1960s counterculture

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pages: 116 words: 34,937

The Life of a Song: The Fascinating Stories Behind 50 of the World’s Best-Loved Songs by David Cheal, Jan Dalley

1960s counterculture, Bernie Sanders, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Kickstarter, Live Aid, millennium bug, Ronald Reagan, side project

In 1971 The Beach Boys finally released ‘Surf’s Up’ on an album of the same name. Fleshed out with a band, brass and harmonies, the song was beguiling and enigmatic: another ‘pocket symphony’ to follow 1966’s revolutionary ‘Good Vibrations’. Wilson, of course, never actually surfed. Parks’ lyric was catching a different kind of wave, the emerging 1960s counterculture, the rise of the baby boomers, and the phrase ‘surf’s up’ arrives at a point in the song where it is marking a transition from old to new, from age to youth: ‘Surf’s Up/Aboard a tidal wave/Come about hard and join/The young and often spring you gave’. Later, the lyric echoes William Wordsworth: ‘The child is father of the man.’

In 2000, aged just 15, she played it on the mountain where Japan Airlines Flight 123 hit the ground after 32 minutes of worsening technical failures during which some passengers had time to scribble final words to their loved ones. Five hundred and twenty people were killed; also among the dead was the song’s original singer, Sakamoto. Helen Brown 48 ME AND BOBBY MCGEE Few artists embodied the 1960s counter-culture as fully or as fatally as Janis Joplin. A self-described Texan ‘misfit’, she outrageously lived – and died – the rock ’n’ roll life, blasting the Monterey Pop festival with her volcanic eruption of a blues voice, dressing in tripped-out granny chic and commissioning the cult cartoonist Robert Crumb to create an album sleeve.


pages: 268 words: 112,708

Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell

1960s counterculture, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, commoditize, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

There is nothing new about the capitalist media’s willingness to devour and reinvent itself in the search for the new, about its tendency to fragment, diversify, and explore alternative cultures. Alfred Hitchcock acerbically made fun of the commercials in his own television show in the early 1960s; this was during the hegemonic pinnacle of the Cold War/Madison Avenue dominance of U.S. cultural production, and well before the late 1960s counterculture roared through the United States, to a large degree on the backs of for-profit record companies and radio stations. The feature films and television programs that Hitchcock directed were renowned for their edge-like qualities long before the term became fashionable. If for no other reason than the pressure to expand profits and markets, capitalist media experience ongoing pressures to innovate and to call attention to the process of innovation.

There are various literatures that look at romanticism this way, but one place to start is Colin Campbell’s neo-Weberian book The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism.32 His general argument is a compelling one: that the consumer culture 237 Michael Curtin and Thoma s Streeter is romantic in its structure, that the forms of individualism it encourages tend to be more about self-transformation and anticipatory pleasures— about what some call the desire to desire—than about the satisfaction of utilitarian needs. And he suggests that romanticism is both a necessary condition to capitalism as we know it and a common feature of many substantial movements of resistance to capitalism, the paradigmatic case being the 1960s counterculture, when many people pursued a form of individualism that desired to free the human spirit from the utilitarian conformity of modern capitalism. In this view, then, the author construct, like the romanticism of which it is part, is related to capitalist property relations in what might be described as a tangential fashion.

A good example of this potential can be found in the computer software industry, currently one of the most dynamic sites of creative labor and one of the most hotly contested arenas of intellectual property law. Today’s computer culture can be understood as a deeply contradictory but politically very powerful fusion of a 1960s countercultural attitude with a revived form of political libertarianism, a fusion that has been inscribed in the designs and organization of computers themselves and that is accomplished by a powerful, if naive, form of romantic individualism. This can be illustrated in a number of ways, including the ways that the countercultural compendium called the Whole Earth Catalogue evolved from being a radical 238 Media communications outlet for groups like the Black Panthers into a computer catalog that eventually provided much of the editorial staff of Wired magazine.33 One of the distinctive strains of thought in the computer community is a vision of the computer as a device for the manipulation of symbols, as a medium for personal expression, instead of as a calculating or thinking machine.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

One hacker who arguably deserves Levy’s hyperbole is Richard Stallman, whose has worked for two decades as the leader and inspiration for the “Free Software” movement and the chief developer of “GNU,” a resolutely free alternative to the proprietary UNIX operating system. Like Levy, Stallman cites “playfulness, cleverness, and exploration” as the signature elements of true hacking (15). Stallman’s own account of his efforts bespeaks an idealism rooted in the 1960s counterculture, and an overarching commitment to building community via electronic spaces. Stallman traces his interest in developing GNU to the dissolution of the rich community of first and second generation hackers that surrounded him as he pursued his college education in the early 1970s. After mourning this loss, Stallman determined to take action: “I looked for a way that a programmer could do something for the good.

See also Seabiscuit Himanen, Pekka: The Hacker Ethic, 23–24 Hollywood, 33, 76, 106 Howard, Rebecca Moore, 20, 83, 149 Huberman, Bernardo, 99 Iglauer, Bruce, 88 intellectual property, 7–8, 14–15, 17, 28, 31, 40, 47–48, 55, 60, 71, 78, 81, 83, 108–9, 120–21, 126, 129–32, 140–43 Internet: dependence on content, 13, use in education and research 14–15, roots in 1960s counterculture 26–29; as site for innovative distribution of music 102; centrality of peerto-peer technologies, 127–29; latent potential of, 144–46 ISPs (Internet Service Providers), 91, 108, 144 inventors, 20, 38, 48, 75, 78, 132, 140 iPod, 59, 62–65, 91; initial dependence upon Napster 64 Jaszi, Peter, 20 Jefferson, Thomas, 130 Jobs, Steve, 65–66, 123 Johnson, Lyndon, 106 Jolson, Al, 101, 103 Kaempfert, Bert, 3 Kazaa, 6, 12, 13, 90–100, 119, 136; Kazaa Media Desktop, 12, 97–98 Kennedy, Anthony, 139 LeFevre, Karen Burke, 20, 130; Invention as a Social Act, 130 Lessig, Lawrence, 20, 28, 102; Free Culture, 82–83, 102; The Future of Ideas, 85 Pa r l orPr e s s 162 Levy, Steven, 24–28, 30; articulation of the “Hacker Ethic,” 27–28.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Garrett Hardin, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Herbert Marcuse, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tragedy of the Commons, Whole Earth Catalog, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

The avant-garde imagined that spectatorship would give way to participation permitting people to become more social and collaborative, egalitarian and engaged with one another, to borrow and share ideas. Our ever-so-trendy Web 2.0 culture, embraced by politicians of left and right, by companies and educators, is the bastard offspring of this mélange of ideas from the 1960s counter-culture. Mass participation, Debord’s antidote to the society of the spectacle, has turned into YouTube and social-networking sites on which we can all make a spectacle of ourselves. The libertarian, voluntaristic communities that briefly flowered in their thousands in California and New Mexico find their modern counterparts in the open-source communities listed on SourceForge and the virtual homesteaders of Second Life, as they create their own rules and currencies.

Media and culture used to be an industrial business dependent on large printing presses and expensive television studios, making products for the mass audiences needed to sustain their costly operations. The spread of the web means more people than ever can have their say, post their comment, make a video, show a picture, write a song. The more I-Think there is, the more content and information we create, the more we will need We-Think to sort it. The anti-industrial ideas of the 1960s counter-culture, bringing together Doug Engelbart’s vision of distributed and decentralised technologies and Fred Moore’s ethic of sharing, underpin hopes that we might still be able to create egalitarian, self-governing communities. Finally, We-Think revives pre-industrial forms of organisation: the commons, peer-to-peer working, community innovation and folk creativity.


pages: 245 words: 83,272

Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World by Meredith Broussard

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Firefox, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, independent contractor, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, natural language processing, PageRank, payday loans, paypal mafia, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Saturday Night Live, school choice, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, the High Line, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

It made me wonder why we are spending so much money to put technology into classrooms when we already have a cheap, effective solution that works well. The next chapter (chapter 6) is a whirlwind tour through the history of machines, specifically focused on Marvin Minsky—commonly known as the father of artificial intelligence—and the enormous role that 1960s counterculture played in developing the beliefs about the Internet that exist in 2017, the time this book was written. My goal here is to show you how the dreams and goals of specific individuals have shaped scientific knowledge, culture, business rhetoric, and even the legal framework of today’s technology through deliberate choices.

However, at tech firms the real power is held by the developers and engineers, not by the marketers or HR folks. It’s also worth considering the consequences of sudden, vast wealth on the community of programmers. Drugs play a large role in Silicon Valley and thus in the larger tech culture. Drugs were a major part of the 1960s counterculture, from LSD and marijuana to mushrooms and peyote and speed. In tech, drugs never became unpopular, but for years nobody really cared if developers were stoned so long as the code shipped on time. Now, with the opiate crisis reaching dramatic heights, it raises the question of how much technologists are facilitating the popularity and distribution of the ADD drugs and LSD and mushrooms and marijuana and nootropics and ayahuasca and DIY performance-enhancing drugs that are as popular in Silicon Valley as elsewhere.


pages: 535 words: 103,761

100 Years of Identity Crisis: Culture War Over Socialisation by Frank Furedi

1960s counterculture, 23andMe, Cass Sunstein, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, epigenetics, Gunnar Myrdal, Herbert Marcuse, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, New Urbanism, nudge unit, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen

To take some random examples featured on Google: ‘The Identity Crisis of Sustainable Development’,9 ‘The Identity Crisis of Feminist Theory’,10 ‘The Identity Crisis of the Ultra Rich’,11 ‘The Online Identity Crisis’.12 Back in 1968, Erikson also drew attention to the emergence of a phenomenon that would become far more prominent in the decades to follow. He pointed to an unprecedented explosion of identity-talk by the 1960s counter-cultural movement as well as by other sections of society. ‘We are witnessing an exacerbated “identity-consciousness”’, he stated. He added: For whereas twenty years ago we gingerly suggested that some young people might be suffering from a more or less unconscious identity conflict, a certain type tells us in no uncertain terms, and with the dramatic outer display of what we once considered to be inner secrets, that yes, indeed, they have an identity conflict – and they wear it on their sleeves.13 Erikson’s claim that the inner secrets surrounding people’s internal identity conflicts were transformed into public statements anticipated the emergence of a culture where many people do wear their identity on their sleeves.

The cultural changes that had been set in motion decades previously unexpectedly acquired sufficient power and assertiveness to self-consciously declare itself as a counter-culture. The discovery and institutionalisation of adolescence in the 19th century was consummated in the 1960s. Outwardly the rise of the 1960s counter-culture appeared to represent the antithesis of the ambitions that usually accompany social engineering. Radical students lashed out against what they saw as the machine-like attitudes of leaders of the corporate world and displayed unreserved suspicion towards projects of social engineering. Their hostility towards science often went so far as to call into question scientific reasoning itself.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

What is thrilling, fulfilling, and functional about sexuality might be wrapped up in the very “complexes” about sexuality that crusaders for sexual freedom and other reformers insisted on getting rid of. The Equal Rights Amendment No ideology or belief system existing at the time of the 1960s counterculture would have allowed people to predict which facets of pre-counterculture sexual morality would flourish over the coming decades, and which die. One might have thought that prostitution would be validated (on grounds of freedom of choice and “entrepreneurship”) and pornography scorned (on grounds of inauthenticity).

When people came to distrust modernity as a kind of corruption, it was not just the corporate world’s supermarkets and sitcoms and dandruff shampoos they resented. It was also Washington’s dams and highways, regulations and bureaucracy. Over time it would be Johnson’s Great Society, which expanded the welfare state to undreamed-of and undesired levels. In certain lights, the 1960s counterculture looks like a reactionary movement disguised as a progressive one. Pirsig, for instance, may have been anti-war, anti-corporate, drug-friendly, and steeped in academia, but he was no “free spirit.” What he liked about small-town America was its resemblance to the country of “a hundred or two hundred years ago,” and he defended “political reactionaries” out to restore “individual worth.”


pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, Andy Carvin, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

Listening to programmer Eric Raymond give a talk on his book The Cathedral and the Bazaar, an early treatise on the value of open methods of collaborative development, I started to feel like I had stumbled upon a lost tribe from the 1960s. The Linux development community, and the larger open source software movement that it was a part of, were in fact a branch of the 1960s counterculture that had run with the idea of personal empowerment into monumental success.3 At the time, Linux was coming into its own as a reliable operating system that was free, unlike the dominant platform, Microsoft Windows. In addition, Linux was less likely to crash, less prone to viruses, and more efficient in its use of system resources.


pages: 196 words: 54,339

Team Human by Douglas Rushkoff

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, disintermediation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, game design, gig economy, Google bus, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hockey-stick growth, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, invisible hand, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, new economy, patient HM, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Vannevar Bush, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

That’s why being truly anomalous has to mean more than the adoption of a particular style or intersectional label. It’s about finding people with whom to connect more deeply and recognizing that the cues we use to identify one another are just means to that greater end. 65. After delivering a lecture at Berkeley, a 1960s’ counterculture psychologist took questions from the audience. A young woman stood up to explain that she understood the deep connection between people and our collective responsibility for the world, but she didn’t know what to do next. The psychologist answered, “Find the others.” Find the others. Restore the social connections that make us fully functioning humans, and oppose all conventions, institutions, technologies, and mindsets that keep us apart.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

Today’s app-mediated landscape, despite some innovations in network topology, and a new relationship between economic and racial privilege and urban geography, offers another iteration of the same: digital platforms allow us to pick and choose the communities we connect with and commit to, replacing the messy work of political solidarity with the frictionlessness of “disruption.” The collective and cooperative workplaces emerging from the late-1960s counterculture followed the same neoliberal logic. These alternative institutions were an escape route—a way for those with the requisite privilege to construct bubbles of autonomy, outside the alienating corporate workplace and market. The most prolific and enduring cooperatives of the era were the various food cooperatives that sprung up across the country, quite literally built on the idea of aligning consumer choices with new values.


pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Herbert Marcuse, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, you are the product

The beginnings of the technical and social revolution that Martin Luther King referenced in his 1968 sermon at the National Cathedral were under way even as he was speaking. The revolution began in the moral precepts of the counterculture: decentralize control and harmonize people. The earliest networks—like the Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link (WELL), organized by Stewart Brand, the founder of The Whole Earth Catalog—grew directly out of 1960s counterculture. Brand had helped novelist Ken Kesey organize the Acid Tests—epic be-ins where thousands of hippies ingested LSD and danced to the music of a new band, the Grateful Dead. Steve Jobs, founder of Apple Computer, Inc., dropped acid as well. “Jobs explained,” wrote John Markoff in his book What the Dormouse Said, “that he still believed that taking LSD was one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life, and he said he felt that because people he knew well had not tried psychedelics, there were things about him they couldn’t understand.”


pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, different worldview, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Savings and loan crisis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

In fact, online culture increasingly resembles a slum in disturbing ways. Slums have more advertising than wealthy neighborhoods, for instance. People are meaner in slums; mob rule and vigilantism are commonplace. If there is a trace of “slumming” in the way that many privileged young people embrace current online culture, it is perhaps an echo of 1960s counterculture. It’s true that the record companies have not helped themselves. They have made a public fuss about suing the most sympathetic people, snooped obnoxiously, and so on. Furthermore, there’s a long history of sleaze, corruption, creative accounting, and price fixing in the music business.


pages: 255 words: 76,834

Creative Selection: Inside Apple's Design Process During the Golden Age of Steve Jobs by Ken Kocienda

1960s counterculture, anti-pattern, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bash_history, Bill Atkinson, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, HyperCard, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, premature optimization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, zero-sum game

A couple weeks before I resigned from the company, I worked on one final project, an exhibition for the Design Museum in London. Apple was putting together a display about the iPhone as part of an installation called California: Designing Freedom, which would feature many West Coast American influences, from the 1960s counterculture to Silicon Valley high tech. My contribution was to revive my original keyboard autocorrection code as an example of the multitouch operating system we invented ten years earlier. I retrieved the software from our source code archives, and I got it running on a modern version of iOS so some Apple designers could refer to it as they made a high-resolution animation of the keyboard for the museum show.


pages: 317 words: 87,566

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, you are the product

Elements of anti-capitalist politics, which promise an uncommodified, more honest existence, have long been a fixture of advertising copy. As far back as the 1930s, advertisements contained images of pre-industrial, communal and family life, which seemed to be imperilled by the chaos of the industrial American city.28 By the 1960s, counter-cultural imagery was featuring in commercials, even before the counter-culture had fully emerged.29 Under the influence of market research, political ideals are quietly converted into economic desire. The cold mechanics of marketing and the critique of capitalism are locked into a constant feedback loop, such that there is no remaining idea of what freedom might look like, beyond that of consumption.


pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

When you are amidst the educated upscalers, you can never be sure if you’re living in a world of hippies or stockbrokers. In reality you have entered the hybrid world in which everybody is a little of both. Marx told us that classes inevitably conflict, but sometimes they just blur. The values of the bourgeois mainstream culture and the values of the 1960s counterculture have merged. That culture war has ended, at least within the educated class. In its place that class has created a third culture, which is a reconciliation between the previous two. The educated elites didn’t set out to create this reconciliation. It is the product of millions of individual efforts to have things both ways.


pages: 300 words: 84,762

Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases by Paul A. Offit

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, discovery of penicillin, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Ronald Reagan

But Boyer’s football coach was also his science teacher, and his coach’s passion for science influenced Boyer more than his passion for football. After high school, Boyer studied biology and chemistry at St. Vincent’s College in nearby Latrobe, Pennsylvania, followed by graduate studies at the University of Pittsburgh and postgraduate work at Yale. Then he traveled west, arriving in San Francisco at the height of the 1960s counterculture. With a broad round face, impish smile, thick walrus-like mustache, and a wardrobe of leather vests, blue jeans, and wide, open-collared shirts, Herbert Boyer looked like the rock musician Jerry Garcia from the Grateful Dead. And, like Garcia, he was active in the civil rights movement and vigorous in his protests against the war in Vietnam.


pages: 309 words: 84,038

Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cycling by Carlton Reid

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bike sharing scheme, California gold rush, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Yom Kippur War

—Freddie Mercury IN THE EARLY 1970s, the imagined compulsory use of a bicycle route system in the cycle-friendly California university town that spawned the hippie movement led a high-speed cyclist to codify and popularize the concept that cyclists “fare best when they act and are treated as drivers of vehicles.” The town was Palo Alto, the cyclist was John Forester, and the concept was “vehicular cycling.” Palo Alto is a suburb of San Francisco, home to Stanford University, the birthplace of the 1960s countercultural revolution that reverberated around the world after students, who were paid to take it, thought LSD should be available to all. Today the town is better known as the beating heart of Silicon Valley, famed for tech companies such as Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, and, latterly, Tesla Motors. It’s also the home city of Apple’s Steve Jobs, as well as the founders of Google, Sergey Brin and Larry Page.


pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, social intelligence, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

As the ‘immersion room’ example discussed earlier demonstrates, we can now see all sorts of attempts to make resistance speak in order to make it congruous with the ideology of work. Advertising in London currently seeks to cash in on underground chic and revolutionary cool – ‘Be your own revolution!’ cries one advert for new computer software. Right-wing management consultants tell their readers that much can be learnt from the creative upheaval of 1960s counter-culture: promote an organization that resembles the attributes of a topsy-turvy world of anarchy and hire employees that hate capitalism. But let’s look more closely at what we really mean by co-optation and recuperation. Indeed, the question of appropriation is somewhat analogous to those old (and yet still very relevant) debates about commodification.


pages: 296 words: 83,254

After the Gig: How the Sharing Economy Got Hijacked and How to Win It Back by Juliet Schor, William Attwood-Charles, Mehmet Cansoy

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, future of work, George Gilder, gig economy, global supply chain, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, mass incarceration, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer rental, Post-Keynesian economics, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, selection bias, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, wage slave, walking around money, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

For centuries new machines and methods of communications have arrived with outsized hopes about their ability to change the world.3 Sharing initiatives were mainly greeted with technological enthusiasm, which attracted users and propelled growth.4 This technophilia wasn’t just a passion of the moment. It can be traced back decades, to the invention of personal computers and belief in their social powers.5 Understanding this history helps explain why platforms raised such hopes and went so wrong. The Californian Ideology The 1960s counterculture that was centered in San Francisco is now mostly famous for psychedelic drugs, “flower power,” and the Grateful Dead. But in its heyday it posed a profound challenge to modern society, in the form of a critique of concentrated power and a desire for egalitarian social relations. Fred Turner, in his book From Counterculture to Cyberculture, has identified two strains of the counterculture—antiwar and free speech activists such as Berkeley’s Mario Savio, who helped form the New Left, and the “New Communalists,” who decamped to rural sites around the West to form small-scale communities.


pages: 326 words: 91,559

Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Money creation, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Pier Paolo Pasolini, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

But when you’re accountable to fellow members, to others struggling to get by, there’s not much to like about wiping away the basis of their livelihoods. Less exposed to risk and less inclined to panic, financial co-ops and credit unions kept up deposits and kept lending after the 2008 crisis hit.8 While others were disrupting, cooperators have been innovating in their own fashion. The 1960s counterculture produced famous consumer-owned grocery stores like Brooklyn’s Park Slope Food Co-op: by the turn of the millennium, co-ops like these had helped build the global fair-trade movement for goods like coffee and chocolate, a much-needed feat of counterglobalization. The 1960s and 1970s saw a more buttoned-up kind of cooperation as well, such as when Seattle banker Dee Hock convinced Bank of America to spin off its credit-card franchise into a bank-owned cooperative, Visa.


pages: 309 words: 92,846

Memoirs of a Jewish Extremist: The Story of a Transformation by Yossi Klein Halevi

1960s counterculture, East Village, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Yom Kippur War

We realized that Marv was not our ideal publisher, but we also knew that no one would be mad enough to take his place. LYNN’S ROOMMATE WAS A JEWISH WOMAN named Sara, a dancer who’d spent time in Israel. In Sara’s bookcase Lynn found The Jewish Catalog, a how-to guide to Jewish rituals written in a 1960s, countercultural style; cartoons of yarmulked angels telling Jewish jokes appeared in the margins. Lynn had been raised with an aversion to fervent religion. Her mother, a former Baptist from Alabama, rejected her fundamentalist upbringing and became a liberal Yankee. Lynn’s father’s father had escaped a fundamentalist Episcopalian sect in which he’d been raised, the Catholic Apostolics, whose members believed the world was about to end and practiced an austere, Pilgrim-style Christianity.


pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, disinformation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Ida Tarbell, illegal immigration, independent contractor, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The civil-rights movement, which was rooted in the moral and religious imperatives of justice and self-sacrifice, what Dwight Macdonald called nonhistorical values, was largely eclipsed by the self-centeredness of the New Left, especially after the assassinations of Malcolm X in 1967 and Martin Luther King Jr. a year later. And once the Vietnam War ended, once middle-class men no longer had to go to war, the movement disintegrated. The political and moral void within the counterculture meant it was an easy transition from college radical to a member of the liberal class. The 1960s counterculture, like the counterculture of the Bohemians or the Beats, was always in tune with the commercial culture. It shared commercial culture’s hedonism, love of spectacle, and preoccupation with the self. The moral vacuum of the counterculture disturbed religious radicals, such as Father Daniel Berrigan and his brother Philip, the Catholic Worker leader Dorothy Day, and the Reverend William Sloane Coffin, as well as stalwarts from the decimated Communist Party and old anarchists such as Dwight Macdonald and Murray Bookchin.


pages: 319 words: 103,707

Against Everything: Essays by Mark Greif

1960s counterculture, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, income inequality, informal economy, Joan Didion, Norman Mailer, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, Ronald Reagan, technoutopianism, telemarketer, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, white flight

We witnessed, after the triumph of a previously unquestioned project, a characteristic latecoming struggle around the nature and direction of progress. First, in the late 1960s, came reactions against the inhuman technical character of food science and “agribusiness.” Critics in this phase pitted themselves against consumer capitalism. This initial reaction was romantic and primitivist, associated with the late-1960s counterculture and the movement “back to the land,” just a few decades after productivity gains had led an agrarian population to leave it. It brought a call to the East for mystic authenticity in the culture of “health foods”—tofu, brown rice, yogurt, seaweed, wheat germ, made from the live spirits and microbes excluded in industrial processing.


pages: 342 words: 99,390

The greatest trade ever: the behind-the-scenes story of how John Paulson defied Wall Street and made financial history by Gregory Zuckerman

1960s counterculture, banking crisis, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, financial innovation, fixed income, index fund, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, short selling, Silicon Valley, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Wozniak, technology bubble, zero-sum game

After he failed to get some journalists to focus on Congress’'s culpability, Lahde complained that the nation seemed to care less about fixing the political system than it did “"about Britney Spears’'s vagina.”" In late 2008, he threw himself into the writings of his longtime hero Timothy Leary, the 1960s counterculture icon and advocate of psychedelic-drug research. He began to warm to the idea of dropping out, as Leary advised, saying it was “"baffling”" that Paulson was still so focused on investing. Lahde found a distant island and leased a beachfront home. He snorkels most days while searching for a suitable young female partner to join him on his adventure.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

However, it’s a mistake to think of Google’s social influence and social role as purely a function of science and engineering. Google’s social milieu, the petri dish from which it sprang, is more than technological or scientific. As the media historian Fred Turner demonstrates in From Counterculture to Cyberculture, the ideology of Silicon Valley is rooted in the practices and idealistic visions of 1960s counterculture. It’s a peculiar story: cultural anarchism melded with technologies developed for and by the U.S. military, unleashed in the service of both commerce and creativity, yet also accused of undermining both.49 Google, in particular, incorporates a twenty-first-century form of countercultural hedonism in its corporate structure and everyday work environment: the ethos of Burning Man.


Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

Those counterculture idealists all opposed war and believed in the possibility of emerging technologies to usher in a new age of planetary consciousness and spiritual enlightenment. They diverged, however, in the paths they chose to pursue those exalted states. The anti-institutional animus of the 1960s counterculture stands in stark contrast to the enthusiasm felt by Paul Otlet and others for international associations, governing bodies, and associated rules and procedures. They believed in personal liberation and the disruption of what they considered anachronistic, calcified power structures. Otlet and others of the prewar generation, by contrast, placed great faith in certain kinds of organizational structures—specifically, international associations and pan-world government—that Otlet, for one, saw not as tools of bureaucracy and oppression but rather as 261 C ATA L O G I N G T H E WO R L D the engines of great cultural and social reform, and ultimately as catalysts for humanity to achieve its true potential.


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, G4S, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Herbert Marcuse, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kim Stanley Robinson, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Even when, as with most of the earliest New England colonists such as the Pilgrims and the Puritans, the belief in human beings’ permanently flawed character prevailed, there was still the hope 24 The Variety of Utopias of substantial improvement by virtue of the opportunity for the comparative freedom to practice one’s religion.27 Until Robert Fogarty’s All Things New: American Communes and Utopian Movements, 1860–1914 appeared in 1990, most students of American utopian communities assumed that they had flourished only in the first half of the nineteenth century and had virtually died out until their revival in the 1960s “counterculture.” Fogarty examined 141 communities that arose between 1860 and 1914, including mystical Shalam in New Mexico, free-love Spirit Fruit in Ohio and Illinois, all-female Women’s Commonwealth in Texas, and socialist, then anarchist, Equality in Washington state. To varying degrees all were inspired by the Book of Revelations’ injunction to “make all things new” and were self-conscious about their need for journeying elsewhere in America or abroad (usually Palestine) to do so.


pages: 363 words: 109,374

50 Psychology Classics by Tom Butler-Bowdon

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, delayed gratification, fear of failure, feminist movement, global village, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lateral thinking, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Necker cube, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

As each feeling we are ashamed of comes to the surface, we realize it will not kill us to allow it to exist. Final comments Rogers’ impact was felt way beyond his own field of counseling psychology. His emphasis on people needing to see themselves more as a fluid process of creation rather than a fixed entity was part of the climate of ideas that led to the 1960s counter-cultural revolution, and it is easy to see his influence on today’s self-help writers. For instance, one of Stephen Covey’s “7 habits of highly effective people” is Seek first to understand, then to be understood, a very Rogerian notion that progress in relationships is never made unless the people within them feel safe to speak their mind and be heard.


pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, business cycle, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, eat what you kill, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

Dana, [>], [>] Luxury Fever (Frank), [>] Mahoney, David, [>] Mantione, Lianne, [>] Martinoff, Jim: and corporate ethics program, [>]–[>] materialism: conservatism and, [>]–[>] and economic pressure, [>]–[>] and happiness, [>]–[>] increase in, [>], [>], [>]–[>] and new social contract, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] 1960s counterculture and, [>]–[>] young people and, [>]–[>], [>] Mauer, Joe, [>] McBirney, Edwin, [>] McCabe, Donald: on student cheating, [>]–[>], [>], [>] McColough, Peter, [>] McGwire, Mark, [>], [>] McKinsey & Company, [>], [>], [>] media: public distrust of, [>] Medical Education Systems: and Neurontin marketing scandal, [>] medical ethics: decline in, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] and medical school programs, [>] medical schools: and ethics programs, [>] medical societies, state: inadequate discipline by, [>] Medicare and Medicaid: fraud against, [>], [>], [>], [>] Meeker, Mary, [>] Meijer, Martina, [>], [>] Mendell, Clarence W., [>] Merrill Lynch, [>]–[>], [>] Spitzer investigates, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] Merton, Robert: on ambition and deviant behavior, [>], [>] on American values, [>]–[>] Metallica: and music piracy, [>] Microsoft, [>] Milken, Michael, [>], [>] post-prison public relations campaign, [>]–[>] SEC prosecutes, [>], [>] "money culture."


pages: 364 words: 108,237

Janesville: An American Story by Amy Goldstein

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, job-hopping, mass affluent, payday loans, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

A brass band playing the fight song, “On Wisconsin.” And, in a curious touch for the inauguration of one of the nation’s most incendiary social and economic conservatives, the Notre Dame Academy swing choir from Green Bay preceding the oath taking with a medley from Hair, the tribal-love rock opera of the 1960s counterculture that premiered on Broadway when Walker was four months old. When the time came for the gubernatorial inaugural address, Walker’s main campaign promise—to create 250,000 private sector jobs—was front and center. “My priorities are simple: jobs, jobs and more jobs,” the brand-new governor said.


The Fiume Crisis by Dominique Kirchner Reill

1960s counterculture, anti-communist, British Empire, business climate, Covid-19, COVID-19, financial independence, full employment, sexual politics

For a brilliant discussion of how the histories of D’Annunzio in Fiume have developed, see the forthcoming article by Natka Badurina, “D’Annunzio a Fiume: La violenza politica, l’etica e la storia,” in Atti del Convegno Fiume 1919–2019: Un centenario europeo tra identità, memorie e prospettive di ricerca, Vittoriale degli Italiani (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2020). Notes to Pages 12–20 239 10. Claudia Salaris, Alla festa della rivoluzione: Artisti e libertari con D’Annunzio a Fiume (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2002). The analogy of D’Annunzio’s Fiume to 1960s counterculture movements began in the historiography of Fascism produced in the 1970s, most famously in the works of Renzo De Felice. It is now a common trope, most notably by Gabriele Marconi, Le stelle danzanti: Il romanzo dell’impresa fiumana (Florence: Vallecchi, 2009). 11. Mark Mazower, The Dark Continent: Eu­rope’s Twentieth C ­ entury (New York: Knopf, 1999).


pages: 415 words: 119,277

Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The boutiques on the block draw shoppers in their twenties and thirties, college students, and tourists who want items with a unique look, such as old eyeglass frames, jelly jars, and wind-up alarm clocks; these flea market finds are specialized goods for a niche market. In their own way, the shop owners on East Ninth Street are selling kairological images of consumer culture. They know the value of authenticity, the kind of authenticity that connects the self-awareness of the 1960s counterculture to the “mobile awareness of personal and individual lifestyle” typical of consumers today. Their shops reflect the “class worlds” that dominate the East Village now: both elegant and derelict, hippie and yuppie, distinctive and diverse.10 The “authentic” East Village: stores on East Ninth Street.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, disinformation, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Upon reaching zero, the bright flash of a nuclear explosion fills the screen, and candidate Johnson addresses the American public and says: ‘These are the stakes. To make a world in which all of God’s children can live, or to go into the dark. We must either love each other, or we must die.’2 We tend to associate the ‘make love, not war’ slogan with the late 1960s counterculture, but in fact, already in 1964 it was accepted wisdom even among hard-nosed politicians such as Johnson. Consequently, during the Cold War nationalism took a back seat to a more global approach to international politics, and when the Cold War ended, globalisation seemed to be the irresistible wave of the future.


pages: 434 words: 114,583

Faster, Higher, Farther: How One of the World's Largest Automakers Committed a Massive and Stunning Fraud by Jack Ewing

1960s counterculture, Asilomar, asset-backed security, Berlin Wall, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, crossover SUV, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hiring and firing, independent contractor, McMansion, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs

Other ads claimed that Volkswagen left the body design the same so that it could spend the money on mechanical improvements. In fact, Volkswagen had grown complacent. Heinrich Nordhoff, who remained chief executive until 1967 and died in 1968, had initially not thought much of the Beetle but then was slow to push for something to follow it. After the introduction of a van in 1950, which won its own place in the 1960s counterculture, there was no completely new model until 1961, when Volkswagen began selling the 1500, a more conventional-looking sedan. The 411, a midsize car that came in hatchback and station wagon versions, went on sale in 1968. Both the 1500 and the 411 had air-cooled motors mounted over the rear wheels, an increasingly outdated technology despite Volkswagen’s attempts to use the Porsche racing program to portray it otherwise.


pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

Because the German auto industry didn’t think the car was feasible, the German Labor Front itself took command of the project, under the direction of Ferdinand Porsche. The result is the VW Beetle. It was a socialist car, then. Its low cost and folksy back story was surely part of the appeal it would come to have for peace-loving American hippies of the 1960s counterculture. But it was also a fascist car, in the precise economic meaning of fascism: its low cost was due to dictatorial power, state-directed investment, and the outlawing of independent labor organizations not controlled by the Party. Nazi perversion of the ideal of free labor, or mockery of it, are well expressed in the fact that the phrase “Labor sets you free” was posted over the entrances to several of the death camps.


pages: 385 words: 123,168

Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber

1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, functional programming, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, independent contractor, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, Post-Keynesian economics, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise

This obviously not only completely ignored the caring aspects of real labor, it also assumed property relations were unalterable, and that human beings—at least, those who were not, say, science-fiction writers—were so completely unimaginative that even with unlimited free time, they would be unable to come up with anything particularly interesting to do.7 The 1960s counterculture challenged the second and third assumptions (though not so much the first one), with many sixties revolutionaries embracing the slogan “Let the machines do all the work!” This in turn led to a renewed backlash of moralizing about work as a value in itself of the sort we’ve already encountered in chapter 6—at the same time as an export of many factory jobs to poor countries where labor was cheap enough it could still be performed by human beings.


pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the strength of weak ties, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

By the early 1970s, church leaders and scholars noticed two distinct trends: (i) people were leaving mainline Protestantism—Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians—and (2) people were joining Evangelical and conservative churches that were often independent of any denomination. A debate ensued about why conservative churches were growing while the sanctuaries at mainline denominations were emptying. Some argued that the 1960s counterculture led baby boomers out of their parents' churches. Others said that churches would naturally decline as society became richer—the old secularization argument that as societies grow more educated, people become less likely to be formally religious. Dean Kelley, author of Why Conservative Churches Are Growing, argued that mainline denominations had gotten flabby.


pages: 363 words: 123,076

The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, Capote, and the New Journalism Revolution by Marc Weingarten

1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, post-work, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor, yellow journalism

Gingrich was already making the magazine more of a repository for serious critical thought, hiring Dwight Macdonald to review films, Kingsley Amis to cover “art films,” and Dorothy Parker to critique the latest fiction. Felker brought his college buddy Peter Maas into the fold to write features, as well as sociologist Paul Goodman, whose 1960 book, Growing Up Absurd, had mapped the incipient rebellion against established values that would culminate in the 1960s counterculture. Quality fiction had remained a constant, with contributions from such luminaries as William Styron, John Cheever, and Robert Penn Warren. But Felker and Hayes wanted to move in another direction with the magazine’s journalism. At Duke, Felker had trolled the library stacks in search of exciting precedents for him to follow at the Chronicle and came across Civil War-era back issues of the New York Herald Tribune, the great newspaper edited by the social reformist Horace Greeley.


pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, disinformation, do-ocracy, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, low cost airline, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

He saw the utility of learning from these people. And then, as he explained, a little later, “[President] Bush stole the election, 9/11 happened, and the Patriot Act was passed.” At the age of twenty, he cofounded a radical webzine called Hack this Site—its title riffing on Steal this Book, the 1960s counterculture manual-manifesto written by Abbie Hoffman. (The Yippies published the first hacker/phreak zine, The Youth International Party Line, which advocated ripping off AT&T, aka “Ma Bell,” as a revolutionary act. Its successor publication, Technical Assistance Program (TAP), would shed the overtly leftist political rhetoric.)


pages: 459 words: 140,010

Fire in the Valley: The Birth and Death of the Personal Computer by Michael Swaine, Paul Freiberger

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, barriers to entry, Bill Atkinson, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Google Chrome, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Jony Ive, Loma Prieta earthquake, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog

–Don Lancaster, early computer hobbyist and writer By the mid- to late-1970s, the fire of invention burned brightly in Silicon Valley, fueled by a unique environment of universities and electronics and semiconductor firms, and the legacy of revolutionary fervor left by the Berkeley Free Speech Movement and 1960s counterculture values. But tinder sparks were igniting in scattered places throughout the country. Some of those figurative sparks were fanned by a man who actually spent his days watching for real fires. The Fire Spotter Don Lancaster wasn’t your typical aerospace engineer. He had gone to work for a defense contractor in the 1960s as a way of avoiding the Vietnam draft, but wasn’t too thrilled to find himself working for a company that produced machines designed to kill people.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Basement/Cellar: Urban Undergrounds 1Will Hutton, ‘Britain Is Scared to Face the Real Issue – It’s All About Inequality’, Observer, 19 January 2014. 2Cited in John McCarthy and Ross Kilgour, ‘Planning for Subterranean Residential Development in the UK’, Planning Practice and Research, 26:1, 2011, pp. 71–94. 3These details are drawn from Oliver Wainwright, ‘“Billionaires’ Basements”: The Luxury Bunkers Making Holes in London Streets’, Guardian, 9 November 2012. 4Quoted in Wainwright, ‘Billionaires’ Basements’. 5Cited in Peter Ackroyd, London Under: The Secret History Beneath the Streets, London: Random House, 2011, p. 7. 6Jabob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, New York: Dover, 1971(1901). 7Thomas Heise, Urban Underworlds: A Geography of Twentieth-Century American Literature and Culture, New York: Rutgers University Press, 2011, p. 61. 8Riis, How the Other Half Lives, p. 17. 9Heise, Urban Underworlds, p. 63. 10Friedrich Engels, The Housing Question, New York: International Publishers, 1935, pp. 74–7. 11Gunnar Myrdal, Challenge to Affluence, New York: Random House, 1963, pp. 40–41 and 53. 12The ‘old mole’ phrase derives originally from Marx. Cited in Christoph Lindner, and Andrew Hussey, eds, Paris-Amsterdam Underground: Essays on Cultural Resistance, Subversion, and Diversion, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014, p. 8. American novelist and ‘beatnik’ poet Jack Kerouac, a luminary in the 1950s and the 1960s counterculture, similarly titled one of his books The Subterraneans (1958). 13Djuna Barnes, Nightwood, New York: New Directions, 1961, p. 240, cited in Heise, Urban Underworlds, p. 99. See also Scott Herring, Queering the Underworld: Slumming, Literature, and the Undoing of Lesbian and Gay History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. 14Le Corbusier, Precisions: On the Present State of Architecture and City Planning, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991, pp. 38–40. 15David Gissen, Subnature: Architecture’s Other Environments, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009, p. 34. 16Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, Boston: Beacon Press, 1992, p. 23. 13.


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mondo 2000, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

The dream about the day after the strike was harsh: “There was chaos, and then I looked around and I was the only person left alive in Rockford, Ill., a knee-high creature.”28 He wanted out, to escape the specter of nuclear annihilation. Brand is best known for founding the famous Whole Earth Catalog, a publication that itself became an emblem and icon of California’s late 1960s counterculture and back-to-the-land movement. One afternoon, probably in March 1966 in the hills of San Francisco, Brand dropped a bit of LSD and went up on a roof overlooking the city. It was a form of escape. He sat in a blanket, shivering in the cold spring air, overlooking the hills, lost in enhanced thought: And so I’m watching the buildings, looking out at San Francisco, thinking of Buckminster Fuller’s notion that people think of the earth’s resources as unlimited because they think of the earth as flat.


pages: 433 words: 129,636

Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic by Sam Quinones

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, British Empire, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, obamacare, zero-sum game

It was this: If a patient said he was in pain, doctors should believe him and prescribe accordingly. This attitude grew from a patients’ rights movement that sprung in part from the Nuremberg Trials, where Nazi doctors were found to be experimenters who disregarded patients’ autonomy, and later from the 1960s counterculture that suspected the motives of all established institutions, medicine included. With the WHO Ladder, doctors’ concern over the use of opium-derived drugs began to ease. They were, after all, remarkably effective at knocking down pain, which was now a human right. Worldwide morphine consumption began to climb, rising thirtyfold between 1980 and 2011.


pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

He did not label his course of action Keynesian, but the words required no label. Even the values issue was not so simple. Despite Nixon’s small-town, Quaker upbringing, his service in the uptight, button-down Eisenhower administration, and his 1968 campaign against hippies, he embraced elements of the 1960s counterculture. Surveying the nation’s troubles, he invoked Roosevelt’s 1933 inaugural address. The Democratic president had judged the nation’s deficiencies to be “material.” “Thank God,” FDR said, “the American spirit was intact” and could be marshaled to produce the plenty so absent from the American larder in 1933.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

The enormous cultural impact of that psychedelic freak-out on American society can be felt today, and it still casts a long shadow over San Francisco. There, Hirshberg has been a driving force behind a new creative space just down the hill from Haight-Ashbury, the Gray Area Foundation for the Arts. Both physically and spiritually, it sits at the intersection of that 1960s counterculture and a new techno-utopianism. It’s just a few steps to either Twitter’s headquarters or the head office of Burning Man, the radical art festival that builds a temporary city in the Nevada desert each summer. Though he takes inspiration from the hippies, Hirshberg is politically pragmatic. He soon slaps his laptop shut and stops playing dumb.


pages: 377 words: 21,687

Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight by David A. Mindell

1960s counterculture, Charles Lindbergh, computer age, deskilling, fault tolerance, interchangeable parts, Mars Rover, more computing power than Apollo, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, telepresence, telerobotics

The moon project resonated within a culture deeply concerned with the social implications of technology. It was conceived in the wake of Russia’s Sputnik success and in the early Kennedy years when large-scale science and technical and managerial projects seemed to promise solutions to political problems. But Apollo unfolded in the era of Vietnam, 1960s counterculture, and increasing questioning of the social benefits of large technological systems. Commentators worried about the phenomenon of ‘‘deskilling’’ as computerized machine tools transformed work on the factory floor.20 In his speeches and writings, for example, Martin Luther King frequently mentioned automation as a cause of the social displacements he was seeking to redress.


pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, Herbert Marcuse, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

Not that commerce had ground to a halt: everyone was using Google to find things they needed, and perhaps a few they didn’t. The ones suffering for this happy state of affairs were those industries that had spent the past century devising how best to get people to look at them and listen, to enjoy their diversion and tolerate a word from their sponsors. In that way the early web was exactly like the 1960s counterculture: it encouraged both a Great Refusal of what had always been handed down from on high, and asked people to spend more time with each other. It asserted that money need not be involved in attentional barter, and that everyone had an inherent potential to be a creator. In the early days at some companies, like Google, the link was more explicit, with much of the company retreating to the Burning Man festival every year and management espousing the value of putting in place a practical, pragmatic implementation of the counterculture’s ideas.


pages: 547 words: 148,732

How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence by Michael Pollan

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, moral panic, Mother of all demos, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, scientific worldview, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Whole Earth Catalog

Their journeys unfold in a landscape of medical suites populated, figuratively speaking, by men and women in white coats. I suppose this is the usual distancing effect of modern science at work, but here it is compounded by a specific desire to distance psilocybin from its tangled roots (or I should say, mycelia) in the worlds of 1960s counterculture, Native American shamanism, and, perhaps, nature itself. For it is there—in nature—that we bump up against the mystery of a little brown mushroom with the power to change the consciousness of the animals that eat it. LSD too, it is easy to forget, was derived from a fungus, Claviceps purpurea, or ergot.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Bill Atkinson, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Conference 1984, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mondo 2000, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, the strength of weak ties, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

As they turned away from agonistic politics and toward technology, consciousness, and entrepreneurship as the principles of a new society, the communards of the 1960s developed a utopian vision that was in many ways quite congenial to the insurgent Republicans of the 1990s. Although Newt Gingrich and those around him decried the hedonism of the 1960s counterculture, they shared its widespread affection for empowering technologically enabled elites, for building new businesses, and for rejecting traditional forms of governance. And as they rose to power, more than a few rightwing politicians and executives longed to share the hip credibility of people like Stewart Brand.


Active Measures by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, disinformation, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

In January 1974, CARIC and the Fifth Estate joined forces and formed the Organizing Committee for a Fifth Estate. The Fifth Estate was a volunteer organization, with new headquarters established at 2000 P Street NW, just off Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C. The Fifth Estate grew out of late-1960s counterculture, and was especially inspired and modeled on the Whole Earth Catalog, then a cult publication. Produced in the San Francisco Bay Area by Stewart Brand, an iconic, technology-embracing hippie maven, the Whole Earth Catalog was an early techno-utopian vision of back-to-the-land living that embraced cybernetic feedback loops, community, wholeness, flattened hierarchies, and the motto “access to tools.”


pages: 581 words: 162,518

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights by Adam Winkler

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, desegregation, Donald Trump, financial innovation, glass ceiling, income inequality, invisible hand, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, the scientific method, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, yellow journalism

Despite Bopp’s expertise in campaign finance, his track record of success at the Supreme Court, and his commitment to Bossie’s cause, the lawyer from Terre Haute was seemingly destined to be thought of as second best when compared to a quintessential Washington player like Olson.36 * * * SAMUEL ALITO WAS TO the Supreme Court bench what Jim Bopp was to the Supreme Court bar. Both were brilliant lawyers whose work, at the highest levels of the law, brought them to Washington, where neither quite fit in. Both were strong social conservatives whose political philosophies were formed in reaction to the 1960s counterculture. And they would both play central though easily overlooked roles in the Citizens United case. Bopp’s contributions would be obscured because he withdrew from the case after David Bossie hired Ted Olson, unwilling to be second string to Olson. Alito’s influence could be missed because he would not write any opinion in the case.


pages: 526 words: 160,601

A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America by Bruce Cannon Gibney

1960s counterculture, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate personhood, Corrections Corporation of America, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, failed state, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Menlo Park, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Savings and loan crisis, school choice, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Snapchat, source of truth, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

“Protest: The Banners of Dissent.” Time. 27 Oct. 1967, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,841090,00.html. 5. Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. Revised ed., Bantam, 1 July 1993, p. 214. 6. Cottrell, Robert C. Sex, Drugs and Rock ’n’ Roll: The Rise of America’s 1960s Counterculture. Rowman & Littlefield, 19 Mar. 2015, p. 88. 7. The New York Times: The Times of the Sixties: The Culture, Politics and Personalities That Shaped the Decades. Edited by John Rockwell. Black Dog & Leventhal, 2014, p. 152. 8. “Gallup Finds Rise in Marijuana Use,” New York Times, 6. Feb. 1972, p. 36 (polling college students and finding under 5 percent had tried marijuana in 1967, rising to 42 percent by 1970 and then a majority by the end of 1971; of that majority, four out of five had used it in the past year and three out of five in the past month).


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, Garrett Hardin, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Herbert Marcuse, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, sunk-cost fallacy, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tragedy of the Commons, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Dionysian cultures apologies Aquinas, Saint Thomas Arafat, Yasir archaeology Archer, John Archimedes Ardipithecus ramidus Arendt, Hannah Argentina aristocrats deaths from violence Aristophanes, Lysistrata Aristotle armed forces: as band of brothers conscription of effectiveness of Ethical Marine Warrior file closers mercenary military revolution reluctance to shoot size of willingness to die Armenians, genocide of Aronson, Elliot Asal, Victor Asch, Solomon Ash-Sheikh, Abdulaziz Asia: abortion in female infanticide in historiography in homicide rates in hunter-gatherers in legal discrimination in massacres in New Peace in spanking in violence against animals in violence against women in wars in assassinations; see also regicide Astell, Mary Athens, democracy in Atlas, Charles Atran, Scott atrocities, twenty worst in history attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Atwood, Brian Augustine, Saint Australia domestic violence in homicide in peace imposed in New Guinea penal colony warfare among aborigines australopithecenes Austria-Hungary autarky; see also trade, international Authority Ranking autocracy and Age of Nationalism and democide Islamic punishment in and the social dilemma autonomic nervous system Autonomy, ethic of availability heuristic Axelrod, Robert Aztecs baby boomers: crime among influence of television on and 1960s counterculture Bacon, Francis balance of power balance of terror Bales, Kevin Bandura, Albert Bangladesh Barbara, Saint Barth, Karl Batson, Daniel Baumeister, Roy Evil and self-control Bays, Paul Beatles Beccaria, Cesare On Crimes and Punishments Beirut, U.S. servicemen bombed in Belarus Belgium Bell, David Bell, Derrick bell curve, see normal distribution Belloc, Hillaire Benedict, Ruth, Patterns of Culture Bentham, Jeremy Berlin, Isaiah Berlin Wall Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von Betzig, Laura Bhagavad-Gita Bhutto, Benazir Bible: capital punishment in debt bondage in historical analysis of and homophobia human sacrifice in and legislation New Testament Old Testament popularity of slavery in Big Parade, The (film) Bill of Rights, U.S.

Nobel, Alfred Noble Savage myth nonstate societies: cooperation in data sources of deaths from warfare in emergence of fighting in violence rates in norepinephrine normal distribution norms: of civilized society and crime rates of etiquette evaluation of informal internalized and morality in 1960s counterculture of nonviolence of purity social tacit territorial integrity of war as immoral see also etiquette; moral sense; taboos North Korea noses: blowing cutting off Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty nuclear peace theory nuclear taboo nuclear terrorism nuclear threat nuclear weapons Nunberg, Geoffrey Nunn, Sam Nuremberg Trials nursery rhymes Nurture Assumption Nussbaum, Martha Oatley, Keith Obama, Barack obedience; see also Milgram, Stanley Odysseus Oklahoma City bombing Olds, James Oneal, John One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (film) openness to experience Operation Ceasefire Opium Wars Oppenheimer, Robert opponent-process theory of emotion optimal foraging orientation, long- vs. short-term Orwell, George Otterbein, Keith Ottoman Empire Ötzi the Iceman overconfidence Owen, Wilfred oxytocin Oz, Amos Pacification Process civilization human societies introduction of concept logic of violence use of term violence in human ancestors violence in state and nonstate societies Pacific Northwest pacifism Pacifist’s Dilemma and empathy and feminization and gentle commerce and Leviathan and reason Pakistan Al Qaeda in and India and terrorism Pale of Settlement Palestine Panksepp, Jaak Papua New Guinea; see also New Guinea Parachini, John paramilitaries Pareto, Vilfredo Pareto Principle Parker, Theodore Parks, Rosa Pascal, Blaise pastoralism Pate, Amy Patrick, Saint patrilocal societies Patterson, Orlando Patz, Etan Pauling, Linus Paul IV, Pope Payne, James L.


pages: 733 words: 184,118

Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age by W. Bernard Carlson

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Clayton Christensen, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Henri Poincaré, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, packet switching, popular electronics, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, undersea cable, yellow journalism

Nevill Drury, The New Age: Searching for the Spiritual Self (London: Thames and Hudson, 2004), 12. 9. F. David Peat, In Search of Nikola Tesla, rev. ed. (London: Ashgrove, 2003). 10. Seifer, Wizard, 460–61. 11. Nikola Tesla: Discovering the Future (Swiss Tesla Institute, 2008), p. 28, http://swisstesla.com/. 12. The critique that technologists have no soul is very much a 1960s counterculture attack based on a skewed reading of C. P. Snow’s The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1959). For a challenge to this critique, see Samuel P. Florman, The Existential Pleasures of Engineering (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1976). 13. Posting by Mike, 12 January 2009, on “Feel the Heat: Tesla Roadshow Hits Miami during Art Basel” Blog, Tesla Motors, http://www.teslamotors.com/blog3/?


pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Atkinson, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, linear model of innovation, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Yochai Benkler

This utopian vision, he added, was “in line with the romantic fantasies of the forefathers of the science, such as Norbert Wiener, J. C. R. Licklider, John von Neumann, and Vannevar Bush.”15 All of these experiences led Brand to become the impresario and techie for one of the seminal events of the 1960s counterculture, the January 1966 Trips Festival at Longshoreman’s Hall in San Francisco. After the joys of the Acid Tests, which had been held weekly throughout December, Brand proposed to Kesey that they throw a blowout version that would last for three days. The extravaganza opened with Brand’s own troupe, America Needs Indians, performing a “sensorium” that included a high-tech light show, slide projectors, music, and Native American dancers.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, Kim Stanley Robinson, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

If the greens have their way, Morano warns, we will be looking at “a CO2 budget for every man, woman, and child on the planet, monitored by an international body.”4 Next is Chris Horner, a senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute who specializes in harassing climate scientists with burdensome lawsuits and Freedom of Information Act fishing expeditions. He angles the table mic over to his mouth. “You can believe this is about the climate,” he says darkly, “and many people do, but it’s not a reasonable belief.” Horner, whose prematurely silver hair makes him look like Anderson Cooper’s frat boy doppelgänger, likes to invoke 1960s counterculture icon Saul Alinsky: “The issue isn’t the issue.” The issue, apparently, is that “no free society would do to itself what this agenda requires. . . . The first step to [doing] that is to remove these nagging freedoms that keep getting in the way.”5 Claiming that climate change is a plot to steal American freedom is rather tame by Heartland standards.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, functional programming, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kim Stanley Robinson, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

While the company's roots extend back into mid-1970s Northern California hippie hacker culture, in important ways the Apple weltanschauung was not crystallized until the airing of Lee Clow and Ridley Scott's Superbowl TV ad in and of the year 1984.57 Here the driving theologic dichotomy of the brand is established, cleaving the line between Apple (individual, color, youth, cool, iconoclast) and IBM (mass, monochrome, old, awkward, hierarchical), a creed equally appealing to 1960s counterculture and its boomer aftermath, as it is to the John Wayne wing of the American Right. An LSD-eating Buddhist and his gentle programmer pal set in motion what would become Rush Limbaugh's favorite company.58 The story of the company and its brand have provided privileged archetypes to postindustrial capitalism: a populist concept, rejection by the old guard, a near-death experience, the return of the True Idea, blockbuster appliances, an actual death and hagiographic reverence, the passing of the doctrine, and so on.


Rough Guide to San Francisco and the Bay Area by Nick Edwards, Mark Ellwood

1960s counterculture, airport security, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, period drama, pez dispenser, Port of Oakland, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Don’t let the strange name put you off (it’s named after the grandfather of the current owner); this traditional 1940s supper club with its plush red decor and tuxedoed bar staff offers more than just Frank Sinatra tribute bands. The savvy booker here schedules underground European acts, kitschy tribute bands, and big-name rock acts in equal proportion. $20 and up. The Fillmore 1805 Geary St at Fillmore, Japantown t 415/346-6000, wwww .thefillmore.com. A local landmark, the Fillmore was at the heart of the 1960s counterculture, when it was masterminded by the legendary Bill Graham. It reopened in 1994 after several years’ hiatus and is home now to mainly rock acts. Cover varies. The Great American Music Hall 859 O’Farrell St at Polk, Tenderloin t415/885-0750, wwww .musichallsf.com. Starting out as a bordello in the 1900s, the Music Hall’s fortunes soon went into decline.


Coastal California by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, airport security, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Mason jar, McMansion, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Wozniak, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

During the affluent 1950s, the Beat movement in San Francisco’s North Beach railed against the banality and conformity of suburban life, instead choosing bohemian coffeehouses for jazz, poetry and pot. When the postwar baby boomers came of age, many hippies took up where the Beat generation left off, heeding 1960s countercultural icon Timothy Leary’s counsel to ‘turn on, tune in, and drop out.’ Sex, drugs and rock and roll ruled the day. With the foundations for social revolution already laid, protestors marched against the Vietnam War and for civil rights in the late 1960s, then again for gay liberation in the ’70s.


Coastal California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, flex fuel, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Lyft, Mason jar, New Journalism, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Wall-E, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

During the postwar boom of the 1950s, the Beat movement in San Francisco’s North Beach railed against the banality and conformity of suburban life, instead choosing bohemian coffeehouses for jazz, poetry and pot. When the baby boomers came of age, many hippies took up where the Beat generation left off, heeding 1960s countercultural icon Timothy Leary’s counsel to ‘turn on, tune in, and drop out.’ Sex, drugs and rock and roll ruled the day. With the foundations for social revolution already laid, protestors up and down California’s coast marched against the Vietnam War and for civil rights in the late 1960s, then again for gay liberation starting in the ’70s.


pages: 1,088 words: 297,362

The London Compendium by Ed Glinert

1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nick Leeson, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket

In his 1954 book The Colour Bar Constantine explained that ‘most British people would be quite unwilling for a black man to enter their homes, nor would they wish to work with one, nor stand shoulder to shoulder with one at a factory bench’. The hotel, built from 1905–11, was designed with many ornate flourishes by Charles Fitzroy Doll and included a Winter Garden and Turkish Baths. • The West Indies at Lord’s, p. 369. International Times (1966–8), No. 102 International Times (IT), the main journal of London’s 1960s counter-culture, began publishing its uncompromising mix of offbeat articles, drug information, iconoclasms of sexual taboos and paeans to avantgarde literature, art and music in 1966 in what had previously been the Indica bookstore. Early issues included pieces on the surrealist André Breton, the Vietnam War, Yoko Ono’s exhibitions and Ezra Pound’s pro-fascist views.


Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Just look for the green-and-white square sticker with a plate and silverware drawn in it – it’s an easy way of knowing that the eatery probably got its eggs from a neighboring farm. For a full listing of restaurants with this label, visit www.vermontfresh.net. BRATTLEBORO Ever wonder where the 1960s counter-culture went? It’s alive and well in this riverside burg overflowing with craft shops and more tie-dye per capita than any other place in New England. Sights & Activities Begin at Main St, which is lined with period buildings, including the handsome art-deco Latchis Building, which houses a hotel and theater.


pages: 1,540 words: 400,759

Fodor's California 2014 by Fodor's

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, Downton Abbey, East Village, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, Kickstarter, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

., daily 10–4. The Haight, the Castro, and Noe Valley These distinct neighborhoods are where the city’s soul resides. They wear their personalities large and proud, and all are perfect for just strolling around. Like a slide show of San Franciscan history, you can move from the Haight’s residue of 1960s counterculture to the Castro’s connection to 1970s and ’80s gay life to 1990s gentrification in Noe Valley. Although historic events thrust the Haight and the Castro onto the international stage, both are anything but stagnant—they’re still dynamic areas well worth exploring. Previous Map | Next Map | California Maps Exploring the Haight Haight-Ashbury Intersection.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Biosphere 2, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Just look for the green-and-white square sticker with a plate and silverware drawn in it – it’s an easy way of knowing that the eatery probably got its eggs from a neighboring farm. For a full listing of restaurants with this label, visit www.vermontfresh.net. BRATTLEBORO Ever wonder where the 1960s counter-culture went? It’s alive and well in this riverside burg overflowing with craft shops and more tie-dye per capita than any other place in New England. Sights & Activities Begin at Main St, which is lined with period buildings, including the handsome art-deco Latchis Building, which houses a hotel and theater.