Security and Defence Policy ESF European Social Fund ESM European Stability Mechanism ETS Emissions Trading Scheme EU European Union Euratom European Atomic Energy Community Gatt General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (forerunner of WTO) GDP Gross Domestic Product GNI Gross National Income GNP Gross National Product GSP Generalized System of Preferences GUE/NGL European United Left/Nordic Green Left IGC Intergovernmental Conference Ind Independent MEP Member of the European Parliament Nato North Atlantic Treaty Organization NTBs non-tariff barriers OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OLP Ordinary Legislative Procedure OMC Open method of coordination OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe PES Party of European Socialists PHARE Poland and Hungary: aid for economic reconstruction (extended to other Central and East European countries) QMV qualified majority voting (in the Council) SEA Single European Act SGP Stability and Growth Pact TACIS Technical Assistance to the CIS TEC Treaty establishing the European Community TEU Treaty on European Union TFEU Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union TSCG Treaty on Stability, Coordination, and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union UN United Nations UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change VAT value-added tax WEU Western European Union WTO World Trade Organization List of boxes 1 The Treaties 2 Structural funds and objectives 3 States’ net budgetary payments or receipts 4 Employment policy 5 Cotonou Convention, 2000–2020 6 EU agreements and links in the Third World, other than Cotonou and ENP List of charts 1 The Union’s institutions 2 Number of MEPs from each state, 2014 3 Party groups in the Parliament in 2012 4 Institutions of economic and monetary policy 5 Share of budget spent on CAP, 1970–2010 6 Breakdown of budget expenditure, 2012 7 Sources of revenue, 2011 8 Shares of world trade of EU, US, China, Japan, and others, 2010 9 How the EU is represented for Common Foreign and Security Policy 10 Direction of EU trade in goods by region, 2010 11 Shares of official development aid from EU, US, Japan, and others, 2011 12 Development aid from EU and member states by destination, 2010 List of illustrations 1 Winston Churchill at The Hague Photo by Kurt Hutton/Picture Post/Hulton Archive/Getty Images 2 Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman © Robert Cohen/AGIP/Rue des Archives, Paris 3 The Schuman Declaration Fondation Jean Monnet pour l’Europe, Lausanne 4 Edward Heath signing the Treaty of Accession Photo by Douglas Miller/Keystone/Getty Images 5 Jacques Delors Credit © European Union, 2013 6 Altiero Spinelli voting for his Draft Treaty Photo: European Parliament 7 European Council, 1979 Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images 8 Council of Ministers Credit © European Union, 2013 9 European Parliament in session Photo: European Parliament 10 The first meeting of the Commission with President José Manuel Barroso, 2004 Credit © European Union, 2013 11 Court of Justice sitting Credit © European Union, 2013 12 Euro notes and coins Banknotes draft design © EWI 13 Kohl and Mitterrand at Verdun © Bettmann/Corbis 14 The Berlin Wall comes down Photo © Richard Gardner 15 The G8 Summit at Camp David, May 2012 Credit © European Union, 2013 The publisher and the authors apologize for any errors or omissions in the above list. If contacted they will be pleased to rectify these at the earliest opportunity. List of maps 1 Growth of the EU, 1957–2013 2 Applicants for accession 3 The architecture of Europe, 2013 4 The EU’s neighbourhood Chapter 1 What the EU is for The European Union of today is the result of a process that began over half a century ago with the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community.
Following 1989, and the dissolution of the Soviet bloc, the Central and East European countries turned towards the Community, which they saw as a bastion of prosperity, democracy, and protection from a chaotic (and collapsing) Soviet Union. They naturally envisaged membership. The simplest case was the German Democratic Republic, as the Soviet-controlled part of Germany had called itself. The GDR became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990; and the Community made the necessary technical adjustments at speed so that the enlarged Germany could assume the German membership without delay. 14. The Berlin Wall comes down For the other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, extensive aid and development packages were put together under the Commission’s leadership. Projects such as PHARE sought to provide assistance with economic and political restructuring for the emergent democracies, spending roughly €600 million per year between 1990 and 2003, when it was wound up. However, such assistance, while welcome, was seen by many in the region as a diversion from membership.
De Gaulle still demurs. 1 July 1968 Customs union completed 18 months ahead of schedule. 1–2 December 1969 Hague Summit agrees arrangements for financing CAP, and resumption of accession negotiations. 1970s 22 April 1970 Amending Treaty signed, giving Community all revenue from common external tariff and agricultural import levies plus share of value-added tax, and European Parliament some powers over budget. 27 October 1970 Council establishes ‘EPC’ procedures for foreign policy cooperation. 22 March 1971 Council adopts plan to achieve Emu by 1980, soon derailed by international monetary turbulence. 22 January 1972 Accession Treaties of Denmark, Ireland, Norway, UK signed (but Norwegians reject theirs in referendum). 1 January 1973 Denmark, Ireland, UK join Community. 9–10 December 1974 Paris Summit decides to hold meetings three times a year as European Council and gives go-ahead for direct elections to European Parliament. 28 February 1975 Community and 46 African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries sign Lomé Convention. 18 March 1975 European Regional Development Fund established. 22 July 1975 Amending Treaty signed, giving European Parliament more budgetary powers and setting up Court of Auditors. 4–5 December 1978 European Council establishes European Monetary System with Exchange Rate Mechanism based on ecu. 7, 10 June 1979 First direct elections to European Parliament. 1980s 1 January 1981 Greece becomes tenth member of Community. 14 February 1984 Draft Treaty on European Union, inspired by Spinelli, passed by big majority in European Parliament. 25–6 June 1984 Fontainebleau European Council agrees on rebate to reduce UK’s net contribution to Community budget. 7 January 1985 New Commission takes office, Delors President. 14 June 1985 Schengen Agreement eliminating border controls signed by Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands. 28–9 June 1985 European Council approves Commission project to complete single market by 1992; considers proposals from Parliament’s Draft Treaty; initiates IGC for Treaty amendment. 1 January 1986 Spain, Portugal accede, membership now 12. 17, 28 February 1986 Single European Act signed. 1 July 1987 Single European Act enters into force. 1 July 1988 Interinstitutional Agreement between Parliament, Council, Commission on budgetary discipline and procedure enters into force. 24 October 1988 Court of First Instance established. 9 November 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall. German Democratic Republic opens borders. 8–9 December 1989 European Council initiates IGC on Emu; all save UK adopt charter of workers’ social rights. 1990s 28 April 1990 European Council agrees policy on German unification and relations with Central and East European states. 29 May 1990 Agreement signed to establish European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 19 June 1990 Second Schengen Agreement signed. 20 June 1990 EEC and Efta start negotiations to create European Economic Area (EEA). 25–6 June 1990 European Council decides to call IGC on political union, parallel with that on Emu. 3 October 1990 Unification of Germany and de facto enlargement of Community. 14–15 December 1990 European Council launches IGCs on Emu and political union. 9–10 December 1991 European Council agrees TEU (Maastricht Treaty). 16 December 1991 ‘Europe Agreements’ with Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia signed; those with Czech Republic and Slovakia (successors to Czechoslovakia), Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia follow at intervals. 7 February 1992 Maastricht Treaty signed. 2 May 1992 Agreement on EEA signed. 2 June 1992 Danish referendum rejects Maastricht Treaty. 20 September 1992 French referendum narrowly approves Maastricht Treaty. 6 December 1992 Swiss referendum rejects joining EEA; attempt to join EU shelved. 11–12 December 1992 European Council offers Denmark special arrangements to facilitate Treaty ratification; endorses Delors package of budgetary proposals; agrees to start accession negotiations with Austria, Norway, Sweden, Finland. 31 December 1992 Bulk of single market legislation completed on time. 18 May 1993 Second Danish referendum accepts Maastricht Treaty. 21–2 June 1993 Copenhagen European Council declares associated Central and East European states can join when they fulfil the political and economic conditions. 1 November 1993 Maastricht Treaty enters into force. 28 November 1994 Norwegian referendum rejects accession. 1 January 1995 Austria, Finland, Sweden join, membership now 15. 12 July 1995 European Parliament appoints first Union Ombudsman. 26 July 1995 Member states sign Europol Convention. 31 December 1995 EC–Turkey customs union enters into force. 29 March 1996 IGC to revise Maastricht Treaty begins. 2 October 1997 Amsterdam Treaty signed. 12 March 1998 Accession negotiations open with Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia. 3 May 1998 Council decides 11 states ready to adopt euro on 1 January 1999. 1 June 1998 European Central Bank established. 24–5 October 1998 European Council agrees measures of defence cooperation. 31 December 1998 Council fixes irrevocable conversion rates between euro and currencies of participating states. 1 January 1999 Euro becomes official currency of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain. 15 March 1999 Commission resigns following report by independent committee on allegations of mismanagement and fraud. 1 May 1999 Amsterdam Treaty enters into force. 10–11 December 1999 European Council decides on accession negotiations with six more states; recognizes Turkey as applicant; initiates IGC for Treaty revision. 2000s 15 January 2000 Accession negotiations open with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Slovakia. 20 June 2000 Lisbon European Council agrees measures for flexibility in EU economy. 28 September 2000 Danish voters reject membership of euro in referendum. 7–10 December 2000 European Council concludes negotiations for Nice Treaty and solemnly proclaims the Charter of Fundamental Rights. 1 January 2001 Greece becomes 12th member of the Eurozone. 7 June 2001 Irish voters reject Treaty of Nice in a referendum. 14–15 December 2001 Laeken European Council agrees declaration on future of Union, opening way for a wholesale reform process. 1 January 2002 Euro notes and coins enter into circulation. 28 February 2002 Convention on the Future of the EU opens in Brussels. 19 October 2002 Irish voters approve Treaty of Nice in a second referendum. 12–13 December 2002 Copenhagen European Council concludes accession negotiations with ten countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. 1 February 2003 Treaty of Nice enters into force. 14 September 2003 Swedish voters reject membership of euro in a referendum. 4 October 2003 IGC opens to consider treaty reform on basis of Convention’s draft EU constitution. 1 May 2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia join the Union, making 25 member states. 29 June 2004 Barroso nominated new Commission President. 29 October 2004 Heads of State and Government and the EU Foreign Ministers sign the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. 29 May, 1 June 2005 French and Dutch voters reject Constitutional Treaty in referendums. 3 October 2005 Accession negotiations open with Turkey and Croatia. 1 January 2007 Bulgaria and Romania become the 26th and 27th member states of the Union.
Girlfriend in a coma by Douglas Coupland
She asked not to see any more of their FX photos. Yuck. The photos sit on a stack beside flowers from the mayor as well as from various studios and film production companies wishing to purchase rights to her life story. On top of it all, the world itself has changed. Karen must try and absorb seventeen years of global changes. That can wait. And she thinks she'll go crazy if one more person tells her that the Berlin Wall came down and AIDS exists in the world. One week later, Wendy still can't comprehend Karen's return to the living and her complete retention of all her brain power. Wendy knows the medical statistics. To others, Karen's awakening is a lottery win - a prize behind Door Number 3, a pair of snowmobiles. But to Wendy, Karen is a river running backward, a rose that blooms under moonlight - something transcendent, an epiphany.
Karen is a time capsule - a creature from another era reborn, a lotus seed asleep for ten thousand years that springs to life as clear and true as though born yesterday. Wendy is concerned about swamping Karen with too much information or too much novelty. As a doctor, she can limit certain things. Richard has been coming in with the annual volumes of the World Book Encyclopedia and teaching Karen about the new years leading up to 1997. He is already at 1989: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the AIDS quilt - Karen must be so amazed at this. And then there's crack. Cloning. Life on Mars. Velcro. Charles and Diana. MAC cosmetics. Imagine learning so much stuff at once. Karen and Pam have spent some hours sifting through style magazines together; Wendy beamed with pleasure at the sight - so much like the old days. Good gossipy jags: "Oh, and Karen, food is amazing these days. It suddenly got good around 1988," Pam says, making Karen eager to try all the new food trends - Tex-Mex, Cajun, Vietnamese, Thai, Nouvelle, Japanese, Fusion, and California cuisine - "sushi, gourmet pizzas, tofu hot dogs, fajitas, flavored ice teas, and fat-free everything."
Their fashions seem alien yet attractive to Karen. She would have enjoyed wearing these new styles. "Pammie asked me, too. I told her, imagine walking a million miles . . . in heels, and she kind of got it." "Hey, Karen, don't shit me. That's crap. I could have told you that. There's other stuff. You know there is. How does it feel? I mean, seventeen years. Spill. And if you don't spill I'll spend the next hour telling you about the Berlin Wall coming down and AIDS." Only Hamilton can speak to her like this. Brat. He's always been able to go way off the edge with Karen. She likes him for this. "Well, okay, Hamilton. As one bullshitter to another. Very well." The Jeep is on the highway now, headed west toward Horseshoe Bay. The day is becoming pale blue and clean and cold. The ocean far down below the highway is a flat anvil blue.
The Global Citizen: A Guide to Creating an International Life and Career by Elizabeth Kruempelmann
Berlin Wall, business climate, corporate governance, different worldview, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, global village, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, money market fund, Nelson Mandela, young professional
To help you work through and reflect on your life abroad, it can be rewarding to share your experiences, pictures, and memories with other global citizens who also have exciting C U LT U R E P R E P : A M I N I - C O U R S E FOR THE C U LT U R A L L Y C H A L L E N G E D 55 Reverse Culture Shock by Elizabeth Kruempelmann (email@example.com) I experienced reverse culture shock when I returned to the States after a year studying abroad in Denmark and Germany. My senses were overloaded the whole time I was abroad. In addition to my business studies and field trips, I traveled to fifteen countries, experienced the fall of the Berlin Wall, learned two languages, and lived with a Danish family, Danish students, and a German family. My senses were stimulated almost every minute. When I returned home, there was simply nothing that stimulated my senses anymore. My mind had been programmed to speak foreign languages every day. Suddenly I had no outlet for all the words I was used to using regularly. My body had been accustomed to soaking up different sights and sounds, and suddenly I had to readjust to life on Maple Street.
It’s one thing to learn about European business at an American university taught by American professors, and it is quite another thing to study it in a European capital, where you are taught by prominent experts who can arrange company visits and field studies in other European and Eastern European cities. Sharing your cultural perspective will no doubt lead to lively and enriching intellectual exchanges. When the Berlin Wall came down in 1989 and Eastern Europe opened its doors to the West, it was a historical turning point for Europe. During my study-abroad exchange in Denmark, my professors—many of whom experienced firsthand World War II, the building of the Wall, and the subsequent division of Europe into East and West—gave us their personal perspectives. My professors also explained how the downfall of communism would affect individual European countries from a more global economic, social, and political point of view.
Access to professors may also be different than what you are used to at your home university. My Danish professors occasionally joined the students after class at the local pub, and one professor even invited the entire class to his house for tea. Being able to chat with the professors in a casual manner about topics both related and unrelated to our course was so educational. We discussed a variety of topics affecting Europe at the time, from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the economic and political issues facing the European Union. The learning opportunities that exist outside the classroom can sometimes be even more rewarding than those in the classroom. A P P R E C I AT E D I F F E R E N T C U LT U R E S During a learning-abroad program you will interact on a daily basis with your host family, other students, teachers, and a local community that may deal with daily matters much differently than you.
The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
And this decoupling invites a disquieting thought: if the future of power lies in disruption and interference, not management and consolidation, can we expect ever to know stability again? SO WHAT HAS CHANGED? It’s hard to identify the moment when the dispersal and decay of power, and the decline of the Weberian bureaucratic ideal, began—much less to do so in the precise way with which, say, the poet Philip Larkin pinpointed the advent of the sexual revolution: “Between the end of the Chatterley ban” and the Beatles’ first album.2 Still, November 9, 1989—the date the Berlin Wall fell—is not a bad place to start. Loosening half a continent from tyranny’s grip, unlocking borders, and opening new markets, the end of the Cold War and its animating ideological and existential struggle undermined the rationale for a vast national security state and the commitment of economic, political, and cultural resources that supported it. Whole populations forced to march more or less in lockstep were freed to find their own drummers, an upending of the existing order that found visceral expression in events such as the Christmas 1989 execution of the Ceausescus in Romania and the January 1990 storming of East Germany’s Stasi headquarters—the secret-service organization that represented one of the darker pinnacles of postwar bureaucratic achievement.
As General William Odom, Ronald Reagan’s National Security Agency director, observed: “By creating a security umbrella over Europe and Asia, Americans lowered the business transaction costs in all these regions: North America, Western Europe and Northeast Asia all got richer as a result.”3 Now those lower transaction costs could be extended, and with them also the promise of greater economic freedom. Slightly more than a year after thousands of Germans took sledgehammers to the Berlin Wall, in December 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research on the Franco-Swiss border, sent the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol and a server via the Internet, thereby creating the World Wide Web. That invention, in turn, sparked a global communications revolution that has left no part of our lives untouched.
In almost every year until the early 1980s, at least one new country in Africa, the Caribbean, or Pacific achieved independence. The colonial empires were gone but the Soviet empire—both the formal structure of the Soviet Union, and the de facto empire of the Eastern Bloc—remained. That would soon change, too, thanks to another “tryst with destiny.” November 9, 1989, saw the collapse of the Berlin Wall and launched the breakup of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. In just four years, between 1990 and 1994, the United Nations added twenty-five members. Since then the flow has slowed but not completely stopped. East Timor joined the United Nations in 2002; Montenegro, in 2006. On July 9, 2011, South Sudan became the world’s newest sovereign state. FIGURE 5.1. THE NUMBER OF SOVEREIGN NATIONS HAS QUADRUPLED SINCE 1945 SOURCE: Adapted from “Growth in United Nations Membership, 1945–Present,” http://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml.
Faster, Higher, Farther: How One of the World's Largest Automakers Committed a Massive and Stunning Fraud by Jack Ewing
1960s counterculture, Asilomar, asset-backed security, Berlin Wall, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, crossover SUV, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hiring and firing, McMansion, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs
A native of the Sudetenland, which had been part of Austria before World War I and became part of Czechoslovakia afterward, Porsche was already prominent in the fledgling auto industry. He had built a battery-powered car around the turn of the century and during World War I oversaw motorization of Austrian artillery at the Skoda automobile works in what is now the Czech Republic. (Many years later, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Volkswagen would acquire Skoda.) Between the wars, working mostly as an independent contractor, Porsche designed and built a series of innovative race cars for companies including Daimler-Benz and Auto-Union, which would later become part of Audi. Though he had never earned a university degree and was largely self-taught, Porsche’s reputation as an engineer was such that Josef Stalin tried to lure him to the Soviet Union to oversee vehicle construction there.
Whether the car was idling, climbing a hill, or speeding on a highway, the fuel-air cocktail could be mixed and burned for the best result. The improved motor still had a bit of a growl, but it was no longer prone to blowing clouds of black exhaust like the diesels of old. Volkswagen called the result TDI, or turbocharged direct injection. It took eleven years to perfect. Audi unveiled its first TDI model, an Audi 100 sedan, at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1989, a few weeks before the fall of the Berlin Wall. Piëch was proud of the innovation, which used an onboard computer to manage the engine, then a novelty. The five-cylinder engine in the Audi 100 used two liters less fuel per 100 kilometers of driving than the competition, he bragged. At the same time, the car accelerated more quickly and ran more cleanly. Emissions were 30 percent less, according to Piëch. (He did not define which emissions he was referring to, however.)
A similar transformation was taking place at Porsche’s main factory in Stuttgart. As is so often the case with makers of desirable, expensive sports cars, Porsche was not always profitable. Sports cars are luxury goods rather than necessities, and sales can plunge steeply during economic downturns or stock market crashes when potential buyers decide to cancel or postpone purchases. That was especially true before the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Until the 1990s, when markets in Eastern Europe, Russia, and China began to open up, Porsche was dependent on Europe and the United States. When both suffered recessions in the early 1990s, Porsche sales plunged so precipitously that the company suffered three money-losing years in a row and was close to bankruptcy. Like Volkswagen, Porsche recognized that Japanese auto manufacturers were much more efficient and that, to survive, it needed to copy their methods.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
Fierce Dancing filled in the blanks, it told the stories of the alternative cultures – pagans, new age travellers, punks and drop-outs – that had coalesced around this scene and contributed to its vibrancy. It told tales of women who gardened vegetable plots in no knickers, tepee valleys in the depths of Wales, and how to make poppy tea. It was, in that most adolescent sense, a revelation. And to an adolescent growing up in the consumerist nineties, seven years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and seventeen years into the rule of Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative party where alternative ideas about how to live seemed only to exist to sell ice cream and health drinks, it was also an escape. I’d often wondered what had happened to all the hippies. My favourite film at that time was Easy Rider. The legacy of the counterculture was celebrated in books and on TV, but, outside of the odd rave, the world around me seemed to contain little of the freedom, the rebellion and the exuberance that the sixties had supposedly promised.
Watching over us, across the snowy moonscape of eastern Berlin, is the Alexanderplatz television tower. A flying saucer spiked on a giant needle, it is the perfect vision of Soviet futurism. Twenty yards from the door at which it looks like my journey will end prematurely, a flock of municipal exhibition stands have come to rest on Alexanderplatz, commemorating the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. Black and white photos of GDR rebels – crouched over printing presses pumping out samizdat, or else in small groups, smoking – look nonchalantly into the lens of posterity. Who took these photos? Which of their fellow freedom fighters knew we would want to look back on this congregation of young minds which changed the course of history? The photos are captioned in French, English and German, interspersed with grainy pictures of officials from the regime, the tortuous surveillance equipment of the Stasi, or the bright, art-punk graphics of the underground magazines that spread the rebels’ message of freedom.
The right to freedom of association is fine, but why shouldnt the cops be allowed to mine your social network to figure out if youre hanging out with gangbangers and terrorists?…Would you rather have privacy or terrorists? The dialogue reflects a shift in Cory’s own thinking, but in the opposite direction. As he’s grown up he’s had to confront some of his youthful beliefs about the power of technology to make the world more free. The year the Berlin Wall came down Cory was 17 and, as he writes in the prologue to Little Brother, “communications tools were being used to bring information – and revolution – to the farthest-flung corners of the largest authoritarian state the Earth had ever seen.” But for the 17-year-olds of today, computers are no longer benign. “The seductive little boxes on their desks and in their pockets watch their every move, corral them in, systematically depriving them of those new freedoms I had enjoyed and made such good use of in my young adulthood.”
The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan
Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War
Random House website address: www.atrandom.com Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 24689753 First Edition Book design by Barbara M. Bachman To EDIT BORNSTEIN, AVNER RICHARD GOREN, LOBELL, R I C H A R D AND V A R D A N O W I T Z , AND H A R R Y W A L L B E F O R E T H E N A M E S OF J U S T A N D CAN HAVE PLACE, THERE MUST BE SOME COERCIVE —Thomas Hobbes, UNJUST POWER. LEVIATHAN PREFACE The years that follow an epochal military and political victory such as the fall of the Berlin Wall are lonely times for realists. The victors naturally assume that their struggle carries deep significance, of a kind that cannot fail to redeem the world. In deed, the harder and longer the struggle, the greater its mean ing in the mind of the winning side, and the greater the benefits it sees for humanity. Victory in World War I saw a burst of such idealism under the banner of "Wilsonianism," a notion that took little account of the real goals of America's European allies and even less account of the realities in the Balkans and the Near East, where democracy and freedom meant height ened ethnic awareness.
When I had left New York for Abidjan, all the businesspeople were boarding planes for Seoul and Tokyo, which departed from gates near Air Afrique's. The only non-Africans off to West Africa had been relief workers in T-shirts and khakis. Although the borders within West Africa are increasingly unreal, those separating West Africa from the outside world are in various ways becom ing more impenetrable. But Afrocentrists are right in one respect: we ignore this dying region at our own risk. When the Berlin Wall was falling, in November 1989,1 happened to be in Kosovo, covering a riot between Serbs and Albanians. The future was in Kosovo, I told myself that night, not in Berlin. The same day that Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat clasped hands on the White House lawn, my Air Afrique plane was approaching Bamako, Mali, re vealing corrugated-zinc shacks at the edge of an expanding desert. The real news wasn't at the White House, I realized.
A Theory of International Relations, 177,178 Atatiirk, Kemal, 38 Athens, ancient, 60-61, 73, 76, 94-96 Atlanta, Olympic Games in, 84-85 Atlantic Monthly, The, 3, 59,105, 111, 119,127 Aung San Suu Kyi, 78-79 Aurelian, 113 Austria, 131, 138,141 authoritarianism, 60-61, 64, 70, 72-79, 80 in China, 64-65, 71 new, 72-79 Roman, 111-17 Azerbaijan, 28, 67 Azeri Turks, 28, 50 B Baghdad, 102 Baker, James, 127 balance of power, 103 Balkans, 18, 29,43,47, 65,124, 138-41,178 U.S. intervention in, 139-40 war, 29-30, 99-103,139 Ball, George, 144 Bangladesh, 20, 24, 53 Barnevik, Percy, 82 BBC, 6 Begin, Menachem, 152 Beijing, 27 Beirut, 62,151-52 Bellow, Saul, 54,172 Benin, 14,16 Berlin, Isaiah, 72-73 Berlin Wall, fall of, 57 Bhutto, Benazir, 52, 74 birth rates, 51, 69,123; see also population growth Bismarck, Otto von, 70 Bombay, 27 borders, 18 and cultural conflict, 26-30 erosion, 7-8,40,130 and mapmaking, 37-43 in West Africa, 12-16,40, 42, 57 Bosnia, 22, 29, 44, 47, 79, 80,105,107, 180 democracy in, 63 mass murder in, 99-103 U.S. intervention in, 139-40 Brandeis, Louis, 83 Brazil, 19, 21, 83,179 democracy in, 64 Buchanan, Pat, 119 Bulgaria, 182 Burke, Edmund, 116,135-36 Burma, 78-79,107 Burton, Sir Richard Francis, 16,17, 108 Burundi, 123 Buttimer, Anne, Geography and the Human Spirit, 50 C Cairo, 36, 53 Calcutta, 27, 36 Cambodia, 79, 80, 96,134 mass murder in, 99-101 Nixon/Kissinger policy in, 144, 145-52 Cameroon, 14 Canada, 56, 77,107 Caracalla, Emperor, 114 Carlucci, Frank, 139 Carnegie, Andrew, 88 Carr, E.
The Once and Future Liberal: After Identity Politics by Mark Lilla
affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Gordon Gekko, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley
New parties formed, then factions within them, which then split off and became even newer parties. All this was an extraordinary experience for peoples who had been prevented from determining their collective destinies for generations. They were finally citizens. In the United States the picture was very different. Though Ronald Reagan publicly supported pro-democracy groups like Solidarity in Poland and dramatically called on Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall, at home he had been elected by people who could no longer quite see the point of arguing about the common good and engaging politically to achieve it. A new outlook on life had been gaining ground in the United States, one in which the needs and desires of individuals were given near-absolute priority over those of society. This subliminal revolution has done more to shape American politics in the past half century than any particular historical event.
Because sustaining civic feeling is so difficult, democracies are subject to entropy. When the bond of citizenship is badly cast or has been allowed to weaken, there is a natural tendency for subpolitical attachments to become paramount in people’s minds. We see this in every failed American effort to export democracy abroad. And we are also seeing it in Eastern Europe today, a particularly tragic development. Within a few years after the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, democratic institutions were established there. But not a sense of shared citizenship, which is the work of generations. Democracies without democrats do not last. They decay, into oligarchy, theocracy, ethnic nationalism, tribalism, authoritarian one-party rule, or some combination of these. For most of its history the United States has been lucky enough to evade these classic forces of entropy, even after a devastating Civil War and mass immigration.
Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization by Branko Milanovic
"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, mittelstand, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, stakhanovite, trade route, transfer pricing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce
Lakner, Christoph, and Anthony Atkinson. 2014. “Wages, Capital and Top Incomes: The Factor Income Composition of Top Incomes in the USA, 1960–2005.” Unpublished ms., November version. Lakner, Christoph, and Branko Milanovic. 2013. “Global Income Distribution: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession.” World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, no. 6719, December. Available at http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/1813-9450-6719. Lakner, Christoph, and Branko Milanovic. 2015. “Global Income Distribution: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession.” World Bank Economic Review, Advance Access published August 12, 2015, doi: 10.1093/wber/lhv039. Landes, David. 1961. “Some Thoughts on the Nature of Economic Imperialism.” Journal of Economic History 21(4): 496–512. Landes, David. 1988.
And national inequality levels, whether increasing in England during the early industrial period or increasing in China and the United States during recent decades, have also had global implications. Reading about global inequality is nothing less than reading about the economic history of the world. This book opens with the description and analysis of the most significant changes in income distributions that have occurred globally since 1988, using data from household surveys. The year 1988 is a convenient starting point because it coincides almost exactly with the fall of the Berlin Wall and reintegration of the then-communist economies into the world economic system. This event was preceded, just a few years earlier, by a similar reintegration of China. These two political changes are not unrelated to the increased availability of household surveys, which are the key source from which we can glean information about changes in global inequality. Chapter 1 documents in particular (1) the rise of what may be called the “global middle class,” most of whom are located in China and other countries in “resurgent Asia,” (2) the stagnation of the groups in the rich world that are globally well-off but nationally middle- or lower-middle class, and (3) the emergence of a global plutocracy.
(People are ranked by after-tax household per capita income expressed in dollars of equal purchasing power; for details of how income comparisons between countries are made, see Excursus 1.1.)1 The vertical axis shows the cumulative growth in real income (income adjusted for inflation and differences in price levels between the countries) between 1988 and 2008. This twenty-year period coincides almost exactly with the years from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the global financial crisis. It covers the period that may be called “high globalization,” an era that has brought into the ambit of the interdependent world economy first China, with a population of more than one billion people, and then the centrally planned economies of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, with about half a billion people. Even India can be included, since, with the reforms in the early 1990s, its economy has become more closely integrated with the rest of the world.
Trade Wars Are Class Wars: How Rising Inequality Distorts the Global Economy and Threatens International Peace by Matthew C. Klein
Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, intangible asset, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, passive income, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, Wolfgang Streeck
By November 1, the East Germans had removed their border controls with Czechoslovakia, which a few days later removed its border with West Germany. At that point, the East German government figured that it would not make much difference if East Germans could travel directly to West Berlin. The announcement of the policy change on November 9, 1989, encouraged hundreds of thousands of would-be emigrants to gather on the eastern side of the Berlin Wall. Once again, the military refused to fire, and the wall was breached. By December, the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany had begun negotiating with the opposition and had officially abandoned Marxist-Leninism. The revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe succeeded in large part because the Soviet Union lacked both the resources and the will to intervene. Unlike 1956 (Hungary), 1968 (Czechoslovakia), and 1979 (Afghanistan), the Soviets did not invade their satellites in the late 1980s to preserve their puppet regimes.
Crushing living standards to support the military was possible—Stalin had done it, after all—but it would have required domestic repression on a scale that Mikhail Gorbachev, who had ascended to the top of the party’s leadership in 1985, was uninterested in, and probably incapable of, imposing. Instead, Gorbachev’s priorities were softening the authoritarianism of his regime and repairing relations with the West. This gave the Central and Eastern Europeans their window of opportunity.3 Germany Restored When the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989, it was not immediately obvious that the two Germanys would reunite as quickly as they did. The biggest hurdle was diplomatic: the division of Germany had prevented the finalization of the peace treaty to officially end World War II. Reunification, however, would have established “a government adequate for the purpose” of negotiating a settlement with the original Allies.
The incumbent Socialist Unity Party quickly rebranded into the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), which promised a gentler form of leftism. It was led by a reformist leader who opposed the authoritarian repression of his predecessors. Party leaders hoped that they could do well enough in free elections to have a legitimate claim to rule. Things did not work out that way. On November 28, less than three weeks after the Berlin Wall was breached, West German chancellor Helmut Kohl presented the Bundestag with a ten-point plan for closer integration between the two Germanys. Most important was point number five, which stated that the West was prepared “to develop confederative structures between both states in Germany, with the aim of creating a federation” if East Germany were willing to become a democracy. While the Americans were quick to support Kohl’s push for reunification, the British, the French, and the Soviets were all unhappy.
Moscow, December 25th, 1991 by Conor O'Clery
Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine, The Chicago School
Koppel and Kaplan are laughing at a misunderstanding that has just occurred in an exchange with a friendly Kremlin functionary. The official approached the Americans and wished them a Happy Christmas. With a straight face Kaplan, who is Jewish, replied, “To me you will have to say ”Happy Hanukkah.”“Why would I have to say ‘Happy Honecker’?” asked the official, puzzled. The Americans burst out laughing at the official’s assumption that Kaplan is referring to Erich Honecker, who fled to Moscow after the fall of the Berlin Wall two years earlier. The mistake is understandable. The disgraced East German leader is in the news again this morning. The seventy-nine-year-old communist hard-liner was given compassionate asylum in Moscow by Gorbachev, who privately regards him as an “asshole” but who felt he should protect an old comrade. Fearing that after Gorbachev is no longer in power, Yeltsin will send him back to Berlin, Honecker has claimed political asylum in the embassy of Chile.
He made it clear that the doctrinaire communist regimes there could no longer count on Soviet tanks to prop them up. At a Foreign Ministry briefing Gerasimov called this the Frank Sinatra doctrine—they could do it their way. It led to a series of counterrevolutions throughout 1989, in which one communist regime after another in Eastern Europe was ousted. They began in Poland and spread to Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. The Berlin Wall fell in November, leading to German reunification a year later. Aware that if Yeltsin won a contested seat in the new Congress of People’s Deputies, he would have a popular mandate, the Soviet leader set a trap for his most strident critic. He fixed the rules so that government ministers could only stand for election if they resigned their posts. If his tormentor did run, and if he were defeated, he would be out of a job.
Gorbachev has worked hard to get the tone and content of the letters right. The warm relationship with his counterparts abroad is most important to the Soviet president. It is a measure of his international standing, a recognition of what he has achieved in reforming the Soviet Union, and an assurance of global approval for lessening world tensions, reversing the nuclear arms race, allowing the Berlin Wall to fall, and letting Eastern European countries have their freedom. Chernyaev knocks on the door of the resting room. It takes Gorbachev five minutes to compose himself and come out. He looks fresh and fit, but his eyes are teary. Grachev notes a slight redness, caused either by lack of sleep or perhaps the shedding of a few tears provoked by the tension of the final days. The president settles into his high-backed leather chair and carefully reads the letters one by one before signing each with a felt pen.
Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health by Laurie Garrett
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, collective bargaining, desegregation, discovery of DNA, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, employer provided health coverage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Induced demand, John Snow's cholera map, Jones Act, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, phenotype, profit motive, Project Plowshare, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, stem cell, the scientific method, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism
Even before the USSR collapsed East German scientists got sobering glimpses of the price they were going to pay for decades of isolation from their more advanced West German peers. In 1989, months before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Iron Curtain weakened enough to allow some 400,000 Germans from the East to visit the West, and 1 percent of her scientists relocated westward. Those scientists who went west told colleagues back home that they found their skills woefully backward. In particular, the almost complete lack of computer skills and knowledge of computer-driven research tools put the Easterners twenty years behind.155 And after the fall of the Berlin Wall the West German scientists were shocked to see how completely the Communist Party controlled Eastern science, allowing dogma to carry greater weight than such seemingly irrefutable foundations as the law of physics.156 Czechoslovakia awoke from its 1990 Velvet Revolution to the realization that most of its fifteen thousand scientists had been cowed or jailed after the Soviet invasion of 1968.
In Angarsk, which ranked fourth worst, it was 15. No city ranked above a 22—except Noril’sk. Noril’sk was at the extreme end of a Soviet ecological legacy that could be felt from East Berlin all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In Bohemia, the Czech Republic, fifty years of strip mining and coal smelting had devastated what once was the preferred vacation site of the Hapsburgs and aristocracy all over Central Europe. The fall of the Berlin Wall gave West Germans a shocking look at the industrial filth and putrid air of their eastern countrymen. The Central Asian nations of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan were suffering from an insane irrigation scheme begun by Lenin, draining the vast, landlocked Aral Sea to provide water for cotton fields, resulting in elevated throat cancer due to environmental dust.64 The visual and physical filth was pervasive.
He said babies needed to grow without vaccines.” By 1991, according to the World Health Organization, only 60 percent of Russia’s children under five years of age had received the three doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccines necessary to ensure immunity—even though WHO experts contended a 95 percent rate was needed to prevent epidemics. The antivaccine sentiment had even reached Germany, on both sides of the Berlin Wall, where diphtheria vaccination was incomplete or absent altogether for nearly a quarter of the adult population in 1997.94 And that was only one part of the story, statistics showed. Russian measles vaccine coverage was only 78 percent in 1991; its polio coverage a mere 71 percent; and virtually no girls were vaccinated against rubella.95 The diphtheria epidemic first surfaced in the USSR in 1987, when the number of confirmed cases reached 2,000.
The Globalization of Inequality by François Bourguignon
Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, minimum wage unemployment, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Gordon, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, very high income, Washington Consensus
In fact, once we stop normalizing and use the original household survey data, estimates of global distribution show a slightly slower reversal in inequality trends. The acceleration then takes place in the 2000s rather than the mid- 1990s.16 Since this represents a more recent phenomenon, maybe it has not registered for everyone yet. See table 2 in the appendix to this chapter. Using a different database, Christoph Lakner and Branko Milanovic (“Global Income Distribution: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6719, Washington, DC, 2013) found the same drop in inequality in the 2000s, although less pronounced than in table 2. Two recent draft papers reach the same conclusion. The first one, by Miguel Niño-Zarazay, Laurence Roopez, and Finn Tarp, “Global Interpersonal Inequality: Trends and Measurement” (WIDER Working Paper 2014/004) based on GDP per capita normalized data finds that the drop in global inequality may have started around 1980.
The defining institutional change in the last quarter of the twentieth century was undoubtedly the deregulation of markets and the process of economic liberalization, launched at the end of the 1970s in the United States by the Reagan administration and in the United Kingdom by the Thatcher government. This would later spread to the rest of the world, with a significant acceleration after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. These reforms sought to relax what were seen as the overly strict regulations that states had placed on markets in the aftermath of the finan- 92 Chapter 3 cial crisis of the 1930s and the Second World War, and to liberate individual initiative from what were seen as stifling levels of taxation and regulation. The economic climate— national economies were adapting to a changing world economy, which had just undergone its first major postwar shock with the oil price crises of the 1970s—made the implementation of these reforms politically feasible.
Index 9/11 attacks, 139 Abacha, 151 Abu Dhabi, 127 Africa: Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and, 156; evolution of inequality and, 46t, 54–55; fairer globalization and, 147, 151, 154–56, 179, 183; global inequality and, 16, 21, 23, 30–31, 34, 36; globalization and, 122–23, 126–27; population growth and, 183; rise in inequality and, 90, 109, 111–12, 185 African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA), 155 agriculture, 12, 82, 84, 122–23, 127–28, 155 AIDS, 156 Alesina, Alberto, 134 Anand, Sudhir, 13n4 Argentina, 46t, 110, 172 artists, 86–87 Asian dragons, 34, 82 Bangladesh, 30, 46t, 54 Belgium, 46t, 53, 101–2, 169 Berlin Wall, 91 Big Bang, 95 Bolivia, 16, 24 Bolsa Familia, 166 bonuses, 87, 174 Bottom Billion, The (Collier), 23 Brazil, 110, 186; evolution of inequality and, 46t, 55, 59, 70; fairer globalization and, 150, 154, 166–68, 173; Gini coeffi- cient of, 22; global inequality and, 21–23; globalization and, 127, 133 Buffett, Warren, 5–6, 159–60 Cameroon, 46t, 54 Canada, 46t, 51f capital: developed/developing countries and, 5; evolution of inequality and, 55–58, 60, 73; fairer globalization and, 158–62, 167, 171, 175, 182; GDP measurement and, 13–15, 20–21, 23, 26, 27f, 29–30, 39, 41–45, 56–57, 94, 123, 127, 165–66, 176; globalization and, 117, 125–26, 132, 137; human, 74, 167, 175; labor and, 3–4, 55– 58, 60, 158, 161n7, 185; liberalization and, 96; mobility of, 3, 73–74, 93, 98–99, 115, 160, 162, 182, 185; rise in inequality and, 74, 76–80, 84–85, 89, 93, 95–99, 103, 109, 114–15; taxes and, 187, 189 (see also taxes) Card, David, 105–6 Caruso, Enrico, 86 Checchi, Daniele, 107 China: evolution of inequality and, 47, 53, 57–60; fairer globalization and, 150, 154, 165–66, 172, 178; geographical disequilibria and, 83; global inequality and, 16; globalization and, 120– 22, 128; Huajian and, 155; Human Development Report and, 25; international trade and, 75; Kuznets hypothesis and, 192 China (cont.) 113; protectionism and, 178; Revolution of, 26; rise in inequality and, 2, 11n2, 17, 25, 30, 36, 38, 46t, 75, 82–83, 112–13; standard of living and, 16, 120– 22; taxes and, 165 Cold War, 149, 153 Collier, Paul, 23 Colombia, 133 commodity prices, 147, 182 competition: Asian dragons and, 34, 82; deindustrialization and, 75–82; effect of new players and, 75–76; emerging economies and, 178, 187–88; fairer globalization and, 155, 169, 173, 176–79, 182; globalization and, 117–18, 130; markets and, 76– 77, 79–82, 84, 86, 94–98, 102, 104, 115–18, 130, 155, 169, 173, 176–79, 182, 186–88; offshoring and, 81–82; rents and, 102; rise in inequality and, 76– 77, 79–82, 84, 86, 94–96, 98, 102, 104, 115–16; Southern perspective on, 82–85; United Kingdom and, 78–79; United States and, 78–79; wage ladder effects and, 78–79 conditional cash transfers, 165–66 consumers: fairer globalization and, 177–78; spending of, 10, 12–13, 61; subsidies and, 109–10 consumption: evolution of inequality and, 42t, 44t; expenditure per capita and, 13, 15, 42t, 44t; fairer globalization and, 159, 177; globalization and, 137–39; growth and, 13–15, 42t, 44t, 80, 137–39, 159, 177; protection- Index ism and, 7, 147, 154, 157, 176– 79; rise in inequality and, 80 convergence: evolution of inequality and, 65, 69; fairer globalization and, 146–47, 157; globalization and, 120–22, 125; growth and, 16; income and, 16; poverty reduction and, 147–48; standard of living and, 7, 147–48 credit: default swaps and, 139; evolution of inequality and, 61; fairer globalization and, 164–65, 172, 180; globalization and, 131–32, 137–40; rise in inequality and, 96; taxes and, 164 credit cards, 165 criminal activity, 133–34, 152 crises: evolution of inequality and, 48, 50, 54, 57, 73–74; fairer globalization and, 163, 176; Glass- Steagall Act and, 174n15; global inequality and, 20, 38–41; globalization and, 119–22, 125, 135–39, 142; recent, 48, 110, 135, 142, 163, 188; rise in inequality and, 92, 94, 96, 99, 109–11; “too big to fail” concept and, 174–75 Current Population Survey, 21 debit cards, 165 deindustrialization, 1, 102, 188; effects on developed countries, 75–82; exports and, 76, 82; globalization and, 120; international trade and, 75–76, 78–79; manufacturing and, 75–82, 84, 123; North vs.
Shadows of Empire: The Anglosphere in British Politics by Michael Kenny, Nick Pearce
battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, corporate governance, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, informal economy, invention of the telegraph, Khartoum Gordon, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Nixon shock, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, trade route, Washington Consensus
The idea lived on in the early twentieth century through debates in high politics about tariff reform versus free trade and came alive again both in arguments over the future of the British Empire between the world wars and in the soul-searching about Britain's place in the world that accompanied decolonisation, the rise of the ‘New Commonwealth’, and Britain's entry to the European Economic Community (EEC). Then, as the ‘short twentieth century’1 came to an end after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the Anglosphere was reinvented once more, becoming a potent way of imagining Britain's future as a global, deregulated and privatised economy outside the EU. In this guise it forms an important part of the story of how Britain came to take the historic decision, in the summer of 2016, to leave the EU. In this book we offer an account of some of the main political uses to which the idea of the Anglosphere has been put over the last century or more in British politics.
In her address to the English-Speaking Union in 1999 she unequivocally endorsed Conquest's thinking, remarking that ‘such an international alliance … would redefine the political landscape’ and, in the long term, transform ‘politically backward areas [by] creating the conditions for a genuine world community’.44 Like him, she drew a sharp contrast between the dynamism and cultural community associated with the Anglosphere, on the one hand, and the EU, on the other, which lacked the deeper set of shared values that had for so long sustained the Anglo-American and Anglosphere ideals. With tongue slightly in cheek, she reminded her audience that ‘God separated Britain from mainland Europe, and it was for a purpose.’45 She also revisited the vision developed by Churchill of Anglo-America as bedrock for the Western order in the post-war world. But now, with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the demise of the Cold War – both victories that she unequivocally claimed for the English-speaking peoples – Thatcher offered considerable encouragement to those pursuing the Anglosphere as a geo-political and economic alternative to European integration. Thatcher's public commitment to these ideas represented a notable shift in her own outlook and was prompted by her sharp turn against the EU.
Bennett, The Anglosphere Challenge: Why the English-Speaking Nations Will Lead the Way in the Twenty-First Century (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007). 48 Ibid. 49 James C. Bennett, ‘The emerging Anglosphere’, Orbis, 46/1 (2002). 50 John O'Sullivan, ‘A British-led Anglosphere in world politics’, The Telegraph, 29 December 2007. 51 Hannan, How We Invented Freedom and Why it Matters. 6 The Eurosceptic Anglosphere Emerges In the two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, proponents of the Anglosphere were required to reorientate their ambitions in the wake of some profound shifts in the global economy and the political environments in which they were operating. In the 1990s, American capitalist democracy was indisputably dominant, ideologically and economically. Globalisation under the aegis of American liberalism was the ‘given’ of most economic arguments and political discourse.
Inside British Intelligence by Gordon Thomas
active measures, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, lateral thinking, license plate recognition, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War
On their workstation screens at Fort Meade, people had watched the dramatic fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and listened to President Mikhail Gorbachev say that Russia still had “its proper place as a superpower.” For his listeners it was sufficient reason for them to continue spying on an old enemy. At GCHQ the annual budget was increased to £600 million, making it by far the largest slice of the British intelligence funding, and it also received money to work on NSA black projects from funds hidden inside the costs of other U.S. defense projects. WITH HIS MUTED TEXAS accent and his “sexual orientation” listed as “straight” in his naval records, Studeman had taken over the NSA weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall. His background as a hard-nosed intelligence officer had preceded him. He had served as operations intelligence chief with the Seventh Fleet during the Vietnam War before becoming commander at the Naval Operational Intelligence Center in Washington.
Three days after Scarlett’s appointment as JIC chairman, 9/11 happened. Scarlett saw how the grimly effective simplicity of the attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon had struck with numbing abruptness within the U.S. intelligence community. He wrote that what clearly emerged from the disaster was “a devastating pointer to U.S. intelligence failure.” Yet the signs had been there: the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, the First Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Iraqi Freedom, the collapse of Soviet Communism, the slide into anarchy in the Balkans, the emergence of al-Qaeda, the revolt of militants against the regimes in power across the Muslim world, and the rise of religious ideology into a powerful cohesive force that was daily expanding not only among the urban poor but to middle-class professionals.
All were duly noted and the information was passed on by Sorokin to his MI6 contact. The conclusion was that though Maxwell worked as a Mossad informer, he was primarily motivated to promote himself as a major dealmaker in the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, like many other British businessmen and politicians, Maxwell was placed on the surveillance list that MI6 shared with MI5. While the collapse of the Berlin Wall had caught many analysts, including those in MI6, by surprise, McColl was not one of them. Neither did he share the view that the intelligence world would become an easier place in which to operate now that the threat of a superpower confrontation had vanished. With an already burnished career, McColl was recalled to London to continue his progress along the path that would eventually lead him to the top.
That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum
addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks
TWO Ignoring Our Problems It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. —Evolutionary theory We are going to do a terrible thing to you. We are going to deprive you of an enemy. —Georgi Arbatov, Soviet expert on the United States, speaking at the end of the Cold War It all seems so obvious now, but on the historic day when the Berlin Wall was cracked open—November 11, 1989—no one would have guessed that America was about to make the most dangerous mistake a country can make: We were about to misread our environment. We should have remembered Oscar Wilde’s admonition: “In this world there are only two tragedies. One is not getting what one wants, and the other is getting it.” America was about to experience the second tragedy. We had achieved a long-sought goal: the end of the Cold War on Western terms.
All four—globalization, the IT revolution, out-of-control deficits and debt, and rising energy demand and climate change—are occurring incrementally. Some of their most troubling features are difficult to detect, at least until they have reached crisis proportions. Save for the occasional category-5 hurricane or major oil spill, these challenges offer up no Hitler or Pearl Harbor to shock the nation into action. They provide no Berlin Wall to symbolize the threat to America and the world, no Sputnik circling the Earth proclaiming with every cricket-like chirp of its orbiting signal that we are falling behind in a crucial arena of geopolitical competition. We don’t see the rushing river of dollars we send abroad every month—about $28 billion—to sustain our oil addiction. The carbon dioxide that mankind has been pumping into the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution, and at rising rates over the past two decades, is a gas that cannot be seen, touched, or smelled.
Hard to believe, but 1979 was just getting started. The energy world would be substantially affected by two other political events of that year. Margaret Thatcher was elected prime minister of Great Britain on May 4, 1979. She and Ronald Reagan, who took office as president of the United States in 1981, implemented free-market-friendly economic policies that helped to pave the way for the expansion of globalization after the fall of the Berlin Wall. This increased economic activity the world over, massively increasing the number of people who could afford cars, motor scooters, electric appliances, and international travel. Less noticed but just as important, in 1979, three years after Mao Tse-tung’s death, China’s communist government permitted small farmers to raise their own crops on individual plots and to sell the surplus for their own profit.
The Future Won't Be Long by Jarett Kobek
Berlin Wall, British Empire, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban decay, wage slave, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional
“I’ve got to get back to work.” “I’ll walk you,” I said, “it’s the least that I can do.” “Before we go,” he said, “take a look at this.” He brought me over to three slabs of freestanding pieces of concrete. I’d noticed them when we’d come in, but hadn’t particularly cared for the mural. Public art gives me a bad case of the shivers. “This is the Berlin Wall,” said Thomas Cromwell. “¿Qué es?” I asked. “These are parts of the Berlin Wall.” “I’ll be,” I said, running my fingers across the concrete. I’d witnessed the thing when it stood in Berlin, as a young girl on a continental tour with Daddy, Mother, and Dahlia. My father insisted that his daughters touch the wall, despite neither of us understanding its import. I was too young. Dahlia, you’ll not be surprised to learn, was too dense.
Goes Gold OCTOBER 1993: Adeline Receives a Postcard DECEMBER 1993: Dorian Corey JANUARY 1994: Baby Attends the Launch for Philip Levine’s The Bread of Time FEBRUARY 1994: Baby Sees Schindler’s List FEBRUARY 1994: Karen Spencer MARCH 1994: Baby Adopts the King of France APRIL 1994: Baby’s New Novel MAY 1994: Baby Sees a Ghost JUNE 1994: Baby Turns In His Manuscript AUGUST 1994: Reunion AUGUST 1994: Reunion, Part Two NEW YEAR’S EVE 1994: Baby and Adeline Watch Television APRIL 1995: Baby and Adeline Go to Norman Mailer’s House APRIL 1995: Trouble in Club Land MAY 1995: Adeline Has Lunch with Thomas Cromwell, Touches the Berlin Wall (Again) JUNE 1995: Dinner at Tom and Aubrey’s NOVEMBER 1995: Suzanne Comes to New York City MARCH 1996: Baby Explains How the World Works APRIL 1996: Peter Gatien Fires Michael Alig APRIL 1996: Baby and Adeline Go to the Mars Bar APRIL 1996: Michael Musto Breaks a Story MAY 1996: Baby and Parker Play Pool JUNE 1996: Baby Looks for Michael SEPTEMBER 1996: Baby and Adeline See Freaks SEPTEMBER 1996: Baby Does an Event at the Union Square Barnes & Noble OCTOBER 1996: Baby Goes on a Book Tour NOVEMBER 1996: Baby Goes to Honey Trap DECEMBER 1996: Michael Alig Is Arrested DECEMBER 1996: Adeline Breaks the News DECEMBER 1996: Baby Attempts a New Book CHRISTMAS DAY 1996 About the Author SEPTEMBER 1986 Baby’s Parents Murder Each Other So Baby Goes to New York I moved to New York not long after my mother killed my father, or was it my father who murdered my mother?
He never wrote back. JULY 1993 Daddy Was in KGB Gets a Good Review A bright moment occurred when the Bay Guardian featured Daddy Was in KGB as “Demo Tape O’ The Week.” Минерва rushed into the apartment, her pale face flushed with ruddy color. It was the first time in our friendship where she’d displayed unbridled enthusiasm. She seemed positively American. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the evaporation of Communism, it wasn’t a question of “if?” but of “when?” and “where?” I’m happy to report that the when is now and the where is here. Daddy Was in the KGB, a S.F. punk outfit made up of four women who’ve escaped the former Soviet States, offers a headcrunching, genre-bending response to the last few years of realpolitik. Songs like “Sergey Kirov Makes Fuck in Karl Marx” and “Do It in Your NKVDs” warp the mind and offer a PhD-level education in Russian history and American consumerism.
Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky
"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population
Twenty years earlier, he was the criminal leader of one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups,” according to a Pentagon report.12 That is why President Reagan had to support the apartheid regime, increasing trade with South Africa in violation of congressional sanctions and supporting South Africa’s depredations in neighboring countries, which led, according to a UN study, to 1.5 million deaths.13 That was only one episode in the war on terrorism that Reagan declared to combat “the plague of the modern age,” or, as Secretary of State George Shultz had it, “a return to barbarism in the modern age.”14 We may add hundreds of thousands of corpses in Central America and tens of thousands more in the Middle East, among other achievements. Small wonder that the Great Communicator is worshipped by Hoover Institution scholars as a colossus whose “spirit seems to stride the country, watching us like a warm and friendly ghost.”15 The Latin American case is revealing. Those who called for freedom and justice in Latin America are not admitted to the pantheon of honored dissidents. For example, a week after the fall of the Berlin Wall, six leading Latin American intellectuals, all Jesuit priests, had their heads blown off on the direct orders of the Salvadoran high command. The perpetrators were from an elite battalion armed and trained by Washington that had already left a gruesome trail of blood and terror. The murdered priests are not commemorated as honored dissidents, nor are others like them throughout the hemisphere.
The plague of repression then spread through the hemisphere, encompassing the 1973 coup that installed the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile and later the most vicious of all, the Argentine dictatorship—Ronald Reagan’s favorite Latin American regime. Central America’s turn—not for the first time—came in the 1980s under the leadership of the “warm and friendly ghost” of the Hoover Institution scholars, who is now revered for his achievements. The murder of the Jesuit intellectuals as the Berlin Wall fell was a final blow in defeating the heresy of liberation theology, the culmination of a decade of horror in El Salvador that opened with the assassination, by much the same hands, of Archbishop Óscar Romero, the “voice for the voiceless.” The victors in the war against the Church declared their responsibility with pride. The School of the Americas (since renamed), famous for its training of Latin American killers, announced as one of its “talking points” that the liberation theology initiated at Vatican II was “defeated with the assistance of the US army.”20 Actually, the November 1989 assassinations were almost a final blow; more effort was yet needed.
Contrary to fifty years of deceit, it was quietly conceded that the main concern in this region was not the Russians, but rather what is called “radical nationalism,” meaning independent nationalism not under U.S. control.3 All of this has evident bearing on the received standard version, but it passed unnoticed—or, perhaps, therefore it passed unnoticed. Other important events took place immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall, ending the Cold War. One was in El Salvador, the leading recipient of U.S. military aid—apart from Israel and Egypt, a separate category—and with one of the worst human rights records anywhere. That is a familiar and very close correlation. The Salvadoran high command ordered the Atlacatl Battalion to invade the Jesuit university and murder six leading Latin American intellectuals, all Jesuit priests, including the rector, Fr.
Powers and Prospects by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, old-boy network, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, theory of mind, Tobin tax, Turing test
Nor are they likely to be subjected to the results of a 1994 Gallup poll, considered to be the first independent and scientific survey, published in the Miami Spanish-language press but apparently not elsewhere: that 88 per cent said they were ‘proud of being Cuban’ and 58 per cent that ‘the revolution’s successes outstrip its failures’, 69 per cent identified themselves as ‘revolutionaries’ (but only 21 per cent as ‘Communist’ or ‘socialist’), 76 per cent said they were ‘satisfied with their personal life’, and 3 per cent said that ‘political problems’ were the key problems facing the country. If such Communist atrocities were to be known, it might be aecessary to nuke Havana instead of simply trying to kill as many people as possible from starvation and disease to bring ‘democracy’. That became the new pretext for strangling Cuba after the fall of the Berlin wall, the ideological institutions not missing a beat as they shifted gears. No longer was Cuba an agent of the Kremlin, bent on taking over Latin America and conquering the United States, trembling in terror. The lies of 30 years can be quietly shelved: terror and economic warfare have always been an attempt to bring democracy, in the revised standard version. Therefore we must tighten the embargo that ‘has contributed to an increase in hunger, illness, death and to one of the world’s largest neurological epidemics in the past century’, according to health experts writing in US medical journals in October 1994.
Many times, in fact, though the US has sometimes been able to mobilise El Salvador, Romania, and a few others to the cause of justice and freedom; and in the Security Council, Britain is fairly reliable, taking second place in vetoes (France a distant third) since the 1960s, when Moscow’s dominance became intolerable to true democrats.4 As Kennedy’s ‘monolithic and ruthless conspiracy’ engaged in world conquest faded from the scene in the 1980s, the search was on for new aggressors threatening our borders and our lives. Libya, disliked and defenceless, served as a particularly useful punching bag for courageous Reaganites. Other candidates include crazed Arabs generally, international terrorists, or whoever else can be conjured up. When George Bush celebrated the fall of the Berlin Wall by invading Panama, it was not in defence against Communism; rather, the demon Noriega, captured, tried, and condemned for his crimes, almost all committed while he was on the CIA payroll. At this moment, half of US military aid goes to Colombia, the hemisphere’s leading human rights violator, with a shocking record of atrocities. The pattern is typical, but the pretext is not; this time, it is defence against narcotraffickers.
A minor one is Russia; though now an ally it remains a potential threat to US ‘preponderance’, the currently fashionable term for global rule. But the primary threat is ‘Third World weapons proliferation’, Air Force Director of Science and Technology General Richard Paul informed Jane’s. We must maintain military spending and strengthen the ‘defense industrial base’ because of ‘the growing technological sophistication of Third World conflicts’, the Bush Administration had explained to Congress while watching the Berlin Wall collapse, taking with it the most efficient pretext for ‘subsidy’. No one who has kept their eyes on the ‘security system’ will be surprised to learn that both threats are to be enhanced. Some of the funding for the emergency Pentagon supplement is to be drawn from programs to help dismantle and safeguard the nuclear arsenals of the former USSR. To protect ourselves from the resulting threat, we will have to ‘increase the Defense Department’s budget’, Florida Democratic Representative Pete Peterson commented.
Can Democracy Work?: A Short History of a Radical Idea, From Ancient Athens to Our World by James Miller
Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto
Yet with twists and turns, and despite some spectacular setbacks, the “great democratic revolution” that Tocqueville described indeed continued, sometimes flaring up with disturbing results, throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. Tocqueville was one of the first in a long line of modern writers who have believed that democracy in some sense represented a logical culmination of human affairs: for Francis Fukuyama, writing in 1989, the year that jubilant Germans tore down the Berlin Wall, liberal democracy marked “the end of history,” with an American exclamation point. But history hasn’t evolved in quite the way that these theorists anticipated. Tocqueville expected democracy to produce greater equality—yet democratic states conjoined with market societies have recurrently produced growing inequality. At the same time, as nations have grown larger, and as new transnational institutions have changed the everyday life of millions, those who govern have become increasingly remote, often making democracy in practice seem like a puppet show, a spectacle in which hidden elites pull all the strings—not “a great word” with a “history that has yet to be enacted.”
After college, she did graduate work in political science, becoming an expert in Soviet politics and international relations. In 1981, she joined the faculty of Stanford University, subsequently serving in the National Security Council under President George H. W. Bush, where she had her first real experience in government as part of the foreign policy team that oversaw the start of democratic transitions in Eastern and Central European countries after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. She was, in other words, like Samuel Huntington before her, just the kind of liberal technocrat that the direct democrats in Occupy Wall Street regarded as complicit in ongoing American war crimes. The cover of Rice’s book features a famous black-and-white photograph of Martin Luther King, Jr., at the head of a march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965—a high point of the American civil rights movement, which Rice covers in the first chapter of her book.
But so-called common sense is rare, particularly in people who are experts in some narrowly defined field of knowledge. And these are just some of the reasons that it is hard to meet the manifold challenges to realizing democratic ideals in large and complex modern societies. * * * IN THE VIEW of Václav Havel, the Czech dissident who helped guide his nation through its deliberately nonviolent transition to free institutions after the destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the very difficulties facing modern liberal democracies will episodically lead to a temptation: people will conclude that political life, viewed realistically, “is chiefly the manipulation of power and public opinion, and that morality has no place in it.” This literally de-moralized view of politics would mean, according to Havel, losing “the idea that the world might actually be changed by the force of truth, the power of a truthful word, the strength of a free spirit, conscience and responsibility—with no guns, no lust for power, no political wheeling and dealing.”
Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am by Robert Gandt
airline deregulation, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Maui Hawaii, RAND corporation, Tenerife airport disaster, yield management, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
Air France and British European Airways also flew the corridors to West Germany, while the Russian and East German airlines operated from Schoenefeld Airport in the Eastern Zone. Since the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, Berlin had been a divided city, living under the guns of the Red Army. For the pilots, Berlin had the camaraderie of a fighter squadron, a men’s social club, a fraternity house. It was an airline within an airline. The pilots flew together and skied together and drank together. They lent each other money and rotated girlfriends. Their cohesiveness was due, in part, to the shared uniqueness of their outpost, Berlin. They were settlers in a strange land. And they knew that what they did had a purpose. Every day they saw the reasons for their presence—the Berlin Wall that split the city, MiG fighters skulking in the corridors, Red Army tanks maneuvering in the countryside.
It wasn’t a simple transfer of assets, since the authority to service Heathrow required the approval of both the United States Department of Transportation and the British government, which had little interest in allowing a competitor the size of United Airlines into the same arena with their home team, British Airways. Pan Am wobbled closer than ever to Tango Uniform. Without an infusion of cash, the airline wouldn’t last long enough for the Heathrow sale to be consummated. Something else had to go. Quickly. So Tom Plaskett reached up on the shelf and seized another Pan Am property. For this one, history had already supplied a buyer. In the autumn of 1989 the Berlin Wall tumbled. The following year, to the astonishment of the world, the reunification of Germany proceeded at the speed of a Blitzkrieg. It was because of the partition of Germany that Pan Am’s Internal German Service had begun after World War II. For forty years the isolated city had been connected to the free world, via the three air corridors, by Pan American airplanes. Now, unbelievably, Berlin was no longer isolated.
The trouble was, there was nobody—really—to be mad at. They wanted to argue that, damnit, Pan Am shouldn’t be selling out to Lufthansa. They wanted to believe that Pan Am, by God’s will and Allied decree and manifest destiny, had a right to be in Berlin forever. But they knew better. History had dealt them a joker. Every day they flew over the meandering scar in the earth that used to be the Berlin Wall. They had seen the throat-rasping, eye-wetting zeal of Germans reuniting with Germans. The Cold War was indisputably over. Like it or not, it was time for the Ausländer to pack up their flight kits and go home. By the time the party broke up, it was past three in the morning. Everyone was properly soused, and anyway, the Kindl was gone. The Lufthansa ground staff had already come in. They were taking down the Pan Am signs and schedules.
The Haves and the Have-Nots: A Brief and Idiosyncratic History of Global Inequality by Branko Milanovic
Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, colonial rule, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, open borders, Pareto efficiency, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Simon Kuznets, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
Whether it is under the pressure of domestic labor or out of fear of cultural heterogeneity, the rich world has begun a process of walling itself in, creating de facto gated communities at the world level. The most infamous of them is the U.S.-Mexican border fence that is supposed to run for seven hundred miles. It is, at times, a twenty-foot cement wall, reinforced by barbed-wire obstacles and equipped with numerous cameras and sensors. The Mexican Wall should, when fully constructed, be seven times as long as the Berlin Wall and twice as high. Nevertheless, it is estimated that more than 200,000 Mexicans enter the United States illegally every year,4 and that at least 400-500 die trying to cross the border.5 The European Union cannot erect a fence across the Mediterranean but is using hundreds of speedboats to interdict access to its shores by desperate Africans and Maghrebis. A couple hundred thousand are estimated to risk their lives annually, taking rickety boats mostly overnight to avoid detection.
It could be that our interpretation is too harsh, or that Rawls, faced with the facts of global inequality that were not widely known or appreciated when he wrote The Law of Peoples, might have reconsidered his position. But his writings do not allow us to make this conclusion. Vignette 3.9 Geopolitics in Light of (or Enlightened by) Economics Between the end of the Second World War and the fall of the Berlin Wall, a rather comfortable intellectual division of the world held sway. There were, as we all knew, three worlds on this planet. There was the first world of rich capitalist economies. Not all of them were at the time democracies, but gradually became so (e.g., with political liberalizations in Greece, Spain, Portugal); not all of them were Western: Japan seemed a permanent big exception. There was a second world, although, strangely enough, the term was not frequently used.
For Italy, see Banca d’Italia, Relazione annuale sul 2008, May 29, 2009, chap. 11, table 11.4, p. 128, available at http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/relann/rel08/rel08it/. 3 See David Blanchflower and Chris Shadforth, “Fear, Unemployment, and Migration,” Economic Journal (February 2009): table 17, p. F157. 4 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, based on the estimated increase in Mexican illegal immigrants between 2000 and 2005 (1.3 million). 5 The total number of people killed while trying to cross the Berlin Wall was around two hundred during its twenty-seven-year existence. On an annual basis, the number of Mexican deaths is thus fifty times greater. 6 BBC, July 2, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6228236.stm. Vignette 2.5 1 Several hundred Algerian and Tunisian nationals are thought to be imprisoned in Libyan jails. 2 BBC, March 31, 2009; Radio France Inter, March 16, 2009. 3 Ironically, one may recall that in the nineteenth century many Maltese, Sicilians, and Corsicans freely moved over and settled in Tunisia. 4 The Algerian daily El Watan, March 5, 2009. 5 Agence France Presse, March 31, 2009.
What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Hirsch, Todd. “Taxi Trouble: Disruptive Technology Claims Another Victim.” The Globe and Mail, November 21, 2014. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/economy/economic-insight/taxi-trouble-disruptive-technology-claims-another-unadapting-victim/article21675184/. Hornig, Frank. “Darth Vader vs. Death Strip: Berlin Wall Sinks into Cold War Disneyland.” Spiegel Online, August 8, 2011, sec. International. http://www .spiegel.de/international/spiegel/darth-vader-vs-death-strip-berlin-wall-sinks-into-cold-war-disneyland-a-778941.html. Huet, Ellen. “Apps Let Users Hire House Cleaners, Handymen without Talking.” SFGate, February 11, 2014. http://www.sfgate.com/technology/article/Apps-let-users-hire-house-cleaners-handymen-5219729.php. ———. “Contractor or Employee? Silicon Valley’s Branding Dilemma,” November 18, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ellenhuet/2014/11/18/contractor-or-employee-silicon-valleys-branding-dilemma/. ———.
“The Turkish population, many of whom are now Berlin-born, have suffered many indignities, and have largely been forced out from the city center. Their contribution to Berlin as a city is ignored.” Another source of dispute was “the collection of international modernist architects brought in by the multinationals (largely in opposition to local architects) to dominate the Potsdamer Platz.” Berliners were caught between the frying pan of a globalized aesthetic (the “Disneyfication of the Berlin Wall” 45) and the fire of a “parochial nationalism,” with the potential for “a virulent rejection of foreigners and immigrants.” 46 Capital “must wade into the culture wars” if it is to pursue its desire for the monopoly rents that are at stake “through interventions in the field of culture, history, heritage, aesthetics, and meanings.” 47 Open Data is a digital commons that is being distorted. The Omidyar Network is deeply involved in the Open Government Partnership at the international level, in Code for America in the USA, and is the first major investor in the UK Open Data Institute.
Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K
Milanović has combined the two inequality trends of the past thirty years—declining inequality worldwide, increasing inequality within rich countries—into a single graph which pleasingly takes the shape of an elephant (figure 9-5). This “growth incidence curve” sorts the world’s population into twenty numerical bins or quantiles, from poorest to richest, and plots how much each bin gained or lost in real income per capita between 1988 (just before the fall of the Berlin Wall) and 2008 (just before the Great Recession). Figure 9-5: Income gains, 1988–2008 Source: Milanović 2016, fig. 1.3. The cliché about globalization is that it creates winners and losers, and the elephant curve displays them as peaks and valleys. It reveals that the winners include most of humanity. The elephant’s bulk (its body and head), which includes about seven-tenths of the world’s population, consists of the “emerging global middle class,” mainly in Asia.
Sure enough, trade as a proportion of GDP shot up in the postwar era, and quantitative analyses have confirmed that trading countries are less likely to go to war, holding all else constant.21 Another brainchild of the Enlightenment is the theory that democratic government serves as a brake on glory-drunk leaders who would drag their countries into pointless wars. Starting in the 1970s, and accelerating after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, more countries gave democracy a chance (chapter 14). While the categorical statement that no two democracies have ever gone to war is dubious, the data support a graded version of the Democratic Peace theory, in which pairs of countries that are more democratic are less likely to confront each other in militarized disputes.22 The Long Peace was also helped along by some realpolitik.
It is where the world was, not where it is going.”7 Before the ink was dry on these lamentations, democratization’s third wave—more like a tsunami—erupted. Military and fascist governments fell in southern Europe (Greece in 1974, Spain in 1975, Portugal in 1976), Latin America (including Argentina in 1983, Brazil in 1985, and Chile in 1990), and Asia (including Taiwan and the Philippines around 1986, South Korea around 1987, and Indonesia in 1998). The Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989, freeing the nations of Eastern Europe to establish democratic governments, and communism imploded in the Soviet Union in 1991, clearing space for Russia and most of the other republics to make the transition. Some African countries threw off their strongmen, and the last European colonies to gain independence, mostly in the Caribbean and Oceania, opted for democracy as their first form of government.
Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Satyajit Das, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game
The ideas of influential economists, like John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman, were subsumed into political agendas to shape the money economy. 7. Los Cee-Ca-Go Boys For a quarter of a century, the Berlin Wall symbolized the difference between the free markets of the West and the socialist economies of the East. On June 12, 1987, speaking at the Brandenburg Gate to commemorate the 750th anniversary of Berlin, U.S. President Ronald Reagan issued a challenge to Mikhail Gorbachev, the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: “Tear down this wall!” On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall came down. At the fall of the Wall, when asked “Who won?”, Western political scientists cited the triumph of capitalism over socialism. The economists’ response was “Chicago.” The University of Chicago radically changed how the world thought about economics, politics, and business, with a system based on: “belief in the efficacy of the free market as a means for organizing resources...skepticism about government intervention into economic affairs and...emphasis on the quantity theory of money as a key factor in producing inflation.”1 In the early part of the twentieth century, work in theoretical physics was centered around the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge, England), Göttingen (Germany), and the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Copenhagen, Denmark).
In 1929, the New York Daily Mirror wrote: “The prevailing bull market is just America’s bet that she won’t stop expanding.”6 In 1936, Wilhelm Röpke looked back at the roaring 1920s: “with production and trade increasing month by month throughout the world, the moment actually seemed in sight when social problems would be solved by prosperity for all.”7 At the time, the 1920s were also regarded as a period of remarkable social progress. Historically, increasing population, new markets, productivity increases, and industrial innovation drove growth. As the world grew older, growth slowed but “when the monster stops growing, it dies. It can’t stay one size.”8 After the Berlin Wall fell, the reintegration of Eastern Europe, China, and India into global trade provided low-cost labor supplying cheap goods and services and creating new markets for products. But demand for improved living standards needed even greater growth. Chinese novelist Ma Jian saw this in his native country: “As society changes, new words and terms keep popping up such as sauna, private car ownership, property developer, mortgage, and personal installment loan...no one talks about the Tiananmen protests...or...official corruption.”9 Financial engineering replaced real engineering as the engine for growth.
Frank, 26 Bauman, Zegmunt, 44, 312 Beach Boys, The, 157 Bean, Charles, 50 Bear Stearns, 162, 191, 204, 249, 316, 318, 326, 338 Asset Management, 191 Beasley, Jane, 62 Beat the Market, 121 Beatles, The, 157, 166 Beatrice, 141 Beckham, David, 339 Beerbohm, Max, 253 beggar-thy-neighbor policies, 349 behavioral economists, 125-126 bell-shaped normal distribution curves, 117 Beller, Ron, 321 benchmarking exercises, 315 benefits, employee, 47 Benna, Ted, 48 Berdymukhamedov, Gurbanguly, 299 Bergdorf Goodman, 330 Bergerac, Michel, 147 Berkshares program, 36 Berkshire Hathaway, 261, 322. See also Warren Buffet Berle, Adolf, 54 Berlin Wall, fall of, 101, 295 Bernanke, Ben, 170, 182, 203, 303, 338, 366 debt, 267 Great Moderation, 277 on 60 Minutes, 343 September, 2008, 342 Bernstein, Peter, 26, 129, 208 Besley, Tim, 278 Best, George, 88 beta (market returns), 241 Beveridge Report, 47 Beveridge, Sir William, 47 Beyond Belief, 338 Bhagavad Gita, 339 Bhide, Amar, 312 BHP Billiton, 59 bias, 243 Bieber, Matthew, 198 Bierce, Ambrose, 326 Big Short, The, 198 Biggs, Barton, 99 Bild, 358 Billboard Top 100 Chart, 124 Billings, Josh, 233 billionaire drivel, 327 bills of exchange, 32 bimetallism, 26 bio-fuels, 334 Bird, John, 91, 320 Black Swan, The, 95, 126 Black Wednesday, 240 Black, Fischer, 121, 127 black-box trading, 242 Black-Scholes models, 120-122, 277 Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) option, 121 Blackrock, 170 Blackstone, 167, 325 Blackstone Group, The, 154, 318 Blair, Tony, 81 Blankfein, Lloyd, 239, 364 Blinder, Alan, 129 Blomkvist, Mikhael, 360 Bloomberg TV, 92 Bloomberg, Michael, 164 Bloomsbury group, 29 Blue Force, 264 Blumberg, Alex, 185 Boao Forum, 324 boards of directors, knowledge of business operations, 292-293 BOAT (Best of All Time), 228 Boesky, Ivan, 147, 244 Bogle, Jack, 123 Bohr, Niels, 101, 257 Boiler Room, 185 Bonanza, 31 Bond, James, 26 Bonderman, David, 154, 164, 318 bonds, 169 adjustable rate, 213 failure of securitization, 204-205 high opportunity, 143 insurance, 176 junk, 143, 145-146 Milken’s mobsters, 146-147 municipal, 211-214 PAC (planned amortization class), 178 ratings, 143, 282-285 securitization, 173 TAC (target amortization class), 178 TOBs (tender option bonds), 222 U.S.
The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union by Serhii Plokhy
affirmative action, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine, Stanislav Petrov, Transnistria
START I, or the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, which was finally ready for signature after nine years of negotiations, called for the reduction of overall nuclear arsenals by roughly 30 percent and of Soviet intercontinental missiles, largely aimed at the United States, by up to 50 percent. In the forty-seven-page treaty, accompanied by seven hundred pages of protocols, the two presidents would agree not just to curb the arms race but also to begin reversing it.2 The confrontation between the world’s two most powerful countries, which began soon after World War II and had brought the planet to the brink of nuclear Armageddon, was now all but over. With the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, German reunification under way, and Mikhail Gorbachev adopting the “Sinatra doctrine,” which allowed Moscow’s East European clients to “do it their way” and eventually leave the Kremlin’s embrace, the conflict at the core of the Cold War was resolved. Soviet troops began to leave East Germany and other countries of the region. But the nuclear arsenals were virtually unaffected by these changes in the political climate.
Robert Gates wrote in his memoirs that in the months leading up to the coup the administration was following the approach summarized by Brent Scowcroft at a national security briefing for the president on May 31, 1991: “Our goal is to keep Gorby in power for as long as possible, while doing what we can to help head him in the right direction—and doing what is best for us in foreign policy.” Now that Gorbachev was out of power, the task was not to forfeit what had been achieved during his tenure. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 had led to the reunification of the two German states and symbolized the end of communism in Eastern Europe. Could the old walls dividing East and West be rebuilt by the new leaders in the Kremlin? No one knew. On August 19, 1991, the same day George Bush dictated his warm and compassionate virtual letter to Gorbachev, he also dictated the following into his tape recorder: “I think what we must do is see that the progress made under Gorbachev is not turned around.
The agreement to call a conference was reached during George H. W. Bush’s visit to Moscow in July. Paving the road to Madrid had begun eight months earlier in Paris. European heads of state met there in November 1990 with the leaders of the United States and Canada for what was dubbed the peace conference of the Cold War. They took advantage of recent developments in Eastern Europe, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the disappearance of the Iron Curtain to approve the Charter of Paris for a New Europe—a document that bridged the East-West divide in institutional and ideological terms, laying solid foundations for the establishment of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.2 James Baker believed that it was there and then that the Cold War had indeed come to an end. His belief was based not so much on the signed Charter of Paris as on the actions of the Soviet Union, whose leaders had agreed for the first time since the Yalta Conference of 1945 to work together with the United States in solving a major international crisis—the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein’s Iraq a few months earlier.
McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny
anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile
After the revolution of 1989, Bulgaria’s social security system collapsed, leaving a trail of poverty and destitution in its wake. The country had been hit hard as it emerged from the cave-dwelling existence of socialist economics into the blinding sun of free market capitalism. Under Communism, factories had survived, thanks to massive state subsidies, while the Soviet trading bloc ensured their shoddy products a guaranteed sale on East European markets. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, Bulgaria’s markets crumbled with it. With industry in near terminal crisis, agriculture, the economy’s traditional mainstay, assumed ever-greater importance, but this sector too ran into trouble. The European Union was unwilling to increase its minuscule imports of Bulgarian agricultural produce, as this would undermine its protectionist racket masquerading grandly as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).
Invariably young and frightened, deprived of their passports, unable to speak the local language, and ostracized in any event as prostitutes, the women were entirely dependent on their tormentors. The Belchev case was a rarity because he was actually busted, the racket broken up, and the women freed (astonishingly, Belchev continued to manage three brothels from his prison cell using a mobile phone his lawyer smuggled in to him). But elsewhere before the dust from the Berlin Wall had even settled, gangsters and chancers were laying the cables of a huge network of trafficking in women that reached into every corner of Europe. Bulgarian gangs quickly assumed a pivotal role in this industry due to their country’s strategic position. Every border offered a lucrative trade. South to Greece represented the quickest route into the European Union—once across that border, the women could be transported anywhere in the EU (excepting Britain and Ireland) without having to pass a single police control.
In the second half of the 1990s, there was much debate about whether the affluent countries of Western Europe could maintain their expensive welfare systems in the face of a rapidly aging population and a fatal antipathy toward labor migration into the EU. The appearance of dynamic young economies in Eastern Europe put this problem in a yet starker perspective as Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, and others proved willing to put in longer hours for less money as they sought to make up for half a century of consumer misery under Communism. Growth rates in Eastern Europe began shooting up after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Germany was busy outsourcing its industrial base throughout Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary, while the European Union accession program meant that huge sums in regional development funds were fighting poverty and assisting in the development of democratic institutions in Eastern Europe. Ordinary people still moaned about how difficult life was economically under capitalism, but after an initial dip, living standards began to pick up.
The New Silk Roads: The Present and Future of the World by Peter Frankopan
active measures, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, cashless society, clean water, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, ransomware, Rubik’s Cube, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game
The Silk Roads show how technological innovation was stimulated across thousands of miles, and how violence and disease often followed the same patterns of destruction. The Silk Roads allow us to understand the past not as a series of periods and regions that are isolated and distinct, but to see the rhythms of history in which the world has been connected for millennia as being part of a bigger, inclusive global past. If I had written The Silk Roads twenty-five years ago, it would have been equally topical. In the early 1990s, the Berlin Wall came down and the Soviet Union collapsed, prompting major upheaval not only in Russia but in all the fifteen constituent republics that subsequently became independent. The early 1990s too marked the First Gulf War that was so closely linked to the subsequent intervention in Iraq at the start of the twenty-first century. It was a time of profound change in China, where a series of reforms was about to propel the country’s emergence not as a regional but a global superpower.
Then there is Russia, where a new chapter of relations with the west has opened, despite the continued leadership of President Putin and an inner circle that has led the country for two decades. Military intervention in Ukraine, alleged interference in elections in the US and the UK and accusations of the attempted assassination of a former intelligence officer have led to the worst moment in Russia’s relations with the west since the fall of the Berlin Wall – and, as we shall see, have laid the basis for a reconfiguration of Moscow to the south and to the east. In the heart of the world, the continued problems in Afghanistan, the breakdown of Syria as a result of years of civil war and the tortuous process of rebuilding Iraq fill few with confidence, despite the considerable financial, military and strategic expense that has gone into trying to improve the situation in each one.
Peter Frankopan Oxford, September 2018 Index Abbas, Mahmoud here Abbasi, Shahid Khaqan here Abdrakhmanov, Kairat here Abdulkodirzoda, Saidmukarram here Ablyazov, Mukhtar here Abramovich, Roman here Afghan Heritage Mapping Partnership here Afghanistan here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here China and here US policy and here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also TAPI pipeline Africa China and here, here, here, here US policy and here, here African Standby Force here Agni-V missiles here Ahmed, Abiy here Airbus here airline pilots, shortage of here Albright, Madeleine here Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) here Altmaier, Peter here aluminium prices here Angola here Aral Sea here Araqi, Hamidreza here Armenia here, here, here artificial intelligence here, here, here, here Ashgabat agreement here Asian Development Bank here, here Asif, Khawaja here al-Assad, Bashar here, here Astana International Financial Centre here Australia here, here, here, here, here, here Azerbaijan here, here, here, here Bahgeri, Mohammad here Baku–Tbilisi–Kars railway here Balochistan, murder of schoolteachers here Bambawale, Gautam here Bangalore here Bangladesh here Bannon, Steve here Beishembiev, Erik here Belarus here, here Berdymukhamedov, Gurbanguly here Berlin Wall, fall of here, here big data here bin Laden family here Black Death here Boeing here, here, here Bolton, John here, here Boucher, Richard A. here boxing, banned in Tajikistan here Brahmaputra River hydrology here Brexit here, here, here, here, here Britain First here Brunson, Andrew here Bryant, Kobe here Byroade, Henry here Cambodia here, here, here, here ‘carrier-killer’ missiles here Carter, General Sir Nick here CASA-1000 power project here Caspian Sea here, here, here, here, here Çavuşoğlu, Mevlüt here, here, here Chabahar port here Chen Xiaodong here Cheng Quanguo here China access to IT here ageing population here and artificial intelligence here Belt and Road Initiative, development here Belt and Road Initiative, reservations here, here economic weakness here, here economic development here, here end of One Child policy here energy projects here environmental problems here, here and European Union here football, in Han-dynasty here ‘great wall of iron’ here intellectual property theft here, here joins WTO here maritime expansion here, here, here, here military exercises here and overseas debt levels here relations with India here, here, here relations with Iran here, here, here relations with Pakistan here relations with Russia here, here relations with Saudi Arabia here retail market here rivalry with US here, here, here science programme here security concerns here seeks global leadership role here sensitivity over Taiwan here Siberian land purchases here telecoms here urbanisation here, here US corporations and here China Development Bank here China–Pakistan Economic Corridor here, here, here Chinese army here climate change here, here, here, here, here Clinton, Bill here Clinton, Hillary here Coats, Dan here Cohn, Gary here Collins, Michael here Columbus, Christopher here commercial courts here Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMSCA) here Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) here Congo here Crimea, annexation of here, here, here, here, here cryptocurrencies here, here Davidson, Admiral Philip D. here Dawood, Abdul Razak here de Klerk, F.
Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking About Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives by Jarrett Walker
Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, congestion charging, demand response, iterative process, jitney, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, Silicon Valley, transit-oriented development, urban planning
The elimination of this technologically required connection, which interrupts what is otherwise a logical linear pattern of rapid transit, is one of the justifications for the proposed BART extension to San Jose.c A technologically required connection is sometimes the ghost of a political one. When the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, authorities quickly reconnected the rail rapid transit network, restoring lines that had existed before the 1961 division of the city. Bus lines, too, were easily recombined. But during the years of division, West Berlin had ripped out its streetcars and replaced them with buses, while East Germany had kept its streetcars in place. Streetcar lines that once crossed the path of the wall, and which were severed when the wall was built, are still severed today because part of the line is still a streetcar and part is a bus. Today, you can still experience the Berlin Wall as an obstacle if you’re traveling on local services. What was once a politically required connection remains as a technologically required one. b c The only limitation on this would be that reliability tends to fall as transit lines get too long.
Acceleration/deceleration delays, 102 Access, as outcome of transit, 13–14, 19–20 Access radii, 60, 60f Accessing, 34, 35 Adelaide, Australia, 90–91 Aesthetics, 25 Agencies, defined, 14 Airlines, connections and, 147, 165 Airport shuttles, 57, 57f, 148 Alexanderplatz (Berlin), 178 Alighting dwell, 102–103 Allocation. See Service allocation Automatic Train Control systems, 102–103 Automation, 102–103, 225–226 Averaging, 112 Barriers, chokepoints and, 50–52, 51f BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit), 79, 94–96, 95f, 139, 175 Base-first thinking, 77–79, 77f, 83–84, 223 Berlin Wall, 175 B-Line (Vancouver), 67 Boarding/alighting dwell, 102–103 Boulevard transit, 68, 205–214 Boundaries, connections and, 174–175 Box errors, 41–43 Branching, 93–96, 199–202 Branding, 90–93 Breaks, 58 Budgets, Ridership Goal and, 119, 128–129 Bus Rapid Transit, 65, 104 Businesses, comparison to, 119 Calthorpe, Peter, 193, 196 Caltrain (San Francisco peninsula), 79–80 Canberra, Australia. See also Molonglo C-Plan and, 202–204, 203f Frequent Networks and, 92–93 Spatial Plan of 2004 and, 197, 198f Y-Plan and, 197–199, 198f Capacity, 128, 138 Captive, connotations of word, 44 Captive riders, 43 Car ownership, 133–134, 135–137 Carpooling, 14, 15, 16 Carsharing, 15, 16 Categories, spectra vs., 41–42 237 238 | INDEX Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 137 Chapman, Tracy, 97 Choice (discretionary) riders, 42–43 Chokepoints, 50–52, 51f Circuitousness, 48, 48f, 49 Civil rights, access and, 14 Civility, 29–30 Clarity, legibility and, 31–32 Clock headways, 164 Collaboration, 14 Commuter rail.
This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality by Peter Pomerantsev
"side hustle", 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, citizen journalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, mega-rich, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, South China Sea
My grandmother wanted me to be called Pinhas, after her grandfather. My parents wanted Theodore. I ended up being named Piotr, the first of several renegotiations of my name. * Forty years have passed since my parents were pursued by the KGB for pursuing the simple right to read, to write, to listen to what they chose and to say what they wanted. Today, the world they hoped for, in which censorship would fall like the Berlin Wall, can seem much closer: we live in what academics call an era of ‘information abundance’. But the assumptions that underlay the struggles for rights and freedoms in the twentieth century – between citizens armed with truth and information and regimes with their censors and secret police – have been turned upside down. We now have more information than ever before, but it hasn’t brought only the benefits we expected.
Srdja, along with many political scientists, sees these movements as part of a greater historical process: successive ‘waves of democratisation’, with democracy defined as a mix of multi-party elections, plural media and independent institutions such as the judiciary. The first wave was the overthrow of authoritarian rule in South America, South Asia and South Africa in the late twentieth century, and the end of Soviet power in Eastern Europe – the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Singing Revolution in the Baltic States, with their unforgettable images of millions pouring peacefully onto the streets in one great sea of anti-Soviet sentiment. The colour revolutions, argues Srdja, were the next wave, the Arab Spring the one after, swelled by the rise of social media. Srdja sees himself as the connection between the first and later waves. Yugoslavia was both the last aftershock of the fall of the Soviet system and the first of the new ‘democratisations’.
Press the remote and there was Václav Havel, now free from prison and the president of Czechoslovakia, waving from a balcony to a great swell of cheering crowds in Prague; press it again and statues of Lenin were being pulled down throughout Central Europe, swaying in mid-air on chains hanging from cranes, like burnished bronze trapeze artists; press once more and people were clambering over the Berlin Wall, bashing away at the concrete with hammers, something they would have been shot for a few weeks ago. Igor’s own writing moved away from first-person impressionism: the unmitigated ‘I’ had begun to feel self-indulgent without the heavy breath of authoritarianism bearing down on him. Instead, he drew on anthropology, zoology, ways of reimagining and redefining groups, identities, interconnections.
Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum
active measures, affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning
The cult of Stalin, whose very name was venerated in the USSR as a “symbol of the coming victory of communism,” was observed across the region, along with very similar cults of local party leaders.19 Millions of people took part in state-orchestrated parades and celebrations of communist power. At the time, the phrase “Iron Curtain” seemed much more than a metaphor: walls, fences, and barbed wire literally separated Eastern Europe from the West. By 1961, the year in which the Berlin Wall was built, it seemed as if these barriers could last forever. The speed with which this transformation took place was, in retrospect, nothing short of astonishing. In the Soviet Union itself, the evolution of a totalitarian state had taken two decades, and it had proceeded in fits and starts. The Bolsheviks did not begin with a blueprint. In the wake of the Russian Revolution, they pursued a zigzag course, sometimes harsher and sometimes more liberal, as one policy after another failed to deliver promised economic gains.
If anything, both became even more alluring after the first, sensational recording of “Rock Around the Clock” reached the East in 1956, heralding the arrival of rock and roll. But by that time, the communist regimes had stopped fighting pop music. Jazz would become legal after the death of Stalin, at least in some places. Rules on leisure clothing would relax, and eventually Eastern Europe would have its own rock bands too. As one historian notes, the battle against Western pop music was “fought and lost” in East Germany even before the Berlin Wall was built—and it had been “fought and lost” everywhere else too.22 For adults who had to hold down jobs and maintain families in the era of High Stalinism, flamboyant clothing was never a practical form of protest, though a few professions did allow it. Marta Stebnicka, an actress who spent much of her career in Kraków, put a great deal of effort into designing interesting hats for herself in the 1950s.23 Leopold Tyrmand, the Polish jazz critic with the narrow ties and the colored socks, was an adult style icon too.
They received places in refugee camps and help in finding housing and work. In accordance with these changes, the Soviet authorities also began to enforce stricter controls, sending Red Army troops to patrol their border and build ditches, fences, and barriers. Berlin remained the exception. Although the city lay inside the Soviet zone, it was not easy to set up an enforceable “border” within it (though the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 would eventually prove that it was possible). More importantly, the USSR did not at first want the city’s division to become official. The Soviet authorities preferred Berlin to remain unified, albeit anchored securely in the East. This anomaly quickly created another odd dynamic, as East Germans began flocking to East Berlin in order to cross the border into West Berlin, and to make their way from there to West Germany by train or air.
Cyclopedia by William Fotheringham
If, after reading it, you want to try something new, go to a race, or buy a book or DVD that you might not have known about, it will have served its purpose. Enjoy the ride. William Fotheringham, July 2010 A ABDUZHAPAROV, Djamolidin (b. Uzbekistan, 1964) Squat, tree-trunk thighed sprinter from Uzbekistan who was one of the biggest stars to emerge from the Eastern bloc after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Abdu’ first came to prominence in the British MILK RACE, winning three stages in 1986, but it was in the 1991 TOUR DE FRANCE where his unique style grabbed world headlines: he put his head down low over the front wheel—a style later adopted to great effect by MARK CAVENDISH—and zigzagged up the finish straight, terrifying opponents and onlookers. He took two stages in the 1991 Tour but came to grief in dramatic style as a third win beckoned on the Champs-Elysées: after colliding with an oversized cardboard Coke can standing against the barriers he somersaulted over the bars and rolled down the road.
There were official guidelines, but coaches had a fair degree of flexibility in setting their own criteria; riders’ Stasi files would be checked—to see whether a potential athlete had West German connections, for example—but coaches might push better athletes with undesirable backgrounds higher up selection lists to ensure they got in the team anyway. The screening systems were later adapted for use by the cycling teams of Australia and GREAT BRITAIN. The sudden collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 left the sports centers across Eastern Europe short of money, and a vast number of talented amateurs came on the market: they flooded into cycling. The sprinter DJAMOLIDIN ABDUZHAPAROV made the biggest impact alongside Olaf Ludwig, Andrei Tchmil, and Zenon Jaskuta, who in 1993 was the first Pole to make it to the Tour podium. Jan Ullrich was the first product of the Eastern system to win the Tour in 1997.
The golden era of French cycling can be accurately dated: it began when Henri Desgrange brought national teams into the Tour in 1930, opening the way for riders like André Leducq, Antonin Magne, and Jean Robic, and it closed with BERNARD HINAULT’s fifth win in 1986. What ended it? The Tour grew quickly in the 1980s and 1990s, and French cyclists couldn’t keep up. With the talent of the entire cycling world eligible to ride the race after the arrival of Australians and Americans and the collapse of the Berlin Wall, there was less room for the home riders. Hence the fact that there has been no young star to succeed Hinault or LAURENT FIGNON, both men of the 1980s. French Cycle Racing at a Glance = Biggest race: Tour de France Legendary racing hills: l’Alpe d’Huez, Mont Ventoux, Le Puy-de-Dôme, Col du Galibier Biggest star: Raymond Poulidor, closely followed by Bernard Hinault First Tour stage win: MAURICE GARIN, Lyon, 1903 Tour overall wins since 1985: none France has given cycling: the Professor (Laurent Fignon), stage racing, the hour record, PARIS–ROUBAIX, the sportive concept, Richard Virenque, Peugeot, Festina, the Bastille Day paradox French cycling was traumatized by the Festina DRUG scandal of 1998 that centered on the nation’s leading team and its national hero, Richard Virenque, but also hit other teams including Casino and Française des Jeux; a more stringent attitude to doping gained ground and the Tour came under greater scrutiny from newspapers such as Le Monde.
Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons
Many events that first appear to be sudden and external – what mainstream economists often describe as ‘exogenous shocks’ – are far better understood as arising from endogenous change. In the words of the political economist Orit Gal, ‘complexity theory teaches us that major events are the manifestation of maturing and converging underlying trends: they reflect change that has already occurred within the system’.11 From this perspective, the 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall, the 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers and the imminent collapse of the Greenland ice sheet have much in common. All three are reported in the news as sudden events but are actually visible tipping points that result from slowly accumulated pressure in the system – be it the gradual build-up of political protest in Eastern Europe, the build-up of sub-prime mortgages in a bank’s asset portfolio, or the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
v=MIIzogiUHFY 83. Pearce, J. (2015) ‘Quantifying the value of open source hardware development’, Modern Economy, 6, pp. 1–11. 84. Bauwens, M. (2012) Blueprint for P2P Society: The Partner State and Ethical Society, http://www.shareable.net/blog/blueprint-for-p2p-society-the-partner-state-ethical-economy 85. Lakner, C. and Milanovic, B. (2015) ‘Global income distribution: from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession’, The World Bank Economic Review, pp. 1–30. 86. OECD (2014) Detailed Final 2013 Aid Figures Released by OECD/DAC. http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/final2013oda.htm 87. OECD (2015) ‘Non-ODA flows to developing countries: remittances’, available at: http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/beyond-oda-remittances.htm 88. Financial Inclusion Insights (2015) Kenya: Country Context. http://finclusion.org/country-pages/kenya-country-page/ 89.
(2010) Inequality, Leverage and Crises. IMF Working Paper, WP/10/268, Washington, DC: IMF. Kuznets, S. (1955) ‘Economic growth and income inequality’, American Economic Review, 45: 1, pp. 1–28. Lacy, P. and Rutqvist, J. (2015) Waste to Wealth: the circular economy advantage. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Lakner, C. and Milanovic, B. (2015) ‘Global income distribution: from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession’, World Bank Economic Review, 1–30. Lakoff, G. (2014) The All New Don’t Think of an Elephant. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing. Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Leach, M., Raworth, K. and Rockström, J. (2013) Between Social and Planetary Boundaries: Navigating Pathways in the Safe and Just Space for Humanity, World Social Science Report.
Dark Towers: Deutsche Bank, Donald Trump, and an Epic Trail of Destruction by David Enrich
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-globalists, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, buy low sell high, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Donald Trump, East Village, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, forensic accounting, high net worth, housing crisis, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Jeffrey Epstein, London Interbank Offered Rate, Lyft, Mikhail Gorbachev, NetJets, obamacare, offshore financial centre, post-materialism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, rolodex, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, yield curve
He was a leading German voice for the economic integration of Europe and an advocate for forgiving the debts of third-world countries. He became a confidant of Helmut Kohl, the German chancellor, he dined with Mikhail Gorbachev, and he was a guest in the Connecticut home of Henry Kissinger. Perched on the thirtieth floor of one of Deutsche’s skyscrapers, the fifty-nine-year-old Herrhausen looked down on the rest of the German financial capital. In November 1989, a week after the fall of the Berlin Wall appeared to vindicate much of Herrhausen’s liberal free-market ideology, a leading German newspaper, Der Spiegel, gushed: “Hardly ever before has one person ruled the economic scene the way Deutsche Bank chief executive Alfred Herrhausen does at the present time. The banker is all-powerful.” Herrhausen then made a play for even more power. Back in 1984, Deutsche had purchased a 5 percent stake in a venerable British investment bank, Morgan Grenfell.
Shrapnel and the copper plate streaked into the street, scoring a direct hit on the rear half of Herrhausen’s car, where he was seated. The impact threw the car several yards into the air, smashing its windows, and blasting off its doors, trunk, and hood. The copper projectile severed Herrhausen’s legs. Before fire trucks or ambulances arrived, he bled to death in the backseat. The assassination shocked Germany, which had been in a celebratory mood following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Chancellor Kohl, visiting a Düsseldorf trade fair, cried. “It is a threat to our democracy,” the future finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble told the German parliament. Some 10,000 business and government leaders from around the world showed up for Herrhausen’s funeral. The site of the bombing became a shrine of flowers and burning candles. The murder was the work of the Red Army Faction, a group of Marxist terrorists.
Deutsche Bank had bounced back, as it would in the future after the sudden downfalls of important executives. Three months after the assassination, the bank’s shares were up by 30 percent, a resounding vote of confidence in the company’s future. Herrhausen’s successor was Hilmar Kopper. Like Herrhausen, Kopper believed that the bank’s future lay outside Germany. (He referred disparagingly to German bankers as “chaste souls.”) With the crumbling of the Berlin Wall, Deutsche opened branches in East Germany and then Warsaw, Budapest, and Prague. Within a few years, it had half a dozen outposts in the former Soviet Union. That was all well and good, but the Morgan Grenfell acquisition had proved underwhelming. Its architects had hoped it would launch Deutsche Bank into the Wall Street elite; that hadn’t happened. One problem was that senior bankers from Morgan kept quitting, not interested in working with a bunch of provincial Germans.
Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson
Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
Near the Presidential Area, a man told me to hand over my film after I had photographed a cathedral in central Malabo; afterward my minder’s hands were shaking, and he warned me that this man could “make your eye pop out.” The name he whispered, Armengol, turned out to be President Obiang’s brother. Yet it still felt safe for me: police states like this have low crime rates because the criminals are afraid, too. I was able to walk unmolested after midnight through Malabo’s silent backstreets, listening to my cassette Walkman. But it was quite eerie. The Berlin Wall had fallen less than four years earlier, and it was a time of sweeping political change in Africa, as old certainties provided by three rival power systems were shifting. The first of the three, promoted by the 29 P o i s o n e d We l l s Soviet Union, gained prominence in large parts of the continent primarily because its revolutionary nature was useful to anticolonial struggles. But it was doubly unsuited to Africa: first, as a way of organizing the world that failed to take greed and human nature into account, and second, as a concept forged in Europe and put into practice in the Soviet Union, and thus an alien import.
You can often spot Corsicans because their names, while French, sound Italian: Marchiani, Tarallo, Tomi, Leandri, Guélfi, Feliciaggi. “These mandarin . . . strands of power had become tightly intertwined in a network that has been dubbed ‘France Inc.,’” wrote Ignatius. “The ruling clans needed each other—and they protected each other.”14 Normally Bidermann’s case would have been quietly dropped. But Joly was an outsider, and French politics was in flux after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The French left and right, as well as the foreign and domestic secret services, were engaged in giant, tentacular struggles, which were generating press leaks and anonymous tip-offs for the magistrates. Elf was being privatized then, too, and the new head of the company lodged a formal complaint with the magistrates against his predecessor, hoping to mark a clean break with Elf ’s dirty past.15 French president Jacques Chirac, who took power in 1995, also wanted to tarnish the image of his predecessor, François Mitterrand, and his people were adding to the leaks.
Milongo rose to greet me just inside the entrance. Though nearly 70, he was handsome and sprightly, and wore a collarless brown suit and a thick, loose, chain bracelet. After the pleasantries, he began his story, a Shakespearean tragedy with many human actors, and one huge, shadowy non-human lurking offstage, influencing everyone. “Oil? Yes,” he said. “It is behind all these problems.” His tale began with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. “Marxism was a pretext—a religion,” he said. “They ruled Congo with it, but not always in the people’s interests. It failed in the Soviet Union, and failed here, too.” By 1990 political pressure was rising from the streets like heat haze, and president Dénis Sassou Nguesso, a Freemason who had been in power since 1979, was forced to accept big changes. He remained president but lost most of his powers to Milongo, who was popular partly because he had 105 P o i s o n e d We l l s been out of Congo for ten years, and was consequently not so tainted with the incestuous world of Françafrique.
Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future by Peter Thiel, Blake Masters
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Andy Kessler, Berlin Wall, cleantech, cloud computing, crony capitalism, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, life extension, lone genius, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Ted Kaczynski, Tesla Model S, uber lyft, Vilfredo Pareto, working poor
The first step to thinking clearly is to question what we think we know about the past. A QUICK HISTORY OF THE ’90S The 1990s have a good image. We tend to remember them as a prosperous, optimistic decade that happened to end with the internet boom and bust. But many of those years were not as cheerful as our nostalgia holds. We’ve long since forgotten the global context for the 18 months of dot-com mania at decade’s end. The ’90s started with a burst of euphoria when the Berlin Wall came down in November ’89. It was short-lived. By mid-1990, the United States was in recession. Technically the downturn ended in March ’91, but recovery was slow and unemployment continued to rise until July ’92. Manufacturing never fully rebounded. The shift to a service economy was protracted and painful. 1992 through the end of 1994 was a time of general malaise. Images of dead American soldiers in Mogadishu looped on cable news.
Abound Solar Accenture advertising, 3.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 Afghanistan Airbnb airline industry Allen, Paul Amazon, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 12.1 Amundsen, Roald Andreessen, Horowitz Andreessen, Marc Anna Karenina (Tolstoy) antitrust Apollo Program Apple, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 14.1 branding of monopoly profits of Aristotle Army Corps of Engineers AT&T Aztecs Baby Boomers Bacon, Francis Bangladesh Barnes & Noble Beijing Bell Labs Berlin Wall Better Place Bezos, Jeff, 5.1, 6.1 big data Bill of Rights, U.S. bin Laden, Osama biotechnology biotech startups, 6.1, 6.2 board of directors Bostrom, Nick Box, 9.1, 11.1 Boyle, Robert branding Branson, Richard Brin, Sergey bubbles financial, 2.1, 8.1 see also specific bubbles Buffett, Warren bureaucracy, prf.1, 1.1, 9.1 Bush, George H. W., 2.1, 12.1 Bush, George W. business: Darwinian metaphors in value of war metaphors in Capablanca, José Raúl cap-and-trade legislation capitalism, and competition, 3.1, 8.1 cash flows, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 celebrities Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) CEO compensation Chen, Steve China, 1.1, 6.1, 12.1, 13.1 globalization and cleantech distribution question for durability question for engineering question for monopoly question for people question for secret question for social entrepreneurship and timing question for cleantech bubble, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3 clean technology Clinton, Bill cloud computing Cobain, Kurt Cohen, Stephen companies: value created by valuing of company culture Compaq compensation competition, 3.1, 5.1, 13.1, bm1.1 and capitalism, 3.1, 8.1 ideology of imitative lies of as relic of history ruthlessness in as war complacency complementarity substitution vs.
Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century by Mark Leonard
Berlin Wall, Celtic Tiger, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, global reserve currency, invisible hand, knowledge economy, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, one-China policy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pension reform, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, shareholder value, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus
In his acceptance speech he talked of the European Union as the most successful peace process in history: ‘The European visionaries demonstrated that difference is not a threat, difference is natural…The answer to difference is to respect it…The peoples of Europe created institutions which respected their diversity – a Council of Ministers, the European Commission and the European Parliament – but allowed them to work together in their common and substantial economic interest.’14 This diversity also has the unexpected effect of making the European Union stick to its principles. An example illustrates this well. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, there was no agreement on which former Communist countries to let into the club. Because Europe’s leaders failed to agree on the final borders of the European Union they decided to make entry open to anyone who met the ‘Copenhagen Criteria of democracy, the rule of law, and economic liberalism. Lurking in the background of this decision was a desire to exclude some countries. Several member-states were particularly keen to use the agreement to lift the bar of membership so high that Turkey would never be able to join, creating tough standards on human rights and respect for minorities that they felt would remain beyond the Kemalist republic’s reach.
Europe, through the ‘Stockholm Consensus’, can offer the best of both worlds; a synthesis of the dynamism of liberalism with the stability and welfare of social democracy. As the world becomes richer and moves beyond satisfying basic needs such as hunger and health, the European way of life will become irresistible. CHAPTER 7 The European Rescue of National Democracy1 If there is one image that symbolizes democracy around the world, it was the sight of East German students clambering onto the Berlin wall on 9 November 1989, hacking it to pieces with pickaxes as the soldiers looked on in awe. Within two years these students were citizens of the European Union in a reunited Germany. The EU sucked in the former communist republics, bringing democracy and prosperity in its wake. And yet today, many accuse the European Union of destroying our democracy even as it spreads it across the Continent. They accuse it of devouring our national political systems and putting decisions in the hands of bureaucrats in Brussels.
Conscience of a Conservative: A Rejection of Destructive Politics and a Return to Principle by Jeff Flake
4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, immigration reform, impulse control, invisible hand, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Potemkin village, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game
Even as our own government was documenting a concerted attack against our democratic processes by an enemy foreign power, our own White House was rejecting the authority of its own intelligence agencies, disclaiming their findings as a Democratic ruse and a hoax. Conduct that would have had conservatives up in arms had it been exhibited by our political opponents now had us dumbstruck. It was then that I was compelled back to Senator Goldwater’s book, to a chapter entitled “The Soviet Menace.” Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, this part of Goldwater’s critique had seemed particularly anachronistic. The lesson here is that nothing is gone forever, especially when it comes to the devouring ambition of despotic men. As Goldwater wrote in that chapter: Our forebears knew that “keeping a Republic” meant, above all, keeping it safe from foreign transgressors; they knew that a people cannot live and work freely, and develop national institutions conducive to freedom, except in peace and with independence.
The Soviet Union was in a glorious free fall, shedding republics seemingly by the day, and Eastern Europe was squinting out into the light of liberation for the first time in forty years. Free markets and free minds were sweeping the world. Freedom was breaking out in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The country where I was sitting that morning was itself only days old. In November 1989, the same week the Berlin Wall fell, Namibia had held its first election as an independent nation, freed from the apartheid administration of South Africa. This came to pass without a shot fired and in no small part because of leadership from the United States, through the United Nations. Just days earlier, an awe-inspiring document had been drafted only blocks away from where I sat in Windhoek—a new democracy’s founding constitution, the inspiration for which had been the marvel of free people everywhere and those who aspire to be free, the United States Constitution.
The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge
Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities,