A Pattern Language

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pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

The Mosaic of Subcultures In 1975, architect Christopher Alexander and a team of colleagues began publishing a series of books that would change the face of urban planning, design, and programming. The most famous volume, A Pattern Language, is a guidebook that reads like a religious text. It’s filled with quotes and aphorisms and hand-drawn sketches, a bible guiding devotees toward a new way of thinking about the world. The question that had consumed Alexander and his team during eight years of research was the question of why some places thrived and “worked” while others didn’t—why some cities and neighborhoods and houses flourished, while others were grim and desolate. The key, Alexander argued, was that design has to fit its literal and cultural context. And the best way to ensure that, they concluded, was to use a “pattern language,” a set of design specifications for human spaces. Even for nonarchitects, the book is an entrancing read.

., Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence (London: Springer, 2008), 66, accessed through Google eBooks, Feb. 8, 2011. 214 “machines make more of their decisions”: Bill Joy, “Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us,” Wired (Apr. 2000) accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy.html. Chapter Eight: Escape from the City of Ghettos 217 “the nature of his own person”: Christopher Alexander et al., A Pattern Language (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), 8. 217 “Long Live the Web” Sir Tim Berners-Lee, “Long Live the Web: A Call for Continued Open Standards and Neutrality,” Scientific American, Nov. 22, 2010. 219 “need to address the core issues”: Bill Joy, phone interview with author, Oct. 1 2010. 220 ideal nook for kids: Alexander et al., A Pattern Language, 445, 928–29. 220 “distinct pattern language”: Ibid., xvi. 220 “city of ghettos”: Ibid., 41–43. 221 “dampens all significant variety”: Ibid., 43. 221 “move easily from one to another”: Ibid., 48. 221 “support for his idiosyncrasies”: Ibid. 222 “psychological equivalent of obesity”: danah boyd.

And as technology gets better and better at directing our attention, we need to watch closely what it is directing our attention toward. 8 Escape from the City of Ghettos In order to find his own self, [a person] also needs to live in a milieu where the possibility of many different value systems is explicitly recognized and honored. More specifically, he needs a great variety of choices so that he is not misled about the nature of his own person. —Christopher Alexander et al., A Pattern Language In theory, there’s never been a structure more capable of allowing all of us to shoulder the responsibility for understanding and managing our world than the Internet. But in practice, the Internet is headed in a different direction. Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the World Wide Web, captured the gravity of this threat in a recent call to arms in the pages of Scientific American titled “Long Live the Web.”


Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (Joanne Romanovich's Library) by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides

A Pattern Language, Donald Knuth, finite state, loose coupling, MVC pattern, yield curve

Alexander doesn’t deny the need for creativity; some of his patterns require understanding the living habits of the people who will use the building, and his belief in the “poetry” of design implies a level of expertise beyond the pattern language itself.1 But his description of how patterns generate designs implies that a pattern language can make the design process deterministic and repeatable. 1See “The poetry of the language” [AIS+77]. The Alexandrian point of view has helped us focus on design trade-offs—the different “forces” that help shape a design. His influence made us work harder to understand the applicability and consequences of our patterns. It also kept us from worrying about defining a formal representation of patterns. Although such a representation might make automating patterns possible, at this stage it’s more important to explore the space of design patterns than to formalize it. From Alexander’s point of view, the patterns in this book do not form a pattern language. Given the variety of software systems that people build, it’s hard to see how we could provide a “complete” set of patterns, one that offers step-by-step instructions for designing an application.

Timothy Strayer, Virtual Private Networks: Technologies and Solutions Visit www.awprofessional.com/series/professionalcomputing for more information about these titles. Design Patterns Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software Erich Gamma Richard Helm Ralph Johnson John Vlissides Boston • San Francisco • New York • Toronto • Montreal London • Munich • Paris • Madrid Capetown • Sidney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City Material from A Pattern Language: Towns/Buildings/Construction by Christopher Alexander, copyright © 1977 by Christopher Alexander is reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and we were aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial capital letters or in all capitals.

Indeed, one of the ways that I measure the quality of an object-oriented system is to judge whether or not its developers have paid careful attention to the common collaborations among its objects. Focusing on such mechanisms during a system’s development can yield an architecture that is smaller, simpler, and far more understandable than if these patterns are ignored. The importance of patterns in crafting complex systems has been long recognized in other disciplines. In particular, Christopher Alexander and his colleagues were perhaps the first to propose the idea of using a pattern language to architect buildings and cities. His ideas and the contributions of others have now taken root in the object-oriented software community. In short, the concept of the design pattern in software provides a key to helping developers leverage the expertise of other skilled architects. In this book, Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides introduce the principles of design patterns and then offer a catalog of such patterns.


pages: 518 words: 49,555

Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

The social patterns support the entire lifecycle that a user may experience within a site or application, from signing up to actively participating, to building a reputation, to dating or collaborating with friends, to collaborative games and even moderation. We are building a vocabulary and language for social application design in the same spirit as Alexander: We were always looking for the capacity of a pattern language to generate coherence, and that was the most vital test used, again and again, during the process of creating a language. The language was always seen as a whole. We were looking for the extent to which, as a whole, a pattern language would produce a coherent entity. Download at WoweBook.Com So, That’s All the Little Parts: Now What? 13 Patterns…or Clichés? Clichés. They’re a dime a dozen. Avoid them like the plague, or so we’re told. But are they really that bad? Would we really be better off if, every single time we wanted to say something, we had to start from scratch and think of a whole new way of saying it?

We are interested in hearing your stories about designing for this space and what patterns have been most successful, which ones need more work, which should be tossed out entirely because the world has moved beyond them, and which new and emerging interactions might be added to the library. As we mentioned in the beginning, we approached this as a pattern language, and like any language, this is a living, evolving, and ever-changing beast. As Christopher Alexander writes in A Pattern Language: This language, like English, can be a medium for prose or a medium for poetry. The difference between prose and poetry is not that different languages are used, but that the same language is used differently. In an ordinary English sentence, each word has one meaning and the sentence too, has one simple meaning. In a poem the meaning is far more dense.

User experience design patterns give guidance to a designer for how to solve a specific problem in a particular context, in a way that has been shown to work over and over again. The notion of using interaction design patterns in the user experience design process follows the model that computer software programming took when it adopted the concepts and philosophies of Christopher Alexander. Alexander, an architect, wrote the book A Pattern Language. In his book he describes a language—a set of rules or patterns for design—for how to design and build cities, buildings, and other human spaces. The approach is repeatable and works at various levels of scale. Alexander says that “each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice.”


pages: 261 words: 16,734

Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams by Tom Demarco, Timothy Lister

A Pattern Language, cognitive dissonance, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, Parkinson's law, performance metric, skunkworks, supply-chain management, women in the workforce

Patterns Each of the patterns of The Timeless Way of Building is an abstraction about successful space and interior order. The central volume of the set, A Pattern Language, presents 253 of these patterns and weaves them into a coherent view of architecture. Some of the patterns have to do with light and roominess, others with decor, or with the relationship between interior and exterior space, or with space for adults, for children, for elders, or with traffic movement around and through enclosed space. Each pattern is presented as a simple architectural aphorism, together with a picture that illustrates it and a lesson. In between, there is a discussion of the whys and wherefores of the pattern. As an example, consider the following illustration and extract from Pattern 183, Workspace Enclosure: Figure 13–2 Workspace enclosure.4 4. A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander (1977): 170 words (p. 846) © 1977 by Christopher Alexander.

For the excerpts in Chapter 3, from “Vienna” by Billy Joel: Vienna Copyright © 1979 IMPULSIVE MUSIC All Rights Administered by ALMO MUSIC CORP. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Reprinted by Permission of Hal Leonard Corporation. For the excerpts and graphics in Chapter 13, Used by permission of Oxford University Press: From The Oregon Experiment by Christopher Alexander et al. Copyright © 1975 by Christopher Alexander. From A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander et al. Copyright © 1977 by Christopher Alexander. From The Timeless Way of Building by Christopher Alexander. Copyright © 1979 by Christopher Alexander. For the excerpt in Chapter 15, from “Death of a Salesman” by Arthur Miller: From DEATH OF A SALESMAN by Arthur Miller, copyright 1949, renewed © 1977 by Arthur Miller. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

In particular, start a common lunch in every workplace so that a genuine meal around a common table (not out of boxes, machines or bags) becomes an important, comfortable and daily event. . . . In our own work group at the Center, we found this worked most beautifully when we took it in turns to cook the lunch. The lunch became an event: a gathering: something that each of us put our love and energy into. —Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language7 7. A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander (1977): 170 words (pp. 697–99) © 1977 by Christopher Alexander. “By Permission of Oxford University Press.” The Pattern of the Patterns The patterns that crop up again and again in successful space are there because they are in fundamental accord with characteristics of the human creature. They allow him to function as a human. They emphasize his essence—he is at once an individual and a member of a group.


pages: 91 words: 22,748

Outer Order, Inner Calm: Declutter and Organize to Make More Room for Happiness by Gretchen Rubin

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Broken windows theory, endowment effect, place-making

When I turned off all sounds, and when I cut back on my notifications, my phone became a much less intrusive tool. If someone asked me what my idea of luxury is, I think my answer would be: flowers in the house all year round. MAY SARTON CREATE A SECRET PLACE. Make your home feel more alive by creating a secret place, known only to members of your household—whether it’s a desk with a hidden drawer, or a concealed closet, or a locked chest. In his brilliant book A Pattern Language, Christopher Alexander asks, “Where can the need for concealment be expressed; the need to hide; the need for something precious to be lost, and then revealed?” As you clear clutter, you’ll probably discover a place that could become a secret place. It’s strangely satisfying. REMEMBER LOVE. This is the most important suggestion of all. When your parents are driving you crazy because they’ve kept every piece of your schoolwork back to kindergarten, or when you’re driving yourself crazy because you can’t bring yourself to toss your husband’s ragged college T-shirts, remember: All this junk is an expression of love.

Many experts offer one-size-fits-all solutions—but, alas, there’s no magic formula that works for everyone. The secret is to pinpoint the specific strategies that will work for each of us. From finding the right time to begin a new habit, to recognizing the counterintuitive risks of reward, to using the pleasure of treats to strengthen our good habits, I identify the twenty-one strategies that will allow every reader to find an effective, individual fit. A PATTERN LANGUAGE by Christopher Alexander et al. This strange, brilliant book changed the way I see the world. It uses architecture, sociology, psychology, and anthropology to describe the most satisfying designs of towns, buildings, offices, and homes, by setting forth an archetypal “language” of 253 “patterns.” Instead of discussing familiar architectural styles and design decisions, it focuses on patterns such as the Front Door Bench, Child Caves, Sleeping to the East, Staircase as Stage, Cascade of Roofs, and Half-Hidden Garden.


pages: 509 words: 92,141

The Pragmatic Programmer by Andrew Hunt, Dave Thomas

A Pattern Language, Broken windows theory, business process, buy low sell high, c2.com, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Menlo Park, MVC pattern, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, revision control, Schrödinger's Cat, slashdot, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, traveling salesman, urban decay, Y2K

So programming advice shaped around wanna-be laws may sound good in writing, but it fails to satisfy in practice. This is what goes wrong with so many methodology books. I've studied this problem for a dozen years and found the most promise in a device called a pattern language. In short, a pattern is a solution, and a pattern language is a system of solutions that reinforce each other. A whole community has formed around the search for these systems. This book is more than a collection of tips. It is a pattern language in sheep's clothing. I say that because each tip is drawn from experience, told as concrete advice, and related to others to form a system. These are the characteristics that allow us to learn and follow a pattern language. They work the same way here. You can follow the advice in this book because it is concrete. You won't find vague abstractions. Dave and Andy write directly for you, as if each tip was a vital strategy for energizing your programming career.


Creating a Life Together: Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional Communities by Diana Leafe Christian

A Pattern Language, back-to-the-land, Community Supported Agriculture, double entry bookkeeping, land reform, off grid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, the built environment, urban sprawl

(A good resource is the “Pattern Language for the Village” in A Pattern Language, by Christopher Alexander et al. See Resources.) A well-designed community building can literally help create cohesiveness, give the feeling of a central “hearth,” and be a source of pleasure, joy, and pride for its members. Here are some design tips to help you design such a center. Put all your eggs in one basket. For better social interaction, to effectively “design for conviviality,” as well as to save money, it works best to have relatively small individual living spaces and larger community buildings with many amenities. Make it prominent. Many communities use architect Christopher Alexander’s principles of “building archetypes” in A Pattern Language for creating a warm and inviting built environment that invites community spirit.

The site also features schedules for upcoming workshops and public talks about forming new ecovillages and intentional communities, information on how a group can schedule a workshop. What follows is a list of some of the best resources from the site. process, effective meetings, decision-making — covering the wide range of communities in North America from ecovillages to cohousing, plus updates of Communities Directory listings. Website <www.store.ic.org> “A Pattern Language for Villages,” in A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, Christopher Alexander, et. al., Oxford University Press (1976). The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community, Chris ScottHanson, Hartley & Marks (1996). Practical advice and step-bystep processes for forming a core group and developing and building cohousing communities. Much of it, especially in the first half, is useful for founders of non-cohousing communities as well.

., 64, 65 buy-in fee alternatives, 30-31 examples, 88-89, 159-160, 162-163 Abundant Dawn (VA) agreements, 44, 72-74 buy-in fee, 159, 162 departing members equity, 167 feedback sessions, 212-213 income and expenses, 153, 159 internal finances chart, 160-161 labor requirements, 166 land cost, 9-10, 131 membership, 11 non-profit status, 185-188, 197 sample pet policy, 74, 235-237 sample vision document, 231-232 accountability of members and consequences, 215-217 sample agreement, 216 task review, 27, 214-215 agreements and policies. see also vision documents behavioral policies, 72, 216 communication agreements, 202-203 conflict resolution policy, 213-214, 235 drafting documents, guides to, 77-78 need for policy manual, 180 sample agreements, 233-237 sample pet policy, 74, 235-237 types of, 71-72 written agreements, 8, 68-71 Allison, Patricia, 65 Alstad, Diana, 55 anti-business attitudes, 12, 28, 70, 75 C Charamella, John, 168-169 closeness of community, 22, 33, 148-149 cohousing and condominium associations, 182-183 definition, xvii, 20-21 design, 31, 99, 149 experience of, 12-13 financial planning, 136-139 and homeowner associations, 178-179 lack of membership control, 173, 182-183 legal entity options, 184 neighborhood support, 123-124 remodeling examples, 101 The Cohousing Handbook (Hanson), 126 common-treasury religious communities, 196-198 communication and process. see also conflict resolution completing tasks, 27, 214-217 emotional needs, 203-206 B Baker, Harvey, 221 Bane, Peter (Earthaven), 142 245 246 CREATING A LIFE TOGETHER exercises in, 47-52 feedback, 210-213 nourishing relationships, 8, 202-203 thought field therapy, 212 Community Alternatives Society (BC), 72, 216 community design initial decisions, 7-9, 20-29 legal barriers, 80-82 community-owned business co-ops, 156, 158-159 need for legal entity, 75-76 use of 501(d) status, 197 viability, 155-157 community spirit, 28-29, 33-34, 202-203 composting toilets, 81-82 condominium associations, 178, 182-183 conflict resolution behaviors and attitudes, 204, 206-207 in close communities, 201-202 communication skills, 202-203 conflicting visions example, 40-41 difficult or wounded people, 203-206, 221-223 exercises in, 47-52 feedback, 210-213 hidden expectations, 45-47, 51-52 sample community policy, 213-214, 235 setting consequences, 214-217 sources of conflict, 207-210 training, 200-201 consensus decision-making attitude of banks, 133 facilitator, 57-58, 60 formal consensus, 64, 65 making it work, 58-60 process, 56-58, 64 "pseudoconsensus", 60-62 sunset clause, 62 training, 58, 65-66 contracts, time pressure to sign, 107 co-ops. see housing co-ops cost. see financial planning Cottonwood Springs (MT), 68-69 Covey, Stephen, 124 credit rating, 105, 127, 135 Cultural Creatives (Ray), 82 currency systems, internal, 166 D Dancing Rabbit Ecovillage (MO) departing members equity, 167, 191 fees, 164 financing, 30, 85-86 finding land, 10, 80, 82-86 food co-op, 158-159 income and expenses, 154, 159 internal finances chart, 160-161 membership, 11, 87, 140 non-profit status, 189, 194-195, 197 vision documents, 40 Davidson, Gordon (Sirius), 36 decision-making and governance combining methods, 63-66 consensus, 56-62, 64, 65-66, 133 by council and committees, 63 effect of financing choices, 140 majority-rule voting, 56, 57-58, 62 at meetings, 25, 27, 45 multi-winner voting, 62-63, 65 need for policy manual, 180 power relationships, 55-56, 78, 206-207 process, 7-8, 50-51, 56 DeLapa, Paul, 59, 212 Didcoct, Betty, 53, 59, 64 E Earthaven Ecovillage (NC) buy-in options, 30, 159 decision-making with committees, 63 departing members equity, 167 financing, 30, 89-91, 139-140 finding land, 10, 86-89 and homeowner associations, 179-180 income and expenses, 153-154, 158 internal finances chart, 162-163 labor requirements, 166 membership, 11, 87, 140, 224-225 non-profit status, 189 sample vision documents, 39, 231 site lease fees, 164-165 site planning, 101, 142-146, 150-151 EarthShares fund, 14, 90-91 ecovillage, definition, xvi, 143 Ecovillage (NY), 83 Ecovillages and Sustainable Communities (Gilman), 43, 44 Elixir Farm (MO), 71 Environmental Impact Report, 120 equity of departing members, 167-168, 191-192 INDEX 247 H Estes, Caroline, 57, 60 expectations, 45-47, 51-52, 217 Haggard, Ben, 147 Hamilton, James (Stone Curves), 121 Hanson, Chris, 126 Harmony Village Cohousing, 39 health and safety standards, 81-82, 110-111, 120 Henson, Dave (Sowing Circle/OAEC), 170, 212 land purchase, 95-97, 102 role as founder, 15, 16, 78 homeowners associations, 178-182 housing arrangements, 163-164 housing co-ops, 92, 132, 178, 183-185 How to Form a Non-profit Corporation, 190 F failure of communities conflict, 218-219, 224-226 conflicting visions, 35-36, 40-41 hidden expectations, 45-47, 51-52, 217 need for written agreements, 68-69 reasons for, 6-7, 207-210 and zoning issues, 114-116, 122-123 Farallones Institute, 93-94 The Farm (TN), 124, 155 Federal Fair Housing Act (US), 173, 180, 185 Federation of Egalitarian Communities' (FEC), 85 financial planning. see also internal finances; owner ship, options borrowing power, 104-105, 127 business plans, 8-9, 96-97 buy-in fee alternatives, 30-31 buy-in fee examples, 88-89, 159-160, 162-163 contingency fund, 128 credit rating, 105, 127, 135 determining assets, 29-30, 104 examples, 85-98 fundraising, 31-32 loans, 104-105, 126-136 need for legal entity, 75-76 owner financing, 131 owner-financing examples, 88-89, 94, 96-97 private loan, 90-91, 129 record keeping, 27 refinancing, 90-91, 139-141 total cost, 9-10, 26, 128 Fleming, Bill (Westwood Cohousing), 17, 28 food co-op, 158-159 founders, traits, 8-9, 15-18 Full Circle (NC), 88 fundraising, 31-32 I idealism, unrealistic expectations, 217 income and expenses. see internal finances intentional communities, xvi-xviii internal finances. see also financial planning buy-in fee, 30-31, 88-89, 159-160, 162-163 community-owned business, 155-159 departing members equity, 167-168, 191-192 housing arrangements, 163-164 income and expenses, 152-155, 159 joining members and equity, 168-169, 172 labor requirements, 165-167 lease or rental agreements, 164-165 and legal entity status, 173 sample communities chart, 160-163 Introduction to Consensus (Briggs), 65 J joining fee alternatives, 30-31 examples, 88-89, 159-160, 162-163 joint tenancy, 187 K Kahn, Velma (Abundant Dawn), 78, 79 Kann, Elana (Westwood Cohousing), 17 Kaplowitz, Larry, 200, 202, 203-204, 205 Kingsbery, Stuart, 181 Kinkade, Kat (Twin Oaks), 36 Kozeny, Geoph, 33, 214 Kramer, Joel, 55 G Gilman, Dianne, 43, 44 Gilman, Robert, 43, 44, 143 Goldschmidt, Carolyn, 180, 184 grants and donations, 139 Greene, Patricia, 18, 168-169 Greyrock Commons Cohousing (CO), 123-124 The Guru Papers (Kramer and Alstad), 55 L labor requirements, 165-167 247 248 CREATING A LIFE TOGETHER land, buying. see also financial planning appraisal, 127 buildings, condition of, 111 contacting landowners, 84, 108-109 developed land, 101-103, 172 examples of, 85-98 initial decisions, 7-9, 22-23, 103 land trusts, 194-196 and losing members, 87 making an offer, 112-113, 127, 131 need for legal entity, 75-76 preliminary feasibility study, 109-112, 137 raw land, 100-101, 104, 171-172 real estate agents, 93, 105-106 researching land values, 107-108 site criteria, 22, 25, 84, 88, 95, 99-103 site planning, 142-151 and sustainable development, 80-82 land trusts, 194-196 leadership. see founders legal advice choosing a lawyer, 77-79 and making an offer, 107, 131 and zoning issues, 119 legal entity status. see also financial planning advantages of, 75-76 condominium associations, 178, 182-183 corporations/non-profit corporations, 174-175 criteria for choosing, 76, 170-171 homeowners associations, 178-182 housing co-ops, 92, 132, 178, 183-185 and internal finances, 173 joint tenancy, 187 legal advice, 76-79 Limited Liability Company (LLC), 173, 176178 and membership control, 180, 185, 191, 194 non-profit status, 175-176, 185-198 partnerships, 177 subchapter S corporations, 175, 177 tax issues, 76, 174, 175, 179 tenancy in common, 187 legal protection, 90, 107, 174-175 Limited Liability Company (LLC), 173, 176-178 loans banks, 104-105, 132-136 owner financing, 131 owner financing examples, 88-89, 94, 96-97 personal loans, 129-131 private, 90-91, 129 property appraisal, 127 refinancing, 90-91, 139-141 repayment example, 85-86 tips for borrowing money, 126-128 Lore, Virginia (Dumawish), 19 Lost Valley Educational Center (OR) buy-in fee, 159 departing members equity, 167, 191-192 financing, 2-4, 10, 141 former use permit issue, 118-119 income and expenses, 154, 158, 159 internal finances chart, 162-163 labor requirements, 165 membership, 11, 140, 200-201, 217 non-profit status, 189 sample vision document, 230-231 M Mahaffey, Kenneth (Lost Valley), 3, 16 majority-rule voting, 56, 57-58, 62 Mariposa Grove (CA) financing, 30, 91-92 membership, 10, 11 Marsh, Chuck (Earthaven), 88, 142, 147, 149, 151 McCamant, Kathryn, 148 McKenny, Vinnie (Elixir), 71 McLaughlin, Corrine (Sirius), 36 Meadowdance Community (VT) decision not to buy, 5, 114-116 departing members equity, 167-168 income-sharing, 157-158, 198 internal finances chart, 162-163 labor requirements, 166 membership, 11, 225 vision statement, 39 media coverage, 125 meetings facilitator, 25, 60, 202 feedback, 28, 203, 212-213 planning, 24-25, 59-60 and visitors, 32-33 members, new advertising for, 32, 219-220 to established communities, 168-169, 172-173 integrating, 32-33, 224-225, 228 interns, 167 and vision documents, 22-23 members, selection of decision-making, 223-224 difficult or wounded people, 221-223 INDEX past behavior, 226-228 questionnaires and interviews, 226-227 screening process, 8, 27, 219-221, 223-228 setting standards, 221, 228 membership changes to, 34, 44-45, 87 control of, 173, 182-183, 191, 194 criteria, 8, 27, 219-221 decision-making status, 45 fees, 27, 31 group size, 10-11 Miccosukee Land Co-op (FL), 183 Moench, Tom (Winslow), 148 Morningstar Ranch, 117 N Naiman, Valerie (Earthaven), 14-15, 16, 88-90 Naka-Ima training, 200-201 name, choosing a, 31 Nature's Spirit (SC), 38, 192 neighbors good relations, 4, 95, 124 and land purchase, 111-112 and zoning variances, 15, 110, 122-125 non-negotiables, 49-50 non-profit status and income-sharing, 157-158 and legal advise, 77-78 need for legal entity, 75-76 non-exempt non-profit, 176, 179, 185-188 and taxation, 179 tax-exempt non-profit, 175-176, 189-198, 238240 Nyland Cohousing (CO), 178-179 O Obermeyer, Hank (Mariposa), 91-92 "offer to purchase", 112-113 On Consensus and Conflict (Butler), 65 "option to purchase", 112-113 Owner's Disclosure Statement, 109 ownership, options condominium associations, 178, 182-183 examples, 157-158 and financing, 22, 30, 140 homeowners associations, 178-182 housing co-ops, 92, 132, 178, 183-185 joint tenancy, 187 and legal entity status, 75-76, 171-172 249 Limited Liability Company (LLC), 173, 176178 non-profit status, 175-176, 185-198 sole ownership, 23-24, 91-92, 129-131 tenancy in common, 187 ownership, sole, 129 and inequality, 23-24 Mariposa Grove example, 91-92 use of Triple Net Lease, 130-131 P Paiss, Zev, 12, 46, 49, 50 A Pattern Language (Alexander), 150 permaculture, 143, 146, 147 permits. see zoning issues Pioneer Valley Cohousing (MA), 182-183 policies. see agreements and policies power relationships awareness of, 55-56, 78 behaviors and attitudes, 206-207 and consensus method, 59 prejudice, dealing with, 104, 106, 124-125 preliminary feasibility study, 109-112, 137 press release, 125 promissory note, 129 property. see land, buying R Ray, Paul, 82 real estate agents, 93, 105-106 real estate market. see land, buying Reid, Luc (Meadowdance), 15, 114-116 revenue. see internal finances roads issues, 109-110, 120 Rosy Branch (NC), 88 S sales contract form, 112-113 Sandelin, Rob, 50, 53, 59, 62, 202 Sandhill Farm (MO), 83, 155 Schaub, Laird, 204 Scheib, Cecil (Dancing Rabbit), 14-15, 80 ScottHanson, Chris, 139 septic systems, 82, 110-111, 120 Sharingwood Cohousing (WA), 182 "budget party", 62-63 zoning negotiation, 121 Shenoa Retreat and Conference Center (CA), 39, 42 Shenoa Retreat and Learning Center, 39 250 CREATING A LIFE TOGETHER Sirna, Tony (Dancing Rabbit), 14-15 site criteria developed land, 101-103, 172 examples, 84, 88, 95 property or housing, 22, 25, 99-100 raw land, 100-101, 104, 171-172 site-lease/assessment fees, 160, 162, 164-165 site planning cluster housing, 147-149 Earthaven example, 142-146, 150-151 permaculture design, 143, 146, 147 your community building, 150 Sonora Cohousing (AZ), 179 Sowing Circle/Occidental Arts and Ecology Center (CA) buy-in options, 30, 162-163 chore wheel, 166-167 conflict resolution, 27, 43-44, 213-214 consensus statement, 56 departing members equity, 167 financing, 5, 10, 92-97, 141, 176 former use permit issue, 118 general principles statement, 26 income and expenses, 153, 159 internal finances chart, 160-161 membership, 11, 87 non-profit status, 189, 192-193 organic easement, 196 spiritual communities, 12 start up. see community design Steiner, Rudolf, 33 sustainable development, barriers, 80-82 T tax-exempt non-profit status 501(c)3 model set up, 238-240 501(d) status, 196-198 and land trusts, 194-196 overview, 175-176, 189-192 and ownership of land, 192-194 tax issues legal entity status, 76, 174 and non-profit status, 179 terms, 175 tenancy in common, 187 terminology "a group of families", 104, 106 dealing with prejudice, 124-125 timeline, setting goals, 26, 28-29 training consensus, 58, 61-62, 65 hiring expertise, 9 Twin Oaks (VA), 196-198 U utilities, 110 V values, exploring, 47-53 vision documents drafting, 53-54 elements of, 37-38 and fundraising, 31-32 general principles, 7, 25-26, 36 hidden expectations, 45-47, 51-52 process of creating, 42-45, 47-53 vision statements, 38-41 visitors/interns, 32-33, 167 Vogel, Paul Ekrem, 181 W water issues, 81, 109, 120 Watzke, Bob, 107, 112 website, your community, 32 websites, research, 20, 177 Wilson, Roberta (Winslow Cohousing), 12 Winslow Cohousing (WA), 12-13 Wolpert, Adam (Sowing Circle/OAEC), 34, 36, 37 Z zoning issues decision not to buy, 5, 114-116 former use permits, 118-119 General Plan, 110, 116 housing density, 116-117 and neighbors, 15, 110, 122-125 subdividing, 120 and sustainable development, 81-82, 109, 116 variance or permit, 119-122 Zucker, Irwin Wolfe, 219, 226 Zuni Mountain Sanctuary (NM), 147 About the Author Since 1993 Diana Leafe Christian has been editor of Communities magazine, a quarterly publication about intentional communities in North America.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Large public spaces, increasingly demanded of developers by citizens’ committees and planning boards, can often end up offering less of an amenity than smaller ones, especially if the buildings surrounding them are not very tall. Since the key measure of a place’s spatial definition is its height-to-width ratio, wide spaces only feel enclosed when flanked by buildings of considerable height.■ Yet Gehl’s well-earned distaste for large things extends to building heights as well. This stance puts him in the company of some of our most prominent urban thinkers while alienating him from others. In A Pattern Language, the bestselling design book of all time, Christopher Alexander drew the limit at four stories, noting that “there is abundant evidence to show that high buildings make people crazy.”5 The fertile-minded Leon Krier, Luxembourger godfather of the New Urbanist movement, is likewise adamant in his dismissal of skyscrapers, which he terms “vertical cul-de-sacs,” arguing instead for cities limited to four stories, the convenient height for a walk-up.

Christy Goodman, “Expanded Bike-Sharing Program to Link D.C., Arlington.” 50. “Capital Bikeshare Expansion Planned in the New Year,” D.C. DOT, December 23, 2010. 51. Wendy Koch, “Cities Roll Out Bike-Sharing Programs.” 52. David Byrne, Bicycle Diaries, 278. 53. Lord. STEP 7: SHAPE THE SPACES 1. Thomas J. Campanella, Republic of Shade, 135. 2. Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 4. 3. Ibid., 120, 139, 34. 4. Ibid., 50. 5. Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language, 115. 6. Gehl, 42. 7. Ibid., 171–73. 8. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 203. 9. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 10.5. 10. Gehl, 146. STEP 8: PLANT TREES 1. R. S. Ulrich et al., “View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery.” 2. “The Value of Trees to a Community,” arborday.org/trees/benefits.cfm. 3. Dan Burden, “22 Benefits of Urban Street Trees.” 4.

David Owen, Green Metropolis, 178. 12. Ibid., 181. 13. Jacobs, 91. 14. Ibid., 91n. STEP 10: PICK YOUR WINNERS 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 166. 2. Blair Kamin, “Ohio Cap at Forefront of Urban Design Trend.” 3. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 7.8. 4. Rick Reilly, “Life of Reilly: Mile-High Madness.” WORKS CITED BOOKS Alexander, Christopher. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Arnold, Henry F. Trees in Urban Design, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley, 1992. Brand, Stewart. Whole Earth Discipline: Why Denser Cities, Nuclear Power, Transgenic Crops, Restored Wetlands and Geoengineering Are Necessary. New York: Penguin, 2009. Buettner, Dan. The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer from the People Who’ve Lived the Longest. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2008. _____.


Designing Interfaces by Jenifer Tidwell

A Pattern Language, business intelligence, crowdsourcing, Firefox, longitudinal study, school vouchers, social software, social web, sorting algorithm, Tony Hsieh, web application

Fit the pattern to your particular users and requirements. Some very complete sets of patterns make up a “pattern language.” These patterns resemble visual languages in that they cover the entire vocabulary of elements used in a design (though pattern languages are more abstract and behavioral; visual languages talk about shapes, icons, colors, fonts, etc.). The set in this book isn’t nearly as complete, and it contains techniques that don’t qualify as traditional patterns. But at least it’s concise enough to be manageable and useful. Other Pattern Collections The text that started it all dealt with physical buildings, not software. Christopher Alexander’s A Pattern Language and its companion book The Timeless Way of Building established the concept of patterns and described a 250-pattern multilayered pattern language.

Christopher Alexander’s A Pattern Language and its companion book The Timeless Way of Building established the concept of patterns and described a 250-pattern multilayered pattern language. It is often considered the gold standard for a pattern language because of its completeness, its rich interconnectedness, and its grounding in the human response to our built world. In the mid-1990s, the publication of Design Patterns by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides profoundly changed the practice of commercial software architecture. This book is a collection of patterns describing object-oriented “micro-architectures.” If you have a background in software engineering, this is the book that probably introduced you to the idea of patterns. Many other authors have written books about software patterns since this book. Software patterns such as these do make software more habitable—for those who write the software, not those who use it!

Tufte (Graphics Press, 1997) Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data by Stephen Few (O’Reilly, 2006) Now You See It: Simple Visualization Techniques for Quantitative Analysis by Stephen Few (Analytics Press, 2009) Designing Social Interfaces: Principles, Patterns, and Practices for Improving the User Experience by Christian Crumlish and Erin Malone (O’Reilly and Yahoo! Press, 2009) Designing for the Social Web by Joshua Porter (New Riders Press, 2008) Search Patterns: Design for Discovery by Peter Morville and Jeffery Callender (O’Reilly, 2010) And finally, here are the classic patterns books that started the whole concept: The Timeless Way of Building by Christopher Alexander (Oxford University Press, 1979) A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, Max Jacobson, Ingrid Fiksdahl-King, and Shlomo Angel (Oxford University Press, 1977) Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John M. Vlissides (Addison-Wesley Professional, 1994) Index A note on the digital index A link in an index entry is displayed as the section title in which that entry appears.


pages: 211 words: 55,075

Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city

A diversity of light (and ventilation) conditions can potentially accommodate different activities in close proximity, which is desirable in a dense, multifunctional environment. Lighting a space should not only be about the quantity of light, but also the quality of light. For example, natural light from more than one direction is very significant for the human experience inside a building. Christopher Alexander highlights this in A Pattern Language, with pattern number 159: “Light on Two Sides of Every Room.” The quality of light and the human experience is dramatically different when this more complex light is present, influencing how you can read emotions and see facial expressions.27 The smaller dimensions of lower and thinner buildings increase the possibility of having natural light from two sides or even light from above. These dimensions give designers more options for abundant and high-quality light.

Living With the Weather 23 On the concept of outdoor life in Scandinavia called Friluftsliv see Maddy Savage, Friluftsliv the nordic concept of getting outdoors (BBC 11 December 2017). 24 City of Copenhagen, Bicycle Account (City of Copenhagen 2006). 25 Numbers for 1986, 1995, 2005 from Jan Gehl, Cities for People (Washington D.C.: Island Press 2010), 146. 2015 numbers from City of Copenhagen, Bylivsregnskab (Public life account) (City of Copenhagen 2015), 6. 26 Christopher Bergland, “Exposure to Natural Light Improves Workplace Performance,” Psychology Today, June 2013. 27 Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (New York: Oxford University Press 1977), pattern 159. 28 International Energy Agency, The Future of Cooling (International Energy Agency, May 2018). 29 Henning Larsen, Micki Aaen Petersen, Mikroklima analyser (Microclimate analysis), Bo01, Västra Hamnen, Malmö, Juni 2018. 30 Henning Larsen, Micki Aaen Petersen, Mikroklima analyser (Microclimate analysis), Bo01, Västra Hamnen, Malmö, Juni 2018. 31 City of Melbourne, Urban Forest Strategy: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/community/parks-open-spaces/urban-forest/Pages/urban-forest-strategy.aspx (accessed 05.12.2018). 32 City of Copenhagen, Climate Adaptation Plan in English, see: https://en.klimatilpasning.dk/media/568851/copenhagen_adaption_plan.pdf (accessed 14 April 2019). 33 See Richard Louv, Last Child in the Woods (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books 2008).


The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

An office tower gets built in the middle of a five-acre parking lot on a boulevard lined by similar isolated office buildings-who cares how it relates to the rest of Fairfax, Virginia, as long as the cars can get to it? And say, won't ten stories of greenish mirrored glass look spiffy from the Beltway ! Build­ ing on that philosophical premise was a disaster. 2 5 0 ... B E T T E R P L A C E S Alexander and his colleagues concocted an antidote to this cultural poison. They called it "A Pattern Language. " Here they summarized it nicely in clear prose refreshingly free of jargon. The elements of this language are entities called patterns. Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice.l This pattern language was a vocabulary for building.

Andrew Holleran, "The Virgin and the Mouse," Wigwag Magazine (Au­ gust 1990), p. 24. N O T E 5 2. Author's interview with John DeGrove, Director of the Florida Atlantic University/Florida International University Joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems, April 1990. 3. "The Tables Have Turned on Gaming in Atlantic City," The New York Times, Sunday Business Section (December 9, 1990), p. 1. C H A PT E R 1 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Alexander, et aI., A Pattern Language, p. x. Ibid. , pp. 783-84. Author's interview with Andres Duany, May 10, 1990. Edward Gunts, "Plan Meets Reality," Architecture Magazine, December 1991. Author's interview with Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, May 12, 1990. The other architects involved were Doug Kelbaugh, chairman of the Uni­ versity of Washington School of Architecture; Robert Small, also of the University of Washington; Harrison Fraker, University of Minnesota; Mark Mack and Daniel Solomon, University of California, Berkeley; Don Prowler, University of Pennsylvania; and David Sellers, in private practice in Ver­ mont (formerly Yale University).

Solomon, "Fixing Suburbia," Peter Calthorpe, et aI. , The Pedestrian Pocket Book, p. 29. Peter Calthorpe, "The Post-Suburban Metropolis," Whole Earth Review, Winter 1991. Hiss, The Experience of Place, p. 214. 2 8 0 _ Bibliography Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Alexander, Christopher; Ishikawa, Sara; Silverstein, Murry; et al. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Arendt, Randall G.; Brabec, Elizabeth A. ; Dodson, Harry L. ; Yaro, Robert D. Dealing with Change in the Connecticut River Valley : A Design Man­ ual for Conservation and Development. Cambridge : Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1989. Banham, Reyner. A Concrete Atlantis-- U .S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986. .


pages: 504 words: 67,845

Designing Web Interfaces: Principles and Patterns for Rich Interactions by Bill Scott, Theresa Neil

A Pattern Language, anti-pattern, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, web application

., In-Page Editing, as we discuss in Chapter 1) borrows heavily from the desktop—but has its own unique flavor when applied to a web page. This book explores these unique rich interactions as set of design patterns in the context of a few key design principles. Design Patterns What do we mean by design patterns? Christopher Alexander coined the term "patterns" in his seminal work A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (Oxford University Press) to catalog common architectural solutions to human activities. He described a pattern as: ...a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem... Patterns were later applied to software in the book Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (Addison-Wesley), by the Gang of Four (Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John M.

It is possible to relieve this tension by providing both approaches in the same interface. Flickr actually does this by offering an alternate, separate page for editing (Figure 1-4). Figure 1-4. Flickr allows you to also edit a photo's title, description, and tags in a separate page * * * [6] We use the term "design patterns" to denote common solutions to common problems. Design patterns originate from Christopher Alexander's book A Pattern Language (Oxford University Press). You can read a series of essays from me (Bill) and others on design patterns at http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?347 [7] While the Yahoo! Design Pattern Library (http://developer.yahoo.com/ypatterns/) was being launched, this pattern was not included in the initial set of patterns due to an internal debate over this issue of discoverability. In fact, one of the reviewers, a senior designer and frequent user of Flickr, had only recently discovered the feature.


pages: 242 words: 71,943

Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

These opposite rows of buildings were spaced at ratios comfortable to human beings. They were not so close as to feel constrained, but they were not so far that they failed to create an edge. Edges are very important for humans. In our habitats, we are drawn to edges. This is a phenomenon observed by Jane Jacobs in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, then elaborated on by Christopher Alexander in A Pattern Language. In public spaces, Jacobs notes that people “stay to the sides,” while Alexander states that people “naturally gravitate toward the edge.” This street in Pompeii provided that opportunity. Biologists call this wall-hugging trait thigmotaxis. Think of a mouse scurrying along the edge of a wall, instinctively fearful of journeying into the center of the room. Humans have that same propensity.

., 103 Natural disasters, 102–103 Neighborhoods: abandonment of, 109–110 built to finished states, 21–23 changing in post-war era, 92–93 community living in, 202–203 decline of, 113 gentrification of urban, 117 mixed-use, 163, 169 renewal of, and incremental growth, 23–27 responses to improvements in, 158 structured around religions, 214 in transition sections of Detroit, 118 Neighbors, being involved with, 202–203 New Deal economics, 87–88 New Orleans, Louisiana, 102, 182 Nixon, Richard, 94 Noncritical systems, 182 O Oak Cliff neighborhood (Dallas, Texas), 159 Obama, Barack, 63 Obesity, among Pacific Islanders, 58–59 Options Real Estate, 160 Orange County, California, xi–xii Order, chaos vs., 121–122 The Original Green (Mouzon), 10, 113 Oroville dam (California), 182 Oswego, New York, 152 Oswego Renaissance Association, 152 P Pacific Islanders, 58–59, 183–185 Paper returns on investment, 67–69 Paradox of Avarice, 104 Paradox of Thrift, 88, 104 Pareidolia, 8–9, 9f Parks department, 178t Party analogy, 34–35 A Pattern Language (Alexander), 8 Pension funds, 56–57, 70, 98 Pequot Lakes, Minnesota, 44–46 Perception, of need for more infrastructure, 63–65 Personal preferences, 144–145 Peru, 84 Place-oriented government, 171–198 and confirmation bias, 183–186 designed for efficiency, 174–176 focus on broad wealth creation by, 176–180 maintenance as priority for, 180–183 and regulations, 192–194 response to hardship by, 172–174 subsidiarity in, 195–198 understanding of debt by, 186–192 Political differences, 207 Pompeii, Italy, 5–10 Post-war boom: and economic stability, 91–93 modern city development established in, 12 Power, subsidiarity principle and, 196–198 Prayer of Saint Francis, 218 Prioritization, of maintenance, 180–183 Private development, 40 Private investment: private to public investment ratio, 129–130 public and, 30–34, 31f, 32f Private sector (businesses): response to economic hardship in, 172–173 small, see Small businesses Problem solving, 13–14 Productive places, 125–146 downtown vs. edge of town, 134–138 in past, 125–127 and personal preferences, 144–145 productivity calculations for, 128–130 return on investment, 141–144 traditional vs. modern development in, 131–134 value per acre, 138–141 Productivity, calculations of, 128–130 Project teams, 179–180 Property taxes, 49 Property value, 23–25, 25f Public health, and walking neighborhoods, 205 Public investment: private and, 30–34, 31f, 32f private to public investment ratio, 129–130 returns required for, 147 Public safety department, 179t Q Quality-of-life benefits, 187 Quantitative Easing, 99 R Railroad companies, 77 Rational decision making, 107–123 about failing development systems, 115–120 about long declines, 110–115 within complex, adaptive system, 120–123 and lack of single solution, 107–110 Real return on investment, 74–78 Redevelopment, financial productivity after, 131–134, 139–140, 139t Redundant systems, 182 ReForm Shreveport, 219, 220 Regulations: from place-oriented government, 192–194 and subsidiarity principle, 195–198 Repealing regulations, 192–193 Republican Party, 209 Request for proposal (RFP), 50 Residents, learning concerns of, 156–157 Resources: assumption of abundance of, 12–14 wasted, in modern development, 19 Retreats, strategic, 108–109 Return on investment, 141–144 calculating, for infrastructure, 67–69 for capital projects, 171–172 in cities, 44 and debt taken on by local governments, 187 low-risk investments with steady, 150–155 paper, 67–69 real, 74–78 social, 78–79 Revenues, and expenses, 41–44 RFP (request for proposal), 50 The Righteous Mind (Haidt), 208 Risk management strategies, 83–85 Roaring Twenties, 87 Roberts, Jason, 159 Roosevelt, Franklin, 87, 88 Rotary International, 203 S St.


Emotional design: why we love (or hate) everyday things by Donald A. Norman

A Pattern Language, crew resource management, Dean Kamen, industrial robot, job automation, Rodney Brooks, Vernor Vinge, Yogi Berra

Some of the examples in this book may have already followed this trajectory: the Mini Cooper automobile, so charming and cute to the reviewers at the time of this book's writing, may look dated, oldfashioned, and dull by the time you flip through these pages—so much so that you may wonder how I came to choose it as an example. The concern for the diminishing impact of familiarity has led some designers to propose hiding beautiful views, lest continual encounter might diminish their emotional impact. In the book A Pattern Language, the architect Christopher Alexander and his colleagues describe 253 different design patterns derived from their observations and analyses. These patterns provide the basis of their guidelines for "a timeless way of building," which structures buildings in ways calculated to enhance the experience of the people living within them. Pattern number 134deals with the problem of overexposure: Pattern 134: Zen View.

Quotation is from chapter 3, "The Beauty of Life," originally delivered before the Birmingham Society of Arts and School of Design, February 19, 1880.) TLFeBOOK This page intentionally left blank TLFeBOOK References Alessi, A. (2000). Creating Juicy salif. Product brochure accompanying the Special Anniversary Edition 2000 of the Juicy Salif. Crusinallo, Italy: Alessi. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press. Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106, 529-550. Asimov, I. (1950). I, Robot. London: D. Dobson. (Reprinted numerous times; see: Asimov, I. [1983]). Asimov, I. (1983). The Foundation trilogy: Foundation, Foundation and empire, Second foundation; The stars, like dust; The naked sun; I, robot.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

The first tenet of our new civics is that we should never default to smart technology as the solution. It’s tempting to think that new gadgets always offer better solutions to old problems. But they are just another set of tools in an already well-equipped box. One need only open up Christopher Alexander’s monumental book A Pattern Language to understand just how big that toolbox is. The result of a decade’s worth of painstaking research, it is a fascinating distillation of humanity’s built legacy, describing over two hundred traditional architectural and urban design tropes from cities around the world. What A Pattern Language argues is that most urban design problems were solved long ago by ancient builders. We have but to borrow from our ancestors, and many problems can be adequately addressed simply by conventional design. Instead, however, we are creating technological bandages to fix flaws in the poor designs of mass-produced cities.

“It is this lack of structural complexity, characteristic of trees, which is crippling our conceptions of the city,” he wrote. As a remedy, over the next decade Alexander and his colleagues studied traditional cities around the world, distilling their timeless design elements—“the unchanging receptacle in which the changing parts of the system . . . can work together,” as he had described the corner in Berkeley.2 The results, published in 1977 as A Pattern Language, were a crib sheet for lattice-friendly city building. Standing outside the St. Mark’s Ale House once again in 2011, almost ten years to the day after I first encountered Dodgeball inside, I browsed the East Village’s lattice with my iPhone using Dennis Crowley’s newest app, Foursquare. Alexander’s ideas about trees, lattices, and patterns have lingered on the margins of architecture and urban design since the 1970s.


pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

Stores and other businesses can’t exist without vehicles to serve them, and the rather specialized physics of pedestrianism doesn’t automatically cause walking to expand to fill any space that is provided for it. Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein—architects who were associated with the Institute of Environmental Structure at the University of California at Berkeley—wrote, in their influential 1977 book, A Pattern Language , “It is common planning practice to separate pedestrians and cars. This makes pedestrian areas more human and safer. However, this practice fails to take account of the fact that cars and pedestrians also need each other: and that, in fact, a great deal of urban life occurs at just the point where these two systems meet. Many of the greatest places in cities, Piccadilly Circus, Times Square, the Champs-Élysées, are alive because they are at places where pedestrians and vehicles meet.

., “Measuring Higher Level Physical Function in Well-Functioning Older Adults,” Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, October 2001, pp. 644-49. 5 Slater, “Walk the Walk.” 6 Ben Harder, “Weighing In on City Planning,” Science News, January 20, 2007. 7 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992; originally published 1961), p. 259. 8 Jacobs, Death and Life, pp. 265-66. 9 John Holtzclaw, “Curbing Sprawl to Curb Global Warming,” Sierra Club, http://www.sierraclub.org/sprawl/articles/warming.asp. 10 Douglas Farr, Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2008), p. 21. 11 Calvin Trillin, “Rudy Giuliani, Proctor of New York,” Time, March 2, 1998. 12 See Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy, Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999), p. 147 and elsewhere. There is also much useful information about traffic calming here: http://www.trafficcalming.org/. 13 Christopher Alexander et al., A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), p. 271. 14 William Neuman and Fernanda Santos, “On 3 Days in August, City Will Try No-Car Zone,” The New York Times, June 17, 2008. 15 Cristina Milesi et al., “Mapping and Modeling the Biogeochemical Cycling of Turf Grasses in the United States,” Environmental Management , September 2005, pp. 426-38. 16 Elizabeth Kolbert, “Turf War,” The New Yorker, July 21, 2008. 17 Richard Louv, “Leave No Child Inside,” Orion, March/April, 2007, available here: http://www.orionmagazine.org/index.php/articles/article/240/. 18 David Biello, “Are Americans Afraid of the Outdoors?”


pages: 293 words: 97,431

You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard

A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl

In her insightful book on the evolution of house design, House Thinking, Winnifred Gallagher suggests that some successful architects have a strong intuitive sense of the power of prospect and refuge.5 Frank Lloyd Wright, for example, was fond of building alcoves with low ceilings, especially in cozy spots near the hearth. In terms of primitive survival, a sheltered spot near the fireplace must be considered as the archetypal refuge from which to look out on the grand prospects offered up by the rest of the house. Similarly, Christopher Alexander, in A Pattern Language, his encyclopaedic recipe book for successful city, town, neighborhood, and house planning, suggests varied ceiling heights as an important design principle, particularly in areas of quiet repose such as alcoves in bedrooms designed to contain beds.6 In the same way that house stagers may have some intuition for what attracts buyers to a property, good designers and architects have strong sensibilities for how the aesthetics of space can contribute to successful and comfortable abodes.

Jay Appleton’s arguments about the importance of prospect and refuge to the human psyche are laid out in his book The Experience of Landscape (Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, 1975). 5. Winnifred Gallagher’s House Thinking, a delightful tour through the main parts of a modern house, is filled with much interesting material on the history and philosophy of house building (Harper Perennial: New York, 2007). 6. Christopher Alexander, in A Pattern Language: Towns, Building, Constructions (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1977), lays out an encyclopedic set of intuitive rules governing how welcoming and functional space should be organized. The theory underlying the rules is described in several volumes, including The Timeless Way of Building (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1979). 7. Amos Rapoport’s seminal work on the meaning of house form, written from a cross-cultural perspective, is his book House Form and Culture (Prentice-Hall: New York, 1969). 8.


pages: 612 words: 187,431

The Art of UNIX Programming by Eric S. Raymond

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, correlation coefficient, David Brooks, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, finite state, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Innovator's Dilemma, job automation, Larry Wall, MVC pattern, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, pre–internet, publish or perish, revision control, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Steven Levy, transaction costs, Turing complete, Valgrind, wage slave, web application

The expository style and some of the concerns of this book have been influenced by the design patterns movement; indeed, I flirted with the idea of titling the book Unix Design Patterns. I didn't, because I disagree with some of the implicit central dogmas of the movement and don't feel the need to use all its formal apparatus or accept its cultural baggage. Nevertheless, my approach has certainly been influenced by Christopher Alexander's work[3] (especially The Timeless Way of Building and A Pattern Language), and I owe the Gang of Four and other members of their school a large debt of gratitude for showing me how it is possible to use Alexander's insights to talk about software design at a high level without merely uttering vague and useless generalities. Interested readers should see Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software [GangOfFour] for an introduction to design patterns.

We'll follow it with a discussion of how to apply them. Note that this bestiary does not include GUI design patterns (though it includes a design pattern that can use a GUI as a component). There are no design patterns in graphical user interfaces themselves that are specifically native to Unix. A promising beginning of a discussion of GUI design patterns in general can be found at Experiences — A Pattern Language for User Interface Design [Coram-Lee]. Also note that programs may have modes that fit more than one interface pattern. A program that has a compiler-like interface, for example, may behave as a filter when no file arguments are specified on the command line (many format converters behave like this). The Filter Pattern The interface-design pattern most classically associated with Unix is the filter.

[Comer] Unix Review. Douglas Comer. “Pervasive Unix: Cause for Celebration”. October 1985. p. 42. [Cooper] Alan Cooper. The Inmates Are Running the Asylum. Sams. 1999. ISBN 0-672-31649-8. Despite some occasional quirks and crotchets, this book is a trenchant and brilliant analysis of what's wrong with software interface designs, and how to put it right. [Coram-Lee] Tod Coram and Ji Lee. Experiences — A Pattern Language for User Interface Design. 1996. Available on the Web. [DuBois] Paul DuBois. Software Portability with Imake. O'Reilly & Associates. 1993. ISBN 1-56592-055-4. [Eckel] Bruce Eckel. Thinking in Java. 3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall. 2003. ISBN 0-13-100287-2. Available on the Web. [Feller-Fitzgerald] Joseph Feller and Brian Fitzgerald. Understanding Open Source Software. 2002. ISBN 0-201-73496-6.


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

Architects have been doing this forever. It’s part of the timeless way of building that Christopher Alexander draws upon to generate the quality without a name.xlvii In planning Eishin Gakuen, a combined college and high school he built outside Tokyo in the 1980s, Alexander used many tools to extend cognition. First, instead of simply interviewing students and teachers, he invited them to co-create a pattern language – a word-picture that describes the wholeness of a place – since “it is immensely hard to help people tell you what they want.”xlviii Together they sketched out 110 essential patterns for the campus, including: 2.2 The Small Gate marks the outer end of the Entrance Street. It is a small, imposing building, which has height and volume. Hosoi, Nodera, Suzuki 6.6 The Library, also a two story building, has a large quiet reading room on the second floor, with shelves, and tables, and carrels, and beautiful windows.


pages: 292 words: 62,575

97 Things Every Programmer Should Know by Kevlin Henney

A Pattern Language, active measures, business intelligence, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, database schema, deliberate practice, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fixed income, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, index card, inventory management, job satisfaction, loose coupling, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, The Wisdom of Crowds

Chapter 71 Chapter 94 Kevlin Henney Kevlin Henney is an independent consultant and trainer. His work focuses on patterns and architecture, programming techniques and languages, and development process and practice. He has been a columnist for various magazines and online publications, including The Register, Better Software, Java Report, CUJ, and C++ Report. Kevlin is coauthor of two volumes in the Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture series: A Pattern Language for Distributed Computing and On Patterns and Pattern Languages (Wiley). He also contributed to 97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know. Chapter 17 Chapter 80 Chapter 81 Kirk Pepperdine Kirk Pepperdine works as an independent consultant offering Java performance-related services. Prior to focusing on Java, Kirk developed and tuned systems written in C/C++, Smalltalk, and a variety of other languages.


pages: 224 words: 62,551

Now I Sit Me Down: From Klismos to Plastic Chair: A Natural History by Witold Rybczynski

A Pattern Language, Buckminster Fuller, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton

The stylish wood-and-metal folding bistro chair is another nineteenth-century chair that has endured—it was patented in 1889. NOTES ON SOURCES 1. A Tool for Sitting A detailed description of François Boucher’s Le déjeuner is contained in What Great Paintings Say: Volume 2 (Taschen, 2003) by Rose-Marie and Rainer Hagen. George Kubler’s penetrating study is The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things (Yale University Press, 1962). Christopher Alexander’s observation on furniture is from A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (Oxford University Press, 1977). 2. If You Sit on It, Can It Still Be Art? Jean-François Oeben’s mechanical dressing table is discussed by André Boutemy in “Les Table-Coiffeuses de Jean-François Oeben,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire de l’art français (1962). Details of Émilie du Châtelet and Voltaire’s life at Cirey are vividly described by Nancy Mitford in Voltaire in Love (E.


pages: 728 words: 182,850

Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter

3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, functional fixedness, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, Rubik’s Cube, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method

Think of it like swap space: without enough space for raw ingredients about to be cooked (first counter), plates for cooked food (second counter), and dirty dishes (third counter), your cooking can crash mid-process as you try to figure out where to stack that dirty pan. This isn’t to say the three counter sections will always be used for those three functions, but as a rule of thumb, having three work surfaces of sufficient length (and depth!) seems to make cooking easier. Note The 3 × 4 counter rule is a slight variation on the "Cooking Layout" design pattern from Christopher Alexander et al.’s A Pattern Language: Towns, Building, Construction (Oxford; see p. 853). It’s a great book that examines the common design patterns present in good architecture and urban development. If your current kitchen setup violates the three-counter, four-feet rule, see if you can come up with a clever way to extend a countertop or create a work surface. If you have the space, the easiest option is to buy a "kitchen island" on wheels, which you can move around as needed and also use to store common tools.

in recipes, Picking a Recipe organic foods, Seasonal Method Oskay, Windell, Making ice cream osmosis salt and, Salt sugar and, Sugar Ossau-Iraty (cheese), Seasonal Method oven overclocking, High-heat ovens and pizza oven spring, Yeast in breads Oven-Cooked Barbeque Ribs, Liquid Smoke: Distilled Smoke Vapor ovens calibrating using sugar, Approaching the Kitchen high-heat, Sous Vide Cooking, Blowtorches for crème brûlée improving recovery time, Approaching the Kitchen regulating heat, Approaching the Kitchen oxygen bacterial growth and, Foodborne Illness and Staying Safe FAT TOM acronym, Foodborne Illness and Staying Safe liquid nitrogen and, Dangers of liquid nitrogen yeast and, Yeast in beverages oxymyoglobin, How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Caused by Bacteria oyster knife, Knives O’Reilly, Tim, Baking Powder P palate cleansers, Taste (Gustatory Sense) pan searing (see ) Slow-Cooked Short Ribs, 154°F / 68°C: Collagen (Type I) Denatures pancake recipes Buttermilk Pancakes, Baking Soda Pancakes, Picking a Recipe pans, heating, Reading Between the Lines papain (enzyme), 154°F / 68°C: Collagen (Type I) Denatures par-baking pizza, Pizza par-cooking, 310°F / 154°C: Maillard Reactions Become Noticeable parasites foodborne illnesses and, How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Caused by Parasites freezing, How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Caused by Parasites, Sous Vide Cooking pH levels and, Acids and Bases trichinosis and, Wet brining paring knife, Knives Parkinson’s Law, Kitchen Pruning parma torte, Regional/Traditional Method pasteurization defined, Foodborne Illness and Staying Safe eggs and, The 30-Minute Scrambled Egg food safety and, How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Caused by Bacteria sous vide cooking and, Foodborne Illness and Sous Vide Cooking, Chicken and other poultry surface contamination and, How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Caused by Bacteria pastry chefs, 356°F / 180°C: Sugar Begins to Caramelize Visibly, Whipped Cream, Playing with Chemicals A Pattern Language (Alexander), Uniform Storage Containers peanut allergies, Ingredients to avoid Pear Sorbet, Smell (Olfactory Sense) PEBKAC-type errors, Know your type pectin improving mouth-feel, Making Gels: Starches, Carrageenan, Agar, and Sodium Alginate making, 158°F / 70°C: Vegetable Starches Break Down making jam, Baking Powder starchy vegetables and, 158°F / 70°C: Vegetable Starches Break Down pepper grinders, Unitaskers pepperminty odor, Analytical Method perceptions, reasons for cooking, Functional Fixedness Perfumer’s Compendium (Allured), Analytical Method perishable foods, storage tips, Kitchen Equipment PFOA, Pots and pans pH scale about, Baking Soda, Acids and Bases food additives and, E Numbers: The Dewey Decimal System of Food Additives sodium citrate and, Making gels: Sodium alginate pickling, flash, Chocolate Pie Dough, Gluten pinch (as measurement), Bitter piperine, Combinations of Tastes and Smells pizza, Pizza high-heat ovens and, Blowtorches for crème brûlée Pizza Dough—No-Knead Method, Pizza Pizza Dough—Yeast-Free Method, Baking Powder pizza stones, Approaching the Kitchen, Yeast in breads, Pizza plasmolysis, Salt, Sugar plastic storage bags, Water heaters Playing with Fire and Water blog, Commercial Hardware and Techniques 1-p-methene-8-thiol, Smell (Olfactory Sense) Poached Pears in Red Wine, 158°F / 70°C: Vegetable Starches Break Down poaching, Sous Vide Cooking (see also ) Oven-Poached Eggs, The 30-Minute Scrambled Egg Poached Pears in Red Wine, 158°F / 70°C: Vegetable Starches Break Down Salmon Poached in Olive Oil, 104°F / 40°C and 122°F / 50°C: Proteins in Fish and Meat Begin to Denature polar bonds, Alcohol, Making Foams: Lecithin Pollan, Michael, A Few Words on Nutrition, Seasonal Method polymer fume fever, Pots and pans PolyScience, Making ice cream popcorn lung, Smell (Olfactory Sense) Popovers, Whipped Cream poppy seed bagels, Cooking for Others Pork Chops Stuffed with Cheddar Cheese and Poblano Peppers, Wet brining pork, trichinosis and, Wet brining portion control, A Few Words on Nutrition post-mortem proteolysis, 104°F / 40°C and 122°F / 50°C: Proteins in Fish and Meat Begin to Denature potassium bicarbonate, Baking Soda potatoes Roasted Potatoes with Garlic and Rosemary, Seasonal Method Rosemary Mashed Potatoes, 158°F / 70°C: Vegetable Starches Break Down Skillet Fried Potatoes, 310°F / 154°C: Maillard Reactions Become Noticeable pots and pans, Cutting boards acidity in foods and, Reading Between the Lines, Pots and pans buttering, Adapt and Experiment Method cladded metals, Pots and pans hanging up, Counter Layout hot spots, Pots and pans organizing, Kitchen Organization splatter guards, Bar towels thermal conductivity of, Pots and pans, Methods of Heat Transfer types of, Cutting boards, Kitchen Pruning Potter’s Corollary to Parkinson’s Law, Kitchen Pruning Poulette Sauce, Adapt and Experiment Method poultry (see ) Powdered Brown Butter, "Melts" in your mouth: Maltodextrin Powell, Doug, How to Prevent Foodborne Illness Caused by Parasites Pralus, George, Sous Vide Cooking prepping ingredients, Calibrating Your Instruments, Thermometers and timers preserving foods Lime Marmalade, Sugar Preserved Lemons, Wet brining with salt, Traditional Cooking Chemicals, Dry brining, Wet brining with sugar, Sugar pressure cooking, Convection, 310°F / 154°C: Maillard Reactions Become Noticeable, Stock, broth, and consommé probe thermometer, Avoid PEBKAC-type errors: RTFR!


pages: 317 words: 76,169

The Perfect House: A Journey With Renaissance Master Andrea Palladio by Witold Rybczynski

A Pattern Language, financial independence, Frank Gehry, invention of the printing press, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Murano, Venice glass, trade route

Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects, trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere, vol. 3 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1979), 2016. 2. Dan Cruikshank, “Jewel in the Crown,” Perspectives, May 1994, 34–38. 3. Richard Haslam, “Villa Saraceno, Veneto, Italy,” Country Life, October 6, 1994, 45. 4. Andrea Palladio, The Four Books of Architecture, trans. Isaac Ware (New York: Dover Publications, 1965), 50–51. 5. Christopher Alexander et al., A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), 877–79. 6. Andrea Palladio, Four Books on Architecture, trans. Robert Tavernor and Richard Schofield (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997), 59. 7. Ibid. 8. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Italian Journey, trans. W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), 47. 9. Lucy Archer, Raymond Erith: Architect (Burford, Oxfordshire: Cygnet Press, 1985), 75. 10.


pages: 246 words: 76,561

Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus

Consequently, theirs is one of the few houses in the neighbourhood that remains almost exactly as it was first built. This particular model was designed to be industrially produced and to provide enough courtyards so that owners could extend without losing light and air. But each typology reflects the particular preoccupations of its architect. Christopher Alexander, who went on to make his name with the hugely successful book A Pattern Language, spent two weeks living in a barriada before designing his house. He was a meticulous researcher of behaviour, and he observed that Peruvians apparently prefer open spaces that they can divide up with curtains to create temporary rooms. The house I visit, owned by a man who keeps fighting cocks on the roof, has indeed kept the ground floor as an open-plan space, and has extended the dining room into the rear garden.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

THE INNER CITY 1 “For Pedestrians, NYC Is Now Even More Forbidding,” A11. 10. HOW TO MAKE A TOWN 1 Keat Foong, “Williams Goes Urban to Differentiate Post,” 42. 2 Data from Christopher A. Kent, P.A., C.R.E., Real Estate Broker and Counselor. II. WHAT Is TO BE DONE 1 Kevin Sack, “Governor Proposes Remedy for Atlanta Sprawl,” A14. 2 Edmund P. Fowler, Building Cities That Work, 72. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, Christopher. A Pattern Language. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (the “Green Book”). Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 1990. Arnold, Henry. Trees in Urban Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Aschauer, David. “Transportation, Spending, and Economic Growth.” Report by the American Public Transit Association, September 1991.


pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

The nature of the result will depend on the character of the heterogeneous elements meshed together, as we observed of communities on the Internet: they are undoubtedly more destratified than those subjected to massification by one-to-many media, but since everyone of all political stripes—even fascists—can benefit from this destratification, the mere existence of a computer meshwork is no guarantee that a better world will develop there.” De Landa, 1997, 272. Dorgo’s secret: Bonabeau and Thiraulaz, 73. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, Christopher, and Sara Ishikawa et al. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Axlerod, Robert. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books, 1984. Bak, Per. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996. Ball, Philip. The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. New York, Oxford, and Tokyo: Oxford University Press, 1999. Baron-Cohen, Simon.


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, industrial cluster, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, low cost airline, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Connections: If your pod needs to connect with other pods, it’s easier to link up and collaborate when you know what kinds of behavior to expect when you speak the same language and work in the same way. Pattern languages are collections of common standards that allow teams to more easily connect and collaborate, without being overly prescriptive. They are guidelines, not rulebooks. Gamestorming, for example, is a pattern language for cross-disciplinary design. Culture can be as simple as a set of shared values, or it can be codified in rules and policies. The important thing is that the values and rules are understood and the behavior is consistent with them. If the culture says everyone is equal, then the CEO better not have a reserved parking spot. Culture is built by establishing behaviors that the whole organization can and will adhere to consistently.


pages: 444 words: 107,664

The Secret Lives of Buildings: From the Ruins of the Parthenon to the Vegas Strip in Thirteen Stories by Edward Hollis

A Pattern Language, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, place-making, South China Sea, the scientific method, Wunderkammern

., p. 358. 300 “I am the LORD thy God”: Exodus 20:2–3 (King James version). 301 “Concerning this house”: 3 Kings 6:12, 13. 301 “ When ye come to appear before me”: Isaiah 1:12, 13. 301 “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem”: Psalm 137. 302 “To southward I set”: Quoted in Armstrong, Jerusalem, p. 337. Bibliography INTRODUCTION Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. Oxford University Press, 1979. Alexander, Christopher, et al. The Oregon Experiment. Oxford University Press, 1975. Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford University Press, 1977. Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn. Viking, 1994. Brooker, Graeme, and Sally Stone. Rereadings: Interior Architecture and the Design Principles of Remodeling Existing Buildings. RIBA Press, 2004. Calasso, Roberto. The Marriage of Cadmus and Harmony. Vintage, 1994. ———. The Ruins of Kasch. Vintage, 1995. Dal Co, Francesco, and Guiseppe Mazzarol.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

David Gelernter, Mirror Worlds, or: The Day Software Puts the Universe in a Shoebox . . . How It Will Happen and What It Will Mean (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992). 39. William Shaw, “In Helsinki Virtual Village . . .,” Wired 9.03, March 2001, 157163, <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.03/helsinki.html> (29 March 2002). 40. Ilkka Innamaa, interview by author, May 2000, Helsinki. 41. C. Alexander et al., A Pattern Language (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). 42. Silberman, “Just Say Nokia.” 43. Richard Quest, “Nokia Keeps Finland Mobile,” Time, 157, 4 June 2001, <http://www.time.com/time/interactive/business/nokia_np.html> (12 October 2001). 44. Klee and Bensko, “The Future Is Finnish.” 45. Ibid. 46. Puneet Gupta, “Short Message Service: What, How and Where?,” Wireless Developer Network, <http://www.wirelessdevnet.com/channels/sms/features/sms.html> (4 February 2002).


pages: 395 words: 114,583

Corduroy Mansions by Alexander McCall Smith

A Pattern Language, affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, banking crisis, carbon footprint, food miles, Sloane Ranger

You’re sheltered from the winds. And as far as space is concerned, look at the room that is taken up by gardens. People insist on a little strip of grass and a flowerbed—but how much use do they get out of that? They would use the space much more if they had a courtyard and grew plants in tubs and troughs. I really think that. “And there’s another thing,” he went on. “There’s a book you should read. It’s called A Pattern Language and it’s by a group of architects. I think the main author’s called Christopher Alexander, something like that. Anyway, they set out a whole lot of principles for humane architecture—for making rooms and houses in which people will feel comfortable. Rooms, for instance, should have light from two sources. Houses should not be built in long rows along the side of roads—that’s why so much of urban Britain has been rendered sterile, you know, because people just don’t feel comfortable living in long lines.


Reactive Messaging Patterns With the Actor Model: Applications and Integration in Scala and Akka by Vaughn Vernon

A Pattern Language, business intelligence, business process, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Internet of things, Kickstarter, loose coupling, remote working, type inference, web application

Still, you probably should familiarize yourself with Chapters 4 through 10 and, in general, learn where to look for details on the various kinds of patterns. Thus, when you need a given pattern, you will at least know in general where to look to find it. Each pattern in the catalog has a representative icon and will also generally have at least one diagram and source code showing how to implement the pattern using Scala and Akka. The extensive catalog of patterns actually forms a pattern language, which is a set of interconnected expressions that together form a collective method of designing message-based applications and systems. Thus, it is often necessary for one pattern to refer to one or more other patterns in the catalog, as the supporting patterns form a complete language. Thus, when a pattern is referenced in this book, it is done like this: Pattern Name (#). That is, the specific pattern is named and then followed by the page number where the referenced pattern begins.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Ward Cunningham was not looking to invent something big when he created the tool now known as the wiki; he was simply trying to make his own work a little easier. A veteran programmer and student of the arcane art of object-oriented programming, in the early 1990s he was an early and avid participant in the pattern language movement, an effort on the part of software developers to apply the ideas of architectural philosopher Christopher Alexander to their work. Alexander’s book A Pattern Language derived a sort of grammar of construction by observing common elements or patterns in successful buildings. The software pattern–language people aimed to apply the same approach to programming. In the mid-1990s, they held a conference just as the Web burst into view, and Cunningham left it with an assignment: to build a hypertext repository that programmers could use to share their software patterns on the Web.


pages: 438 words: 124,269

Love Over Scotland by Alexander McCall Smith

A Pattern Language, Malacca Straits

As Matthew came in she looked up and smiled. She liked him, and being from a small town she had that natural courtesy which has in many larger places all but disappeared. “Hello, Matthew,” she said. “You’re the first in today. Not a soul otherwise. Not even Angus and that dog of his.” Matthew leaned against the bar and peered at Big Lou’s book. He reached out and flipped the book over to reveal its cover. “A Pattern Language: Towns, Building, Construction?” he said. “Interesting, Lou. You going to build something?” Big Lou reclaimed her book. “You’ll lose my place, you great gowk,” she said affectionately. “It’s a gey good book. All about how we should design things. Buildings. Rooms. Public parks. Everything. It sets out all the rules.” Matthew raised an eyebrow. “Such as?” Big Lou turned to her coffee machine and extracted the cupped metal filter.


pages: 443 words: 131,268

Martians by Kim Stanley Robinson

A Pattern Language, Colonization of Mars, double helix, epigenetics, Live Aid, scientific worldview, Zeno's paradox

Of course there was some planning. People would arrive at an unoccupied crater (among the some twenty thousand still listed by the environmental court for the southern highlands alone) with permits and programs, and set to work, and the first decade's economic activity in the town was primarily the building of it, often by people who had an idea what they wanted; sometimes with people holding tattered copies of A Pattern Language or some other design primer in their hands, or surfing the Web for things they liked. But soon enough every crater had people moving in who were out of the original group's control, and then it was a matter of spontaneous group self-organization, a process which works extremely well when the group is socially healthy. Jones Crater was a big one, fifty kilometers in diameter, and its rim town was a beautiful new thing of transparent mushroom buildings and water tanks, and stone-faced skyscrapers clustered at the four points of the compass.


pages: 579 words: 183,063

Tribe of Mentors: Short Life Advice From the Best in the World by Timothy Ferriss

23andMe, A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, dematerialisation, don't be evil, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fear of failure, Gary Taubes, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Google Hangouts, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, helicopter parent, high net worth, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, index fund, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Turing machine, uber lyft, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Her podcast was named one of iTunes’ “Best Podcasts of 2015” and the Academy of Podcasters “Best Podcasts of 2016.” Fast Company named Gretchen to its list of “Most Creative People in Business,” and she’s a member of Oprah’s “SuperSoul 100.” What is the book (or books) you’ve given most as a gift, and why? Or what are one to three books that have greatly influenced your life? I frequently give the book A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander. I’m not a visual person, but this book taught me to see the world around me in an entirely new way. It’s a brilliant way of analyzing experience and information. It’s haunting. What is one of the best or most worthwhile investments you’ve ever made? I invested in three desktop computer monitors. I was afraid that having more than one monitor would make me feel overwhelmed and scattered, but in fact, having three monitors has dramatically increased my focus and efficiency while processing information.