stealth mode startup

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pages: 257 words: 64,973

Intrusion Detection With Snort, Apache, Mysql, Php, and Acid by Rafeeq Ur Rehman

Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, database schema, stealth mode startup, web application

Without this option in the configure script, SAMBA services can't be used with Snort. 2.9 Running Snort in Stealth Mode Sometimes you may want to run Snort in stealth mode. In stealth mode, other hosts are not able to detect the presence of the Snort machine. In other words, the Snort machine is not visible to intruders or other people. There are multiple ways to run Snort in stealth mode. One of these methods is to run Snort on a network interface where no IP address is assigned. Running Snort on a network interface without an IP address is feasible in the following two cases: A stand-alone Snort sensor with only one network adapter. A Snort sensor with two network adapters: one to access the sensor from an isolated network and the other one connected to the public network and running in stealth mode. This arrangement is shown in Figure 2-3 where network interface eth1 is connected to a private isolated network and eth0 is connected to a public network.

This arrangement is shown in Figure 2-3 where network interface eth1 is connected to a private isolated network and eth0 is connected to a public network. Figure 2-3. Running Snort in stealth mode on a system with two network adapters. When you want to access the sensor itself, you go through network interface eth1 which has an IP address configured to it. The management workstation shown in the figure may be used to connect to the sensor either to collect data or to log information to a centralized database. If many sensors are present in an organization, all of these are connected to this isolated network so that they can log information to the central database running on the management workstation or to some other database server connected to this isolated network. No IP address is configured on network interface eth0 which has connectivity to the Internet. Interface eth0 remains in stealth mode but can still listen to the network traffic from this side of the network.

Installing Snort and Getting Started Section 2.1. Snort Installation Scenarios Section 2.2. Installing Snort Section 2.3. Running Snort on Multiple Network Interfaces Section 2.4. Snort Command Line Options Section 2.5. Step-By-Step Procedure to Compile and Install Snort From Source Code Section 2.6. Location of Snort Files Section 2.7. Snort Modes Section 2.8. Snort Alert Modes Section 2.9. Running Snort in Stealth Mode Section 2.10. References Chapter 3. Working with Snort Rules Section 3.1. TCP/IP Network Layers Section 3.2. The First Bad Rule Section 3.3. CIDR Section 3.4. Structure of a Rule Section 3.5. Rule Headers Section 3.6. Rule Options Section 3.7. The Snort Configuration File Section 3.8. Order of Rules Based upon Action Section 3.9. Automatically Updating Snort Rules Section 3.10.


pages: 278 words: 83,468

The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses by Eric Ries

3D printing, barriers to entry, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, continuous integration, corporate governance, disruptive innovation, experimental subject, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, pull request, risk tolerance, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, transaction costs

Their challenge lies in prioritization and execution, and it is those challenges that give a startup hope of surviving.10 If a competitor can outexecute a startup once the idea is known, the startup is doomed anyway. The reason to build a new team to pursue an idea is that you believe you can accelerate through the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop faster than anyone else can. If that’s true, it makes no difference what the competition knows. If it’s not true, a startup has much bigger problems, and secrecy won’t fix them. Sooner or later, a successful startup will face competition from fast followers. A head start is rarely large enough to matter, and time spent in stealth mode—away from customers—is unlikely to provide a head start. The only way to win is to learn faster than anyone else. Many startups plan to invest in building a great brand, and an MVP can seem like a dangerous branding risk.

Of course, as we’ll see, such delays have the unfortunate effect of increasing the amount of wasted work, decreasing essential feedback, and dramatically increasing the risk that a startup will build something nobody wants. However, releasing a product and hoping for the best is not a good plan either, because this incentive is real. When we launched IMVU, we were ignorant of this problem. Our earliest investors and advisers thought it was quaint that we had a $300-per-month revenue plan at first. But after several months with our revenue hovering around $500 per month, some began to lose faith, as did some of our advisers, employees, and even spouses. In fact, at one point, some investors were seriously recommending that we pull the product out of the market and return to stealth mode. Fortunately, as we pivoted and experimented, incorporating what we learned into our product development and marketing efforts, our numbers started to improve.

We routinely green-light new projects more on the basis of intuition than facts. As we’ve seen throughout this book, that is not the root cause of the problem. All innovation begins with vision. It’s what happens next that is critical. As we’ve seen, too many innovation teams engage in success theater, selectively finding data that support their vision rather than exposing the elements of the vision to true experiments, or, even worse, staying in stealth mode to create a data-free zone for unlimited “experimentation” that is devoid of customer feedback or external accountability of any kind. Anytime a team attempts to demonstrate cause and effect by placing highlights on a graph of gross metrics, it is engaging in pseudoscience. How do we know that the proposed cause and effect is true? Anytime a team attempts to justify its failures by resorting to learning as an excuse, it is engaged in pseudoscience as well.


pages: 359 words: 96,019

How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional

Mehran Sahami, a Stanford professor who teaches the popular introductory computer science class, invested in Clinkle after teaching Lucas and several members of the early Clinkle team. The former dean of Stanford’s business school, Bob Joss, invested as well. All told, close to sixty people and institutions invested a sum of $30 million in Clinkle before the company even told the world what they were doing. The company had at this point been in “stealth mode,” a sexy term meaning they weren’t telling anyone what they were working on. Stanford has been intertwined with Silicon Valley for more than a century. In 1909, a Stanford graduate founded one of the earliest big Silicon Valley startups, Federal Telegraph. David Starr Jordan, Stanford’s first president, was an angel investor. But Clinkle made students, faculty, and alumni uneasy. Should the university president be advising a company that is recruiting students to drop out of school? Should professors be investing in their students’ companies?

Miami (Michael Salzhauer) Samsung Sandberg, Sheryl Sanders, Bernie Saturday Night Live Sawyer, Diane Scan (QR code app) Schiffer, Eric Schmidt, Eric Sculley, John Secret (app) Sehn, Tim selfies Academy Awards (2014) selfie with Ellen DeGeneres first photographic self-portrait history of Sequoia Capital sexting Shark Tank (television program) Shonduras (Shaun McBride) Shontell, Alyson Sierra Ventures Silicon Valley (television sitcom) Slingshot (Facebook app) Smith, Daniel Smith, Kevin Snapchat Android app Arsenic Bitstrips purchased by brand advertising Brown lawsuit captions celebrities and Snapchat stars content management system (CMS) Council (employee gatherings) demographics of users Discover DJ Khaled and and Electric Daisy Carnival (Las Vegas) email leaks founding date of funding and investment geofilters Ghostface Chillah logo Good Luck America (election show) hacking and security Instant Articles IPO (initial public offering) Lenses Literally Can’t Even (original programming) Live Stories media coverage of Memories monetization original programming origins of Our Story Picaboo publishing and journalism Rio Summer Olympics (2016) coverage S-1 (SEC filing) Safety Center Scan purchased by Snap Channel Snap Lab Snapcash Snapcode “Snappy New Year” promotion Spectacles Stories Vergence Labs purchased by workforce and human resources Social Network, The (film) Sony Entertainment Sorrell, Martin SpaceX Spiegel, Evan Brown lawsuit and childhood education Forbes’s “30 Under 30” issue Future Freshman girlfriend at Stanford (Lily) interest in journalism internship at Red Bull and Kappa Sigma Market Street headquarters parents of proposal to Miranda Kerr at $SNAP IPO Snapchat’s origins at Stanford Stanford Women in Business conference keynote address worldview and corporate culture of Snapchat See also Snapchat Spielberg, Sasha Spotify Square Square Cash Stanford University commencement (2012) Donner (dorm) founding of Kappa Sigma Sigma Nu Silicon Valley and Startup Hau5 (Picaboo headquarters) stealth mode Stith, Mackenzie Stone, Josh Streep, Meryl Sun Microsystems Swift, Taylor Swisher, Kara Systrom, Kevin Taco Bell Tam, Donna Taneja, Hemant TechCrunch (tech blog) Disrupt conference Tencent Teo, Jon Tesla ThankYouX (Ryan Wilson) That White Bitch (blog) therealdrmiami. See Dr. Miami (Michael Salzhauer) Thiel, Peter third-party content (Snapchat Discover) Thompson, Nicholas Thorning-Schmidt, Helle TigerText (app) Tinder Trainor, Meghan Trump, Donald Turley, Ben Turner, Elizabeth Turner, Sarah Twitter demographics of users innovation and Snapchat account at Snapchat compared with txtWeb Uber Valleywag (Gawker blog) Van Natta, Owen Vanity Fair Venice, California Venmo Vergence Labs Vine (app) virtual private network (VPN) Viterbi, Andrew VMWare Vollero, Drew Warner Music Group WeChat (app) Weiner, Anthony Wendell, Peter WhatsApp Whisper (app) White, Emily Wiley, Marcus Wilson, Ryan (ThankYouX) Wolf, Michelle Y Combinator Yahoo Yelp YesJulz (Julieanna Goddard) Yik Yak (app) YouTube Zedd Zero to One (Masters and Thiel) Zuckerberg, Mark ABOUT THE AUTHOR BILLY GALLAGHER is an MBA candidate at Stanford’s Graduate School of Business.

In the summer of 2013, Clinkle’s public relations staff reached out to over a dozen publications, from The New York Times to TechCrunch,3 asking them to cover “the largest seed round in Silicon Valley history.” While Lucas was happy to wax poetic about how Clinkle was going to change the world and how much money he had raised, he refused to talk at all about the product or technology behind Clinkle. Now, Lucas was attempting to keep the product and technology in stealth mode, while announcing the company to the world. It was a bizarre strategy. Like most young founders in Silicon Valley, including Evan, Lucas looked up to Steve Jobs as his idol. He wanted to create a company like Apple, polished and ready to dazzle consumers. Lucas never wanted to talk to users or customers—he felt he should decide what was best for users and deliver them an amazing, innovative product that was a massive improvement over their current wallets.


pages: 232 words: 63,803

Billion Dollar Burger: Inside Big Tech's Race for the Future of Food by Chase Purdy

agricultural Revolution, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Donald Trump, gig economy, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs

“I researched every single thing I could get my hands on,” he told me one sunny afternoon at his company’s headquarters in Berkeley. “I just got more and more convinced, the pieces are all here and we just need to put them together.” From the beginning, he said that gaining consumer trust has been at the top of his mind. He said Memphis Meats couldn’t operate in stealth mode because it was essential that the public conversation around cell-cultured meat happen publicly. The start-up has hosted tastings and has invited journalists to try its meats. And Valeti aims to release his product under its own branding—as opposed to licensing its technology out to a larger existing meat company brand—in order to be closer to the consumer experience, and to allow consumers to be as close as possible to the development experience.

Shortly after his conversation with Balk, he called up New Harvest, a nonprofit group dedicated to advancing the field of cellular agriculture, to speak with a few tissue engineers. Those conversations ultimately led to hiring Eitan Fischer, whose initial job was to figure out whether it would be feasible for JUST to create and fund a laboratory dedicated to this work. Fischer came back to report in the affirmative, and subsequently took on a leading role in establishing JUST’s cell-cultured meat laboratory, which initially operated in stealth mode at the company. Only nine people at JUST knew. Tetrick decided to keep it secret because it felt like such an unknown for the company. There was, of course, the chance that within six months the project would be a failure. But if it succeeded, he wanted it to feel like a structured department within the company before it was announced to the entire staff. The secret lab operated out of what was previously a large storage closet that had been outfitted with a freezer system for storing cell lines, miniature bioreactors, and stations for scientists to examine how cells grow under different circumstances and in different liquid mediums.

She operates her investing from the perspective that animals need to be removed from global supply chains. Whether that means growing leather from cells, funding start-ups that create non-animal-based gelatin, or pumping money into a cell-cultured meat start-up, Feria knows that interest from investors will be crucial if these start-ups ever want a shot at challenging the multibillion-dollar status quo. “My level of contribution to these companies comes from three areas: capital when they need it to grow, access to our networks and contacts, and really just trying to figure out areas of consecutiveness between other companies,” she says, noting that she typically invests when start-ups are in their earliest stages. “We prevent these companies from going under way before they show their potential.” New Crop Capital was founded in 2015 and is run by a vegan named Chris Kerr, whose footprint in the food technology world can perhaps best be summed up with the headline of a profile written about him in Bloomberg Businessweek: “THE VEGETARIANS AT THE GATE.”


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

This app was his ticket to free food and beer at all the tech parties around town. But it wasn’t finished yet—not even close. It was in a predevelopment phase, and very much in stealth mode. When I asked what it did, this mystery app, Lawrence demurred. “Man,” he said, “whatever happened to trade secrets?” I cajoled. “Come on, tell me,” I said. “I won’t tell anyone. Who would I tell?” “Okay, man. I’ll tell you,” he said, leaning in conspiratorially. “It’s a game. You know Angry Birds?” “Yeah,” I said. “I know Angry Birds.” “It’s like Angry Birds, except there are no birds, and nobody’s angry.” Lawrence was my startup hero. Here was a man who had devised the perfect startup pitch. Angry Birds had been downloaded, supposedly, three billion times, which implied that either one out of every two living humans was a player, or that most players deleted the game from their devices in frustration and then reinstalled it, over and over again.

Both employers classified Simone as a part-time independent contractor, and neither seemed at all concerned about her level of fatigue behind the wheel. She wasn’t expecting a raise. “I want to wean away from Lyft,” she told me. “I’m just making someone else rich. I know I could be putting that time into my own company.” In Hollywood, everybody has an unfinished script. In the Bay Area, everybody has a “pre–Series A” tech company running in “stealth mode” (meaning they have an idea without any money behind it that’s ostensibly secret but in fact hungry for publicity). “What’s your startup?” I asked. She hesitated. Then she asked if I was religious or easily offended. “Not really,” I said. As the car rolled slowly through the Tenderloin—under freeways, past bustling homeless camps and twilight trash fires—Simone told me all about her company. It was called Racy Laydeez. She’d hired someone out of pocket to build the website.

A sample of some questions submitted by different users to the “Ask HN” feature of the site gives the flavor of the stress and anxiety plaguing those who struck out on their own seeking treasure in Silicon Valley: Should I pretend that my startup is already successful? What should I do if I feel burnt out? How many years have you “wasted” on failed startups? My startup failed. $9k in debt and need to pay most of it in 12 days. I Used My Credit Cards to Fund My Failed Startup and Now They’re Suing Startup life: Working hard to enrich other people? Have you had trouble getting a job after a failed startup? Just what exactly is “real-world experience” and how do I get it? Joining the military? About to be homeless, any ideas…? How do you fight depression? Why keep living? Could we crowdfund a therapist who is available to depressed hackers?


pages: 307 words: 90,634

Insane Mode: How Elon Musk's Tesla Sparked an Electric Revolution to End the Age of Oil by Hamish McKenzie

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, connected car, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, South China Sea, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Zipcar

“Our aim is to complete a project that would traditionally take four years”—he leaned into the microphone and repeated “four years”—“and we want to do it in half the time.” He waited a couple of beats for applause that didn’t come and then leaned in even closer to the mic. “And we still want to do a great job.” The audience hesitated for a moment before breaking into stilted applause. Faraday Future had no CEO, nor a drivable prototype. It had been incorporated in early 2014 but didn’t come out of stealth mode until July 2015, when it announced itself via press release. The public had been exposed to little more than its website, a handful of news clippings, and some vague marketing hype about a new approach to mobility. Reckhorn played a twenty-second video that showed a 3-D rendering of the factory. As a gladiatorial soundtrack pumped up the adrenaline quotient, fast-moving frames showed gorgeous water features, languid palm trees, and solar panels atop a structure rich in glass surfaces and reflective black floors.

It would appear, then, that on top of Leshi’s initial investment in Atieva, which gave it about 20 percent of the company, the financially compromised Jia Yueting was at the very least closely associated with the mysterious new company that had purchased BAIC’s 25 percent share of Atieva in March 2016. Atieva thus became disproportionately reliant on funding from a source that had worryingly complex financial arrangements. The need to find new funding sources may have contributed to the sudden sense of urgency Atieva displayed when it finally came out of stealth mode in June 2016. It revealed to Reuters that it planned to start selling a premium electric sedan in 2018, followed by two luxury crossover utility vehicles in 2020 and 2021. The company was testing its dual-motor electric power train on a Mercedes-Benz Vito van, which could accelerate from zero to sixty miles per hour in 3.1 seconds (and, later, 2.69 seconds)—astonishing for a vehicle of that size.

Che He Jia is one of a rash of new auto start-ups in China, and Li, founder of the publicly listed automotive site Autohome, is one of several Chinese Internet entrepreneurs intent on creating a car company for the twenty-first century. Li and company have been encouraged by the early success of Tesla in the United States, emboldened by government incentives for clean transport, and convinced that the convergence of electric power trains, connectivity, and autonomous-driving technology has created a once-in-a-century opening for newcomers to enter the market. As well as Nio and Byton, the list of car start-ups funded by Chinese Internet companies also includes Xiaopeng, whose investors include Alibaba, Foxconn, and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner; Sokon, which acquired Martin Eberhard’s battery start-up Inevit and named him chief innovation officer at its US subsidiary, SF Motors; WM Motor, started by a former executive at Volvo’s Chinese parent company, Geely; Singulato Motors, started by a former Qihoo 360 executive; and a joint effort between Alibaba and the state-owned Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC).


pages: 332 words: 97,325

The Launch Pad: Inside Y Combinator, Silicon Valley's Most Exclusive School for Startups by Randall Stross

affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, always be closing, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, index fund, inventory management, John Markoff, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, transaction costs, Y Combinator

Reid Hoffman, remarks at the Churchill Club’s “Startup Success 2006,” August 17, 2006, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2401538119328376288. Hoffman actually said, “If you’re not embarrassed in consumer Internet by the first version of the product you’ve launched, you’ve launched too late,” but in the retelling by others, the qualifier “in consumer Internet” was dropped. 5. “Clustrix Emerges from Stealth Mode with Industry’s First Clustered Database System for Internet-Scale Applications,” Clustrix press release, May 4, 2010, www.clustrix.com/company/news-events/press-releases/bid/82423/Clustrix-Emerges-From-Stealth-Mode-With-Industry-s-First-Clustered-Database-System-for-Internet-Scale-Applications. 6. PG said he first heard the phrase from Joe Kraus, who told PG that he believed it had originated with either William Hewlett or David Packard.

Three months later, PG wrote another essay and clarified that this suggestion had not been intended as a fully fleshed-out, practical proposal, but more of a thought exercise, exploring what would be required, at a minimum, to create a startup hub in a place where one did not exist. PG, “A Local Revolution?,” April 2009, http://paulgraham.com/revolution.html. 10. PG, “The Word ‘Hacker.’” 11. PG, “Why Startup Hubs Work.” 12. Two lists of international startup accelerators are found at Startup Weekend, http://startupweekend.org/incubators/, and at Robert Shedd blog, http://blog.shedd.us/321987608/. For Finland and northern Europe in general, see Startup Sauna, described in “European Startup Accelerators Are Gradually Revealing Their Performance Figures,” TC, January 27, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/01/27/european-startup-accelerators-are-gradually-revealing-their-performance-figures/. For Dubai, see SeedStartup, described in Rip Empson, “Founder of Dubai’s First Startup Accelerator Looks to Educate, Inspire Global Entrepreneurs,” TC, April 4, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/04/04/founder-of-dubais-first-startup-accelerator-looks-to-educate-inspire-global-entrepreneurs/.

A book about Y Combinator involves far more companies, working at a much faster tempo. In the 1990s, a startup might take a year or two before its founders could turn an idea into a working prototype. By contrast, the YC startups can have something working in weeks, or, in some cases, just a few days. They are encouraged to release something as quickly as possible, discover what needs to be fixed, and try again. Ten years ago, in order for a typical software startup to be able to attract venture capital, the founders had to have extensive professional experience. They needed millions of dollars to buy expensive servers and database software and to hire employees. Today, YC backs founders who have nothing other than drive and a talent for coding. Still in college and want to start a startup, right away? Just do it. (Startup culture’s argot—“start a startup”—ignores redundancy.


pages: 343 words: 91,080

Uberland: How Algorithms Are Rewriting the Rules of Work by Alex Rosenblat

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, call centre, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Chrome, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, job automation, job satisfaction, Lyft, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ralph Waldo Emerson, regulatory arbitrage, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social software, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, urban planning, Wolfgang Streeck, Zipcar

Griswold, “Inside Uber’s Unsettling Alliance.” 41. Wells, Attoh, and Cullen, “The Work Lives of Uber Drivers.” 42. Alex Rosenblat, “How Uber’s Alliance with Montréal Drivers Turns Labo[u]r’s Tactics On Its Head,” Uber Screeds, August 4, 2016, https://medium.com/uber-screeds/how-ubers-alliance-with-montr%C3%A9al-drivers-turns-labo-u-r-s-tactics-on-its-head-af490b252dae. 43. Alex Rosenblat, “Is Your Uber/Lyft Driver in Stealth Mode?” Uber Screeds, July 19, 2016, https://medium.com/uber-screeds/is-your-uber-driver-in-hiding-484696894139. 44. Mike Isaac, “Uber’s C.E.O. Plays with Fire,” New York Times, April 23, 2017, www.nytimes.com/2017/04/23/technology/travis-kalanick-pushes-uber-and-himself-to-the-precipice.html; Ali Griswold, “Oversharing: Waymo Hits Uber Where It Hurts, Instacart Talks Cash-Flow, and Airbnb Dorm Rooms,” Quartz, April 25, 2017. 45.

Company Hoping to Curb Drunk Driving Problem in Province,” CBC News, September 16, 2016, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/saskatchewan/sask-designated-driving-company-looking-for-support-1.3765611; for the United States, see Scott Koegler, “Free Designated Drivers in 24 Cities in the US,” Exuberation! http://exuberation.com/regions-and-travels-publisher/326-free-designated-drivers-in-24-cities-in-the-us; DrinkingandDriving.org, “Prevention Tools,” www.drinkinganddriving.org/designated-driver-services/. 63. Alex Rosenblat, “Is Your Uber/Lyft Driver in Stealth Mode?” Uber Screeds, July 19, 2016, https://medium.com/uber-screeds/is-your-uber-driver-in-hiding-484696894139. 64. Judgment of December 20, 2017, Asociación Profesional Élite Taxi v. Uber Systems Spain SL, EU:C:2017:981, http://curia.europa.eu/juris/documents.jsf?num=C-434/15. 65. Charlotte Alter, “UN Women Breaks Off Partnership with Uber,” Time, March 23, 2015, http://time.com/3754537/un-women-breaks-off-partnership-with-uber/. 66.

Even companies that emerged at about the same time as Uber, like Airbnb, or preceded Uber, like TaskRabbit, are overshadowed by Uber’s prominence as the face of the sharing economy. For discussion of the “Uber for X” phenomenon, see Nathan Heller, “Is the Gig Economy Working?” New Yorker, May 15, 2017, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/05/15/is-the-gig-economy-working. 34. Juggernaut, “11 Uber for X Startups That Failed— Are You Making the Same Mistakes?” April 28, 2015, http://nextjuggernaut.com/blog/11-uber-for-x-startups-that-failed-are-you-making-the-same-mistakes/. 35. Aaron Smith, “Gig Work, Online Selling and Home Sharing,” Pew Research Center, November 17, 2016, www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/17/gig-work-online-selling-and-home-sharing/. 36. Sara Ashley O’Brien, “Airbnb’s Valuation Soars to $30 Billion,” CNN Tech, August 8, 2016, http://money.cnn.com/2016/08/08/technology/airbnb-30-billion-valuation/index.html. 37.


pages: 359 words: 110,488

Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley Startup by John Carreyrou

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bioinformatics, corporate governance, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Google Chrome, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, obamacare, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Travis Kalanick, ubercab

He and Tony Nugent butted heads over this issue during the development of the Edison. As admirable as Ian’s exacting standards were, Tony felt that all he did was complain and that he never offered any solutions. Ian also had issues with Elizabeth’s management, especially the way she siloed the groups off from one another and discouraged them from communicating. The reason she and Sunny invoked for this way of operating was that Theranos was “in stealth mode,” but it made no sense to Ian. At the other diagnostics companies where he had worked, there had always been cross-functional teams with representatives from the chemistry, engineering, manufacturing, quality control, and regulatory departments working toward a common objective. That was how you got everyone on the same page, solved problems, and met deadlines. Elizabeth’s loose relationship with the truth was another point of contention.

The work was interesting, but it didn’t inspire him the way Elizabeth had when she’d first come to the agency’s converted warehouse in Playa del Rey and described the Theranos mission of giving people access to pain-free, low-cost health care. In advertising, it wasn’t often you got to work on something that really had the potential to make the world better. Patrick hadn’t been surprised or put off by Theranos’s insistence on absolute secrecy. Apple had been the same way. He understood technology companies’ need to protect their valuable intellectual property. In any case, the company would soon be coming out of “stealth mode,” as Elizabeth called it, and that’s where he came in: his job was to make its commercial launch as impactful as possible. Redesigning the Theranos website was a big part of that. Schoeller’s photos were going to be featured on it. Not just those of Elizabeth. The photographer had spent most of the two-day shoot at a studio in Culver City taking pictures of models posing as patients. They were of different ages, genders, and ethnicities: children under five, children between five and ten, young men and women, middle-aged folks, and seniors.

It wasn’t often that you found executives of that caliber at a small startup. It wasn’t just the board and the executive team that had sold Mosley on Theranos, though. The market it was going after was huge. Pharmaceutical companies spent tens of billions of dollars on clinical trials to test new drugs each year. If Theranos could make itself indispensable to them and capture a fraction of that spending, it could make a killing. Elizabeth had asked him to put together some financial projections she could show investors. The first set of numbers he’d come up with hadn’t been to her liking, so he’d revised them upward. He was a little uncomfortable with the revised numbers, but he figured they were in the realm of the plausible if the company executed perfectly. Besides, the venture capitalists startups courted for funding knew that startup founders overstated these forecasts.


Lonely Planet Pocket San Francisco by Lonely Planet, Alison Bing

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, edge city, G4S, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Mason jar, Silicon Valley, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, transcontinental railway, Zipcar

Hop off at Vallejo to take stairway walks to literary locations: hilltop Ina Coolbrith Park (Click here ) leads to shady Macondray Lane from Armistead Maupin’s Tales of the City ; Jack Kerouac’s Love Shack ( Click here ), where he wrote On the Road in the attic; and on to Lombard Street (Click here ) and Sterling Park ( Click here ), where Golden Gate Bridge (Click here ) views inspired SF’s original ‘King of Bohemia’, George Sterling. Pause for pizza at Za (Click here ) before you cover the waterfront, where you can explore newly restored underwater murals and mosaics at Aquatic Park Bathhouse ( Click here ), save the world from Space Invaders at Musée Mecanique ( Click here ), and enter underwater stealth mode inside USS Pampanito ( Click here ). Afterwards, watch sea lions salute the setting sun at Pier 39 ( Click here ). End the evening with shivers on a night tour of Alcatraz ( Click here ). Afterwards, at the Ferry Building (Click here ), celebrate your great San Francisco escape with bubbly and oysters at Hog Island ( Click here ) and Dungeness crab noodles at Slanted Door ( Click here ). Day Two Discover your inner San Franciscan, starting with eye-opening coffee and political slogans at Coffee to the People (Click here ).

Fisherman’s Wharf & the Piers Top Sights Fisherman's Wharf B1 Lombard Street B3 Sights 1 Aquatic Park Bathhouse A2 2 San Francisco Art Institute B3 3 Jack Kerouac's Love Shack B4 4 Ghirardelli Square A2 5 Aquatic Park A2 6 Blazing Saddles B2 Eating 7 Gary Danko B2 8 Crown & Crumpet A2 9 Za B4 10 Kara's Cupcakes A2 11 In-N-Out Burger B2 12 Frascati B4 13 Forbes Island C1 14 Swensen's B4 15 Salty's Famous Fishwich C1 16 Eagle Cafe D1 Drinking 17 Buena Vista Café B2 18 Winery Collective B2 19 Jack's Cannery Bar B2 Entertainment 20 Pier 23 E2 Top Sights Fisherman’s Wharf Offline map Google map www.fishermanswharf.org Embarcadero & Jefferson St waterfront Admission free 19, 37, 47, 49, F Powell-Mason, Powell-Hyde Where fishermen once snared sea life, San Francisco now traps tourists in a commercial sprawl between the cable car terminus and Alcatraz Cruises port. But where you’d least expect it, Fisherman’s Wharf offers surprise and delight. Here you can sunbathe with sea lions, ride carousel unicorns, experience stealth mode inside a WWII submarine, consult vintage mechanical fortune-tellers, and watch sharks circle from the safety of glass tubes built right into the bay. Sea lions at Pier 39JOHN ELK III/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Don’t Miss Sea Lions at Pier 39 Pop stars wish they could live like San Francisco’s sea lions, who’ve taken over an entire yacht marina with their harems since 1990. Since California law requires boats to make way for marine mammals, up to 1300 sea-lion squatters oblige yacht owners to relinquish valuable slips from January through July – making them heroes to beach bums everywhere.

A few quarters at the Musée Mecanique (www.museemecanique.org; Pier 45, Shed A; admission free; 10am-7pm Mon-Fri, to 8pm Sat-Sun; ) let you start bar brawls in mechanical Wild West saloons, save the world from Space Invaders and get your fortune told by an eerily lifelike wooden swami. USS Pampanito Dive, dive, dive! Head into the belly of a restored WWII US Navy submarine (www.maritime.org; Pier 45; adult/child $10/4; 9am-5pm) that sunk six Japanese ships (including two carrying British and Australian POWs). Submariners’ stories of tense moments in underwater stealth mode will have you holding your breath – caution, claustrophobes – and all those brass knobs and hydraulic valves make 21st-century technology seem overrated. Aquarium of the Bay Take a long walk off a short pier right into the bay, and stay perfectly safe and dry as sharks circle, manta rays flutter and schools of fish flit overhead. The aquarium (www.aquariumofthebay.com; Pier 39; adult/child $17/8; 9am-8pm summer, 10am-6pm winter; ) is built right into the bay, and a conveyor belt transports you through underwater glass tubes for an up-close-and- personal look at local aquaculture.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

DIY Diagnostics Oura ring: See: https://ouraring.com. (Author note: Peter’s VC firm is an investor.) Exo Imaging’s AI-enabled, cheap, handheld ultrasound 3-D imager: Exo recently emerged from stealth with a $35 million raise. Read the full press release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190805005114/en/Exo-Imaging-Emerges-Stealth-Mode-35M-Series|. See also: https://www.exo-imaging.com/. (Author note: Peter’s VC firm is an investor.) Mary Lou Jepsen’s startup, Openwater: Mary Lou Jepsen gave a TED Talk about Openwater that you can find here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awADEuv5vWY. See also: https://www.openwater.cc/about-us. (Author note: Peter’s VC firm is an investor.) Apple’s fourth-generation iWatch: Read Apple’s full press release here: https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2018/09/redesigned-apple-watch-series-4-revolutionizes-communication-fitness-and-health/.

When injected into older mice, GDF11 has been able to regenerate their hearts, brains, muscles, lungs, and kidneys. Stem cells, our third approach, are showing the most promise. Samumed, LLC, for example, is targeting the signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells. If successful, their patented molecules should be able to regrow cartilage, heal tendons, remove wrinkles, and, by the way, stop cancer. This also explains why Samumed, a company still in stealth mode, has a $13 billion valuation. A different approach is being pioneered by Celularity, a company founded by stem cell pioneer Bob Hariri (Peter is also a cofounder). Hariri’s experiments demonstrate that, in animals, placental-derived stem cells can extend life 30 to 40 percent. The company’s mission is to make this approach viable in humans, harnessing stem cells to amplify the body’s ability to fight disease and heal itself.

Boss: Lydia Mageean, “3-D Technology: A New Dimension for Fashion,” whichPLM, November 22, 2018. See: https://www.whichplm.com/3-D-technology-a-new-dimension-for-fashion/. Armani: “Bodi.Me.” See: http://bodi.me/. Bombfell: Ryan Lawler, “500 Startups-Backed Bombfell Helps Nerds Get Stylish, for Just $69 a Month,” TechCrunch, June 14, 2012. See: https://techcrunch.com/2012/06/14/bombfell/. Amazon acquiring the 3-D body-scanning startup Body Labs: Natasha Lomas, “Amazon Has Acquired 3-D Body Model Startup, Body Labs, for $50M-$70M,” TechCrunch, October 3, 2017. See: https://techcrunch.com/2017/10/03/amazon-has-acquired-3-D-body-model-startup-body-labs-for-50m-70m/. Alibaba’s FashionAI: Christine Chou, “New Alibaba Concept Store Teases Future of Fashion Retail,” July 4, 2018. See: https://www.alizila.com/new-alibaba-concept-store-teases-future-of-fashion-retail/.


pages: 518 words: 49,555

Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Studies show that stoplight colors (red, green, amber) don’t map well to these choices, even though they are widely used among IM applications. This is mainly because while “Available” can be easily mapped to “Go” (green), three of the states (Busy, Offline, and Idle) are all equivalent to “Stop” (red), and none of them map particularly well to “Slow Down/Proceed with Caution” (amber). Stealth Mode An automated system that is too transparent or honest may put users into awkward situations, such as when they wish to be available to some, but not all, of their contacts. Therefore, you might find it useful to provide a stealth mode (Figure 5-7), the ability to sign in as “Invisible” and hence not reveal oneself automatically on connecting to the application. Figure 5-7. You may offer your users (as Yahoo! Messenger does) stealth options that can disguise the user’s true availability as a way of managing attention and interruption and selectively determining who sees the user as present.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Identity Profile Testimonials (or Personal Recommendations) Personal Dashboard Reflectors Identity Cards or Contact Cards Attribution Avatars Further Reading Download at WoweBook.Com 82 86 100 104 108 111 113 115 119 Contents ix 5. We Are Here! We Are Here! We Are Here!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 A Brief History of Online Presence The Future of Presence Presence Actions and Facets Availability Stealth Mode Mood Environment Buddy List Activity Streams Statuscasting Microblogging Updates Updates Opt-in Disclosure Managing Incoming Updates Lifestreams Keep Company Signs of Life User Gallery Who’s Here Now? Further Reading 123 124 125 127 129 131 132 133 135 137 138 139 141 143 144 145 147 149 150 152 6. Would You Buy a Used Car from This Person?.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Reputation Influences Behavior Competitive Spectrum Levels Named Levels Numbered Levels Labels Awards Collectible Achievements Peer-to-Peer Awards Rankings Points Leaderboard Top X Download at WoweBook.Com 154 155 157 157 160 163 166 166 169 171 171 174 178 x Contents Tools for Monitoring Reputation Friend Ranking Further Reading 182 183 185 Part III.

, 476–478 Ask Questions pattern, 30–31 Asymmetric Following pattern, 335 asynchronous editing, 315 Attribution (Creative Commons licenses), 261 Attribution No Derivatives (Creative Commons licenses), 261 Attribution Noncommercial (Creative Commons licenses), 261 Attribution Noncommercial No Derivatives (Creative Commons licenses), 261 Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike (Creative Commons licenses), 261 Attribution pattern, 113–115 Attribution Share Alike (Creative Commons licenses), 261 Authorize pattern, 63–66 auto-stalking tool, 240 Availability pattern, 127–132 environment, 132 icons, 128 mood, 131 stealth mode, 129 what I’m listening to, 132 available versus unavailable, 126 Avatars pattern, 115–118 Avedon, Richard, quote, 81 awards, 166–171 Collectible Achievements pattern, 166–169 Peer-to-Peer Awards pattern, 169–171 B Badging pattern, 446–447 Basecamp, 35 adding group to project, 310 recent activities, 149 Signal vs. Noise blog, 164 Being Local pattern, 400–401 Benkler, Yochai, 331 Berners-Lee, Tim, 15 Download at WoweBook.Com 480 Index Blackshaw, Pete, 287 Blizzard’s World of Warcraft, 159 blocking users, 374 Blogging in Motion, 144 blogs archiving by category, 244 archiving by date, 244 future date publishing, 247 managing posts, 247 previewing comments, 248 Blogs: Consumption pattern, 242–245 Blogs: Ownership pattern, 245–248 Bookmarklet pattern, 210–211 bookmarklets, 234 bookmarks, 190 boyd, danah, 7, 228, 374, 474, 119 bozofilter, 375 Brightkite happenings based on location, 426 recent activity, 434 Trusted Friend, 376 broadcasting, 242–249 Blogs: Consumption pattern, 242–245 Blogs: Ownership pattern, 245–248 Bronte, Charlotte, 241 browsing for people, 356 Buddy List pattern, 133–138 avatars, 134 Building an Online Community, 390 Burnett, Gary, 387 C Calendaring pattern, 416–419 calendar details, 418 selecting an event date, 418 captcha, 49 CAPTCHA, 217 Carroll, Lewis, 43 Casual Privacy pattern, 218–221 Centerd.com, 53 Champ, Heather, 397 Circles of Connections pattern, 369–371 cohort, 354 Collaborative Editing pattern, 315–318 Collaborative Filtering pattern, 392–394 colleague, 354 Collectible Achievements pattern, 166–169 collecting, 189–208 Add/Subscribe pattern, 198–200 Displaying pattern, 196–198 Favorites pattern, 193–196 Find with Tags pattern, 203–204 Saving pattern, 190–193 Tag Cloud pattern, 204–208 Tagging pattern, 200–202 collective governance, 390 Comments pattern, 278–280 common profile/identity fields, 98 The Commons (Flickr), 24 communication, 26–35 Ask Questions pattern, 30–31 Conversation pattern, 27–28 No Joking Around pattern, 34–35 Self-Deprecating Error Message pattern, 29–30 synchronous versus asynchronous, 291 Your Versus My pattern, 32–34 Community-Building Trifecta, 391–392 community guidelines, 385 community management, 384–389 guidelines, 384 norms, 384–387 explicit, 386 implicit, 387 Potemkin Village (anti-pattern), 388 role models, 388 Competitive Spectrum model, 156 Competitive Spectrum pattern, 155–157 connection, 354 Consume Feeds pattern, 449–450 contact, 354 contact cards (see Identity Cards or Contact Cards pattern) context management, 229–231 Conversational Search pattern, 346–349 Conversation pattern, 27–28 copyleft, 261–262 copyright, 262–263 corporate environment, 465 corporate intranets, 466 Craigslist, 390 Creative Commons licensing, 260–261 Crocker, Stephen D., 441 Crowdsourcing pattern, 325–329 CTIA, 437 Cunningham, Ward, 324 Cyworld profile, 92 profile images, 118 Download at WoweBook.Com Index D Data Sharing pattern, 453–454 dead.net, 389 Delicious add-ons, 191 bookmarklet, 211 bookmarks, 190 search results, 203 tags, 201 Designing for Mobile, 461–462 designing social environments online, 17–23 email, 35–36 ethical dimension, 38 generative design, 17 meta-design, 17 openness, 36 palimpsest, 23–25 Pave the cowpaths, 17–19 strict versus fluid taxonomies, 19–23 Talk like a person!


pages: 166 words: 49,639

Start It Up: Why Running Your Own Business Is Easier Than You Think by Luke Johnson

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Grace Hopper, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, James Dyson, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Kickstarter, mass immigration, mittelstand, Network effects, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, patent troll, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman, tulip mania, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators

I prefer to buy businesses that don’t need too much meddling – but other investors make a virtue of interfering. The disadvantages of moonlighting are also clear: if you get caught by your boss misusing resources or getting distracted from the day job, there will be trouble; and a business run in your spare time will never receive the focus and devotion it needs to be truly successful. If you are ambitious, the part-time option should only ever be temporary. To avoid being forever in stealth mode, you should have a ‘boat-burning’ target: a clearly defined point at which you chuck the day job and dive in. Don’t tweak your fledgling business until it seems like a sure-fire bet: it never will be. It’s very easy to tinker away on the margins for ever but, as Steve Jobs once said to a perfectionist engineer at Apple, ‘real artists ship’. The online revolution has made moonlighting easier than ever.

Too many people fear failure more than they want to win. Of course, your start-up might prove a vain attempt at the prize, so you may lose money, time and pride. But you know what? No one really notices or cares. There is never a perfect time to begin the journey. But if you have ambition and are willing to apply the effort, stop making excuses – get out there and start battling. Start-ups with a dash of going concern Which is the best bet – starting a business or buying one? That is the first great question confronting the budding entrepreneur. It’s a pity so few actually ask it of themselves. The world is in love with the romance of start-ups. The nineties dotcom boom resulted in obsessive coverage of start-ups, particularly technology start-ups, such that these days many younger entrepreneurs see no other way into business than via a newly invented gadget or service.

Venture capitalists: on another wavelength Thanks to the nineties dotcom boom and the business media’s love of start-ups, almost everyone now has some idea about venture capital. Sadly, that idea usually tends to be wrong. Too many entrepreneurs think formal venture capital is the place to look for start-up funding, when in reality venture capitalists tend to focus on making very large bets in industries like high technology and biotech. In short, VC money is probably not for you if you’re just starting out. Operations in mainstream sectors like retailing and restaurants almost invariably secure backing not from VCs but from angel investors, high-net-worth individuals or the founder’s savings. Funding start-ups and new technology is exceedingly risky, but it has enabled the development of many of the most important companies of the last fifty years, including DEC, Intel, FedEx, Cisco and Google.


pages: 561 words: 163,916

The History of the Future: Oculus, Facebook, and the Revolution That Swept Virtual Reality by Blake J. Harris

4chan, airport security, Anne Wojcicki, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, computer vision, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, financial independence, game design, Grace Hopper, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Peter Thiel, QR code, sensor fusion, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, white picket fence

I’ve been presented with a new job opportunity that I just can’t pass up. Unfortunately, I can’t say what it is, other than it’s a start-up in SoCal that is currently in stealth mode. Hopefully I’ll be able to share more in the future! I’ll be spending the rest of the week documenting all my code, PCBs, CAD, etc. and wrapping up/passing off my current projects. If you’ve ever had me make anything for you and you think you might need another of that thing in the future, let me know so I can be sure to provide you with the files! Why am I leaving Oculus? I would have gladly stayed at Oculus for at least a couple more years, but this new job came up and it really sounds like something I want to do. I miss the startup days at Oculus—some of my favorite memories of this company are from that time. Don’t get me wrong, I absolutely still love Oculus and I enjoy the work I do here, but I want to go back to that fast-paced, everybody-does-everything sort of work that startups provide.

I’ll definitely be watching closely. Like I said, my last day is this Friday, the 19th. I’m planning to stick around as long as I can, so I’ll probably be available to chat if you’d like. Though I am a little disappointed I won’t make it to my 5 year Oculus anniversary—only 2.5 months away! Oh well. Somebody else will have to get that title first instead! Chris Dycus, employee number 1, out. The “stealth modestart-up that Dycus was referring to here was Anduril: a new defense tech company founded by Trae Stephens, Matt Grimm, Brian Schimpf and—and course—Joe Chen and Palmer Luckey. Chapter 50 He’s Back April/May 2017 “I DON’T WANT TO BE ANOTHER EDUARDO,” LUCKEY TOLD CHEN, REFERRING TO the famously ousted—and, in Silicon Valley, largely considered “forgotten”—Facebook cofounder Eduardo Saverin.

“I’m getting pretty fed up with ZeniMax,” Mitchell said a little later, speaking in a firm whisper so as not to wake a half-dozing McCauley. “I mean: as big as ZeniMax is, they’re not Epic. Or Valve. Or a dozen other companies that wouldn’t be such dicks. Okay, I get it, we’re a start-up. But come on. We’re not, like, some dudes-in-their-dorm-room start-up. But”—Mitchell continued, now playing devil’s advocate to himself—“the press will kill us if we lose Doom.” “Two things,” Luckey said. “One: we can’t lose Doom. We just can’t. And for that matter, we can’t lose John. And two: while I agree with you, obviously—we’re not some little rinky-dink start-up—it is interesting that now is when we’re having this conversation. Just in the sense that in almost every way, start-ups are at a distinct advantage from big companies. Even middle-sized companies! But in this specific instance—shuttling between weirdo factories to circumvent . . . whatever—this is like the one case where being small actually helps us.


pages: 294 words: 81,292

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat

AI winter, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Automated Insights, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, drone strike, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

I’d heard about so-called stealth companies that are privately held, hire secretly, never issue press releases or otherwise reveal what they’re up to. In AI, the only reason for a company to be stealthy is if they’ve had some powerful insight, and they don’t want to reward competitors with information about what that their breakthrough is. By definition, stealth companies are hard to discover, though rumors abound. PayPal founder Peter Thiel funds three stealth companies devoted to AI. Companies in “stealth mode” however, are different and more common. These companies seek funding and even publicity, but don’t reveal their plans. Peter Voss, an AI innovator known for developing voice-recognition technology, pursues AGI with his company, Adaptive AI, Inc. He has gone on record saying AGI can be achieved within ten years. But he won’t say how. * * * Stealth companies come with another complication. A small, motivated company could exist within a larger company with a big public presence.

Parts of its architecture are up and running, and busily analyzing biological data and solving power grid problems, for a fee. Profits go back into research-and-development for OpenCog. Numenta, Inc., brainchild of Jeff Hawkins, the creator of the Palm Pilot and Treo, earns its living by working inside electrical power supplies to anticipate failures. For about a decade, Peter Voss developed his AGI company, Adaptive AI, in “stealth” mode, widely lecturing about AGI but not revealing how he planned to tackle it. Then in 2007 he launched Smart Action, a company that uses Adaptive AI’s technology to empower Virtual Agents. They are customer-service telephone chatbots that ace NLP skills to engage customers in nuanced purchase-related exchanges. The University of Memphis’ LIDA (Learning Intelligent Distributed Agent) probably doesn’t have to worry about where its next upgrade is coming from.

First there are books like Kurzweil’s The Singularity Is Near. Their goal is to lay the theoretical groundwork for a supremely positive future. If a bad thing happened there, you would never hear about it over optimism’s merry din. Jeff Stibel’s Wired for Thought represents the second tack. It looks at the technological future through the lens of business. Stibel persuasively argues that the Internet is an increasingly well-connected brain, and Web start-ups should take this into account. Books like Stibel’s try to teach entrepreneurs how to dip a net between Internet trends and consumers, and seine off buckets full of cash. Most technology theorists and authors are missing the less rosy, third perspective, and this book aims to make up for it. The argument is that the endgame for first creating smart machines, then smarter-than-human machines, is not their integration into our lives, but their conquest of us.


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

Wang bought out Guinn’s stake in DJI in 2013, shifted all operations to China in 2013 and reached $130 million in revenues that year, turning a profit in 2014. In 2016, the rival 3D Robotics quit making drones and transitioned to software. Meanwhile, sales of French drone maker Parrot have nosedived, shares have dipped, and its majority owner has launched a takeover of the business. DJI is fending off yet more drones, including California-based Impossible Aerospace, founded by Tesla and SpaceX veterans. The Tesla version came out of stealth mode in late 2018 and has raised $11 million from two Silicon Valley investment firms, Bessemer Venture Partners and Eclipse Ventures. Impossible Aerospace is aiming to upend the status quo with an electric model that can fly for two hours and has been sold to police departments, firefighters, and search and rescue teams. Can China innovation beat America’s champion Tesla in flight? So far, the West has proven to be no match for Chinese drone maker DJI and its high altitude.

Going “where they’re more welcomed, such as Southeast Asia or India seems to make more sense.” Pivot to Israel Alibaba’s Ma has turned his kung fu–like skills to seeking and funding startups in the “Startup Nation” of Israel. On his first trip to Israel in May 2018, he led a delegation of 35 Alibaba executives to visit investors and check out startups in Israel’s stronghold of cyber-security as well as augmented reality, online gaming, QR codes, and AI. Alibaba promptly invested $26 million in big data company SQream Technologies, co-invested $40 million in mass transit software startup Optibus, and added to its $30 million co-investment in safe driving technology startup Nexar. These deals were on top of its first Israeli deal, an acquisition of personalized QR code designer Visualead in 2017 to establish a Tel Aviv research and development center.

In their quest to win the AI challenge, the three titans are hunting for new AI technologies and applications by investing in AI startups globally. Since 2014, this trio of Chinese tech giants has made 39 equity deals in startups that are building AI chips and software.2 Despite scrutiny over Chinese investments in US technology startups, this cross-border pipeline is active in artificial intelligence. In the United States, Tencent has made the most deals but Baidu has the most diversified AI portfolio, spanning to health care, advertising, and media startups. Baidu’s AI plate includes not only 95 partners in its ecosystem worldwide working on autonomous driving but also investments in AI-related startups in the US: ZestFinance in fintech underwriting, Kitt.ai in conversational language search, TigerGraph in data link analytics, Tiger Computing Solutions in big data, and xPerception in computer vision for self-driving.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Coca-Cola also has become a founding member of Singularity University Labs, where disruptive teams can, away from the mother ship [Autonomy, Leveraged Assets], work with startups on next-generation products and services. And to further ensure that new ideas can evolve away from existing legacy thinking, Coca-Cola is creating new companies that are completely separate from current cash-cow businesses. These new companies enjoy full autonomy from Coke’s existing tax, legal, finance and HR systems [Autonomy, Dashboards]. That said, there is one notable departure for Coca-Cola relative to the ExO philosophy: the transparency of its disruptive innovation. It is our thesis that disruptive innovation efforts work best when they operate in stealth mode, divorced from the rest of the company, so as to avoid triggering an organizational immune system response. Instead, Coca-Cola, taking the long view, has created transparent disruption innovation teams with the avowed goal of openly changing the culture of the larger company.

One caveat, however: This is not meant to be an exhaustive startup manual—that book remains to be written. Rather, we’ll discuss the elements relevant to building an ExO that is leveraged by information and is highly scalable, either as a pure startup or from within an existing enterprise. A quick but relevant side note here: We strongly recommend reading The Lean Startup by Eric Ries as an accompaniment to this chapter, since we’ll be referring to it frequently. In fact, the best definition we’ve found for a startup comes from Ries: “A startup is a human institution designed to deliver a new product or service under conditions of extreme uncertainty.” A second book we recommend is Peter Thiel and Blake Masters’ recent publication, Zero to One: Notes on Startups or How to Build the Future. This is perhaps the best time in the history of business to build a new enterprise.

This technique is popularly known as the Lean Startup movement, which was created by Eric Ries and Steve Blank and is based on Ries’s book of the same name. The Lean Startup philosophy (also known as the Lean Launchpad) is in turn based upon Toyota’s “lean manufacturing” principles, first established a half-century ago, in which the elimination of wasteful processes is paramount. (Sample principle: “Eliminate all expenses with any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer.”) The Lean Startup concept was also given impetus by Steve Blank’s book, The Four Steps to the Epiphany, which focuses on customer development. (Sample concept: “We don’t know what the customer wants until assumptions are validated.”) The most important message of the Lean Startup movement is to “Fail fast and fail often, while eliminating waste.”


pages: 361 words: 76,849

The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, post-work, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route, zero-sum game

The only sign outside, hung fifteen feet off the ground, identified the building as “Pier 38: Maritime Recreational Center” and listed dock and boat rental as the primary activities inside, but there were no instructions on where to go to find them. Directly to the left and right of the car path were the only visible doors, made of rusted steel with no windows; one door had no outward-facing handle. Many start-ups talk about being in stealth mode, but for the dozens of tech companies residing inside Pier 38, it was a literal fact. Dogpatch Labs, which hosted Instagram and Formspring, was on the first floor. Polaris Partners, True Ventures, 99designs, and dozens of other start-up and start-up-related organizations were some of the other tenants. None of these companies was particularly secretive, however; in fact, many were happy to get as much attention as possible, but the building was foreboding enough that if you didn't know exactly where you were going, you'd never find them.

—Om Malik, founder, GigaOM “Some say the world of work is changing, but they're wrong. The world has already changed! Read The Year Without Pants to catch up.” —Chris Guillebeau, author, New York Times bestseller The $100 Startup “You'll be surprised, shocked, delighted, thrilled, and inspired by how WordPress.com gets work done. I was!” —Joe Belfiore, corporate vice president, Microsoft “Most talk of the future of work is just speculation, but Berkun has actually worked there. The Year Without Pants is a brilliant, honest, and funny insider's story of life at a great company.” —Eric Ries, author, New York Times bestseller The Lean Startup “WordPress.com has discovered a better way to work, and The Year Without Pants allows the reader to learn from the organization's fun and entertaining story.” —Tony Hsieh, author, New York Times bestseller Delivering Happiness, and CEO, Zappos.com, Inc.

WordPress, and WordPress.com, didn't yet have a reputation for being buggy or unreliable. Changing to a different system would challenge the culture, and without a specific problem to justify the change, I didn't see the point in trying. I tried to remember Mullenweg's attitude of letting that which did not matter, not matter. Maybe with the right culture and talent, you didn't need some of the fundamental things experts claim you need. Start-up companies get away with it all the time, but WordPress.com was not a start-up anymore. On Team Social we tracked issues in the simplest way possible: we made lists. As programmers fixed them, we crossed them off. It was easy to see how many were fixed and how many were left, or to add comments to a particular issue. Where it failed was triage: all bugs tended to be treated equally. Important issues, trivial issues, challenging bugs, and easy fixes were all listed in the same way.


pages: 256 words: 15,765

The New Elite: Inside the Minds of the Truly Wealthy by Dr. Jim Taylor

British Empire, business cycle, call centre, dark matter, Donald Trump, estate planning, full employment, glass ceiling, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, passive income, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ronald Reagan, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

He and his team burned the midnight oil for months, and submitted what would eventually become the winning bid. What was the reward for his exhausting role in boosting company revenue by several billion? He and each member of his team got a plaque and a check for $250. The team members looked at one another, and concluded they needed to chart a different path in life. They started their own company, quietly renting an office next to their current employer, and they operated in stealth mode while maintaining their day jobs. They developed new technologies for Internet routers and servers, and their timing couldn’t have been better—it was the early 1990s, the Internet was just taking off, and soon their growing business allowed them to leave the security of their day jobs. Within a few years, they were able to sell the company to a large technology provider for over $70 million, mostly in stock options that proceeded to multiply in value many times over the ensuing years.

The United Nations estimates there are over 60,000 multinational corpo- Globizens 163 rations, a figure that has doubled over the past two decades, while the average size of multinationals has dropped dramatically.1 Globalization isn’t just about moving work to where it can be done at the lowest cost; increasingly, it is about getting the best people, bigger teams, and leveraging time-zone differences to enable work to continue 24/7. And it is often about growth opportunities. Israeli high-tech start-ups, for example, are often born global, or go global very quickly, because the markets in their home country are small. Indeed, this model is sometimes called ‘‘Israeli Internationalization,’’ and it is increasingly being applied in other small countries.2 Indeed, whereas historically companies started locally and grew globally, today some of the hottest buzzwords in entrepreneurial circles are global start-ups, born global, and micro-multinationals. The bottom line for our purposes is that today’s wealthy are far more likely to have an intricate network of international connections, relative to the generations of wealthy individuals who came before them.

We’ve seen how their career paths as entrepreneurs were likely to be international in some form; with two-thirds still actively on the front lines of their businesses, those global connections with partners and vendors are likely continuing. Moreover, as fully formed members of the wealth class, these people have international business connections that are strengthened in two additional ways. First, many are involved in seeding start-ups, either through private equity funds or more directly through angel investing, and such investments increasingly mean evaluating multinational teams of executives. Second, the wealthy are heavily involved as members of corporate boards, with 40 percent serving on at least one corporate board of directors, and most of that 40 percent serving on more than one board. Like start-ups, the boards of major corporations are becoming increasingly international in scope. For example, two-thirds of the thirty companies constituting the Dow Jones Industrial Average have at least one international board member; over 20 percent of the board members are non-Americans at Dow component companies Alcoa, Citigroup, General Electric, IBM, and Walt Disney.3 International board membership is often even stronger outside of the United States, with companies in developing countries increasingly looking 164 The New Elite for board members from outside of their home country, as this fosters connections that fuel business growth, and makes potential investors more confident that the company is stable and well managed.4 All of these global business relationships deepen the ethic of global citizenship.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

People who might create transformations in industries, who will catch the exponential curve of technology and ride it to success, create the new jobs, and improve the outlook for humans and humanity. These people will be the Startup Heroes of tomorrow. Maybe one of them is you! Additional Content The Startup Hero podcast and video available on iTunes and YouTube Watch luminary Startup Heroes: drapertv.com Watch Startup Heroes pitch, then invest: meetthedrapers.com Check out our global venture network: drapernetwork.com Teach children to be a Startup Hero: bizworld.org Become a Startup Hero: draperuniversity.com Pitch your startup, hero: draper.vc Startup Hero Assessment Do You Have What It Takes to Be a Startup Hero Entrepreneur? What is your Startup Hero potential? Take this assessment to find out. (Note: This assessment is completely subjective and unscientific.) Answer the following questions at your own risk.

At 19 years old, she understood that all the current incentives are wrong and the drug companies, the doctors and the insurance companies are all propagating the system, and it is bad for patients. This bold girl went on to explain her plan to build a business that would make the healthcare system work better. She planned to start with a blood test that took very little blood. She called the company Theranos, a combination of the words “therapy” and “diagnosis.” I liked her passion so much I committed a $1 million investment at about a $10 million valuation. Theranos operated in stealth mode for nearly 10 years while she developed the “nanotainer,” a microfluidic device that takes two drops of blood for testing; and the “minilab,” an integrated device and software platform with the potential capabilities of a full-scale clinical laboratory. People would be able to monitor their own health because the results of the tests would be stored in the cloud, and people could see and determine action based on the changes in their blood.

I will take care of myself I will fail and fail again until I succeed I will explore the world with gusto and enthusiasm I will treat people well I will make short-term sacrifices for long-term success I will pursue fairness, openness, health and fun with all that I encounter…mostly fun I will keep my word I will try my best to make reparations for my digressions The Superhero Clause The Evangelism Clause The Black Swan Clause Book Two: The Startup Hero’s Workbook Before You Write Your Business Plan A Startup Hero’s Business Plan Growing Your Startup Financing Your Startup Marketing Your Startup The Hero Startup Pitch IPOs Final Note: The Riskmaster Benediction Additional Startup Hero Content Startup Hero Assessment Acknowledgements Hero Definitions Hero: Someone who takes long odds at an extraordinary outcome. Someone who runs into the fire to save people rather than running out to save themselves. Superhero: A fantasy hero of science fiction that inspires people to be better, to achieve more and possibly to make their imaginations become reality with enough hard work and perseverance. Startup Hero: Someone with aspirations to be a superhero.


Alpha Girls: The Women Upstarts Who Took on Silicon Valley's Male Culture and Made the Deals of a Lifetime by Julian Guthrie

Airbnb, Apple II, barriers to entry, blockchain, Bob Noyce, call centre, cloud computing, credit crunch, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, new economy, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, phenotype, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, web application, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

But in private, the undaunted girl who loved her hammer and nails, the intrepid young woman in her flamboyant costumes at the Stanford computer center, the competent builder of companies, was scared. THERESIA In the spring of 2005, the Stanford business school students were still developing their business plan in stealth mode when Theresia met with them as part of her quest to find transformative new vertical search companies. The graduate students were trying to keep a low profile, knowing that their start-up was going to rankle the second most powerful lobbying group in America—the National Association of Realtors. Sami Inkinen and Pete Flint had spent most of their second year of business school learning everything they could about the real estate industry. Flint, who had an undergraduate and a master’s degree from Oxford University and had co-founded a leading European online travel site, had been dismayed by how little information was available online when he began to look for off-campus housing.

And that’s why Magdalena came back to technology, the world of circuits and logic that had always moored her, and reinvented herself as an expert in the Internet. Now all she had to do was convince some venture capitalists that she was right—that e-commerce was about to change the world. THERESIA “Are you kidding me? Joining a start-up is riskier than starting a restaurant!” That was the reaction that Theresia got from her boss when she announced that she was leaving her corporate post at Bain consulting in San Francisco to work for Release Software, a new start-up in Silicon Valley. In the past, Theresia had always done everything by the book, but now she was sure she had seen the future—and it was digital. At Release, with her meager start-up wages, Theresia had to make some adjustments, notably in where and how she lived. She soon joined the ranks of couch-surfing entrepreneurs. From a privacy standpoint, living night to night on someone else’s sofa wasn’t so different from living in a dorm at Brown.

Two days after arriving, he applied for a deferment, convinced that the start-up zeitgeist wouldn’t come around again anytime soon. He started Zip2 to help the media industry move from print models to an electronic model. Two years earlier, at twenty-five, Theresia had married her former Bain colleague Tim Ranzetta, who now worked as a buy-side analyst at a mutual fund company in Boston. Theresia Gouw Ranzetta flew out to see her husband every chance she could. But the two were trying to save money, given that she was working for stock rather than salary. And she didn’t mind the bicoastal arrangement. Not having a husband around to worry about gave her more time to work. And that’s exactly what she did in her new job at the start-up Release, which had office space on the second floor of an old building called Casa Mills in Menlo Park.


pages: 352 words: 87,930

Space 2.0 by Rod Pyle

additive manufacturing, air freight, barriers to entry, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, experimental subject, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, mouse model, risk-adjusted returns, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, telerobotics, trade route, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Y Combinator

The company has received a very small amount of money from NASA’s Commercial Crew Program—the arrangements that funded both SpaceX and ULA to build their launch systems to ferry astronauts to the ISS—but Blue Origin’s share amounts to only about $25 million, a pittance compared to Bezos’s personal investment in the company. Subsequently, Blue Origin has submitted a bid to supply large rocket engines to ULA for the Vulcan (ULA’s replacement for the Delta IV and Atlas V—more about that just ahead), and won another $45 million contract with NASA to provide suborbital research flights, but it’s otherwise operating in financial semi-stealth mode. The suborbital New Shepard has been entirely self-funded, as is the follow-on and much larger New Glenn heavy booster. It’s an impressive and daring path to tread. Blue Origin’s planned New Glenn rocket will compete with the Falcon Heavy and should be flying by the early 2020s. Image credit: Blue Origin Bezos has made his billions with Amazon.com, but he has had his eyes on the stars since his youth.

Metamaterials—special chips that can “tune” the direction of incoming signals—allow Kymeta to use lightweight, flat receivers to accomplish the same tasks that previously required steered parabolic dishes. There are hundreds of other small enterprises jumping into the commercial space sector with unique high-tech products. Some are well-funded start-ups, while others are being created in university labs and garage workshops. Some have small NASA contracts, but most are operating on their own dime. NASA has long worked with small vendors, but it’s diversifying how it does so. The agency supports small start-ups and university students with “hackathons” to promote new software and technology designs. Much of this support takes the form of competitions. One example is the “Space Poop Challenge,” which, despite its whimsical name, sought to address a very real problem in spaceflight: the elimination of waste from the human body.

What involvement the Chinese military might have in Link Space remains unclear, but the company has publicly positioned itself as a private start-up. The cost to launch a newly manufactured New Line rocket would be less than $5 million, and probably much less once it has been recycled. The company has flown more than 200 tests of smaller rockets that were capable of hovering and landing, in the same way that SpaceX gained experience with its own experimental flights before offering the Falcon 9 for commercial launches. Link Space expects to begin commercial service in 2020. This may be just the tip of the entrepreneurial iceberg; other Chinese start-ups are eyeing space launch and satellite markets, and are doubtless watching Link Space carefully to gauge its progress and success. At least one smallsat launcher outfit, called One Space, has been jumpstarted with official support from the Chinese defense establishment.


Robot Futures by Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Burning Man, commoditize, computer vision, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, phenotype, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, stealth mode startup, strong AI, telepresence, telepresence robot, Therac-25, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

A computer vision system will easily detect your gaze direction, how you walk, where you linger, what products you touch and try on, the exact set of places your eyes settle on during your entire time in and around a store, how excited you are as you talk to your friend about items, what expression your face makes when you turn the price tag over, what you buy, the cadence of your steps as you walk away, how old you look, and what your companions look like. In November 2011, Euclid Elements emerged from stealth mode as a startup company dedicated to extending analytics from the Internet to physical stores (Perez 2011). The company’s press release describes real-world equivalents of landing page and click-through statistics for the brick-and-mortar store: foot traffic, retention rates, dwell times, window conversion rates, and customer loyalty. Computer vision is not yet far enough along for broad facial analysis and tracking; instead, Euclid leverages the smartphone network, detecting and tracking each customer’s position using unique smartphone Wi-Fi signatures.


pages: 269 words: 79,285

Silk Road by Eileen Ormsby

4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, fiat currency, Firefox, Julian Assange, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Right to Buy, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, trade route, Turing test, web application, WikiLeaks

It didn’t take long before it was referenced on sites with more traffic, and soon Christin was being interviewed by IT and business magazines around the world, including such luminaries as Forbes. ‘It is quite surreal having more than half a dozen people read one of my papers,’ he quipped when questioned about his sudden fame. Christin’s paper became the subject of much debate. He was careful to note that he was not working with the full range of data; for example, any vendors who were operating in ‘stealth’ mode (i.e. not visible to anyone other than selected buyers) or custom listings for specific buyers were not included in his trawled data. As such, his work could only represent an estimate, and not actual verified volumes of sales – but he believed the estimates to be on the conservative side. Christin’s paper was the most reliable indicator to date of the sort of volume Silk Road was turning over and the kind of profits the Dread Pirate Roberts might be enjoying.

The founder and public face of the website needed a separate identity. Enter the Dread Pirate Roberts. IT pro needed for venture-backed bitcoin startup Hello, sorry if there is another thread for this kind of post, but I couldn’t find one. I’m looking for the best and brightest IT pro in the bitcoin community to be the lead developer in a venture-backed bitcoin startup company. The ideal candidate would have at least several years of web application development experience, having built applications from the ground up. A solid understanding of oop [object-oriented programming] and software architecture is a must. Experience in a start-up environment is a plus, or just being super hard working, self-motivated, and creative. Compensation can be in the form of equity or a salary, or somewhere in-between.

The researchers decided to try to trace where the funds went. They claimed it was clear that when the address was dissipated, the resulting funds were not sent en masse to any major services. They traced the coins into a number of services, mainly exchanges, but again the trail went cold. Dread Pirate Roberts had found somewhere else to store his bitcoins. But now the world had some idea of the magnitude of the little start-up Silk Road. In August 2012, unassuming security professor Nicolas Christin quietly released an academic paper in which he described trawling the available data of Silk Road. The paper, ‘Traveling the Silk Road: A measurement analysis of a large anonymous online marketplace’, created a convincing picture of the site’s sales activity, which Christin conservatively estimated at $22 million per year and growing exponentially.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

The system can also use multi-cast queries to send commands to endnodes and have them respond only if they are a group member; for instance, if they have a temperature sensor or meet a specific operational condition such as endnodes that have a temperature sensor and have a reading greater than 10c and less than 13c. Industry 4.0 Commands and responses are encrypted using AES-128 encryption but there is also a “stealth mode” whereby endnodes respond only to pre-authenticated devices. Name of Standard Dash7 Alliance Protocol 1.0 Frequency band 433, 868, 915MHz ISM/SRD Channel width 25KHz or 200KHz Range 0 – 5 km Endnode transmit power Depending on FCC/ETSI regulations Packet size 256 bytes max/packet Uplink data rate 9.6kb/s, 55.55 kbps, or 166.667 kb/s Downlink data rate 9.6 kb/s, 55.55 kbps, or 166.667 kb/s Devices per access point N/A (connectionless communication) Topology node-to-node, star, tree Endnode roaming allowed Yes Ingénue RPMA The RPMA LP-WAN provides developers with transceiver modules that can connect to a network of access points, which form a global network that Ingénue and its partners are constructing.

In essence, cloud computing is still following Amazon’s early pay-as-you-use formula, which makes cloud computing financially attractive to SMEs (small to medium enterprises), as the costs of running a data center and dedicated infrastructure both IT and networks can be crippling. Consequently, many cash-strapped businesses, for example start-ups, elected to move their development and application platforms to the cloud, as they only paid for the resources they used. When these start-ups became successful, and there were a few hugely successful companies, they remained on the cloud due to the same financial benefits—no vast capital and operational expenditure to build and run their own data centers—but also because the cloud offered much more. 47 48 Chapter 3 |TheTechnical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet In order to understand why the cloud is so attractive to business, look at the major cloud providers’ business model.

There are several problems here—one is the physical layer technology that is adopted, for example wired or wireless. Wireless technology—radio communications—must meet a required standard for the deployment. After all, it is of little use producing a startup product that uses a non-standard interface in the targeted industry. This is where standards are so important. Now standards are hugely important, but very dry, so we will only cover the main industry standards that any industry specific product should comply with. An example of this is that a startup developing a great product must adhere to existing relevant industrial standards or it will never be commercially accepted. Industry decision-makers are very risk averse and are unlikely to adopt a solution that does not meet existing industry standards.


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NeoAddix by Jon Courtenay Grimwood

8-hour work day, double helix, Kickstarter, pirate software, Silicon Valley, stealth mode startup, stem cell

‘CySat UK would have put him on permanent contract years ago, but for that the man needed to pass a positive vetting and we wouldn’t give him clearance… This guy was a typical do-gooder, GPeace, Pax, Amnesty2. We were about to pick him up when he disappeared.’ ‘Why? Clare asked simply. ‘Because this was a man in a hurry to download his Zeiss eyecam without going through the usual channels at CySat. A man who used the terms ‘M-wave invisibility’ and ‘human stealth mode’ with quite reckless abandon.’ Ratso sighed, with the weariness of a man who spends too much time round politicians. ‘Just when we got a make on Alex, word came back from Westminster that we’d got it wrong. To leave Alex alone. Well, the guy covering the case wasn’t having it, so he kept going.’ Ratso paused. ‘I’m not saying the two things are connected, but my best operative died in a two-bit bank data heist that went wrong.’

The Bishop-Auditor had finally agreed the small print on the deal Volubilis had suggested on behalf of Lady Clare. Alex Gibson was dead - that was now the official story. And Lady Clare and her pet junkie were to be given whatever facilities they required - theater or laboratory - to make over Alex Gibson in any form whatsoever that Lady Clare chose. In return, Lady Clare would deliver to the Church the ultimate patent, invisibility, which the Bishop-Auditor was already referring to as ‘human stealth mode’. That it would be delivered was not open to question, according to lady Clare. It was only the when and how that were still open to negotiation. The wall screen in the shower was still giving its simplified This-is-the-Geneticists speech for visitors. Volubilis knew it by heart, he’d even written some of it, but the breezy optimism and sly skating over of awkward truths still amused him. Geneticist investigators combed the world - so it told him - delving into new sightings with Inquisitorial ruthlessness and tracking down holy relics not already in the San Lorenzo collection.

Alex asked, already knowing the answer. ‘But I’m already here.’ Makai said petulantly. ‘Find me Razz.’ Alex demanded. Makai nodded, and everything blurred. When the Cy refocused, they were hanging above a digital simulacrum of Paris, and far below them wired into the insignificant data-path of a minor tourist facility was a extra node. ‘Mayer lied,’ Alex said with certainty. ‘You aren’t the computer at all, you’re its start-up program. That box of Lady Clare’s is the quantum equivalent of a highly-sophisticated BIOS, if that isn’t too big a contradiction in terms. The real MAKAI is out there, broken up and buried under enough high-grade reflective to sink the Titanic. And you know what else..?’ Makai stayed silent, but Alex could see from the way his outline firmed that he was busy listening, assimilating and taking new data on board.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buy and hold, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

Then there were smaller eyebrow-raising details, like Satoshi Nakamoto’s initials being a transposition of Nick Szabo’s. Nick had made a brief statement, by e-mail, to deny that he was Satoshi, but that didn’t quiet the speculation. At Morehead’s gathering, people spoke in hushed tones about things they’d overheard Nick saying. Nick showed up at Morehead’s private gathering because a few months earlier he had quietly joined a cryptocurrency startup that was operating in stealth mode. The startup, Vaurum, was based a few blocks from Wences’s office in Palo Alto and focused on the task of matching up big holders of Bitcoin wanting to buy and sell. Nick, though, had joined Vaurum to do more sophisticated work on so-called smart contracts, which would allow people to record their ownership of a house or car into the blockchain, and transfer that ownership with the use of a private key, something Nick had been thinking about for over a decade.

In addition to the tens of millions of dollars Wences had earned from selling past startups, he had been surprised to discover that he also had a knack for picking winning investments in his friends’ companies. But he had recently been hitting up against failure for the first time. Lemon, his current startup, had grown out of the decline of his previous startup, Bling Nation, and many of Wences’s friends wondered whether Lemon was the result of the kind of passion necessary to succeed in Silicon Valley or was just Wences’s attempt to prove that the failure of Bling Nation had been an anomaly. There were already signs that Lemon was not getting the kind of pickup that Wences had imagined. And, as with all startups, it required more time from its chief executive than any one person had in a day. This was Wences’s twelfth startup, depending on how you counted, and his wife once again felt like a single mother for their three children.

It was not surprising that Erik, with ambitions like these, had a turbulent journey since his days of unemployment in New Hampshire. After moving to New York, he had helped convince the Winklevoss twins, Tyler and Cameron, of Facebook fame, to put almost a million dollars into a startup he helped create, called BitInstant. But that relationship ended with a knock-down, drag-out fight, after which Erik resigned from the company and moved to Panama with his girlfriend. More recently, Erik had been spending many of his days in his office in Panama, dealing with investigators from the US Securities and Exchange Commission—one of the top financial regulatory agencies—who were questioning a deal in which he’d sold stock in one of his startups for Bitcoins. The stock had ended up providing his investors with big returns. And the regulators, by Erik’s assessment, didn’t seem to even understand the technology.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

Indeed, speed—in some cases measured in millionths or even billionths of a second—is so critical to algorithmic trading success that Wall Street firms have collectively invested billions of dollars to build computing facilities and communications paths designed to produce tiny speed advantages. In 2009, for example, a company called Spread Networks spent as much as $200 million to lay down a new fiber-optic cable link stretching 825 miles in a straight line from Chicago to New York. The company operated in stealth mode so as not to alert the competition even as it blasted its way through the Allegheny Mountains. When the new fiber-optic path came online, it offered a speed advantage of perhaps three or four thousandths of a second compared with existing communications routes. That was enough to allow any algorithmic trading systems employing the new route to effectively dominate their competition. Wall Street firms, faced with algorithmic decimation, lined up to lease bandwidth—reportedly at a cost as much as ten times that of the original, slower cable.

It peers at the boxes, adjusts its gaze slightly, ponders some more, and then finally lunges forward and grapples a box from the top of the pile.* The sluggishness, however, results almost entirely from the staggering complexity of the computation required to perform this seemingly simple task. If there is one thing the history of information technology teaches, it is that this robot is going to very soon get a major speed upgrade. Indeed, engineers at Industrial Perception, Inc., the Silicon Valley start-up company that designed and built the robot, believe the machine will ultimately be able to move a box every second. That compares with a human worker’s maximum rate of a box roughly every six seconds.1 Needless to say, the robot can work continuously; it will never get tired or suffer a back injury—and it will certainly never file a worker’s compensation claim. Industrial Perception’s robot is remarkable because its capability sits at the nexus of visual perception, spatial computation, and dexterity.

A variety of educational robots focused on everything from encouraging technical creativity to assisting children with autism or learning disabilities. At the Rethink Robotics booth, Baxter had received Halloween training and was grasping small boxes of candy and then dropping them into pumpkin-shaped trick-or-treat buckets. There were also companies marketing components like motors, sensors, vision systems, electronic controllers, and the specialized software used to construct robots. Silicon Valley start-up Grabit Inc. demonstrated an innovative electroadhesion-powered gripper that allows robots to pick up, carry, and place nearly anything simply by employing a controlled electrostatic charge. To round things out, a global law firm with a specialized robotics practice was on hand to help employers navigate the complexities of labor, employment, and safety regulations when robots are brought in to replace, or work in close proximity to, people.


San Francisco by Lonely Planet

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, G4S, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Joan Didion, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Hop off at Vallejo to follow stairway walks and side streets to four literary locations: hilltop Ina Coolbrith Park , named after San Francisco’s over-the-top romantic poet; shady Macondray Lane , the backdrop for Armistead Maupin’s Tales of the City; Russell St , where Jack Kerouac wrote On the Road in an attic; and Sterling Park , where sweeping bay views inspired SF’s original ‘King of Bohemia.’ Lunch Za (Click here ) features cornmeal-crusted pizza and Anchor Steam beer. The Piers ( Click here ) Cover the waterfront, beginning with newly restored underwater murals and mosaics at Aquatic Park Bathhouse . You can save the world from Space Invaders at Musée Mécanique , or enter underwater stealth mode inside a real WWII submarine: USS Pampanito . Watch sea lions cavort at Pier 39 , then follow your rumbling stomach to the Ferry Building . Dinner Try the local oysters and Dungeness crab at the Ferry Building (Click here ). Alcatraz ( Click here ) To end the evening with shivers, don’t miss the boat for the night tour of Alcatraz . Once you return to freedom, hop on the vintage F-Market line streetcar to celebrate your great San Francisco escape with bubbly at Waterbar .

For more mariner action, check out the steam-powered paddle-wheel tugboat Eppleton Hall and the magnificent triple-masted, iron-hulled Balclutha, an 1886 British vessel, which brought coal to San Francisco and took grain back to Europe via the dreaded Cape Horn . USS Pampanito The USS Pampanito Offline map Google map ( www.maritime.org/pamphome.htm; Pier 45; adult/child/family $9/5/20; 9am-8pm Thu-Tue, to 6pm Wed; Powell-Hyde) , a WWII-era US navy submarine, completed six wartime patrols, sunk six Japanese ships, battled three others and lived to tell the tale. Submariners’ stories of tense moments in underwater stealth mode will have you holding your breath – beware, claustrophobics – and all those cool brass knobs and mysterious hydraulic valves make 21st-century technology seem overrated. What the…? Keep your eyes peeled for the notorious ‘Bushman’ of Pier 39, who lurks behind branches of eucalyptus trees, then leaps out and shouts ‘Ugga bugga!’ to scare the bejeezus out of unsuspecting tourists, then (even more shocking) hits them up for change.

But this turf proved fertile ground for wild ideas: as a plaque around the corner indicates, 601 3rd St was the birthplace of Jack London , best-selling author of The Call of the Wild, White Fang and other Wild West adventure stories. After WWII, Filipino American war veterans formed a quiet community here – at least until dot-com HQs suddenly moved in and out of the neighborhood. South Park offices weren’t vacant for long before Web 2.0 moved in, including a scrappy start-up with an outlandish notion that soon everyone would be communicating in online haiku. Twitter has since moved its operations and 200 million users Downtown. Crown Point Press Art Gallery Offline map Google map ( 415-974-6273; www.crownpoint.com; 20 Hawthorne St; 10am-6pm Mon-Sat; Mission St, Montgomery) Bet you didn’t think anyone could capture Chuck Close’s giant portraits, Wayne Thiebaud’s Pop Art pastries or Australian Aboriginal artist Dorothy Napangardi’s dreamings on paper.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

When word circulated that the firm had been acquired, possibly for more than $200 million, it sent shock waves up and down Sand Hill Road and within the burgeoning “app economy” that the iPhone had spawned. After Apple acquired Siri, the program was immediately pulled from the App Store, the iPhone service through which programs were screened and sold, and the small team of programmers who had designed Siri vanished back into “stealth mode” inside the Cupertino campus. The larger implications of the acquisition weren’t immediately obvious to many in the Valley, but as one of his last acts as the leader of Apple, Steve Jobs had paved the way for yet another dramatic shift in the way humans would interact with computers. He had come down squarely on the side of those who placed humans in control of their computing systems. Jobs had made a vital earlier contribution to the computing world by championing the graphical desktop computing approach as a more powerful way to operate a PC.

It was military-led spending, but it wasn’t entirely about military applications. Corporate America was toying with the idea of expert systems. Ultimately the boom would lead to forty start-up companies and U.S. sales of AI-related hardware and software of $425 million in 1986. As an academic, Kaplan lasted just two years at Stanford. He received two offers to join start-ups at the same time, both in the AI world. Ed Feigenbaum, who had decided that the Stanford computer scientists should get paid for what they were already doing academically, was assembling one of the start-ups, Teknowledge. The new company would rapidly become the Cadillac of expert system consulting, also developing custom products. The other start-up was called Symantec. Decades later it would become a giant computer security firm, but at the outset Symantec began with an AI database program that overlapped with Kaplan’s technical expertise.

The company’s PageRank search algorithm exploited human preferences to rank Internet search query results. Through Reid Hoffman, Gruber found a start-up that was planning to compete with TripAdvisor, which at that point was only offering travelers’ reviews of hotels. He convinced them that he could bring them a big audience—they just needed to handle the business development side of the project. And so Gruber started over as the vice president of design at this new start-up, although this time he had a team of three engineers instead of sixty. Having a small army of programmers, however, was no longer critical to the success of a company—the Internet had changed everything. Even the smallest start-ups could leverage vastly more powerful development toolkits. The start-up planned to collect the best trip descriptions that global travelers had to offer.


pages: 356 words: 105,533

Dark Pools: The Rise of the Machine Traders and the Rigging of the U.S. Stock Market by Scott Patterson

algorithmic trading, automated trading system, banking crisis, bash_history, Bernie Madoff, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computerized trading, creative destruction, Donald Trump, fixed income, Flash crash, Francisco Pizarro, Gordon Gekko, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, High speed trading, Joseph Schumpeter, latency arbitrage, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, market microstructure, pattern recognition, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, popular electronics, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Sergey Aleynikov, Small Order Execution System, South China Sea, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stochastic process, transaction costs, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

If the price moves up too quickly, such as ½ percent in two minutes, stop buying. If the broader market falls quickly, stop buying. Some algos were encoded with a randomizer, causing them to shift erratically between strategies, in order to hide the patterns of their moves. They were like hunted prey attempting to cover up their tracks through feints and dodges. With no order for the hunter-seeker radars to detect, it was easier to operate in stealth mode. But the hunter-seekers adapted to the new stealth techniques and watched for them, anticipating every move—even the seemingly random ones. Every trade left a signal, a trail of bread crumbs. The hunter-seekers were experts at sniffing them out. The mindless algos had evolved into dangerous beasts of prey. They were getting smart. They had names such as Shark, Guerilla, Stealth, Thor, Sniper.

He called it the Batmobile. Bodek quickly began scouring Wall Street for top talent, and he found eager takers among the trading desks of the most elite banks and hedge funds in the country. Word got around that Bodek and TW were building the Next Next Thing in Stamford, a cutting-edge trading operation that reputations would be built on. They turned down dozens of résumés from programmers and traders that most startups would have killed for. They moved fast. In November 2007, Trading Machines launched with $20 million. While small by some standards, it was deemed substantial for a high-speed trading outfit—and spoke to the economics of the business. Fast traders make money by picking up pennies and nickels on thousands of trades a day. Because they move in and out of positions so rapidly, they can recycle a small amount of cash over and over again.

Maschler had recently left a nationwide brokerage based in New-ark, New Jersey, called First Jersey Securities. A notorious penny-stock pump-and-dump outfit, First Jersey was run by an evil-genius scam artist named Robert Brennan. Brennan had gained fame in the 1980s for a string of ads in which he zipped around in a Sikorsky helicopter, passing American landmarks such as the Grand Coulee Dam while espousing the virtues of First Jersey’s ability to fund small startups. The ads, which invited viewers to “Come Grow With Us,” appeared during nightly news shows and even the Super Bowl. Maschler quickly rose within the ranks at First Jersey and by the mid-1980s was running its Jersey City office. When allegations of ties to organized crime and stock scams threatened to bring First Jersey down in 1986, however, Maschler quickly jumped ship. He was pulling in some cash from a sports-betting outfit he ran on the side, and the last thing he wanted was extra scrutiny from the law.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Hertzfeld, who had quit adding new features to the Vista prototype once the bigger architectural discussions kicked in, was beginning to sketch out what an address book or “contacts manager” for the new product might look like. Parlante had moved from user research into prototyping a calendar. Morgen Sagen had begun to create an automated build system for the project named Hardhat, a framework of code that would help the developers reassemble the program’s building blocks after they made changes. Everyone was itching to start writing code. But by the fall, OSAF was still in stealth mode. Kapor was a public figure; rumors had spread along the Silicon Valley grapevine that he was up to something, but what, exactly, remained a mystery. Kapor was loath to make a big-splash announcement without having a working product. That was classic “vaporware,” and he’d been down that road with his company On Technology in the late eighties; it had the dubious honor of a place in the Vaporware Hall of Fame curated by a Macintosh columnist.

And bringing a new product to users was what Kapor and his Chandler developers ached to do in the summer of 2003. They were an odd hybrid: They functioned like an open source project in that they were posting their source code on the Internet and trying to build a community of volunteer developers around it; but they also felt and acted like a classic software start-up company, with a core group of programmers trying to get a new product off the ground and worrying about how long it was taking. For Kapor, who had built Lotus Development Corporation from the ground up and later spent a couple of years as a venture capitalist, the start-up model was the world he knew, and open source was the world he was groping toward. His motivation to create Chandler—an ambitious rethinking of PIM software to enable easy sharing of data and to run on the three most popular kinds of personal computers—was, undoubtedly, to use Raymond’s phrase, “scratching a personal itch.”

His motivation to create Chandler—an ambitious rethinking of PIM software to enable easy sharing of data and to run on the three most popular kinds of personal computers—was, undoubtedly, to use Raymond’s phrase, “scratching a personal itch.” He wanted to build Chandler because he craved something like it, and similar existing products simply didn’t match the picture in his head. But he didn’t begin, as a lone open source hacker might have, by posting a first chunk of code; he began, as an entrepreneur would, by subleasing some office space. As with so many software start-ups, OSAF’s first digs were funky, informal, improvised. Kapor had found space in Belmont on the Peninsula fringe of Silicon Valley, in a nondescript low-slung office park just down the road from the glass-towered campus of Oracle, the giant producer of corporate databases. The building also housed “Oracle University.” An Extended Stay America motel was going up next door for migrant businesspeople stopping off at Oracle.


pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, animal electricity, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

“There were no windows, it was kind of like a casino,” Ording says. “So you could look up and it’d be four o’clock and we’d worked right through lunch.” They started to shield their work from outsiders, even from their boss, Greg Christie—they didn’t want anything to intrude on the flow and momentum of the progress. “At that point,” Chaudhri says, “we stopped talking to people. For the same reasons that start-ups go into stealth mode.” And they didn’t want it to get shut down before they could effectively demonstrate the full scope of their gestating UI’s potential. Naturally, their boss was irked. “I remember we were going to Coachella, and Christie told us, ‘Maybe when you get back from that orgy in the desert, you can tell me what the hell you’re doing down there,’” Chaudhri says. They cooked up compelling demos that showcased the potential of multitouch: maps you could zoom and rotate, and pictures that you could bounce around the screen with a quick pull of your fingers.

Kinyamu runs Communications and Programs for Nest Global and is a veteran of Nairobi’s tech scene. During that time, a lot of interested groups were looking to fund mobile start-ups that could result in an Ushahidi-like success story. In an effort to help Kenyan entrepreneurs, developers, and start-ups capitalize on the growing buzz and bring those systems to market, in 2010, Erik Hersman and his co-founders at Ushahidi founded iHub. Originally self-funded, it received a $1.4 million infusion from Omidyar Networks, the eBay founder’s “philanthropic investment firm.” A co-working space outfitted with high-speed internet, iHub encouraged start-ups and developers to pool skills and resources. “It helped catalyze, helped things move faster,” Hersman says. Hersman, who is American, grew up in Kenya and Sudan and has long blogged about the region on his site, the White African.

I met Nelson Kwame, an entrepreneur who splits his time between his start-up, Web4All, and his freelance developer work. Kwame was born in Sudan in 1991 after his father fled the catastrophic war that would eventually split the nation in two. He came to Kenya to attend university and is motivated by the belief that fluency in technology is the key to the region’s future. He uses iHub both as a place to find potential partners and as a place to find gigs. “Let’s say my friend who’s a developer, his uncle works for a company that needs an app,” he says, and Kwame is game. “I do a lot of websites, and a lot of apps.” And he does indeed think that coding, and web development, and, increasingly, app development are crucial skills for the region’s growth. His start-up organizes daylong classes in different locations to help teach coding, development, and entrepreneurship skills—he just did one in Mombasa, Kenya’s major seaside port city.


pages: 459 words: 140,010

Fire in the Valley: The Birth and Death of the Personal Computer by Michael Swaine, Paul Freiberger

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Google Chrome, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Jony Ive, Loma Prieta earthquake, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog

And back in 2003, four entrepreneurs—Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White—started a company named Android to create a new operating system based on the Linux kernel and emphasizing a touch-based interface for tablets, smartphones, and the like. Two years later, the company was acquired by Google, which had been investing its huge income from its search business in various enterprises. The Android project remained in stealth mode, with no hint of any intent to produce a new operating system to compete with Windows Mobile and Symbian—which were the players to beat. When Apple released the iPhone, the developers recognized that Windows Mobile and Symbian were not the target; Apple’s iOS mobile operating system was. They regeared and, within months, unveiled Android. But arguably more interesting than the technology was the fact that Google announced Android as the first product of a consortium of companies committed to developing open standards for mobile devices.

It is fitting that IMSAI’s most lasting contribution to the personal-computer field was a sales enterprise—a chain of retail stores, a computer franchise—ComputerLand, started by Ed Faber in 1976. Faber was an old hand at start-up operations. In 1957, he joined IBM as a sales representative. In 1966, IBM tapped Faber to help develop a department called New Business Marketing, which was designed to ease IBM into the small-business area. Faber helped create a business plan that would include a newly assembled sales force and a fresh marketing concept for the company. This was his first start-up operation, and he relished the challenge. He identified problems, devised solutions for them, and then, as corporate start-up strategies inevitably go, he had to deal with a set of new problems created by the solutions. By 1967, Faber decided he wanted his career to revolve around start-ups, an unusual choice at IBM at the time. In 1969, after 12 years with IBM, Faber left to join Memorex.

It is the first and only biography of the place that made and continues to make innovation history. Swaine and Freiberger capture the emotions and motivations at the core of this very special place with tenderness and finesse that endure to this day. → Andy Cunningham Founder and president, SeriesC Fire in the Valley presents the full story: from calculating machines and military computers through the heady days of garage start-ups, the rise of the clones, the initial forays into cyberspace, and on to consolidation, commoditization, and the heightened frenzy of an all-connected world of mobile devices and cloud services that we experience today. Its theme is best summed up by the authors themselves: time and again, crazy dreamers had run up against resistance from accepted wisdom and had prevailed to realize their dreams.


pages: 390 words: 114,538

Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet by Charles Arthur

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, John Gruber, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, PageRank, pre–internet, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, turn-by-turn navigation, upwardly mobile

As an example of the latter, Page and Brin pointed in the second paper to the results of a search for ‘Bill Clinton’, the then US president: one search engine returned ‘Bill Clinton Joke of the Day’ as the top result. (The PageRank patent is owned by Stanford University, where it was developed; Google is the exclusive licensee.) They became a classic Silicon Valley start-up in summer 1998, maxing out their credit cards to buy equipment, spending almost nothing on office furniture (the tables in their first offices at 232 Santa Margarita Avenue, Menlo Park were doors balanced on carpenters’ timber-sawing stands), and operating in what is commonly known as ‘stealth mode’. Renamed from ‘BackRub’, and almost named ‘The Whatbox’ (they decided it sounded a bit too much like ‘wetbox’, which sounded vaguely porn related), the Google web page first went live in August 1997. They brought a particular focus to what they thought mattered about the experience of using their site.

Certainly for Palm, we will reach into many more companies with these devices.’4 Analysts agreed: in February 2006, Nick Jones, an analyst at the industry research company Gartner, declared that Windows Mobile had more than 10,000 developers working on applications, ‘far more than any rival mobile operating system’, ahead of Symbian (and Nokia) and that of Research In Motion (RIM), the Canadian maker of the BlackBerry.5 Android The September 2005 announcement of the Microsoft–Palm tie-up grabbed the interest of one particular Google employee: Andy Rubin, a former Apple employee, whose second mobile start-up, called Android, had been purchased by Google the month before. (He had left his first mobile start-up, Danger, which produced the Hiptop phone and would later be sold to Microsoft.) Larry Page in particular saw mobile as the future; Eric Schmidt was less convinced. So Page, with co-founder Sergey Brin, bought Android without consulting Schmidt. Like Knook, they could see that phones with computer power were going to become more plentiful than PCs.

2 When any feature was being thought about, that question kept coming up: will it break the antitrust ruling? ‘I think it has almost had a chilling effect on the way they do product development,’ Foley suggests. With Microsoft suitably admonished, and now living under a new regime of oversight, the scene was set for Microsoft’s next challenges: in search, digital music and mobile phones. First was a little start-up that was already becoming the talk of internet users, one that was to form its corporate thinking around a motto that tried to express a desire not to be Microsoft: ‘Don’t be evil.’ Chapter Three Search: Google versus Microsoft The weather in Brisbane for the 7th World Wide Web conference in May 1998 was dismal: ‘It rained every day,’ recalls Mike Bracken, one of the attendees. Among the many papers on the schedule for the conference, though largely unnoticed, was one by two Stanford undergraduates, entitled ‘The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual web search engine’.


pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

4chan, AGPL, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WikiLeaks

That faceless person that does not even have a username but is highly motivated and just wants to start contributing was standing there inperson at our doorstep. We didn't know his name, we only knew his IP address—where he physically is: he was right there! Literally browsing our “collaborative site”. And we? We were so Alpha, we were what early web people two decades ago used to call “under construction” or “in stealth mode.” We didn't even have an interface for him yet. It's like he found a public yet unannounced URL for a future collaborative platform that was just not ready yet. We thought we were private, but apparently we were live. We were caught offguard with our first anonymous visitor, very online and just eager to log in. 154 41. Are we interested? The issue of subjectivity quickly turned up in the first book sprint.

In her o -referenced essay “Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy,” Tiziana Terranova discusses free labor's complex relationship to capitalism. Free labor is a desire of labor immanent to late capitalism, and late capitalism is the field that both sustains free labor and exhausts it. It exhausts it by subtracting selectively but widely the means through which that labor can reproduce itself: from the burnout syndromes of Internet start-ups to underretribution and exploitation in the cultural economy at large. Late capitalism does not appropriate anything: it nurtures, exploits, and exhausts its labor force and its cultural and affective production. In this sense, it is technically impossible to separate neatly the digital economy of the Net from the larger network economy of late capitalism. Especially since 1994, the Internet is always and simultaneously a gi economy and an advanced capitalist economy.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

In their first business plan, Google had a sketchy idea that they’d make money by charging companies for advanced search results and by getting digital advertising companies like DoubleClick to sell online ads of some kind. The revenue plan wasn’t very impressive, but the search engine was. Users were multiplying. Secrecy was the watchword. While Google search was still small, he knew it was much larger than competitors anticipated: “We were in stealth mode,” Kamangar said. “If first Yahoo and then Microsoft knew that our number of searches was so much larger, they would be more aggressive.” Repeatedly, Page explained his mania for secrecy by invoking the example of Tesla. Google had to sell the venture capitalists (VCs), but they also had to build a sales force to secure revenues, and for this task they required an experienced senior strategist and salesman.

It does not go unnoticed by their friends that Brin and Page have been regular attendees at this weeklong retreat in August, whose Woodstock-like spirit is captured in Burning Man’s ten stated principles, which include a devotion “to acts of gift giving”; creating “social environments that are unmediated by commercial sponsorships, transactions, or advertising”; and “a radically participatory ethic” that can lead to “transformative change.” “Google is a cross between a start-up and graduate school,” said Peter Norvig, Google’s director of research, who joined the company in 2001 and wears bright Hawaiian shirts and sneakers with laces left untied. “Formal rules don’t matter. There’s still a loose feel. The disadvantage of being a start-up is the fear that you will run out of money. There is stress. Google is more like graduate school in that you don’t have that stress. You expect one day that the guys in suits will take over. That hasn’t happened.” The engineers remain in charge. Google aims to be nonhierarchical.

The year 1995 was also when a Morgan Stanley analyst named Mary Meeker teamed up with a fellow analyst, Chris DePuy, to author The Internet Report, a thick volume that heralded a brave new world. “In this report,” they wrote on page one, “we attempt to describe what may be one of the hottest new markets to develop in years—the growth of PC-based communications and the Internet.” They said the “market for Internet-related products and services appears to be growing” faster than such early media start-ups as printing, telephones, movies, radio, recorded music, television. With a multiplying base of about 150 million PC users, they predicted e-mail “should become pervasive,” and the Internet would serve as “an information distribution vehicle” for companies, slashing costs, birthing new competitors—“the next Microsofts, Ciscos, Oracles, and Compaqs....” The report was viral. The press heralded it.


pages: 486 words: 132,784

Inventors at Work: The Minds and Motivation Behind Modern Inventions by Brett Stern

Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Build a better mousetrap, business process, cloud computing, computer vision, cyber-physical system, distributed generation, game design, Grace Hopper, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart transportation, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the market place, Yogi Berra

Greiner: Because of prior success, I get to spend my time taking on new challenges. My motivation has always been to get robots in people’s hands, and that has happened—a dream come true. There are six thousand military robots now and six million Roombas in people’s hands. But, I want to keep on building. I like creating things the world hasn’t seen before. That is why I am doing another start-up in robotics. Stern: Well, can you talk about your next project? Greiner: Not really, no. It is still in “stealth” mode. But I can say we are focused initially on UAVs [unmanned aerial vehicles]—flying robots! Stern: Where do you feel that robotics technology has not been applied yet? Greiner: Oh, there are lots of great places. Just off the top of my head, agri­culture and transportation. We don’t have automated farms or real driverless cars yet. There is a lot that can be done robotically in exploring the universe or exploring underwater that hasn’t yet been taken on.

Was there an incentive for you to leave and do the start-up, or were they not happy about it? Fossum: I’d say that’s an interesting question. Caltech and JPL are very careful about conflicts of interest. We were very open with them about what we were doing and very careful that there were no perceived conflicts of interest between what I was doing at JPL and what we were doing with the company after hours. For me it was after hours—everyone else was working there already. Early on, even the concept of licensing the technology to the actual inventors was kind of a, believe it or not, a novel idea for Caltech. But, they decided to also take that leap, maybe a little bit behind other universities that were already doing that sort of thing. But, they took that leap and actually wound up with an equity stake in the start-up company as part of the licensing arrangement.

Stern: So was selling this company in a sense a way to license the ideas? Was the business sort of a format to commercialize your ideas, but not necessarily bring the product to market? Mochly-Rosen: I think everybody is hoping to bring product to market, but there is no way—or at least it’s extremely rare—that a start-up biotech company ends up bringing a product to market itself. Of course, we have the stories of Genentech and the like, but they are distinguished by their rarity. Usually a start-up brings the experimental product up to Phase 2 trials and then it either licenses it or the company is acquired by Big Pharma to do the large clinical trials. That’s exactly what happened to KAI. Stern: You run a program called SPARK At Stanford. Could you tell me what that is and explain it? Mochly-Rosen: SPARK is a program designed to foster partnerships between scientist entrepreneurs and industry experts and facilitate the transition of research discoveries from Stanford laboratories to patient care.


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

Roughly ten billion lab tests are done each year in the United States, and they factor into 70 percent to 80 percent of the medical decisions that doctors make.2,5 Knowing how big a part of medicine this is and that there was something quite innovative going on, I visited the Theranos headquarters, an enormous, modernized, bright-colored warehouse with large pictures of happy kids posted throughout, to interview Holmes. We started my visit with a light lunch and spoke briefly about her leaving Stanford at age nineteen and spending the last decade building Theranos, which up until quite recently was in stealth mode. Before I interviewed Holmes, I asked her if I could have my blood tested. She was more than happy to accommodate my request. It was a refreshing experience. No tourniquet. No fist pumping or large needles. Instead the young woman drawing my blood put on a finger warmer that dilated the blood vessels in my index finger. Then, without me even feeling the tiny pinprick, she captured a droplet of blood in one of their so-called nanotainers and it was off to the lab they have on premises.

Panel Recommends Lung-Cancer Screening,” Wall Street Journal, December 30, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304591604579290843407880628. 95. D. V. Makarov et al., “Prostate Cancer Imaging Trends After a Nationwide Effort to Discourage Inappropriate Prostate Cancer Imaging,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 105, no. 17 (2013): 1306–1313. 96. J. Dorrier, “California Startup, Tribogenics, Develops Smart Phone Sized Portable X-Ray Machines,” Singularity Hub, November 16, 2013, http://singularityhub.com/2013/11/16/southern-california-startup-tribogenics-develops-smart-phone-sized-portable-x-ray-machines/. 97. J. B. Haun et al., “Micro-NMR for Rapid Molecular Analysis of Human Tumor Samples,” Science Translational Medicine 3, no. 71 (2011): 1–14. 98. N. Ungerleider, “An X-Ray Machine the Size of an iPhone That Looks Like a Star Trek Tricorder,” Fast Company, December 8, 2011, http://www.fastcompany.com/1799596/x-ray-machine-size-iphone-looks-star-trek-tricorder. 99.

C. Farr, “Former Apple CEO Backs Virtual Doctor’s Office to Create the ‘Consumer Era’ of Medicine,” Venture Beat, January 22, 2014, http://venturebeat.com/2014/01/22/former-apple-ceo-backs-virtual-doctors-office-to-create-the-consumer-era-of-medicine/. 68. R. Empson, “With $1.2M from Greylock, Yuri Milner and 500 Startups, First Opinion Lets You Text a Doctor Anytime,” TechCrunch, January 14, 2014, http://techcrunch.com/2014/01/14/with-1-2m-from-greylock-yuri-milner-and-500-startups-first-opinion-lets-you-text-a-doctor-anytime/. 69. O. Kharif, “Telemedicine: Doctor Visits via Video Calls,” Bloomberg Businessweek, February 27, 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-02-27/health-insurers-add-telemedicine-services-to-cut-costs. 70. W. Khawar, “For $69 and Your Smart Phone in Hand, a Board Certified Dermatologist Will Look at Your Rash,” iMedical Apps, August 19, 2013, http://www.imedicalapps.com/2013/08/smartphone-dermatologist-rash/. 71.


pages: 345 words: 104,404

Pandora's Brain by Calum Chace

AI winter, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, brain emulation, Extropian, friendly AI, hive mind, lateral thinking, mega-rich, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, theory of mind, Turing test, Wall-E

It was just a holiday job, but it was really interesting, and I was grateful for the opportunity. I think I got the job thanks to the work my father was doing, as I explained. I was only there a few weeks, though, because frankly it scared me.’ ‘In what way?’ Vic asked. ‘Well, the first thing that spooked me was when I found out that Ivan’s headquarters is a big ship that sails around the world in stealth mode, almost never making land, with Ivan and his senior staff coming and going by helicopter. Then a couple of people in my team disappeared. It was very sudden: one day they were there and the next day they weren’t. No goodbyes, no explanations, and no-one talked about them. It was as if they had never existed.’ ‘Really?’ Vic said slowly. He leaned forward and his body language showed that Matt had just gained his complete attention.

PANDORA’S BRAIN CALUM retired in 2012 to focus on writing after a 30-year career in business, in which he was a marketer, a strategy consultant and a CEO. He maintains his interest in business by serving as chairman and coach for growing companies. He is co-author of The Internet Startup Bible, a business best-seller published by Random House in 2000. He is a regular speaker on artificial intelligence and related technologies and runs a blog on the subject at www.pandoras-brain.com. He lives in London and Sussex with his partner, a director of a design school, and their daughter. He studied philosophy at Oxford University, where he discovered that the science fiction he had been reading since early boyhood is actually philosophy in fancy dress. PANDORA’S BRAIN CALUM CHACE Three Cs Publishing For Julia and Lauren PANDORA’S BRAIN A Three Cs book.

I had recently finished reading Ray Kurzweil’s The Age of Spiritual Machines, which had made me consider the astounding possibility that conscious machines could be created within my lifetime. That book had been recommended by an old friend, Nick Hadlow, and when I returned to England I suggested that we write a novel together based on the premise. We did, and it was awful. Actually Nick’s chapters were rather good, but with hindsight I realised that as mere stripling of 40, I was too young to write a novel. I had recently co-authored a best-selling business book (The Internet Startup Bible, which featured prominently in Amazon’s first ever UK TV advert) but I didn’t realise how much harder it is to write a good novel. A decade or so later I retired from full-time work, and had both the time and (arguably) the more rounded life experience to do a better job. The story arc is the same, but the characters and much else are wholly different. The book wouldn’t exist without the help of my partner Julia.


pages: 586 words: 186,548

Architects of Intelligence by Martin Ford

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flash crash, future of work, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, information retrieval, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Look at the tools we have to interface with our brain right now—we can get an image of our brain via an MRI scan, we can do bad recordings via EEG outside the scalp that don’t really give us much, and we can implant an electrode to address a disease. Outside of that, our brain is largely inaccessible to the world outside of our five senses. I started Kernel with $100 million with the objective of figuring out what tools we can build. We’ve been on this quest for two years, and we still remain in stealth mode on purpose. We have a team of 30 people and we feel very good about where we’re at. We’re working very hard to build the next breakthroughs. I wish I could give you more details about where we’re at in the world. We will have that out in time, but right now we’re not ready. MARTIN FORD: The articles I’ve read suggest that you’re beginning with medical applications to help with conditions like epilepsy.

MARTIN FORD: It sounds like your strategy is to attract AI talent in part by offering the opportunity and infrastructure to found a startup venture. ANDREW NG: Yes, building a successful AI company takes more than AI talent. We focus so much on the technology because it’s advancing so quickly, but building a strong AI team often needs a portfolio of different skills ranging from the tech, to the business strategy, to product, to marketing, to business development. Our role is building full stack teams that are able to build concrete business verticals. The technology is super important, but a startup is much more than technology. MARTIN FORD: So far, it seems that any AI startup that demonstrates real potential gets acquired by one of the huge tech firms. Do you think that eventually there’ll be AI startups that will go on to have IPOs and become public companies?

Do you think that eventually there’ll be AI startups that will go on to have IPOs and become public companies? ANDREW NG: I really hope there’ll be plenty of great AI startups that are not just acquired by much larger startups. Initial public offering as a tactic is not the goal, but I certainly hope that there’ll be many very successful AI startups that will end up thriving as standalone entities for a long time. We don’t really have a financial goal; the goal is to do something good in the world. I’d be really sad if every AI startup ends up being acquired by a bigger company, and I don’t think we’re headed there. MARTIN FORD: Lately, I’ve heard a number of people express the view that deep learning is over-hyped and might soon “hit a wall” in terms of continued progress. There have even been suggestions that a new AI Winter could be on the horizon. Do you think that’s a real risk? Could disillusionment lead to a big drop off in investment?


pages: 254 words: 79,052

Evil by Design: Interaction Design to Lead Us Into Temptation by Chris Nodder

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, game design, haute couture, jimmy wales, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, late fees, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Netflix Prize, Nick Leeson, Occupy movement, pets.com, price anchoring, recommendation engine, Rory Sutherland, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile

The idea is old (cars used similar gasification burners in post-war Germany where petrol was scarce), but the technology needed to create a small, portable, reliable stove was untested. The company first promised an early 2010 release, which subsequently slipped to late 2011 and then Spring 2012. Its design finally came to market in May 2012. What kept people interested enough during that time? The company could have worked in stealth mode. After all, there was always the potential for another company to “borrow” the idea and get to market sooner. Instead, it chose to keep its website updated at each stage of the journey. It showed video of early prototypes used in the woods, listed the design awards it was winning, and consistently tied the commercial camping stove product back in with its charitable work to develop low-carbon, high-efficiency cooking stoves for developing nations.

Make customers work for a reward Canadian Tire money used to buy mower: Jasmine Franklin. “Man saves Canadian Tire money for 15 years, buys mower.” TorontoSun (torontosun.com). July 13, 2011. Retrieved December 2012. Corin Raymond: “Don’t Spend It Honey!” Corin Raymond’s Live Album Fundraiser (dontspendithoney.com). Retrieved December 2012. Seth Priebatsch coupon value: Seth Priebatsch. “How ‘Game Mechanics’ Can Help Your Startup.” Huffington Post (huffingtonpost.com). March 11, 2010. Retrieved December 2012. Consider a small reward rather than a big one Mechanical Turk is addictive: personalbugmenot. “Is turking addictive?” Turker Nation forum (turkernation.com). October 7, 2012. Retrieved December 2012. Earnings analysis: Compiled from information supplied by forum contributors at turkernation.com and turkers.proboards.com/.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Think before you share on social networks. Criminals, ranging from stalkers to burglars, routinely monitor social media for information. Posting travel itineraries can let burglars know that you will be away from home for two weeks on vacation—an invitation for trouble. 7. Use your operating system’s built-in software firewall, available in both Windows and Mac, to block unwanted incoming connections to your machine, and enable “stealth mode” to make it more difficult for hackers and automated crime bots to find you online. NOTE: Both the threats and the tools to protect yourself online change frequently. For additional guidance, visit www.​futurecrimes.​com. Acknowledgments One more thing … STEVE JOBS A project of this magnitude can never be the work of just one person alone. To this point, I owe a debt of gratitude to a large number of individuals for their support and contributions throughout the creation of this book, chief among them my literary agent Richard Pine of InkWell Management.

According to statistics kept by the call centers, over 95 percent of clients described themselves as “happy” with the service they had received. Like all tech start-ups, Innovative Marketing was well represented on social media. Hundreds of its employees had established profiles on LinkedIn, including their positions and work histories. To bring in the talent required to grow the start-up, Innovative Marketing placed job ads on numerous career Web sites and used recruiters to help find project managers, UNIX administrators, search engine optimization specialists, researchers, support engineers, and business development associates. To manage its explosive growth, Innovative Marketing used a variety of techniques to address the human resources issues common in the start-up world. It offered prizes to the best salesmen and carefully selected its employees of the month.

WOODY ALLEN Innovative Marketing was a small and promising start-up that created pioneering software products to address its clients’ needs. The firm’s young founders incorporated their company in Belize because of its favorable tax regimes, a smart move that they modeled on the business practices of well-established tech giants, such as Apple, Google, and HP, each of which has cleverly created subsidiaries in tax havens around the world. To further reduce overhead costs, Innovative Marketing chose to establish its main offices in Kiev, Ukraine, where highly competent technical graduates with advanced degrees in computer science and mathematics were abundant and employees could be hired for a fraction of the salaries offered in Silicon Valley. Like any good tech start-up, Innovative Marketing advertised its wares across the Web using banner ads and paid to ensure its software appeared high up in search engine query results.


pages: 520 words: 134,627

Unacceptable: Privilege, Deceit & the Making of the College Admissions Scandal by Melissa Korn, Jennifer Levitz

"side hustle", affirmative action, barriers to entry, blockchain, call centre, Donald Trump, Gordon Gekko, helicopter parent, high net worth, Jeffrey Epstein, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Menlo Park, performance metric, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Thorstein Veblen, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, yield management, young professional, zero-sum game

Marcus didn’t have his reading glasses and couldn’t make out the words, but Jack and Chloe found a press release, something official, and began reading. Almost in unison, they gasped. * * * • • • INVESTIGATORS AND PROSECUTORS GATHERED early that morning at the FBI command post or at the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Boston, where the cool air still felt a bit like winter. For roughly a year, they had kept their demanding investigation in stealth mode, limiting whom they told in other districts and at the DOJ headquarters to prevent leaks. Spilled secrets tick off judges, thwart an investigation, and inspire suspects to do something rash, like hurt themselves or disappear to a place that doesn’t have an extradition treaty with the United States. There had been a ton of work, and a ton of worry. Now it was time to take down Operation Varsity Blues.

“Due to the growing number of people who cheat, scoring curves are altered, therefore putting those who do not cheat at a disadvantage.” It was contagious, he warned. “With the growing level of cheating, many students who do not cheat feel pressured to cheat in order to compete with those who do.” Ben’s family would eventually know too well the dangers of cheating. But all things considered, cheating wasn’t the biggest concern when it came to the high-stakes world of high school. Palo Alto teemed with tech startups and venture capital firms and more millionaires than anyone could track. Parents had graduated from college, and grad school, and gotten PhDs to boot. They had no doubt their kids would, too. That achievement-focused environment, where sleep came second to schoolwork, led teens to buckle. A cluster of suicides shook Henry M. Gunn High School in 2009, then another started there and at Palo Alto High School in late 2014.

As he had done for Madison Macfarlane, Singer provided such material to Julia Henriquez, a senior at the all-girls Notre Dame High School in Belmont, California, in 2015. Julia was an especially rich kid in an already wealthy area—in college, she’d don Hermès belts and Gucci sneakers to attend parties. Her father, Manuel Henriquez, cofounded and ran Hercules Capital, a publicly traded specialty finance company that provides loans to venture capital and private equity–backed startups. His 2014 compensation package topped $8.2 million, and was nearly $7.9 million in 2015. The family lived in Atherton, a lush, peaceful pocket of Silicon Valley where sprawling houses, hidden behind gates and fences, looked more like they belonged in Greenwich, Connecticut, than in California. Manuel and his wife, Elizabeth, would ultimately be in deep with Singer, as the counselor helped both Julia and her younger sister, Megan, cheat on their college entrance exams (Julia’s SAT subject tests and SAT, and Megan’s ACT—twice—and SAT subject tests).


pages: 481 words: 121,669

The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See by Gary Price, Chris Sherman, Danny Sullivan

AltaVista, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, dark matter, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, natural language processing, pre–internet, profit motive, publish or perish, search engine result page, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, Vannevar Bush, web application

So while searchers using next-generation tools will likely be able to access much more of the Invisible Web via general-purpose search engines than they can today, the rate of growth of the Invisible Web is likely to outpace the enhanced capability of the tools. In this chapter, we take a brief look at some of the most promising new approaches to making the Invisible Web visible. Some of these technologies may be in place by the time this book sees print. Others may never make it out of research labs—and we’re certain there are still other projects operating in stealth mode, waiting for the ideal time to launch a competitive assault against the major search services. 127 128 The Invisible Web Smarter Crawlers At the most basic level, search engines will get much better at compiling truly comprehensive indexes of the Web. In part, they’ll do this by enhancing their crawler programs to be smarter about how they operate. First generation crawlers use a non-selective approach to retrieving Web pages.

Search Form URL: See Main Page Disqualified Directors Register U.K. http://www.companies-house.gov.uk “The information available here is an extract from the Register of Companies and Register of Disqualified Directors, which are updated regularly.” 166 The Invisible Web Search Form URL: http://ws3.companieshouse.gov.uk/free/ Related Resources: Basic Company Name and Address Index (Limited Free Data) U.K. http://ws1.companieshouse.gov.uk/free/ dot com directory http://www.dotcomdirectory.com Utilizes the Network Solutions Domain Name Registration Database to provide basic company information. This should be used in conjunction with other directory tools. Search Form URL: http://www.dotcomdirectory.com/nsi/ advanced.htm Ecomp Executive Compensation Database http://www.ecomponline.com Compensation data for executives at U.S. public companies. Search Form URL: See Main Page European High-Tech Industry Database http://www.tornado-insider.com/radar/ “... research startups, investors, and advisors to high-tech Europe. You can search through press releases of these companies and read their profiles in the Radar database.” Search Form URL: http://www.tornado-insider.com/radar/ comp AdvSearchForm.asp Federally Incorporated Companies Canada http://strategis.ic.gc.ca This database produced by the Canadian Government allows searching by corporation name, location, status, and more.

Search Form URL: http://www.fortune.com/fortune/fortune500/ Related Resources: Forbes Private 500 (Largest U.S. Privately Held Companies) http://www.forbes.com/private500/ Forbes International 800 http://www.forbes.com/international800/ Inc. 500 Database (1982-2000) http://www.inc.com/500/search/1,3762,,00.html Herringtown http://www.redherring.com The Red Herring, a respected publication providing coverage of the information technology business, provides this database of startup companies. Content is provided by the companies themselves. Search Form URL: http://www.redherring.com/herringtown/ home/home.jsp Related Resources: The Industry Standard “Net Deals” Database http://www.thestandard.com/deals Kompass http://www.kompass.com “Every company worldwide [that] participates in business-tobusiness commerce may be listed in the Kompass Database.” The free online version has limited data.


pages: 537 words: 149,628

Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War by P. W. Singer, August Cole

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, augmented reality, British Empire, digital map, energy security, Firefox, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Google Glasses, IFF: identification friend or foe, Just-in-time delivery, low earth orbit, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, old-boy network, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, trade route, Wall-E, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

Daniel had been an early investor in Uni, which was now one of the leading video-game studios in Palo Alto, and in a few of the firms he had quietly reached out to. At other firms, though he wasn’t an investor, his reputation had been enough. That, and the simple lure of the offer. It was the opportunity, he had said, to be part of the valley’s most important startup ever. The rule for selection had been simple. The CTO of each firm Aboye talked to would designate his or her three best programmers. The limited numbers were ostensibly to keep the project in stealth mode, as the investors called it. The goal was to hide their business not only from Directorate spies, but also from the National Security Agency. Even if the NSA’s networks weren’t pwned by the Directorate, which most people suspected they were, anger over the sneak backdoors of the old Snowden-era scandals lingered.

That he could build a life of incomprehensible good fortune atop such sadness seemed so improbable that it could only be part of something unexplainable, something much bigger than himself. That was why he’d easily fallen into engineering at Stanford. It was predictable, the opposite of what his life had been to that point. And so it was Daniel’s ability to distinguish between what was predictable and what required serendipity that had powered his rise through Silicon Valley’s venture-capital investment firms; he knew which tech startups to back and which to avoid. After he finally made it through the security line’s sequential body scanners and DNA tagging, a petite young redheaded woman in a light gray pantsuit stepped forward, her rubber-soled pumps squeaking as she halted before him. “Mr. Aboye, I am Catherine Hines, special assistant to the principal deputy undersecretary of defense for Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics,” she said, rattling her title off like an auctioneer with a rare treasure.

Hangar One, Moffett Field, Mountain View, California The thing that always jarred Daniel Aboye was the smell. The space was cavernous, 1,140 feet by 308 feet, to be exact, the size of three Superdomes. But the smell filled even that void. To someone from outside the valley, it was the tangy funk of old pizza and people who’d gone too long without a shower. But to anyone local, it smelled like money. Fame. Power. Success. So much had changed in Silicon Valley’s startup scene during the past few decades, but there was one constant. This smell. And the fact that it now filled Hangar One made it all the more appropriate. In 1931, the city fathers of Sunnyvale, California, had come up with a unique plan for economic development. They’d raised $480,000 to buy nearly a thousand acres of farmland and then sold off the land to the U.S. government for one dollar.


pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston

8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business cycle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Larry Wall, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

Meanwhile, you hear from the VCs, “You’re too paranoid.” So it’s hard to find the right balance and be human, because you don’t know who’s genuine and who’s not. Livingston: It must be frustrating not to be able to share your idea. Ross: Incredibly. If you ever want to stop a conversation dead in its tracks, just use my magic words: “stealth mode.” I’ve also found “programmer” to work well in many situations. But we’ll have our day. Livingston: Are there any lessons that you learned in the Firefox days that you are applying to this new startup? Ross: One is to make sure you are always in communication with the people who are eventually going to use your product. It’s very easy to just lock yourself in a room and code all day, and you forget what the real problems are that people are having. So you have to keep talking to people and keep refining what you are doing.

But seeing what startups are really like will at least show other organizations what to aim for. The time may soon be coming when instead of startups trying to seem more corporate, corporations will try to seem more like startups. That would be a good thing. Paul Graham Cofounder, Viaweb Preface It’s been more than a year since Founders at Work was first published. What have I learned since? The biggest surprise has been the sheer number of people interested in startups. I know about the ones who apply to Y Combinator, read Hacker News, or attend Startup School, but I could never be sure how many people were interested in startups beyond that core of would-be founders. A lot, it turns out. I get emails and see blog posts about Founders at Work on an almost daily basis. Some people finally took the plunge and started a startup, some learned that it was all right to change their idea, some were able to face a new day even though their company seemed doomed.

Some people are just more right than they ever deserve to be. Livingston: You’ve done startups in the East and West Coast hubs. Is one place better than the other for startups? Kahle: Oh, I think it’s much easier to do a startup on the West Coast. There are all the facilities and services available to you. You can put together a marketing department out of part-time people. You can hire an accountant to just do exactly what you need. You need a lot less infrastructure that you control to do a startup on the West Coast than on the East Coast. If you started with $8 million, you can buy everything you need; but if you are starting, just you, you can do a startup out of your bedroom. In fact, a lot of people do. In fact, most bedrooms I think are startups! The idea that you can start on a shoestring, that you can hold a meeting in a coffeehouse and that’s OK, is perfectly legitimate on the West Coast.


pages: 624 words: 127,987

The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, Donald Knuth, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, loose coupling, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra

On their own, ideas are largely worthless—discovering whether or not you can actually make them work in reality is the most important job of any entrepreneur. Don’t be shy about showing potential customers your work in progress. Unless you work in an industry with unusually aggressive, competent, and well-funded competitors, you really don’t have to worry about other people “stealing” your idea. Ideas are cheap—what counts is the ability to translate an idea into reality, which is much more difficult than recognizing a good idea. “Stealth mode” diminishes your early learning opportunities, putting you at a huge early disadvantage. It’s almost always better to focus on getting feedback from real customers as quickly as you possibly can. A Prototype is an early representation of what your offering will look like. It may be a physical model, a computer rendering, a diagram, a flowchart, or a one-page paper that describes the major benefits and features.

You’ve found a suitable location that you can rent for around $10,000 per month (if you sign a twelve-month lease), and you estimate that you’ll need an additional $12,000 per month to pay employee salaries and other monthly operating expenses. You’ll also need to spend around $5,000 up front for equipment: mats, blocks, and a computer to handle membership records. The commercial real estate agent you’re working with is putting pressure on you to move quickly, saying the location you want may be snatched up by another tenant if you don’t commit now. Your current life savings are enough to cover the start-up costs and three months of projected operating expenses. You’re excited, but you want to ensure that you’re making the right decision before you move forward. Should you sign the lease? Stories like this are very common: an excited first-time entrepreneur has a dream of owning a restaurant, bar, or bookstore, so they invest their life savings and take on significant debt to open the new business.

Venture capitalists and other forms of investment can provide “seed capital”—a fixed amount of money you can use to start the business. The more money you raise in capital and the more slowly you spend it, the more time you have to make the business work. The faster you “burn” through your capital, the more money you need to raise and the more quickly you need to start bringing in revenue. If you burn through all of your start-up capital and can’t raise more, game over. That’s why investors and savvy entrepreneurs watch the business’s “burn rate” very closely—the slower the burn, the more time you have to create a successful business. The lower your Overhead, the more flexibility you’ll have and the easier it will be to sustain your business operations indefinitely. SHARE THIS CONCEPT: http://book.personalmba.com/overhead/ Costs: Fixed and Variable Watch the costs and the profits will take care of themselves.


How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight by Julian Guthrie

Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, cosmic microwave background, crowdsourcing, Doomsday Book, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Frank Gehry, gravity well, high net worth, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Leonard Kleinrock, life extension, low earth orbit, Mark Shuttleworth, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Murray Gell-Mann, Oculus Rift, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, packet switching, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, pets.com, private space industry, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, urban planning

David had been weeks away from flying three of his Geostar satellites on the space shuttle when the Challenger disaster happened, grounding all flying. David and Myra always told their friends, “We are spacey people.” As the shaky turboprop made its descent into Montrose, Peter tried to ignore the turbulence and focus on the meeting ahead. His goal going into the weekend was nothing less than to come up with a new rocket design that would take paying passengers to space. But he had another idea, too, one he had been studying in stealth mode. On day one of the meeting, after a big breakfast made by Myra, after travel war stories were exchanged, the group gathered in the conference room. Peter, wearing black pants and a thick black turtleneck, wrote on the whiteboard: “SMALL TEAMS CAN DO BIG THINGS.” It was something he needed to believe in now more than ever. Like a projectile veering off course, Peter had landed in unfamiliar terrain.

Marc had made his money by selling a hospital services company to Smith Barney in 1991. After the sale, he pursued soaring (also known as gliding) as a sport, buying a Stemme sailplane and becoming the North American dealer for the plane. His love of soaring led to his interest in high-altitude projects. Peter and Marc’s Angel Technologies plan had competition. Cable operators, software companies, and start-ups were looking at a range of broadband delivery methods, from launching hundreds of satellites to using low-voltage electricity grids. A company called Sky Station International, a project of former secretary of state Alexander Haig, envisioned beaming Internet service to cities using football field–size balloons hovering in the sky. Marc and Peter’s plan was to send solar-powered, high-altitude airplanes to circle above populated areas at 61,000 feet to provide news, entertainment, and information.

Engineer Dan DeLong worked full time for Boeing and had been a subcontractor for NASA, doing the air and water recycling systems for the space station. DeLong was still in high school when he built his first submarine, electric bicycle, and a tape recorder out of a first-generation computer. Since then, he had a habit of walking away from perfectly good high-paying jobs to join experimental space start-ups. His problem with NASA was that it spent $17 billion a year and “didn’t do much.” He was working on a NASA contract in January 1986 when the Challenger broke up. Within an hour, he knew what the problem was, because he had designed thousands of O-rings and seals. He learned that on the night before the launch, as well as early the next morning, engineers had urged NASA not to launch in temperatures below 53 degrees, and were overruled.


iPad: The Missing Manual, Fifth Edition by J.D. Biersdorfer

clockwatching, cloud computing, Downton Abbey, Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Archive, Skype, stealth mode startup

Tap a bookmark within a subfolder to go back in time—or at least back to that site. The link won’t be in the History folder forever (time does march on), so you may want to bookmark the site for real before it slips away. Safari purges History links after a month. Erase the History List Don’t want to leave a record of your browsing history in case someone picks up your iPad and snoops around? You have three options. One is to cruise the web in stealth mode—go to Settings→Safari and turn Private Browsing to On. Another is to set up a Passcode Lock on your iPad (see General). Then, anyone who wants to get into your slab needs a four-digit code to unlock the screen. And finally, you can erase the History list. To do that, open the History folder and tap Clear History in the top-right corner (circled above). You’ve just wiped away your personal History.

To give your iPad the old reset move, follow the steps below: Plug the iPad into its wall charger if you suspect its battery is running low. Simultaneously press and hold down the Sleep/Wake button on top and the Home button on the front. Let go when you see the Apple logo. You can hold it up or lay it flat on the table to reset it, as long as you hit the buttons properly. If the technology gods are smiling on you, your iPad will go through its little start-up sequence, and then return you to the Home screen. Download iTunes and iTunes Updates, and Reinstall iTunes IF ITUNES IS ACTING up, you may need to download and install a fresh version of the program. The latest version is always waiting for you at www.apple.com/itunes/download. Your iTunes program itself may alert you to a new version—or you can make sure it does so in the future: If you use iTunes for Windows and installed the Apple Software Update utility when you added iTunes, you’ll see an alert box telling you that Apple has updated iTunes and offering to install the new version.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

O’Brien (28 Oct 2012), “Data-gathering via apps presents a gray legal area,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/29/technology/mobile-apps-have-a-ravenous-ability-to-collect-personal-data.html. HelloSpy is an app: There are quite a few of these tracking apps out there. HelloSpy is particularly blatant. Although the disclaimer on the home page states that it is designed for “ethical spying for parents,” or use on a “mobile device that you own or have proper consent to monitor,” the literature also trumpets its ability to operate in “stealth mode,” and has a page dedicated to marital infidelity. See http://hellospy.com. spy on his wife or girlfriend: StealthGenie is another spyware app. In 2014, its CEO was indicted and arrested for selling it in the US. Craig Timberg and Matt Zapatosly (29 Sep 2014), “Maker of StealthGenie, an app used for spying, is indicted in Virginia,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/make-of-app-used-for-spying-indicted-in-virginia/2014/09/29/816b45b8-4805-11e4-a046-120a8a855cca_story.html.

Bailey, and Samer Faraj (Mar 2000), “The role of intermediaries in the development of trust on the WWW: The use and prominence of trusted third parties and privacy statements,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2000.tb00342.x/full. customers were willing to pay more: Janice Y. Tsai et al. (Jun 2007), “The effect of online privacy information on purchasing behavior: An experimental study,” 6th Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, http://weis2007.econinfosec.org/papers/57.pdf. there are exceptions: Cadie Thompson (7 Mar 2014), “Want privacy online? Start-ups bet users are ready to pay,” NBC News, http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/security/want-privacy-online-start-ups-bet-users-are-ready-pay-n47186. not tracking its users: DuckDuckGo, http://www.duckduckgo.com. Ello is a social network: Sharon Profis (26 Sep 2014), “10 things to know about Ello, the ad-free social network,” CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/what-is-ello-the-ad-free-social-network. 10: Privacy The most common misconception: This article from 1979, for example, looks at privacy as a way to conceal facts about oneself in order to inflate one’s reputation.


Coastal California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, flex fuel, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Lyft, Mason jar, New Journalism, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Wall-E, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

On the plus side, its visitors center rents strollers, stores luggage and has free phone-charging stations. USS PampanitoHISTORIC SITE ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-775-1943, tickets 855-384-6410; www.maritime.org/pamphome.htm; Pier 45; adult/child/family $20/10/45; h9am-8pm Thu-Tue, to 6pm Wed; c; g19, 30, 47, jPowell-Hyde, mE, F) Explore a restored WWII submarine that survived six tours of duty while you listen to submariners' tales of stealth mode and sudden attacks in a riveting audio tour that makes surfacing afterwards a relief (caution, claustrophobes). DON'T MISS... ASaloons The Barbary Coast is roaring back to life with historically researched whiskey cocktails and staggering gin concoctions in San Francisco’s great Western-saloon revival. ARooftop-garden cuisine SF chefs are raising the roof on hyperlocal fare with ingredients raised right upstairs: city-bee honey at Jardinière, edible pansies at Coi ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-393-9000; www.coirestaurant.com; 373 Broadway; set menu $250; h5:30-10pm Thu-Mon; p; g8, 10, 12, 30, 41, 45, jPowell-Mason),herbs at farm:table and salad greens to feed the homeless at Glide Memorial ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-674-6090; www.glide.org; 330 Ellis St; hcelebrations 9am & 11am Sun; c; g38, mPowell, ZPowell).

The first TV station began broadcasting in Los Angeles in 1931, beaming iconic images of California into living rooms across America and around the world with Dragnet (1950s), The Beverly Hillbillies (1960s), The Brady Bunch and Charlie's Angels (1970s), LA Law (1980s), and Baywatch, Buffy the Vampire Slayer and The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air (1990s). Beverly Hills 90210 (1990s) made that LA zip code into a status symbol, while The OC (2000s) glamorized Orange County and Silicon Valley (2014–now) satirizes NorCal start-ups. Reality-TV fans will recognize Southern California locations from Top Chef, Real Housewives of Orange County and Keeping Up with the Kardashians. A suburban San Francisco start-up changed the TV game in 2005, launching a streaming video on a platform called YouTube. With on-demand streaming services competing with cable channels to launch original series, we are entering a new golden age of California television. Netflix Studios (in Silicon Valley and LA), Amazon Studios (Santa Monica) and Hulu Studios (Santa Monica) are churning out original series, feeding binge-watching cravings with futuristic dystopias such as Stranger Things, Man in the High Castle and The Handmaid's Tale.

Extras include a spa with a Jacuzzi, a small gym, evening wine reception and bragging rights to stylish downtown digs. oAxiomBOUTIQUE HOTEL$$ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-392-9466; www.axiomhotel.com; 28 Cyril Magnin St; d $189-342; iW#; jPowell-Mason, Powell-Hyde, ZPowell, mPowell) Of all the downtown SF hotels aiming for high-tech appeal, this one gets it right. The lobby is razzle-dazzle LED, marble and riveted steel, but the game room looks like a start-up HQ, with arcade games and foosball tables. Guest rooms have low-slung, gray-flannel couches, king platform beds, dedicated routers for high-speed wireless streaming to Apple/Google/Samsung devices, and Bluetooth-enabled everything. Hotel CarltonDESIGN HOTEL$$ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %800-922-7586, 415-673-0242; www.hotelcarltonsf.com; 1075 Sutter St; r $269-309; iW#; g2, 3, 19, 38, 47, 49)S World travelers feel right at home at the Carlton amid Moroccan tea tables, Indian bedspreads, West African wax-print throw pillows and carbon-offsetting, LEED-certified initiatives (note the rooftop solar panels).


Western USA by Lonely Planet

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, edge city, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, Maui Hawaii, off grid, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Pier 39 LANDMARK (www.pier39.com) With the notable exception of sea lions gleefully belching after fish dinners at Pier 39, most of Fisherman’s Wharf is packed with landlubbers attempting to digest sourdough-bread bowls of gloppy clam chowder (don’t bother: can’t be done). USS Pampanito MUSEUM ( 415-775-1943; www.maritime.org; Pier 45; adult/child $10/4; 9am-5pm) Explore a restored WWII submarine that survived six tours of duty, while listening to sub-mariners’ tales of stealth mode and sudden attacks in a riveting audio tour ($2) that makes surfacing afterwards a relief (caution claustrophobes). Hyde Street Pier Historic Ships HISTORIC SITE ( 415-447-5000; www.nps.gov/safr; 499 Jefferson St, at Hyde St; adult/child $5/free; 9am-5pm) Tour 19th-century ships moored here as part of the Maritime National Historical Park, including triple-masted 1886 Balclutha and 1890 steamboat Eureka; summer sailing trips are available aboard elegant 1891 schooner Alma (adult/child $40/20; Jun-Nov).

Top of section Pacific Northwest Includes » Washington Seattle Olympic Peninsula San Juan Islands North Cascades South Cascades Oregon Portland Willamette Valley Columbia River Gorge Oregon Cascades Oregon Coast Why Go? As much a state of mind as a geographical region, the US’s northwest corner is a land of subcultures and new trends, where evergreen trees frame snow-dusted volcanoes, and inspired ideas scribbled on the back of napkins become tomorrow’s business start-ups. You can’t peel off the history in layers here, but you can gaze wistfully into the future in fast-moving, innovative cities such as Seattle and Portland, sprinkled with food carts, streetcars, microbrews, green belts, coffee connoisseurs and weird urban sculpture. Ever since the days of the Oregon Trail, the Northwest has had a hypnotic lure for risk-takers and dreamers, and the metaphoric carrot still dangles.

PORTLAND’S FOOD CARTS Perhaps one of the best (and cheapest) ways to uncover Portland’s cultural pastiche is to explore its diverse food carts (www.foodcartsportland.com). Largely a product of the last decade, these semipermanent kitchens-on-wheels inhabit parking lots around town and are usually clustered together in rough groups or ‘pods,’ often with their own communal tables, ATMs and portaloos. As many of the owners are recent immigrants (who can’t afford a hefty restaurant start-up), the carts are akin to an international potluck with colorful kitchen hatches offering soul food from everywhere from Bosnia and Czechoslovakia to Vietnam and Mexico. While prices are low ($5 to $6 for a filling and tasty lunch), standards of hygiene – thanks to tight city regulations – are kept high and the banter between customer and proprietor is a kind of geography lesson meets recipe exchange.


Northern California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, McMansion, means of production, Port of Oakland, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, the built environment, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

On the plus side, its visitors center rents strollers, stores luggage and has free phone-charging stations. USS PampanitoHISTORIC SITE ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-775-1943, tickets 855-384-6410; www.maritime.org/pamphome.htm; Pier 45; adult/child/family $20/10/45; h9am-8pm Thu-Tue, to 6pm Wed; c; g19, 30, 47, jPowell-Hyde, mE, F) Explore a restored WWII submarine that survived six tours of duty while you listen to submariners' tales of stealth mode and sudden attacks in a riveting audio tour that makes surfacing afterwards a relief (caution, claustrophobes). DON'T MISS GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE Hard to believe the Navy almost nixed SF’s signature art-deco landmark ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %toll information 877-229-8655; www.goldengatebridge.org/visitors; Hwy 101; northbound free, southbound $6.50-7.50; g28, all Golden Gate Transit buses) by architects Gertrude and Irving Murrow and engineer Joseph B Strauss.

Extras include a spa with a Jacuzzi, a small gym, evening wine reception and bragging rights to stylish downtown digs. oAxiomBOUTIQUE HOTEL$$ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-392-9466; www.axiomhotel.com; 28 Cyril Magnin St; d $189-342; iW#; jPowell-Mason, Powell-Hyde, ZPowell, mPowell) Of all the downtown SF hotels aiming for high-tech appeal, this one gets it right. The lobby is razzle-dazzle LED, marble and riveted steel, but the game room looks like a start-up HQ, with arcade games and foosball tables. Guest rooms have low-slung, gray-flannel couches, king platform beds, dedicated routers for high-speed wireless streaming to Apple/Google/Samsung devices, and Bluetooth-enabled everything. Hotel CarltonDESIGN HOTEL$$ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %800-922-7586, 415-673-0242; www.hotelcarltonsf.com; 1075 Sutter St; r $269-309; iW#; g2, 3, 19, 38, 47, 49)S World travelers feel right at home at the Carlton amid Moroccan tea tables, Indian bedspreads, West African wax-print throw pillows and carbon-offsetting, LEED-certified initiatives (note the rooftop solar panels).

Hoping to bring computer power to the people, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, both in their 20s at the time, introduced the Apple II at the 1977 West Coast Computer Faire, with unfathomable memory (4KB of RAM) and microprocessor speed (1MHz). Still, the question remained: what would ordinary people do with all that computing power? By the mid-1990s an entire dot-com industry boomed in Silicon Valley with online start-ups, and suddenly people were getting everything – their mail, news, politics, pet food and, yes, sex – online. But when dot-com profits weren’t forthcoming, venture-capital funding dried up and fortunes in stock-options disappeared when the dot-com bubble burst and the Nasdaq plummeted on March 10, 2000. Overnight, 26-year-old vice-presidents and Bay Area service-sector employees alike found themselves jobless.


Coastal California by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, airport security, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Mason jar, McMansion, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Wozniak, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Musée Mecanique MUSEUM ( 415-346-2000; www.museemecanique.org; Pier 45, Shed A; 10am-7pm Mon-Fri, to 8pm Sat & Sun; ) A few quarters let you start bar brawls in coin-operated Wild West saloons, peep at belly-dancers through a vintage Mutoscope, save the world from Space Invaders and get your fortune told by an eerily lifelike wooden swami at this vintage arcade. USS Pampanito HISTORIC SITE ( 415-775-1943; www.maritime.org; Pier 45; adult/child $10/4; 9am-5pm) Explore a restored WWII submarine that survived six tours of duty, while listening to submariners’ tales of stealth mode and sudden attacks in a riveting audio tour ($2) that makes surfacing afterwards a relief (caution claustrophobes). Pier 39 LANDMARK ( 415-981-1280; www.pier39.com; Beach St & Embarcadero; ) Ever since they first hauled out here in 1990, 300 to 1300 sea lions have spent winter through summer bellyflopped on these yacht docks. While bulls jostle for prime sunning location on the piers, boardwalk B-boyers compete for street-dance supremacy and kids wage battles of the will with parents over souvenir teddy bears.

HIGH-TECH BOOMS & BUSTS In the 1950s, Stanford University in Palo Alto needed to raise money to finance postwar growth, so it built an industrial park and leased space to high-tech companies like Hewlett-Packard, which formed the nucleus of Silicon Valley. In 1971 Intel invented the microchip, and in 1976 Apple invented the first personal computer, paving the way for the global internet revolution of the 1990s. By the late 1990s, an entire dot-com industry had boomed in Silicon Valley, and companies nationwide jumped on the dot-com bandwagon following the exponential growth of the web. Many reaped huge overnight profits from start-ups, fueled by misplaced optimism, only to crash with equal velocity at the turn of the millennium. No place in America was more affected by the demise of the dot-coms in 2000 than California. That same year also brought widespread power shortages and rolling blackouts to California, which were caused by Enron’s illegal manipulation of markets. But before the truth came out, Republican malcontents fingered then-Governor Gray Davis and called for a special recall election that ousted him.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Pier 39 LANDMARK Offline map Google map ( www.pier39.com) With the notable exception of sea lions gleefully belching after fish dinners at Pier 39, most of Fisherman’s Wharf is packed with landlubbers attempting to digest sourdough-bread bowls of gloppy clam chowder (don’t bother: can’t be done). USS Pampanito MUSEUM Offline map Google map ( 415-775-1943; www.maritime.org; Pier 45; adult/child $10/4; 9am-5pm) Explore a restored WWII submarine that survived six tours of duty, while listening to sub-mariners’ tales of stealth mode and sudden attacks in a riveting audio tour ($2) that makes surfacing afterwards a relief (caution claustrophobes). Hyde Street Pier Historic Ships HISTORIC SITE Offline map Google map ( 415-447-5000; www.nps.gov/safr; 499 Jefferson St, at Hyde St; adult/child $5/free; 9am-5pm) Tour 19th-century ships moored here as part of the Maritime National Historical Park, including triple-masted 1886 Balclutha and 1890 steamboat Eureka ; summer sailing trips are available aboard elegant 1891 schooner Alma (adult/child $40/20; Jun-Nov) .

Top of section Pacific Northwest Includes » Washington Seattle Olympic Peninsula San Juan Islands North Cascades South Cascades Oregon Portland Willamette Valley Columbia River Gorge Oregon Cascades Oregon Coast Why Go? As much a state of mind as a geographical region, the US’s northwest corner is a land of subcultures and new trends, where evergreen trees frame snow-dusted volcanoes, and inspired ideas scribbled on the back of napkins become tomorrow’s business start-ups. You can’t peel off the history in layers here, but you can gaze wistfully into the future in fast-moving, innovative cities such as Seattle and Portland, sprinkled with food carts, streetcars, microbrews, green belts, coffee connoisseurs and weird urban sculpture. Ever since the days of the Oregon Trail, the Northwest has had a hypnotic lure for risk-takers and dreamers, and the metaphoric carrot still dangles.

PORTLAND’S FOOD CARTS Perhaps one of the best (and cheapest) ways to uncover Portland’s cultural pastiche is to explore its diverse food carts (www.foodcartsportland.com) . Largely a product of the last decade, these semipermanent kitchens-on-wheels inhabit parking lots around town and are usually clustered together in rough groups or ‘pods,’ often with their own communal tables, ATMs and portaloos. As many of the owners are recent immigrants (who can’t afford a hefty restaurant start-up), the carts are akin to an international potluck with colorful kitchen hatches offering soul food from everywhere from Bosnia and Czechoslovakia to Vietnam and Mexico. While prices are low ($5 to $6 for a filling and tasty lunch), standards of hygiene – thanks to tight city regulations – are kept high and the banter between customer and proprietor is a kind of geography lesson meets recipe exchange.