California gold rush

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The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival by Dr. Stephen R Palumbi Phd, Ms. Carolyn Sotka M. A.

California gold rush, clean water, glass ceiling, land tenure, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

One such vessel, the Griffon, considered itself to be unusually lucky when it “after two months obtained 300 sea otter skins!” This success too was fleeting, and hunts of only 100 skins a season soon became more common, so little that “the owners will not lose or gain anything by the voyage.” Eventually, in 1841, The First California Gold Rush: Ottersâ•… â•… 23 even the Russians abandoned their outpost at Fort Ross, north of San Francisco. Although otter hunting continued until the California Gold Rush eclipsed other forms of extractive wealth, the decade from 1840 to 1850 saw the end of the commercial otter enterprise. Much had changed politically in California as well. The old mission system was largely gone, decayed into adobe ruin when the Spanish Empire fell and Mexico won its 1821 independence. But war between the former colonies of the United States and Mexico was coming and would shift the ownership of land out of Mexican hands.

For the air in the vacuum, I thank my family: Mary, Lauren, and Tony. Stephen Palumbi To Maria and Richard, who instilled a love of being outdoors and of nature; to Erik, who opens my eyes to the ecological wonders of even the smallest marine creatures; and to Kai and Liv, who inspire me to keep looking for ocean treasures. Carolyn Sotka Contents Preface xi intr od uc ti on Chapter 1 Julia’s Window 3 part i:╇ The Rui n Chapter 2 The First California Gold Rush: Otters 11 Chapter 3 Whale Bones in Treasure Bay 25 Chapter 4 Abalone Shells and China Point 37 part ii:╇ The Bo t t om Chapter 5 Dr. Mayor Julia Platt 55 Chapter 6 The Power of One: Julia Fights the Canneries 68 Chapter 7 Ed Ricketts, Ecology and the Philosophy Chapter 8 of Tide Pools Dust Bowl of the Sea: The Canneries Collapse 87 100 part iii:╇ Th e Re cov e ry Chapter 9 The Otter Returns 113 Chapter 10 Kelp, Seals, and Seabirds Rise Again 132 Chapter 11 The Aquarium 144 Chapter 12 The Century to Come 163 Acknowledgments 175 About the Authors 177 Notes 179 Index 203 Preface Walking to work along the shore of Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay, is like a taking a stroll through another century.

The inset shows Monterey Bay, the current towns of Monterey and Pacific Grove, and the 1769 route of the Portolà expedition. The lower left corner of the inset shows a reproduction of the crude map Vizcaíno drew in 1602 to suggest that Monterey was a perfect harbor protected by a spur of land, the Point of Pines, which is grossly exaggerated in this drawing. (Maps based on the National Atlas.) Chapter 2 The First California Gold Rush: Otters E arly fall is a magical time in Monterey Bay, and French captain Jean-François de la Pérouse, arriving in September 1786, perhaps saw it at its best. The fogs of summer begin to roll back in September, releasing the pent-up sun to warm the hills and quicken the air with the scent of sage and pine. The shoreline gathers raucous seabirds. The beaches are the beds of languid seals.


Shotguns and Stagecoaches: The Brave Men Who Rode for Wells Fargo in the Wild West by John Boessenecker

California gold rush, mass immigration, transcontinental railway

How to connect the civilization of the East Coast to the rugged frontier, how to cement continental commerce, and how to form a bicoastal nation were mammoth tests for American enterprise. This challenge could not have been met without the efforts of Wells Fargo & Company’s Express. And Wells Fargo’s mission would not have been possible without the valiant shotgun messengers and detectives who protected its treasure, its stagecoaches, and its railroad express cars. Wells Fargo sprang to life during the California Gold Rush and came to the forefront of every successive American frontier that followed. As soon as a new mining camp or cattle town burst forth, Wells Fargo was there. The company provided both express and banking services, taking in gold and silver and shipping it out of the mining regions. Wells Fargo followed the money, and robbers followed Wells Fargo. The connection between commerce and crime was never more evident than in the story of Wells Fargo.

However, in 1866, Wells Fargo began running overland stages, and it acquired ownership interests in numerous local stage lines. After the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, Wells Fargo increasingly transported shipments aboard trains. During the 1870s, as railroads expanded throughout the West, Wells Fargo express cars, usually coupled behind the tender and in front of the baggage car, became a common sight. Wells Fargo’s first messengers, during the California Gold Rush, carried letters by horseback to and from the mining camps; soon they began transporting treasure from the mines on riverboats to San Francisco. They carried guns to ward off highway robbers. In the 1850s, if a stagecoach had a large shipment of gold on board, the local Wells Fargo agent would guard the treasure. Wells Fargo agents, contrary to popular belief, were not secret agents or detectives.

They were with a group of men discussing business, mining, and travel. Hodgkins joined the discussion and at one point commented, “When I have any work to do I always start in and do the best I can.” At that, one of the would-be robbers grinned widely and said, “Yes, and you know your business too.”1 The career of Chips Hodgkins was the early history of Wells Fargo. During the initial years of the California Gold Rush, he worked for its predecessors, and when those small local express firms were absorbed by Wells Fargo, he served the new company faithfully for decades. For forty years, from 1851 to 1891, Chips was the best-known express messenger on the West Coast, transporting tens of millions of dollars in gold, first by horseback, then by stagecoach, and finally by steamship and railroad. He was so scrupulously honest that it was commonly said of him, “No man in the United States ever actually handled more money than he did, but not a nickel of it ever stuck to his fingers.”2 He was born Pilsbury Hodgkins in Nobleboro, Maine, on February 17, 1825.


pages: 532 words: 162,509

The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America by Andrés Reséndez

Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, California gold rush, Columbian Exchange, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Jones Act, planetary scale, Right to Buy, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty

For a brief treatment of the frontier captains, see the works of Philip Wayne Powell, especially Mexico’s Miguel Caldera, chap. 5. 42. Alonso de León, “Relación y discursos del descubrimiento, población . . . ,” in Genaro García, ed., Documentos inéditos o muy raros por la historia de México (Mexico City: Porrúa, 1975), 41, 58. 4. THE PULL OF SILVER 1. For two excellent general treatments of the California gold rush, see Malcolm J. Rohrbough, Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); and Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: Norton, 2000). 2. On the silver peso, see Carlos Marichal, “The Spanish-American Silver Peso: Export Commodity and Global Money of the Ancien Regime, 1550–1800,” in Steven Topik, Carlos Marichal, and Zephyr Frank, eds., From Silver to Cocaine: Latin American Commodity Chains and the Building of the World Economy, 1500–2000 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006), 25–42. 3.

Rather it was a system, one with extraordinary staying power recalled fifty years after Carvajal’s inquisitorial tribulations by Alonso de León, another notable frontiersman and the first chronicler of the New Kingdom of León: “In those days, we did not consider anyone a man until he had journeyed to the Indian rancherías, whether friends or enemies, and seized some children from their mothers to sell; and there was no other way to sustain ourselves or open new trails without tremendous difficulties.”42 4 * * * The Pull of Silver THE CALIFORNIA GOLD rush transformed the western United States. Within one decade of James W. Marshall’s discovery of a few flecks of gold in a ditch in 1848, some three hundred thousand migrants had moved to California. These Chinese, Italian, German, Chilean, and other newcomers turned the remote and picturesque Mexican outpost of San Francisco into a bustling port. They also fanned out into the Sierra Nevada to build cabins, divert rivers, and pan for the yellow metal. This is a familiar story of long journeys, ethnic conflict, broken dreams, and explosive growth.1 Yet the California gold rush was neither the largest metal-induced rush of North America nor the most transformative. By any measure, that title belongs to the earlier Mexican silver boom.

By any measure, that title belongs to the earlier Mexican silver boom. In terms of duration, for instance, the California gold rush was like a hurricane. Gold production skyrocketed in 1849 but peaked as early as 1852, only four years after the start of the rush, and declined markedly thereafter. For all practical purposes, the rush was over by 1865, lasting less than twenty years. The use of pressurized water to wash down entire hillsides—a process known as hydraulic mining—kept gold production from declining even faster than it did. By contrast, Mexico’s silver boom started in the 1520s and grew through the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, reaching a plateau at the end of this period. Remarkably, it gained a second wind in the late seventeenth century and kept increasing during the eighteenth century, not attaining its high-water mark until the first decade of the nineteenth century—almost three centuries after the boom had begun.


pages: 497 words: 153,755

The Power of Gold: The History of an Obsession by Peter L. Bernstein

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, central bank independence, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, falling living standards, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, large denomination, liquidity trap, long peace, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, random walk, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route

Yet we shall see at every point that Ruskin's paradox arises and challenges us anew. Whether it is Perseus in search of the Golden Fleece, the Jews dancing around the golden calf, Croesus fingering his golden coins, Crassus murdered by molten gold poured down his throat, Basil Bulgaroctonus with over two hundred thousand pounds of gold, Pizarro surrounded by gold when slain by his henchmen, Sutter whose millstream launched the California gold rush, or modern leaders such as Charles de Gaulle who deluded themselves with a vision of an economy made stable, sure, and superior by the ownership of gold-they all had gold, but the gold had them all. When Pindar in the fifth century Bc described gold as "a child of Zeus, neither moth or rust devoureth it, but the mind of man is devoured by this supreme possession," he set forth the whole story in one sentence.3 John Stuart Mill nicely paraphrased this view in 1848, when he wrote "Gold thou mayst safely touch; but if it stick/Unto thy hands, it woundeth to the quick."4 Indeed, gold is a mass of contradictions.

The labor force employed in the South African mines exceeds four hundred thousand men, about 90 percent of whom are black.16 King Ferdinand of Spain coined immortal words in 1511 when he declared, "Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards-get gold."" Not all gold has to be mined. When gold is carried down by mountain streams, the prospector can wade in and sieve up the fragments of gold-bearing ore that have broken loose from the mountainside. Gold was collected long ago in this fashion in Asia Minor, where gold coinage first made its formal appearance. Some 3500 years later, the California gold rush of the nineteenth century began on the banks of the Sacramento River, when the Forty-Niners crowded into the river with their crude equipment to "pan" the gold out of the rushing waters. They were following a practice that had come down from the ancient Greeks, who used woolly sheepskins for panning gold from the rivers-the tight curls of the sheep's coat did an excellent job of capturing and holding the fragments of gold as the waters came rushing down the mountainsides.

The long delay between the discovery and Polk's announcement was the primary impetus for the first revolution in telecom-the establishment of the Western Union Company and the wiring of the entire United States for telegraphy. By 1853, over one hundred thousand people had swarmed into California, including 25,000 Frenchmen and twenty thousand Chinese, and annual gold production approached eighty metric tons; production would peak as early as 1853 at around 95 tons.' The name Sutter's Mill has always been associated with the onset of the California gold rush. Poor Johann Sutter! In essence a good man, not a greedy man, Sutter was grieved rather than thrilled to hear about the golden nuggets in the stream on his property. He was so far out of step that he ultimately landed in deep trouble and came to a sad end. In 1876, when he was 67 years old, Sutter received a visitor named H. H. Bancroft, a historian who persuaded him to dictate his memoirs about his null and the gold rush.


pages: 404 words: 118,759

The Bohemians: Mark Twain and the San Francisco Writers Who Reinvented American Literature by Ben Tarnoff

California gold rush, interchangeable parts, Kickstarter, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, new economy, New Journalism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South of Market, San Francisco, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman

They also sustained Early literary life: Michael Kowalewski, “Romancing the Gold Rush: The Literature of the California Frontier,” California History 79.2 (Summer 2000), pp. 207–210, and SFLF, pp. 17–54. The gold rush generation produced a vast amount of letters, diaries, and other documents about early California. The most famous of these early firsthand accounts was written by Louise Amelia Knapp Smith Clappe under the pen name Dame Shirley in 1851–1852. For a complete listing of gold rush literature, see Gary F. Kurutz, The California Gold Rush: A Descriptive Bibliography of Books and Pamphlets Covering the Years 1848–1853 (San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1997). CHAPTER ONE What people remembered Twain’s drawl: Arthur McEwen, “In the Heroic Days,” in TIHOT, p. 22; Henry J. W. Dam, “A Morning with Bret Harte,” McClure’s 4.1 (Dec. 1894), p. 47; MTAL, pp. 168–169; and William H. Rideing, “Mark Twain in Clubland,” Bookman 31 (June 1910), pp. 379–382.

., pp. 46–47; Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978), pp. 87–88; William James Linton, The History of Wood-Engraving in America (Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1882), pp. 27–33. Statistics on numbers of newspapers: Bruce A. Bimber, Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 52–53. The newspaper revolution Role of newspapers in the gold rush: H. W. Brands, The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (New York: Doubleday, 2002), pp. 70, 124–126, 130. Literacy in the Far West: SFLF, pp. 7, 14; Earl Pomeroy, The Pacific Slope, pp. 34–35, 42, 153; and Sanford Winston, Illiteracy in the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1930), pp. 16–17. Literary paper as sign of flush times: MTR, p. 339. Literature’s significance for farmers and miners: SFLF, p. 120.

Mexican and Chinese clothing: Amelia Ransome Neville, The Fantastic City, p. 47. “bustling . . .”: Bret Harte, “Bohemian Days in San Francisco,” p. 277. There was another Seeing the Far West for the first time: Wallace Stegner, “Thoughts in a Dry Land,” Where the Bluebird Sings to the Lemonade Springs: Living and Writing in the West (New York: Penguin, 1992), pp. 52–55. For eyewitness accounts of gold rush–era California, see Gary F. Kurutz, The California Gold Rush. For pre–gold rush narratives, see Joshua Paddison, ed., A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California before the Gold Rush (Berkeley, CA: Heyday, 1999), pp. 167–305. “to about twice . . .” and “I said we . . .”: SLC to Jane Lampton Clemens, October 26, 1861, in MTL, vol. 1, p. 137. This was what “westernization of the perceptions”: Wallace Stegner, “Thoughts in a Dry Land,” p. 54.


pages: 208 words: 64,113

Unfamiliar Fishes by Sarah Vowell

California gold rush, index card, Maui Hawaii, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steve Jobs, trade route

Hawaiians’ role in providing food for the surge of American settlers to Oregon and California in the 1840s contributed to increasingly prosperous planters lobbying the king to privatize the land. In an 1846 letter, the missionary Richard Armstrong wrote, “A brisk trade is opening with Oregon and California. . . . The sugar and molasses of the islands will be in demand in these territories and they will bring lumber, flour, salmon, etc. in exchange.” After the California gold rush of 1849, Armstrong reported, “Every bean, onion, potato or squash that we have to spare is at once snatched away to California to feed the hungry there.” As Hawaiian planters expanded their operations, it was only natural for them to want to secure their fields from the whims of chiefs or the king. They wanted ownership, and they wanted paperwork proving ownership. The Hawaiian government did not simply chop up maps of the islands and pass out deeds to commoners and chiefs.

In their article on the epidemics of 1848-49 for the Hawaiian Journal of History, Robert C. Schmitt and Eleanor C. Nordyke estimate that ten thousand people (one tenth of the population) died in the islands in those two years alone. They attribute the alarming uptick in deaths from measles, whooping cough, dysentery, influenza, and diarrhea to the amplified ship traffic between Hawaii and the West Coast brought on by the California gold rush. They point out:Before the late 1840s, most ships visiting Hawai’i sailed from East Coast ports, and reached the Islands by a long, laborious voyage around South America. Any sick seamen were either dead or recovered by the time they sighted Diamond Head. Now they sailed directly from San Francisco in perhaps two weeks or less, fully capable of spreading the baleful diseases they had so recently picked up.


pages: 255 words: 75,208

Why We Get Fat and What to Do About It by Gary Taubes

California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, Gary Taubes, meta analysis, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial

In 1846, when a U.S. Army battalion passed through Pima lands, John Griffin, the battalion’s surgeon, described the Pima as “sprightly” and in “fine health” and noted that they also had “the greatest abundance of food”—storehouses full of it.* So much that when the California gold rush began three years later, the U.S government asked the Pima to provide food, and they did, to the tens of thousands of travelers who passed through their territory in the next decade, heading to California on the Sante Fe Trail. With the California gold rush, the relative paradise of the Pima came to an end and, with it, their affluence. Anglo-Americans and Mexicans began settling in large numbers in the region. These newcomers—“some of the vilest specimens of humanity that the white race has produced,” wrote Russell—hunted the local game near to extinction, and diverted the Gila River water to irrigate their own fields at the expense of the Pimas’.


pages: 70 words: 22,172

How We'll Live on Mars (TED Books) by Stephen Petranek

California gold rush, Colonization of Mars, Elon Musk, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, nuclear winter, out of africa, Richard Feynman, trade route

They meant that we could do anything on or near Earth. Getting to Mars will have an entirely different meaning: If we can get to Mars, we can go anywhere. The achievement will make dreamy science fiction like Star Wars and Star Trek begin to look real. It will make the moons of Saturn and Jupiter seem like reasonable places to explore. It will, for better or worse, create a wave of fortune seekers to rival those of the California gold rush. Most important, it will expand our vision as far from the bounds of Earth’s gravity as we can imagine. When the first humans set foot on Mars, the moment will be more significant in terms of technology, philosophy, history, and exploration than any that have come before it, all because we will no longer be a one-planet species. These explorers are the beginning of an ambitious plan, not just to visit Mars and establish a settlement but to reengineer, or terraform, the entire planet—to make its thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide rich enough in oxygen for humans to breathe, to raise its temperature from an average of –81 degrees Fahrenheit to a more tolerable 20 degrees, to fill its dry stream beds and empty lakes with water again, and to plant foliage that can flourish in its temperate zone on a diet rich in CO2.


pages: 382 words: 92,138

The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, endogenous growth, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, G4S, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, intangible asset, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, Philip Mirowski, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

These breakthroughs were the result of research carried out in various public–private partnerships at labs including those at DARPA, AT&T Bell Labs, Xerox PARC, Shockley and Fairchild, to name a few. Silicon Valley quickly became the nation’s ‘computer innovation hub’ and the resulting climate stimulated and nurtured by the government’s leading role in funding and research (both basic and applied) was harnessed by innovative entrepreneurs and private industry in what many observers have called the ‘Internet California Gold Rush’ or the ‘Silicon Gold Rush’ (Kenney 2003; Southwick 1999). There are 12 major technologies integrated within the iPod, iPhone and iPad that stand out as features that are either ‘enablers’, or that differentiate these products from their rivals in the market. These include semiconductor devices such as (1) microprocessors or central processing units (CPU); (2) dynamic random-access memory (DRAM); as well as (3) micro hard drive storage or hard drive disks (HDD); (4) liquid-crystal displays (LCDs); (5) lithium-polymer (Li-pol) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries; (6) digital signal processing (DSP), based on the advancement in fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms; (7) the Internet; (8) the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); (9) and cellular technology and networks – all of which can be considered as the core enabler technologies for products such as the iPod, iPhone and iPad.

.: on characteristics of DARPA model 78–9; developmental network state concept 78n2; on SBIR programme 80; on state funding behind innovation 63; on US industrial policy 21, 38n5, 68, 85; on US innovation policies 74–7 Bloom, Nicholas 46 Bloomberg on tax schemes 174–5 Bonus 145 Braeburn Capital 173 Branscomb, Lewis M. 48 Brazil 2, 4–5, 120, 122, 190 Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) 5, 122, 190 Breakthrough Report 109 Bristol-Myers Squibb 188 British Post Office 104 Brodd, Ralph J. 108 Brody, Peter 107 bureaucracy, Weberian 4n2 Burlamaqui, Leonardo 189 Bush, George H. W. 85 Bush, George W. 110–11 Bush, Vannevar 75 ‘business angels’ 47, 48 Buxton, Bill 102n10 Cailliau, Robert 105 California: Apple’s avoidance of capital gains tax in 173; Apple’s R&D base in 172; competitive climate of 165, 176; ‘Internet California Gold Rush’ 95; R&D tax packages of 109–10, 111n13; wind industry participation 145, 147, 156 Cameron, David 15 Canada 61 capacitive sensing technology 100–101, 100n9, 103 capitalism: Adam Smith’s view of 30; dysfunctional modern 12; financial fragility of 32n3; image of market as engine of 167; innovative labour in 13; Keynes on 30–32; State risks in framework of 193; State’s role in 195 Capital Moves (Cowie) 172 cellular technology 109, 109 Chang, Ha-Joon 9n3, 38n5, 40 China: clean technology investment by 120, 124n6, 125, 137; Evergreen Solar lured to 152; ‘green’ 5 year plan 122–4; green revolution in 11, 115n2, 116, 120; investment banks in 2, 4, 5; Kyoto Protocol signed by 123n5; new investment in renewable energy 120, 121; policy support for wind industry 153; as solar power competitor 129–31, 130n11, 144, 150; targeted industrialization in 40; ‘trade wars’ of 122, 131; wind capacity of 143; from ‘Wind Rush’ to rise of wind power sector 144–50 China Development Bank (CDB) 5, 122, 153, 189–90 Citizens for Tax Justice 174n5 classical economists 186–7 clean technology: in China 122–4; in crisis 158–9; electric cars/vehicles 108, 123, 124, 133; Ernst & Young report on 124; historical overview of 118, 118n3; investment (by country) 120–21; investment by venture capital 161; public vs. private investment in 26, 143; R&D investment in 119; sources 117–18; US calling to end support to 157; see also green revolution; wind and solar power climate change 117, 123, 135; see also green industrial revolution Climate Works 123 Clinton administration 84–5 Coad, Alex 44 ‘Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes’ (CALO) project 106 Compaq 107 competition, generating 77 computer field: DARPA’s role in 75–8; hard disk drives (HDD) 96–7; personal computers 78, 89, 94–5; research support to 99; sources of key technologies used in 94–5; in wind technology 147–8 Concorde 194; see also ‘picking winners’ Cook, Tim 171 countercyclical lending 4, 140, 190 ‘creative destruction’ 10, 10n4, 58, 165; see also Schumpeter, Joseph ‘crowd funding’ 127 ‘crowding in’ 5–6, 8 ‘crowding out’ 8, 23–4 DARPA: see Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ‘Death Valley’ stage of innovation 47, 48, 122 DEC 107 decentralization 78, 85, 104 defence contractors 76–7, 98 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA): ARPA-E modeled after 133; brokering role of 77, 79; clean energy funding 132n13; communications network project of 104, 104n11; creation of 76; dual-use technologies targeted by 97; funding by 76–7; model characteristics 78; organizational attributes of 133–4; role of behind SIRI 105–6; support for SPINTRONICS 97; technological contributions of 133; top talent attracted by 4 Defense Logistics Agency 132n13 demand-side policies 83, 113–15, 159 Demirel, Pelin 44 DEMOS 2 Denmark 115n2, 120n4, 121, 143, 144–5 Department of Commerce (US) 47 Department of Defense (DoD) (US): ARPANET project as Internet origin 63; energy innovation impacted by 132n13; GPS and SIRI development by 105–7; GPS costs to 105n12; solar opportunities created by 150; TRP initiated by 97 Department of Energy (DoE) (US): ARPA-E agency of 4; attracting top talent 18; clean energy research 132–3; First Solar’s link to research of 151; funding Solyndra 154; funding support of lithium-ion battery 108; loan guarantees administered by 129; SunPower’s patents link to 152; wind research funded by 147–8 Department of Energy and Climate Change (UK) 124 ‘de-risking’ of private sector 5–6, 9, 198 de-skilling perspective 186 ‘Developmental State’ 10, 37–8, 37–8n5, 40, 68; see also State development banks: see State development banks digital signal processing (DSP) 109 ‘directionality’ 2, 4–5, 32n2 ‘discursive’ battle, Judt’s 9, 58, 198 distribution and innovation 186 Domar, Evsey David 33 domestic content rules 149 Dosi, Giovanni 53 Drucker, Peter 58 drugs: classifications of new 64, 64; Gleevec 81; MRC research on 67; orphan drugs 81–3; percentages of new by types 66, 66; radical vs.


pages: 326 words: 97,089

Five Billion Years of Solitude: The Search for Life Among the Stars by Lee Billings

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, California gold rush, Colonization of Mars, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, index card, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Kuiper Belt, low earth orbit, Magellanic Cloud, music of the spheres, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, planetary scale, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Solar eclipse in 1919, technological singularity, the scientific method, transcontinental railway

Strewn along its base would be a jumbled melange of younger surface rock mixed with unconsolidated mudstone from the toppled ancient seafloor. Rain falling on the mountains eroded the sides, exposed the ore veins, and flushed flakes and fragments of precious metals into rivers. On January 24, 1848, while building a sawmill along the American River to float logs to the small coastal settlement of San Francisco, a carpenter named James Marshall found a few pieces of that washed-down gold, sparking the great California Gold Rush. Soon, some 300,000 people from around the world had swarmed the region to seek their fortunes, exponentially increasing its population and propelling the unorganized territory into official U.S. statehood. Boomtowns bubbled and burst throughout northern California. San Francisco became a bustling city. The redwood forests fell to feed furnaces that reduced quarry-hewn limestone into lime, which went into the cement for marble-faced buildings.

He hoped to expand that fortune through purchasing cheap land in the new California territories, which he thought would soon be annexed by the United States. Along with his tools and workbench, Lick had brought along an ironclad chest filled with $30,000 in gold. He immediately began buying up vacant lots around town. Seventeen days after Lick’s arrival, James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s Mill, the California Gold Rush was set in motion, and Lick found himself the biggest player in a buyer’s market for San Francisco’s abundant real estate. Soon he was swamped with sales offers, as residents abandoned their coastal harbor homes in droves to seek gold in the inland hills. He bought up all the land he could at cut-rate prices, then netted huge profits as San Francisco’s population exponentially boomed from wave after wave of arriving prospectors.


pages: 314 words: 106,575

Black Fire: The True Story of the Original Tom Sawyer--And of the Mysterious Fires That Baptized Gold Rush-Era San Francisco by Robert Graysmith

California gold rush, profit motive, South of Market, San Francisco, white picket fence

Gold Dust & Gunsmoke: Tales of Gold Rush Outlaws, Gunfighters, Lawmen, and Vigilantes. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999. From published edition and advance uncorrected proofs. (This is a valuable source for the stories of Billy Mulligan, Dutch Charley, and Yankee Sullivan.) Block, Eugene E. Great Stagecoach Robbers of the West. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1962. (Great resource for Hank Monk.) Brands, H. W. The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream. New York: Anchor Books, 2002. Browning, Peter. San Francisco/Yerba Buena. Lafayette, CA: Great West Books, 1998. Camp, William Martin. San Francisco, Port of Gold. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1947. Carlisle, Henry C. San Francisco Street Names: Sketches of the Lives of Pioneers for Whom San Francisco Streets Are Named. San Francisco: The American Trust Company, 1954.

(Firsthand accounts of the great fires by an artistic sailor.) Cole, Tom. A Short History of San Francisco. San Francisco: Don’t Call It Frisco Press, 1981. Country Beautiful editors. Great Fires of America. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Country Beautiful Publishing, 1973. DeFord, Miriam Allen. They Were San Franciscans. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1941. Delgado, James P. To California by Sea: A Maritime History of the California Gold Rush. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1996. ———. Gold Rush Port: The Maritime Archaeology of San Francisco’s Waterfront. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2009. (A treasure trove of valuable archaeological information about Yerba Buena Cove from a leading maritime archaeologist.) Dickson, Samuel. Tales of San Francisco. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965. ———.


pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Novelist Eliza Farnham wrote promotional literature for recruiting women to California; see her California, Indoor and Outdoor, How We Farm, Mine, and Live Generally in the Golden State (New York, 1856); also see Nancy J. Taniguchi, “Weaving a Different World: Women and the California Gold Rush,” California History 79, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 141–68, esp. 142–44, 148. For the French caricature, see Le Charivari, ca. 1850, Picture Collection, California State Library. On importing women to California ending spinsterhood, see “A Colloquial Chapter on Celibacy,” United States Magazine and Democratic Review (December 1848): 533–42, esp. 537. On the sex ratio imbalance in California, claiming there were three hundred men to every woman, see “Letters from California: San Francisco,” Home Journal, March 3, 1849. 23. See Sucheng Chan, “A People of Exceptional Character: Ethnic Diversity, Nativism, and Racism in the California Gold Rush,” California History 79, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 44–85; Hinton Rowan Helper, The Land of Gold: Reality Versus Fiction (Baltimore, 1855), 264. 24.

By the 1860s he owned over twenty-three thousand acres and had established himself as one of the ruling patriarchs of the new state.20 Yet California’s early history had been as grim as that of Texas. Both of these extensive territories were overrun with runaway debtors, criminal outcasts, rogue gamblers, and ruthless adventurers who thrived in the chaotic atmosphere of western sprawl. The California gold rush attracted not only grizzled gold diggers but also prostitutes, fortune hunters, and con men selling fraudulent land titles. Among the Texas and California cutthroats who captured the American imagination was the “half-breed Mexican and white.” He was known for his “mongrel dandyism,” loud jewelry, and flamboyant clothing.21 In a certain sense, California reverted to older British colonial patterns.


Cast-Iron Cooking with Sisters on the Fly by Irene Rawlings

California gold rush, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii

DUTCH OVEN COOKING Before anyone ever even heard of a Crock-Pot, our grandmothers used Dutch ovens that were, we’re told, developed in Holland in the early 1700s. More history: There are reports that George Washington’s troops used Dutch ovens during the Revolutionary War and, from there, the versatile portable ovens traveled west with the homesteaders, miners, and ranchers. They were used to make sourdough bread during the California gold rush of 1849, and chuck wagon cooks used them during long cattle drives—from Texas and Oklahoma to the Chicago stockyards. SLOW COOKER DUTCH OVEN 12 hours/Low 3 hours/325°F 10 hours/Low 2½ hours/325°F 8 hours/Low 2 hours/325°F 6 hours/Low 1½ hours/325°F 5 hours/Low 1 hour, 15 min./325°F 4 hours/Low 1 hour/325°F 4 hours/High 2 hours/325°F 3 hours/Low 45 min./325°F 3 hours/High 1½ hours/325°F 2 hours/Low 30 min./325°F 2 hours/High 1 hour/325°F 1 hour/Low 15 min./325°F 1 hour/High 30 min./325°F Source: Originally published by Kathleen Purvis, food editor at the Charlotte Observer, and refined by Rick Mansfield (www.cookingincastiron.com) What to Look for in a Dutch Oven The Dutch Oven Divas of the Desert, who meet every January near Quartzsite, Arizona, to show off their culinary skills, have a list of features that their Dutch ovens must have: A flat bottom Three short kettle legs to allow circulation of air onto the coals placed below the Dutch oven A strong wire handle (called a “bail”) that can stand up at a 45-degree angle from the Dutch oven A flat lid with a lip to allow coals to be placed securely on top of the Dutch oven A small loop handle on the lid to allow the lid to be lifted off with a “lid lifter” or hook A lid that fits properly (so there is no rocking motion when the lid is on the pot, but not so tightly that the steam can’t escape) What Else You’ll Need for Dutch Oven Cooking A Dutch oven—The most popular size is 12 inches.


Discover Maui by Lonely Planet

California gold rush, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, land reform, Maui Hawaii, sustainable-tourism, trade route

The very name Kula is synonymous with fresh veggies on any Maui menu worth its salt. So bountiful is Kula’s soil, it produces most of the onions, lettuce and strawberries grown in Hawaii and almost all of the commercially grown proteas. The latest addition, sweet-scented lavender, is finding its niche, too. The magic is in the elevation. At 3000ft, Kula’s cool nights and sunny days are ideal for growing all sorts of crops. Kula’s farmers first gained fame during the California gold rush of the 1850s, when they shipped so many potatoes to West Coast miners that Kula became known as ‘Nu Kaleponi,’ the Hawaiian pronunciation for New California. In the late 19th century Portuguese and Chinese immigrants who had worked off their contracts on the sugar plantations also moved up to Kula and started small farms, giving Kula the multicultural face that it still wears today. Sights Stop and smell the roses…and the lavender and all those other sweet-scented blossoms.

Tours NATURE CONSERVANCY Guided Hikes Offline map ( 553-5236; www.nature.org/hawaii; 23 Pueo Pl, Kualapu‘u; tour $25) Leads guided hikes of Moʻomomi; transportation is provided to and from the preserve. Reservations are required. Kalaʻe Sights MOLOKAʻI MUSEUM & CULTURAL CENTER Museum Offline map ( 567-6436; adult/child $3.50/2; 10am-2pm Mon-Sat) Four miles northeast of Hwy 460 is the sugar mill built by Rudolph W Meyer, an entrepreneurial German immigrant. Meyer was en route to the California gold rush when he stopped off on the islands, married a member of Hawaiian royalty and landed a tidy bit of property in the process. In 1876 Meyer turned his lands over to sugar and built a mill. Now on the National Register of Historic Places, this restored mill is the last of its kind. The museum includes the sugar mill and intriguing displays of Molokaʻi’s history. Palaʻau State Park Sights KALAUPAPA OVERLOOK Lookout Perched on the edge of a 1600ft cliff, this overlook is the highlight of this woodsy park, at the end of Hwy 470.


pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard

air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, liberation theology, McMansion, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

It’s known for its resistance to heat and to corrosion by acids—even when actually submerged in acid.98 Although coltan has mostly been sourced from other countries like Australia, Brazil, and Canada, 80 percent of the world’s supplies are in the politically unstable and violence-plagued eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.99 Congolese coltan mining has funded brutal guerilla forces and their backers in neighboring countries like Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda. Coltan can be mined with very basic methods: simply dug up and sifted through pans, just as the forty-niners in the California Gold Rush worked. So when the global price of the metal shot up in 2000 to three hundred dollars per pound of the refined mineral (in part due to the huge launch of Sony’s PS2 game console), thousands of Congolese scrambled into the country’s lush green forests to get at it, destroying national parks and other pristine land, killing gorillas for food, and ruining the animals’ habitat.100 Various armies (official and rebel) rushed in to take over the trade, often employing children and prisoners of war, brutally raping local women (the UN estimated 45,000 raped in 2005 alone101), and bringing prostitution and illegal arms trade with them.

INDEX Abacha, Sani, 31 Abu Dhabi, 66 Acetone, 60 Advertising, 160, 163–168, 251, 256 Advisory committees, 99–100 Afghanistan, 243, 244 Agent Orange, 54, 213 Air freight, 115, 119 al-Qaeda, 26 Alameda County Waste Management Authority, 211 Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), 258 Allan, John, 17 Alloys, 44 Aluminum, 21, 59 Aluminum cans, 64–68, 196 Amazon, 116, 118–121 Amazon River, 66 American Chemistry Council, 93, 99 American Cyanamid, 222 Ammonia, 60, 61 Amnesty International, 28, 32 Anderson, Ray, 19, 185, 187–189 Anderson, Warren, 92 Anheuser-Busch, 196 Antibacterial products, 79 Antimony, 59 Appalachia, 35, 36 Apple Computer, 57, 59, 108, 109, 203, 206 Aral Sea, 46 Arsenic, 13, 15, 35, 59, 73, 203 Autoclaving, 201 Automobile industry, 159–160, 164 Bangladesh, 12–14, 49, 184, 193, 219–221 Barber, Benjamin, 169, 172 Basel Action Network (BAN), 205, 227, 228 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, 227, 258 Batker, Dave, 246 Batteries, 203, 204 Bauxite, 21, 64–65 Beavan, Colin, 147, 239, 245 Bechtel, 140 Bee, Rashida, 91 Benin, 45 Benyus, Janine, 105 Benzene, 30, 48 Beryllium, 203 Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, 79 Beverage containers, 64–68, 194–195 Bezos, Jeff, 118 Bhopal disaster, India, 90–93, 98 Big-Box Swindle (Mitchell), 121, 125 Big Coal (Goodell), 36 Bingham Canyon copper mine, Utah, 21 Biological oxygen demand (BOD), 10–11 Biomimicry, 104–105 Bioplastics, 230–231 BioRegional, 40 Birol, Fatih, 29–30 Birth defects, 60, 74, 76, 91 Bisignani, Giovanni, 115 Bisimwa, Bertrand, 28 Bisphenol A (BPA), 78, 99–100 Bleach, 15, 48, 56 Blood Diamond (movie), 26, 28 Body burden testing, 78–80 Bolivia, 140 Books, 51–56, 118–120 Borden Chemical, 222 Borneo, 3 Boron, 59 Boston Tea Party, 127 Bottle Recycling Climate Protection Act of 2, 195 Bottled water, 16 Bowling Alone (Putnam), 149, 238–239 Bräutigam, Deborah, 37 Brazil, 8, 66, 67 Breast milk, 81, 82–83, 91, 171 Bridge at the End of the World, The (Speth), 167 Brockovich, Erin, 30 Bromines, 48 Bruno, Kenny, 225 Burkina Faso, 45 Burundi, 27 Bush, George H. W., 250 Bush, George W., 147 Business Alliance for Local Living Economies (BALLE), 141 Cadmium, 24, 30, 59, 73, 203, 205, 219 California Gold Rush of 1849, 24–25, 27 Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, 256 Cancer, 45, 48, 54, 60, 68, 69, 74, 76, 83, 85, 202 Car-sharing programs, 43 Carbon dioxide, 2, 36, 50–51, 65, 180–181, 209 Carbon monoxide, 65 Cargo ships, 113–114 Carlin, George, 183 Carson, Rachel, 98 Catalogs, 9 Caustic soda (lye), 48, 54, 64 Cell phones, 27, 29, 57, 103–104, 161, 202 Center for a New American Dream, 246 Center for Constitutional Rights, 258 Center for Health, Environment and Justice (CHEJ), 69 Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), 100 Center for Sustainable Economy, 242 Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO), 62 Ceramics, 44 Chelaton, Jayakumar, 236 Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), 93 Chemical pulping, 53 Chemicals.


pages: 282 words: 28,394

Learn Descriptive Cataloging Second North American Edition by Mary Mortimer

California gold rush, clean water, corporate governance, deskilling, illegal immigration, Norman Mailer

E XERCISE 6.4 Refer to the rules for this area in the appropriate chapters of AACR2, and to the MARC codes at the back of this book (or use the MARC manual, if you have access it). Transcribe and code the publication, distribution area only for each of the following: a. Title page of a book Forest Press A Division of OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Albany, New York 2004 260 52 LEARN DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGING b. Label of the audiocassette California Gold Rush : life in the goldfields in the days of ‘49 (bought in a Californian folk museum) Lay of the Land, Copyright 1996 260 c. Verso of the title page of a book bf 2001 by boyd & fraser publishing company A Division of South-Western Publishing Company One Corporate Place • Ferncroft Village Danvers, Massachusetts 260 d. Label of a videocassette © Prologic Pty Ltd 1995 Published in association with Longman Cheshire Pty Limited and Control Data Pty Limited Unit 6, 663 Main Street, Mt.


pages: 488 words: 144,145

Inflated: How Money and Debt Built the American Dream by R. Christopher Whalen

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, debt deflation, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global reserve currency, housing crisis, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, non-tariff barriers, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

James, 729. 29. “1995 Annual Report: A Brief History of Our Nation’s Paper Money,” Annual Report, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, 1995. 30. History of the U.S. Treasury, U.S. Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC. 31. Webster, Daniel, The Works of Daniel Webster, Vol. III (Boston: Little Brown, 1881), 394. 32. Margo, Robert A., “Wages in California During the Gold Rush,” NBER Historical Working Paper No. 101* (June 1997). 33. Brands, H.W., The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (New York: Anchor Books, 2003), 488. 34. For an interesting discussion of the New York clearinghouse, see Ida M. Tarbel, “The Hunt for a Money Trust,” American Magazine, Volume LXXVI, July 1913 to December 1913, (New York: Phillips Publishing Co.), 42. 35. Timberlake, Richard H., Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 213.

Roubini, Nouriel and Mihm, Stephen, Crisis Economics (New York: Penguin, 2010). Selected References Adams, J.T. (1932). The Epic of America. New York: Little Brown. Barron, C.W. (1915). The Audacious War. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. Baruch, B. (1957). The Public Years. New York: Holt. Bernard, H. (2002). Independent Man: The Life of James Couzens. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Brands, H.W. (2003). The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American dream. New York: Anchor Books Byrd, R.C. (1988). The Senate, 1789–1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Calder, L. (1999). Financing the American Dream: A Cultural History of Consumer Credit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Catteral, R.C.H. (1903). The Second Bank of the United States. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Chernow, R. (1990).


Lonely Planet Panama (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn McCarthy

California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, land tenure, low cost airline, Panamax, post-Panamax, Ronald Reagan, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, women in the workforce

Population: 3.5 million Area: 75,420 km2 GDP: 55.8 billion GDP Growth: 8.5% Inflation: 6.1% Unemployment: 4.4% History The crossroads of the Americas, the narrow isthmus of Panama has always played a central and even strategic role in the history of the Western Hemisphere, from hosting the biological exchange of species to periodic encounters – and clashes – between many cultures. Once an overland trade route that linked the great civilizations of ancient Peru and Mexico, in the post-Colombian conquest it became the overland route for the siphoning off of Inca treasures. With two oceans so near, transit is a longtime theme. As the Panama Railroad once brought prospectors to the California gold rush, today the Panama Canal has become the roaring engine of global commerce. Panama: Four Hundred Years of Dreams and Cruelty, by David A Howarth, chronicles the history of the isthmus from Balboa’s 1513 exploration through 1964, with scintillating tales of conquistadors and buccaneers. Lost Panama The coastlines and rainforests of Panama have been inhabited by humans for at least 10,000 years, and it’s estimated that several dozen indigenous groups including the Kuna, the Ngöbe-Buglé, the Emberá, the Wounaan and the Naso were living on the isthmus prior to the Spanish arrival.

Birth of a Nation Panama’s future forever changed from the moment that the world’s major powers learned the isthmus of Panama was the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In 1846 Colombia signed a treaty permitting the US to construct a railway across the isthmus, though it also granted them free transit and the right to protect the railway with military force. At the height of the California gold rush in 1849, tens of thousands of people traveled from the east coast of the US to the west coast via Panama in order to avoid hostile Native Americans living in the central states. Colombia and Panama grew wealthy from the railway, and the first talks of an inter-oceanic canal across Central America began to surface. The idea of a canal across the isthmus was first raised in 1524 when King Charles V of Spain ordered that a survey be undertaken to determine the feasibility of constructing such a waterway.


pages: 477 words: 144,329

How Money Became Dangerous by Christopher Varelas

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, airport security, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, California gold rush, cashless society, corporate raider, crack epidemic, cryptocurrency, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, full employment, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, interest rate derivative, John Meriwether, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, mandatory minimum, mobile money, mortgage debt, pensions crisis, pets.com, pre–internet, profit motive, risk tolerance, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Predators' Ball, too big to fail, universal basic income, zero day

Seventeen days after the Super Bowl, they had a successful IPO on the Nasdaq at $11 per share. Less than nine months later, the stock bottomed out at nineteen cents, and they liquidated all assets and went out of business. The entire meteoric run of pets.com—from launch to falloon to Super Bowl to IPO to handing in its keys—spanned barely more than two years. There was a gold rush atmosphere in the fledgling days of the internet boom, and indeed it evoked memories of the first California gold rush, which was its own sort of bubble. Exactly a century and a half earlier, gold was discovered in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada by a former carpenter from New Jersey. Hordes of fortune seekers then invaded the state from every corner of the globe, striding into the hills with picks and shovels and pans—and nearly all of them ended up penniless. Yet there were some pioneers whose wealth and success endured, and typically they were the people not especially interested in pulling gold out of the ground.

., 51 Boeing Company, 124 bonds, 50–51, 56, 77–78 high-yield (junk), 91, 93, 96, 97, 104 Salomon and, 50–51, 55–58, 62, 64, 67, 72, 74–76 Bonfire of the Vanities, The (Wolfe), 47, 116, 144 bonuses, see compensation Boob Cruise, 231 Booker, Cory, 340 Borde, Laurence (“Larry Bird”), 54, 55, 79, 203 Brannan, Sam, 230 Bruck, Connie, 93, 94 bubbles, 229, 244, 307, 362–63 crypto, 245–46 dotcom, 175, 211, 214, 228–31, 233–34, 236, 238, 240, 243, 244, 267, 322 education, 292 pension, 353–54 Budweiser, 162 Buffett, Warren, 275, 316, 324 Salomon Brothers and, 68, 75–76, 262–63 Businessweek, 68 cable industry, 96 Caesars Palace, 27–29 California Community Foundation, 347 California gold rush, 230 CalPERS (California Public Employees’ Retirement System), 335–36 Canal+, 170 Caporali, Renso, 119 Carpenter, Michael, 200–201 Carr, Michael, 118, 138, 145 Carter, Jimmy, 154 character, 13, 22–23, 34, 35, 40–43, 358 Chicago Daily Herald, 219 Chinatown, 150 Chrysler, Walter, 74 Cicero, 128 Citadel, The, 48 Citicorp-Travelers merger, 189, 253 Citigroup (Citi), 211, 214–15, 261, 315 AT&T and, 197, 207, 208 author at, 5, 199, 204–5, 211–12 bureaucracy and policies at, 203–4 creation of, 189 culture at, 209, 215, 264, 365–66 culture committee at (Project Passion), 204–6, 211, 264–65, 365–66 Lucent and, 200–201 Prince as CEO of, 208–10 TMT (technology, media, and telecom) group at, 5, 211–12, 253 Weill as CEO of, 188 Weill’s creation of financial supermarket model with, 189–90, 195, 196, 200, 209, 211 Weill’s resignation from, 208–9 Citron, Robert, 315–20, 324, 326, 343–45, 352, 367 Clinton, Bill, 189, 324 cloud, 225, 361 see also data centers Coachella, 292–93, 295, 296 CocaCola, 295 Cocktail, 355 college: admissions scandal, 291–92 financial aid, see student loans Colorado River, 162 COMDEX, 218 Comedy Central, 302 commerce: e-commerce, 232–33, 244, 245 physical world and, 247 CommScope, 201, 202 community and human contact, 233, 247, 307, 309, 358, 361 diminishment of, 216, 246–47 engagement with, 369–70 Compagnie Générale des Eaux, 169 compensation, 248–79, 361 and aligning incentives with investment horizons, 364 annual cycle of, 270–71 author’s bonuses, 248–51, 266–70 of CEOs, 275–76 and complexity and opacity of purpose, 260–61 contentment and, 268–70, 278–79 culture tied to, 205–6, 257–58, 264–65 and “having a number,” 251–53, 263–64, 274, 277, 278 reactions to bonus amounts, 256–59, 270 Salomon bonuses, 64, 248–51, 253–59, 262–63 talent and skills and, 261–62 transparency in, 260, 269, 270, 275, 361–62 CompuServe, 237, 241 computers, 38 algorithms, 23, 37, 242 Black Monday and, 37 spreadsheets, 19–23, 24, 37, 360 ConQuest, 221 Conquest of Happiness, The (Russell), 248 Conquistadores del Cielo, 124–25, 146 Consumer Electronics Show (CES), 217–19 Conway, Cathy, 109–12 Corbat, Michael, 315, 324 Corning Inc., 201 corporate raiders, 82, 84, 88, 89, 94, 96, 103–4, 360 as activist investors, 104, 106, 360 in Pretty Woman, 98, 100–102 see also hostile takeovers credit: five c’s of, 13, 42, 205 spreadsheets used for analysis in, 19–20, 24 worthiness, 22 credit cards, 233 in e-commerce, 232–33, 244, 245 Credit Suisse, 263–64, 273–74, 340 Crisanti, Jim, 203 cryptocurrencies, 245–46, 308 Culligan, 164–68, 182 currency(ies), 245–46 cryptocurrencies, 245–46, 308 phone minutes as, 245 Cutler, Carol, 207 Daily Stormer, 304 Danni’s Hard Drive, 226, 227, 231–33 data centers, 224–25, 227–28, 231 Equinix, 228, 230–31, 237–47 “naked woman in the server room” story and, 223–26, 232 security at, 225 Davis, Mark, 156–58, 165, 166, 221–22 DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration), 31–33, 34, 39, 40 Deasy, John, 351 DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), 227–28 defense and aerospace companies, see aerospace and defense companies Defense Department, 124 Denham, Bob, 324 Denny’s, 154 Depression, Great, 51, 189 derivatives, 316–19, 324 de Vries, Peter, 81 Diamond, Neil, 321 diamond and gold wholesalers, see jewelry industry Diamond Club, 15 Dii Group, 213 Dimon, Jamie, 196, 197 Disney, 81–90, 85, 86, 111, 304 Eisner at, 88, 89, 109 Epcot Center, 86 films, 88, 102, 148–49 Steinberg’s hostile takeover attempt, 81–84, 86–91, 98, 102–4, 111 Touchstone Pictures, 88, 102 Disney, Roy, 85 Disney, Walt, 84–86, 87, 103, 112 Disney Channel, 299, 301, 302 Disneyland, 84, 85, 103, 112, 148, 288–90, 314 author’s career at, 4, 5, 10, 11–13, 40, 45, 61, 71, 81–85, 89–90, 106–12, 148, 158, 289, 290 Café Orleans at, 81, 106–12, 289 in Pretty Woman, 106 privilege and, 289–90 Disney World, 85–86 Dominguez, Bernardo, 132 Dominica, 285, 286 dotcom bubble, 175, 211, 214, 228–31, 233–34, 236, 238, 240, 243, 244, 267, 322 Doughty, Caitlin, 301 Douglas, Michael, 98 Drexel Burnham Lambert, 91–96, 188 author’s offer from, 91, 93, 94–95 bankruptcy of, 96 Milken at, 91–94 Ducasse, Alain, 168, 169 Dunkin’ Donuts, 294 earthquake, Whittier Narrows, 34–35 eBay, 233 Ebbers, Bernie, 212, 238 e-commerce, 232–33, 244, 245 Economic Consequences of the Peace, The (Keynes), 280 Economist, 245 Eisner, Michael, 88, 89, 109 Elmassian, George, 25, 31, 32, 34, 38 Elmassian, Richard, 25, 31–33, 38 Enron, 171, 177 Epcot Center, 86 Equinix, 228, 230–31, 237–47 Escobar, Pablo, 39 Euripides, 9 Evoqua, 182 exchange-traded funds (ETFs), 105 F9 mistake, 127 Facebook, 294, 305 Family Ties, 97–98 Fargo, William, 230 Federal Reserve, 370 FedEx, 127 Feuerstein, Don, 57 FICO score, 22 Finance Leaders Fellowship program, 371 financial crisis of 2008, 1–2, 7, 76, 211, 215, 259, 307 Equinix and, 242 financial supermarkets and, 211 see also Great Recession financial supermarkets, 204, 214–15, 361 financial crisis and, 211 Weill’s model of, with Citi, 189–90, 195, 196, 200, 209, 211 financial system, financial industry, 6, 328–30 causes of society’s dysfunctional relationship with money, 359–63 citizens’ disconnection from government finance, 328–29, 343–44, 351, 353, 362 clashes sparked by financial unrest and collapse, 355–58 compensation in, see compensation complexity of, 260–61, 277 estimated worth of financial instruments in the world, 209 net financial burden, 329–30 people’s feelings about working in, 277 preppers and, 306 see also Wall Street financial system, reform of, 363–64 accountability for public officials, 369 action items for banking system and investment management, 364–66 action items for each of us, 368–70 action items for government, 366–68 changing compensation structures to align incentives with investment horizons, 364 community engagement, 369–70 creating federal-level oversight or review board for pension systems, 366–67 creating independent review processes, 364–65 education in financial and economic matters, 368 forming culture or values committees, 365–66 requiring finance background for treasurers and other financial officers, 367 simplicity of regulations, 367–68 Fiorina, Carly, 190, 194–95 Fitzgerald, F.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

In 1855, Benjamin Silliman, a chemist at Yale University, published his “Report on the Rock Oil, or Petroleum from Venango Co., Pennsylvania, with special reference to Its Use for Illumination and Other Purposes.” Three years later Edwin Drake began drilling for oil at Titusville, Pennsylvania, applying techniques used in salt wells. Though the Civil War briefly put a halt to the drilling, as soon as the war was over America witnessed an “oil rush” reminiscent of the California gold rush, and northwestern Pennsylvania was soon littered with makeshift oil wells and crude refineries where men refined oil much as they distilled whiskey, boiling the liquid and smelling it to see if it could be used for kerosene. Though the mountainous terrain of the Pennsylvania oil fields made transportation difficult, the construction of an oil pipeline in 1865 removed the bottleneck: oil flowed from Pennsylvania to railroad tanker cars and tanker ships and thence to giant refineries.

See also Federal Reserve capital reserves, 444–47, 446 financial cycles and, 425–26 financial deregulation, 338–43 Great Depression and, 234–36 New Deal-era reforms, 254–55, 340 new nation, 32, 42, 65, 73 panic of 1907 and Pujo Committee, 42, 131, 185 Bank of America, 3 Bak of England, 32, 63, 226–27, 374 Bank of New York, 32 Bank of North America, 32 Bank of the United States, 42, 65, 67, 73, 156, 234 barbed wire, 115–16 Barings Bank, 40, 227 Barnett Shale, 357–58 Basel Accords, 382–83, 384 Bates, Edward, 389 Battle Cry of Freedom (McPherson), 41 Battle of New Orleans, 16 Baumol, William, 403 Bayard, James, 66 Bayonne Bridge, 412 Beame, Abraham, 323 Bear Stearns, 381, 385–86 Beckert, Sven, 75 Bell, Alexander Graham, 11, 109 Bell, Daniel, 281, 360, 423 Bell Labs, 350–51, 352 Bell Telephone, 109–10 Bentsen, Lloyd, 332 Benz, Karl, 104 Berle, Adolf, 206–7, 240–41, 260 Berners-Lee, Timothy, 348 Bernhardt, Sarah, 119 Bessemer, Henry, 14–15, 99 Bessemer steel, 14–15, 99–100, 100, 128 Bevin, Ernest, 278–79 Bezos, Jeff, 355 Bhidé, Amar, 334 Bildt, Carl, 441 Bill of Rights, 157 birthrates, 11, 274, 363 Bismarck, Otto von, 247 bison, 116–17 Black, Fischer, 383 Blackstone, William, 30, 419 Blaine, James, 167 “blitzscaling,” 140 Bloch, Richard and Henry, 293 BNP Paribas, 374 Boesky, Ivan, 338 Bogardus, James, 110 bonanza farms, 114–15 boom-bust cycle, 41–42 bootlegging, 192, 197 Borden, Gail, 119–20 Boston & Maine Railroad, 156 Boston Manufacturing Company, 71 Bower, Marvin, 264, 317–18 Bragg, Arial, 70 Brandeis, Louis, 176–77, 241 Bretton Woods Agreement, 278, 279, 306–7 Brin, Sergey, 354–55, 356, 439 British Labour Party, 188, 276 Broniewska, Janina, 276 Brown, John, 77 Brown, Lewis, 209 Brown Brothers, 79 Bryan, William Jennings, 150–53, 172, 174–75, 181, 183, 195–96 Bryce, James, 158, 159 Bubble Act, 135 Buchanan, Patrick, 344, 423 budget deficit, 27, 139, 305, 331, 367, 368, 372, 409–10 Buffalo Forge Company, 213 Buffett, Warren, 392 Bull, John, 95 Burbank, Luther, 118 bureaucratization, 250–51, 333 Burj Khalifa (Dubai), 395 Burke, Edmund, 5 Burling, Walter, 74 buses, 198–99 Bush, George H. W., 328–29, 331, 344, 372 Bush, George W., 368–69, 372–73, 379–80, 406 Bush, Vannevar, 282–83, 349 business confidence, 408–10 “businessman,” 9 business newspapers, 138 Butler, Nicholas Murray, 133 California, 103, 287 Proposition 13, 310 statehood, 5, 40 California gold rush, 42, 101, 111, 125 CaLPERS (California Public Employees Retirement System), 339 Campbell, Joseph, 120 Canal Age, 50–51, 54 Cannon, Joe, 159 cap-ex ratio, 408–10 capital gains tax, 329 Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (Schumpeter), 14, 138–39, 169, 319, 333, 397, 424 capitalism vs. laissez-faire, 165–71 capital reserves, 444–47, 446 Capone, Al, 192 “caravan” society, 389 car imports, 312–14, 313 Carnegie, Andrew, 11, 17, 101, 123, 124, 125–28, 136, 146, 164, 356, 439 Carnegie Steel Company, 123–24 Carrier, Willis, 213–14 cars, 106–7, 196–99, 274, 311, 312–14, 313, 321–22 Carter, Jimmy, 26, 299, 310, 324–25 Carter, Susan B., 433 Case, Anne, 399 Cass, George, 114–15 catalogues, 140–42 cattle industry, 113, 115–17, 119 Cavaliers, 60 census, decennial, 13, 35, 195, 452 census data, 13, 451–52 Central Pacific Railroad, 16, 90, 114 Chandler, Alfred, 137, 139 chartered companies, 134–35 Chase Bank, 79 checks and balances, 157–58, 178–79 Cheney, Richard, 306, 368 Chernow, Ron, 131 Chetty, Raj, 393 Chevalier, Michel, 45 Chicago Board of Trade, 120, 340 Chicago Fire of 1871, 91 Chicago World’s Fair (1933), 418 child labor, 160 China, 370–71, 391, 448–49 exports (1971–2016), 370, 370–71 GDP, 448–49 gold reserves, 229 hypothetical Davos forum, 1–2, 447–48 infrastructure, 394, 395 trade, 346, 347, 370–71, 376–77, 416 “China shock,” 368, 370–71 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 157 Chrysler, 313, 314 Chrysler Building (New York City), 195 Churchill, Winston, 126, 228–29, 239, 394 churn rate, 393 Cisco Systems, 347 Citicorp, 337 Citigroup, 382 Citizens Bank of Louisiana, 79 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 244 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 303 Civil War, 9, 81–85, 161, 266, 267, 455 Clark, Edward, 48 Clark, Jim, 354 Clark, John Bates, 136 Clark, William, 168 class warfare, 259–60 Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, 184 Cleveland, Grover, 152, 153–56, 158–59, 162, 165, 166, 173, 178, 325 Clifford, Clark, 277 Clifton, Robert, 116 climate, 33–34 Clinton, Bill, 331–32, 343, 344, 346, 367, 372, 406 Clinton, Hillary, 415 closing of the frontier, 179–81 Club of Rome, 300 coal, 10, 19, 49, 51, 55, 88, 127–28, 173, 229 Coca-Cola, 91, 215 Cody, William F., 110–11 Cogan, John, 306 Coinage Act of 1792, 32 Cold War, 279–80, 283–84 Colfax, Schuyler, 167 collateralized debt obligations (CDOs), 379 collective bargaining, 209, 250, 251, 255 college education, 281–82, 364, 365, 400–402 Colonial America, 5–6, 29–34 Colt, Samuel, 72 Columbus Buggy Company, 110 Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), 261, 290 communism, 25, 193, 202, 277, 278, 279 Comstock Lode, 162 ConAgra, 324 condensed milk, 119–20 Confederate States of America, 69–90 Civil War and, 9, 81–85 collapse of agriculture, 83–86 farms and farm output, 85, 85–86 GDP, 81, 81–82 money stock and price level, 82–83, 83 role of slavery, 74–87 taxable property, 78, 78 conglomerates, 319–20, 335–36 consolidation, 144, 396–98 conspicuous consumption, 169–70 Constitution, U.S., 7–8, 25–26, 30–31, 32, 35, 40, 187 consumer debt, 216–17, 366 consumer electronics, 316–17 consumer research, 290–91 consumer society (consumerism), 92, 126, 295–96 containerization, 292–93 Continental Congress, 30, 38–39 continental currency, 38–39, 39 Coolidge, Calvin, 188, 189–92, 194, 330 Corn Laws, 232 corporate imperialism, 294–97 corporate restructurings, 335–36 corporate taxes, 329, 416 corporations, 133–34, 135–42, 156 advent of widespread ownership, 206–9 evolution of, 146–49 Great Merger Movement, 142–45 cotton, 73–79, 76, 86–89 Cotton, Calvin, 164 cotton gin, 15, 46, 74, 75 Coughlin, Charles, 204, 246 Council of Economic Advisers, 275, 302–3 Countrywide Financial, 378 cowboys, 113, 116 Cowen, Tyler, 4 Cox, Michael, 431 Crain, Nicole and Mark, 413 creative destruction, 12, 14–21, 209, 324, 389, 390 downside of, 21–23 to mass prosperity, 426–32 political resistance and, 24–26 problems with, 420–26 Crédit Mobilier, 167 credit rating agencies, 383–84 Criscuolo, Chiara, 397 Crissinger, Daniel, 235 Croly, Herbert, 178 Cross of Gold speech, 150–52 culture of growth, 43–57 Custer, George, 110 Dalrymple, Oliver, 115 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 349–50 Darrow, Clarence, 196, 256 Darwin, Charles, 163–64 data and methodology, 451–55 Data General, 353 David, Paul, 13, 35, 202, 403 Davis, Francis, 212 day traders, 340 Deaton, Angus, 399 DeBartolo, Edward J., 292 Debs, Eugene V., 154, 184, 186 debt.


pages: 135 words: 53,708

Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing

California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, East Village, El Camino Real, G4S, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Silicon Valley, the market place, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

When you walk the Gaslamp Quarter, note the short blocks and lack of alleys, created due to the opinion that corner lots were worth more and alleys only accumulated trash. 72 Little Italy stores, and hip cafés distinguish its streets. d Map J3 Asian Pacific Historic District An eight-block area that overlaps part of the Gaslamp Quarter designates the former center of San Diego’s Asian community. The Chinese came to San Diego following the California Gold Rush and took up fishing and construction work; others ran opium dens and gambling halls. Filipinos and Japanese soon followed. This is the home of Chinese New Year celebrations, a farmers’ market, and an Asian bazaar. Pick up a walking-tour map at the Chinese Historical Museum (see p42), and look out for the Asian architectural flourishes on the buildings you pass by. d Map J5 Museum of Contemporary Art A satellite location of the museum in La Jolla (see p32), galleries here present rotating exhibits from emerging and established contemporary artists, as well as selected pieces from the museum’s permanent collection.


Lonely Planet Chile & Easter Island (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn McCarthy, Kevin Raub

California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, centre right, Colonization of Mars, East Village, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, land reform, low cost airline, mass immigration, New Urbanism, off grid, place-making, QR code, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white picket fence

Fishing sustained the area’s first inhabitants, the Chango, and no sooner had the Spanish conquistadores arrived than Valparaíso became a stop-off point for boats taking gold and other Latin American products to Spain. More seafaring looters soon followed: English and Dutch pirates, including Sir Francis Drake, who repeatedly sacked Valparaíso for gold. The port city grew slowly at first, but boomed with the huge demand for Chilean wheat prompted by the California gold rush. The first major port of call for ships coming round Cape Horn, Valparaíso became a commercial center for the entire Pacific coast and the hub of Chile’s nascent banking industry. After Valparaíso’s initial glory days, the port saw hard times in the 20th century. The 1906 earthquake destroyed most of Valparaíso’s buildings, then the opening of the Panama Canal had an equally cataclysmic effect on the city’s economy.

Over the next few centuries the city was repeatedly besieged during the Spanish-Mapuche war, attacked by British and Dutch pirates and devastated by earthquakes in 1730 and 1751. But the colonizing residents stuck to their guns, and Concepción eventually became one of the Spanish empire’s southernmost fortified outposts. After independence, Concepción’s isolation from Santiago, coupled with the presence of lignite (brown coal) near Lota, a coastal town south of Concepción, fomented an autonomous industrial tradition. The export of wheat for the California gold-rush market further spurred the area’s economic growth. During the early 1970s the city was a bulwark of support for Marxist President Salvador Allende and his Unidad Popular party, and it suffered more than other regions under the military dictatorship of 1973 to 1990. Sights La Casa del Arte MUSEUM ( 224-2567; cnr Chacabuco & Paicaví, Barrio Universitario; 10am-6pm Tue-Fri, 10am-5pm Sat, 10am-2pm Sun) The massive, fiercely political mural La Presencia de América Latina is the highlight of the university art museum La Casa del Arte.

Best Places to Eat »Afrigonia (Click here) »La Marmita (Click here) »Remezón (Click here) »La Tablita (Click here) »La Mesita Grande (Click here) Best Places to Stay »Ilaia Hotel (Click here) »The Singular Hotel (Click here) »Hotel IF Patagonia (Click here) »Tierra Patagonia (Click here) »Refugio Grey (Click here) Southern Patagonia Highlights Discover the remote backside of Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Click here) Join the march of the penguins on Isla Magdalena (Click here) Hike the under the toothy Fitz Roy Range (Click here) near El Chaltén, Argentina’s trekking capital Ride the range and trade fireside yarns at a working estancia (grazing ranch) at Skyring Sound (Click here) Enjoy a local microbrew, massage and lovely meals in Puerto Natales (Click here) after time in Torres del Paine Explore the gnarled volcanic steppe of the little-known Parque Nacional Pali Aike (Click here) Ice-trek the cool blue contours of 15-story Glaciar Perito Moreno (Click here) in Argentina History Caves in Última Esperanza show that humans, known as the Aonikenk people, have inhabited the region since 10,000 BC. In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to visit the region. Development was spurred by the California gold rush, which brought trade via the ships sailing between Europe, California and Australia. In the late 19th century, estancias (grazing ranches) formed, creating a regional wool boom that had massive, reverberating effects for both Chilean and Argentine Patagonia. Great wealth for a few came at the cost of native populations, who were all but wiped out by disease and warfare. With the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, traffic reduced around Cabo de Hornos and the area’s international importance diminished.


pages: 187 words: 62,861

The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler

business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, twin studies, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Such examples show us (and in fact these are still relatively simple compared to most real-world situations) that we usually will require, and be willing to live with, more complex definitions of fairness. Gold Miners, Shipwreck Sailors, and Politicians: Fairness of Outcomes and Intentions Fairness can mean quite different things for different people in different settings. One example of this comes from the work of legal historian Andrea McDowell. McDowell studied the mining codes developed during the 1848–49 California gold rush. Because camps were cropping up like mushrooms after a rain, miners were transient, and the territory had not yet been formed into a state, it was impossible for authorities to effectively enforce a single, formal property law over mining rights. So instead the miners in each camp set up codes themselves to ensure that the distribution of the land would be more or less fair. They all agreed it was unfair for any one miner to claim more land than he could work, but beyond that, rules differed widely across the camps.


pages: 230 words: 62,294

The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger

California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place

Folgers Coffee, for example, was founded by a Nantucket Yankee in San Francisco (somewhat of a departure from the norm, as most of the other major coffee companies, indeed companies period, were founded in the East and spread west). The young Jim Folger, in a made-for-TV story showcasing grit and the vicissitudes of fortune, pioneered his business of selling roasted and ground coffee to gold miners, who took to the convenience of not having to roast and grind their own. During the California gold rush, ships transporting miners from Central America (where they crossed the narrow isthmus after a sea journey from the eastern United States) to San Francisco made that city the first U.S. port to receive regular and large shipments of Central American coffee. The port also received coffee from the Dutch East Indies in bags marked with their origin: JAVA. This word was soon adopted to mean coffee in general.


pages: 568 words: 162,366

The Oil and the Glory: The Pursuit of Empire and Fortune on the Caspian Sea by Steve Levine

Berlin Wall, California gold rush, computerized trading, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, fixed income, indoor plumbing, Khyber Pass, megastructure, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, Potemkin village, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, trade route

Karaulov, Andrei. Vokrug Kremlya (Moscow, 1990). Karl, Terry Lynn. The Paradox of Plenty (Berkeley, 1997). Kennan, George F. Russia and the West Under Lenin and Stalin (New York, 1960–1961). Kissinger, Henry. White House Years (Boston, 1979). Klebnikov, Paul. Godfather of the Kremlin (New York, 2001). Knickerbocker, H. R. The Red Trade Menace (New York, 1931). Levinson, Robert E. The Jews in the California Gold Rush (Jersey City, N.J., 1978). Lloyd, John. Rebirth of a Nation (London, 1998). MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919 (New York, 2001). Marvin, Charles. The Region of the Eternal Fire (London, 1884). Matlock, Jack F., Jr. Autopsy on an Empire (New York, 1995). McCain, William D., Jr. The Properties of Petroleum Fluids (Tulsa, Okla., 1990). Nanay, Julia. “The U.S. in the Caspian: The Divergence of Political and Commercial Interests” (Washington, D.C., 1998).

“made it so simple”: The New York Times, March 1, 1956, p. 47. “violently anti-Russian”: Author interview with Ralph Feuerring, July 4, 2004. A Swede, Feuerring was one of the few westerners who did business with the Soviets in the 1950s. Chapter 5: The Middleman “crowded bars and card rooms”: Leonard Gardner, Fat City (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1969), 85. Riverboats from San Francisco: Robert E. Levinson, The Jews in the California Gold Rush (Jersey City, N.J.: Ktav Publishing House, 1978), 94, 174. “hick”: Author interview with Briggs. a Beau Brummel: Author interview with Melvin Corren, a prominent eighty-year-old Stockton merchant who knew Lloyd Giffen, January 15, 2004. Lloyd Giffen was an Oklahoma: Stockton Record, August 14, 1995. He landed a job: 1939 Stockton telephone directory. His death in 1938: Stockton Record, January 6, 1938, p. 1.


pages: 522 words: 162,310

Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional

A defining feature of America from the start, according to McDougall’s Freedom Just Around the Corner, was the unprecedented leeway and success of its hucksters—“self-promoters, scofflaws, occasional frauds, and peripatetic self-reinventors,” as well as “builders, doers, go-getters, dreamers.” He writes that “Americans are, among other things, prone to be hustlers,” which “is simply to acknowledge Americans have enjoyed more opportunity to pursue their ambitions, by foul means or fair, than any other people in history.” For a large pool of hustlers to be successful, of course, requires a large population of easy believers. The California Gold Rush accelerated the westward migration of dreamy Americans. Many people had solid reasons to go west. But once there was an industry based on moving Americans west—the transcontinental railroads—a large and continuous stream of travelers and settlers was required to sustain those new entrepreneurial businesses. Which meant that the railroads and their allies needed to sell the settlers fantasies, as the original New World speculators had done to prospective Americans back in the 1600s.

Miami was still a small town when promoters started calling it the Magic City, then started marketing the whole region as an idyllic place for living as well as vacationing. A real estate boom and building frenzy started around 1915, with swamps drained to make buildable land. Miami Beach was created by a developer who dredged up sand from the ocean and imported thousands of tons of soil. Addison Mizner—who’d grown up in an old California Gold Rush town and taken off for the Klondike during its gold rush—was South Florida’s defining architect, and picturesque fantasies of European glamour were de rigueur: imitation Côte d’Azur and Costa del Sol, faux Paris and Venice.*3 One way to track the nation’s transmutation into Fantasyland is to look at where Americans moved during the twentieth century. In 1900 only two of the twenty largest cities, New Orleans and San Francisco, had temperatures that seldom got below freezing.


pages: 228 words: 65,953

The Six-Figure Second Income: How to Start and Grow a Successful Online Business Without Quitting Your Day Job by David Lindahl, Jonathan Rozek

bounce rate, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, financial independence, Google Earth, new economy, speech recognition, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen

Then they heralded Facebook as the next big thing—until someone else swore the real game-changer was Twitter. These are often the same hucksters who told you that you could sit on the couch and money would spew from the TV. They want to be the pioneer whom you pay for the silver bullet that you seek to solve all your problems in one fell swoop. It ain’t gonna happen. Occasionally someone will figure out a clever angle and make some money from it. Then—just like the California Gold Rush—as soon as word gets out, there’s a mad scramble to get in on the action. Prices go up and the quality of the opportunity plummets. That story should only be depressing for the human pack rat, because the good news is that plenty of methods still work just fine for making money online. No single method is revolutionary, just as nothing is the single super-food you probably want to eat for the rest of your life to the exclusion of all else.


pages: 272 words: 64,626

Eat People: And Other Unapologetic Rules for Game-Changing Entrepreneurs by Andy Kessler

23andMe, Andy Kessler, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Netflix Prize, packet switching, personalized medicine, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, wealth creators, Yogi Berra

He employed tubular boilers and coal instead of burning wood, cost-lowering innovations not previously tried by others milking the route. The competition quickly followed. Vanderbilt was eventually bought out by the Association so they could get their high fees. Over time, Vanderbilt ran one hundred ships around Long Island and up and down the coast, making a fortune. Then he yanked the price down on the New York to San Francisco trip during the California Gold Rush. By going through Nicaragua instead of Panama, he shaved two days off the thirty-five-day trip. He cut prices from $600 to $400. His competitors were paid $500,000 by the Post Office to deliver the mail to California, so Vanderbilt offered to do it for free, and then he cut his passenger price for the trip to $150. Volume surged as every would-be gold miner had only to find $150 worth of gold to make the trip worthwhile.


pages: 281 words: 72,885

Stuff Matters: Exploring the Marvelous Materials That Shape Our Man-Made World by Mark Miodownik

3D printing, active measures, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, liquidity trap, New Urbanism, stem cell, trade route

Chairs and tables fill the room, half of which are occupied by men playing cards and drinking. There is a piano in the corner that no one is playing. The bright California sun filters through the blinds, which are broken and make a rattling noise when the wind blows. Cigar smoke lingers in the air. The occupants of the saloon are a collection of rough-looking men, mostly out of work. Some are ex-miners who came out West during the California Gold Rush ten years earlier and then gravitated to the city, having failed to get rich. Others are veterans of the Civil War, who have wound up here as guns for hire. A few women keep them company. In the corner there is a billiards table to accommodate the new craze for “pool,” using fifteen colored billiard balls. BILL and his younger brother ETHAN are playing. BILL is a cowboy who came to the city on the run from killing a man in Ohio.


pages: 213 words: 70,742

Notes From an Apocalypse: A Personal Journey to the End of the World and Back by Mark O'Connell

Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Carrington event, clean water, Colonization of Mars, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, Elon Musk, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-work, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the built environment, yield curve

They will need to find ways to make the air breathable, and to extract sufficient ice from the regolith, the Martian surface soil, to provide water. They will need to construct shelters, perhaps from regolith bricks, to protect them from the extreme cold and from the sun’s radiation, which passes unfiltered through the planet’s thin atmosphere. The example set by these pioneers, he writes, “will create a wave of fortune seekers to rival those of the California gold rush.” And just as the first European settlers in America saw themselves as ensuring the survival of Christendom, these first settlers on Mars will represent an insurance policy for civilization, for humanity itself. “There are real threats to the continuation of the human race on Earth,” writes Petranek, “including our failure to save the home planet from ecological destruction and the possibility of nuclear war.


Frommer's San Francisco 2012 by Matthew Poole, Erika Lenkert, Kristin Luna

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-work, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration, young professional

You can also listen to podcasts, connect with other Frommers.com members through our active-reader forums, share your travel photos, read blogs from guidebook editors and fellow travelers, and much more. 1 The Best of San Francisco A queen on her throne/float at the Gay Pride parade. San Francisco’s reputation as a rollicking city where almost anything goes dates back to the boom-or-bust days of the California gold rush. It’s always been this way: This city is so beautiful, exciting, diverse, and cosmopolitan that you can always find something new to see and do no matter if it’s your first or fiftieth visit. Oh, and bring a warm jacket: Bob Hope once remarked that San Francisco is the city of four seasons—every day. Things to Do Consistently ranked as America’s Favorite City, San Francisco never ceases to entertain.

Ex-sailor Richard Henry Dana extolled the virtues of California in his best-selling novel Two Years Before the Mast and helped fire the public’s imagination about the territory’s bounty, particularly that of the Bay Area. The first overland party crossed the Sierra and arrived in California in 1841. San Francisco grew steadily, reaching a population of approximately 900 by April 1848, but nothing hinted at the population explosion that was to follow. Historian Barry Parr has referred to the California gold rush as the most extraordinary event to ever befall an American city in peacetime. In time, San Francisco’s winning combination of raw materials, healthful climate, and freedom would have attracted thousands of settlers even without the lure of gold. But the gleam of the soft metal is said to have compressed 50 years of normal growth into less than 6 months. In 1848, the year gold was first discovered, the population of San Francisco jumped from under 1,000 to 26,000 in less than 6 months.


Wonders of the Universe by Brian Cox, Andrew Cohen

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, California gold rush, Cepheid variable, cosmic microwave background, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, Karl Jansky, Magellanic Cloud, Mars Rover, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route

But what of the other seventy-two – some of which are vital for life, and many of which we hold most precious? If they are not formed within stellar furnaces, what could their origin possibly be? In the remote forests of northwestern California, the mountains still hide a secret that made the quiet pine woods the ultimate destination for fortune seekers only a century ago. Although they’re empty today, in the late nineteenth century this was the centre of the California gold rush. Hundreds of thousands of people arrived here, trying anything and everything to get rich, from simple panning to the most advanced mining techniques available. Gold worth billions of dollars was extracted, fuelling the rise of one of the world’s great cities, San Francisco. The insatiable appetite for gold has waned today, but in the forests around Lake Tahoe, the 16–1 mine remains one of the few gold mines still operating in the state of California.


pages: 236 words: 77,735

Rigged Money: Beating Wall Street at Its Own Game by Lee Munson

affirmative action, asset allocation, backtesting, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, call centre, Credit Default Swap, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, follow your passion, German hyperinflation, High speed trading, housing crisis, index fund, joint-stock company, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, price discovery process, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, stocks for the long run, stocks for the long term, too big to fail, trade route, Vanguard fund, walking around money

I was researching this book while spending time in a Taos Earthship, The Dobson House. Unlike people, earthships are types of homes that don’t need gold to survive; they are off the grid and made of old tires and beer bottles. I was searching for the meaning of money, but only found a warm hot spring. The book is a factual account of the 1857 sinking of the SS Central America. A passenger ship retuning from the California Gold Rush, it was carrying what was then around $2 million in gold. A few guys from Ohio decided to track it down in the 1980s. They found it, along with what had turned into a billion dollars’ worth of gold. Think about it. The currency on the ship was all but worthless today, but the gold remains. This is gold’s power. The problem lies in the timing. When you buy and sell gold makes a difference.


pages: 202 words: 72,857

The Wealth Dragon Way: The Why, the When and the How to Become Infinitely Wealthy by John Lee

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, butterfly effect, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Donald Trump, financial independence, high net worth, intangible asset, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, negative equity, passive income, payday loans, self-driving car, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, stocks for the long run, stocks for the long term, Tony Hsieh, Y2K

There should be no quitting until the final curtain. While you live and breathe, you have another chance. Whatever life has dealt you, you still have another chance. Never, never, never give up. Vince: Nothing speaks to me more on this point than the story about the man who gave up when he was three feet from finding gold. The story goes that a man from the East Coast wanted to get in on the California gold rush. He invested all his money in the necessary equipment, transported it all west, hired people to work for him and started digging. He kept digging for two years. He used up all his money, all his friends' money, got into debt and eventually gave up. He sold all his equipment to another guy and threw in the towel. The first day the second guy started digging he struck gold after going three feet.


pages: 247 words: 78,961

The Return of Marco Polo's World: War, Strategy, and American Interests in the Twenty-First Century by Robert D. Kaplan

Admiral Zheng, always be closing, California gold rush, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Haight Ashbury, kremlinology, load shedding, mass immigration, megacity, one-China policy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, Westphalian system, Yom Kippur War

The elder Bush was no intellectual, but he intuitively grasped what the bookish DeVoto knew by travel, study in the Harvard library, and his own Utah upbringing: that America was a continent of such dimensions that to lead was not a choice but a fate. But Obama’s sensibility seems not to be continental. Continentalism, in Kennan’s estimation, is opposed to universalism. But I disagree. I believe that without one there is not the other. If you haven’t internalized moments like the California gold rush and westward expansion, you can’t fully grasp why America deserves to lead. Only by conquering the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains first could America defeat Hitler and Tojo second. Whereas the elder Bush made incessant phone calls to many world leaders from the start of his presidency—long before such crises as the collapse of the Soviet Empire and Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait—Obama waits until he is buried in a crisis, and even then he often delegates such responsibilities.


pages: 686 words: 201,972

Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol by Iain Gately

barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, corporate raider, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haight Ashbury, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Louis Pasteur, megacity, music of the spheres, Norman Mailer, Peace of Westphalia, post-work, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, working poor

Here were maudlin squaws stretched on piles of buffalo robes; squalid Mexicans, armed with bows and arrows; Indians sedately drunk; long-haired Canadians and trappers, and American backwoodsmen in brown homespun, the well-beloved pistol and bowie knife displayed openly at their sides. In the middle of the room a tall, lank man, with a dingy broadcloth coat, was haranguing the company in the style of the stump orator. With one hand he sawed the air, and with the other clutched firmly a brown jug of whisky, which he applied every moment to his lips, forgetting that he had drained the contents long ago. Three years after Parkman’s excursion, the California gold rush commenced. The prospect of digging a fortune out of the distant hills fired the imagination of all America, and much of Europe. People set off in their thousands, and then their tens of thousands, all animated by the dream of filling their pockets with nuggets that rumor had scattered across the Far West. On one day in August 1850, 39,506 emigrants were counted passing Fort Laramie, and though this flood subsided over the following decade, sufficient numbers of people were crossing the country to change its face forever.

He paused on his voyage home in Mexico, where, even after eight months on the road through a nation in the making, he was shocked by the chaos and took “philosophical consolation in various experiments touching the influence of Mezcal brandy, the Mexican National drink, upon the human mind and body.” The tumult of Mexico, exaggerated by mescal, sweetened Burton’s perception of America, and in particular the last portion of its soil that he had touched. San Francisco, true to Richard Henry Dana’s prophecy, had become a considerable place, thanks to the gold rush. It is hard to overstate the impact of the California gold rush on the American and global economies. America had always been short of specie; and now its citizens were digging it by the sackful out of the California and Nevada mountains—$550 million worth, in 1850s prices, in the first decade alone. The rumor that America had not just free land but free gold, too, spread around the world, and people from Pacific and Atlantic nations set out for the new Eldorado.


pages: 601 words: 193,225

740 Park: The Story of the World's Richest Apartment Building by Michael Gross

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bonfire of the Vanities, California gold rush, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Irwin Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, McMansion, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, short selling, strikebreaker, The Predators' Ball, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Whenever he could, he put his two cents in. He liked the technical part, the aesthetic part. I don’t think he got that thrill from banking.” In January 1925, Lee did his biggest real estate deal yet, teaming up with Carpenter (in his role as speculator and developer); Eliot Cross, the patrician architect who’d developed Sutton Place and co-founded the real estate giant Webb & Knapp; and Robert E. Dowling, the son of a California gold-rush mine owner and another major real estate operator. They bought two of the most valuable parcels of land on Park Avenue, the sites of Presbyterian Hospital on the full block between Seventieth and Seventy-first streets between Park and Madison avenues and the hospital’s nurses’ residence on the north side of Seventy-first Street. The two properties were part of the former Lenox Farm, thirty acres bounded by Fifth and Park and Sixty-seventh and Seventy-fourth streets, put together in 1818 for $6,920 by Robert Lenox, a Scot who’d come to New York just after the Revolution.

Buying their house between his and the nurses’ residence was Lee’s most audacious move, for it made 740 a place where blood and money would cooperate for their common good. Brewster’s lineal ancestor “Elder” William Brewster, born in England in 1567 and jailed for his Pilgrim religious beliefs in 1607, had traveled aboard the Mayflower to the Plymouth Colony of Massachusetts in 1620. George Brewster was the son of Benjamin Brewster, who joined the California gold rush in 1849 and returned east in 1874. A mutton-chopped, bushy-eyebrowed eminence, Benjamin built the famous Rock Island Railroad and was one of the founders and trustees of the Standard Oil Company, part of the great monopoly run by John D. Rockefeller. Brewster was the president of the Keokuk and Des Moines Railroad, too, and owned a mansion at Fifty-fifth Street and Fifth Avenue when he died in 1897.


pages: 287 words: 81,970

The Dollar Meltdown: Surviving the Coming Currency Crisis With Gold, Oil, and Other Unconventional Investments by Charles Goyette

bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, diversified portfolio, Elliott wave, fiat currency, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, housing crisis, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, index fund, Lao Tzu, margin call, market bubble, McMansion, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, oil shock, peak oil, pushing on a string, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, short selling, Silicon Valley, transaction costs

Unresponsive to real-world changes in supply and demand, an artificial ratio could not reflect the impact of new gold supplies from discoveries such as in California’s Gold Rush. As gold became more plentiful (and cheaper), it took fewer silver coins to buy it; silver was relatively more valuable. Coins with the higher precious metals value, higher than the arbitrary government rate, in this case silver, would be hoarded or melted and sold; debts would be paid with the cheaper coinage. By 1853, five years after the California Gold Rush, Congress had to reduce the silver in the coinage to keep coins from disappearing. No artificial price or ratio can ever accommodate always changing supply/demand realities like the silver bonanza of the great Comstock Lode ten years later, much less the mushrooming demand for silver in our electronic and digital age. Left to move freely and thus reflect real economic conditions, the gold/silver ratio has moved from ancient times, when two ounces of silver could buy an ounce of gold, up to 100 to 1 in 1991.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

However, in the twenty-first century, in the southwest the cultural historical memory of the region as Hispanic land is likely to resurface, as the demographics are changing rapidly and Hispanics will be the majority population within a few decades. But back to 1848. The Europeans had gone, the Mississippi basin was secure from land attack, the Pacific was reached, and it was obvious that the remaining Native American nations would be subdued: there was no threat to the United States. It was time to make some money, and then venture out across the seas to secure the approaches to the three coastlines of the superpower-to-be. The California gold rush of 1848–49 helped, but the immigrants were heading west anyway; after all, there was a continental empire to build, and as it developed, more immigrants followed. The Homestead Act of 1862 awarded 160 acres of federally owned land to anyone who farmed it for five years and paid a small fee. If you were a poor man from Germany, Scandinavia, or Italy, why go to Latin America and be a serf, when you could go to the United States and be a free land-owning man?


pages: 290 words: 84,375

China's Great Wall of Debt: Shadow Banks, Ghost Cities, Massive Loans, and the End of the Chinese Miracle by Dinny McMahon

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, business cycle, California gold rush, capital controls, crony capitalism, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, fixed income, Gini coefficient, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, megacity, money market fund, mortgage debt, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban planning, working-age population, zero-sum game

The city itself was lit up like a fun park, with apartment towers illuminated with spotlights and government buildings flashing with colored LEDs, but no one was there to appreciate the spectacle other than bored traffic cops. As we trudged along outside rows of empty shop fronts, the only footprints in the early spring snow were my colleague’s and my own. In most parts of the world, a ghost town is a place where the community simply got up and left. The American West is dotted with them, places that sprang up overnight with the California gold rush and then dwindled just as quickly as the ore ran out and the miners moved on. Russia has thousands of what are known as “dead towns,” places that hollowed out with the end of the Soviet Union either because the military left or because state support for industries in far corners of the empire dried up. In China, however, the idea of a ghost town has been turned on its head. Dotting the Chinese landscape are places that weren’t abandoned but rather barely had any population in the first place.


pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Timothy Noah, “Steve Jobs, Jobs-Creator,” New Republic (blog), October 6, 2011, http://www.newrepublic.com/blog/timothy-noah/95877/steve-jobs-job-creator. 128. John Markoff, “Silicon Valley Reacts to Economy With a New Approach,” New York Times, April 21, 2001; Robert D. Hof, “Venture Capital’s Liquidators,” Bloomberg Businessweek, December 03, 2008, http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-12-03/venture-capitals-liquidators. 129. Paul Abrahams, “End of Second California Gold Rush Leaves the Valley in Shock,” Financial Times, May 9, 2001. 130. Robert Marquand, “Fast, Cheap, and in English, India Clerks for the World,” Christian Science Monitor, April 30, 1999. 131. Economic Policy Institute, “EPI Analysis Finds No Shortage of STEM Workers in the United States,” press release, April 24, 2013, http://www.epi.org/press/epi-analysis-finds-shortage-stem-workers; Joshua Wright, “Supply of Tech Workers Greater Than Estimated Demand,” New Geography, September 1, 2011, http://www.newgeography.com/content/002411-supply-tech-workers-greater-than-estimated-demand. 132.


pages: 309 words: 84,038

Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cycling by Carlton Reid

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bike sharing scheme, California gold rush, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Yom Kippur War

The film added that “finding a route to ride in safety is one of the biggest obstacles to pedal power, but the new English town of Stevenage incorporates twenty-five miles of tracks … without crossing the tracks of motorists.” CycleTouring, the magazine from the Cyclists’ Touring Club, warned: “Get Ready for the Bike Boom.” 1975 “There is a bicycle boom throughout the world,” wrote Richard Ballantine in the third edition of his best-selling Richard’s Bicycle Book. “In America it is like the 1849 California Gold Rush … and now there is a boom in Great Britain.” Ballantine wrote that line in 1973 when there most definitely was a boom; by the following year the boom was over. 1976 ITV broadcast a program to cash in on the 1970s bicycle boom. The Big Booming Bicycle Show was produced by Tyne-Tees Television, and aired a number of times on Saturday mornings in 1976. It was fronted by Sally James who, the following year, became the presenter of the Phantom-Flan-Flinging Tiswas.


pages: 432 words: 85,707

QI: The Third Book of General Ignorance (Qi: Book of General Ignorance) by John Lloyd, John Mitchinson

Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, dark matter, double helix, epigenetics, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, music of the spheres, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route

That’s because it was written to celebrate Thanksgiving. Originally entitled ‘The One-Horse Open Sleigh’, ‘Jingle Bells’ was the work of American composer James Lord Pierpont (1822–93), uncle of the financier J. P. Morgan. Pierpont’s father commissioned it for a Thanksgiving service. Pierpont led a wild life – at 14 he ran away to sea and joined a whaling ship. At 27 he left his wife and children in Boston to join the California gold rush. After re-inventing himself as a photographer, he lost all his possessions in a fire and moved to Savannah, Georgia, where he joined the Confederate army during the Civil War. Throughout this period he continued to write songs, ballads and dance tunes, including Confederate battle hymns and ‘minstrel’ songs for performance by white people with blacked-up faces. Some of his less festive tunes include ‘We Conquer or Die’ and ‘Strike for the South’.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

While advance-fee “casting workshops” for actors and artists were illegal in California, their tech industry equivalents thrived. One such go-between boasted prestigious affiliates including a noted member of the Harvard Angels investment club who was also a trustee of the Computer History Museum, as well as a partner from Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP, a top corporate law firm established in the 1860s to cash in on the California gold rush. This outfit, called VC Taskforce, charged $105 for the chance to pitch an investor panel for two minutes, followed by eight minutes of questions and “feedback.” It occurred to me that if I ever tired of the founder’s life, I should hang a shingle as an investor and charge $630 an hour to sit around listening to other people’s ideas. In the meantime, I looked for a cheaper ticket. Many pay-to-pitch events were framed as competitions, and they were held on a regular basis around the Bay Area.


pages: 305 words: 79,303

The Four: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Divided and Conquered the World by Scott Galloway

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, California gold rush, cloud computing, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, follow your passion, future of journalism, future of work, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Khan Academy, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, passive income, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, working poor, young professional

America has the most lenient bankruptcy laws, attracts risk takers, and, as you might guess, has most of them. Twenty-nine of the fifty wealthiest people on the planet live in the United States, and two-thirds of unicorns (private companies with $1 billion–plus valuations) are headquartered here.54,55 Sell the Picks Just as it’s better to own the land under a mine, it’s also good business to sell picks to the miners. The California Gold Rush proved that was true 170 years ago. Amazon proves it’s still true today. Amazon owns a lucrative mine: the firm divides its revenue between retail sales of consumer products (Amazon itself and Amazon Marketplace) and “Other,” the group that holds ad sales from Amazon Media Group and its cloud services (AWS).56 Most e-commerce firms can never get to profitability and, at some point, investors tire of a vision that’s “reheated Bezos.”


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Thomas, The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973), pp. 1–2. 3 Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162 (1968): 1243–48. See also Richard Pipes, Property and Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999), p. 89. 4 See, for example, Yoram Barzel, Economic Analysis of Property Rights (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). 5 Such rights were said to have spontaneously emerged during the California gold rush of 1849–1850, when miners peacefully negotiated among themselves an allocation of the claims they had staked out. See Pipes, Property and Freedom, p. 91. This account ignores two important contextual factors: first, the miners were all products of an Anglo-American culture where respect for individual property rights was deeply embedded; second, these rights came at the expense of the customary rights to these territories on the part of the various indigenous peoples living there, which were not respected by the miners. 6 Charles K.

AusAid Australia; Aborigines of Austria Austro-Asiatic languages authoritarian regimes; accountability under; in China; electoral; in Latin America; in Middle East; modernization by; rule of law under; in Russia; in Stuart England autocracy autonomy; in China; of European cities; feudalism and; in France; institutional; in Ottoman Empire; of religious institutions Avignon, popes of Axelrod, Robert Aybak, Qutb-ud-din Ayn Jalut, Battle of Ayyubids Ayyvole merchant guild Azerbaijan Aztecs Ba’athists Bahri; Mamluk sultanate of Baker, Hugh Balkans Baluchistan Ban Biao Bangladesh Bank of England bao-jia system Baphaeon, Battle of Barlow, John Perry Barquq, Sultan Barro, Robert Barzel, Yoram Basij Basil II, Prince of Moscow Bates, Robert Batu Khan Baybars Becker, Gary Bede, Adam Bedouins Béla III, King of Hungary Béla IV, King of Hungary Benedict, Ruth Benedictine order Beowulf Berber tribesmen Berlin Wall, fall of Berman, Harold Bible Big Man Bimbisara, King of Magadha binding constraints Bindusara biology; evolutionary Bismarck, Otto von Black Army, Hungarian Blackstone, William Bloch, Marc Blum, Jerome Boas, Franz Bogotá Bohemia Bolivár, Simón Bolivia Bologna, University of Bolsheviks Bonnets Rouges uprising Boserup, Ester Bosnia Bourbons Brahmanism; corporate elites in; kinship in; limitations on literacy in; in Magadha empire; nonviolent doctrine of; rise of; social hierarchy of Brandenburg Brazil Brihadratha Britain; imperialism of (see also India, British rule in); Department for International Development of; monarchy of; Roman conquest of; see also England Bronze Age Buddhism; in China; in India bureaucracy; of Catholic church; in China ; in Denmark; in France; in Germany; in Hungary; in India; in Japan; of Mamluk sultanate; in Ottoman Empire; in Russia; in Spain; Umayyad Burji Mamluks Burke, Edmund Burma Busbecq, Ogier Ghiselin de Bushmen, Kalahari Byzantine Empire; Eastern church and caesaropapism in; eunuchs in; European trade with; kinship structures in; provincial administration system of; Turkish conquest of Caesar, Julius caesaropapism California gold rush Calvinism Canada Cannae, Battle of canon law Cao Cao Cao Pei Capetians capitalism; authoritarian; bourgeoisie and; global; property rights and; rise of capitation taxes Carneiro, Robert Carolingian Empire Carothers, Thomas Carpini, Archbishop caste system, Indian; British rule and; impact on individual freedom of; intermarriage and; patrimonialism and; state power limited by Castile Castro, Fidel Catherine II (the Great), Tsarina of Russia Catholic church; Brahmin authority compared to; celibacy of priesthood in; England and, ; in France; Gregorian reform of; in Hungary; kinship groups destroyed by; political allies of; property rights and; Protestant Reformation and popular grievances against; rule of law and; in Spain Catholic League Celtic tribes Central African Republic Chagnon, Napoleon Chandragupta Chang family Charlemagne Charles I, King of England Charles II, King of England Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, King of France Charles XII, King of Sweden Chávez, Hugo Chengzu, Emperor of China Cheyenne Indians chiefdoms; in China; in India; in Oceania Chile chimpanzees China; absolutism in; agrarian society in; appanage in; “bad emperor” problem in; bureaucracy in; campaign against the family in; cities in; Communist, see People’s Republic of China; constraints on imperial power in; dynastic, see specific dynasties; economic development of; eunuchs in; European state-building compared with; feudalism in; founding myth of; Grand Canal in; Great Wall of; Han system in; human evolution in; hydraulic hypothesis of state formation in; imperial; Indian development compared with; kinship structures in; latifundia in; Legalism in; Mandate of Heaven in; Marx on; modernization in; Mongol invasion of; patrimonialism in; peasants in; per capita income in; political decay in; population of; reconsolidation of modern state in; religion in (see also Confucianism); trade networks in; tribalism in; usurpation of Empress Wu in; warfare and state building in; western colonization of Cholas Chosroes I, Emperor of Persia Christianity; conversion to; equality in; kinship structures undermined by; New World colonies; in Roman Empire; rule of law and; saints in; Scriptures of; see also Catholic church; Protestantism Christians; Crusaders; in Ottoman Empire; in Sasanian Empire; see also Christianity Christmas; secular celebrations of Chu, state of Chun Doo-Hwan, General Chun Qiu (Spring and Autumn Annals) Circassian Mamluks Citibank cities; Abbassid; American; Chinese; English; French; Greek; Hanseatic League; Hungarian; Indian; Latin American; Mamluk; Mauryan; Mongol destruction of; Ottoman; Russian; Spanish civil war; in China; in Denmark; in England, see English Civil War; in France; in Mexico; in United States Clark, Gregory classical republicanism Clement III, Pope Clovis Clunaic movement, Coke, Edward Colbert, Jean-Baptiste cold war Collier, Paul Colombia Columbus, Christopher Comanche Indians Common Law; accountability and; Indian law and; institutional adaptability of; Parliament and; property rights under Commons, English communications technology communism; collapse of; primitive; of women and children Communist Manifesto, The (Marx and Engels) Communist Party; Chinese; Soviet Communist regimes; see also People’s Republic of China; Soviet Union comuneros, revolt of Concordance of Discordant Canons (Gratian) concubinage Condé, Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Confucianism; antifemale ideology of; gentleman-scholar ideal of; during Han dynasty; Legalism versus; during Ming dynasty; during Northern Song dynasty; Rectification of Names in; taxation and Confucius Congregationalists Congress, U.S.


The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward E. Baptist

banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, creative destruction, desegregation, double helix, financial innovation, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

“Isthmus,” DeBow’s Review, July 1852, 43–52; Jere Robinson, “The South and the Pacific Railroad, 1845–1855,” Western Historical Quarterly 5 (1974): 163–186; Stacey L. Smith, “Remaking Slavery in a Free State: Masters and Slaves in Gold Rush California,” Pacific Historical Review 80 (2011): 28–63; Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York, 2000); John C. Parish, “A Project for a California Slave Colony in 1851,” Huntington Library Bulletin, no. 8 (1935): 171–175; Leonard L. Richards, The California Gold Rush and the Coming of the Civil War (New York, 2007). 41. Brown, Agents of Manifest Destiny, 174–218. 42. David Potter, The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861 (New York, 1976), 146–156; William Cronon, Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York, 1991). 43. J. A. Reinhart to Jn. Dalton, January 20, 1851, Placebo Houston Papers, Duke; William W.


pages: 801 words: 209,348

Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

“our manifest destiny”: James L. O’Sullivan, “Annexation,” The United States Democratic Review, 17 (85) (July-August 1845): 5. formed the Associated Press: Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690–1960, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1962), 251. proponents of Manifest Destiny: Howe, What Hath God Wrought, 703. John Sutter had made: H. W. Brands, The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (New York: Doubleday, 2002), 3. “Gold! Gold! Gold!”: Ibid. $20 per day: William Tecumseh Sherman to Major H. S. Turner, August 25, 1848, quoted in The Sherman Letters: Correspondence Between General and Senator Sherman from 1837 to 1891, ed. Rachel Sherman Thorndike (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company, 1894), 42, 52. two hundred ounces: Brands, Age of Gold, 46.

New York: Random House, 1973. Boyd, Thomas. Poor John Fitch. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1935. Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation: 1620–1647. Edited by Samuel Eliot Morison. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. Brandeis, Louis D. Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It. Edited by Melvin I. Ufrosky. Boston: Bedford Books, 1995. Brands, H. W. The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream. New York: Doubleday, 2002. Brawley, Benjamin. A Social History of the American Negro. New York: Dover, 2001. Brinkley, Alan. The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century. New York: Vintage Books, 2011. Brinkley, Douglas. Cronkite. New York: Harper Perennial, 2013. Brooks, John. Business Adventures: Twelve Classic Tales from the World of Wall Street.


pages: 257 words: 94,168

Oil Panic and the Global Crisis: Predictions and Myths by Steven M. Gorelick

California gold rush, carbon footprint, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, income per capita, invention of the telephone, meta analysis, meta-analysis, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, statistical model, Thomas Malthus

Because it is much denser than typical river sediments, much of the gold has remained in riverbeds, where it is easily found and extracted by panning or other more elaborate yet similarly mechanical approaches to separate the dense gold from the lighter river sediments. Gold in placer deposits was easy to find and extract, in the sense that it took hard work but little technology to mine it. Placer gold discoveries spawned the California gold rush of 1849, the Australian gold rush of 1851, and the Yukon Klondike gold rush of 1897.134 The easily mined gold in placer deposits can be represented as the region near the top of a resource pyramid, as shown in Figure 4.55. Of course, the placer deposits near the top of the pyramid were largely mined out over a century ago, so the pyramid represents “all” gold deposits that have been exploited to date as well as those that can be tapped in the future.


pages: 273 words: 93,419

Let them eat junk: how capitalism creates hunger and obesity by Robert Albritton

Bretton Woods, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, means of production, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, the built environment, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile

This ideology of non-interference holds that one should be able to buy what one likes, where and when one likes, and as much as one likes, without so much as a glance from others. Consumption is arguably the activity our society deems most purely personal, outside the legitimate interest of society or government. Ironically it is considered even more private than sex.1 With a single-minded competitiveness reminiscent of the California gold rush, corporations are racing to stake their claim on the consumer group formerly known as children. What was once the purview of a few entertainment and toy companies has escalated into a gargantuan, multi-tentacled enterprise with a combined marketing budget estimated at over $15 billion annually – about 2.5 times more that what was spent in 1992. Children are the darlings of corporate America.


pages: 408 words: 94,311

The Great Depression: A Diary by Benjamin Roth, James Ledbetter, Daniel B. Roth

bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, financial independence, Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, short selling, statistical model, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration

A few years of “normal business,” men get too optimistic and begin to over expand, speculate, etc. 3. Speculation leads to fraudulent stock issues, embezzlement, new theories such as “new era.” 4. Then comes the crash or panic caused by over-expansion, fraud, embezzlement, & human greed. It is also interesting to note the dates of these panics. They seem to recur more frequently in last 35 years:1837-Panic caused by land craze and Western expansion 1857-California gold rush—new gold 1873-Post-Civil War. Too much R.R. expansion 1884-Gambling bankers 1893-Over-development big trusts—silver questions 1901-Too many mergers: U.S. Steel, Bethlehem; Youngstown Sheet & Tube 1907-Battling bankers—money panic 1914-Panic stopped by coming world war 1921-Primary post-war Panic 1929-New Era philosophy—fallacy that common stocks are best form of investment The intervals between panics are 20 years—16 yrs—11 years—9 years—8 years—6 years—7 years—7 years—8 years.


pages: 401 words: 93,256

Alchemy: The Dark Art and Curious Science of Creating Magic in Brands, Business, and Life by Rory Sutherland

3D printing, Alfred Russel Wallace, barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, butterfly effect, California gold rush, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double helix, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Firefox, George Akerlof, gig economy, Google Chrome, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Hyperloop, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, IKEA effect, information asymmetry, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, loss aversion, low cost airline, Mason jar, Murray Gell-Mann, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the map is not the territory, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, US Airways Flight 1549, Veblen good

It is certainly true that you can remove people’s appendices and they seem to suffer no immediate ill effects. However, in 2007, William Parker, Randy Bollinger and their colleagues at Duke University in North Carolina hypothesised that the appendix actually serves as a haven for bacteria in the digestive system that are valuable both in aiding digestion and in providing immunity from disease. So, just as miners in the California Gold Rush would guard a live sourdough yeast ‘starter’ in a pouch around their necks, the body has its own pouch to preserve something valuable. Research later showed that individuals whose appendix had been removed were four times more likely to suffer from clostridium difficile colitis, an infection of the colon. Given that cholera was a huge cause of death only a few generations ago, and given that it is thought by some to be making a comeback, perhaps the appendix should no longer be treated as disposable – it seems that, rather like the Spanish royal family, most of the time it’s pointless or annoying, but sometimes it’s invaluable.* Be careful before calling something nonsense.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Sure, there were a few friends and industry insiders who had thrown in a little seed money and reaped real rewards, but the process was opaque to the vast majority of the investment community, who were generally shut out of all this until shares became public. By then, many of the companies had peaked, anyway. As in any pyramid scheme, the real money gets made by those who get in early. So existing venture capitalists, as well as scores of freshly minted ones, came on the scene. This was the late 1990s, when Wired said we were in the “long boom,” and the Internet development landscape had taken on the quality of a second California Gold Rush. Finding an “angel” with ready cash was easier than finding a kid who knew how to mark up a Web page. Over the next decade, a basic playbook was established for how a startup gets to IPO or acquisition. Get an idea in college, find a programmer in the same dorm, build a prototype, write a business plan, present it at a conference, do an “angel round,” hire a couple more programmers to get to “minimum viable product,” raise a “Series A” round of investment, launch on the Web or App Store, achieve or manufacture huge numbers, write a new business plan with some scalable vision, raise a “Series B” round (if you absolutely need more funding), then get acquired or do an IPO.


pages: 317 words: 101,074

The Road Ahead by Bill Gates, Nathan Myhrvold, Peter Rinearson

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, California gold rush, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Donald Knuth, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, glass ceiling, global village, informal economy, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, medical malpractice, Mitch Kapor, new economy, packet switching, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture

Media coverage of the race is unprecedented, especially considering that both the technology and the demand are unproven. This is quite different from the early, unchronicled days of the personal-computer industry. Today's frenzy can be intoxicating, especially for those who hope to be contenders, but the truth is that in this race everyone is barely at the starting line. When it finally is run, there will be many winners, some unexpected. One result of the California gold rush was the rapid economic development of the West. In 1848, only 400 settlers were drawn to California. Most were engaged in agriculture. Within one year the gold rush had attracted 25,000 settlers. A decade later, manufacturing was a much bigger part of California's economy than gold production, and the state's per capita wealth was the nation's highest. Over time, big money will be made with the right investment strategies.


pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

This dead matter can’t get enough oxygen to break down completely, because everything is waterlogged. “It took 6,000 years for that peat deposit to build, as one layer of new plant material grew on top of previous layers of peat,” Lund says. Through this gradual process of flooding and rebuilding, a diverse, resilient ecosystem evolved. Then came the gold rush. It was actually during the California gold rush that farmers stumbled on the Delta and struck their own kind of gold. The peat in the Delta was capable of producing excellent crops. But to farm the organic-rich soils, farmers first needed to drain the islands. After 6,000 years of continual flooding and rebuilding, the Delta was, for the first time, being pinned down. “This involved constructing levees around the islands, filling most tidal channels, and, most important, lowering local groundwater tables below crop root zones by constructing perimeter drains,” Lund explains.


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

As we’ve seen early in this book, humans spread out of Africa and adapted to many inhospitable climates, such as the arid deserts of the Middle East and the frozen tundra of Siberia. Even today, descendants of these early voyagers make their homes in inclement places. Consider, for example, the durability of the people who live at the hottest, highest, driest, and coldest places on Earth. The Timbisha tribe of Native Americans has lived near Furnace Creek in the Mojave Desert for more than a thousand years. Prospectors on their way to the California Gold Rush in the 1840s named this place Death Valley; in the summer, it can reach a scorching 134°F (57°C). The land is harsh, but until the traditional way of life was encroached upon in the last century, it provided the Timbisha with all they needed. The tribe traveled seasonally to harvest wild fruit and seeds. Piñon pine nuts and mesquite beans were major parts of their diet, augmented by lizards and rabbits.1 Thousands of miles to the south, in the Peruvian Andes, indigenous people still live at an altitude of 18,000 feet (5,100 meters), high enough to give anyone who is unacclimated headaches and other symptoms of altitude sickness.


The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities by Mancur Olson

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, full employment, income per capita, Kenneth Arrow, market clearing, Norman Macrae, Pareto efficiency, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Sam Peltzman, selection bias, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban decay, working poor

Thus, if we exclude erstwhile members of the Confederacy, a simple regression between years since statehood and rates of growth should provide a preliminary test of our model. If carried back into the nineteenth century, however, this test might be biased in favor of the model, since some states were then still being settled. The westward-moving frontier must have created disequilibria (the California gold rush might be the most dramatic example) with unusual rates of growth of total, if not per capita, income. The frontier is generally supposed to have disappeared by the end of the nineteenth century, but where agriculture and other industries oriented to natural resources are at issue, some disequilibria may have persisted into the present century. Thus, the more recent the period, the more likely that frontier effects are no longer present.


pages: 332 words: 97,325

The Launch Pad: Inside Y Combinator, Silicon Valley's Most Exclusive School for Startups by Randall Stross

affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, always be closing, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, index fund, inventory management, John Markoff, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, transaction costs, Y Combinator

They named their company MongoHQ, which left no question what line of software they were in. They worked on MongoHQ in the evenings and the wee hours of the morning while holding down day jobs. They took heart from “Selling Pickaxes During a Gold Rush,” a blog post published a couple of months earlier, in February, by Chris Dixon, a seed investor who was based in New York City but well known and respected in Silicon Valley.16 During the California gold rush, some of the most successful businesspeople—like Levi Strauss—didn’t mine for gold themselves but did well selling supplies to those who did. Today, Dixon argues, entrepreneurs who use the latest technology face a similar choice: they can sell to consumers—what Dixon calls “mining for gold”—or they can sell the software tools that other developers would use to create the consumer product—that is, “selling pickaxes.”


pages: 936 words: 252,313

Good Calories, Bad Calories: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom on Diet, Weight Control, and Disease by Gary Taubes

Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, collaborative editing, Drosophila, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Gary Taubes, invention of agriculture, John Snow's cholera map, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, selection bias, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies, unbiased observer, Upton Sinclair

Army battalion passed through Pima lands, the battalion’s surgeon John Griffin described the Pima as “sprightly” and in “fine health.” He also noted that the Pima had “the greatest abundance of food, and take care of it well, as we saw many of their storehouses full of pumpkins, melons, corn &c.” Life began to change dramatically the following year, when a wagon route was opened to California “by way of Tucson and the Pima villages.” This became the southernmost overland route for the California gold rush that began in 1849; tens of thousands of travelers passed through the Pima villages on the way west over the next decade. They relied on the Pima for food and supplies. With the arrival of Anglo-American and Mexican settlers in the late 1860s, the prosperity of the Pima came to an end, replaced by what the tribe referred to as “the years of famine.” Over the next quarter-century, these newcomers hunted the local game almost to extinction, and the Gila River water, on which the Pima depended for fishing and irrigating their own fields, was “entirely absorbed by the Anglo settlements upstream.”

“Dietary Guidelines in Perspective.” Journal of Nutrition. April; 126(4 suppl.):1042S–48S. ———. 1983. “Coronary Heart Disease—An Epidemic Related to Diet?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. April; 37(4):669–81. Harper, A. H. 1971. Review of Physiological Chemistry. 13th edition. Los Altos, Calif.: Lange Medical Publications. Harris, B. B. 1960. The Gila Trail: The Texas Argonauts and the California Gold Rush. Ed. R. H. Dillon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Harris, M. 1985. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster. Harris, M., and E. B. Ross, eds. 1987. Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Harrison, D. E., J. R. Archer, and C. M. Astle. 1984. “Effects of Food Restriction on Aging: Separation of Food Intake and Adiposity.”


pages: 366 words: 109,117

Higher: A Historic Race to the Sky and the Making of a City by Neal Bascomb

buttonwood tree, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, hiring and firing, margin call, market bubble, Ralph Waldo Emerson, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

The walls of the first floor occupied approximately half of the 376.5-square-foot site. In other words, load-bearing masonry cost money, lots of money. The answer to this problem, however, was not to be solved in the city that first dared elevators. Instead, a city reeling from disaster found the solution. The man who solved the problem was William Le Baron Jenney, the son of a New England whaling captain. After sailing around the Cape Horn of Africa, joining the California gold rush, and serving as General William Tecumseh Sherman’s chief of engineers during his destructive sweep from Atlanta to the coast, Jenney settled in Chicago to practice architecture. He arrived in time to witness one of the most devastating conflagrations in history: the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In the course of two days, a blaze swept through the city, incinerating wooden houses, mansions, barns, sheds, jerry-built tenements and warehouses, factories, grand department stores, and office buildings—old and new ones alike.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

By 2004—the year Google went public and Facebook was founded—the industry had recovered, and there were plenty of jobs to go around. Silicon Valley was resurrected as the dream destination where entrepreneurs—who fit a certain stereotype—could become millionaires overnight and lower-level employees could get rich simply by picking the right company to join. Tales of enormous fortunes spread, igniting yet another California gold rush. In 2010, the movie The Social Network further glamorized start-up life and established Mark Zuckerberg as the exemplum of what a successful founder looked like. And the men flocking to the epicenter of technology continued to vastly outnumber women. Today, it’s estimated there are more than half a million unfilled tech jobs, a number that is expected to balloon to one million by 2020.


pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Kepler’s bookstore on El Camino Real, just two miles north of the Stanford University campus, served as a beacon for an eclectic group of intellectuals who were outsiders in a community that was largely split in its economic dependence among Stanford, a fledgling electronics industry, and large military contractors like Lockheed. Woodside, a forested town just northwest of Stanford, was already a bedroom community and retreat, but for an earlier San Francisco financial elite with roots in the California Gold Rush. The Silicon Valley technology magnates hadn’t yet taken over the mansions and estates set among the redwoods. There was a small bohemia tucked away in nooks and crannies on the Peninsula, like the Perry Lane writers’ community, in a rustic cluster of cabins adjacent to the Stanford Golf Course. Some of the houses were tiny cottages, no more than four hundred square feet in size. Although it was partially torn down in 1963 by developers, it was for many years the center of the Midpeninsula intellectual underground in the fifties, home to an eclectic group of artists, authors, communists, and other ne’er-do-wells.


pages: 431 words: 106,435

How the Post Office Created America: A History by Winifred Gallagher

British Empire, California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, white flight, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

they carried a very substantial portion: In The Crying of Lot 49, Thomas Pynchon evokes the postal crisis of the 1840s and the rise of private mail services in the saga of Oedipa Maas, a Californian who gets caught up in a mystery upon becoming coexecutor of a former suitor’s estate. The dead man’s extensive philatelic collection includes some stamps possibly linked to an underground postal service called the Tristero, which had seemingly been vanquished by its Thurn und Taxis rival in the eighteenth century. The book’s title may refer to the California Gold Rush of 1849, when poor communications in the West became a vital national concern and encouraged private postal services. “a current of affection”: James Simmons, Remarks of Mr. Simmons, of Rhode Island, in Support of His Proposition to Reduce Postages to a Uniform Rate of Five Cents for a Single Letter, for All Distances (Washington, D.C.: J. & G. S. Gideon, 1845), p. 12. “exceedingly onerous and unjust”: Amasa Walker, “Cheap Postage, and How to Get It” (1845), in John, American Postal Network, vol. 3, p. 135.


Western USA by Lonely Planet

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, edge city, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, Maui Hawaii, off grid, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

History The hunter-gatherer existence of the Gabrieleño and Chumash peoples ended with the arrival of Spanish missionaries and pioneers in the late 18th century. Spain’s first civilian settlement here (1781), El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, remained an isolated farming outpost for decades. LA was incorporated as a California city in 1850, and by 1830 its population had swollen thanks to the collapse of the Northern California gold rush, the arrival of the transcontinental railroad, the citrus industry, the discovery of oil, the launch of the port of LA, the birth of the movie industry and the opening of the California Aqueduct. The city’s population has boomed from some 1.5 million in 1950 to almost four million today. LA’s growth has caused problems, including suburban sprawl and air pollution – though thanks to aggressive enforcement, smog levels have fallen annually since records have been kept.

Sights & Activities University of California, Berkeley UNIVERSITY ‘Cal’ is one of the country’s top universities and home to 35,000 diverse, politically conscious students. The Visitor Services Center ( 510-642-5215; http://visitors.berkeley.edu; 101 Sproul Hall; tours 10am Mon-Sat, 1pm Sun) has info and leads free campus tours (reservations required). Cal’s landmark is the 1914 Sather Tower (also called the Campanile), with elevator rides ($2) to the top. The Bancroft Library displays the small gold nugget that started the California gold rush in 1848. Leading to the campus’s south gate, Tele-graph Avenue is as youthful and gritty as San Francisco’s Haight St, packed with cafes, cheap eats, record stores and bookstores. UC Berkeley Art Museum MUSEUM ( 510-642-0808; www.bampfa.berkeley.edu; 2626 Bancroft Way; adult/child $10/7; 11am-5pm Wed-Sun) A campus highlight with 11 galleries showcasing a wide range of works, from ancient Chinese to cutting-edge contempor-ary.


The Rough Guide to Chile by Melissa Graham, Andrew Benson

Atahualpa, California gold rush, call centre, centre right, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, Francisco Pizarro, Murano, Venice glass, sensible shoes, sustainable-tourism, trade route, union organizing, women in the workforce

For over three hundred years, Chiloé was isolated from mainland Chile due to the fierce resistance of the Mapuche to European colonists. As a result, the slow pace of island life saw little change. Ancud was the last stronghold of the Spanish empire during the wars of Independence, before the final defeat by the pro-independence forces in 1826. In spite of being used as a stopover during the California Gold Rush, Chiloé remained relatively isolated until the end of the twentieth century, though now it draws scores of visitors with its unique blend of architecture, cuisine and famous myths and legends. More than 150 eighteenth- and nineteenth-century wooden churches and chapels dot the land. Chiloé is also one of the few places in the country where you can still see palafitos, precarious but picturesque timber houses on stilts, which were once the traditional dwellings of most of the fishermen of southern Chile.

."(&--"/&4 $VUUFS$PWF 1FOÓOTVMB $PSEPWB 3ÓP"NBSJMMP 3&4&37" /"$*0/"-"(6/"1"33*--"3 *TMB4BOUB*OÏT *TMB.BHEBMFOB 1FOHVJO4BODUVBSZ 5*&33"%&- '6&(0 1PSWFOJS 1VFSUP)BNCSF #BIÓB*OÞUJM $BNFSØO 'VFSUF#VMOFT &TUBODJB4BO+VBO $BCP'SPXBSE *TMB%BXTPO 414 &TUBODJB4BO (SFHPSJP 3ÓP7FSEF LZSJOH 4FOP4 3&4&37"/"$*0/"*TMB $0 "-"$"-6'&4 3JFTDP 03*&4 1FOHVJO 4BODUVBSZ 3 & $FSSP *-Z 3% .U1JSÈNJEF "UBMBZB XB 1VOUB U $FSSP $0 N 0 N -BESJMMFSP P "SFOBT 4FO &TUSFDIPEF SOUTHERN PATAGONIA 4FSSBOP (MBDJFS / *TMB 8JDLIBN war over the territory, not for the last time. From 1849, Punta Arenas was boosted by the California Gold Rush; while it didn’t last long, the introduction of sheep farming created sprawling estancias (ranches) and brought great wealth to their owners in the late nineteenth century. Wool has now been replaced by oil, commercial salmon farming and tourism as the region’s main resources. The Chileans call the area the province of Magallanes, in the explorer’s honour, and it’s one of the least inhabited areas in Chile.


pages: 939 words: 274,289

The Man Who Saved the Union: Ulysses Grant in War and Peace by H. W. Brands

California gold rush, clean water, Corn Laws, industrial cluster, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, retrograde motion, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway

“The place seems small and scattering and the character of the buildings poor.” He arrived amid mourning for Henry Clay, whose recent passing betokened an end of both the Whig party, which Clay had led for twenty years, and the spirit of compromise for which the Kentucky senator was famous. “Mr. Clay’s death produced a feeling of regret that could hardly be felt for any other man,” Grant wrote. The California gold rush revolutionized travel from America’s East to its Far West. The impecunious still trudged across the plains and mountains, but those with even a bit more money traveled by steamship to Panama, traversed the isthmus and caught another steamer to San Francisco. The marine legs of the journey were swift and comparatively comfortable. The testing part was the fifty miles in the middle. For the officers and men of the Fourth Regiment, the challenge fell peculiarly upon Quartermaster Grant.

Seward, William, 13.1, 18.1, 38.1, 42.1 attempted assassination of co-presidency proposal of Emancipation Proclamation and Fort Sumter crisis and purchase of Alaska and Seymour, Horatio, 56.1, 56.2, 56.3 Sheets, Lewis Shenandoah Valley campaign, 44.1, 45.1, 47.1 Sheridan, Philip, prl.1, 36.1, 41.1, 44.1, 48.1, 48.2, 50.1, 53.1, 53.2, 54.1, 77.1, 79.1, 79.2, 79.3, 80.1, 80.2, 84.1, 87.1 in Appomattox campaign, 48.1, 49.1 on Grant Louisiana electoral conflict and Mexico crisis and in Shenandoah Valley campaign on war Sherman, Ellen, 43.1, 43.2 Sherman, John, 13.1, 18.1, 18.2, 24.1, 40.1, 56.1, 58.1, 60.1, 65.1, 77.1, 82.1 Sherman, William Tecumseh, prl.1, 7.1, 31.1, 31.2, 33.1, 36.1, 39.1, 39.2, 41.1, 45.1, 50.1, 50.2, 54.1, 58.1, 62.1, 66.1, 77.1, 77.2, 78.1, 79.1, 79.2, 80.1, 80.2, 81.1, 85.1, 86.1, 87.1, 87.2 in Atlanta campaign banking career of, 10.1, 13.1 California gold rush and Cameron’s conversation with Chase’s correspondence with, 27.1, 29.1 at Chattanooga, 36.1, 36.2 at Chickasaw Bayou on contraband cotton trade Dana’s admiration for 1872 election and in European tour at First Bull Run Fort Pillow incident and Grant’s correspondence with, 47.1, 48.1, 48.2, 49.1, 50.1, 53.1, 54.1, 55.1, 56.1, 57.1, 65.1, 80.1 on Grant’s leadership style Halleck’s correspondence with Indian wars and Lincoln’s encounters with, 18.1, 18.2 memoir of in Meridian campaign promoted to major general on reconstruction reputed mental disability of, 24.1, 25.1 at Shiloh, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3 on slavery question Stanton’s public humiliation of, 50.1, 51.1 total war concept of in Vicksburg campaign, 30.1, 30.2, 30.3, 31.1, 31.2, 32.1 Willie Sherman’s death and Sherman, Willie (son) Sherman’s march: bummers in in Carolinas and Virginia, 47.1, 47.2, 48.1, 48.2 destruction of Atlanta in freed blacks and through Georgia, 46.1, 46.2, 47.1, 47.2 idea for Lunt plantation in preparations for Savannah taken in Shiloh, Battle of, prl.1, 24.1, 38.1, 58.1, 80.1 Buell’s arrival in casualties in, 25.1 criticism of Grant in aftermath of Grant in, 24.1, 24.2 Grant’s articles on in Grant’s memoirs, 24.1, 25.1 Johnston’s proposal of onset of Sherman in, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3 surprise achieved in Union counterattack in Union retreat in Wallace’s lost division in, 24.1, 24.2 Siam (Thailand) Sickles, Daniel Simonton, William Sioux Indians, 55.1, 55.2, 66.1, 77.1 Sitting Bull slaves, slavery, 1.1, 7.1, 11.1, 18.1, 19.1, 52.1, 52.2 arming of, 35.1, 40.1, 47.1 British abolition of cotton industry and Dominican annexation debate and Dred Scott decision and after the Emancipation Proclamation escaped Frémont’s emancipation decree and fugitive slave law and, 7.1, 27.1 Grant’s ownership of, 10.1, 12.1 in Greeley’s open letter Harpers Ferry raid and immunity to malaria of Kansas-Nebraska Act and, 9.1, 9.2 Kansas violence and Lincoln’s view of North-South boundary of Pottawatamie massacre and Sherman’s view of Texas debate on three-fifths rule and, 52.1, 52.2 Wilmot Proviso and see also African Americans Smith, Charles F., 21.1, 22.1, 22.2, 23.1, 23.2, 24.1 Smith, Dr.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

The reasons they were selected are important. To begin with these metals were relatively scarce and there is a fairly constant accumulated supply. I cannot go into my back yard and dig up some gold or silver whenever I want. The supply of the precious metals is relatively inelastic, so they maintain their relative value against all other commodities over time (though bursts of production activity, like the California gold rush, did create some problems). Most of the world’s gold is already mined and above ground. Second, these metals do not oxidise and deteriorate (as would happen if we chose raspberries or potatoes as our money commodity): this means that they maintain their physical characteristics over the time of a market transaction and, even more importantly, they can function relatively safely as a long-term store of value.


The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

The old buildings and the relationships between them remained preserved, as if in cold storage, into the twentieth cen­ tury. Woodstock remained lucky. While other towns slept, it became a resort. Its rustic inns for country lawyers evolved into proper hotels for families, and city folk of means would come to stay for weeks at a time, or even for the summer. Men who had made fortunes elsewhere bought homes in the village, most notably Frederick Billings, a Woodstock boy who went west in the California gold rush, learned law out there, and ended up President of the Northern Pacific Railroad. He returned to his hometown in his later years and became its great benefactor. The Bill­ ings connection persists to this day, since his granddaughter married Laurance Rockefeller, grandson of John D. the first. � When people visit Woodstock today, what they see there is a com­ munity much influenced by two great family fortunes, and an economy based in almost every way on resources that are not local.


pages: 441 words: 113,244

Seasteading: How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity From Politicians by Joe Quirk, Patri Friedman

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Celtic Tiger, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Dean Kamen, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, stem cell, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, young professional

In other words, a one hundred-megawatt plant produces a lot more electricity per one-dollar capital cost than a five- or ten-megawatt plant. That’s really important to remember. We can build very large OTEC plants.” For Ted Johnson, this is just the beginning. “I dream of thousands of floating OTEC ships roaming the seas of the world providing an inexhaustible supply of clean energy, fuel, and water, for all people of the world.” Imagine millions of blue jobs causing a mass emigration comparable to the California Gold Rush. Patrick Takahashi believes it’s a no-brainer. Hopefully, seasteading enthusiasts will become OTEC enthusiasts, as we OTEC enthusiasts become seasteading enthusiasts. I think bringing us all together, we can really be successful, in the rather short term . . . Let’s see if we can work together and really go off in a much faster pace.” But Takahashi doesn’t give you time to call him crazy before he’s moving on to more proposals.


pages: 412 words: 122,952

Day We Found the Universe by Marcia Bartusiak

Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, California gold rush, Cepheid variable, Copley Medal, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, Fellow of the Royal Society, fudge factor, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, horn antenna, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, Magellanic Cloud, Occam's razor, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Pluto: dwarf planet, Solar eclipse in 1919, William of Occam

Arriving in San Francisco by ship in 1848, just as California was about to secede from Mexico, he came ashore with $30,000 in gold doubloons and six hundred pounds of Peruvian chocolate made by his friend Domingo Ghirardelli. Wasting no time, Lick quickly put his incisive business acumen to work. He shrewdly used his gold to purchase real estate in San Francisco, then just a scrubby town with scarcely a thousand inhabitants. When residents started heading to the hills to make their fortune in the California gold rush, Lick was there to provide them with a stake by buying up their town land at bargain prices. He also bought a gristmill, greatly expanding it, and built California's first great luxury hotel, the opulent Lick House, which occupied an entire city block (and was later destroyed in the fire that tore through San Francisco after its horrific 1906 earthquake). James Lick (Mary Lea Shane Archives of the Lick Observatory, University Library, University of California-Santa Cruz) Lick never married but still built a homestead at the south end of San Jose, where he lovingly cultivated rare plants and shrubs from around the world.


pages: 456 words: 123,534

The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution by Charles R. Morris

air freight, American ideology, British Empire, business process, California gold rush, clean water, colonial exploitation, computer age, Dava Sobel, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, if you build it, they will come, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, lone genius, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, refrigerator car, Robert Gordon, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, undersea cable

On the early matchups, the Collins ships—besides being much bigger—proved much faster. Cunard commissioned two big new ships, the Asia and the Africa, which were a marked improvement. But they did not decisively trump the Americans until the launch of the very large and very fast Persia in 1855. 47 Cornelius Vanderbilt, in the meantime, had been gaining experience as an ocean steamship operator by running a lucrative Pacific line to take advantage of the California Gold Rush. The route went from New York to a port on the coast of Nicaragua. Passengers then embarked on a combined river-lake-transit road trip across the peninsula to meet steamships to San Francisco. His first ship commissioned for the East Coast leg was the Prometheus, which in 1850 made the 5,600-mile run, including stops at Havana on the way down and at New Orleans on the way back, in the extraordinary time of nineteen days, while consuming about a third less coal than any comparably sized ship would have required.48 The secret of the Prometheus’s performance was the engine.


pages: 476 words: 129,209

The Great Halifax Explosion: A World War I Story of Treachery, Tragedy, and Extraordinary Heroism by John U. Bacon

British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, discovery of penicillin, housing crisis, index card, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, transcontinental railway, yellow journalism

The affection was returned. In 1992, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, which has since been absorbed by Halifax, opened a grade school named for the CSS Tallahassee. Chapter 4 Waking Up Just in Time 1865–1914 From Halifax’s birth in 1749 through 1865, Haligonians had ridden a wonderful wave of wealth by supplying materials, people, and transport for wars around the world, mass migrations, and even the California Gold Rush. But after the American Civil War, Halifax struggled, and the Americans were none too eager to help the people who had helped the Confederates. Instead, talk resumed in New England papers of annexing British North America. This perpetual fear of an American invasion pushed British North America to set up a central government among Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the “Province of Canada,” present-day Quebec and Ontario, in 1867.


pages: 436 words: 76

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, business cycle, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

Economic journal 82: 883-96. Ridings, W., and S. Mciver. 1997. Rating the Presidents. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press. Robbins, L. C. 1935. An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science. London: Macmillan. Rogoff, K., and]. Zettelmayer. 2002. "Early Ideas on Sovereign Bankruptcy Reorganization: A Survey." IMFWorkingPaper 2/57. { 406} Bibliography Rohrbough, M. J. 1997. Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation. Berkeley and London: University of California Press. Rorty, R 1979. Philosophy and the MirrorofNature. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Rosenstein-Rodan, P. N. 1943. "Problems oflndustrialization ofEastern and Southeastern Europe." Economic journal 53 Gune-September): 202-11. ---. 1961. "Notes on the Theory of the Big Push." In H. S. Ellis and H. C. Wallich, eds., Economic Development for Latin America.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

It’s a big story, one that spans the globe, from the high-tech hub of Silicon Valley to the streets of Beijing. It includes visits to the mountains of Utah, the beaches of Barbados, schools in Afghanistan, and start-ups in Kenya. The world of cryptocurrencies comprises venture-capital royalty, high school dropouts, businessmen, utopians, anarchists, students, humanitarians, hackers, and Papa John’s pizza. It’s got parallels with the financial crisis, and the new sharing economy, and the California gold rush, and before it’s all over, we may have to endure an epic battle between a new high-tech world and the old low-tech world that could throw millions out of work, while creating an entirely new breed of millionaires. Are you ready to jump down the bitcoin rabbit hole? One FROM BABYLON TO BITCOIN The eye has never seen, nor the hand touched a dollar. —Alfred Mitchell Innes For any currency to be viable, be it a decentralized cryptocurrency issued by a computer program or a traditional “fiat” currency issued by a government, it must win the trust of the community using it.


Stocks for the Long Run, 4th Edition: The Definitive Guide to Financial Market Returns & Long Term Investment Strategies by Jeremy J. Siegel

addicted to oil, asset allocation, backtesting, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, cognitive dissonance, compound rate of return, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, diversified portfolio, dividend-yielding stocks, dogs of the Dow, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, fixed income, German hyperinflation, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, Myron Scholes, new economy, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, prediction markets, price anchoring, price stability, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, tulip mania, Vanguard fund

Dave: When the Internet stocks crashed in April, I sold out right before we lost all our gains. Unfortunately, we didn’t make much on those stocks, but we didn’t lose either. I think we’re on the right track now. Those Internet companies weren’t making any money. All the new firms we now own form the backbone of the Internet and all are profitable. Allan told me an important principle: Do you know who made the most money in the California Gold Rush of the 1850s? Not the gold miners. Oh, some of the early diggers found gold, but most found nothing. The real winners from the Gold Rush were those that sold supplies to the miners—pick axes, boots, pans, and hiking gear. The lesson is very clear, most of the Internet companies are going to fail, but those supplying the backbone of the Internet—the routers, software, and fiber optic cables—will be the big winners.


pages: 517 words: 139,477

Stocks for the Long Run 5/E: the Definitive Guide to Financial Market Returns & Long-Term Investment Strategies by Jeremy Siegel

Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, backtesting, banking crisis, Black-Scholes formula, break the buck, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, carried interest, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, compound rate of return, computer age, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, dividend-yielding stocks, dogs of the Dow, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, fundamental attribution error, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, income inequality, index arbitrage, index fund, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, money market fund, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, Northern Rock, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price anchoring, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund

Dave: When the Internet stocks crashed in April, I sold out right before we lost all our gains. Unfortunately, we didn’t make much on those stocks, but we didn’t lose either. I know we’re on the right track now. Those Internet companies weren’t making any money. All the new firms we now own form the backbone of the Internet, and all are profitable. Allan told me an important principle: Do you know who made the most money in the California gold rush of the 1850s? Not the gold miners. Some of the early diggers found gold, but most found nothing. The real winners from the gold rush were those who sold supplies to the miners—pickaxes, boots, pans, and hiking gear. The lesson is very clear; most of the Internet companies are going to fail, but those supplying the backbone of the Internet—those supplying the routers, software, and fiber-optic cables—will be the big winners.


pages: 389 words: 131,688

The Impossible Climb: Alex Honnold, El Capitan, and the Climbing Life by Mark Synnott

blue-collar work, California gold rush, Google Earth, index fund, Nate Silver, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, trade route, Y2K

Before the tourist hotels and the guided nature walks led by the famous naturalist John Muir in the 1870s, Yosemite Valley was home to a polyglot tribe of Native Americans (mostly Miwoks, Paiutes, and Monos) who called the place Ahwahnee (which means “Gaping Mouth”) and themselves Ahwahneechee (“those who live in the Gaping Mouth”). The troubles began when a carpenter named James W. Marshall found flakes of gold in the American River in 1848. This discovery set off the California gold rush, which drove tens of thousands of fortune hunters into the Sierra Nevada. Conflicts between the prospectors and the indigenous tribes who lived in these mountains soon followed. By 1850, the natives living in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada were becoming increasingly concerned about how many white settlers were moving into the region. In hopes of driving the white men out of the area, they began raiding settlements.


Hawaii by Jeff Campbell

airport security, big-box store, California gold rush, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, commoditize, creative destruction, Drosophila, G4S, haute couture, land reform, lateral thinking, low-wage service sector, Maui Hawaii, polynesian navigation, risk/return, sustainable-tourism, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, wage slave, white picket fence

The very name Kula is synonymous with the fresh veggies on any Maui menu worth its salt. So bountiful is Kula’s rich volcanic soil that it produces most of the onions, lettuce and strawberries grown in Hawaii. The key to these bountiful harvests is the elevation. At 3000ft, Kula’s cool nights and sunny days are ideal for growing all sorts of crops. Kula’s farmers first gained fame during the California gold rush of the 1850s, when they shipped so many potatoes out to West Coast miners that Kula became known as ‘Nu Kaleponi,’ the Hawaiian pronunciation for New California. In the late 19th century Portuguese and Chinese immigrants who had worked off their contracts on the sugar plantations also moved up to Kula and started small farms, giving Kula the multicultural face it wears today. Sights Stop and smell the roses…and the lavender and all those other sweet-scented blossoms.

Tours The Nature Conservancy (553-5236; www.nature.org/hawaii; Moloka’i Industrial Park, 23 Pueo Pl, Kualapu’u; suggested donation $25) leads excellent monthly guided hikes of Mo’omomi. Transportation is provided to and from the preserve. Reservations are required and spots fill up far in advance so get in early. Return to beginning of chapter KALA’E Rudolph Wilhelm Meyer, a German immigrant who had plans to make it big in the California gold rush, stopped off in Hawai’i en route (he was going the long way around). He never left, and married a member of Hawaiian royalty who had huge tracts of land on Moloka’i. Meyer busied himself growing potatoes and cattle for export, serving as overseer of the Kalaupapa leprosy settlement and as manager of King Kamehameha V’s ranch lands. In 1876, when a new treaty allowed Hawaiian sugar planters to export sugar duty-free to the US, Meyer turned his lands over to sugar, and built the mill.


pages: 1,106 words: 335,322

Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. by Ron Chernow

business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, double entry bookkeeping, endowment effect, family office, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, God and Mammon, income inequality, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, New Journalism, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, passive investing, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, white picket fence, yellow journalism

Just as the Rockefellers were moving from Moravia to Owego, hordes of frantic men swarmed across the continent, sailed around South America, or slogged across the Isthmus of Panama, hell-bent to reach California. The pandemonium foreshadowed the petroleum craze in western Pennsylvania a decade later. Though the gold rush proved a snare and a delusion for most miners, the occasional success stories nonetheless inflamed the popular imagination. Mark Twain singled out the California gold rush as the watershed event that sanctified a new money worship and debased the country’s founding ideals. Before he left Owego, John secured a first-rate education, then a rarity in rural America, where few children attended secondary school. At first, the Rockefeller children went to a schoolhouse a short walk from their house; due to the family’s straitened circumstances, a friendly neighbor purchased their textbooks.

On January 1, 1872, the Standard Oil executive committee, bracing for the tumultuous events ahead, boosted the firm’s capital from $1 million to $2.5 million and then to $3.5 million the next day.16 Among the new shareholders were several luminaries of Cleveland banking, including Truman P. Handy, Amasa Stone, and Stillman Witt. An intriguing new investor was Benjamin Brewster, a direct descendant of Elder Brewster of the Plymouth colony, who had made a fortune with Oliver Jennings during the California gold rush. It was a sign of Rockefeller’s exceptional self-confidence that he gathered strong executives and investors at this abysmal time, as if the depressed atmosphere only strengthened his resolve. “We were gathering information which confirmed us in the idea that to enlarge our own Standard Oil of Ohio and actually take into partners with us the refining interest would accomplish the protection of the oil industry as a whole.” 17 On January 1, 1872, the executive committee made its historic decision to purchase “certain refining properties in Cleveland and elsewhere.” 18 This seemingly innocuous resolution was the opening shot of a bloody skirmish that historians came to label the Cleveland Massacre.


San Francisco by Lonely Planet

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, G4S, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Joan Didion, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

For listings of free concerts around town, see www.sfcv.org. The San Francisco Opera is the USA’s second-largest opera company. But while New York’s Metropolitan Opera is larger in size and reputation, SF takes big, bold risks. You’d never guess San Francisco’s opera roots go back to the 19th century from its more avant-garde productions, such as Dangerous Liaisons, Harvey Milk, Dead Man Walking and the definitive revival of Puccini’s California Gold Rush opera The Girl of the Golden West featuring Pavarotti successor Salvatore Licitra. The company has seen its share of megawatt divas: Leontyne Price made her debut here during the ’50s, and the recent recurring favorite is Renée Fleming, whose dulcet tones you may recognize from a dozen CDs and The Lord of the Rings movie soundtrack. Best for Classical & Opera San Francisco Symphony (Civic Center) San Francisco Opera (Civic Center) Stern Grove Festival (Golden Gate Park) Zellerbach Hall (Berkeley) Rock Fire up those lighters, but don’t go calling for ‘Freebird’ as an encore.


Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies by Jared M. Diamond

affirmative action, Atahualpa, British Empire, California gold rush, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, invention of movable type, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, James Watt: steam engine, Maui Hawaii, QWERTY keyboard, the scientific method, trade route

Smaller native societies were destroyed more casually, by small-scale raids and murders carried out by private citizens. For instance, California's native hunter-gatherers initially numbered about 200,000 in aggregate, but they were splintered among a hundred tribelets, none of which required a war to be defeated. Most of those tribelets were killed off or dispossessed during or soon after the California gold rush of 1848-52, when large numbers of immigrants flooded the state. As one example, the Yahi tribelet of northern California, numbering about 2,000 and lacking firearms, was destroyed in four raids by armed white settlers: a dawn raid on a Yahi village carried out by 17 settlers on August 6, 1865; a massacre of Yahis surprised in a ravine in 1866; a massacre of 33 Yahis tracked to a cave around 1867; and a final massacre of about 30 Yahis trapped in another cave by 4 cowboys around 1868.


pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Macrae, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto

Hirshleifer notes that anarchy can be analyzed: "intertribal or international systems also have their regularities and systematic analyzable patterns." "4 In other words, just as "chaos" in mathematics can entail an intricate and highly ordered form of organization, so "anarchy" is not entirely formless or disordered. Hirshleifer analyzes a number of anarchic settings. These include, in addition to relations among sovereignties, gang warfare in Prohibition-era Chicago and "miners versus claim jumpers in the California gold rush." Note that even though California was part of the United States by the onset of the gold rush in 1849, conditions in the goldfields were properly described as anarchy. As Hirshleifer notes, "[T]he official organs of law were impotent." "' He argues that topographical conditions in the mountainous camps, plus effective vigilante organization by miners to combat claim jumpers, made it difficult for gangs of outsiders to seize gold mines, in spite of the lack of effective law enforcement.


pages: 482 words: 147,281

A Crack in the Edge of the World by Simon Winchester

Albert Einstein, Asilomar, butterfly effect, California gold rush, Golden Gate Park, index card, indoor plumbing, lateral thinking, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, place-making, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, supervolcano, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

An American woman, who had recently established a boarding-house here, pulled up stakes and was off before her lodgers had even time to pay their bills. Debtors ran, of course. I have only a community of women left, and a gang of prisoners, with here and there a soldier, who will give his captain the slip at the first chance. I don’t blame the fellow a whit; seven dollars a month, while others are making two or three hundred a day! That is too much for human nature to stand. 7. In the early, crazy days of the California Gold Rush most miners conducted placer mining, as in this later photograph – looking for the ‘bloom’ of gold flakes in the river sediment they caught in flat pans. Later massive hoses were used to break up rocks and flush out the gold, at immense environmental cost. From all America, and from all across the world, they raced to the foothills of the Sierra Mountains. Buoyed by entirely accurate reports that gold was to be found in vast abundance – in stream beds, in deposits of gravel, on the sandbars in estuaries and around lakes, in the potholes in rocks – a tidal wave of humanity, most of them young, single and rudely energetic men, began to surge its relentless way westward.


pages: 459 words: 144,009

Upheaval: Turning Points for Nations in Crisis by Jared Diamond

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, correlation coefficient, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, invention of writing, Jeff Bezos, medical malpractice, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-work, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, The Spirit Level, traffic fines, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Insofar as we Americans think of Indonesia at all, our image is of a developing country with pleasant tourist attractions, especially the scenery and beaches and Hindu temples of Bali, the world’s richest coral reefs and best scuba diving and snorkeling, and beautiful batik textiles. My first trip to Indonesia was in 1979, when I began my visit by staying in a hotel whose lobby walls were decorated with paintings telling the story of Indonesian history. In the United States a similar exhibit might display paintings of the American Revolution, the Civil War, the California gold rush, the transcontinental railroads, and other such subjects from 150 to 250 years ago. But in that Indonesian hotel lobby, all of the paintings showed events of just the previous 35 years. The event that was the subject of most paintings was termed the 1965 Communist Revolt. Paintings, and explanatory text below them, vividly depicted how communists tortured and killed seven generals; and how one of the generals that the communists tried to kill managed to escape from his house over a wall, but his five-year-old daughter was shot by accident and died a few days later.


pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

As Faisal’s closest adviser, he had been showered with gifts and favours by a grateful King and it was fitting that when the King was shot he lay dying in Yamani’s arms. It was after the Saudi oil embargo to the United States had ended in the spring of 1974 that the boom time really came to Saudi Arabia. From 1974 until well into 1976, ‘with oil flowing like Manna from heaven, Saudi Arabia was the California gold rush in spades’.25 The Saudis themselves were spending their new-found wealth with abandon. Sir John Witton, a British diplomat who arrived at the Embassy in Riyadh in 1976, remembered how ‘Saudi prosperity manifested itself in a total blockage of the ports.’ He spoke of the ‘incredible sight’ of ‘hundreds of ships queuing off Jeddah, waiting to unload’. This was also the time when tales were told about ‘piles of merchandise, rusting, rotting, being eaten by rats on the quayside’.


pages: 535 words: 151,217

Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment

As with the short-tailed albatross in Japan, the experiment has shown that with effort and imagination, some of the damage done by man can occasionally be reversed. 5 One of the first Japanese to live in America, Nakahama Manjiro, was wrecked on Torishima in 1841, only to be rescued by an American whaling boat and taken to New Bedford, Massachusetts—where he went to an American school, learned English, and eventually returned to Japan to act as interpreter during the country’s reluctant opening up to the West. He was probably the first Japanese to take a train or ride in a steam-powered ship, or to take part in the California gold rush. 6 The calms here so slow down ships that, on passage through them, many sailors worked out what was called the “dead horse,” the period for which they had been paid wages in advance, so they celebrated by hauling a piñata-like stuffed horse up the mast and then casting it out to sea. Polluting this part of the ocean has a long history. 7 The Kiribatians are not alone. There are calculated to be 12,983 habitable islands in the Pacific Ocean.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

MarketPsy Capital also briefly ran a hedge fund relying on social-media data before liquidating the fund and deciding to focus on selling its social-media analysis directly to clients. (Investors, some shaken by the recession, were reportedly leery of putting their money in such novel investment funds.) Most hedge funds looking at social-media data seem to be taking this kind of approach, buying packages of analysis from third-party firms. As the proverb about the California gold rush goes, it often pays more to sell the shovels than to use them to dig. But at least twelve quantitative hedge funds pay a firm called Gnip to pipe all of the over 500 million or so tweets produced each day directly into their platforms. Sentiment analysis is a perfect product for a tech industry awash in data and searching for ways to make money off it. It’s but another way in which the behaviors, actions, identities, and feelings of Internet users are being bought and sold, often without their knowledge, and put toward uncertain ends.


Investment: A History by Norton Reamer, Jesse Downing

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, backtesting, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, break the buck, Brownian motion, business cycle, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, colonial rule, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, dogs of the Dow, equity premium, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the telegraph, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, land tenure, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, margin call, means of production, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, statistical arbitrage, survivorship bias, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Vanguard fund, working poor, yield curve

The influence of auctioneers, who often charged very high fees and failed to create order in the transaction process, was curtailed within the exchange for the first time. The new organization was called the “New York Stock & Exchange Board.”70 Three decades later, the traders who continued to trade in the streets of New York outside Water Street and Wall Street came to be called curbstone brokers. Typically, the curbstone brokers would be heavily involved in making markets in higher-risk firms, like turnpike or railroad companies. The California Gold Rush of the 1840s only drove business further for these curbstone brokers, with mining companies being added to the mix. By 1859, oil was discovered in western Pennsylvania and oil stocks began trading among the brokers as well.71 In 1863, the New York Stock & Exchange Board’s name was shortened to the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE. In 1868, membership became a valuable commodity—one could join the NYSE only by purchasing 1 of 1,366 existing seats on the exchange.72 Meanwhile, the curbstone brokers needed better infrastructure.


pages: 519 words: 148,131

An Empire of Wealth: Rise of American Economy Power 1607-2000 by John Steele Gordon

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buttonwood tree, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, global village, imperial preference, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, margin call, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Yom Kippur War

In theory, the trip via Panama could take as little as seventy days, but often the wait in Panama City was weeks long. Ogden Mills, who would make a fortune in banking in the gold rush, found three thousand people waiting for passage to the gold fields and no northbound ships at all. He finally took a passage south looking for a ship to charter and had to go as far as Callao, in Peru, to find one. His journey from New York to California ended up taking six months as well. Politically, the California gold rush pushed the country’s center of gravity sharply westward. In 1850 the population center of the United States—east of Baltimore in 1790—was located near Parkersburg, Virginia (now West Virginia). But as early as 1851, as gold fever was still epidemic, John L. B. Soule wrote in the Terre Haute Express, “Go west, young man, go west!” a phrase that was quickly picked up by Horace Greeley and usually attributed to him thereafter.


pages: 653 words: 155,847

Energy: A Human History by Richard Rhodes

Albert Einstein, animal electricity, California gold rush, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Copley Medal, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Dmitri Mendeleev, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, energy transition, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, flex fuel, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, nuclear winter, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Simon Kuznets, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Vanguard fund, working poor, young professional

Conservative Nantucketers resisted Ewer’s invention when the Camels first launched in early September 1842, especially when the improvised chains snapped one after another and damaged the copper sheathing of a ship being hauled, the Phebe. Ewer had already ordered stronger chains. On 21 September his Camels lifted the whale ship Constitution over the bar and out to sea. More dramatically, on 15 October they brought in a loaded whale ship. Other troubles plagued Nantucket in the 1840s and 1850s: a disastrous fire in 1846, which burned down the waterfront and the center of town; the California gold rush of 1848 to 1855, which drained the island of some eight hundred vigorous young sailors eager to pan for gold. Many crews from America’s whaling ports jumped ship on the West Coast in those years, officers among them. Many in the gold rush years signed on in the first place for a free ticket to California. By the 1850s, whales retreating farther and farther away from their relentless Lilliputian hunters, who impaled them with harpoons and cut them to death with sharpened spades, had withdrawn to the Japan grounds off the northeastern coast of that archipelago or up into the Arctic Ocean.


pages: 668 words: 159,523

Coffeeland: One Man's Dark Empire and the Making of Our Favorite Drug by Augustine Sedgewick

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, European colonialism, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, Food sovereignty, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Honoré de Balzac, imperial preference, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Philip Mirowski, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

McWilliams began to “spend long hours in the library” and “make forays into the San Joaquin Valley to see . . . just what went on in the fields and in the labor camps.” There, beneath the surface of that “quiet word,” agriculture, he found a clamorous “large-scale, intensive, diversified, mechanized” race to the bottom. In his 1939 book Factories in the Field, McWilliams described how, beginning around 1870, after the California gold rush had slowed down, a new class of “industrial agriculturalists” took over California’s land and economy. They made water flow backward, conjured gardens from wastelands, and in the process became as rich as sheikhs. The source of their extraordinary power and wealth was a “miserable . . . intimidated . . . starving, destitute” army of migrant laborers, the latest group of new arrivals always pitted against the previous.


Frommer's San Diego 2011 by Mark Hiss

airport security, California gold rush, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

Cinco de Mayo (May 5) is a huge celebration in Old Town, but any day is great for shopping for Latin American handicrafts at Bazaar del Mundo or Fiesta de Reyes (p. 212). Americanized Mexican food is ubiquitous, but for a taste of the real Mexico, try El Agave Tequileria (p. 112), or head south of the border. While in Tijuana, be sure to visit the excellent Centro Cultural Tijuana (p. 276), which covers the history, contemporary art, culture, and performing arts of Baja California and the rest of Mexico. Initially lured by the California gold rush in the 1850s, a small Chinese community came to live in San Diego and controlled much of the fishing industry until 1890; Chinese also helped build (and later staff) the Hotel del Coronado. Chinatown—downtown, south of Market Street—eventually merged with the rough-andtumble Stingaree, San Diego’s red-light district. At the turn of the last century, the area was a hub of gambling, prostitution, and opium dens, and Chinese families ran notorious bars such as the Old Tub of Blood Saloon and the Seven Buckets of Blood Saloon.


A Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and America in the 19th Century by Witold Rybczynski

California gold rush, City Beautiful movement, clean water, David Brooks, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, New Urbanism, place-making, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban renewal

A contemporary assayer described it as “one of the most gigantic mining operations in the world.” The property covered seventy square miles and included six mines, two towns, a railroad, and a tenant population of about seven thousand. The previous owner was none other than General John C. Frémont. The Mariposa Estate was originally a Spanish land grant—Las Mariposas. Frémont, a key participant in the annexation of Upper California, had acquired the land two years before the great California gold rush. The estate was located astride the fabled Mother Lode, and Frémont became a rich man. Nevertheless, his political activities at the state and national levels—he ran unsuccessfully for president—ate up his fortune. In 1863, more than a million and a half dollars in debt, he sold the estate to Morris Ketchum, a millionaire New York banker. Ketchum founded a public company, the Mariposa Company, the group that had now approached Olmsted with the offer to manage the Estate.


pages: 510 words: 163,449

How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World and Everything in It by Arthur Herman

British Empire, California gold rush, creative destruction, do-ocracy, financial independence, global village, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, Republic of Letters, Robert Mercer, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

Then, in January 1848, a Scottish immigrant named James Wilson Marshall was inspecting the mill race of John Sutter’s mill not far from San Francisco, when “my eye was caught by something shining in the bottom of the ditch. . . . I reached my hand down and picked it up. It made my heart thump, for I was certain it was gold. The piece was about half the size and shape of a pea. Then I saw another. . . .” Marshall raced back to the mill, shouting, “Boys, I believe I have found a gold mine.” So he had. The California Gold Rush not only brought thousands of new residents, including Scots, but also changed the very nature of success in America. It offered instant wealth for the asking—by 1857, total production of gold reached over $500 million, almost all of it going to private individuals. Riches, for those who were quick or cunning or lucky enough to find them, became the promise of California and the West. For example, the Donahoe brothers were actually of Irish ancestry, but born and raised in Glasgow.


pages: 1,540 words: 400,759

Fodor's California 2014 by Fodor's

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, Downton Abbey, East Village, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, Kickstarter, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Taste your way through Rhône-style blended Zinfandels and Syrahs at boutique wineries such as Shenandoah Vineyards and Sobon Estate. Amador City’s 1879 Imperial Hotel places you firmly in the past for the night. Day 6: Gold Country North In Placerville, a mineshaft invites investigation at Hangtown’s Gold Bug Mine, while Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park encompasses most of Coloma and preserves the spot where James Marshall’s 1849 find set off the California gold rush. Old Town Auburn, with its museums and courthouse, makes a good lunch stop, but if you hold out until you reach Grass Valley you can try authentic miners’ pasties. A tour of Empire Mine State Historic Park takes you into a mine, and a few miles away horse-drawn carriages ply the narrow, shop-lined streets of downtown Nevada City. Both Nevada City and Grass Valley hold a collection of bed-and-breakfast inns that date back to gold-rush days.

Previous Chapter | Beginning of Chapter | Next Chapter | Table of Contents Previous Chapter | Next Chapter | Table of Contents Coloma | Auburn | Grass Valley | Nevada City Gold has had a significant presence along this northern stretch of Highway 49, whose highlights include the bucolic Empire State Historic Park and Coloma, where the discovery of a few nuggets triggered the gold rush. Previous Map | Next Map | California Maps Coloma 8 miles northwest of Placerville. The California gold rush started in Coloma. “My eye was caught with the glimpse of something shining in the bottom of the ditch,” James Marshall recalled. Marshall himself never found any more “color,” as gold came to be called. Getting Here and Around A car is the only practical way to get to Coloma, via Highway 49. Once parked, you can walk to all the worthwhile sights. Exploring FAMILY | Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park.


pages: 692 words: 189,065

The Human Swarm: How Our Societies Arise, Thrive, and Fall by Mark W. Moffett

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, California gold rush, delayed gratification, demographic transition, eurozone crisis, George Santayana, glass ceiling, Howard Rheingold, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, Kevin Kelly, labour mobility, land tenure, long peace, Milgram experiment, out of africa, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, World Values Survey

Turnbull’s account showed just how far a society could unravel under stress; nevertheless, the Ik carried on.13 Likewise Venezuela remains intact despite repeated economic collapses and a murder rate in its capital city of Caracas that in some years exceeds that of a war zone. Whenever I visit an intrepid friend there, he drives us at high speed over harrowing backstreets to avoid shootings by motorizados along the highway. Despite it all, he loves the place. The surprising fact is that Venezuelans show every bit as much attachment to and pride in their nation as Americans show in theirs.14 Societies have survived worse. For example, during the California gold rush the homicide rate was dramatically higher than that of modern-day Venezuela. While disagreements and disagreeableness can fray the fabric of societies, their positive counterpart, cooperation, does not necessarily knit societies together or separate them from other societies. This is true even when cooperation contributes to the social capital that builds up among the members and enhances the productivity of the whole.


California by Sara Benson

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, planetary scale, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, the new new thing, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Wall-E, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

At the junction of Hwy 49s and 140 is the info-laden Mariposa County Visitor Center ( 209-966-7081, 866-425-3366; www.homeofyosemite.com; 5158 Hwy 41; 7am-8pm Mon-Sat, 8am-5pm Sun summer, 8am-5pm Mon-Sat winter), which has friendly staff and racks of brochures. Rock hounds should drive to the Mariposa County Fairgrounds, 2 miles south of town on Hwy 49, to see the 13-pound ‘Fricot Nugget’ – the largest crystalized gold specimen from the California Gold Rush era – and other gems and machinery at the California State Mining & Mineral Museum ( 209-742-7625; admission $3; 10am-6pm May-Sep, 10am-4pm Wed-Mon Oct-Apr). An exhibit on glow-in-the-dark minerals is also very cool. Beautifully spruced up with a bold splash of psychedelic purple and dusty orange paint, River Rock Inn ( 966-5793, 800-627-8439; www.riverrockncafe.com; 4993 7th St; r incl breakfast $69-92; ) claims to be the oldest motel in town.

By the mid-1830s the missions had been secularized and their land divvied up into free land grants by Mexican governors, thus giving birth to the rancho (cattle ranch) system. At the time of the Mexican-American War (1846–48), American soldiers encountered some resistance from General Andrés Pico and other Mexican commanders, but eventually LA came under US rule along with the rest of California. The city was incorporated on April 4, 1850. A series of seminal events caused LA’s population to swell to two million by 1930: the collapse of the Northern California Gold Rush in the 1850s, the arrival of the transcontinental railroad in the 1870s, the birth of the citrus industry in the late 1800s, the discovery of oil in 1892, the launch of the port of LA in 1907, the birth of the movie industry in 1908 and the opening of the LA Aqueduct in 1913. Aside from motion pictures, few industries have had as strong an impact on LA as aviation. During WWI, the Lockheed brothers and Donald Douglas established aircraft manufacturing plants here.


Central America by Carolyn McCarthy, Greg Benchwick, Joshua Samuel Brown, Alex Egerton, Matthew Firestone, Kevin Raub, Tom Spurling, Lucas Vidgen

airport security, Bartolomé de las Casas, California gold rush, call centre, centre right, clean water, cognitive dissonance, currency manipulation / currency intervention, digital map, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, land reform, liberation theology, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

With the Spanish out of the picture, Britain and the USA both became interested in Nicaragua and its strategically important passage from Lago de Nicaragua to the Caribbean. Both countries wanted to build an interoceanic canal through Central America, and Nicaragua looked the likeliest spot. In 1848 the British seized the Caribbean port of San Juan del Norte, at the mouth of the Río San Juan, and renamed it Greytown. Meanwhile, the California gold rush had added fire to the quest for an Atlantic–Pacific passage, and prospectors were transported to America’s west coast via the Río San Juan and a Pacific steamer service. The Late 19th Century In 1857 the Liberals, disgraced after inviting William Walker (see boxed text, right) into the country, lost power to the Conservatives and were unable to regain it for the next 36 years. The new government set up shop in Managua, then little more than a village, which had been nominated as capital in 1852 in an attempt to quell the rivalry between Granada and León.

However, internal disputes lead to the abolishment of Gran Colombia in 1831, though fledgling Panama remained a province of Colombia. Birth of a Nation Panama’s future forever changed when world powers caught on that the isthmus was the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In 1846 Colombia signed a treaty permitting the USA to construct a railway across the isthmus, though it also granted it free transit and the right to protect the railway with military force. At the height of the California gold rush in 1849, tens of thousands traveled from the east coast of the USA to the west coast via Panama in order to avoid hostile Native Americans living in the central states. Colombia and Panama grew wealthy from the railway, and the first talks of a canal across Central America began to surface. The idea of a canal across the isthmus was first raised in 1524 when King Charles V of Spain ordered a survey to determine the feasibility of a waterway.


pages: 654 words: 204,260

A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson

Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, All science is either physics or stamp collecting, Arthur Eddington, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Brownian motion, California gold rush, Cepheid variable, clean water, Copley Medal, cosmological constant, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Attenborough, double helix, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kuiper Belt, Louis Pasteur, luminiferous ether, Magellanic Cloud, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, out of africa, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, Thomas Malthus, Wilhelm Olbers

Thomson was insisting: “The ether is not a fantastic creation of the speculative philosopher; it is as essential to us as the air we breathe”—this more than four years after it was pretty incontestably established that it didn't exist. People, in short, were really attached to the ether. If you needed to illustrate the idea of nineteenth-century America as a land of opportunity, you could hardly improve on the life of Albert Michelson. Born in 1852 on the German–Polish border to a family of poor Jewish merchants, he came to the United States with his family as an infant and grew up in a mining camp in California's gold rush country, where his father ran a dry goods business. Too poor to pay for college, he traveled to Washington, D.C., and took to loitering by the front door of the White House so that he could fall in beside President Ulysses S. Grant when the President emerged for his daily constitutional. (It was clearly a more innocent age.) In the course of these walks, Michelson so ingratiated himself to the President that Grant agreed to secure for him a free place at the U.S.


pages: 612 words: 200,406

The Last Spike: The Great Railway, 1881-1885 by Pierre Berton

banking crisis, business climate, California gold rush, centre right, Columbine, financial independence, God and Mammon, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, transcontinental railway, unbiased observer, young professional

The Chinese were not hired individually but in large groups of as many as a thousand through agents representing the Six Companies of Kwang Tung. These companies were rather like commercial guilds. Colonel F. A. Bee, who acted as Chinese consul in San Francisco, described them as benevolent associations, comparable to the Masons or Oddfellows; indeed, it was said that they had patterned themselves after similar western institutions when they were first formed in the early days of the California gold-rush. The companies handled the shipment of Chinese to North America as well as their contracts with their employers and their eventual return to China. Each Chinese paid a fee of 2½ per cent of his wages to the company, together with his passage money – about forty dollars. The company, in its turn, was pledged to look after each man’s welfare in North America, protecting him, for instance, if he got into legal difficulties.


pages: 613 words: 200,826

Unreal Estate: Money, Ambition, and the Lust for Land in Los Angeles by Michael Gross

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Bernie Madoff, California gold rush, clean water, corporate raider, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial independence, Irwin Jacobs, Joan Didion, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil rush, passive investing, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, Right to Buy, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Predators' Ball, transcontinental railway, yellow journalism

Rancho San Jose de Buenos Ayres, which would become Bel Air, Holmby Hills, and Westwood, was next door to Maria Rita; it was initially granted to a Mexican but was soon “conveyed” to two Los Angeles gringos. In 1848, after the Mexican-American War, America won control of Alta California and Maria Rita briefly fled her ranch in fear. While she was gone, all her papers were stolen, including her land grant. It would be years before she could again definitively prove the rancho was hers. The California gold rush began that year and was not only transforming life in San Francisco, but raising expectations to the south as well. Two years later, California gained statehood, and the Land Grant Act of 1851 required that all Spanish and Mexican land titles be officially confirmed. Many ranchos and their owners in the Hispanic gentry were driven into bankruptcy by the resulting legal bills and taxes, and gringos often took over their land.


A Terrible Glory by James Donovan

California gold rush, Hernando de Soto, joint-stock company, Monroe Doctrine, transcontinental railway

“A Dispatch from the Battlefield.” Research Review 18, no. 2 (Summer 2004). ———. “The Guns ‘Long Hair’ Left Behind: The Gatling Gun Detachment and the Little Big Horn.” Brand Book 33, no. 2 (Summer 1999). Ostler, Jeffrey. “They Regard Their Passing as Wakan.” Western Historical Quarterly 30, no. 4 (Winter 1999). Palais, Hyman. “Some Aspects of the Black Hills Gold Rush Compared with the California Gold Rush.” Pacific Historical Review 16, no. 1 (March 1946). Partoll, Albert J. “After the Custer Battle.” Frontier and Midland 19, no. 4 (1938–1939). Pearson, Jeffrey V. “Tragedy at Red Cloud Agency.” Montana 55, no. 2 (Summer 2005). Pennington, Robert. “An Analysis of the Political Structure of the Teton-Dakota Indian Tribe of North America.” North Dakota History 20, no. 3 (July 1953). Plainfeather, Mardell Hogan.


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

New York and Philadelphia may have had the capital and the big electronics makers and some of the universities as well, but these places didn’t have the relentless focus on nurturing start-ups. Nowhere else but the Valley had the entrepreneurial and opportunistic Stanford, the thrusting bulldozers and hustling law firms, and the young money men opening up shop along Sand Hill Road. Nowhere else had the people. The California Gold Rush had been over for a century, but the Golden State remained a destination for the adventurous young from elsewhere, arriving with little to lose and an appetite for reinvention. Arrivals NEW YORK HARBOR, 1965 The bill we sign today is not a revolutionary bill,” President Lyndon B. Johnson said. “It does not affect the lives of millions. It will not reshape the structure of our daily lives, or really add importantly to either our wealth or power.”


pages: 716 words: 192,143

The Enlightened Capitalists by James O'Toole

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, desegregation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, end world poverty, equal pay for equal work, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, means of production, Menlo Park, North Sea oil, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, stocks for the long run, stocks for the long term, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, Vanguard fund, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

In December 2010, J&J’s directors were hit with a shareholder lawsuit citing a long list of “federal and state regulatory investigations, subpoenas and requests for documents, FDA warning letters, news articles, and the recall of products accounting for hundreds of millions of dollars of corporate losses.”55 The General would have been appalled. 8 Great Genes Levi Strauss (1829–1902) and His Heirs The making of the first pair of Levi Strauss jeans is the stuff of legend. As the story goes, during the great California gold rush Levi Strauss, a Jewish immigrant tailor, made a pair of pants for a ’49er out of fabric used to make tents, fastening parts of the sturdy material together with brass rivets. Like most legends, this one is more fiction than fact. What is true is that Levi Strauss was a Jewish immigrant from Bavaria who arrived in New York in 1847, accompanied by his brothers Louis and Jonas and sister Fanny, none of whom spoke English.


pages: 388 words: 211,314

Frommer's Washington State by Karl Samson

airport security, British Empire, California gold rush, centre right, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, place-making, sustainable-tourism, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, transcontinental railway, white picket fence

May through September, it’s open daily from 11am to 5pm; October through April, it’s open Friday through Tuesday from 11am to 5pm; admission is $5 for adults, $4 for seniors, and $3 for children. , an old oystering comToward the north end of the peninsula, Oysterville munity that is a National Historic District, is the quaintest village on the peninsula. Old homes with spacious lawns cling to the edge of the marsh, creating a timeless scene. Oysterville’s heyday came during the California gold rush, when the village shipped tons of oysters to San Francisco, where people paid as much as $50 a plate for fresh oysters. Today, Oysterville is a sleepy little community of restored homes. The town’s white clapboard church hosts occasional music performances. Oysterville Sea Farms (& 360/665-6585; www.willabay.com) has a seafood and cranberry-products shop on the waterfront at the north end of the village.


Colorado by Lonely Planet

big-box store, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Columbine, East Village, haute couture, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, payday loans, Steve Wozniak, trade route, transcontinental railway, young professional

Colorado really does average 300 days of sun annually, and 300,000 people float down Colorado rivers every year. Barney Ford was born a Virginian slave in 1822. When he was 17 he and his mother escaped via the underground railroad. His mother, who had instilled within him the value of an education and taught him to read, died along the way, and he was recaptured and forced to work the Georgia gold fields. Eventually he escaped to Chicago, where he continued his education. He dreamt of the California gold rush but was waylaid in Nicaragua before finally pursuing his dreams in Breckenridge, right after the first Colorado gold strike. The man who made his living in Chicago as a barber eventually opened restaurants and hotels, funded gold explorations and sold equipment to miners in Denver and Breckenridge. He became the wealthiest man in Breckenridge and was eventually elected to the state legislature.


pages: 740 words: 227,963

The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration by Isabel Wilkerson

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, California gold rush, card file, desegregation, Gunnar Myrdal, index card, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, labor-force participation, Mason jar, mass immigration, medical residency, Rosa Parks, strikebreaker, trade route, traveling salesman, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Their every step was controlled by the meticulous laws of Jim Crow, a nineteenth-century minstrel figure that would become shorthand for the violently enforced codes of the southern caste system. The Jim Crow regime persisted from the 1880s to the 1960s, some eighty years, the average life span of a fairly healthy man. It afflicted the lives of at least four generations and would not die without bloodshed, as the people who left the South foresaw. Over time, this mass relocation would come to dwarf the California Gold Rush of the 1850s with its one hundred thousand participants and the Dust Bowl migration of some three hundred thousand people from Oklahoma and Arkansas to California in the 1930s.9 But more remarkably, it was the first mass act of independence by a people who were in bondage in this country for far longer than they have been free.10 “The story of the Great Migration is among the most dramatic and compelling in all chapters of American history,” the Mississippi historian Neil McMillen wrote toward the end of the twentieth century.11 “So far reaching are its effects even now that we scarcely understand its meaning.”


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

On Tuesday, April 5, 1892, a special six-car train sped north from Cheyenne, carrying twenty-five Texas gunmen along with another twenty-four locals who had joined them. The men had a “Dead List of seventy men” they intended to kill. We don’t have information about the homicide rate in Cheyenne in the 1890s, though data for the mining town of Benton, California, suggests that there it may have reached an incredible high of 24,000 per 100,000! More likely it was closer to 83 per 100,000, the rate during the California gold rush, or 100 per 100,000, the rate in Dodge City, Kansas, in the days of Wyatt Earp. This sounds as bad as Lagos when Soyinka was trying to make it there with his Glock pistol at the ready. But things turned out quite differently in Wyoming (actually, they turned out rather differently from what Kaplan expected in Lagos too, as we’ll explain in Chapter 14). The anarchy, fear, and violence were contained.


pages: 2,323 words: 550,739

1,000 Places to See in the United States and Canada Before You Die, Updated Ed. by Patricia Schultz

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bretton Woods, Burning Man, California gold rush, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, estate planning, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Mars Rover, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, out of africa, Pepto Bismol, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, South of Market, San Francisco, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, wage slave, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, éminence grise

HOW: Several ferries and seaplane services run to Isle Royale (www.nps.gov/isro). ROCK HARBOR LODGE: Tel 906-337-4993 (May–Sept), 270-773-2191 (Oct–Apr); www.rockharborlodge.com. Cost: from $220 without meals (off-peak), from $245, includes meals (peak). When: late May–mid-Sept. BEST TIMES: late June–mid-Sept. America’s Forgotten Mineral Rush KEWEENAW COPPER MINING HERITAGE Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan Most North Americans are familiar with the California Gold Rush of 1849. But history books largely overlook the copper rush that occurred at the same time, when vast deposits of copper—a mineral highly coveted in the 19th century—were discovered in the remote wilds of Michigan’s Keweenaw (KEY-win-aw) Peninsula. The Keweenaw National Historical Park, established in 1992, now tells the tale, encompassing heritage sites that range from an opulent opera house to a mine tour that carries you deep under the earth.

Raking off the back of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, the 80-mile-long Keweenaw had always been an untamed place, a land of deep piney woods and rocky Lake Superior beaches. But that changed in 1840 when the copper rush began almost overnight, first with prospectors straggling through the wilderness, then with extensive mining enterprises. By the time the most accessible copper was played out, King Copper had generated $9.6 billion—10 times more than the California Gold Rush. The national park sites are scattered throughout the Keweenaw, with most of them concentrated in the cities of Houghton, Hancock, and Calumet. In Hancock, the mammoth shaft house of the Quincy Mine is a monument to one of the largest, most lucrative copper mines in the world, in operation until 1967. A terrific tour takes you through the world’s largest steam hoist (used to haul miners nearly 10,000 feet underground) and 2,400 feet into the mine, where you get a feel for what it was like to work in this oppressive environment.


Rough Guide to San Francisco and the Bay Area by Nick Edwards, Mark Ellwood

1960s counterculture, airport security, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, period drama, pez dispenser, Port of Oakland, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Contexts 389 Contexts History............................................................................................391 Books.............................................................................................406 San Francisco on film....................................................................412 390 History T hough its recorded history may not stretch back very far by European standards, in its 150-plus years of existence, San Francisco has more than made up for time. It first came to life during the California Gold Rush of 1849, the adventurous tone of which the city sustains to this day, both in its valuing of individual effort above corporate enterprise and in the often nonconformist policies that have given it perhaps the most progressive image of any US city. The following account is intended to give an overall view of the city’s development; for a rundown of the figures – both past and present – who have helped to shape the city, see the “San Francisco people” glossary on p.421.


The River Cottage Fish Book: The Definitive Guide to Sourcing and Cooking Sustainable Fish and Shellfish by Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall

California gold rush, clean water, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, haute cuisine, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Kickstarter, market bubble, means of production, sensible shoes

Like the cod—its only rival as a truly nation-shaping fish—the stocks of herring were once thought to be inexhaustible. In its heyday, the herring’s potential to deliver prosperity to the communities well placed to exploit it was limited only by the fishermen’s resourcefulness in removing it from the sea. In its way, the herring rush of the early nineteenth century was almost as sensational as the California gold rush. Remote Scottish settlements such as Wick and Peterhead became boomtowns on the back of herring fishing, and were said to harbor (as it were) some very wealthy individuals indeed. One of the most notorious episodes in Scottish history contributed to this success story. The Highland clearances of the eighteenth century were a consequence of the booming wool trade—a mini gold rush in itself.


pages: 941 words: 237,152

USA's Best Trips by Sara Benson

Albert Einstein, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, if you build it, they will come, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, McMansion, mega-rich, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, the High Line, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

Over at the elegant oasis of the Furnace Creek Inn, guests soak up elevated views across the desert salt pans as they swim laps in a warm, natural spring–fed pool. On the site of the valley’s original tourist camp, Stovepipe Wells Village is a quieter, more down-to-earth place to rest your head, with renovated motel rooms. At its cowboy-style Toll Road Restaurant the flapjacks and biscuits-and-gravy breakfasts go like gangbusters. The next day, take up another strand of history in Death Valley: the story of the lost ’49ers. When the California gold rush began in 1849, a small group of pioneers took what they hoped would be a shortcut to the California goldfields, leaving behind the Old Spanish Trail. Exhausted, dangerously running out of food and water, and struggling with broken wagons and worn-out pack animals, the woeful group arrived near Furnace Creek on Christmas Eve. An Old West festival featuring a historical reenactment of the ill-fated ’49ers takes place here every November.


pages: 898 words: 253,177

Cadillac Desert by Marc Reisner

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, clean water, Golden Gate Park, hacker house, jitney, Joan Didion, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

California has preached and practiced water imperialism against its neighbor states in a manner that would have done Napoleon proud, and, in the 1960s, it undertook, by itself, what was then the most expensive public-works project in history. That project, the State Water Project, more than anything else, is the symbol of California’s immense wealth, determination, and grandiose vision—a demonstration that it can take its rightful place in the company of nations rather than mere states. It has also offered one of the country’s foremost examples of socialism for the rich. In the 1850s, when the California gold rush was at full flood, the Great Central Valley traversed by the miners on the way to the mother lode was an American Serengeti—a blond grassland in the summertime, a vast flourishing marsh during the winter and spring. The wildlife, even after a century and a half of Spanish settlement, was unbelievable: millions of wintering ducks, geese and cranes, at least a million antelope and tule elk, thousands of grizzly bears.


pages: 900 words: 241,741

Total Recall: My Unbelievably True Life Story by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Peter Petre

Berlin Wall, California gold rush, call centre, clean water, cleantech, Donald Trump, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, index card, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Y2K

Its full-time legislature passes so many new laws each year—more than a thousand—that legislators don’t have time to even read the bills before they vote on most of them. Voters get so frustrated that they pass major legislation by initiative, like Prop 98, to force Sacramento to focus on real problems like education funding. Absurd. Sacramento grew up as a boomtown: it was the main trading post in the great California Gold Rush of 1849. When Californians made it the state capital, they built a grandiose capitol building to rival the US Capitol in Washington, DC. But they didn’t get around to building a White House, so there’s no separate place where the governor can work. Instead, he and his staff share the capitol building with the legislature, and each governor makes his own living arrangements. The governors before me had all moved their families to Sacramento, but Maria and I decided we didn’t want to uproot the kids.


pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, sexual politics, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

He created a Jewish model farm near the city, studied the Torah, divorced his American wife and married a Jewess, all the while completing his book The Key of David. He was honoured by local Jews as 'the American Holy Stranger'. On his death he was buried in the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives. Jerusalem was now so overrun by apocalyptic Americans that the American Journal of Insanity compared its hysteria to the California Gold Rush. When Herman Melville visited, he was fascinated yet repulsed by the 'contagion' of American Christian millenarianism - 'this preposterous Jewmania', he called it, 'half-melancholy, half-farcical'. 'How am I to act when any crazy or distressed citizen of the US comes into the country?' the American consul in Beirut asked his secretary of state. 'There are several of late going to Jerusalem with strange ideas in their heads that Our Saviour is coming this year.'


Coastal California by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, airport security, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Mason jar, McMansion, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Wozniak, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Established in 1781, the civilian settlement of El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles (Village of the Queen of the Angels) became a thriving farming community but remained an isolated outpost for decades. Spain lost its hold on the territory to Mexico in 1821 and, following the Mexican–American War (1846–48), California came under US rule. The city was incorporated on April 4, 1850. A series of seminal events caused LA’s population to swell to two million by 1930: the collapse of the Northern California Gold Rush in the 1850s, the arrival of the railroad in the 1870s, the birth of the citrus industry in the late 1800s, the discovery of oil in 1892, the launch of San Pedro Harbor in 1907, the arrival of the motion picture industry in 1908 and the opening of the LA Aqueduct in 1913. Beginning in WWI, aviation and defense industries helped drive the city’s economy through the end of the Cold War. The 10th Summer Olympic Games, held here in 1932, marked LA’s coming of age as a world city (10th St was renamed Olympic Blvd in their honor).


Coastal California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, flex fuel, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Lyft, Mason jar, New Journalism, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Wall-E, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Spanish soldiers often forced the Chumash to construct the missions and presidios (military forts) and provide farm labor; they also rounded up the tribespeople on the Channel Islands and forced them to leave. Back on the mainland, the indigenous population shrank dramatically, as many Chumash died of European diseases and ill treatment. Mexican ranchers arrived after their country won independence in 1821. Easterners began migrating en masse after California's gold rush kicked off in 1849. By the late 1890s, Santa Barbara was an established SoCal vacation spot for the wealthy. After a massive earthquake in 1925, laws were passed requiring much of the city to be rebuilt in a faux-but-attractive Spanish Colonial–style,with white-stucco buildings and red-tiled roofs. Downtown Santa Barbara 1Top Sights 1MOXIC5 2Santa Barbara County CourthouseC2 1Sights 3Chase Palm ParkE6 4East BeachE7 5El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic ParkD3 6Santa Barbara Historical MuseumD3 7Santa Barbara Maritime MuseumA7 8Santa Barbara Museum of ArtC2 9Sea CenterC7 10Stearns WharfC7 11West BeachC6 2Activities, Courses & Tours 12Condor ExpressB6 13Land & Sea ToursC6 14Paddle Sports CenterA7 15Santa Barbara Adventure CompanyC4 16Santa Barbara Bikes To-GoE6 17Santa Barbara Sailing CenterA6 18Santa Barbara TrolleyD6 19Sunset Kidd's Sailing CruisesA7 20Surf HappensC4 21Surf-n-Wear's Beach HouseC6 Truth AquaticsB6 22Wheel Fun RentalsC6 4Sleeping 23Brisas del MarA5 24Canary HotelC2 25Castillo InnB6 26Franciscan InnB5 27Harbor House InnB6 28Hotel CalifornianC6 29Hotel IndigoC5 30Inn of the Spanish GardenD2 31Marina Beach MotelB6 32White Jasmine InnB1 5Eating 33Arigato SushiC1 34BouchonC1 35Brophy BrothersA7 Corazon CocinaC1 36Dawn PatrolC5 37El Buen GustoF2 38La Super-Rica TaqueriaF3 39LarkC5 40Lilly's TaqueríaC5 41LoquitaC5 42Los AgavesF4 43Lucky PennyC5 44McConnell's Fine Ice CreamsC3 45MetropulosD5 46Olio PizzeriaC4 47OpalC1 48Palace GrillC4 49Santa Barbara Shellfish CompanyC7 50Shop CafeF3 51SomersetC1 52TomaB6 53Yoichi'sD1 6Drinking & Nightlife 54Brass BearC6 55BrewhouseB5 56Corks n' CrownsC6 Cutler's Artisan SpiritsC5 Figueroa Mountain Brewing CoC5 Good LionC1 57Handlebar Coffee RoastersD3 58Municipal WinemakersC6 59Press RoomC3 Riverbench Winery Tasting RoomC5 60Test PilotC5 61Valley ProjectC5 62WaterlineD5 3Entertainment 63Arlington TheatreC1 64Granada TheatreC1 65Lobero TheatreC3 66Santa Barbara BowlF2 67SohoC1 68Velvet JonesC4 7Shopping 69Channel Islands SurfboardsC5 70Chocolate MayaC4 71CRSVR Sneaker BoutiqueC3 72DianiC1 73Paseo NuevoC3 74REIC5 75Santa Barbara Farmers MarketC4 76Santa Barbara Public MarketC1 1Sights oMOXIMUSEUM (Wolf Museum of Exploration + Innovation; MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %805-770-5000; www.moxi.org; 125 State St; adult/child $14/10; h10am-5pm; c) Part of the regeneration of this neglected strip of State St, Moxi's three floors filled with hands-on displays covering science, arts and technology themes will tempt families in, even when it's not raining outside.


Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss

anti-communist, British Empire, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, traveling salesman, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013. ———. Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War & Its Aftermath. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1993. Bradlee, Benjamin C. Conversations with Kennedy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975. Branch, Taylor. At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965–68. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. Brands, H. W. The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream. New York: Doubleday, 2002. ———. The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War. New York: Doubleday, 2016. ———. Lone Star Nation: How a Ragged Army of Volunteers Won the Battle for Texas Independence, and Changed America. New York: Doubleday, 2004. ———. The Man Who Saved the Union: Ulysses Grant in War and Peace.


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

While still at Google he told an interviewer, “More than 80% of people who own a mobile device claim that they play games on their device… games are often the number 1 or number 2 activity… so for Android as an operative system, but also for Google, we think it’s important for us to innovate and to be a leader in… the future of mobile gaming.”26 It is worth noting that Hanke chose to name his group after a nineteenth-century merchant sailing vessel undone by greed. The Niantic had been sold and repurposed for the more lucrative whaling trade when it set sail for San Francisco and the northern Pacific whaling grounds in 1849. The ship’s captain made an unplanned stop in Panama to board hundreds of pilgrims bound for the California Gold Rush, all of them eager to pay top dollar for cramped, smelly quarters on the whaler. The captain’s avarice proved fatal to the ship’s prospects when those passengers infected the ship’s crew with gold fever. The sailors abandoned captain and vessel upon docking in San Francisco, heading instead for gold country. Unable to continue the journey, the captain was forced to sell the ship for a pittance, leaving it wedged deep in the sandy shallows at the foot of Clay and Montgomery streets.


Northern California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, McMansion, means of production, Port of Oakland, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, the built environment, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Established as a mining and railroad town during the gold rush, it has the oldest courthouse in continuous use (since 1854) west of the Mississippi, loads of Old West pioneer character and a couple of good museums dedicated to the area's history. Rock hounds should drive to the Mariposa County Fairgrounds, 2 miles south of town on Hwy 49, to see the 13lb ‘Fricot Nugget’ – the largest crystallized gold specimen from the California gold-rush era – and other gems and machinery at the California State Mining & Mineral Museum ( GOOGLE MAP ; %209-742-7625; www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=588; 5005 Fairgrounds Rd; adult/under 13yr $4/free; h10am-5pm Thu-Sun May-Sep, to 4pm Oct-Apr). An exhibit on glow-in-the-dark minerals is also very cool. 4Sleeping & Eating River Rock InnMOTEL$$ ( GOOGLE MAP ; %209-966-5793; 4993 7th St; r $135-179; aW#) Updated kitchenette rooms are done up in artsy earth tones at this inn that claims to be the oldest motel in town.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

History The hunter-gatherer existence of the Gabrieleño and Chumash peoples ended with the arrival of Spanish missionaries and pioneers in the late 18th century. Spain’s first civilian settlement here (1781), El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, remained an isolated farming outpost for decades. LA was incorporated as a California city in 1850, and by 1830 its population had swollen thanks to the collapse of the Northern California gold rush, the arrival of the transcontinental railroad, the citrus industry, the discovery of oil, the launch of the port of LA, the birth of the movie industry and the opening of the California Aqueduct. The city’s population has boomed from some 1.5 million in 1950 to almost four million today. LA’s growth has caused problems, including suburban sprawl and air pollution – though thanks to aggressive enforcement, smog levels have fallen annually since records have been kept.

Sights & Activities University of California, Berkeley UNIVERSITY Offline map ‘Cal’ is one of the country’s top universities and home to 35,000 diverse, politically conscious students. The Visitor Services Center ( 510-642-5215; http://visitors.berkeley.edu; 101 Sproul Hall; tours 10am Mon-Sat, 1pm Sun) has info and leads free campus tours (reservations required). Cal’s landmark is the 1914 Sather Tower (also called the Campanile), with elevator rides ($2) to the top. The Bancroft Library displays the small gold nugget that started the California gold rush in 1848. Leading to the campus’s south gate, Tele-graph Avenue is as youthful and gritty as San Francisco’s Haight St, packed with cafes, cheap eats, record stores and bookstores. UC Berkeley Art Museum MUSEUM ( 510-642-0808; www.bampfa.berkeley.edu; 2626 Bancroft Way; adult/child $10/7; 11am-5pm Wed-Sun) A campus highlight with 11 galleries showcasing a wide range of works, from ancient Chinese to cutting-edge contempor-ary.


pages: 1,335 words: 336,772

The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance by Ron Chernow

always be closing, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bolshevik threat, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Etonian, financial deregulation, fixed income, German hyperinflation, index arbitrage, interest rate swap, margin call, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, paper trading, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, strikebreaker, the market place, the payments system, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Webster would not appear very well if it should get out,” Joshua Bates, the senior Baring partner, warned Thomas Ward, American bagman for the operation.12 Bates, a sober, diligent Bostonian, cringed at what they were doing: “I have a sort of instinctive horror of doing one thing to effect another, or using any sort of subterfuge or reserve,” he confessed to Ward.13 Whatever their scruples, the conspiracy thrived: pro-resumption Whigs were elected in both Maryland and Pennsylvania, and London bankers again received payments from both states.14 Peabody, never one to forget an injury, excluded the most persistent debtors, Florida and Mississippi, from his later philanthropies. Even altruism had its limits. When the depreciated state bonds Peabody had bought up in the early 1840s paid interest again, he reaped a fortune. Then, as revolution swept across the Continent in 1848, American securities seemed a safe haven in comparison with Europe. And as the California gold rush and Mexican War wiped away the last vestiges of depression by the late 1840s, Peabody took new pride in his native roots. Now he fancied himself the ambassador of American culture in London and dispensed barrels full of American apples, Boston crackers, and hominy grits. On July 4, 1851, he hosted the first of his Independence Day dinners, featuring the elderly duke of Wellington as guest of honor.


pages: 675 words: 344,555

Frommer's Hawaii 2009 by Jeanette Foster

airport security, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, glass ceiling, gravity well, haute couture, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Maui Hawaii, place-making, polynesian navigation, South China Sea, sustainable-tourism, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Yogi Berra

(near the junction of Hwy. 470), Kualapuu. & 877/322-FARM or 808/567-9490, ext. 26. www. coffeesofhawaii.com. Mon–Fri 8am–5pm; Sat 8am–4pm; Sun 8am–2pm. Self-guided tour free. Morning Espresso Tour Mon–Fri 10am; $20 adults, $10 kids 5–10. Mule Drawn Wagon Tour Mon–Fri 8am and 1pm, Sat–Sun 8am; $35 adults, $10 kids 5–10. Afternoon Hiking Adventures daily 3–5:30pm; free. Molokai Museum and Cultural Center En route to the California Gold Rush in 1849, Rudolph W. Meyer (a German professor) came to Molokai, married the high chieftess Kalama, and began to operate a small sugar plantation near his home. Now on the National Register of Historic Places, this restored 1878 sugar mill, with its century-old steam engine, mule-driven cane crusher, copper clarifiers, and redwood evaporating pan (all in working order), is the last of its kind in Hawaii.


pages: 1,157 words: 379,558

Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger

air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, plutocrats, Plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

From the first, the new brand was conceived of as proudly American; there was to be nothing Turkish or foreign in the name, package, or blend. The Hills put the company’s best blender of plug to work in their Brooklyn factory on a formula that had even more Burley in it than Camel, while George scoured the long list of trademarks that the old trust had accumulated over the years for a striking name. He found it in a long-abandoned pipe tobacco brand once made in Richmond and registered in 1871 when memories of the California Gold Rush were still fresh—Lucky Strike. The old package had had a nice, unfussy look to it: a deep hunter green background and a bright red central disk bearing the brand name. George had an artist clean up the lettering so that the name appeared all in bold, black capital letters without serifs and the disk was set off with a double band, gold on the inside and black on the outer edge. On one of the side panels a small Indian chiefs head was introduced—in time it would become the company symbol—and on the back, to counter Camel’s self-serving assertion that it had substituted a better grade of tobacco for customer premiums, Lucky Strike carried a money-back guarantee to buyers.


Parks Directory of the United States by Darren L. Smith, Kay Gill

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Asilomar, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donner party, El Camino Real, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hernando de Soto, indoor plumbing, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

It will tell the story of how Hawaiiians flourished as a civilization, Captain Cook’s historic landing, the rise of Kamehameha I, and subsequent changes leading to Hawaii’s unique blend of cultures. American history, and today remnants of the trail are reminders of the sacrifices, struggles, and triumphs of early American travelers and settlers. Trail includes portions that were pioneered and developed before the 1849 California Gold Rush. An estimated 320 historic sites along the entire trail include forts, trading posts, natural landmarks, river crossing sites, campsites, trail junctions, and gravesites. ★1055★ CONTINENTAL DIVIDE NATIONAL SCENIC TRAIL Continental Divide Trail Alliance PO Box 628 Pine, CO 80470 303-838-3760 - Phone 303-838-3960 - Fax Web: www.cdtrail.org 5. National Trails ★1053★ APPALACHIAN NATIONAL SCENIC TRAIL Appalachian Trail Conservancy PO Box 807 Harpers Ferry, WV 25425 304-535-6331 - Phone 304-535-2667 - Fax Web: www.appalachiantrail.org Trail Manager - NPS Appalachian Park Trail Office c/o Harpers Ferry Center Harpers Ferry, WV 25425 304-535-6278 - Phone 304-535-6270 - Fax Web: www.nps.gov/appa Continental Divide Trail Society 3704 N Charles St, Suite 601 Baltimore, MD 21218 410-235-9610 - Phone Web: www.cdtsociety.org Length: 2,171 miles.

Location: On Highway 49 in Coloma, between Placerville and Auburn. Facilities: Historic buildings, museum, exhibits, restrooms, picnic areas, hiking trails, nature trails (uu). Activities: Interpretive programs, living history demonstrations, guided tours, fishing, hiking, gold panning. Special Features: Park encompasses most of the historic town of Coloma, where James Marshall’s discovery of gold in 1848 was the start of the famous California Gold Rush. Historic buildings on exhibit include a full-sized replica of Sutter’s sawmill. ★1652★ MENDOCINO HEADLANDS STATE PARK c/o Mendocino District Office PO Box 440 Mendocino, CA 95460 Web: www.parks.ca.gov/default.asp?page_id=442 Phone: 707-937-5804 338 CALIFORNIA Size: 7,709 acres. Location: Just off Highway 1, surrounding the town of Mendocino. Facilities: Visitor center, exhibits, restrooms, hiking trails (3 miles), scenic vista.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

One man remarked, “I don’t like to play cards with a dirty deck.” A cowboy from a rival company thought he said “dirty neck,” and when the gunsmoke cleared, one man was dead and three wounded.99 It wasn’t just cowboy country that developed in Hobbesian anarchy; so did parts of the West settled by miners, railroad workers, loggers, and itinerant laborers. Here is an assertion of property rights found attached to a post during the California Gold Rush of 1849: All and everybody, this is my claim, fifty feet on the gulch, cordin to Clear Creek District Law, backed up by shotgun amendments.... Any person found trespassing on this claim will be persecuted to the full extent of the law. This is no monkey tale butt I will assert my rites at the pint of the sicks shirter if leagally necessary so taik head and good warning.100 Courtwright cites an average annual homicide rate at the time of 83 per 100,000 and points to “an abundance of other evidence that Gold Rush California was a brutal and unforgiving place.


Frommer's California 2009 by Matthew Poole, Harry Basch, Mark Hiss, Erika Lenkert

airport security, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Columbine, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, European colonialism, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, post-work, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Outdoor enthusiasts have literally dozens of sporting books to choose fr om, but most comprehensive is F oghorn P ress’s ex cellent outdoor series— California C amping, C alifornia F ishing, C alifornia G olf, C alifornia Beaches, and California Hiking—available at every major bookstor e in the state. Another recommended choice is Frommer’s G reat Outdoor Guide to Northern California (Wiley Publishing, Inc.). RECOMMENDED MOVIES The beauty and metaphor that is California (Gold Rush, Land of Opportunity, Go C A L I F O R N I A I N P O P U L A R C U LT U R E : B O O K S , F I L M , T V & M U S I C Special-Interest Reads West Young M an, S ilver Scr een—the list 29 goes on) has inspir ed far too many mo viemakers to list in any compr ehensive way, but I’ve compiled a shor t list of the California-based gems that hav e inspired generations of movie fans. Vertigo (1958) is the wor k of possibly the gr eatest mo vie dir ector of all time, Alfred H itchcock, who always used locations w ell.