augmented reality

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Programming Computer Vision with Python by Jan Erik Solem

augmented reality, computer vision, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, text mining, Thomas Bayes, web application

Symbols 3D plotting, A Sample Data Set 3D reconstruction, 3D Reconstruction Example 4-neighborhood, 9.1 Graph Cuts A affine transformation, 3.1 Homographies affine warping, Affine Transformations affinity matrix, Clustering Images agglomerative clustering, 6.2 Hierarchical Clustering alpha map, Image in Image AR, 4.3 Pose Estimation from Planes and Markers array, Interactive Annotation array slicing, Array Image Representation aspect ratio, 4.1 The Pin-Hole Camera Model association, 9.2 Segmentation Using Clustering augmented reality, 4.3 Pose Estimation from Planes and Markers B bag-of-visual-words, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model bag-of-word representation, Searching Images baseline, Bundle adjustment Bayes classifier, Classifying Images—Hand Gesture Recognition binary image, Morphology—Counting Objects blurring, Using the Pickle Module bundle adustment, Bundle adjustment C calibration matrix, 4.1 The Pin-Hole Camera Model camera calibration, Computing the Camera Center camera center, Camera Models and Augmented Reality camera matrix, Camera Models and Augmented Reality camera model, Camera Models and Augmented Reality camera pose estimation, 4.3 Pose Estimation from Planes and Markers camera resectioning, Triangulation CBIR, Searching Images Chan-Vese segmentation, 9.3 Variational Methods characteristic functions, 9.3 Variational Methods CherryPy, 7.6 Building Demos and Web Applications, Image Search Demo class centroids, Clustering Images classifying images, Classifying Image Content clustering images, Clustering Images, Clustering Images complete linking, 6.2 Hierarchical Clustering confusion matrix, Classifying Images—Hand Gesture Recognition content-based image retrieval, Searching Images convex combination, Image in Image corner detection, Local Image Descriptors correlation, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector corresponding points, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector cpickle, PCA of Images cross-correlation, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images cumulative distribution function, Graylevel Transforms cv, OpenCV, 10.4 Tracking cv2, OpenCV D de-noising, Reading and writing .mat files Delaunay triangulation, Piecewise Affine Warping dendrogram, Clustering Images dense depth reconstruction, Bundle adjustment dense image features, A Simple 2D Example dense SIFT, A Simple 2D Example descriptor, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector difference-of-Gaussian, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images digit classification, Hand Gesture Recognition Again direct linear transformation, 3.1 Homographies directed graph, Image Segmentation distance matrix, Clustering Images E Edmonds-Karp algorithm, 9.1 Graph Cuts eight point algorithm, Plotting 3D Data with Matplotlib epipolar constraint, 5.1 Epipolar Geometry epipolar geometry, Multiple View Geometry epipolar line, 5.1 Epipolar Geometry epipole, 5.1 Epipolar Geometry essential matrix, The calibrated case—metric reconstruction F factorization, Factoring the Camera Matrix feature matches, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images feature matching, Matching Descriptors flood fill, Displaying Images and Results focal length, 4.1 The Pin-Hole Camera Model fundamental matrix, 5.1 Epipolar Geometry fundamental matrix estimation, 5.3 Multiple View Reconstruction G Gaussian blurring, Using the Pickle Module Gaussian derivative filters, Image Derivatives Gaussian distributions, 8.2 Bayes Classifier gesture recognition, Dense SIFT as Image Feature GL_MODELVIEW, PyGame and PyOpenGL GL_PROJECTION, PyGame and PyOpenGL Grab Cut dataset, Segmentation with User Input gradient angle, Blurring Images gradient magnitude, Blurring Images graph, Image Segmentation graph cut, Image Segmentation GraphViz, Matching Using Local Descriptors graylevel transforms, Array Image Representation H Harris corner detection, Local Image Descriptors Harris matrix, Local Image Descriptors hierarchical clustering, 6.2 Hierarchical Clustering hierarchical k-means, 6.3 Spectral Clustering histogram equalization, Graylevel Transforms Histogram of Oriented Gradients, A Simple 2D Example HOG, A Simple 2D Example homogeneous coordinates, Image to Image Mappings homography, Image to Image Mappings homography estimation, 3.1 Homographies Hough transform, Inpainting I Image, Basic Image Handling and Processing image contours, Plotting Images, Points, and Lines image gradient, Blurring Images image graph, 9.1 Graph Cuts image histograms, Plotting Images, Points, and Lines image patch, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector image plane, Camera Models and Augmented Reality image registration, Piecewise Affine Warping image retrieval, Searching Images image search demo, 7.6 Building Demos and Web Applications image segmentation, Visualizing the Images on Principal Components, Image Segmentation image thumbnails, Convert Images to Another Format ImageDraw, Clustering Images inliers, 3.3 Creating Panoramas inpainting, Using generators integral image, Color Spaces interest point descriptor, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector interest points, Local Image Descriptors inverse depth, 4.1 The Pin-Hole Camera Model inverse document frequency, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model io, Useful SciPy Modules iso-contours, Plotting Images, Points, and Lines J JSON, Downloading Geotagged Images from Panoramio K k-means, Clustering Images k-nearest neighbor classifier, Classifying Image Content kernel functions, 8.3 Support Vector Machines kNN, Classifying Image Content L Laplacian matrix, 6.3 Spectral Clustering least squares triangulation, Triangulation LibSVM, 8.3 Support Vector Machines local descriptors, Local Image Descriptors Lucas-Kanade tracking algorithm, Optical Flow M marking points, Interactive Annotation mathematical morphology, Morphology—Counting Objects Matplotlib, Create Thumbnails maximum flow (max flow), 9.1 Graph Cuts measurements, Morphology—Counting Objects, Extracting Cells and Recognizing Characters metric reconstruction, 5.1 Epipolar Geometry, Computing the Camera Matrix from a Fundamental Matrix minidom, Registering Images minimum cut (min cut), 9.1 Graph Cuts misc, Useful SciPy Modules morphology, Morphology—Counting Objects, Morphology—Counting Objects, Exercises mplot3d, A Sample Data Set, 3D Reconstruction Example multi-class SVM, Selecting Features multi-dimensional arrays, Interactive Annotation multi-dimensional histograms, Clustering Images multiple view geometry, Multiple View Geometry N naive Bayes classifier, Classifying Images—Hand Gesture Recognition ndimage, Affine Transformations ndimage.filters, Computing Disparity Maps normalized cross-correlation, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images normalized cut, 9.2 Segmentation Using Clustering NumPy, Interactive Annotation O objloader, Tying It All Together OCR, Hand Gesture Recognition Again OpenCV, Chapter Overview, OpenCV OpenGL, PyGame and PyOpenGL OpenGL projection matrix, From Camera Matrix to OpenGL Format optic flow, 10.4 Tracking optical axis, Camera Models and Augmented Reality optical center, The Camera Matrix optical character recognition, Hand Gesture Recognition Again optical flow, 10.4 Tracking optical flow equation, 10.4 Tracking outliers, 3.3 Creating Panoramas overfitting, Exercises P panograph, Exercises panorama, 3.3 Creating Panoramas PCA, PCA of Images pickle, PCA of Images, The SciPy Clustering Package, Creating a Vocabulary pickling, PCA of Images piecewise affine warping, Image in Image piecewise constant image model, 9.3 Variational Methods PIL, Basic Image Handling and Processing pin-hole camera, Camera Models and Augmented Reality plane sweeping, 5.4 Stereo Images plot formatting, Plotting Images, Points, and Lines plotting, Create Thumbnails point correspondence, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector pose estimation, 4.3 Pose Estimation from Planes and Markers Prewitt filters, Blurring Images Principal Component Analysis, PCA of Images, 8.2 Bayes Classifier principal point, The Camera Matrix projection, Camera Models and Augmented Reality projection matrix, Camera Models and Augmented Reality projective camera, Camera Models and Augmented Reality projective transformation, Image to Image Mappings pydot, Matching Using Local Descriptors pygame, PyGame and PyOpenGL pygame.image, PyGame and PyOpenGL pygame.locals, PyGame and PyOpenGL Pylab, Create Thumbnails PyOpenGL, PyGame and PyOpenGL pyplot, Exercises pysqlite, Setting Up the Database pysqlite2, Setting Up the Database Python Imaging Library, Basic Image Handling and Processing python-graph, 9.1 Graph Cuts Q quad, From Camera Matrix to OpenGL Format query with image, Querying with an Image quotient image, Exercises R radial basis functions, 8.3 Support Vector Machines ranking using homographies, 7.5 Ranking Results Using Geometry RANSAC, 3.3 Creating Panoramas, 5.3 Multiple View Reconstruction rectified image pair, Bundle adjustment rectifying images, Extracting Cells and Recognizing Characters registration, Piecewise Affine Warping rigid transformation, 3.1 Homographies robust homography estimation, RANSAC ROF, Reading and writing .mat files, 9.3 Variational Methods RQ-factorization, Factoring the Camera Matrix Rudin-Osher-Fatemi de-noising model, Reading and writing .mat files S Scale-Invariant Feature Transform, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images scikit.learn, Exercises Scipy, Using the Pickle Module scipy.cluster.vq, The SciPy Clustering Package, Clustering Images scipy.io, Useful SciPy Modules, Reading and writing .mat files scipy.misc, Reading and writing .mat files scipy.ndimage, Blurring Images, Morphology—Counting Objects, Extracting Cells and Recognizing Characters, Rectifying Images, Exercises scipy.ndimage.filters, Blurring Images, Blurring Images, 2.1 Harris Corner Detector scipy.sparse, Exercises searching images, Searching Images, Adding Images segmentation, Image Segmentation self-calibration, Bundle adjustment separating hyperplane, Using PCA to Reduce Dimensions SfM, The calibrated case—metric reconstruction SIFT, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images similarity matrix, Clustering Images similarity transformation, 3.1 Homographies similarity tree, 6.2 Hierarchical Clustering simplejson, Downloading Geotagged Images from Panoramio, Downloading Geotagged Images from Panoramio single linking, 6.2 Hierarchical Clustering slicing, Array Image Representation Sobel filters, Blurring Images spectral clustering, Clustering Images, 9.2 Segmentation Using Clustering SQLite, Setting Up the Database SSD, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images stereo imaging, Bundle adjustment stereo reconstruction, Bundle adjustment stereo rig, Bundle adjustment stereo vision, Bundle adjustment stitching images, Robust Homography Estimation stop words, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model structure from motion, The calibrated case—metric reconstruction structuring element, Morphology—Counting Objects Sudoku reader, Hand Gesture Recognition Again sum of squared differences, Finding Corresponding Points Between Images Support Vector Machines, Using PCA to Reduce Dimensions support vectors, 8.3 Support Vector Machines SVM, Using PCA to Reduce Dimensions T term frequency, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model term frequency–inverse document frequency, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model text mining, Searching Images tf-idf weighting, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model total variation, Reading and writing .mat files total within-class variance, Clustering Images tracking, 10.4 Tracking triangulation, 5.2 Computing with Cameras and 3D Structure U unpickling, PCA of Images unsharp masking, 1.5 Advanced Example: Image De-Noising urllib, Downloading Geotagged Images from Panoramio V variational methods, 9.3 Variational Methods variational problems, 9.3 Variational Methods vector quantization, The SciPy Clustering Package vector space model, Searching Images vertical field of view, From Camera Matrix to OpenGL Format video, Displaying Images and Results visual codebook, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model visual vocabulary, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model visual words, Inspiration from Text Mining—The Vector Space Model visualizing image distribution, Visualizing the Images on Principal Components VLFeat, Interest Points W warping, Affine Transformations watershed, Inpainting web applications, 7.6 Building Demos and Web Applications webcam, Optical Flow word index, Setting Up the Database X XML, Registering Images xml.dom, Registering Images About the Author Jan Erik Solem is a Python enthusiast and a computer vision researcher and entrepreneur.

To be able to reuse these computations for future examples, we can save the camera matrices using Pickle: import pickle with open('ar_camera.pkl','w') as f: pickle.dump(K,f) pickle.dump(dot(linalg.inv(K),cam2.P),f) Now we have seen how to compute the camera matrix given a planar scene object. We combined feature matching with homographies and camera calibration to produce a simple example of placing a cube in an image. With camera pose estimation, we now have the building blocks in place for creating simple augmented reality applications. 4.4 Augmented Reality Augmented reality (AR) is a collective term for placing objects and information on top of image data. The classic example is placing a 3D computer graphics model so that it looks like it belongs in the scene, and moves naturally with the camera motion in the case of video. Given an image with a marker plane as in the section above, we can compute the camera’s position and pose and use that to place computer graphics models so that they are rendered correctly.

See http://jk-keller.com/daily-photo/ for more details. Chapter 4. Camera Models and Augmented Reality In this chapter, we will look at modeling cameras and how to effectively use such models. In the previous chapter, we covered image to image mappings and transforms. To handle mappings between 3D and images, the projection properties of the camera generating the image needs to be part of the mapping. Here we show how to determine camera properties and how to use image projections for applications like augmented reality. In the next chapter, we will use the camera model to look at applications with multiple views and mappings between them. 4.1 The Pin-Hole Camera Model The pin-hole camera model (or sometimes projective camera model) is a widely used camera model in computer vision.


pages: 398 words: 105,032

Soonish: Ten Emerging Technologies That'll Improve And/or Ruin Everything by Kelly Weinersmith, Zach Weinersmith

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, connected car, disinformation, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, market design, megastructure, microbiome, moral hazard, multiplanetary species, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, personalized medicine, placebo effect, Project Plowshare, QR code, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Skype, stem cell, Tunguska event

Fisher also throws the best children’s birthday parties in history, which include Harry Potter–style AR sorting hats, fairies soaring over stones in the backyard, and fairy dust that would settle into the children’s hands. She notes that the children’s imagination probably didn’t require augmentation though: “I don’t actually think small kids need augmented reality as much as we need augmented reality to think more like small kids again. I think that there are these amazing, joyful practices we could have. On that small level I think individually it could make our lives awesome.” A few people have tried using augmented reality for therapeutic reasons. Our favorite experimental therapy was by Dr. Cristina Botella, who had the idea that you could cure phobias using AR. See, one of the best ways to get over an irrational fear is repeated exposure to it.

For simplicity, let’s imagine you are wearing an augmented reality headset that projects images into your eye. The headset’s cameras see the QR code and determine two things: (1) that its pattern codes for “put a vase here,” and (2) that you’re looking at the QR code from a particular angle. As you move, the headset detects the changing orientation of the QR code and adjusts the vase accordingly. If it works right, you perceive a vase sitting on your table, even if you walk around or jump up and down. In other words, the fiducial marker serves as a simple bridge between augmented reality and actual reality. Current AR research has moved beyond traditional fiducial markers.

So scientists are working on other approaches to simplify the process. Dr. Caitlin Fisher of the Augmented Reality Lab at York University suggested that there might be an easier way to go, at least for some applications. “Artists,” she says, “use mixed reality that sidesteps the registration problem. You can have images that might just float or be in the sky or tiny images on the ground. The registration problem is an urgent one, but it’s not necessary to overcome it for all good augmented reality experiences. . . . I think one of the reasons you find a lot of the early projects involve ghosts or spirits is because you don’t have to have them perfectly registered in the real world but you can still have this very cool experience.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, The future is already here, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

These are workers employed to collect individual stock items from a list. It is not very efficient and they have the same problems as the forklift drivers, finding their way around the warehouse and locating the stock. However, help is at hand through augmented reality. The most commonly known augmented reality device is Google Glass; however, other manufacturers produce products with AR capabilities. Where augmented reality or, for the sake of explanation, Google Glass, comes into logistics is that it is extremely beneficial for human stock pickers. Google Glass can show on the heads up and hand free display the pick list, but can also show additional information such as location of the item and give directions on how to get there.

Some absolutely revel in high technology as can be seen though the success of stores deploying augmented reality. In these stores, retailers have gone a step beyond inventory control and NFC card payment retailers and have provided a virtual magic mirror. Augmented reality is a new trend in retail as it provides a way for customers to evaluate products interactively and compare them to other similar products or consider their suitability to the environment they would be situated. Examples of augmented reality are the latest IKEA catalogue, a mobile app that enables customers to virtually simulate having the items of furniture in their real living room.

Where items are practically identical to the eye, for example a computer chip, or integrated circuit, hands-free, automatic barcode scan ensures correct item identification. Furthermore, augmented reality accelerates training, and since the stock pickers are often seasonal temporary workers, this is very important. The technology also allows for hands-free use, which leads to greater productivity, as workers can find the items far more quickly, which greatly increases efficiency while eliminating pick errors. Augmented reality glasses are similarly suited to freight loading whereby forklift drivers can do away with the fright load sheet, which tells them the order each pallet has to be loaded onto the truck.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, impact investing, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

eMarketer study: Victoria Petrook, “Virtual and Augmented Reality Users 2019,” eMarketer, March 27, 2019. See: https://www.emarketer.com/content/virtual-and-augmented-reality-users-2019. See also: “Forecast for the Number of Active Virtual Reality Users Worldwide from 2014 to 2018 (in Millions),” Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/426469/active-virtual-reality-users-worldwide/. VR market around $35 billion or so: “Profiles in Innovation: Virtual and Augmented Reality,” January 13, 2016.GoldmanSachs.com, See: https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/pages/technology-driving-innovation-folder/virtual-and-augmented-reality/report.pdf.

coming out with an AR developers suite that lets anyone design apps for their platform: You can find details about Apple’s AR development suite here: https://developer.apple.com/augmented-reality/. purchasing Akonia Holographics: Lucas Matney, “Apple Buys Denver Startup Building Waveguide Lenses for AR Glasses,” TechCrunch, August 29, 2018. eighteen hundred different AR startups: You can run your own search with this URL: https://angel.co/companies?markets[]=Augmented+Reality. a market in excess of $133 billion: “Global Augmented Reality (Ar) Market Will Reach USD 133.78 Billion by 2021,” Zion Market Research, November 24, 2016. $100 will get you an entry-level Leap Motion headset: Jeremy Horwitz, “Leap Motion Shows Crazy-Looking $100 North Star AR Headset with Hand Tracking,” Venture Beat, April 9, 2018

In BOLD, we tell the story of a different impossible: how entrepreneurs have been harnessing these same technologies to build world-changing businesses in near record time, and providing a how-to playbook for anyone interested in doing the same. In this, our third installment, we expand on these ideas, examining what happens when independent lines of accelerating technology (artificial intelligence, for example) converge with other independent lines of accelerating technology (augmented reality, for example). Sure, AI is powerful. Augmented reality is too. But it’s their convergence that is reinventing retail, advertising, entertainment, and education—just to name a few of the major transformations still ahead. As we’ll see in the pages to come, these convergences are happening at an ever-increasing rate. This has turbo-boosted both the rate of change in the world and the scale of that change.


Designing Search: UX Strategies for Ecommerce Success by Greg Nudelman, Pabini Gabriel-Petit

access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, augmented reality, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, information retrieval, Internet of things, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, social web, speech recognition, text mining, the map is not the territory, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Attentive readers of Chapter 14 can readily recognize an application of augmented reality. On the larger tablet screen, augmented reality can come into its own, offering both professionals and amateurs a great segue into context-rich search and exploration. Note—Note that until recently, one important feature that’s missing from the current Apple iPad was the on-board camera. However, with the release of the iPad 2 with its dual cameras, powerful augmented reality apps that enable users to touch and interact directly with augmented-reality objects—in the same way Paul puts a loveseat directly into an augmented projection of the room—will be only a matter of time.

Companies like Arrayent, Inc. have already developed practical, low-cost solutions that connect everyday things like thermostats to mobile phones and tablets. Augmented Reality and Mobile Near-Field Computing Mobile devices with the on-board camera introduce another interesting possibility for navigating real space in real time: augmented reality. Figure 14-10 shows Yelp Monocle’s view of the San Francisco’s financial district. Figure 14-10: Augmented Reality using Yelp iPhone Application Monocle feature The Monocle projects the real-time image captured by the iPhone’s camera overlaid with the tiles showing nearby restaurants and points of interest that correspond to the particular GPS location and orientation as determined by the iPhone’s compass direction.

According to a recent Design4Mobile 2010 report from mobile form guru Luke Wroblewski, users of the Yelp Monocle feature tend to use Yelp 40% more than people not using Monocle. Although Monocle is still somewhat limited because of the tiny iPhone screen, you can’t help but get excited by the enormous potential of near-field computing. With the augmented reality industry working on adding facial recognition and RFID tagging, you will soon be able to obtain near-instant information about people, landmarks, objects, and just about anything else of interest. However, to fully exploit augmented reality, you might need a screen that is slightly larger than that of a typical smart phone. Note—It is hard to see all the richness of the real world additionally augmented with enormous amounts of information already available, all on a tiny screen that severely limits your filtering options.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The future is already here, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Yochai Benkler

One trial, according to the Economist, gave users of an AugCog device a 100 percent improvement in recall and a 500 percent increase in working memory. And if it sounds far-fetched, just remember: The folks at DARPA also helped invent the Internet. Augmented reality is a booming field, and Gary Hayes, a personalization and augmented-reality expert in Australia, sees at least sixteen different ways it could be used to provide services and make money. In his vision, guide companies could offer augmented reality tours, in which information about buildings, museum artifacts, and streets is superimposed on the environs. Shoppers could use phone apps to immediately get readouts on products they’re interested in—including what the objects cost elsewhere.

Shoppers could use phone apps to immediately get readouts on products they’re interested in—including what the objects cost elsewhere. (Amazon.com already provides a rudimentary version of this service.) Augmented reality games could layer clues into real-world environments. Augmented-reality tech provides value, but it also provides an opportunity to reach people with new attention-getting forms of advertising. For a price, digital sportscasts are already capable of layering corporate logos onto football fields. But this new technology offers the opportunity to do that in a personalized way in the real world: You turn on the app to, say, help find a friend in a crowd, and projected onto a nearby building is a giant Coke ad featuring your face and your name.

_r=1. 208 AugCog, which uses cognitive neuroscience: Augmented Cognition International Society Web site, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.augmentedcognition.org. 209 500 percent increase in working memory: “Computers That Read Your Mind,” Economist, Sept. 21, 2006, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.economist.com/node/7904258?story_id=7904258. 209 at least sixteen different ways: Gary Hayes, “16 Top Augmented Reality Business Models,” Personalize Media (Gary Hayes’s blog), Sept. 14, 2009, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.personalizemedia.com/16-top-augmented-reality-business-models. 210 solve problems for people: Chris Coyne, interview with author, New York, NY, Oct. 6, 2010. 211 “reality” is “one of the few words”: Vladimir Nabokov, Lolita (New York: Random House, 1997), 312. 213 powering the marketing campaigns: David Wright et al., Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence (London: Springer, 2008), 66, accessed through Google eBooks, Feb. 8, 2011. 214 “machines make more of their decisions”: Bill Joy, “Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us,” Wired (Apr. 2000) accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy.html.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kim Stanley Robinson, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

Walter Robb, CEO of Whole Foods The 2.4 million tickets sold for the 2015 Rugby World Cup featured augmented reality content to bring the experience alive for fans, both in the run-up to the competition and on the day of the games. Using an augmented reality app and a mobile phone or tablet, tickets could be scanned to reveal exclusive behind-the-scenes material hosted and delivered by Rugby World Cup 2003 winners Jonny Wilkinson, Lawrence Dallaglio and Will Greenwood. Managing Director of England Rugby 2015 Stephen Brown hailed it as a sporting first: “using augmented reality technology as part of the ticket design enables fans to engage with the tournament through interactive content, which is a really exciting piece of activation.”12 Of course, printed tickets are not long for this world as we’re already seeing with airline boarding passes, bus tickets and so forth.

We can have an app on our phone, but the display and notifications associated with that app can now be instantiated on our smartwatch or smart glasses. It won’t be long before our office desk, our living room wall, our car dashboard and other environments all have embedded screens that enable interactions. We will overlay the real world with data, insights and context using augmented reality (AR) smart glasses and contact lenses too. In the apps era, most businesses such as banks and airlines went for the bundling of increasing functionality, but as more and more capability is added, the propensity for “engagement rot”, as author Jared Spool calls it, becomes very high. The problem is that you cannot retain low friction19 user experiences when you have an abundance of features; essentially you get to a point where the features create complexity and confusion.

Whether from Continuum, Iron Man, Batman, Deus Ex or the modern-day F22 Raptor fighter jet, the concept of an augmented, head-up display (HUD)12 vision has been a staple of science fiction and military aircraft for more than 50 years. When Google Glass launched in 2013, it launched to great media fanfare.13 Glass was considered the next big leap in both wearable technologies and augmented reality (AR), but as with all such leaps in technology it was met with either unyielding passion or mild derision. In media context, however, Google’s first head-up display wearable fit neither the traditional definition of HUD nor immersive AR. It is clearly just a first step in the evolution of enhanced vision overlay.


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, When a measure becomes a target, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

In its first days, Pokémon Go lured players to a wide array of wildly inappropriate locations like the National September 11th Memorial and Arlington National Cemetery, where playing any sort of game can only be understood as an act of disrespect.2 The promise of capturing rare monsters even drew people to places where simply wandering through would place them at terrible risk, like the Truce Village at Panmunjom, in the heavily fortified Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea.3 And I doubt that even the most cynical observer ever imagined that a developer would be so irresponsible as to enable game-play superimposed onto the barracks and crematoria of the Auschwitz death camp, but this is just what Pokémon Go did during its first week live.4 (All of these sites were swiftly deleted from the game by developer Niantic.) Theorists had discussed the implications of augmented reality for years, and in its first breakout hit just about all of them immediately came to pass: the reality shear, the dissonance of the mundane draped in a virtual shroud of whimsical otherness, the things that happen when different groups of people are presented with varying versions of what had always been a shared baseline environment. If AR is to be a mode through which we broadly experience the everyday, these are the issues it will compel us to contend with. Augmented reality, and its close cousin virtual reality (VR), are a little different from the other technologies considered in this book.

“The Future of Firefighting - A HMD-AR UI Concept for First Responders,” August 18, 2011, YouTube.com. 7.Thomas Grüter, Martina Grüter and Claus-Christian Carbon, “Neural and Genetic Foundations of Face Recognition and Prosopagnosia,” Journal of Neuropsychology, Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2008: 79–97. 8.For early work toward this end, see Thad Starner et al., “Augmented Reality Through Wearable Computing,” MIT Media Lab, 1997, cc.gatech.edu/~thad/p/journal/augmented-reality-through-wearable-computing.pdf. The overlay of a blinking outline or contour used as an identification cue has long been a staple of science-fictional information displays, showing up in pop culture as far back as the late 1960s. The earliest appearance I can locate is 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), in which the navigational displays of both the Orion III spaceplane and the exploration vessel Discovery relied heavily on the trope—this, presumably, because in the fictional universe of the film they were produced by the same contractor, IBM.

, the light on your door to show that you’re home. One has to become a cybernetician to remain a humanist. Peter Sloterdijk Contents Introduction: Paris year zero 1.Smartphone: The networking of the self 2.The internet of things: A planetary mesh of perception and response 3.Augmented reality: An interactive overlay on the world 4.Digital fabrication: Towards a political economy of matter 5.Cryptocurrency: The computational guarantee of value 6.Blockchain beyond Bitcoin: A trellis for posthuman institutions 7.Automation: The annihilation of work 8.Machine learning: The algorithmic production of knowledge 9.Artificial intelligence: The eclipse of human discretion 10.Radical technologies: The design of everyday life Conclusion: Of tetrapods and tactics—radical technologies and everyday life Acknowledgements Notes Index Introduction Paris year zero It’s a few moments before six in Paris, on a damp evening in early spring.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, disinformation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Garrett Hardin, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hockey-stick growth, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

Steve Mann, “Smart Clothing: The Wearable Computer and WearCam,” Personal Technologies 1, 1 (March 1997), <http://wearcam.org/personaltechnolo-gies/ > (18 March 2002). 11. Steven K. Feiner, “The Importance of Being Mobile: Some Social Consequences of Wearable Augmented Reality Systems,” Proceedings of IWAR 99 (International Workshop on Augmented Reality), San Francisco, California, 2021 October, 1999, 145148, <http://www.cs.columbia.edu/graphics/publications/FEINERiwar99.pdf > (18 March 2002). 12. Ibid. 13. Graeme Wearden, “Can 3G Phones Capture Criminals?” ZDNet News, 22 March 2002, < http://zdnet.com.com/21001105867005.html > (27 March 2002). 14.

In 1991, the artificial world I explored was a three-dimensional computer graphic simulation I could navigate (carefully, because I was blind to the external world) and manipulate by way of a computerized glove. In contrast, Fisher’s 2001 foray into “wearable environmental media” was an example of “augmented reality”—one of many current efforts to mingle virtual and physical worlds. Other investigators I visited at IBM’s Almaden laboratory in California, MIT Media Lab in Cambridge, Sony’s Tokyo Computer Science Laboratory, and Ericsson’s wireless lab outside Stockholm used mobile phones, digital jewelry, physical icons, and other technologies for combining bits and atoms, digital personae and physical places.

One evening in 1991, when I was visiting the University of North Carolina VR lab in Chapel Hill, Robinett asked, “What if you could use VR to see things that are normally beyond human perception?” At that time I was editor of the Whole Earth Review, so I commissioned Robinett to write an article. While I was researching smart mobs, I was surprised to find Robinett’s article cited as one of the first descriptions of what is now known as “augmented reality.”15 Robinett proposed connecting the head-mounted display to a microscope, telescope, or a video camera equipped with gear that could make infrared, ultraviolet, or radio frequencies visible. Today’s research on “smart rooms” and “digital cities” uses computation and communication to extend the idea of “responsive environments,” as Krueger forecast.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, functional programming, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kim Stanley Robinson, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

This ‘true glimpse’ of history won't sell well, compared to Disneyfied ‘untrue glimpses.’ Wherever there is ‘Intelligent Tourism,’ brutal, vulgar and stupid tourism follows fast on its heels! Soon we'll have some theme park Creationist Augmented Reality, where you can visit the Grand Canyon and see pre-Noachian people pan-frying trilobites and riding dinosaurs.” See Sterling's post, “Augmented Reality and Atemporality,” Wired, August 15, 2009, http://www.wired.com/2009/08/augmented-reality-and-atemporality/. 60.  The App has received considerable mainstream press. See Amy O’Leary, “In the Beginning Was the Word; Now the Word Is on an App,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/27/technology/the-faithful-embrace-youversion-a-bible-app.html?

His target is Google Glass, a piece of hardware that takes on black magic powers in his estimation. In the Interfaces chapter, I will discuss the dangers of augmented reality-based interfacial totalities to engender forms of cognitive totalitarianism, but this is not because they train attention on artificial images, negating our natural faculties of reason and experience (see also the Phaedrus, and Socrates’ admonitions against the written word, 370 B.C., or the whole history of experimental cinema). Rather it is that augmented reality could mediate so well the sort of mythopoetic political Messianism that is the lifeblood of any lunatic fundamentalism: a stunted flame that he (and Tiqqun for that matter) tend with duly incoherent melancholia. 41. 

See also No-Stop City Arcology (Soleri), 178–179 Arendt, Hannah, 379n12 Aristophanes, 109 artificial currencies, 127 artificial intelligence (AI), 78, 225–226, 262, 268, 277–279 artificial personalities, 277–278 artificial reality. See augmented reality Assange, Julian, 135, 285, 288 assemblage line, 231, 234–235, 249, 368 Atlas Shrugged (Rand), 253 atmospheric carbon, stabilizing, 259, 303 atmospheric megastructures, 195 atomized human, 251–252, 287–288 atoms, 77 Atta, Mohamed, 321 audience-centric Cloud services, 129 augmented reality (AR), 236, 245–246, 382n40, 429n61, 438n60 Apps, 240–243 games, 242, 245, 429n59 authority. See also jurisdiction; sovereignty decentering of, 344 platforms as modes of, 57 state, 6, 295, 318 transparency of, 360 of the User, 347 autobiographical geopolitics of the User, 257–258 automation of repentance, 243 workforce, 254, 285, 307–308, 344 automatism, 426n46 automobiles.


Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler

Airbnb, Airbus A320, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar

Human Machine Interaction 279 head-up displays. Augmented reality is a system which takes camera images from the real world and overlays them with virtual information from a computer (see Box 28.2 and Figure 28.1). These displays use a projector and combiner to transmit visual information about the car and its environment into the driver’s field of vision. People can then orient themselves towards Box 28.2. Vision and Example of an Augmented Reality Application Augmented Reality Augmented reality gives drivers an entirely different driving experience by supplementing reality with computer-based information. Augmented reality is the computer-aided expansion of reality.

Unlike virtual reality, where the user sees a completely virtual world, augmented reality emphasises the link between reality and virtual reality. This interaction takes place in real time, and real and virtual objects are depicted together three-dimensionally. Augmented reality addresses all of the human senses, which is why the user is equipped with a camera, headset and tracking devices. The full scope of sensory perception is also feasible, because sensors and cameras can meanwhile capture details of the environment which humans themselves cannot perceive. Many of the experiences augmented reality makes possible have already been implemented at The Void, an entertainment centre located in a suburban area of Salt Lake City, Utah.

Information has to be presented so it can be absorbed quickly. At all times, there must be a focus on which data are relevant when, and which responses are expected from the human and the machine. Nowadays, suppliers and manufacturers in the automotive industry are working with digital light-processing technology to develop augmented-reality 277 Autonomous Driving 278 Box 28.1. Causes and Consequences of Driver Distraction Driver Distraction Numerous studies confirm that driver distraction is the main cause of traffic accidents. According to the findings of the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, driver distraction is one of the foremost causes of traffic accidents.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, caloric restriction, caloric restriction, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mass immigration, megacity, Mitch Kapor, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The future is already here, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Tourists will use them to resurrect ancient monuments. Artists and architects will use them to manipulate and reshape their virtual creations. The possibilities are endless for augmented reality. (photo credit 1.­2) AUGMENTED REALITY: A REVOLUTION IN TOURISM, ART, SHOPPING, AND WARFARE As you can see, the implications for commerce and the workplace are potentially enormous. Virtually every job can be enriched by augmented reality. In addition, our lives, our entertainment, and our society will be greatly enhanced by this technology. For example, a tourist walking in a museum can go from exhibit to exhibit as your contact lens gives you a description of each object; a virtual guide will give you a cybertour as you pass.

Because computers will be able to locate many of the genes that control the aging process, we might be forever young like Peter Pan. We will be able to slow down and perhaps reverse the aging process, like the boys from Neverland who didn’t want to grow up. Augmented reality will give us the illusion that, like Cinderella, we can ride to fantasy balls in a royal coach and dance gracefully with a handsome prince. (But at midnight, our augmented reality glasses turn off and we return to the real world.) Because computers are revealing the genes that control our bodies, we will be able to reengineer our bodies, replacing organs and changing our appearance, even at the genetic level, like the beast in “Beauty and the Beast.”

This is not true invisibility, since it works only if you wear special goggles that merge two images. However, it is part of Professor Tachi’s grand program, which is sometimes called “augmented reality.” By midcentury, we will live in a fully functioning cyberworld that merges the real world with images from a computer. This could radically change the workplace, commerce, entertainment, and our way of life. Augmented reality would have immediate consequences for the marketplace. The first commercial application would be to make objects become invisible, or to make the invisible become visible. For example, if you are a pilot or a driver, you will be able to see 360 degrees around yourself, and even beneath your feet, because your goggles or lens allow you to see through the plane’s or car’s walls.


pages: 315 words: 89,861

The Simulation Hypothesis by Rizwan Virk

3D printing, Albert Einstein, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, butterfly effect, Colossal Cave Adventure, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, game design, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Minecraft, natural language processing, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Zeno's paradox

His remarks have ignited serious debate. There are good reasons for Musk to put forth this argument at this point in time. A few years ago, I started the Play Labs accelerator at MIT for startups using the latest video game technology. There, I saw firsthand the high fidelity that today’s virtual and augmented reality can achieve. If this pace of improvement of video games continues into the future, what kinds of sophisticated video games will we be able to produce? Will we eventually be able to produce a game with such high resolution that it will be indistinguishable from reality? And if so, could we already be inside such a video game?

I call this video game the “Great Simulation” because this virtual reality appears to be indistinguishable from physical reality. If we are living in such a simulation, then it would be far more sophisticated than any video game we have built or even imagined to date. It would combine elements of MMORPGs with elements of virtual and augmented reality built on foundations of technology and aspects of consciousness—real or simulated—that we don’t fully understand yet. Throughout this book, I will delve more deeply into the concepts introduced in this chapter, including advances in video games and computer science, some of the unexplainable mysteries unearthed by physicists about our physical world, and certain tenets of Eastern mystical traditions and even Western religions.

In computer science, you give the computer the rules, and it creates the world.2 —Alan Kay, Apple, Atari and MIT Chapter 1 Stages 0 to 3: From Pong to MMORPGs Forty years ago, we had Pong—two rectangles and a dot. That’s where we were. Now 40 years later, we have photorealistic, 3D simulations with millions of people playing simultaneously and it’s getting better every year. And soon we’ll have virtual reality, we’ll have augmented reality. If you assume any rate of improvement at all, then the games will become indistinguishable from reality. —Elon Musk, Code Conference, 20163 One of the main reasons so many scientists, philosophers, and technologists have started to take the simulation hypothesis more seriously now, in the early 21st century, rather than in earlier eras of computing, is because of the sophistication and rapid advancement of video games and graphics technology.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, disinformation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Tragedy of the Commons, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Yochai Benkler

Aaron Frank, ‘You Can Ban a Person, But What About Their Hologram?’ Singularity Hub, 17 March 2017 <https://singularityhub. com/2017/03/17/you-can-ban-a-person-but-what-about-theirhologram/> (accessed 30 November 2017). 131. Dean Takahashi, ‘Magic Leap Sheds Light on its Retina-based ­Augmented Reality 3D Displays’, VentureBeat, 20 February 2015 <http://venturebeat.com/2015/02/20/magic-leap-shedslight-on-its-retina-based-augmented-reality-3d-displays/> (accessed 30 November 2017). 132. Tom Simonite, ‘Oculus Finally Delivers the Missing Piece for VR’, MIT Technology Review, 6 October 2016 <https://www. technologyreview.com/s/602570/oculus-finally-delivers-the-missing-piece-for-vr/?

Robert Booth, ‘Facebook Reveals News Feed Experiment to Control Emotions’, The Guardian, 30 June 2004 <https://www.theguardian. com/technology/2014/jun/29/facebook-users-emotions-newsfeeds> (accessed 11 December 2017). Halting Problem,‘Tech Bro Creates Augmented Reality App to Filter Out Homeless People’, Medium, 23 February 2016 <https://medium. com/halting-problem/tech-bro-creates-augmented-reality-app-tofilter-out-homeless-people-3bf8d827b0df> (accessed 7 December 2017). Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society:The Secret Algorithms that Control Money and Information (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2015), 63; Benkler, ‘Degrees of Freedom’, 18.

Cambridge: Polity Press in association with Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2010. Hajer, Maarten A. and Hendrik Wagenaar, eds. Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Halting Problem. ‘Tech Bro Creates Augmented Reality App to Filter Out Homeless People’. Medium, 23 Feb. 2016 <https://medium.com/ halting-problem/tech-bro-creates-augmented-reality-app-to-filterout-homeless-people-3bf8d827b0df> (accessed 7 Dec. 2017). Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers. New York: Penguin, 2012. Hanson, Robin, The Age of EM: Work, Love, and Life When Robots Rule the Earth.


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

It is currently in beta with some reasonable search support for books, DVDs, landmarks, logos, contact info, artwork, businesses, products, barcodes, and text. Augmented reality (AR) is the term for real-time, digitally enhanced interactions with the physical real-world environment, where real-world elements are merged with (or augmented by) virtual computer-generated imagery, touch or positive feedback, sounds and even possibly smells. The resultant mixed reality is what we call “augmented”. The term “augmented reality” is believed to have been coined by Thomas Caudell, an employee of Boeing, in the early 1990s. Augmented reality is changing the way we view the world—or at least the way tech users see the world.

You can’t control the crowd Advocacy and influence—the real ROI Crowdsourcing—use the power of the crowd Conclusions: What it all means Part 03: The Road Ahead—Beyond Channel Chapter 9: Living with Continuous Technology Improvement Faster, smaller, smarter Enterprise-wide implications Chapter 10: A Land in the Data Cloud Big Data Augmented reality Chapter 11: Engagement Banking: Building Digital Relationships The era of customer engagement Engaging in the dialogue Risk mitigation versus ROI Engaging the overwhelmed prosumer Chapter 12: Mobile Payments, Digital Cash and Value Stores Are mobile payments mainstream? The emergence of the mobile wallet Who will win the wallet battle?

It won’t be long before this capability is built into the self-service platform to provide a more personalised experience. Using commercially available facial recognition software, a team of researchers at Carnegie Mellon University was able to identify around 30 per cent of the college students who had volunteered to be photographed for a research study on use of augmented reality and facial recognition.10 They simply compared photos of the participating, anonymous students to images publicly available on Facebook. By using other public information from their social media profiles, the researchers also could identify the interests and predict partial Social Security numbers of some students.


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Seriously Curious: The Facts and Figures That Turn Our World Upside Down by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blood diamonds, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, financial independence, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, invisible hand, job-hopping, Julian Assange, life extension, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mega-rich, megacity, Minecraft, mobile money, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, purchasing power parity, ransomware, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, South China Sea, speech recognition, stem cell, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

Worth hailing Alcohol-related crashes in New York City Difference* in the number of crashes in boroughs when compared with similar counties Source: “New York City Drunk Driving After Uber” by J. L. Peck, 2017 *Three-month moving average What is augmented reality? Most people, by now, have heard of virtual reality (VR). Giant technology companies, from Google to Samsung to Sony, are hoping that it will be the next big hit in consumer electronics, though it has failed to break out of a specialist niche. Its close cousin, augmented reality (AR), is less well known. Yet many people think that AR, when it comes, could have a much bigger impact than VR ever will. What exactly is it? The first thing to realise is that “reality” means two almost entirely different things depending on which technology you are talking about.

The link between video games and unemployment What do robots do all day? Why 5G might be both faster and slower than previous wireless technologies Mobile phones are more common than electricity in much of sub-Saharan Africa Why self-driving cars will mostly be shared, not owned How ride-hailing apps reduce drink-driving What is augmented reality? Why we’re still waiting for the space elevator How astronomers spotted the first interstellar asteroid Why drones could pose a greater risk to aircraft than birds What is the point of spam e-mail? Why the police should wear body cameras Why tech giants are laying their own undersea cables Game theory: sport and leisure Why tennis players grunt Why board games are so popular in Nigeria How drones can keep beaches safe from sharks How football transfers work How St Louis became America’s chess capital What does “digitally remastering” a film really mean?

That means 5G networks will be able to transfer a high-definition movie in two seconds and respond to requests in less than a hundredth of the time it takes to blink an eye. But 5G is not just about faster and broader wireless connections. The technology could also enable all sorts of new services. One example would be real-time virtual- or augmented-reality streaming. At the Olympics, for example, many contestants were followed by 360-degree video cameras. At special venues sports fans could don virtual-reality goggles to put themselves right into the action. 5G is also supposed to become the connective tissue for the internet of things, interconnecting everything from smartphones and wireless sensors to industrial robots and self-driving cars.


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Human + Machine: Reimagining Work in the Age of AI by Paul R. Daugherty, H. James Wilson

3D printing, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, friendly AI, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lyft, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, robotic process automation, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, software as a service, speech recognition, telepresence, telepresence robot, text mining, the scientific method, uber lyft

Illumeo is leveraging AI in its UI so that the relationship between worker and machine is adaptable and improves over time.3 FIGURE 6-2 Jobs with amplification So far, we’ve focused on amplification in office jobs, but workers in the field are also benefiting from amplification, thanks to AI-enhanced user interfaces. In particular, AI tools like smart glasses that provide an experience of augmented reality are overhauling maintenance work and in-field training: the glasses overlay digital information or instructions on a worker’s field of view. At a global industrial services company, the typical process for wiring a wind turbine’s control box requires a technician to move between the control box and the hard copy of an instruction manual. But with an augmented-reality-enabled (AR), hands-free, heads-up display, the instructions can be visually projected on top of a technician’s workspace.

Welcome to the right-hand side of the missing middle (see figure 6-1), where machines augment humans. Artificial intelligence tools are empowering workers in a range of fields, from design to medicine to engineering to factory-floor operations. This augmentation comes in a variety of forms—from augmented reality and virtual reality to analytics engines to robot arms and chatbots. But what are the workforce implications of being empowered or augmented by AI? How is introducing AI to a workplace different from the device and technology management that companies already do, things like handing out laptops, software, and log-in information during new-hire orientation?

The store is an example of human-in-the-loop automated processes, with the goal of improving a system to perform more accurately and autonomously before deploying to a broad customer base. Controlled Chaos Walmart’s Store No. 8 is an “incubator,” a place to house engineers and innovators who test new technologies—such as robotics, virtual and augmented reality, machine learning, and kinds of artificial intelligence—relevant to Walmart’s business. Announced in March 2017, Store No. 8 will operate in many ways like any other startup incubator, experimenting with ideas and helping businesses “pivot” as concepts are tried and fail. According to Marc Lore, founder of Jet.com, a company Walmart bought in 2016 for $3 billion, the businesses and innovations forged in Store No. 8 “will be ring-fenced by the rest of the organization and backed by the largest retailer in the world.”a In other words, it will have the financial resources of a giant corporation, and the freedom, isolated from the bureaucracy of a large corporate culture, of a startup.


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Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Atkinson, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Seymour Hersh, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

Today, these displays cause motion sickness in users and they do not offer “true” depth-of-field perception. By January of 2015 it had become clear that augmented reality was no longer a fringe idea. With great fanfare Microsoft demonstrated a similar system called HoloLens based on a competing technology. Is it possible to imagine a world where the ubiquitous LCDs of today’s modern world—televisions, computer monitors, smartphone screens—simply disappear? In Hollywood, Florida, Magic Leap’s demonstration suggests that workable augmented reality is much closer than we might assume. If they are correct, such an advance would also change the way we think about and experience augmentation and automation.

Until now, the limits of consumer computing technology have been defined by what is known as the “WIMP” graphical interface—the windows, icons, menus, and pointer of the Macintosh and Windows. The Magic Leap glasses, however, will introduce augmented reality as a way of revitalizing personal computing and, by extension, presenting new ways to augment the human mind. In an augmented reality world, the “Web” will become the space that surrounds you. Cameras embedded in the glasses will recognize the objects in people’s environments, making it possible to annotate and possibly transform them. For example, reading a book might become a three-dimensional experience: images could float over the text, hyperlinks might be animated, readers could turn pages with the movement of their eyes, and there would be no need for limits to the size of a page.

For example, reading a book might become a three-dimensional experience: images could float over the text, hyperlinks might be animated, readers could turn pages with the movement of their eyes, and there would be no need for limits to the size of a page. Augmented reality is also a profoundly human-centered version of computing, in line with Xerox PARC computer scientist Mark Weiser’s original vision of “calm” ubiquitous computing. It will be a world in which computers “disappear” and everyday objects acquire “magical” powers. This presents a host of new and interesting ways for humans to interact with robots. The iPod and the iPhone were the first examples of this transition as a reimagining of the phonograph and the telephone. Augmented reality would also make the idea of telepresence far more compelling.


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Maphead: Charting the Wide, Weird World of Geography Wonks by Ken Jennings

Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, clean water, David Brooks, digital map, don't be evil, dumpster diving, Eratosthenes, game design, Google Earth, helicopter parent, hive mind, index card, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, openstreetmap, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Stewart Brand, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, traveling salesman, urban planning

Most of these new technologies are just reinventing how maps are made or the things they can be used for, but one particular innovation is changing the very definition of what a map is. “Augmented reality” is the practice of combining a real-world environment with computer-generated imagery, like those yellow “first down” lines that appear and disappear during televised football games. Until recently, augmented reality was a mostly theoretical idea, confined to laboratories where, no doubt, people used those big, clunky Lawnmower Man helmets to try it out. But augmented reality isn’t virtual reality. The world it shows us isn’t a new one: it’s ours, only improved. And in the age of GPS- and camera-enabled phones, you don’t need the helmet anymore.

I’m so accustomed to the endless disappointments of futurism (in a year that begins with a 2, why am I not living in a domed undersea city by now?) that it comes as a shock when I read that augmented-reality phone apps already exist—not in labs and at trade shows but for reals: free in Apple’s app store, even. I upgrade to a new iPhone just to try out some of these tools but wind up disappointed. One called Wikitude promises to embed my environment with information about nearby POIs, like a Web browser for the real world, but when I try it out in front of my house, all I see are logos for every Starbucks and Best Buy within five miles. Yelp’s augmented-reality Monocle, the first AR app available for the iPhone, is a little better, bringing up an accurate text box about my favorite Thai place when I hold the phone up vertically and point it northwest, but neither program provides a very compelling experience.

You end up squinting and thinking for a minute and then saying, “Yeah, I guess that’s kind of cool,” sort of like when you were looking at those Magic Eye posters of dolphins back in the 1990s. But these are temporary glitches; before long, no doubt, the imagery will be smoother and we’ll all be wearing Terminator contact lenses with built-in heads-up displays for all the AR data. Not all the applications of augmented reality are map-related, of course. You could use it to interact with elaborate 3-D models that aren’t really there, which would be a boon to architects visualizing buildings and surgeons trying to practice a tricky triple bypass without killing anyone. If you were so inclined, you could even use AR to turn the world into your own surreal wonderland, changing the color of the sky every thirty seconds or putting a werewolf mask or Groucho glasses on the face of every passerby, like a Merry Pranksters app for an audience of one.


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The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andy Carvin, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, disinformation, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Hacker Conference 1984, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

many people treat their phones like stereo systems: Michael Byrne, “Inside the Cell Phone File Sharing Networks of Western Africa (Q+A),” Motherboard, January 3, 2012, http://motherboard.vice.com/2012/1/3/inside-the-cell-phone-file-sharing-networks-of-western-africa-q-a. promise even richer wearable experiences: Dena Cassella, “What Is Augmented Reality (AR): Augmented Reality Defined, iPhone Augmented Reality Apps and Games and More,” Digital Trends, November 3, 2009, http://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/what-is-augmented-reality-iphone-apps-games-flash-yelp-android-ar-software-and-more/. Project Glass: Babak Parviz, Steve Lee, Sebastian Thrun, “Project Glass,” Google+, April 4, 2012, https://plus.google.com/+projectglass/posts; Nick Bilton, “Google Begins Testing Its Augmented-Reality Glasses,” Bits (blog), New York Times, April 4, 2012, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/google-begins-testing-its-augmented-reality-glasses/.

Imagine having the holodeck from the world of Star Trek, which was a fully immersive virtual-reality environment for those aboard a ship, but this one is able to both project a beach landscape and re-create a famous Elvis Presley performance in front of your eyes. Indeed, the next moments in our technological evolution promise to turn a host of popular science-fiction concepts into science facts: driverless cars, thought-controlled robotic motion, artificial intelligence (AI) and fully integrated augmented reality, which promises a visual overlay of digital information onto our physical environment. Such developments will join with and enhance elements of our natural world. This is our future, and these remarkable things are already beginning to take shape. That is what makes working in the technology industry so exciting today.

Citizens in repressive societies already use common P2P communication platforms and encrypted messaging systems like Research in Motion (RIM)’s BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) to interact with less fear of government intrusion, and in the future, new forms of technologies that utilize P2P models will also become available to them. Today, the discussions around wearable technologies are focused on a luxury market: wristwatches we’ll wear that vibrate or apply a pulse when our alarm clock goes off (of which some versions already exist), earrings that monitor our blood pressure and so on.8 New applications of augmented reality (AR) technology (the superimposing of touch, sound or images from the virtual world over a physical, real-world environment) promise even richer wearable experiences. In April 2012 Google unveiled its own AR prototype called Project Glass—eyeglasses with a built-in display over one eye that can convey information, handle messages through voice command and shoot and record video through its camera—and similar devices from other companies are on the way.


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The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, disinformation, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, Ian Bogost, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck, Yochai Benkler, you are the product

Needleman, “‘Pokémon Go’ Wants to Take Monster Battles to the Street,” Wall Street Journal, September 10, 2015, https://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2015/09/10/pokemon-go-wants-to-take-monster-battles-to-the-street; Patience Haggin, “Alphabet Spinout Scores Funding for Augmented Reality Pokémon Game,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2016, https://blogs.wsj.com/venture capital/2016/02/26/alphabet-spinout-scores-funding-for-augmented-reality-pokemon-game. 38. Joseph Schwartz, “5 Charts That Show Pokémon GO’s Growth in the US,” Similarweb Blog, July 10, 2016, https://www.similarweb.com/blog/pokemon-go. 39. Nick Wingfield and Mike Isaac, “Pokémon Go Brings Augmented Reality to a Mass Audience,” New York Times, July 11, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/technology/pokemon-go-brings-augmented-reality-to-a-mass-audience.html. 40.

The most-predictive raw-material supplies come from intervening in our experience to shape our behavior in ways that favor surveillance capitalists’ commercial outcomes. New automated protocols are designed to influence and modify human behavior at scale as the means of production is subordinated to a new and more complex means of behavior modification. We see these new protocols at work in Facebook’s contagion experiments and the Google-incubated augmented reality “game” Pokémon Go. The evidence of our psychic numbing is that only a few decades ago US society denounced mass behavior-modification techniques as unacceptable threats to individual autonomy and the democratic order. Today the same practices meet little resistance or even discussion as they are routinely and pervasively deployed in the march toward surveillance revenues.

The company then issued nonvoting class “C” shares in 2016, solidifying Zuckerberg’s personal control over every decision.14 While financial scholars and investors debated the consequences of these share structures, absolute corporate control enabled the Google and Facebook founders to aggressively pursue acquisitions, establishing an arms race in two critical arenas.15 State-of-the-art manufacturing depended on machine intelligence, compelling Google and later Facebook to acquire companies and talent representing its disciplines: facial recognition, “deep learning,” augmented reality, and more.16 But machines are only as smart as the volume of their diet allows. Thus, Google and Facebook vied to become the ubiquitous net positioned to capture the swarming schools of behavioral surplus flowing from every computer-mediated direction. To this end the founders paid outsized premiums for the chance to corner behavioral surplus through acquisitions of an ever-expanding roster of key supply routes.


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WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us by Tim O'Reilly

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, deskilling, DevOps, disinformation, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, gravity well, greed is good, Guido van Rossum, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, income inequality, independent contractor, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kim Stanley Robinson, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Lean Startup, Leonard Kleinrock, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, microbiome, microservices, minimum viable product, mortgage tax deduction, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Oculus Rift, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Sam Altman, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, software as a service, software patent, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, the map is not the territory, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, VA Linux, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, yellow journalism, zero-sum game, Zipcar

As Google chief economist Hal Varian said to me, “My grandfather wouldn’t recognize what I do as work.” What are the new jobs of the twenty-first century? Augmented reality—the overlay of computer-generated data and images on what we see—may give us a clue. It definitely meets the WTF? test. The first time a venture capitalist friend of mine saw one unreleased augmented reality platform in the lab, he said, “If LSD were a stock, I’d be shorting it.” That’s a unicorn. But what is most exciting to me about this technology is not the LSD factor, but how augmented reality can change the way we work. You can imagine how augmented reality could enable workers to be “upskilled.” I’m particularly fond of imagining how the model used by Partners in Health could be turbocharged by augmented reality and telepresence.

You need a rich marketplace of people who know things, and others who need to know them. The way that knowledge is delivered—book, video, face-to-face teaching—gets a lot of attention, but the bigger question is how to bootstrap a rich knowledge network. AUGMENTED REALITY AND THE FUTURE OF ON-DEMAND LEARNING If being able to search for instructions on YouTube or on a specialized platform like Safari is the heart of today’s on-demand learning, augmented reality is surely tomorrow’s. Aircraft mechanics at Boeing are engaged in a pilot project using Microsoft HoloLens to give them schematics and diagrams overlaid on the work they are doing, guiding them through complex tasks that otherwise would take years of experience to master.

I’m particularly fond of imagining how the model used by Partners in Health could be turbocharged by augmented reality and telepresence. The organization provides free healthcare to people in poverty using a model in which community health workers recruited from the population being served are trained and supported in providing primary care. Doctors can be brought in as needed, but the bulk of care is provided by ordinary people. Imagine a community health worker who is able to tap on Google Glass or some next-generation wearable, and say, “Doctor, you need to see this!” (Trust me. Glass will be back, when Google learns to focus on community health workers, not fashion models.)


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OpenCV Computer Vision With Python by Joseph Howse

augmented reality, computer vision, Debian, optical character recognition, pattern recognition

Today, Joe still fancies that a computer program can blast a tunnel into reality. As a hobby, he likes looking at reality through the tunnel of a digital camera's lens. As a career, he develops augmented reality software, which uses cameras and other sensors to composite real and virtual scenes interactively in real time. Joe holds a Master of Computer Science degree from Dalhousie University. He does research on software architecture as applied to augmented reality. Joe works at Ad-Dispatch, an augmented reality company, where he develops applications for mobile devices, kiosks, and the Web. Joe likes cats, kittens, oceans, and seas. Felines and saline water sustain him.

He participated in Blender source code, an open source and 3D-software project, and worked in his first commercial movie Plumiferos—Aventuras voladoras as a Computer Graphics Software Developer. David now has more than 10 years of experience in IT, with more than seven years experience in computer vision, computer graphics, and pattern recognition working on different projects and startups, applying his knowledge of computer vision, optical character recognition, and augmented reality. He is the author of the DamilesBlog (http://blog.damiles.com), where he publishes research articles and tutorials about OpenCV, computer vision in general, and Optical Character Recognition algorithms. He is the co-author of Mastering OpenCV with Practical Computer Vision Projects , Daniel Lélis Baggio, Shervin Emami, David Millán Escrivá, Khvedchenia Ievgen, Naureen Mahmood, Jasonl Saragih, and Roy Shilkrot, Packt Publishing.


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The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The future is already here, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WeWork, Whole Earth Review, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

Mobile phones were the second platform, and they revolutionized everything in only a few decades. The next disrupting platform—now arriving—is VR. Here is how a day plugged into virtual and augmented realities may unfold in the very near future. I am in VR, but I don’t need a headset. The surprising thing that few people expected way back in 2016 is that you don’t need to wear goggles, or even a pair of glasses, in order to get a basic “good enough” augmented reality. A 3-D image projects directly into my eyes from tiny light sources that peek from the corner of my rooms, all without the need of something in front of my face.

., 70–71 and platform synergy, 122–25 and real-time on demand, 114–17 and renting, 117–18 and right of modification, 124–25 accountability, 260–64 Adobe, 113, 206 advertising, 177–89 aggregated information, 140, 147 Airbnb, 109, 113, 124, 172 algorithms and targeted advertising, 179–82 Alibaba, 109 Amazon and accessibility vs. ownership, 109 and artificial intelligence, 33 cloud of, 128, 129 and on-demand model of access, 115 as ecosystem, 124 and filtering systems, 171–72 and recommendation engines, 169 and robot technology, 50 and tracking technology, 254 and user reviews, 21, 72–73 anime, 198 annotation systems, 202 anonymity, 263–64 anthropomorphization of technology, 259 Apache software, 69, 141, 143 API (application programming interface), 23 Apple, 1–2, 123, 124, 246 Apple Pay, 65 Apple Watch, 224 Arthur, Brian, 193, 209 artificial intelligence (AI), 29–60 ability to think differently, 42–43, 48, 51–52 as accelerant of change, 30 as alien intelligence, 48 in chess, 41–42 and cloud-based services, 127 and collaboration, 273 and commodity consumer attention, 179 and complex questions, 47 concerns regarding, 44 and consciousness, 42 corporate investment in, 32 costs of, 29, 52–53 data informing, 39 and defining humanity, 48–49 and digital storage capacity, 265, 266–67 and emergence of the “holos,” 291 as enhancement of human intelligence, 41–42 and filtering systems, 175 of Google, 36–37 impact of, 29 learning ability of, 32–33, 40 and lifelogging, 251 networked, 30 and network effect, 40 potential applications for, 34–36 questions arising from, 284 specialized applications of, 42 in tagging book content, 98 technological breakthroughs influencing, 38–40 ubiquity of, 30, 33 and video games, 230 and visual intelligence, 203 See also robots arts and artists artist/audience inversion, 81 and augmented reality, 232 and authenticity, 70 and creative remixing, 209 and crowdfunding, 156–61 and low-cost reproduction, 87 and patronage, 72 public art, 232 attention, 168–69, 176, 177–89 audience, 88, 148–49, 155, 156–57 audio recording, 249. See also music and musicians augmented reality (AR), 216–17, 224, 226–27, 231–32 authenticity, 70 authority, 86, 88, 101 authors, 86, 87, 88 automation, 49–50, 55, 56, 57–58 automobiles.

This permits the projected “reality” to overlay the reality you see normally without goggles. You could be standing in your kitchen and see the robot R2-D2 right before you in perfect resolution. You could walk around it, get closer, even move it to inspect it, and it would retain its authenticity. This overlay is called augmented reality (AR). Because the artificial part is added to your ordinary view of the world, your eyes are focused deeper than they are on a screen near your eyes, so this technological illusion is packed with presence. You almost swear it is really there. Microsoft’s vision for light field AR is to build the office of the future.


pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, Mondo 2000, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

In its current form, Google Glass is not much more than a kind of heads-up display that allows us to receive a steady stream of annotation about our surroundings with nothing more than an upward flick of the eyeballs. But this is really only a short step from a device that might present us with a more complete digital overlay in our field of view that keeps track of our movements and updates what we see accordingly. Such augmented realities have been used in research settings for some time; there are even some rudimentary forms of this way of seeing that are available to users of smartphones. The full penetration of such technologies would, at least for the visual sense, render many of the principles of conventional architecture obsolete.

I can also envision many of the ways in which the use of new technologies that merge the real and virtual worlds of design bring exciting prospects for innovations in responsive environments that will enhance the lives of the elderly, the infirm, and the dispossessed. By way of full disclosure, I should also point out what will become obvious in the pages ahead—that the kinds of developments that I’ve just described, including mobile data collection, and embedded sensor networks for biometrics and virtual and augmented reality, represent a cornucopia of rich data for scientists who do the kind of research that I do and will describe to you in this book. Put simply, these tools will allow scientists like me to develop a richer and more complete understanding of how the physical surroundings of our lives influence everything that we do.

They peered through the glass at the grey lump of rock as if they somehow expected more. The mere authenticity of the specimen didn’t seem to mean much to them. More recently, I’ve questioned my children about their favorite museum experiences, and they’ve described enjoying plastic reconstructions of animal skeletons and augmented reality screens meant to show how dinosaurs, whose fossilized bones stood right before them, might have looked when they were alive. Trying to avoid leading the witness, I asked them whether the authenticity of an artifact was important to them. When looking at a pile of bones, for example, did it make a difference to them to know that they were actual fossilized bones from an animal that had lived thousands of years ago?


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disinformation, disintermediation, Dogecoin, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, you are the product, zero day

(blog), Washington Post, Jan. 9, 2013. 73 Any variation from an established: Clint Boulton, “ ‘Post-Password’ Technology Verifies Users by Behavior,” Wall Street Journal, July 11, 2014. 74 Banks believe biometric tools: Rawlson King, “Biometric Research Note,” Biometric Update, Jan. 21, 2013. 75 The Nymi wristband: Somini Sengupta, “Machines Made to Know You, by Touch, Voice, Even by Heart,” Bits (blog), New York Times, Sept. 10, 2013. 76 Scientists at the U.K.’s National Physical Laboratory: “NPL Takes Step Forward with Gait Recognition System,” Engineer, Sept. 20, 2012. 77 There is, however, an even easier way: Christopher Mims, “Smart Phones That Know Their Users by How They Walk,” MIT Technology Review, Sept. 16, 2010. 78 Proteus Digital Health: Dieter Bohn, “Motorola Shows Off Insane Electronic Tattoo and Vitamin Authentication Prototype Wearables,” Verge, May 29, 2013. 79 When we know: Anthony, “UK, the World’s Most Surveilled State, Begins Using Automated Face Recognition to Catch Criminals.” 80 AR can be used: For further information on augmented reality in contact lenses, see Babak A. Parviz, “Augmented Reality in a Contact Lens,” IEEE Spectrum, Sept. 1, 2009. 81 It is expected: Juniper Research, “Press Release: Over 2.5 Billion Mobile Augmented Reality Apps to Be Installed Per Annum by 2017,” Aug. 29, 2012. 82 Ikea even incorporated AR: Luisa Rollenhagen, “Augmented Reality Catalog Places IKEA Furniture in Your Home,” Mashable, Aug. 6, 2013. 285 A future malicious app: Franziska Roesner, Tadayoshi Kohno, and David Molnar, “Security and Privacy for Augmented Reality Systems,” Communications of the ACM 57, no. 4 (2014): 88–96, doi:​10.​1145/​2580723.​2580730. 83 The renowned game designer: Jane McGonigal, TED Conversation, http://​www.​ted.​com/​conversations/​44/​we_spend_​3_billion_​hours_a_wee.​html; Jane McGonigal, Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World (New York: Penguin Books, 2011). 84 “Strategically we want to start building”: Sarah Frier, “Facebook Makes $2 Billion Virtual-Reality Bet with Oculus,” Bloomberg, March 26, 2014. 85 Many genuinely view: “Worlds Without End,” Economist, Dec. 14, 2005. 86 But there is a downside: “A Korean Couple Let a Baby Die While They Played a Video Game,” Newsweek, July 27, 2014; “Korean Couple Let Baby Starve to Death While Caring for Virtual Child,” Telegraph, March 5, 2010. 87 Virtual worlds have their own currencies: “The Economy of Online Gaming Fraud Revealed: 3.4 Million Malware Attacks Every Day,” Kaspersky Lab, Sept. 28, 2010. 88 As strange as it may sound: Carolyn Davis, “Virtual Justice: Online Game World Meets Real-World Cops and Courts,” Philly.​com, Dec. 8, 2010. 89 Even “sexual assaults”: Benjamin Duranske, “ ‘Virtual Rape’ Claim Brings Belgian Police to Second Life,” Virtually Blind, April 24, 2007. 287 These incidents might be: Anna Jane Grossman, “Single, White with Dildo,” Salon, Aug. 30, 2005. 90 A 2008 report: Sara Malm, “U.S.

It is not just our physical selves that can be subjected to such persistent observation but our virtual selves as well. Augmenting Reality As the Internet of Things advances, the very notion of a clear dividing line between reality and virtual reality becomes blurred, sometimes in creative ways. GEOFF MULGAN, U.K. NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND THE ARTS In the movies, Tony Stark amazes us with the capabilities of his all-powerful Iron Man suit, which, among its many features, benefits greatly from a plethora of real-time augmented-reality information streaming before his eyes from the suit’s head-mounted display. The technology in the film is based solidly on reality.

—the Org Chart The Lean (Criminal) Start-Up A Sophisticated Matrix of Crime Honor Among Thieves: The Criminal Code of Ethics Crime U Innovation from the Underworld From Crowdsourcing to Crime Sourcing CHAPTER 11: INSIDE THE DIGITAL UNDERGROUND Passport to the Dark Web A Journey into the Abyss Dark Coins Crime as a Service Crimeazon.com The Malware-Industrial Complex Net of the Living Dead: When Botnet Zombies Attack Committing Crime Automagically CHAPTER 12: WHEN ALL THINGS ARE HACKABLE Where the Wireless Things Are Imagining the Internet of Things Connecting Everything—Insecurely Obliterating Privacy Hacking Hardware More Connections, More Vulnerabilities CHAPTER 13: HOME HACKED HOME Candid Camera From Carjacking to Car Hacking Home Hacked Home What the Outlet Knows Business Attacks and Building Hacks The Smart City Operating System CHAPTER 14: HACKING YOU “We Are All Cyborgs Now” More Than Meets the Eye: The World of Wearable Computing You’re Breaking My Heart: The Dangers of Implantable Computers When Steve Austin and Jaime Sommers Get a Virus Identity Crisis: Hacking Biometrics Fingers Crossed (and Hacked) Your Password? It’s Written All Over Your Face On Your Best Behavior Augmenting Reality The Rise of Homo virtualis CHAPTER 15: RISE OF THE MACHINES: WHEN CYBER CRIME GOES 3-D We, Robot The Military-Industrial (Robotic) Complex A Robot in Every Home and Office Humans Need Not Apply Robot Rights, Law, Ethics, and Privacy Danger, Will Robinson Hacking Robots Game of Drones Robots Behaving Badly Attack of the Drones The Future of Robotics and Autonomous Machines Printing Crime: When Gutenberg Meets Gotti CHAPTER 16: NEXT-GENERATION SECURITY THREATS: WHY CYBER WAS ONLY THE BEGINNING Nearly Intelligent Talk to My Agent Black-Box Algorithms and the Fallacy of Math Neutrality Al-gorithm Capone and His AI Crime Bots When Watson Turns to a Life of Crime Man’s Last Invention: Artificial General Intelligence The AI-pocalypse How to Build a Brain Tapping Into Genius: Brain-Computer Interface Mind Reading, Brain Warrants, and Neuro-hackers Biology Is Information Technology Bio-computers and DNA Hard Drives Jurassic Park for Reals Invasion of the Bio-snatchers: Genetic Privacy, Bioethics, and DNA Stalkers Bio-cartels and New Opiates for the Masses Hacking the Software of Life: Bio-crime and Bioterrorism The Final Frontier: Space, Nano, and Quantum PART THREE SURVIVING PROGRESS CHAPTER 17: SURVIVING PROGRESS Killer Apps: Bad Software and Its Consequences Software Damages Reducing Data Pollution and Reclaiming Privacy Kill the Password Encryption by Default Taking a Byte out of Cyber Crime: Education Is Essential The Human Factor: The Forgotten Weak Link Bringing Human-Centered Design to Security Mother (Nature) Knows Best: Building an Immune System for the Internet Policing the Twenty-First Century Practicing Safe Techs: The Need for Good Cyber Hygiene The Cyber CDC: The World Health Organization for a Connected Planet CHAPTER 18: THE WAY FORWARD Ghosts in the Machine Building Resilience: Automating Defenses and Scaling for Good Reinventing Government: Jump-Starting Innovation Meaningful Public-Private Partnership We the People Gaming the System Eye on the Prize: Incentive Competitions for Global Security Getting Serious: A Manhattan Project for Cyber Final Thoughts Appendix: Everything’s Connected, Everyone’s Vulnerable: Here’s What You Can Do About It Acknowledgments Notes PROLOGUE The Irrational Optimist: How I Got This Way My entrée into the world of high-tech crime began innocuously in 1995 while working as a twenty-eight-year-old investigator and sergeant at the LAPD’s famed Parker Center police headquarters.


Data Action: Using Data for Public Good by Sarah Williams

affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, City Beautiful movement, commoditize, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital twin, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, four colour theorem, global village, Google Earth, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, mass incarceration, megacity, Minecraft, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, openstreetmap, place-making, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transatlantic slave trade, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration

The applications for this new virtual environment are almost endless. 5.1a and 5.1b Google's AR navigation application adds a digital fox (left) to your navigation space and suggests places to eat (right). Source: James Kanter, “Google Showcases Augmented-Reality Navigation on Google Maps,” Business Insider, May 9, 2018, https://www.businessinsider.com/google-showcases-augmented-reality-navigation-on-google-maps-2018-5. 5.2 3D Soundscape created by Microsoft allows blind people to navigate the city. Source: Adam Peters, “This Device Creates A 3-D Soundscape To Help Blind People Navigate Through Cities,” Fast Company, November 20, 2014, https://www.fastcompany.com/3038691/this-device-creates-a-3d-soundscape-to-help-blind-people-navigate-through-cities.

Christian Science Monitor, June 15, 2010. https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2010/0615/Gulf-oil-spill-Al-Gore-slams-BP-for-lack-of-media-access. Joyce, Patrick. The Rule of Freedom: Liberalism and the Modern City. London: Verso, 2003. Kanter, James. “Google Showcases Augmented-Reality Navigation on Google Maps—Business Insider.” Business Insider, May 9, 2018. https://www.businessinsider.com/google-showcases-augmented-reality-navigation-on-google-maps-2018-5. Kass-Hout, Taha A., and Hend Alhinnawi. “Social Media in Public Health.” British Medical Bulletin 108, no. 1 (2013): 5–24. Keefe, John. “Stop & Frisk | Guns.” WNYC, 2013. https://project.wnyc.org/stop-frisk-guns/.

Much in the same way networked computers created the World Wide Web, this environment will power many innovations created by those who have the capabilities to tap into it. Right now, that ability lies solely with the companies who generate the data, companies such as Waymo, Tesla, Ford, and others experimenting with autonomous vehicles. Companies are already using their virtual worlds to create diverse products beyond the car. Google has developed an augmented reality navigation tool for your smartphone, fueled by this digital environment (figure 5.1a and 5.1b). Microsoft has started to use some of this data to create a product it calls 3D Soundscapes (figure 5.2), which taps into the virtual environment to help a person with vision impairment or loss to navigate through the city.


pages: 561 words: 163,916

The History of the Future: Oculus, Facebook, and the Revolution That Swept Virtual Reality by Blake J. Harris

4chan, airport security, Anne Wojcicki, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, computer vision, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, financial independence, game design, Grace Hopper, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Peter Thiel, QR code, sensor fusion, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, white picket fence

The reason Luckey asked was because of what Abrash was now working on at Valve: wearable computing. And specifically—as was now publicly known via his recent posts on a blog called Ramblings in Valve Time—Michael Abrash was researching augmented reality.1 “Wait,” Castle said. “What’s that? Augmented reality?” “The easiest way to explain it,” Luckey said, “is basically: Virtual reality makes you feel like you’re some place totally different and the entire environment is synthetic. Augmented reality places some digital elements into your view of the real world. So that’s really cool, but it’s like ten years away from being viable in any legitimate way.” “Do you anticipate that Valve will produce a headset of their own?”

But after investigating what steps would need to be taken, and weighing the costs of such an endeavor, it didn’t make any sense for Valve to take that kind of risk on hardware. Shortly after coming to this conclusion, Abrash heard about a company called Innovega that had an AR system in development. It was still very much in the prototype phase, but what they were making—augmented reality contact lenses—piqued Abrash’s interest. Then at some point shortly thereafter, Abrash asked Atman Binstock—now smiling there beside him—to meet for coffee. “By the end of that conversation,” Binstock said, recounting that meeting for Luckey and Antonov, “I just started thinking through how it would actually work.

There was a certain irony to this—the way that he and his team nostalgically talked about the “early days”—when, in reality, those days were only about six months old. That was when Atman Binstock, along with Fabian Giesen—a young, supersmart German engineer whom Binstock knew and trusted from his time at Rad—decided to take the leap and join Valve to work with Michael Abrash on augmented reality. Internally, this team became known as the “Vortex Group,” and it consisted of only five people: Abrash, Binstock, Giesen, and a pair of seasoned Valve engineers (Aaron Nicholls and Gordon Stoll). The group’s original plan was to focus on two soon-to-be-released pieces of wearable hardware.


pages: 404 words: 95,163

Amazon: How the World’s Most Relentless Retailer Will Continue to Revolutionize Commerce by Natalie Berg, Miya Knights

3D printing, Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business intelligence, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, computer vision, connected car, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Elon Musk, gig economy, independent contractor, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, market fragmentation, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, QR code, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, remote working, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Skype, Steve Bannon, sunk-cost fallacy, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, trade route, underbanked, urban planning, WeWork, white picket fence

First, in terms of improving navigation, retailers are embracing instore mapping systems using a range of technologies including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, audio, video and magnetic positioning, augmented reality (AR) and 3D virtualization, allowing customers to use their mobile devices to find the products they are looking for more quickly. In the future, expect more retailers to bundle instore navigation services with personalized, real-time offers in a bid to replicate the deeply tailored experience that traditionally could only be experienced online. Beacon technology and augmented reality, accessed via mobile devices, are creating new opportunities for retailers to target instore shoppers with such offers.

But that’s all about to change. By 2021, 28 per cent of clothing and footwear sales and 18 per cent of furniture and home furnishing sales in the US are expected to take place online (up from 9 per cent and 6 per cent respectively a decade earlier2), according to Kantar. Technology such as augmented reality, visual search and 3D body scanning are breaking down the barriers to online purchasing, reducing friction when it comes to discovery and sizing in fashion and giving shoppers more confidence in buying big-ticket items like furniture. Meanwhile, try-before-you-buy subscription boxes and more generous return policies are also helping to instil trust in shoppers looking to buy clothes online.

The same visual search capabilities of mobile apps and devices that contain image recognition functionality and features can be used to win the sale at that ‘zero moment’ (ZMOT) in both ‘research online, buy offline’ (ROBO) shopping journeys, as well as in response to showrooming inside the store. Augmented reality (AR) relies on similar image recognition and machine learning AI capabilities that shoppers use for image searches in combination with additional computer vision and geolocation developments. It is so-called because, in comparison to the complete immersiveness of virtual reality (VR) headsets and controllers, AR overlays images, text, video, graphics and other media onto the view that a smartphone camera sees of the real world.


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The Price of Tomorrow: Why Deflation Is the Key to an Abundant Future by Jeff Booth

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, butterfly effect, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, deliberate practice, digital twin, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, game design, Gordon Gekko, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, Milgram experiment, Modern Monetary Theory, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, oil shock, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, software as a service, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, zero-sum game

With the technology moving into the mainstream, the transition will happen and drive much waste and cost out of the system. This can be great for humanity. The problem is that waste and cost are today’s jobs. Virtual and augmented reality Today we are glued to our phones as an interface to our technology world: according to Deloitte, in 2018 the average user checked their smartphone fifty-two times a day.25 But we will soon be more absorbed in it. Virtual and augmented reality (mixed reality) will offer a different, more immersive connection with our technology, and it will change the way many things are done. Take, for example, a startup in Vancouver called LlamaZOO, which is in a new category of data collection called spatial data that is at the intersection of digital twinning (an exact twin of the physical world that is digital), mixed reality, and business intelligence.

How the Economy Works, Part II: Creative Destruction Out with the old, in with the new The BuildDirect journey The windows of opportunity The rise of the platforms On the eve of destruction 3. It Is Hard to Think Differently Building on weak foundations Two-speed thinking Myths we live by How do we overcome our errors? 4. The Technology Boom Doubling up Self-driving cars Virtual and augmented reality Additive manufacturing and 3D printing The coming sonic boom 5. The Future of Energy The laws of energy Let the sun shine in Changing the price of tomorrow 6. The Future of Intelligence The impact of artificial intelligence A brief history of intelligence The beginning of AI 7. Who Will Be the Masters?

I was sitting about ten feet away at the Code Conference in 2016 when Elon Musk famously discussed the probability of us all living in a simulation. He explained his thesis, which was first introduced by Nick Bostrom, philosopher and author of the book Superintelligence, by using virtual reality/augmented reality as an example. He went on to argue that fidelity in virtual reality is already nearing fidelity of the real world (it feels real) and continuing to advance at a remarkable pace. If it feels real (or almost real) today and is progressing quickly, the chances are quite high that as the technology gets better and we use it more, the lines blur between reality and virtual reality, and we get confused about which reality we are in.


pages: 480 words: 123,979

Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters With Reality and Virtual Reality by Jaron Lanier

4chan, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bill Atkinson, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, cosmological constant, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, impulse control, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Mondo 2000, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

I love classical music but am dismayed when I run across a person who leaves a feed of classical music on “for relaxation.” It’s so much more than wallpaper, if only you give it a chance. Less is often more, because attention isn’t infinite. When to Take a Pass Another ethical crossroads in VR headset design will come up soon: There are two ways to implement mixed (augmented) reality. You can use optics to combine the real and virtual worlds, as we do in HoloLens. The images you see of the real world are then made of the same photons you would have seen from the real world if you weren’t wearing the headset. But there’s another way to implement the effect, sometimes called “video pass-through.”

You are more sensitive to certain kinds of motion in the periphery, to the horizon, and even to slightly different colors, especially when it is dark. A well-designed VR headset takes all these fine points into consideration. There’s a big horizontal line in the chart. Underneath are found versions of VR in which you see only virtual stuff. Above the line is mixed reality, also known as augmented reality. In those cases you see the virtual intertwined with the real. The Inner Extreme on the Spectrum Let’s look first at the option that falls the farthest to the right, because it illuminates one aspect of the practical philosophy of VR: It’s been possible for quite a while to generate the perception of apparent light from electrical stimulation.

* * * Thirty-seventh VR Definition: Instrumentation to present data as lucidly as possible. * * * A FEW OF OUR AMERICAN PROJECTS We helped Boeing build simulators for cabin design, field maintenance, and manufacturing line design. Boeing later became a key early driver of mixed reality, or “augmented reality,” as they called it. We also helped Ford and other car manufacturers use VR to prototype their designs, a practice that has long since become universal in the industry. And we did the same with companies designing trains and ships. Transportation was our biggest sector in a typical year. Every commercial vehicle you’ve entered in the last couple of decades was prototyped in VR.


pages: 381 words: 120,361

Sunfall by Jim Al-Khalili

airport security, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Carrington event, cosmological constant, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Attenborough, Fellow of the Royal Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, MITM: man-in-the-middle, off grid, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Turing test

He would ask Grace when he got home. It would make for a good science project. He thought about sending her the AR footage of the butterflies he had recorded on his retinal display but decided it could wait. Anyway, it’d be more fun to chat to Grace about this face to face rather than just copying over an augmented reality clip of what he was seeing on his screen. It never occurred to him that the fault might not lie with the butterflies at all. Absent-mindedly, he flicked on the wipers to clear the windscreen of the multi-coloured carnage. 2 Monday, 28 January 2041 – Rio de Janeiro Sarah Maitlin stared at her display and tried to clear her head, her third cafezinho of the evening cold and forgotten on her desk.

He’d lost count of the number of times he’d had to explain that he was not an astronomer and that his research involved looking down at mathematical equations, or getting buried in complex electronic kit, studying the world at the tiniest of scales, rather than looking up at the heavens. Thanks to his colour-blindness, he couldn’t even tell Venus from Mars. He’d taken out his augmented-reality lenses so as not to have the spectacle ruined by any unnecessary overlaid information. The night sky lost its aesthetic beauty and majesty when each bright dot had detailed statistics superimposed around it. Of course, it wasn’t difficult to switch off his AR feed whenever he wanted, but there was something liberating about taking his contacts out – like walking barefoot on fresh grass.

Once it was understood how these proteins could be switched on and off with tiny electromagnetic signals sent to the users’ eyes from their Cloud-linked wristpads, rapid advances were made in the technology. Almost overnight, it seemed to Marc, everyone had access to double vision: reality and augmented reality, overlapping and yet, with a little practice, quite separate. So good had the AR projections onto the retina now become, that the technology’s main teething problem came from the user confusing the projection with the physical universe beyond. ‘Can I get you anything else, Professor Bruckner?’


pages: 244 words: 81,334

Picnic Comma Lightning: In Search of a New Reality by Laurence Scott

4chan, Airbnb, airport security, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, clean water, colonial rule, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Herbert Marcuse, housing crisis, Internet of things, Joan Didion, job automation, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, Productivity paradox, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, Y2K, you are the product

CONTENTS About the Book About the Author Also available by Laurence Scott Title Page Epigraph Dedication Introduction: Augmented Reality Part 1: The Life Fantastic 1. Bedtime Stories 2. The End of Things 3. Optical Disillusions Part 2: Double Vision 4. Backstage Pass 5. Romance Languages 6. Fellow-Feeling Part 3: Bolts from the Blue 7. Final Fantasies Epilogue Notes Acknowledgements Copyright ABOUT THE BOOK A spellbinding examination of the nature of reality, by one of the brightest thinkers of today. Cognitive science proposes that we have evolved to build mental maps of the world not according to its actual, physical nature, but according to what allows us to thrive.

ALSO BY LAURENCE SCOTT The Four-Dimensional Human: Ways of Being in the Digital World Halfway down, I step over some version of myself; a girl of four or six, idling or playing in the place most likely to trip people up. This is where children sit, I know this now; how they love doorways, in-between places, the busiest spot. This is where they go vague and start to dream. Anne Enright, The Forgotten Waltz For Rob Lederer INTRODUCTION: Augmented Reality WHILE I WAS in my early thirties, my parents died in impolite succession. My mother first, in 2010, then my father in 2012. He was in his early eighties, but she was sixteen years younger and had no business going anywhere. They passed the illness baton from one to the other, so that my mother died in midsummer and by the autumn we were back on the same floor of Charing Cross Hospital, with the same attendants wheeling the vital-signs trolley up to the bedside.

While we worry that we may soon lose the ability to know what is real and unreal in public life, technological ambitions for the future are based on the assumption that reality is there. How else could we have virtual reality, with its 360-degree designs on recreating a coral reef in the kitchen, if there wasn’t a reality to imitate, or indeed a kitchen to put it in? There is also the field of augmented reality (AR). Unlike virtual reality’s immersive experiences, AR involves the overlaying of artificial images onto ‘the real world’. AR headsets are being designed that trade screens for glasses. With these headsets we can sit in our home office and see weather reports, business graphs, an advert for running shoes, all floating in mid-air in front of us.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Just about the only thing I didn’t see in the Venetian were cameras hidden inside watering cans. There were electronic eyes everywhere one looked. There was even an entire exhibition dedicated to intelligent eyeglasses. This “Retrospective Exhibition: 35 Years of Augmented Reality Eyewear,” a kind of history of the future, was held inside the “Augmented Reality Pavilion” in the Venetian. It featured row upon row of plastic heads, all wearing augmented glasses that had been developed over the last thirty-five years. The exhibition was sponsored by two of today’s leading developers of augmented glasses—an Israeli firm called OrCam, and Vuzix, whose $1,000 Smart Glasses M100 model, the world’s first commercially available networked eyewear, feature a hands-free camera that can record everything it sees.

So it was serendipitous that a part of the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show (CES), the world’s largest event dedicated to networked consumer devices, was held in Las Vegas’s version of Venice—the Venetian Resort Hotel Casino. Situated on Las Vegas’s strip, the Venetian, with its gaudily inauthentic piazzas and canals, represents a version of the Italian city-state that might be charitably described as augmented reality. At CES 2014, surveillance technologies were, so to speak, on show throughout the Venetian. Companies were demonstrating networked cameras that could do everything from peeping under walls and peering around corners to peeking through clothing. It was like being at a conference for spooks. At the Indiegogo-sponsored section of the show, hidden in the bowels of the Venetian, one crowd-financed startup from Berlin named Panono was showing off what it called a “panoramic ball camera,” an 11 cm electronic ball with thirty-six tiny cameras attached to it, that took panoramic photos whenever the ball was thrown in the air and then, of course, distributed them on the network.

A Canadian company, OMSignal, was demonstrating spandex clothing that wirelessly measured heart rate and other health data. Another smart clothing company, Heapsylon, even had a sports bra made of textile electrodes designed to monitor its wearer’s vital statistics.22 While Google wasn’t officially represented in the Augmented Reality Pavilion, there were plenty of early adopters wandering around the Venetian’s fake piazzas and canals wearing demonstration models of Google Glass, Google’s networked electronic eyeglasses. Michael Chertoff, the former US secretary of homeland security, described these glasses, which have been designed to take both continuous video and photos of everything they see, as inaugurating an age of “ubiquitous surveillance.”23 Chertoff is far from alone is being creeped out by Google Glass.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

Are a fake tan, dyed hair, breast enlargement and teeth whitening just someone competing for a mate or someone who is somehow cheating? And, as usual, you haven’t seen anything yet. How about totally artificial hearts, livers, kidneys, or blood, plastic bones, human body parts grown in laboratories, contact lenses featuring data displays and augmented reality, artificial skin that can be synchronized with touch screens to transmit data or be used to display data on itself, direct brain-to-machine interfaces (i.e. thought control), orgasm chips and exoskeletons (skeletons you wear on the outside of your body to increase strength or to prolong mobility in older age).

We’ll immerse ourselves in novelty and fantasy and become reckless in our dealings with the real world. Perhaps we’ll retreat into virtual realities, although, of course, its possible that in the future the word “real” will have no actual meaning once we implant devices into our own bodies and augment reality with personalized overlays of digital information. We might also see radical cosmetic surgery becoming more mainstream, and this might encourage individuals to experiment with different physical personalities as they already do online. How all of this will change us is anyone’s guess, although it seems reasonable to assume that our sense of self would change along with our behavior.

It is machine intelligence that is equivalent to, or exceeds, human intelligence and it’s usually regarded as the long-term goal of AI research and development. Ambient intelligence Electronic or artificial environments that recognize the presence of other machines or people and respond to their needs. Artificial photosynthesis The artificial replication of natural photosynthesis to create or store solar fuels. Augmented reality (AR) The overlaying of digital data or information on real-world environments via mobile devices or screens. Links with modified or mediated reality and virtual reality. Avatar assistant A customized and semi-intelligent digital assistant accessed via a mobile device or other screen. Big data Huge data sets and vast volumes of information created by the rapidly expanding use of sensing networks and devices ranging from computers and cell phones to GPS, RFIDs, sensor motes and smart dust.


pages: 360 words: 100,991

Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck

3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, backpropagation, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day

Then there’s the matter of people using emotional prosthetics to deal with shortcomings in users’ emotional intelligence. We’ve already heard about Rana el Kaliouby’s early efforts with MindReader, the social intelligence prosthesis for autistic users. This is likely just the beginning of what will be a broad array of emotional assistance devices. Using augmented reality and emotional pattern recognition, any number of emotion reading tools could be possible. Just imagine a wearable prosthetic for people with brain damage similar to Elliot’s at the beginning of chapter 3. What a difference a device like that could make to someone’s life! Many modern computer-interface technologies have been used to help the handicapped deal with and overcome challenges.

As the next chapter shows, our challenges may be just beginning. 10 SENTIMENTAL FOOLS Ginza, Tokyo—May 17, 2027 A fashionable young woman window shops along a street in a trendy retail district, searching for a new purse. Her Louis Vuitton eyeglasses overlay a field of data onto the scene she’s viewing. These augmented reality spectacles offer pricing and reviews of different items as her gaze passes over them in the store windows. As she nears one of the establishments, its on-street camera records and sends her image to the store’s main computer system. From there it is fed to several data analytics services that almost instantly provide information about who she is as well as her probable buying habits.

Companies can use these integrated services to perform various tasks for a reasonable fee, without having to develop the software and databases themselves. Such services could abstract and automate many of the more complex aspects of facial recognition, 3D scanning, affective computing, and augmented reality, allowing businesses to engage consumers on the fly in real time as easily as you or I send an email or spell-check a document. This should concern us because the potential for emotional manipulation will be overwhelming and will greatly alter the balance of the retailer-consumer relationship.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

When the sense data being received by the brain become sufficiently realistic, the brain “flips”, and decides that the illusion being presented is the reality. Google is not giving up on smartphone-based VR. Having sold more than 5m of the cardboard units, it plans to launch a more robust plastic version in 2016, with better sensors and lenses. It will remain considerably cheaper than the Oculus Rift, which will cost hundreds of dollars.[clx] Augmented reality (AR) is similar to VR except that it is overlaid on your perception of the real world rather than replacing it. It can make elephants swim through the air in front of you, or plant a skyscraper in your back garden. This is handy if you want to remain alert to the threat from dogs and potholes while you are hallucinating swimming elephants.

That said, IBM is developing a new brand for its commercial AI offering. Celia stands for Cognitive Environments Laboratory Intelligent Assistant, and it seems to be a more user-friendly front end, enabling business analysts, for instance, to interact with it by speech, and by manipulating virtual objects in an augmented reality field.[ccxlv] And IBM is still pursuing moonshots, in the medical field and elsewhere. As we have noted several times, machine learning is fuelled by data. In October 2015, IBM paid $1bn for Merge Healthcare, a company with 30 billion medical images,[ccxlvi] and $2bn for the digital assets of The Weather Company, to build a weather forecasting service.

He admits that the pace of technological development might pick up again, perhaps thanks to research into meta-materials, whose structure absorbs, bends or enhances electromagnetic waves in exotic ways. He is dismissive of artificial intelligence because it has not yet produced a conscious mind, but he thinks that augmented reality might turn out to be a new platform for innovation, just as the smartphone did a decade ago. But in conclusion he believes that “2045... is going to look more like it looks today than you think.” It is tempting to think that Markoff was to some extent playing to the gallery, wallowing self-indulgently in sexagenarian nostalgia about the passing of old glories.


pages: 243 words: 76,686

How to Do Nothing by Jenny Odell

Airbnb, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Burning Man, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Filter Bubble, full employment, gig economy, Google Earth, Ian Bogost, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Minecraft, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Port of Oakland, Results Only Work Environment, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, source of truth, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration

My mother, the very picture of generosity, has ingeniously found some way to help me with almost everything I have ever done, and her work with children influenced my emphasis on care and maintenance in this book. My father, who frequently shuttles between his electronics job and the top of a mountain, has imbued in me a certain way of looking at the world. I once asked him if he knew about augmented reality, and he said, “Augmented reality? I live there.” Lastly, I would like to thank Crow and Crowson for continuing to visit my balcony, morning after morning, directing their alien attention toward this comparatively ungainly Homo sapiens. May we all be so lucky to find our muses in our own neighborhoods. Endnotes Introduction 1.

Unless we are vigilant, the current design of much of our technology will block us every step of the way, deliberately creating false targets for self-reflection, curiosity, and a desire to belong to a community. When people long for some kind of escape, it’s worth asking: What would “back to the land” mean if we understood the land to be where we are right now? Could “augmented reality” simply mean putting your phone down? And what (or who) is that sitting in front of you when you finally do? It is within a blasted landscape of neoliberal determinism that this book seeks hidden springs of ambiguity and inefficiency. This is a four-course meal in the age of Soylent. But while I hope you find some relief in the invitation to simply stop or slow down, I don’t mean this to be a weekend retreat or a mere treatise on creativity.

* * * — ALL OF THAT said, the reason I suggest the bioregion as a meeting grounds for our attention is not simply because it would address species loneliness, or because it enriches the human experience, or even because I believe our physical survival may depend on it. I value bioregionalism for the even more basic reason that, just as attention may be the last resource we have to withhold, the physical world is our last common reference point. At least until everyone is wearing augmented reality glasses 24/7, you cannot opt out of awareness of physical reality. The fact that commenting on the weather is a cliché of small talk is actually a profound reminder of this, since the weather is one of the only things we each know any other person must pay attention to. In a time when meaningful action will require us to form new alliances and recognize differences at the same time, bioregionalism is also useful as a model of difference without boundary, a way of understanding place and identity that avoids essentialism and reification.


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, WeWork, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

The most acquisitive by far is Tencent with 146 deals and $25.7 billion of investment, followed by Alibaba with 51 deals and its part-owned Alipay with 2 deals and $3.7 billion in volume, and Baidu with 28 tech investments at $4.1 billion.2 China’s dragons have teamed up with top-tier US-based venture firms Mayfield and New Enterprise Associates, private equity firms General Atlantic and Carlyle Group, corporate strategic investors General Motors and Warner Brothers, and Japan’s acquisitive SoftBank. They’ve invested in US ride-hailing leaders Uber and Lyft, electric-carmaker Tesla, and augmented reality innovator Magic Leap. These Chinese tech titans have taken their cues directly from Silicon Valley venture capitalists. They’ve scoured the Valley for promising startups and based their operations not far from Menlo Park’s storied Sand Hill Road firms that backed winners Google, Facebook, and eBay.

Pivot to Israel Alibaba’s Ma has turned his kung fu–like skills to seeking and funding startups in the “Startup Nation” of Israel. On his first trip to Israel in May 2018, he led a delegation of 35 Alibaba executives to visit investors and check out startups in Israel’s stronghold of cyber-security as well as augmented reality, online gaming, QR codes, and AI. Alibaba promptly invested $26 million in big data company SQream Technologies, co-invested $40 million in mass transit software startup Optibus, and added to its $30 million co-investment in safe driving technology startup Nexar. These deals were on top of its first Israeli deal, an acquisition of personalized QR code designer Visualead in 2017 to establish a Tel Aviv research and development center.

Waiters were passing by to take orders for coffees, beer, wine, and focaccia sandwiches. Chocolates not usually found in Starbucks were prominently displayed, enlightening Chinese consumers on what pairs well with coffee. In a nod to Chinese tastes, there also was a well-stocked specialty tea bar. An augmented reality platform accessed on Alibaba’s app displayed information about key features in the Reserve Roastery and a bean-to-cup story. Customers were lingering, laughing, meeting friends, and checking their mobile devices. The store was crowded, and a line was forming outside. The Shanghai Reserve Roastery opened in December 2017 and is Starbucks’ bid to keep its premium image alive in China.


pages: 475 words: 134,707

The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy, and Our Health--And How We Must Adapt by Sinan Aral

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, computer vision, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, death of newspapers, disinformation, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, hive mind, illegal immigration, income inequality, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, performance metric, phenotype, recommendation engine, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social software, social web, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the strength of weak ties, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra

As Regina Dugan, head of Facebook’s brain-computer skunkworks, described it at F8, “It’s not about decoding random thoughts. We’re talking about decoding the words you’ve already decided to share by sending them to the speech center of your brain.” Well, that’s comforting. For a second there, I thought I should be worried. The brain wave detector could also enhance the augmented reality medium, creating a “brain mouse” allowing us to click on objects in an augmented reality environment just by thinking about them. Facebook isn’t the only company working on the brain-computer interface, of course, but it is the most immediately plugged into our social lives. What could possibly go wrong? The Hype Machine Framework As may be obvious from our discussion of the technology’s evolution, by the time this book goes to print, it will be outdated.

But the outcomes are real—products are purchased, votes are cast, and people show up in town squares to protest, sometimes, as in Tahrir Square, to dramatic effect. The medium is the input/output device through which we engage with the Hype Machine. Today the medium is largely the smartphone. But tomorrow it could be augmented reality (AR) or virtual reality (VR) headsets, digital contact lenses, virtual beings, in-home audio devices, or some combination. Regardless of the actual device, the medium is important because it determines the context from which the Hype Machine learns about us and in which it influences us. But a true grasp of the Hype Machine also requires an understanding of the economic, technical, social, and legal forces that guide its development.

Facebook is developing its own homegrown operating system to reduce its dependence on Android—a nod to the importance of not being dependent on someone else’s medium. But the Facebook OS will also allow it to embed social interaction deeper into the Hype Machine’s evolving medium. For example, it’s developing new augmented reality glasses and expanding its virtual reality offerings, built on Oculus, at a new 770,000-square-foot, 4,000-person facility fifteen miles from its Mountain View campus, set to open as this book is being released. Facebook is also developing hardware experiences for the enterprise on top of its Portal platform, which will support videoconferencing and AR/VR meeting and coordination solutions, extending Facebook’s reach into the workplace.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar

Thad Starner, a technical lead/manager on Google’s Glass team and associate professor of computing at Georgia Tech, is a trailblazer in wearable contextual technology. As he explains on his Google+ page, “For over 20 years I have worn a computer in my everyday life as an intelligent assistant, the longest such experience known.” He also coined the term “augmented reality” to describe the assistive experience. In 1991, Starner’s doctoral thesis mentioned “that on-body systems can sense the user’s context….” A little more than 20 years later, the necessary technologies have caught up with his prediction. As we started investigating contextual technologies we quickly saw implications going far beyond this well-publicized digital eyewear.

Sometimes, the best way to understand how far forward something can go is to look back and see how far it has come. With that in mind, try to fathom just what will emerge over the next few decades. During a visit to SRI, where so many great technologies such as HDTV and Siri were invented, Supun Samarasekera, a technical director from SRI’s Princeton Group, showed us a pair of augmented reality binoculars that let you geo-tag messages for colleagues and etch in virtual people among real ones in real places. A military platoon could create a very realistic modern version of the famous Terracotta Army if they wished, or you could tag a window in a building to show friends your apartment, or business prospects the location of your office.

As Eberhard notes, “A first responder needs to see floor plans, understand what’s underground; to see where fire hoses hook up, and where hazardous materials are stored. When she or he enters a burning building, knowing where the nearest Starbucks is located is not helpful data.” Perhaps augmented reality can be used in a future Google Glass, PairaSight app or other digital eyewear device to see what’s ahead in a smoke-filled hallway. To us, this is an example of using anticipatory technology as if your life depended upon it. What starts as a cloud-based model today may save the life of a firefighter or blast victim tomorrow.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

For example, as Google track your searches for Plasma TVs, you get an offer for £200 off the TV you spent the longest time studying online as you walk past the electronics showroom today. But the offer is only good for an hour, and only as you are in proximity of that electronics showroom. This is the new augmented reality of customer intimacy through Big Data analysis, and bank retailing will be based upon the competitive differentiation of analysing mass data to deliver mass personalisation. In summary, the digitisation of banking is now mainstream, and all bank capabilities will be packaged as digital structures where products will be apps, processes will be APIs and retailing will be contextual, delivered through mobile internet at the point of relevance.

The network-centric view, where everything is monitored real-time via the network, is the more sophisticated, intelligent and likely future scenario but the chip-based transaction system may well play an enabling short- to medium- term role in allowing the network to track the transactions. The reason why the channel discussion is wrong As can be seen, the near future will be driven by Digital Banks that use augmented realities to track and trace their customers and deliver proactive, location relevant servicing. The Digital Bank will be pervasive and not recognise channels as it purely exists in every digital space that their digital customer lives in. So why do we talk about channels? Why do we talk about multichannel, omnichannel banks, and how to deal with channel integration?

Some banks have already started such process – HSBC with First Direct being a case in point – but the idea of a bank that brands by channel is not yet a clear strategic market move, and maybe it should be. A bank that has a branch based bank brand (HSBC); a call centre based bank brand (First Direct); an internet based bank brand (Smile); and a mobile based bank brand (Moven). Now that flies directly in the face of my earlier assertion that there is no channel separation, just digitally augmented realities. The challenge with that assertion is that each bank brand is launched at a different moment of time: branches (pre-1970s); call centres (1980s); internet (1990s); and mobile (2000s). Each launch therefore has a layer of legacy, which is the challenge for the traditional bank to keep up. The pre-1970s bank is hamstrung by heritage.


pages: 302 words: 90,215

Experience on Demand: What Virtual Reality Is, How It Works, and What It Can Do by Jeremy Bailenson

Apple II, augmented reality, computer vision, deliberate practice, experimental subject, game design, Google Glasses, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, Jaron Lanier, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nuclear winter, Oculus Rift, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, telepresence, too big to fail

But considering the huge technical improvements that have been made in just the past few years, these challenges are surmountable. Then there’s the question of actually wearing the equipment. “Who is going to put on goggles?” some ask, pointing to the consumer failure of Google’s much hyped augmented reality eyewear, Google Glass. Glass, of course, turned off a lot of people because it had the unnerving ability to seamlessly record video and audio. It was also considered antisocial, allowing people to seemingly interact with the real world while checking their e-mail. VR does not aspire to be integrated into one’s day-to-day existence.

But I worry that VR will be of a different order of magnitude, that its difference from other media—particularly in terms of psychological impact—is one of kind and not degree. There is good reason to believe that in the not-too-distant future, much of what we do on the Internet will be done through virtual or augmented reality, further cutting us off from the physical world. The concerns about a “new solitude” that have been raised by thinkers such as Sherry Turkle will only intensify when the pull of these virtual spaces becomes ever more compelling.21 If VR indeed becomes a medium through which people access and interact with the Internet, it will only further increase our anxiety about how the Internet is changing millennia of human social norms.

But imagine when we no longer need hands to communicate, and instead of seeing misspelled words in 140-character bursts, we are immersed in real social scenes, virtual ones, while trying to accomplish daily tasks. It is not a pretty picture. In spite of what proponents of multitasking say, attention is zero-sum.23 We only have so much of it to go around. And VR demands one’s total attention. (Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality are another matter, and carry their own hazards.) Wearing a headset, and believing you are in a virtual world, can be dangerous to users and the people around them. In the months after VR was initially released, incidents of users hitting walls and ceiling fans, tripping over coffee tables, and even accidentally punching other people began to be shared in the media.


pages: 360 words: 101,636

Engineering Infinity by Jonathan Strahan

augmented reality, cosmic microwave background, dark matter, gravity well, Kim Stanley Robinson, low earth orbit, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, post scarcity, Schrödinger's Cat, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski

Yet his seat-mate hadn't even shifted position in two hours. That was fine with Gennady, who had spent the whole trip trying to pretend he wasn't there at all. The young American been a bit more active during the flight across the Atlantic: at least, his eyes had been open and Gennady could see coloured lights flickering across them from his augmented reality glasses. But he had exchanged less than twenty words with Gennady since they'd left Washington. In short, he'd been the ideal travelling companion. The other four passengers were stretching and groaning. Gennady poked Ambrose in the side and said, "Wake up. Welcome to the ninth biggest country in the world."

Part was relieved that he wouldn't be dealing with any IAEA or Russian nuclear staff in the near future. Truth to tell, stalking around the Kazaks grasslands was a lot more appealing than dealing with the political shit-storm that would hit when this all went public. But speaking of people... He glanced up at the hotel's one lighted window. With a grimace he pocketed his augmented reality glasses and went up to the room. Ambrose was sprawled on one of the narrow beds. He had the TV on and was watching a Siberian ski-adventure infomercial. "Well?" he said as Gennady sat on the other bed and dragged his shoes off. "Tour of secret Soviet anthrax factory. Tomorrow, after egg McMuffins."

After Gennady convinced him he would survive it, they parted outside La France, and Gennady watched him walk away, sneakers flapping. He shook his head and strolled back to the Tata. Five men were waiting for him. Two were policemen, and three wore business attire. One of these was an old, bald man in a faded olive-green suit. He wore augmented reality glasses, and there was a discrete red pin on his lapel in the shape of the old Soviet flag. Gennady made a show of pushing his own glasses back on his nose and walked forward, hand out. As the cops started to reach for their tasers, Gennady said, "Mr Egorov! Gennady Malianov, IAEA. You'll forgive me if I record and upload this conversation to headquarters?"


pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yochai Benkler

With people you like, in-person conversation is enjoyable and stimulating, and online collaboration loses something by contrast. Of course, this loss is gradually being offset by more expressive collaborative technologies—a tool such as Skype video chat is remarkably effective as a way to collaborate. Over the longer run ideas such as virtual worlds and augmented reality may even make online contact better than face-to-face contact. Still, today the online experience of direct person-to-person collaboration lacks much of the richness of offline collaboration. It’s tempting to conclude that online collaboration can’t be as good as offline. The trouble with this conclusion is that it ignores the problem of how you find the right person to work with in the first place.

In creative problem solving, it’s often better to have a terse twenty-minute text-only interaction with an expert who can solve your problem with ease, rather than weeks of enjoyable face-to-face discussion with someone whose knowledge is not much different than your own. And, in any case, you don’t have to make this choice. In practice, you can use relatively impersonal tools to find the right person or people for the problem at hand, and more expressive tools such as video chat, virtual worlds, and augmented reality to make working wit that person or people as effective as possible. To put it another way, the big advantages of online collaboration over offline conversation are in scale and cognitive diversity. Imagine that the people at ASSET India had gotten together a group to brainstorm ideas for wireless routers.

Imagine completely open source approaches to doing research. Imagine a connected online web of scientific knowledge that integrates and connects data, computer code, chains of scientific reasoning, descriptions of open problems, and beyond. That web of scientific knowledge could incorporate video, virtual worlds, and augmented reality, as well as more conventional media, such as papers. And it would be tightly integrated with a scientific social web that directs scientists’ attention where it is most valuable, releasing enormous collaborative potential. In part 2 of this book we’ll explore, in concrete terms, how the era of networked science is coming about today.


pages: 346 words: 97,890

The Road to Conscious Machines by Michael Wooldridge

Ada Lovelace, AI winter, algorithmic bias, Andrew Wiles, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, basic income, British Empire, call centre, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, DARPA: Urban Challenge, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, factory automation, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Loebner Prize, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, P = NP, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture

For example, one thing I am personally very bad at is recognizing people: it is a source of continual embarrassment that I meet people I know well but nevertheless struggle to recognize. A Google Glass application that could identify the people I’m looking at and discreetly remind me of their names would be wonderful. These types of applications are called augmented reality: they take the real world and overlay it with computer-generated information or images. But what about apps that do not augment reality but completely change it, in a way that is imperceptible to users? My son, Tom, is 13 years old at the time of writing. He is a big fan of J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings books, and the films that were made from them. Imagine a Google Glass app that altered his view of school so that his friends looked like elves, and his schoolteachers looked like orcs.

Automated translation tools are one example of an AI technology that was firmly in the realm of science fiction 20 years ago, which has become a practical, everyday reality within the past decade. Such tools have many limitations, but they are successfully used by millions of people across the globe every day. Within the next decade, we will see high-quality real-time spoken-word language translation, and augmented reality tools that will change the way we perceive, understand and relate to the world we live in. Driverless cars are a realistic prospect, and AI looks set to have transformative applications in healthcare, from which we will all stand to benefit: AI systems have proven to be better than people at recognizing abnormalities such as tumours on X-rays and ultrasound scans, and wearable technology, coupled with AI, has the potential to monitor our health on a continual basis, giving us advance warnings of heart disease, stress and even dementia.

A A* 77 À la recherche du temps perdu (Proust) 205–8 accountability 257 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) 87–8 adversarial machine learning 190 AF (Artificial Flight) parable 127–9, 243 agent-based AI 136–49 agent-based interfaces 147, 149 ‘Agents That Reduce Work and Information Overload’ (Maes) 147–8 AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) 41 AI – difficulty of 24–8 – ethical 246–62, 284, 285 – future of 7–8 – General 42, 53, 116, 119–20 – Golden Age of 47–88 – history of 5–7 – meaning of 2–4 – narrow 42 – origin of name 51–2 – strong 36–8, 41, 309–14 – symbolic 42–3, 44 – varieties of 36–8 – weak 36–8 AI winter 87–8 AI-complete problems 84 ‘Alchemy and AI’ (Dreyfus) 85 AlexNet 187 algorithmic bias 287–9, 292–3 alienation 274–7 allocative harm 287–8 AlphaFold 214 AlphaGo 196–9 AlphaGo Zero 199 AlphaZero 199–200 Alvey programme 100 Amazon 275–6 Apple Watch 218 Argo AI 232 arithmetic 24–6 Arkin, Ron 284 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) 87–8 Artificial Flight (AF) parable 127–9, 243 Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) 41 artificial intelligence see AI artificial languages 56 Asilomar principles 254–6 Asimov, Isaac 244–6 Atari 2600 games console 192–6, 327–8 augmented reality 296–7 automated diagnosis 220–1 automated translation 204–8 automation 265, 267–72 autonomous drones 282–4 Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Reports 231 autonomous vehicles see driverless cars autonomous weapons 281–7 autonomy levels 227–8 Autopilot 228–9 B backprop/backpropagation 182–3 backward chaining 94 Bayes nets 158 Bayes’ Theorem 155–8, 365–7 Bayesian networks 158 behavioural AI 132–7 beliefs 108–10 bias 172 black holes 213–14 Blade Runner 38 Blocks World 57–63, 126–7 blood diseases 94–8 board games 26, 75–6 Boole, George 107 brains 43, 306, 330–1 see also electronic brains branching factors 73 Breakout (video game) 193–5 Brooks, Rodney 125–9, 132, 134, 243 bugs 258 C Campaign to Stop Killer Robots 286 CaptionBot 201–4 Cardiogram 215 cars 27–8, 155, 223–35 certainty factors 97 ceteris paribus preferences 262 chain reactions 242–3 chatbots 36 checkers 75–7 chess 163–4, 199 Chinese room 311–14 choice under uncertainty 152–3 combinatorial explosion 74, 80–1 common values and norms 260 common-sense reasoning 121–3 see also reasoning COMPAS 280 complexity barrier 77–85 comprehension 38–41 computational complexity 77–85 computational effort 129 computers – decision making 23–4 – early developments 20 – as electronic brains 20–4 – intelligence 21–2 – programming 21–2 – reliability 23 – speed of 23 – tasks for 24–8 – unsolved problems 28 ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ (Turing) 32 confirmation bias 295 conscious machines 327–30 consciousness 305–10, 314–17, 331–4 consensus reality 296–8 consequentialist theories 249 contradictions 122–3 conventional warfare 286 credit assignment problem 173, 196 Criado Perez, Caroline 291–2 crime 277–81 Cruise Automation 232 curse of dimensionality 172 cutlery 261 Cybernetics (Wiener) 29 Cyc 114–21, 208 D DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) 87–8, 225–6 Dartmouth summer school 1955 50–2 decidable problems 78–9 decision problems 15–19 deduction 106 deep learning 168, 184–90, 208 DeepBlue 163–4 DeepFakes 297–8 DeepMind 167–8, 190–200, 220–1, 327–8 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 87–8, 225–6 dementia 219 DENDRAL 98 Dennett, Daniel 319–25 depth-first search 74–5 design stance 320–1 desktop computers 145 diagnosis 220–1 disengagements 231 diversity 290–3 ‘divide and conquer’ assumption 53–6, 128 Do-Much-More 35–6 dot-com bubble 148–9 Dreyfus, Hubert 85–6, 311 driverless cars 27–8, 155, 223–35 drones 282–4 Dunbar, Robin 317–19 Dunbar’s number 318 E ECAI (European Conference on AI) 209–10 electronic brains 20–4 see also computers ELIZA 32–4, 36, 63 employment 264–77 ENIAC 20 Entscheidungsproblem 15–19 epiphenomenalism 316 error correction procedures 180 ethical AI 246–62, 284, 285 European Conference on AI (ECAI) 209–10 evolutionary development 331–3 evolutionary theory 316 exclusive OR (XOR) 180 expected utility 153 expert systems 89–94, 123 see also Cyc; DENDRAL; MYCIN; R1/XCON eye scans 220–1 F Facebook 237 facial recognition 27 fake AI 298–301 fake news 293–8 fake pictures of people 214 Fantasia 261 feature extraction 171–2 feedback 172–3 Ferranti Mark 1 20 Fifth Generation Computer Systems Project 113–14 first-order logic 107 Ford 232 forward chaining 94 Frey, Carl 268–70 ‘The Future of Employment’ (Frey & Osborne) 268–70 G game theory 161–2 game-playing 26 Gangs Matrix 280 gender stereotypes 292–3 General AI 41, 53, 116, 119–20 General Motors 232 Genghis robot 134–6 gig economy 275 globalization 267 Go 73–4, 196–9 Golden Age of AI 47–88 Google 167, 231, 256–7 Google Glass 296–7 Google Translate 205–8, 292–3 GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) 187–8 gradient descent 183 Grand Challenges 2004/5 225–6 graphical user interfaces (GUI) 144–5 Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) 187–8 GUI (graphical user interfaces) 144–5 H hard problem of consciousness 314–17 hard problems 84, 86–7 Harm Assessment Risk Tool (HART) 277–80 Hawking, Stephen 238 healthcare 215–23 Herschel, John 304–6 Herzberg, Elaine 230 heuristic search 75–7, 164 heuristics 91 higher-order intentional reasoning 323–4, 328 high-level programming languages 144 Hilbert, David 15–16 Hinton, Geoff 185–6, 221 HOMER 141–3, 146 homunculus problem 315 human brain 43, 306, 330–1 human intuition 311 human judgement 222 human rights 277–81 human-level intelligence 28–36, 241–3 ‘humans are special’ argument 310–11 I image classification 186–7 image-captioning 200–4 ImageNet 186–7 Imitation Game 30 In Search of Lost Time (Proust) 205–8 incentives 261 indistinguishability 30–1, 37, 38 Industrial Revolutions 265–7 inference engines 92–4 insurance 219–20 intelligence 21–2, 127–8, 200 – human-level 28–36, 241–3 ‘Intelligence Without Representation’ (Brooks) 129 Intelligent Knowledge-Based Systems 100 intentional reasoning 323–4, 328 intentional stance 321–7 intentional systems 321–2 internal mental phenomena 306–7 Internet chatbots 36 intuition 311 inverse reinforcement learning 262 Invisible Women (Criado Perez) 291–2 J Japan 113–14 judgement 222 K Kasparov, Garry 163 knowledge bases 92–4 knowledge elicitation problem 123 knowledge graph 120–1 Knowledge Navigator 146–7 knowledge representation 91, 104, 129–30, 208 knowledge-based AI 89–123, 208 Kurzweil, Ray 239–40 L Lee Sedol 197–8 leisure 272 Lenat, Doug 114–21 lethal autonomous weapons 281–7 Lighthill Report 87–8 LISP 49, 99 Loebner Prize Competition 34–6 logic 104–7, 121–2 logic programming 111–14 logic-based AI 107–11, 130–2 M Mac computers 144–6 McCarthy, John 49–52, 107–8, 326–7 machine learning (ML) 27, 54–5, 168–74, 209–10, 287–9 machines with mental states 326–7 Macintosh computers 144–6 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 306 male-orientation 290–3 Manchester Baby computer 20, 24–6, 143–4 Manhattan Project 51 Marx, Karl 274–6 maximizing expected utility 154 Mercedes 231 Mickey Mouse 261 microprocessors 267–8, 271–2 military drones 282–4 mind modelling 42 mind-body problem 314–17 see also consciousness minimax search 76 mining industry 234 Minsky, Marvin 34, 52, 180 ML (machine learning) 27, 54–5, 168–74, 209–10, 287–9 Montezuma’s Revenge (video game) 195–6 Moore’s law 240 Moorfields Eye Hospital 220–1 moral agency 257–8 Moral Machines 251–3 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) 306 multi-agent systems 160–2 multi-layer perceptrons 177, 180, 182 Musk, Elon 238 MYCIN 94–8, 217 N Nagel, Thomas 307–10 narrow AI 42 Nash, John Forbes Jr 50–1, 161 Nash equilibrium 161–2 natural languages 56 negative feedback 173 neural nets/neural networks 44, 168, 173–90, 369–72 neurons 174 Newell, Alan 52–3 norms 260 NP-complete problems 81–5, 164–5 nuclear energy 242–3 nuclear fusion 305 O ontological engineering 117 Osborne, Michael 268–70 P P vs NP problem 83 paperclips 261 Papert, Seymour 180 Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) 182–4 Pepper 299 perception 54 perceptron models 174–81, 183 Perceptrons (Minsky & Papert) 180–1, 210 personal healthcare management 217–20 perverse instantiation 260–1 Phaedrus 315 physical stance 319–20 Plato 315 police 277–80 Pratt, Vaughan 117–19 preference relations 151 preferences 150–2, 154 privacy 219 problem solving and planning 55–6, 66–77, 128 programming 21–2 programming languages 144 PROLOG 112–14, 363–4 PROMETHEUS 224–5 protein folding 214 Proust, Marcel 205–8 Q qualia 306–7 QuickSort 26 R R1/XCON 98–9 radiology 215, 221 railway networks 259 RAND Corporation 51 rational decision making 150–5 reasoning 55–6, 121–3, 128–30, 137, 315–16, 323–4, 328 regulation of AI 243 reinforcement learning 172–3, 193, 195, 262 representation harm 288 responsibility 257–8 rewards 172–3, 196 robots – as autonomous weapons 284–5 – Baye’s theorem 157 – beliefs 108–10 – fake 299–300 – indistinguishability 38 – intentional stance 326–7 – SHAKEY 63–6 – Sophia 299–300 – Three Laws of Robotics 244–6 – trivial tasks 61 – vacuum cleaning 132–6 Rosenblatt, Frank 174–81 rules 91–2, 104, 359–62 Russia 261 Rutherford, Ernest (1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson) 242 S Sally-Anne tests 328–9, 330 Samuel, Arthur 75–7 SAT solvers 164–5 Saudi Arabia 299–300 scripts 100–2 search 26, 68–77, 164, 199 search trees 70–1 Searle, John 311–14 self-awareness 41, 305 see also consciousness semantic nets 102 sensors 54 SHAKEY the robot 63–6 SHRDLU 56–63 Simon, Herb 52–3, 86 the Singularity 239–43 The Singularity is Near (Kurzweil) 239 Siri 149, 298 Smith, Matt 201–4 smoking 173 social brain 317–19 see also brains social media 293–6 social reasoning 323, 324–5 social welfare 249 software agents 143–9 software bugs 258 Sophia 299–300 sorting 26 spoken word translation 27 STANLEY 226 STRIPS 65 strong AI 36–8, 41, 309–14 subsumption architecture 132–6 subsumption hierarchy 134 sun 304 supervised learning 169 syllogisms 105, 106 symbolic AI 42–3, 44, 181 synapses 174 Szilard, Leo 242 T tablet computers 146 team-building problem 78–81, 83 Terminator narrative of AI 237–9 Tesla 228–9 text recognition 169–71 Theory of Mind (ToM) 330 Three Laws of Robotics 244–6 TIMIT 292 ToM (Theory of Mind) 330 ToMnet 330 TouringMachines 139–41 Towers of Hanoi 67–72 training data 169–72, 288–9, 292 translation 204–8 transparency 258 travelling salesman problem 82–3 Trolley Problem 246–53 Trump, Donald 294 Turing, Alan 14–15, 17–19, 20, 24–6, 77–8 Turing Machines 18–19, 21 Turing test 29–38 U Uber 168, 230 uncertainty 97–8, 155–8 undecidable problems 19, 78 understanding 201–4, 312–14 unemployment 264–77 unintended consequences 263 universal basic income 272–3 Universal Turing Machines 18, 19 Upanishads 315 Urban Challenge 2007 226–7 utilitarianism 249 utilities 151–4 utopians 271 V vacuum cleaning robots 132–6 values and norms 260 video games 192–6, 327–8 virtue ethics 250 Von Neumann and Morgenstern model 150–5 Von Neumann architecture 20 W warfare 285–6 WARPLAN 113 Waymo 231, 232–3 weak AI 36–8 weapons 281–7 wearable technology 217–20 web search 148–9 Weizenbaum, Joseph 32–4 Winograd schemas 39–40 working memory 92 X XOR (exclusive OR) 180 Z Z3 computer 19–20 PELICAN BOOKS Economics: The User’s Guide Ha-Joon Chang Human Evolution Robin Dunbar Revolutionary Russia: 1891–1991 Orlando Figes The Domesticated Brain Bruce Hood Greek and Roman Political Ideas Melissa Lane Classical Literature Richard Jenkyns Who Governs Britain?


pages: 350 words: 107,834

Halting State by Charles Stross

augmented reality, Boris Johnson, call centre, forensic accounting, game design, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, lifelogging, Necker cube, Potemkin village, RFID, Schrödinger's Cat, Vernor Vinge, zero day

She has a key to the handcuffs, for which you are duly grateful, but she wants you to put your phone away, and that’s surprisingly difficult, because Sophie keeps going on about something to do with your oldest niece’s birthday and Confirmation—hubby Bill wants Elsie and Mary to have a traditional upbringing—and you keep agreeing with her because will you please put the phone down, a Dutch cop is trying to arrest me isn’t a standard way to break off this kind of scenario. (If only families came with safewords, like any other kind of augmented-reality game.) Things are stuck at this point for a tense few seconds as you mug furiously at the officer, until she raises one index finger, then unlocks the handcuff from around the pole, twists your arm around the small of your back, wheechs the mobie out of your grasp, and has your wrists pinioned before you can say “hasta la vista.”

You glance to your left, out to the north, where a green diamond is orbiting above the Kingdom of Fife. A quick zoom shows you that it’s real, a lumbering wide-body airliner in military grey, the knobbly outlines of high-bandwidth antennae studding its flanks like barnacles on a whale. Or at least, these goggles have been programmed to think it’s real. Once you accept someone else’s augmented reality, there’s really no telling, is there? For all you and Liz can tell until you’re plugged back into the comforting panopticon of CopSpace, this might just be some kind of elaborate live-action role-playing game. The convoy is past the gyratory and heading towards Queensferry Road way too fast, probably racking up speeding tickets at a rate best measured in euros per second.

The superposition of quantum states? Michaels has put my niece in a box, and I’d rather not know for the time being who’s more ruthless—the other side, or the bastards we’re working for.” Because Team Red might have done something, like Barry says, or Barry’s cell might be running a really nasty Augmented Reality game against you to secure your co-operation. And neither possibility is pleasant to contemplate. “I pointed Inspector Kavanaugh at it. Hopefully, she’ll tell me to stop wasting police time.” Or maybe she’ll find out who’s pushing your buttons—whether it’s Team Red or Michaels. Elaine lets go of your hand.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, disinformation, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, you are the product, Zipcar

When we rate an Uber driver, who doesn’t technically work for Uber, we are, in essence, rating him as an individual, adjudicating his personal value to us. Robert Moran, head of the Brunswick Group, a communications consultancy, sees what he calls the “rateocracy” as an opportunity for transparency, when good corporations and citizens will be rewarded for acting ethically and in others’ best interests. It will be integrated with augmented reality apps, so that you can activate your Google Glass or pull out your smartphone and see ratings for people, businesses, and places all around you. Facial recognition will likely play a role: imagine being able to access information—social-media profiles, Google searches, biographical information, ratings from friends, colleagues, lovers—on anyone you see, without even talking to them.

Facebook and Twitter might be gone in ten years, to be replaced by whatever other platform emerges. Or, as seems likely in the case of Google, they might become more deeply insinuated in our lives, especially as Google’s social layer and its forays into wearable computing and physical-world tracking and advertising seem destined to turn all of reality into its own proprietary, augmented reality. Given Silicon Valley’s cult of disruption, it’s likely that future innovations in digital communication and broadcasting will be seen as just as revolutionary as the advent of social media. The tech industry is expert in nothing if not its own self-mythologizing. This image of perpetual upheaval, of boom-and-bust as both cyclical and salutary, doesn’t help the industry in checking its practices or thinking long-term.

It’s the irresistible compulsion to pull out your phone in the middle of a conversation to confirm some point of fact, because it’s intolerable not to know right now. It’s the smartphone as a salve for loneliness amid the crowd. It’s the “second screen” habit, in which we watch TV while playing games on our iPhone, tweeting about what we’re seeing, or looking up an actor on IMDB. It’s Google Glass and the whole idea of augmented reality, a second screen over your entire life. It’s the phenomenon of continuous partial attention, our focus split among various inputs because to concentrate on one would reduce our bandwidth, making us less knowledgable citizens. The informational appetite, then, is a cultural and metaphysical attitude as much as it is a business and technological ethic.


pages: 301 words: 89,076

The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, robotic process automation, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

This is the future vision of Stephane Kasriel, the Frenchman who runs Upwork.com.13 As it turns out, the kid-stuff technologies that have been revolutionary in the video-gaming world are about to have revolutionary impact on the world of telecommuting. The two key technologies are augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Many companies, both start-ups and giants like IBM, are in the process of using AR and VR to improve remote collaboration. They are redefining what it means to work side by side. Augmented Reality The big selling point of AR is that it allows an expert sitting somewhere else to “augment” the reality you are looking at through a video screen on your phone, tablet, or laptop.

This international talent tidal wave is coming straight for the good, stable jobs that have been the foundation of middle-class prosperity in the US and Europe, and other high-wage economies. Of course, the internet works both ways, so the most competitive rich-nation professionals will find more opportunities, but for the least competitive, it is just more wage competition. Second, telecom breakthroughs—like telepresence and augmented reality—are making remote workers seem less remote. Widespread shifts in work practices (toward flexible teams) and adoption of innovative collaborative software platforms (like Slack, Asana, and Microsoft 365), are helping to turn telemigration into tele-mass-migration. And there is more. This new competition from “remote intelligence” (RI) is being piled on to service-sector workers at the same time as they are facing new competition from artificial intelligence (AI).


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Tools and Weapons: The Promise and the Peril of the Digital Age by Brad Smith, Carol Ann Browne

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, call centre, Celtic Tiger, chief data officer, cloud computing, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, immigration reform, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, national security letter, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school vouchers, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

As I stood next to Cindy Rose, the CEO of our UK business, we both held our breath a bit as we watched a young apprentice place a HoloLens headset on the prime minister’s head. We exhaled when the prime minister moved briskly through an augmented-reality demonstration of how the device could be used to identify faults in sophisticated machinery. (As it turned out, the HoloLens was far easier to master than devising a negotiating strategy for Brexit.) After the demo, Prime Minister May took off the headset and turned to our apprentice to ask him about his job. He replied proudly, “I’m an envisioning adviser. I help customers envision how they can take new technology like augmented reality and use it inside their company.” “An envisioning adviser,” the prime minister repeated.

The carrier had more than four thousand computers running our Windows server operating system, powering a wide variety of the ship’s functions. But to many people, AI-based systems understandably fall into a different category from this type of platform technology. We recognized that new technology raised a new generation of complicated issues, and as we considered a potential contract to provide augmented reality technology and our HoloLens devices to soldiers in the US Army, we talked through what we should do. In contrast to Google, we concluded that it was important for us to continue to provide our best technology to the US military as well as to other allied governments where we are confident in democratic processes and fundamental sensitivities around human rights.

“An envisioning adviser,” the prime minister repeated. “That’s a job I’ve never heard of.” There will be many new jobs with new names that are unfamiliar to us today. Our friends—or our children’s friends—will turn up at parties and describe their roles as facial-recognition specialists, augmented-reality-based architects, and IoT data analysts. As was the case for generations past, there will be days when we feel the need for an updated dictionary to understand what people are describing. Ultimately everyone would like a precise prediction about these new jobs. But unfortunately, the future, like the past, is messy.


pages: 165 words: 45,397

Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming by Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby

3D printing, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate governance, David Attenborough, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, life extension, Mark Zuckerberg, mouse model, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social software, technoutopianism, Wall-E

As literary fictional worlds are built from words there are some rather special possibilities that can be explored by pushing language's relationship to logic to the limit, a bit like the literary equivalent of an Escher drawing. A recent example of this is How to Live Safely in a Science Fictional Universe (2010) by Charles Yu. Here, fictional worlds provide opportunities to play with the very idea of fiction itself. Yu's world is a fusion of game design, digital media, VFX, and augmented reality. Set in Minor Universe 31, a vast story-space on the outskirts of fiction, the protagonist Yu is a time travel technician living in TM-31, his time machine. His job is to rescue and prevent people from falling victim to various time travel paradoxes. How to Live Safely in a Science Fictional Universe feels like conceptual science fiction: the story unfolds through constant interactions, collisions, and fusions among real reality, imagined reality, simulated reality, remembered reality, and fictional reality.

The video shows the world seen through a prosthetic device for people with reduced vision. Rather than simply replacing what has been lost, the proposal suggests technology could be used to enhance our vision, letting the wearer see parts of the light spectrum beyond human capability, infrared and ultra violet, for example. It is also possible to see augmented reality superimposed directly onto reality rather than in a hand-held device. Chris Foss, The Grain Kings, 1976. © chrisfossart.com. Nonobject (Branko Lukic), nUCLEUS Motorcycle, 2004. Superflux (Anab Jain and Jon Arden), Song of the Machine, The Film, 2011. After film, advertising is possibly the area in which CGI techniques are most used but usually to create obviously impossible situations that are uninteresting or escapist fantasies.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

My children have all gotten into the game. Billy works with me at Draper Associates; Jesse runs Halogen Ventures, the first venture fund dedicated to funding only women; and Adam runs Boost, the leading accelerator for advanced technologies, starting with Bitcoin/Blockchain, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality (VR/AR), and moving to anything that gets us closer to having commercially available Ironman suits. My youngest daughter, Eleanor, is the first employee at a startup called Bulletin that segments retail space for artisans who want to become entrepreneurs. If I were to do it all over again, I would.

Figure out a better way to educate people. Reimagine space travel. How can we get to another planet? Reimagine insurance, real estate, concerts or eyeglasses. Go to basic principles. Why does insurance exist? How would a virtual concert work? Should eyeglasses or contacts also be programmable for an augmented reality experience and for zoom and focus? Use awareness of your surroundings to brainstorm new ideas for potentially heroic startups. Here is an example that is a little yucky, but it makes the point. I went to the bathroom and only saw blood in the toilet. I went to my friend and internist Dr.

The people of the world will have access to global information, global governance, global currency and global markets. They will be mobile and less tied to any single geographic region. And now for my wilder predictions: People will be traveling in autonomous vehicles and communicating through virtual (or augmented) reality. They will be living very long lives, while cures for cancer and the aging gene are discovered. Their health will be monitored by sensors designed into their clothes, which will be optically programmable to the owner’s tastes to match what is required for any occasion. Education will be a competitive, accountable industry, where teachers are regularly ranked with the best becoming enormous media celebrities and the worst no longer teaching.


pages: 359 words: 96,019

How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional

BuzzFeed, January 27, 2014. https://www.buzzfeed.com/jwherrman/meet-the-unlikely-academic-behind-snapchats-new-pitch?utm_term=.njpqz3oO87#.suoBzJA67M Jurgenson, Nathan. “Pics and It Didn’t Happen.” New Inquiry, February 7, 2013. https://thenewinquiry.com/pics-and-it-didnt-happen/ ________. “Digital Dualism versus Augmented Reality.” Cyborgology, February 24, 2011. https://thesocietypages.org/cyborgology/2011/02/24/digital-dualism-versus-augmented-reality/ Levy, Steven. “Snapchat’s Non-Vanishing Message: You Can Trust Us.” Backchannel, April 2, 2015. https://medium.com/backchannel/snapchat-s-non-vanishing-message-you-can-trust-us-6606e6774b8b Morris, Betsy and Seetharaman, Deepa.

Taco Bell’s team worked with Snapchat for six weeks to create a sponsored lens for Cinco de Mayo that turned users’ heads into a giant taco shell. The lens was viewed 224 million times in a single day. Users played with the lens on average for 24 seconds, adding up to 12.5 years’ worth of unique play over the course of the day. Augmented reality has long been a nerd’s utopian dream. It would have been hard to predict even just a few years ago that AR’s first big break would be teenagers vomiting rainbows, wearing dog ears, and turning themselves into taco shells with Taco Bell stamped on them. If Evan’s biggest bet yet pays off, Snapchat will own the future of AR too.


pages: 372 words: 100,947

An Ugly Truth: Inside Facebook's Battle for Domination by Sheera Frenkel, Cecilia Kang

affirmative action, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, immigration reform, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, QAnon, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Sam Altman, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social web, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, surveillance capitalism, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

Zuckerberg would kick things off with a boozy dinner catered by one of his favorite Palo Alto restaurants. At the daytime sessions, executives gave exuberant presentations, with charts showing hockey stick growth in revenue and users. They showcased audacious plans for products in artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, and blockchain currency. The group hashed out the biggest problems facing Facebook and discussed ways to beat back competition. The forty or so executives had gotten to know one another well over the years, working through Facebook’s painful transition to mobile, its rocky IPO, and its race for the first billion and then the second billion users.

During the pandemic, users were on the site more than ever—2.6 billion people used one of Facebook’s three apps every day—and advertisers were clamoring to reach them. By the time you read this book, Facebook could look very different. Zuckerberg may step away from the job of CEO to spend more time on his philanthropic endeavors. The way people connect on Facebook may not be on a phone but on some other device, like augmented reality headsets. The company’s most popular utility may not be status updates and shares, but something like blockchain payments for retail goods or the production and distribution of blockbuster entertainment. With $55 billion in cash reserves, the company has endless options to buy or innovate its way into new lines of business, as Google has with autonomous vehicles and Apple with health devices.

In a quest to break into the lucrative field of corporate communications software, in late November, Facebook bought Kustomer for $1 billion. The popularity of the Zoom tool during the pandemic had rankled, and Zuckerberg challenged employees to come up with a videoconferencing rival. He directed more engineering resources to expand functions on virtual reality and augmented reality headsets, which he described as the new frontier for how people would communicate in the future. The company was also toying with publishing tools for users, fifteen years after the Washington Post’s Donald Graham offered to buy a stake in the tech start-up. And despite pressure from regulators, Zuckerberg was committed to developing its Libra blockchain currency project, which it rebranded as “Diem.”4 Throughout Facebook’s seventeen-year history, the social network’s massive gains have repeatedly come at the expense of consumer privacy and safety and the integrity of democratic systems.


pages: 418 words: 102,597

Being You: A New Science of Consciousness by Anil Seth

artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, backpropagation, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, computer vision, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, John Markoff, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, speech recognition, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Turing test

Starting from my office, if you go up two flights of stairs and wend your way through the bowels of the old chemistry department, you’ll find one of our makeshift laboratory spaces – its location and purpose revealed by a piece of paper stuck to the door with blu-tack: ‘VR/AR lab’. Here, we use the rapidly developing technologies of virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) to investigate the perception of the world and of the self in ways otherwise not possible. A few years ago, we decided to build a ‘hallucination machine’ to see whether we could generate hallucination-like experiences in an experimentally controllable way, by simulating overactive perceptual priors.

Only later, at dinner, did it occur to me to wonder how odd it must also have been for my partner to be suddenly transported into the first-person perspective of a mixed-race English neuroscientist with boring shoes. — I find it fascinating that these familiar and easily taken-for-granted aspects of selfhood – subjective body ownership and the first-person perspective – can be so readily manipulated, whether with fake hands and paintbrushes or with the new technologies of virtual and augmented reality. However, there are limits to how far these manipulations can go. As I mentioned earlier, the typical experience in the rubber hand illusion is of somehow feeling the fake hand to be part of one’s body, while clearly knowing that it isn’t. And this ‘typical’ experience varies considerably from person to person, with many people not feeling much at all.

, 1, 2, 3, 4 information processing, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 insects, 1 instantiation, 1, 2 intelligence: artificial, see AI; birds, 1; consciousness and, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (Fig. 21), 6, 7, 8, 9; measuring, 1; octopus, 1, 2 intention(s): awareness of, 1; conscious, 1, 2, 3, 4; intentional inhibition, 1; perception of others’, 1; selfhood, 1, 2; urges and, 1 interoception, 1, 2, 3 interoceptive: inference, 1, 2; predictions, 1, 2, 3, 4; sensory signals, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5n Ishiguro, Hiroshi, 1 (Fig. 22), 2 Jain, Ramesh, 1n James, William, 1, 2 Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1 Kanai, Ryota, 1n Kandel, Eric, 1, 2 Kant, Immanuel, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Kelvin, Lord, 1 Kim, Chang-Sub, 1 Koch, Christof, 1, 2 Kuhn, Thomas, 1 Kurzweil, Ray, 1 La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, 1, 2, 3 Lakatos, Imre, 1 Lange, Carl, 1 language, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Laplace, Pierre-Simon, 1 learning, 1 Leary, Timothy, 1 Libet, Benjamin, 1 (Fig. 19), 2 life, scientific understanding of, 1 living systems: free energy principle (FEP), 1, 2; properties, 1, 2; self-maintenance, 1 Locke, John, 1 locked-in syndrome, 1, 2n, 3 Loew ben Bezalel, Rabbi Judah, 1 LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), 1, 2 Lush, Peter, 1 LZW complexity (Lempel-Ziv-Welch complexity), 1, 2, 3, 4 McEwan, Ian, 1, 2 McGinn, Colin, 1 McGregor, Simon, 1 Mach, Ernst, 1, 2 (Fig. 16) Magritte, René, 1 (Fig. 13) Mariola, Alberto, 1 Markov blanket, 1, 2 Marr, David, 1 Masood, Daanish, 1 Massimini, Marcello, 1, 2, 3 materialism, 1; eliminative, 1 measurement, 1, 2 Mediano, Pedro, 1 MEG (magnetoencephalography), 1 memories: amnesia, 1; ‘being a self’, 1, 2, 3; being you, 1; early, 1; selfhood, 1, 2, 3, 4 metacognition, 1, 2, 3 Metzinger, Thomas, 1, 2 minimally conscious state, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Monet, Claude, 1, 2 monkeys, 1, 2 Monti, Martin, 1 moods: aspects of embodied selfhood, 1, 2; control-oriented perceptions, 1, 2, 3; interoceptive inference, 1; perception, 1 Mooney image, 1 (Fig. 6), 2 (Fig. 7) Mori, Masahiro, 1 Müller, Johannes, 1 Muotri, Alysson, 1 Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh, 1 mysterianism, 1 Nagel, Thomas, 1 NCC (neural correlates of consciousness), 1, 2, 3, 4 neurons: awareness of, 1; bottom-up view of perception, 1; cerebellum, 1, 2; cerebral cortex, 1, 2; ‘cerebral organoids’, 1; connections, 1, 2n; degree of activity, 1; IIT implications, 1; information and integration, 1, 2; maximally random activity, 1; measurement of activity, 1n; ‘mirror’, 1; network, 1; number, 1n, 2, 3, 4; octopus, 1, 2; serotonin system, 1 neurophenomenology, 1, 2 Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, 1, 2 objecthood, 1, 2, 3 octopus: brains, 1; camouflage, 1; consciousness, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; intelligence, 1, 2; nervous system, 1; perception, 1, 2; research, 1, 2; RNA sequences, 1 optogenetics, 1 out-of-body experiences (OBEs), 1, 2 ‘out-of-body-like’ experiences, 1, 2, 3, 4 Owen, Adrian, 1 pain, 1, 2, 3, 4 panpsychism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 pareidolia, 1 (Fig. 11) Pasteur, Louis, 1 PCI (perturbational complexity index), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Penfield, Wilder, 1 perception: accurate (veridical), 1, 2; action and, 1, 2; of bodily changes, 1; as bottom-up feature detection, 1 (Fig. 3), 2; of change, 1 (Fig. 15), 2; 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controlling interior of body, 1; experience of change, 1, 2, 3; experience of the-self-as-really-existing, 1; finding out things, 1, 2; first-person perspective, 1; Helmholtz’s work, 1; Impressionist landscapes, 1; improving, 1; mental states of other people, 1; seeming-to-be, 1; volition and, 1, 2 Petzschner, Frederike, 1 phantom limb syndrome, 1, 2 phenomenological: aspects of vision, 1, 2; character of any specific conscious experience, 1; character of ‘being real’, 1, 2, 3; control, 1; properties of conscious perception, 1, 2; properties of consciousness, 1, 2, 3, 4 phenomenology: of alternative possibilities, 1; of being real, 1; ‘computational’, 1; of all conscious experiences, 1; of emotions and moods, 1, 2; experiences of ‘being a self’, 1; and free energy principle (FEP), 1; of hallucination, 1; ‘hard problem of consciousness’, 1, 2; Nagel’s approach, 1; of normal conscious perception, 1; of objecthood, 1, 2, 3, 4; perceptual, 1; properties of, 1; ‘redness’, 1; subjective properties of conscious experience, 1; ‘synthetic’, 1; of volition, 1, 2 physicalism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Picasso, Pablo, 1 Pinto, Yair, 1 Pissarro, Camille, 1, 2 Plato, 1 Popper, Karl, 1 Powers, William, 1 prediction(s): active inference, 1; ‘best guesses’, 1, 2; bottom-up, 1, 2; brain-based, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; brain as prediction machine, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; conditional, 1, 2, 3n, 4, 5, 6; controlled hallucination view, 1, 2, 3; error minimisation, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; errors, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; of IIT, 1, 2; influence on perception, 1, 2; interoceptive, 1, 2, 3, 4; neurally encoded, 1; perceptual, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13; predictive control, 1; proprioceptive, 1; sensorimotor, 1; sensory prediction error, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; temperature control, 1; top-down, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 predictive processing: active inference, 1, 2; minimising sensory prediction error, 1, 2; relationship to free energy principle (FEP), 1, 2, 3; robot control, 1; term, 1; theory, 1, 2, 3 Price, Richard, 1 probability distribution, 1 (Figs. 8, 9), 2 proprioception, 1, 2, 3n psychedelia, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 qualia, 1, 2 readiness potential, 1, 2 reality: hallucinations and, 1, 2; instantiation, 1; mind-independent, 1, 2, 3; objective, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; perception of, 1, 2, 3; physiological, 1; self-unreality, 1; source of, 1; substitutional, 1; virtual, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Riegl, Alois, 1 Robbins, Apollo, 1 robots: attitudes to, 1, 2; consciousness issue, 1, 2; Geminoids, 1; Turing test, 1 Roseboom, Warrick, 1 rubber hand illusion, 1 (Fig. 17), 2, 3, 4 Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, 1, 2 Sacks, Oliver, 1, 2 Schartner, Michael, 1, 2 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1 Schurger, Aaron, 1 Science, 1, 2, 3 Scott, Ridley, 1, 2 sea squirt, 1n self: conception of, 1, 2, 3; conscious, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; embodied, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; experience of ‘being a self’, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ‘mirror self-recognition’, 1; narrative, 1, 2, 3; personal identity, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; perspectival, 1, 2 (Fig. 16), 3; social, 1, 2, 3, 4; subjective stability of the, 1, 2; volitional, 1, 2 self-change-blindness, 1, 2, 3 self-maintenance, 1 selfhood: Bayesian best guesses, 1, 2; beast machine view of, 1, 2, 3; being-a-self, 1, 2; change blindness, 1, 2; conscious, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; ‘ego dissolution’, 1; embodied, 1, 2, 3, 4; essence of, 1, 2; experiences of, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; experiences of unified, 1; experiences of volition, 1, 2; first-person perspective, 1, 2; ‘free will’, 1; layers of, 1, 2, 3; levels of, 1, 2, 3; memory, 1; monkeys, 1, 2; robot, 1; self-awareness, 1; social, 1; subjective body ownership, 1, 2 sensory prediction error, minimisation of, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Shannon, Claude, 1 Sherman, Maxine, 1 Shugg, Wallace, 1 Simons, Daniel, 1 simulation, 1, 2, 3 ‘sine wave speech’, 1, 2 ‘Singularity’ hypothesis, 1 (Fig. 21), 2, 3 Slater, Mel, 1 sleep: dreamless, 1, 2, 3, 4; early, 1; lack of, 1; mammalian brain activity, 1; REM (rapid eye movement), 1, 2; waking from, 1, 2; see also dreaming somatoparaphrenia, 1, 2 souls, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 split brain, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Strawson, Galen, 1 Sussex University, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Sutherland, Stuart, 1 Suzuki, Keisuke, 1, 2, 3 synaesthesia, grapheme-colour, 1 teletransportation, 1, 2, 3, 4 Terminator (film), 1 time: entropy, 1; perception of, 1, 2, 3; ‘self-change-blindness’, 1, 2 TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), 1, 2 Tononi, Giulio, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Turing test, 1, 2, 3 twins, craniopagus, 1 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 1, 2 ‘uncanny valley’, 1, 2 vegetative state: communication with patient, 1, 2; level of consciousness, 1, 2, 3, 4; measuring consciousness, 1, 2, 3, 4; recovery from, 1 Vienna Circle, 1 virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), 1, 2, 3 virtual body swapping, 1 virtual objects, 1 (Fig. 14) virtual reality (VR), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 vitalism, 1, 2, 3, 4 volition, 1, 2; brain basis of, 1, 2, 3; experiences of, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; experiment, 1 (Fig. 19); phenomenology of, 1 wakefulness (arousal), 1, 2 (Fig. 1), 3, 4 Waller, Bruce, 1n, 2 Wearing, Clive, 1 Wearing, Deborah, 1 Wegner, Daniel, 1 Westworld (TV series), 1 Wheeler, John, 1 Whitman, Charles, 1 Wiener, Norbert, 1, 2 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1, 2, 3, 4 xenomelia, 1, 2 ‘zap and zip’ approach, 1 zombie thought experiment, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 About the Author Anil Seth is a leading British researcher in the field of consciousness science.


pages: 499 words: 144,278

Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, backpropagation, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, disinformation, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hockey-stick growth, HyperCard, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WeWork, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

What really intrigued him now, though, was less websites than the newest coding frontier, the iPhone. It was a comparatively new field, ready for someone to figure out the question: What was this gizmo good for? Krieger plunged in and, much as he had with Thunderbird, tinkered with the platform, reading others’ code, figuring out what worked, building little experiments. One was an augmented-reality app, where you could look through the camera and it would show you information about the world around you. “It’d show you an overlay of what crimes had happened around you, on your phone. So it was actually pretty terrifying,” he says. “ ‘There was an arson ten feet away!’ ” One night at a San Francisco coffee shop he ran into Kevin Systrom, a former fellow student from Stanford.

Houston introduced me to an employee he regarded as one of his highly productive coders: Ben Newhouse, a 28-year-old who was at the time an engineering lead for the firm. (He later left to head back into entrepreneurship.) Newhouse had—like Houston—created some valuable code while still a student: As a 21-year-old Stanford undergraduate, he created one of the first augmented-reality apps for the iPhone. He was interning at Yelp when he realized he could use the compass and GPS sensors inside the iPhone to make the screen respond to the world around it. After a spree of coding, fueled by a case of Red Bull and—you could probably see this coming—a sleepless night, he’d built a feature that let you hold up your iPhone and see Yelp reviews for nearby businesses floating in the air around you.

That’s because the monoculture of tech affects the type of products that get made. When you have a homogenous cohort of people making software and hardware, they tend to produce work that works great for them—but can be useless, or even a disaster for people in other walks of life. Consider the engineers at the VR firm Magic Leap, who excitedly developed their augmented-reality headset only to be told by women on staff that it was wildly uncomfortable for many women, since ponytails interfered with the headband, and the device required you to holster a small computer on your belt, which many women don’t wear. (The engineers appear to have ignored this input: “None of the proposed changes were made to the design,” as a lawsuit alleged.)


pages: 427 words: 112,549

Freedom by Daniel Suarez

augmented reality, big-box store, British Empire, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, corporate personhood, digital map, game design, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, RFID, Shenzhen special economic zone , special economic zone, speech recognition, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the scientific method, young professional

Her mind never missed details. She recalled the moments just before the attack. Merritt had come to her lab to bring captured Daemon equipment from Sao Paulo, Brazil. He'd brought her sports glasses--glasses that were actually a sophisticated heads-up display (or HUD) able to see into a virtual dimension. An augmented reality the Daemon had overlaid on the GPS grid. Sports glasses were the user interface to the Daemon. She turned to look back at the woman, who was moving slowly but deliberately through the crowd as though searching for something. Philips turned to follow her but passed another mourner, a middle-aged man in a black suit, wearing similar glasses.

Coming from a software construct that had already orchestrated the deaths of thousands of people, it was a charge Sebeck didn't take lightly--and one he had no idea how to accomplish. Each day he followed the Thread--a glowing blue line that existed in a private virtual dimension Daemon operatives called D-Space, which was visually overlaid on the GPS grid. It was an augmented reality, whose 3-D objects were only visible through HUD glasses the Daemon had provided for him. For weeks now the Thread had led Sebeck through the American Southwest, and finally up onto this hillside in the New Mexico desert. Wherever he was going, it seemed he was about to arrive. Just then Sebeck heard labored breathing on the path below him.

All that was needed to steal a darknet operative's identity with this system was their biometric data--fingerprints, iris scan, voice. And The Major had given just that to the lab team. As he powered up the unit and slipped the glasses on, he became Loki Stormbringer. He suddenly saw the HUD display first-person, instead of on a projection screen, and he saw darknet objects moving in a plane of augmented reality. They were all over the place. This was going to be a very interesting new world. He walked with purpose out the storeroom door, ignoring the guards, and then kept walking briskly toward the distant guest bungalows. He gauged the houses were two miles away across slightly unkempt gardens and uncut lawns.


pages: 379 words: 108,129

An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Leonard Kleinrock, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, off grid, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize

Well, there are hostile actions going on every day all the time and they’re capable of rendering parts of the ’Net inoperable but I don’t think the machine would stop in and of itself.’ Technology’s story is our story. Burke’s ‘warm blanket of technology’ isn’t separate from us, we’re woven into the fabric of it and vice versa. And in the next chapter of the Internet’s story, intertwined with ‘the Internet of things’ is something called ‘augmented reality,’ a phrase that strikes the same fear into my heart as those thin yellow burger slices that are ‘cheese flavoured’ and not actual cheese. What’s wrong with real reality then? A man walks into a shop and picks up a packet of paper towels. As he does so, an image appears on the packet telling him how much bleach was used in its manufacture.

In 2010, Microsoft employee Blaise Agüera y Arcas demonstrated the ability to link up online maps with photographs and video, allowing you to take not only a virtual walk around an area (including ‘walking’ inside buildings) but also to see what’s going on at that moment, with real-time video links embedded into the scene. The same technology can be used to link historical photos and videos into the map, allowing you to step back in time. You can look into the sky and see star maps, or find out what blog entries refer to a particular place. While these two examples are at the cutting edge of ‘augmented reality’ the layering data on top of our day-to-day experiences is already with us. Download the ‘Better World Shopper’ app onto your iPhone, for instance, and it will give you an instant rating of a manufacturer’s record in regard to human rights, environmental policy, animal rights, social justice and community involvement.

INDEX 23andMe 274, 297–9 42 100, 273 2001: A Space Odyssey 76, 102, 133 A Abengoa Solar 193 activated carbon 216–17 adenine 37–9, 46 aerosols 168–70 af Ekenstam, Robin 103, 104 Africa 252, 253, 302 Age of Spiritual Machines, The (Kurzweil) 274–5 agriculture 221–40, 253 Agüera y Arcas, Blaise 163 AInimals 92, 94, 96, 102–4, 105 algae 187, 210–12 Algenol Biofuels 187, 189 alleles 45, 48 Allen 83, 84 Amundsen, Roald 178 Anderson, Chris 291–5 Andrews, Lori 27 Angier, Natalie 47 Annas, George 27 Ansari X Prize for Spaceflight 135 Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation 208, 210–12 Arcadia 237–8 Arcadia (Stoppard) 281 Archer, David 177 Archon X Prize 50, 51 Aristotle 97 ARPANET 152 Art of War, The (Sun Tzu) 40–1, 51–2 artificial intelligence 73–107 Artificial Intelligence: AI 75 Asimov, Isaac 76–7 augmented reality 162–4 Augustine Commission 136 Australia climate change scepticism 168, 171 farming 221–40 Internet 157 mousepox virus 63–4 autocatalysis 270 B Bacillus subtilis 100, 273 Bacon, Francis 96–8, 99 bacteria 56–7, 61, 302 Bedau, Mark 66, 280 Bedford, James 15 Berners-Lee, Mike 169–70 Berners-Lee, Tim 154, 159 ‘Better World Shopper’ 163 Bezos, Jeff 141 BigDog 84 Bigelow, Robert 137 Billen, Abigail 31 Binney, Don 218 biochar 208–10, 212–20 biofuels 56–7, 61, 186–9, 210–12 biomass 209–10 bionics 14, 29, 301 biotechnology 35–70 bioterrorism 63–6, 68 BioTime 53–4 Birchall, Martin 20 bird flu 69–70 black carbon 169–70 Black Phantom 212–14, 219, 299, 301 Blackburn, Elizabeth 18 Blackstone Ranch 234 Blackwell, Paul 213 Blasco, Maria 18, 19 Blayney 235–7 Blenheim 210–12 blood transfusion 33 Blue Brain 90, 91 Blue Origin 141 Blundell, James 33 Bonaparte, Napoleon 146 Bongard, Josh 95 Boree Creek 237–8 Borman, Frank 135 Boston Dynamics 74–5 Bostrom, Nick 13, 17, 18, 22–31, 62, 65, 66 carbon-chauvinism 102 existential risk 63 and Kurzweil 267, 269 Bourke, Joanna 149 Brand, Stewart 108–9, 128, 270, 276 Branson, Richard 135, 141 Breazeal, Cynthia 76–82, 84–6, 90–2, 94, 101–2, 269, 277–8 Bréon, François-Marie 169 Brin, Sergey 273–4, 297 Broad Institute 40 Broecker, Wallace 173, 174, 177–86 Brooks, Rodney 76, 82, 83–4, 89, 103, 104, 105 Brown, John Seely 156, 282–3, 284–91, 292, 304 Buck, Vicki 207–8, 210–20, 288, 299 Burke, James 160, 161, 162 Burma 157 C C-3PO 76, 83, 102 cadmium 195, 196 California NanoSystems Institute 118 cancer 19, 40–1, 46–7 Candide (Voltaire) 218 carbon cycle 209 carbon dioxide (CO2) 57, 167–8, 170–1, 175–7, 186, 302 and agriculture 228–31, 233–5 biochar 209–10 biofuels 187–9 industrial uses 183–4 carbon nanotubes 110–11 carbon neutrality 243–4, 245 carbon scrubbers 179–85, 259–60, 299 Carbonscape 208, 212–20, 299, 301 carrying capacity 128–9 Castillo, Claudia 19–20, 33 Çatağay, Tolga 273 Catholic Church 106 Cave, Nick 304 Celera Genomics 36 Celsias 208 Cerf, Vint 151–64, 187, 245, 268, 283, 284, 299 Chappe, Abraham 146 Chappe, Claude 146 Chappe, René 146 charcoal 208–10, 212–20 chess 82, 83, 86 China 157, 200 Chomsky, Noam 303 chromosomes 44, 45–6 Chu, John 155 Chui, Alex 15 Church, George biofuels 57, 211 bioterrorism 63, 65–6 genome engineering 52, 56, 60–3, 64, 70, 105, 186–7, 203 genome sequencing 50–1 human genome project 35 human machines 89 IVF 106 and Lackner, Klaus 189 licensing 66–7 Personal Genome Project 36–7, 39, 41–50, 273, 299, 300, 301 Ćirković, Milan 65 cities 250, 252–3 Claramunt, Xavier 137 climate change 143, 164, 167–72, 174–7, 208 and agriculture 228–31, 233–5 Maldives 241–9, 256–62 Northwest Passage 178 Clinton, Bill 35–6 clouds 169 Cobar 231–5 Collins, Mike 135 Collins, Paul 192 Columbia University Medical Center 31 Columbus, Christopher 303 Comer, Gary 177, 178 Commercial Spaceflight Federation 138 Complete Genomics 51 Connections 160 Consortium for Polynucleotide Synthesis 68 Copenhagen Accord 256 Cornell University 93–6, 98–101, 210 couchsurfing.org 158 Coughlan, Anna 221–2, 239–40 Coughlan, Michael 221–2, 239–40 ‘Couldn’t Be Done’ (Tim Finn) 208 Crichton, Michael 122 cryonics 15–16 Cuba 157 cytosine 37–9, 46 D dance 155 De Cari, Gioia 262 de Grey, Aubrey 14, 16, 17–18, 21, 34 ‘Death Clock’ 12–13 deductive reason 97 Deep Blue 82–3 del Cardayré, Stephen 61 Desertec Industrial Initiative 193 Deutsche Bank 193 diatoms 117–18 diesel 56–7 Dijkstra, Edsger 82 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) 38–9, 40, 297–8 naked 46 nanotechnology 113, 119–20 Parkinson’s disease 273–4 Door into Summer (Heinlein) 142 double helix 38 double pendulum 98–9 Dragon 136 Drexler, Eric 109–17, 125, 127–30, 286, 287, 299, 300 critics 123–4 Grey Goo 121–3 and Kurzweil 268, 269 E E. coli 56–7, 61, 64 E85 cars 188 EasyJet 20 education 284–5, 288 Egypt 157 Ehrenreich, Barbara 303 Eigler, Donald 113, 125 Einhorn, Thomas 31 Einstein, Albert 140 Eisenberger, Peter 184 electricity 285–6 Eliza 86–7 Ember, Carol 147 enhancement 26–9 Endy, Drew 66 energy 191–2, 193–5, 202, 204 fossil fuels 168, 191–2, 193, 302 solar 190–1, 192–3, 195–205, 206, 274, 295, 302 Engines of Creation (Drexler) 109, 110–11, 115, 121, 122, 123, 127–8, 300 Enlightenment 267 Enriquez, Juan 33, 278–82, 293 Eros (Asteroid) 134 Estep, Preston 16 ethanol 187 Ethiopia 199, 200 Etiwanda Station 231–5 Eureqa 101 evolution 70, 105, 279–80, 281–2 existential risk 63 Exxon Mobil 56 EZ-Rocket 142 F Falcon 9 136 farming 221–40, 253 Feynman, Richard 112, 113 Finn, Tim 208 Flannery, Tim 215 flu 64–5, 69–70 Følling’s disease 44, 58 foot-and-mouth disease 68–9 forests 253–4 Forster, E.


pages: 392 words: 108,745

Talk to Me: How Voice Computing Will Transform the Way We Live, Work, and Think by James Vlahos

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, Colossal Cave Adventure, computer age, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jeff Bezos, lateral thinking, Loebner Prize, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Voice, optimally realized, has the potential to be so easy to use that it hardly feels like an interface at all. We know how to speak because we have been doing it for all of our lives. Screens and smartphones won’t disappear in the conversational era, just as the jet airplane didn’t kill off the car. And voice will be integrated with current and emerging technologies, such as augmented reality. But for many applications, people will ditch keyboards and screens, and opt instead for the more natural, liberating interface of voice. Computers will follow us around rather than needing us to come to them. It’s about time. Voice, ultimately, is ushering humanity into the age of artificial intelligence.

A nonprofit research and development lab that had been spun out from Stanford University, SRI was famous for hatching computing innovations that included hypertext and the computer mouse. SRI “was doing everything interesting you could possibly do with computers,” Cheyer recalls. “Speech recognition, handwriting recognition, all sorts of artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality. Robots were roaming the halls.” SRI was where Cheyer began working on the first of the many versions of the technology that ultimately became Siri. That particular name would not be chosen until a decade and a half later, and it wasn’t an homage to SRI as people would later assume. But the core concepts were already taking shape in Cheyer’s mind.

See also conversational AI; virtual assistants; voice AI SRI development of, 21, 24–27, 28 U.S. military research on, 22–23, 42 voice computing and human control of, 4, 6, 8, 14–15 Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 110–11 artificial neural networks. See neural networks, artificial Ash, Marcus, 120, 121–23 Assistant (Google). See Google Assistant augmented reality, 6 automata, 65 Automated Insights, 214, 215 automated speech recognition (ASR), 95–98 deep learning and, 97–98 definition of, 9 lip reading and, 98 machine learning and, 10, 144 models for, 96–97 research focus on, 10, 72 of subauditory speech and whispers, 98 technology companies and, 41–43, 97–98 virtual assistants and, 28, 32–33, 225 avatars, 270–76 B backpropagation, 91–92 Bacon, Roger, 64 bank chatbots, 57 Bann, Eugene, 246 Barbie, 169–70, 175–76.


pages: 282 words: 63,385

Attention Factory: The Story of TikTok and China's ByteDance by Matthew Brennan

Airbnb, AltaVista, augmented reality, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, paypal mafia, Pearl River Delta, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Travis Kalanick, WeWork, Y Combinator

In a presentation 203 discussing the rise of Douyin, Kelly Zhang drew attention to four factors—full-screen high definition, music, special effects filters, and personalized recommendations. S martphone screens had overall gotten much larger with higher definition, greatly improving the video watching experience. Face recognition and augmented reality effects had become commonplace, which allowed for more engaging, fun special effects and filters. Image recognition and computer vision had made very considerable advances, greatly reducing the need for manual audits of inappropriate content and allowing for the classification of videos that lacked meta-data.

This dynamic ensured the early experience of using any clone would always be inferior. Other technical barriers that competitors would struggle to match included the app’s sophisticated use of computer vision to automate the classification and tagging of videos. It was also continually releasing novel and creative augmented reality video filters. The TikTok brand had already become synonymous with music-centric short video. This brand cachet was powerful as TikTok had reached a critical mass of mindshare among the general public with the name entering the common vernacular. Saying “Let’s shoot a TikTok,” didn’t need to be explained.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic bias, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

As a result, chefs are imagined not as autonomous virtuosi or gifted craftsmen but as enslaved robots who should never defy the commands of their operating systems. Another project mentioned in New Scientist is even more degrading. A group of computer scientists at Kyoto Sangyo University in Japan is trying to marry the logic of the kitchen to the logic of “augmented reality”—the fancy term for infusing our everyday environment with smart technologies. (Think of Quick Response Codes that can be scanned with a smartphone to unlock additional information or of the upcoming goggles from Google’s Project Glass, which use data streams to enhance your visual field.) To this end, the Japanese researchers have mounted cameras and projectors on the kitchen’s ceiling so that they can project instructions—in the form of arrows, geometric shapes, and speech bubbles guiding the cook through each step—right onto the ingredients.

They can infuse any aspiring chef with great passion for the culinary arts—much more so than surveillance cameras or instruction-spewing robots. Strict adherence to recipes can produce predictable, albeit tasty, dishes—and occasionally this is just what we want. But such standardization can also make our kitchens as exciting as McDonald’s franchises. Celebrating innovation for its own sake is in bad taste. For technology truly to augment reality, its designers and engineers should get a better idea of the complex practices that our reality is composed of. As the molecular gastronomy example illustrates, to reject solutionism is not to reject technology. Nor is it to abandon all hope that the world around us can be ameliorated; technology could and should be part of this project.

(Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), 52. 10 “A cook . . . is not a man who first has a vision of a pie”: Michael Oakeshott, “The Idea of a University,” Academic Questions 17, no. 1 (2004): 23. 10 “the book speaks only to those who know already”: Oakeshott, “Political Education.” 11 what’s going on in our kitchens: this section draws considerably on an earlier article of mine: Evgeny Morozov, “Stay Out of My Kitchen, Robots,” Slate, August 27, 2012, http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/08/why_you_don_t_want_a_robot_in_your_kitchen.html. 11 British magazine New Scientist recently covered: Jacob Aron, “Smart Kitchens Keep Novice Chefs on Track,” New Scientist 215, no. 2877 (August 11, 2012): 17, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528774.900-augmented-reality-kitchens-keep-novice-chefs-on-track.html. 11 “For example, if the system detects sugar pouring into a bowl”: ibid. 14 “life, the universe and everything”: reference to Douglas Adams, Life, the Universe and Everything (Los Angeles, CA: Del Rey, 1995). 14 In the afterword to my first book, The Net Delusion: Morozov, The Net Delusion, 337. 14 French philosopher Bruno Latour: Bruno Latour, The Pasteurization of France (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 15. 15 What Would Google Do?


pages: 625 words: 167,349

The Alignment Problem: Machine Learning and Human Values by Brian Christian

Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, effective altruism, Elon Musk, game design, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hedonic treadmill, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet Archive, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kenneth Arrow, longitudinal study, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, premature optimization, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, Steve Jobs, strong AI, the map is not the territory, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, zero-sum game

If the system becomes a standard in the field, the bias becomes pervasive.”40 Or, as Buolamwini herself puts it, “Halfway around the world, I learned that algorithmic bias can travel as quickly as it takes to download some files off of the internet.”41 After a Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford, Buolamwini came to the MIT Media Lab, and there she began working on an augmented-reality project she dubbed the “Aspire Mirror.” The idea was to project empowering or uplifting visuals onto the user’s face—making the onlooker transform into a lion, for instance. Again, there was only one problem. The Aspire Mirror only worked on Buolamwini herself when she put on a white mask. The culprit is not stochastic gradient descent; it is, clearly, the sets of images on which these systems are trained.

And they have also learned a thing or two about how to deal with it. CYCLE-PROOFING YOUR REWARDS: THE SHAPING THEOREM Astro Teller, currently the “captain of moonshots” at X (the Alphabet company formerly known as Google X), has in recent years overseen everything from Google’s self-driving-car project (subsequently spun off into Waymo), to its augmented-reality project Google Glass and its research lab Google Brain. But in 1998, he was focused on a different problem: soccer. With his friend and fellow student David Andre, Teller worked to enter the annual RoboCup soccer competition, with a virtual-soccer-playing program they dubbed Darwin United.41 Reward shaping is part of what enabled them to teach their program how to play.

See Arcade Learning Environment Alexander, Robert McNeill, 382n13 Alexnder VIII (Pope), 303 AlexNet brittleness of, 279 complexity of, 100 development of, 21, 23–25 dropout and, 24, 285, 389n21 ensembles and, 285 feature visualization and, 108, 109–10 ground truth gaps and, 75 algorithms, for risk assessment, 7–9, 12, 337n6, 346n13 alignment problem amplification/distillation and, 249 analogies and, 317 corrigibility and, 295 defined, 13 as hopeful, 327–28 inverse reinforcement learning and, 255 parenting and, 166 reinforcement learning and, 151 technical limitations and, 313, 395–96n4 thermostats and, 311–12, 313 See also value alignment Allen, Woody, 170 AlphaGo, 162–63, 243–44, 380nn84–85 AlphaGoZero, 162–63, 244–45, 356n59, 380n86 AlphaZero, 141, 162–63, 205, 248, 380n86 Alstrøm, Preben, 167, 177 ALVINN, 225–26, 228, 229–30, 378n47 Amazon hiring by, 40, 48, 343nn76–77 Mechanical Turk, 22, 43, 75, 179, 369n73 Ambrosino, Richard, 83, 84 Amodei, Dario, 9–11, 263–64 Ampère, André-Marie, 359n19 amplification, 244–46, 381n90 analogies, 38, 41–42, 316–17, 342n66, 397n13 Andre, David, 167, 177 Angwin, Julia, 7–8, 58–61, 62–63, 72, 79 Animal Behavior Enterprises, 154, 161, 364n8 animal research, 121–24, 134, 135, 150, 152–54 animal training, 152, 154, 161, 187–88, 364n8, 365n26 antidiscrimination law, 63–64 Ape and the Child, The (Kellogg and Kellogg), 214–15 Apple, differential privacy, 347n33 Arcade Learning Environment (ALE), 181–83, 209, 369n4 architecture, 18 Arendt, Hannah, 121, 326 Armstrong, Stuart, 291–92, 299 artificial general intelligence (AGI), 208–10 boat race scenario and, 9–11 boredom and, 205 delay risks, 309–10 risks of, 13 as source of knowledge, 328 artistic creation, 110–11 Askell, Amanda, 239 Aspire Mirror, 30 AssistWare, 377n39 “Astronomical Waste” (Bostrom), 309 AT&T Bell Laboratories, 234 Atari. See Arcade Learning Environment; gaming attainable utility preservation (AUP), 294–95, 392n48 augmented reality, 30 AUP. See attainable utility preservation Australian National University, 262–63 autonomous driving, 223–25, 377nn39, 42 architecture for, 228, 378n47 backpropagation for, 377–78n43 danger of, 326–27 imitation and, 225–27, 322 recovery and, 229–30, 232–34, 378n54 Aytar, Yusuf, 221 backflips, 265–66 backgammon, 141, 142 backpropagation, 234, 338–39n12, 361n30, 377–78n43 backward learning, 162, 365n27, 369n9 Bagnell, Drew, 230–31 Bain, Alexander, 156, 227–28, 358n8 Balentine, Bruce, 240 Barocas, Solon, 65–66 Barto, Andrew, 129 on actualism vs. possibilism, 238–39 on evolution, 173 on happiness, 150 on intrinsic motivation, 202, 370n12 on organisms as maximizers, 130 on policy vs. value functions, 137–38 research focus of, 138, 362n51 on shaping, 161 on TD learning, 142 on terseness, 132 Bayesian neural networks, 283–86 Bayesian Rule Lists, 100–01 “Behavior, Purpose and Teleology” (Rosenblueth, Wiener, and Bigelow), 127–28 Bellcore, 170–73 Bellemare, Marc, 181–83, 192–94, 200, 209 Bengio, Samy, 337n9 Bentham, Jeremy, 152, 275–76 Berk, Richard, 82 Berlyne, Daniel, 187, 188–89, 190, 194, 197, 198 Berridge, Kent, 147 BERT model, 344–45n94 Bertrand, Marianne, 39 bias age, 32, 396n7 Fitzpatrick scale and, 341n48 in Google AdSense, 343n72 in hiring, 39–40, 48 in human judgments, 39, 68 image recognition and, 25–26, 339n24 implicit association test for, 44–45 in medical research, 314, 396n7 in orchestra auditions, 40, 343n73 perpetuation of, 39–40, 43, 49 photography and, 26–29 phrase sources and, 344n83 reality of, 48 redundant encodings and, 40, 64, 343n74 removing from word embedding, 41–44, 344n86, 345n94 in risk-assessment models, 7–9, 57–61, 67, 68, 70, 346–47nn25, 32, 348n52 as source of knowledge, 328 TCAV and, 116 training data and, 26, 29–34, 314–15, 340n44, 341n48, 396n7 transfer learning and, 318 value alignment and, 43 veridical, 45–46 in word embedding, 6–7, 9, 38, 39, 40, 342–43n68, 344–45n94 word embedding as diagnostic tool for, 46–48, 49 See also fairness; representation big data, 99–100 binary system, 336n9 biomechanics, 253–54, 382n13 black boxes.


The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz

airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, different worldview, facts on the ground, friendly fire, industrial cluster, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, source of truth, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

This is clearly Level II cognition, and it is far more complex than simple Level I pharmaceutical enhancement. It is also Level III, because we have very little idea what the cultural, institutional, social, and psychological effects of these dramatic increases in cognitive networks will actually lead to-it is, after all, not just Google, but also social networking, augmented reality, augmented cognition (such as self-operating cars), and a myriad of other technologies that are integrating at this point in our history. This confusion of levels will not be an obstacle to the proliferation of human-enhancement technologies. One can hardly doubt that many people, perhaps most, will avail themselves of all the enhancements they can afford and can stomach if they believe they will individually benefit in some way.

But no one thought to ask. 3 In many cases, of course, technological evolution is already occurring as a result of powerful and unconscious cultural and economic forces, but it is still possible to try to evaluate potential implications for the environment and for society so that the costs can be minimized and the benefits maximized. For example, the Internet, with its social networking, augmented reality, nearly infinite memory, immediate accessibility, and information overload, is significantly changing human cognitive patterns in new and unpredictable ways. The time to begin studying these changes is now, as the technologies are being developed, rather than later, when we may come to regret some system-scale effects that nonetheless resist change because of technological lock-in, vested interests, development of standards, network economics, and other phenomena.4 In Front of Our Nose 167 8.


pages: 229 words: 68,426

Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing by Adam Greenfield

augmented reality, business process, defense in depth, demand response, demographic transition, facts on the ground, game design, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, James Dyson, knowledge worker, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, profit motive, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method

It had reached something like a critical mass of thought and innovation by 2005: an upwelling of novelty both intellectual and material, accompanied by a persistent sense, in many quarters, that ubicomp's hour had come 'round at last. Pieces of the puzzle kept coming. By the time I began doing the research for this book, the literature on ubicomp was a daily tide of press releases and new papers that was difficult to stay on top of: papers on wearable computing, augmented reality, locative media, near-field communication, bodyarea networking. In many cases, the fields were so new that the jargon hadn't even solidified yet. Would all of these threads converge on something comprehensible, useful, or usable? Would any of these ubiquitous computings fulfill PARC's promise of a "calm technology?"

A series of successful academic studies in the 1980s and 1990s, including those at the MIT Media Lab, ETH ZÜrich, and the Universities of Bristol and Oregon, demonstrated that deploying informatic systems on the body was at least technically feasible. They were less convincing in establishing that anything of the sort would ever be acceptable in daily life. Researchers sprouting head-up "augmented reality" reticules, the lumpy protuberances of prototype "personal servers," and the broadband cabling to tie it all together may have proven that the concept of wearable computing was valid, but they invariably looked like extras from low-budget cyberpunk films—or refugees from Fetish Night at the anime festival.


pages: 234 words: 67,917

The Wondering Jew: Israel and the Search for Jewish Identity by Micah Goodman

augmented reality, battle of ideas, cognitive dissonance, European colonialism, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Mount Scopus

A technological awareness would address the collapse in empathy and rise in narcissism as well as other threats to the human personality, including the toxic influence of the increased availability of pornography on our sex lives; our addiction to hypnotic video games, which make the nonvirtual world feel dull and slow; our constant exposure to digital stimuli, which sabotages our ability to concentrate and focus; and the loss of eye contact between parents who are absorbed in their screens and children who crave their attention. These phenomena compound one another and create one of the most complicated challenges of the modern day. In the next few years, we are told, virtual- and augmented-reality glasses will enter our lives, greatly increasing the challenge posed by technology to our personalities.6 EXCELLENT SERVANT, TERRIBLE MASTER Technology cannot be stopped. It is developing at a fast and unstoppable pace. Neil Postman, a theorist in the field of mass media, has proposed the following distinction.

Eldar Habusha, “They Take a Selfie and Lose Themselves,” Haaretz, 14 December 2015 [Hebrew]. See also Oz Almog and Tamar Almog, Generation Y: Generation Snowflake (Chicago: Vallentine Mitchell, 2019). The Almogs’ study paints a comprehensive sociological portrait of the young generation in Israel. 6. The transition from screens to virtual- or augmented-reality glasses will further enhance the temptation to escape our physical surroundings for the virtual reality, because wearable technology will threaten one of the only advantages that the nondigital world still has over its digital rival—its tangibility. 7. On this growing phenomenon, see Rachel Malek Buda, “Shomer Shabbos: Why Have Keren Peres and Avri Gilad Disconnected from Their Cell Phones?”


pages: 50 words: 15,603

Orwell Versus the Terrorists: A Digital Short by Jamie Bartlett

augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Mondo 2000, Satoshi Nakamoto, technoutopianism, Zimmermann PGP

And it is important to bear in mind that the data collection industry is just warming up. More and more everyday objects are being fitted with microchips and going online: fridges, wallets, cars, watches, clothing. Even hair: Sony has recently filed a patent for a SmartWig that could take photos and vibrate when you receive a message. Google’s augmented reality glasses (now discontinued, but surely to re-emerge somewhere) are able to record what and who you’re seeing; smart energy meters that can record your energy consumption patterns will be installed in every home by 2020. All of these devices will be collecting data. As it stands, no one really knows who will own all this information, how will it be regulated or where it’s all going to end up.


pages: 993 words: 318,161

Fall; Or, Dodge in Hell by Neal Stephenson

Ada Lovelace, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, bitcoin, blockchain, cloud computing, coherent worldview, computer vision, crossover SUV, cryptocurrency, defense in depth, demographic transition, distributed ledger, drone strike, easy for humans, difficult for computers, game design, index fund, Jaron Lanier, life extension, microaggression, microbiome, Network effects, off grid, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, planetary scale, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, short selling, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

“We’re not just seeing it, we’re feeling it!” he half-joked as everyone was slammed leftward by an abrupt right curve. “Literally feeling it in our bones. The geometry of it, and of our trajectory through space-time, made manifest in our inner ears, in a way that could never by faked by virtual or augmented reality. And it’s all perfectly self-consistent, what you’re experiencing and what I’m experiencing, so that our understandings of the world tally. I keep trying to get Elmo to understand that the brain needs this—that if this kind of coherent world isn’t supplied, why, then not only can I not talk to you, my own brain can’t even talk to itself from one moment to the next.”

Resort staff had taken down the tennis net and scattered a few faint, indirect lights around the place so that the attendees wouldn’t bump into one another. As recently as ten years ago it would have seemed a bizarre setting for a technical presentation, but now everyone understood what it meant: Sophia and Matilda were going to be presenting some visuals, and they’d be using augmented reality to do it, and this would all be easier if people could stroll freely through whatever three-dimensional imagery was going to be projected into this space. The opening graphics were two-dimensional, however. Sophia caused them to appear on a virtual screen at one end of the tennis court, so that all of the attendees were at first facing in the same direction.

He had them planted in cities all over the place, and they were smart enough to take public transit to a FedEx facility and ship themselves wherever they needed to be, sometimes traveling more quickly than human beings with airplane tickets. He used the same voice for old-fashioned phone calls and teleconferences. And it was the voice of his avatar when he manifested himself in virtual or augmented reality. As now. Hearing the voice, Corvallis turned his head to see El’s avatar standing a couple of meters off to his side. The avatar was also gazing at the Wad, as people had begun referring to the dense cottony underlayment of this display. El turned his head to look at Corvallis. The avatar didn’t look much like Elmo Shepherd.


pages: 267 words: 72,552

Reinventing Capitalism in the Age of Big Data by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Thomas Ramge

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, banking crisis, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Bear Stearns, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, gig economy, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, land reform, lone genius, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, means of production, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, universal basic income, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

Many advanced digital market platforms already offer an impressive flood of multidimensional information, while physical markets, including brick-and-mortar stores, are still pondering ways to adapt the technology for their needs. Retailers, for example, have their hopes pinned on what’s called augmented reality, which enriches what we can see on the sales floor by providing additional information about the available goods. It’s like a much-improved version of Google Glass and will highlight perhaps the three products in a shop that best fit your preferences, and you will learn about them by looking around.

INDEX abundance of capital, 142–143, 194 of resources, 220–221 accounting, 90 development of, 91–95 reform of, 172–173 Air France Flight 447, 157–159, 170–171 Airbnb, 70 airline industry, 112 Akerlof, George, 40 Alation, 70 Alexa, 79, 164 Alexandria library, 21 algorithms, 5, 8–9, 71–77, 81, 82, 84, 136, 210 development process for, 71–72 fintechs and, 153 firms and, 128 lack of diversity in, 12 open, call for, 167 opportunities provided by, 74–75 Alibaba, 2, 75, 163, 196, 215 Allende, Salvador, 176, 177 Altman, Sam, 189 Amazon, 9, 30, 52, 68, 69, 74, 75, 76–77, 79, 87–89, 96, 102, 107 annual revenues of, 87 data-rich market structure and, 130 feedback effects and, 164 as a firm, 88–89, 106 low job satisfaction in, 88–89 market concentration in, 161 market model of, 87–88 network effects and, 164 research & development in, 196 scale effects and, 164 American Express, 127 American Research and Development Corporation, 216 Andreesen, Marc, 189 Angkor Wat, 21 animal skins (as currency), 48 antitrust measures, 12, 165 Apollo spacecraft, 22, 159 Apple, 55, 75, 79, 121–122, 169, 196, 215 Apple Music, 74 Apple Pay, 135–136, 146 Arendt, Hannah, 223 Armstrong, Neil, 22 artificial intelligence. See automation/machine learning Ascent of Money, The (Ferguson), 45 Assyrian cuneiform, 23, 66 AT&T, 127, 162–163 augmented reality, 138 automation/machine learning, 9, 77–81, 144–145 banks and, 136, 146, 155 choice and, 218–219 Claudico, 60 Daisy Intelligence, 117 driving systems and, 78, 181–183, 213 firms and, 109, 111–112, 113–120, 128, 130–131 Infi, 79 labor market and, 181–188, 200–202, 205 Libratus, 59–62, 78 overextension in decision-making, 116–120 structural deficiencies of, 169–171 Watson, 109, 111, 113–114, 115, 117, 163, 183 automobile manufacturing.


pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, Joan Didion, John Gruber, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The future is already here

Already, new games and game consoles such as the Nintendo Wii allow players to literally swing tennis rackets, dance, do exercises, and participate in other physical activities while playing. Microsoft’s Project Natal creates an augmented reality gaming experience in which you become the actual game controller and there are no buttons or joysticks to worry about. You can play the game by standing in front of your TV and kicking your legs in the air, thereby kicking a ball on the screen. Mobile augmented reality games encourage players to go outside and run around by chasing a figment of a digital reality on mobile devices, blurring the line between sports and video games.


pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disinformation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

I remember breaking away from the festivities to check my phone, only to find that my friend was posting photos of the very wedding I’d stepped away from: pixelated simulacra of the moment I had left. The most obvious reason a person would ditch the authentic is, of course, to gain access to a heightened version of dull reality. Enter the promise and wonder of Google Glass, released in 2013, which offers just that—augmented reality. The “wearable computer” is a (slightly futuristic, slightly dorky) headset fixed with a miniature display and camera, which responds to voice commands. We can tell it to take a picture of what we’re looking at or simply pull up Google Images’ archive of vintage Hulk Hogan photos because we want to compare the hairdo being sported by that guy on the metro.

The Emerald City (like the “wizard” behind the curtain) is a fake. “But isn’t everything here green?” asks Dorothy. “No more than in any other city,” replies Oz. “But my people have worn green glasses on their eyes so long that most of them think it really is an Emerald City.” When we wear emerald glasses with the intention of augmenting reality, we’re always giving ourselves over to some authority’s vision and relinquishing a portion of our own independent sight. All our screen time, our digital indulgence, may well be wreaking havoc on our conception of the authentic—how could it not? But, paradoxically, it’s the impulse to hold more of the world in our arms that leaves us holding more of reality at arm’s length.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

The lesson Nike is teaching the rest of us is that when your brand can provide that kind of deep utility, people will not only want more from it, but they will take their connectedness to the brand to a whole other plane of existence, passion, and care. In short, another win-win, where the brand is not only providing utility but making serious money doing it. AUGMENTING REALITY ADDS ANOTHER BRICK TO UTILITY. When I was a kid, I was a massive fan of LEGO (I still am). Think back to those childhood days. Your parents would take you to the department store, you would stand in front of what seemed like a Mount Everest filled with every type of LEGO imaginable, and you would dream about all the cool things you could build.

At what’s known as the LEGO Digital Box, customers can choose any LEGO box in the store; when they stand in front of the Digital Box, the screen on the kiosk is able to recognize the exact product, and then create a three-dimensional rendering of what is in the box (this technology is known as augmented reality, which can best be described as using a screen and an Internet connection to add a layer of information or visualization on top of what you are looking at). The Digital Box kiosk actually builds the contents of the LEGO box virtually on screen, so that you can see both size and scale of complexity.


pages: 240 words: 78,436

Open for Business Harnessing the Power of Platform Ecosystems by Lauren Turner Claire, Laure Claire Reillier, Benoit Reillier

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, blockchain, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, distributed ledger, future of work, George Akerlof, independent contractor, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, multi-sided market, Network effects, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, price discrimination, profit motive, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, The Market for Lemons, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, Y Combinator

Viral effects started to build with little acquisition costs.15 These were further compounded by paid partnerships and advertising campaigns.16 Red Packets has today become a new form of communication in China, with over 60 million WeChat users sending Red Packets every day.17 Pokémon Go, which connects players with advertisers through augmented reality (AR) gaming, also experienced phenomenal growth at launch.18 The app game concept is based on the original Game Boy and physical trading card game developed by Nintendo, which has inspired millions of children worldwide – now young adults – over the last 20 years. Pokémon Go’s growth was not sustained, but the Pokémon cultural meme has played a key role in igniting the platform.

RankBrain, Google’s deep neural network, which helps generate responses to search queries, now handles about 15% of Google’s daily search queries.8 All major platforms, from Facebook to Microsoft, have invested in deep learning, with Amazon even having released deep learning open-source software for search and product recommendations.9 Search technology, increasingly powered by deep neural networks, is evolving fast beyond text and geolocalized data to include voice and images. No doubt the integration of new technology such as messaging bots (automated search) and augmented reality (visual search) will redefine existing platforms’ user search experience. Connect What defines positive interactions may change over time so it’s worth revisiting these definitions on a regular basis. Mature platforms can also leverage their communities to increase the quality and quantity of relevant content available on the platform.


pages: 328 words: 84,682

The Business of Platforms: Strategy in the Age of Digital Competition, Innovation, and Power by Michael A. Cusumano, Annabelle Gawer, David B. Yoffie

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, gig economy, Google Chrome, independent contractor, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Network effects, pattern recognition, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, transaction costs, transport as a service, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, web application, zero-sum game

The world is full of existing as well as emerging platform battlegrounds that will have great influence on our lives in the future. We can foresee a time when digital platforms and associated ecosystems will be the way we organize new information technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, the Internet of things, health care information, and even quantum computing. We can also see peer-to-peer transaction platforms replacing or competing with traditional businesses, especially as the “sharing” or “gig” economy expands and new technologies diffuse. Use of blockchains (distributed ledger technology that is extremely secure though not unbreakable) and cryptocurrencies (digital money, usually independent of banks and governments) may greatly reduce the need for many different services, from traditional banks to supply-chain contracts and monitoring.

Looking at the bigger picture, we can see that mainframes ultimately gave way to personal computers, the Internet, social media, mobile devices such as smartphones, and cloud computing. Old and new platforms coexist, though some have become more important than others. Looking forward from what we know today, artificial intelligence, machine learning, virtual and augmented reality, blockchain applications, and even quantum computing are likely to challenge currently dominant platforms, at least in some domains. In this last chapter, we use the principles emphasized in this book to explore ongoing and future platform battlegrounds. We start by summarizing the book’s key arguments.


Crushing It! EPB by Gary Vaynerchuk

"side hustle", augmented reality, fear of failure, follow your passion, Mark Zuckerberg, passive income, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat

Maybe the child who became a lawyer to please his or her parents could be earning the same amount now as an eSports (competitive gaming) promoter—or earning millions as a professional e-gamer. Either way, that lawyer would be infinitely happier. Parents are trying to get their children off Pokémon Go when augmented-reality gaming is going to be huge for generations. They think their daughters should make less slime and do more algebra. Slime may be a fad; slime could also become the conduit through which a girl learns the dynamic of supply and demand on Instagram and builds a million-dollar personal brand and company.

One day we could have a WTF moment upon hearing that Ralph Lauren filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection or that GQ no longer exists. Learn the lesson now: everyone is playing the same game. If you don’t play offense all the time, every day, every year, no matter how successful you become, someday you will wind up playing defense. You have to keep looking ahead. I’ve got my eye on Marco Polo, Anchor, After School, AR (augmented reality), VR (virtual reality), and AI (artificial intelligence). You know what’s going to happen? One day there’s going to be a little ball hanging above every single human being’s head recording everything they do. Swear to God, it’s going to happen. Maybe it’ll be a camera embedded in your body. I don’t know the details, but I know that recording and documenting every minute of our lives will seem perfectly normal one day.


pages: 95 words: 23,041

Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski

augmented reality, en.wikipedia.org, RFID, Steve Jobs, web application

1259 Chapter 3 35http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nearest-tube/id322436683?mt=8 36http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1649086/detect-rotation-of-android-phone-in-the-browser-with-javascript 37http://mail.glustech.com/SnowGlobe/ 38http://thenextweb.com/apps/2010/12/21/hidden-safari-mobile-feature-reveals-augmented-reality-capability/ Chapter 4 39http://www.dmolsen.com/mobile-in-higher-ed/2011/02/07/the-university-home-page-mobile-first/ 40http://xkcd.com/773/ Chapter 5 41http://paidcontent.org/article/419-pontiflex-about-half-of-mobile-app-clicks-are-accidental/ 42http://developer.apple.com/library/ios/#documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/MobileHIG/Introduction/Introduction.html 43http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?


pages: 324 words: 91,653

The Quantum Thief by Hannu Rajaniemi

augmented reality, cognitive dissonance, gravity well, haute couture, MITM: man-in-the-middle, music of the spheres

She shakes her head. ‘All right,’ she says. ‘Perhonen tells me we are going to have to do this the old-fashioned way. We are going to keep walking until—’ She is talking to empty air. The thief is nowhere to be seen. She takes off the sunglasses and stares at them, looking for some trick, for some augmented reality function that allowed the thief to slip away. But they are just plastic. Perhonen! Where the hell is he? I don’t know. You are the one with the biot link. She can almost hear the amusement in the ship’s voice. ‘Vittu. Perkele. Saatana. The Dark Man’s balls,’ Mieli swears aloud. ‘He’s going to pay for this.’

The world clicks into something else when Isidore walks through. The constant tinkering with reality is something that he really hates about the Dust District. The zokus do not have the decency to hide their secrets under the surface of the mundane, but plaster them all over your visual cortex, in layers and layers of spimes and augmented reality, making it impossible to see what truly lies beneath. And the sudden feeling of openness, no boundaries of gevulot, makes him feel something akin to vertigo. There is no diamond cathedral inside. He is standing at the entrance of a large open space, with pipes and wires in the walls and the high ceiling.


pages: 307 words: 90,634

Insane Mode: How Elon Musk's Tesla Sparked an Electric Revolution to End the Age of Oil by Hamish McKenzie

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, connected car, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, South China Sea, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Zipcar

First, I perused a wall of design concepts that demonstrated some remarkable but highly theoretical ideas: a Roomba-like robot that attaches itself to the underside of the DF 91 to charge the car; text that glows on the side of the vehicle when approached, greeting passengers by name; and an augmented reality overlay on the inside of the car’s windows, so they are transformed into interactive displays. When I turned around, I noticed a huge computer under a desk in the corner of the room and the HTC Vive headset on top of it. I barely had to ask. Faraday’s offices are in the former headquarters of Nissan USA, which vacated the premises in 2006 when, after forty-six years at the site, it moved its operations and 1,300 jobs to central Tennessee.

Wu had taught himself English during his time at Intel, where he frequently interacted with American colleagues and made business trips to the United States. He was growing increasingly interested in artificial intelligence at the time he saw Malone’s speech, in part because of a friend named Yong Zhao. Yong had been a founding member of the team that worked on Google Glass, the augmented-reality headset that overlaid a digital interface onto the real world (you may recall that the device looked like a pair of lensless sunglasses from the 2052 Olympics). After leaving Google in 2013, Zhao started an automobile-vision research company but later decided he wanted to pursue other interests.


pages: 326 words: 88,968

The Science and Technology of Growing Young: An Insider's Guide to the Breakthroughs That Will Dramatically Extend Our Lifespan . . . And What You Can Do Right Now by Sergey Young

23andMe, 3D printing, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, basic income, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, brain emulation, caloric restriction, caloric restriction, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, European colonialism, game design, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, impulse control, Internet of things, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mouse model, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, uber lyft, universal basic income, X Prize

Kurzweil predicted, nearly a decade in advance, that world chess champion Garry Kasparov would be beaten by a computer like IBM’s Deep Blue. He predicted the widespread use of wireless communication and something like Google nearly twenty years before they came to be. He predicted self-driving cars, remote learning, cloud computing, smart watches, augmented reality, nano devices, robotic exoskeletons, and at least a hundred more innovations, often with eerily accurate timing. In tech circles, when Ray makes a prediction, many people now set their watch by it. Nobody laughs anymore. It is anybody’s guess what will become of longevity escape velocity, or when it may come to pass.

Achieving this kind of “technical immortality” does not require that we live purely in the cloud, however. Your entire consciousness could be implanted in a robotic avatar, which gets upgraded along with new technological developments so that you always remain physically relevant. Robotic surgery pioneer and founder of leading augmented reality company Magic Leap, Rony Abovitz, put it this way: “Your physical avatar will be discarded like an old car,” he told me. “You’ll get a new one every few years. But your digital avatar will live on—it will speak to your great-great-great-grandchildren, a thousand years from now.” Perhaps that avatar could even be a biologically identical clone of you, implanted with your memories and consciousness.


pages: 343 words: 101,563

The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Chekhov's gun, cognitive bias, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, disinformation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, endowment effect, energy transition, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, failed state, fiat currency, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kim Stanley Robinson, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The future is already here, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Whole Earth Catalog, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

But the main lesson from the church of technology runs in the other direction, instructing us in subtle and not-so-subtle ways to regard the world beyond our phones as less real, less urgent, and less meaningful than the worlds made available to us through those screens, which happen to be worlds protected from climate devastation. As Andreas Malm has wondered, “How many will play augmented reality games on a planet that is six degrees warmer?” The poet and musician Kate Tempest puts it more brinily: “Staring into the screen so we don’t have to see the planet die.” Presumably, you can already feel this transformation underfoot, in your own life—scrolling through photos of your baby when your actual baby is right in front of you, reading trivial Twitter threads while your spouse is speaking.

nine million each year: Pamela Das and Richard Horton, “Pollution, Health, and the Planet: Time for Decisive Action,” The Lancet 391, no. 10119 (October 2017): pp. 407–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32588-6. growing its carbon emissions: James Conca, “Why Aren’t Renewables Decreasing Germany’s Carbon Emissions?” Forbes, October 10, 2017. “How many will play augmented reality games”: Andreas Malm, The Progress of This Storm: Nature and Society in a Warming World (London: Verso, 2018). The poet and musician Kate Tempest: These are lyrics to her song “Tunnel Vision.” Politics of Consumption a note, handwritten: Annie Correal, “What Drove a Man to Set Himself on Fire in Brooklyn?”


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

Aside from uses in the military, some nightclubs in Barcelona and Rotterdam have implanted chips into their VIP clientele, which verifies who they are and even lets them pay for drinks. Graphical and virtual tags that attach themselves to things in the same way are also on the horizon. Visible through the screen on your phone or laptop, and even through glasses hooked to computers in your clothes, these create “augmented reality” environments. Augmented reality research projects are under way in media research labs such as the one at MIT, and have been for a number of years. A report done by the United Nation in 2005 predicts that the changes this type of ubiquitous computing will bring about will dwarf those already caused by an Internet confined inside computers.


pages: 102 words: 33,345

24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep by Jonathan Crary

augmented reality, Berlin Wall, dematerialisation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invention of movable type, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, mass incarceration, megacity, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme

Even if one is inclined to approach technological history as sequences demarcated by inventions and breakthroughs, the relevance of this particular apparatus will be notably and inevitably short-lived. It is more useful to understand such a device as merely one element in a transient flux of compulsory and disposable products. Very different display formats are already on the near horizon, some involving the augmented realities of see-through interfaces and small head-worn devices, in which a virtual screen will be identical with one’s field of vision. Also, there is the development of gesture-based computing in which, instead of a click, a wave, a nod, or the blink of an eye will suffice as a command. Before long these may well displace the apparent ubiquity and necessity of hand-held, touch-based devices, and thereby cancel any special historical claims for what came before.


pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

As the doctors discussed the case, Dantuluri could reach into the surgical field that Ponce saw on his heads-up display: ghostly hands floated over the body, pinpointed an anatomical feature or demonstrated how to reposition an instrument, as he consulted in real time. Invented by a UAB neurosurgeon, Barton Guthrie, who was frustrated by the limits of teleconferencing, VIPAAR (Virtual Interactive Presence in Augmented Reality) offers a safety net in diverse situations: teaching surgeons, guiding a resident’s hands, piloting difficult procedures in regional hospitals anywhere in the world, and also assisting emergency operations at an Antarctic base or in space. A lively pair of glasses, even with all the digital trimmings, is still only an accessory.

Hardiness Zone Map, 38 Vancouver, Canada, 78 Vawter, Zac, 254–55 vegetable gardens, urban, 74 Venice, Italy, 50 veronicas, 125 vertical farming, 74 in sea, see mariculture vervet monkeys, 131 Viking, 220 Vikings, 42 violence, 286 Viridity Energy, 102 Virtual Dissection, 197 Virtual Interactive Presence in Augmented Reality, 261 viruses, 172, 289–90 vitamin D, 192 volcanic archipelagos, 157–58 voles, 115 Voronoff, Serge, 264 Voyager, 220 Wade, Chris, 157–67 Wageningen UR, 104 Wake Forest, 185 Wakodahatchee Wetlands, 75–76 walking, 259–60 walls, 92 walruses, 134 war, 141–48, 285 War Horse, 141–42 Warner, Sabrina, 47–48 Washington State University, 238 water lettuce, 132 water moccasins, 117–18 water purification, 74–75 water-purifying tea bags, 181 Watson, James, 274 waxbills, 79 Wells, H.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

The machines and devices and the programs that run on them have become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives. All that world-bending technology has been created largely by men. This technology is disrupting businesses from agriculture to manufacturing, finance, and real estate. And it’s not slowing down. We face a near-term future of autonomous cars, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence, and yet we are at risk of embedding gender bias into all of these new algorithms. “It’s bad for shareholder value,” Megan Smith, who has worked as a Google VP and chief technology officer of the United States, told me. “We want the genetic flourishing of all humanity . . . in on making these products, especially as we move to AI and data sciences.”

But as the industry moves forward, not every developer may act so responsibly. In fact, there’s good reason to think that some won’t. Engineers are now working to make virtual reality even more real with the help of new technologies such as haptic feedback, which enables players to physically feel it when they are punched or kicked. Augmented reality promises to further integrate our real and online worlds. Increasingly, these are spaces in which we will live, work, and play that will have dramatic physical and psychological effects. The norms of behavior for these new virtual and augmented worlds are being laid down right now, so right now is the time for the makers of VR and AR technology to build respect and safety into their products.


Pure Invention: How Japan's Pop Culture Conquered the World by Matt Alt

4chan, augmented reality, blue-collar work, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, game design, glass ceiling, global pandemic, haute cuisine, hive mind, lateral thinking, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, period drama, Ponzi scheme, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, union organizing, zero-sum game

The phrase is antique, but the concept lives on in a new form. It is no coincidence that millions of Americans made their first forays into anonymous political activism on a Japanese imageboard platform repurposed by American netizens. Nor is it any coincidence that the first globally popular application of augmented reality arrived in the form of Pokémon GO. Perfected in Silicon Valley, augmented reality involves overlaying computer graphics on views of the world. The potentially transformative technology lingered on the fringes of tech subculture until Pokémon GO’s creators got the idea of populating their platform with kawaii monsters. One hundred thirty million fans downloaded the application in just thirty days after its release in 2016, thrilling to the experience of holding up their smartphones to seek out and capture imaginary Pokémon digitally superimposed on the world around them—real life, but better.


pages: 457 words: 112,439

Zero History by William Gibson

augmented reality, business intelligence, dark matter, edge city, hive mind, invisible hand, new economy, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, RFID, too big to fail

“That’s a memorial to Helmut Newton,” she’d said. “He lived there, part of the time.” “The back is ‘before’?” Milgrim had asked. “No,” she’d said, “that’s what you see, there, unaugmented. The front’s what you see augmented. Construct’s tied to the GPS grid. To see it, you have to go there, use augmented reality.” “I’ve never heard of that,” Milgrim had said, looking at the back, then the front. “When I wrote the book, there was no commercial hardware. People were building their own. Now it’s all iPhone apps. Lots of work, back then, trying to render the pieces effectively. We had to take high-rez photographs of the site, from as many angles as you can, then marry them to whatever that exact angle on the construct would look like, then choose from those.”

None of this meaning anything to Milgrim, who was enjoying the salmon, in some light chilled sauce. “I’m sorry,” Meredith said, “but you’re going to have to tell us who you’re working for.” “If I were better at this sort of thing,” said Hollis, “I’d start by telling you about my book. It’s about locative art.” “I don’t know the term,” Meredith said. “It’s what they’re calling augmented reality now,” said Hollis, “but art. It’s been around since before the iPhone started to become the default platform. That was when I wrote about it. But I meant that if I were going to lie to you, I’d tell you about that, then tell you that I was writing another, on esoteric denim, or mad marketing strategies.


pages: 425 words: 112,220

The Messy Middle: Finding Your Way Through the Hardest and Most Crucial Part of Any Bold Venture by Scott Belsky

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, DevOps, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, the medium is the message, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, WeWork, Y Combinator, young professional

If so, you should consider taking the same tactic yourself. In 2016 and 2017, Instagram infamously copied Snapchat’s tactics over and over again. Both apps were playing in the same field, and Instagram used what Snapchat learned to get ahead of it in its own game. Instagram implemented Snapchat’s “stories” and augmented-reality features, like facial overlays, because these tactics were directly aligned with its strategy: to host the media friends share with one another. Instagram was getting ideas from Snapchat, but these tactics advanced their strategy rather than diverted it. Sometimes the thing you admire most in your competitor isn’t smart or scalable.

The key to breaking incrementalism and escaping your local maxima is to swap out your underlying assumptions. For example, if your product was founded in the age of social media and mobile apps, what assumptions did you have then that you would now question as voice-activated devices enter our homes and augmented reality transforms our mobile devices? When it’s the right time to make a bold move in product strategy, make a list of the core assumptions your product or service is based on. Many tech companies that spawned early in the internet era have had to reinvent themselves. For example, Scott Heiferman, Meetup’s CEO and founder, shared his thoughts with me on the topic of rebooting products and breaking incrementalism one afternoon near his company’s headquarters in New York City in early 2017.


pages: 426 words: 117,027

Mind in Motion: How Action Shapes Thought by Barbara Tversky

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, clean water, continuous integration, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, fundamental attribution error, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Snow's cholera map, Lao Tzu, meta-analysis, natural language processing, neurotypical, patient HM, Richard Feynman, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, theory of mind, urban planning

But people have far more pieces to use to construct mental maps beyond personal exploration, beyond place and grid cells. People can use specific memories of places they have visited or routes they have taken, but they can also use descriptions of places and routes in language and depictions of them in maps. They now can use mobile phones and augmented reality and who knows what else in the future. People can use spatial schemas, general knowledge about layouts of cities and towns, not just of their own regions and countries but also of other regions and countries. Once I visited Prague and Budapest in succession and realized that they have the same map: a river running north and south, with an old town and a castle on the west bank and a “new” town and art nouveau museum on the east bank.

At the same time that technologies are allowing us to move farther and farther, other technologies are bringing the world nearer and closer, to wherever we happen to be. Letters, eons ago only for the wealthy, now instantaneous and always at our fingertips (a mixed blessing), enhanced by video and sound, replacing telephones, once an astounding resource. Now our bodies don’t have to move at all; we can travel the world with smartphones, augmented reality, virtual reality. If we need to move, and physicians advise us to do so, we can move our feet on the treadmill in the gym, without going farther than getting to the gym. From the treadmill, we can enter a virtual world of our choosing, Machu Picchu without climbing, Bangkok without traffic, Beijing without pollution.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, Tim Cook: Apple, Tragedy of the Commons, web application, WeWork, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K, you are the product

Quest was not something that people would use on a persistent basis, and it would not fulfill Zuckerberg’s dreams of virtual or augmented reality being the platform for social interaction. That could only be done by ditching those cumbersome headsets and creating the technology that would allow people to become a form of cyborg—part human, part Facebook. That would happen, he hoped, by the efforts of Oculus Research, the lab in Seattle working on long-range projects. It was making progress on its wear-all-the-time Augmented Reality eyeglasses. Beyond that, Facebook was exploring how to get its products literally in people’s heads.

Zuckerberg’s subsequent apology, if one could call it that, was of the “sorry to anyone I offended” variety. The episode did not help Facebook’s virtual-reality efforts. Zuckerberg’s hope lay in Oculus’s research facility in Seattle, which had hired top scientists to help devise low-cost goggles that would solve long-term VR problems and deliver an “augmented reality” experience, superimposing computer graphics as an overlay on the real world. He exercised patience, confident that the lab’s head, Michael Abrash, was gathering the best scientists to advance the field. Oculus would need them, because Apple, Microsoft, and other companies were also devoting their resources to such a product.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Positive impacts – Immediate information to the individual to make informed decisions for navigation and work/personal activities – Improved capacity to perform tasks or produce goods and services with visual aids for manufacturing, healthcare/surgery and service delivery – Ability for those with disabilities to manage their interactions and movement, and to experience the world – through speaking, typing and moving, and via immersive experiences Negative impacts – Mental distraction causing accidents – Trauma from negative immersive experiences – Increased addiction and escapism Unknown, or cuts both ways – A new segment created in the entertainment industry – Increased immediate information The shift in action Glasses are already on the market today (not just produced by Google) that can: – Allow you to freely manipulate a 3D object, enabling it to be moulded like clay – Provide all the extended live information you need when you see something, in the same way the brain functions – Prompt you with an overlay menu of the restaurant you pass by – Project picture or video on any piece of paper Source: http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/augmented-reality-smart-glasses/ Shift 4: Wearable Internet The tipping point: 10% of people wearing clothes connected to the internet By 2025: 91% of respondents expected this tipping point will have occurred Technology is becoming increasingly personal. Computers were first located in large rooms, then on desks and, following that, on people’s laps.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hedonic treadmill, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

It was a while since she had attempted the manoeuvre herself; she knew she would not have executed it so smoothly even when she used to do her own driving. She certainly wouldn’t be able to do it now that she was so out of practice. The train arrived soon after she reached the platform (perfect timing by her car, again) and Hermione used the display in Julia’s augmented reality (AR) contact lenses to highlight the carriage with the most empty seats, drawing on information from sensors inside the train. As Julia boarded the carriage the display highlighted the best seat to choose, based on her travelling preferences and the convenience of disembarkation at the other end of the journey.


The Icon Handbook by Jon Hicks

augmented reality, Debian, Firefox, Google Chrome, Kickstarter, Skype, web application

Think of all the symbols that have been created to represent concepts around social media: tweet; like; share; link; blog; user. These symbols have become and will remain a part of our everyday life. Now imagine all the symbols that will be needed to represent new concepts in medicine, nanotechnology, environmental protection, human rights and augmented reality. It is safe to say designers are poised to exponentially expand the world’s visual language vocabulary over the coming years, and this book will be an invaluable tool to assist them. Edward J Boatman Co-founder of the Noun Project Contents Introduction Chapter 1: A potted history of icons Chapter 2: How we use icons Chapter 3: Favicons Chapter 4: The Metaphor Chapter 5: Drawing Icons Chapter 6: Icon formats and deployment Chapter 7: Application icons Appendix “Trying to capture the essence of an object or idea with only a few lines and at the same time maintaining its elegance is pretty much design in a nutshell.


pages: 480 words: 119,407

Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, independent contractor, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

From smartwatches that are too big for women’s wrists,19 to map apps that fail to account for women’s desire for ‘safest’ in addition to ‘fastest’ routes; to ‘measure how good you are at sex’ apps called ‘iThrust’20 and ‘iBang’21 (and yes the in-built assumptions of what constitutes good sex are exactly what the names imply), the tech industry is rife with examples of tech that forget about women. Virtual reality (VR) headsets that are too big for the average woman’s head; a ‘haptic jacket’ (a jacket that simulates touch) that fits snugly on a male body, but on a female reviewer’s body ‘could have fit over a puffy winter coat’; augmented-reality glasses whose lenses are too far apart for a woman to focus on the image, ‘or whose frames immediately fall off my face’. Or, as I know from my experience of going on TV and giving public lectures, mic packs that require either a waistband or substantial pockets to attach to. Out goes pretty much every dress ever designed.

via=gdpr-consent#methodology 14 https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-onhistory/may-2010/what-the-data-reveals-about-women-historians 15 https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/december-2015/the-rise-and-decline-of-history-specializations-over-the-past-40-years 16 http://duckofminerva.com/2015/08/new-evidence-on-gender-bias-in-irsyllabi.html 17 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jan/23/gender.uk 18 Sex Discrimination Law Review (January 2018), www.fawcettsociety.org.uk 19 Nielsen, Mathias Wullum, Andersen, Jens Peter, Schiebinger, Londa and Schneider, Jesper W. (2017), ‘One and a half million medical papers reveal a link between author gender and attention to gender and sex analysis’, Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 791–6 20 https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/7/18/15991020/3-gop-women-tank-obamacare-repeal 21 Ransby, B. (2006), ‘Katrina, Black Women, and the Deadly Discourse on Black Poverty in America’, Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 3:1, 215–22, DOI:10.1017/S1742058X06060140 22 https://grist.org/article/hurricane-maria-hit-women-in-puerto-rico-the-hardest-and-theyre-the-ones-building-it-back/ 23 https://www.vogue.com/projects/13542078/puerto-rico-after-hurricane-maria-2/ Index of Searchable Terms academia Académie française acetylsalicylic acid Achilles tendon acute coronary syndrome adverse drug reaction (ADR) Affordable Care Act (2010) Afghanistan African Americans agency workers Agenda agriculture Ahmed, Samira Alaska alcohol algorithms Ali, Syed all-women shortlists (AWS) AllBright alt-right alternative work Alvarez, Janica Always Alzheimer’s disease ambition American Academy of Family Physicians American Academy of Pediatrics American Airlines American Civil War (1861–5) American Express American Heart Association Amnesty International anaemia anatomy Anderson, Chris angina angiograms Angola animal testing antibiotics antidepressants antihistamines antipsychotics anxiety aorta Apple Applebaum, Anne architects Argentina Aristotle Armenia Arrigoitia, Melissa Fernández artificial intelligence (AI) asbestos Asperger’s syndrome aspirin Assange, Julian Assassin’s Creed assertiveness asylums Atlantic attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ATX augmented-reality glasses Austen, Jane austerity. Australia gender pay gap gendered poverty Gillard ministries (2010–13) homelessness leisure time maternity. leave medical research military murders paternity. leave political representation precarious work school textbooks sexual assault/harassment taxation time-use surveys unpaid work Australia Institute Austria autism auto-plastics factories Autoblog autoimmune diseases automotive plastics workplaces Ayrton, Hertha Azerbaijan babies’ cries baby bottles Baker, Colin Baku, Azerbaijan Ball, James Bangladesh Bank of England banknotes Barbican, London Barcelona, Catalonia beauticians de Beauvoir, Simone Beer, Anna Beijing, China Belgium Berkman Center for Internet and Society Besant, Annie BI Norwegian Business School bicarbonate of soda Big Data bile acid composition biomarkers biomass fuels biomechanics Birka warrior Birmingham, West Midlands bisphenol A (BPA) ‘bitch’ bladder ‘Blank Space’ (Swift) blind recruitment blood pressure Bloom, Rachel Bloomberg News Bock, Laszlo body fat body sway Bodyform Boesel, Whitney Erin Boler, Tania Bolivia Boosey, Leslie Boserup, Ester Bosnia Boston Consulting Group Botswana Bouattia, Malia Boulanger, Béatrice Bourdieu, Pierre Bovasso, Dawn Boxing Day tsunami (2004) boyd, danah brain ischaemia Brazil breasts cancer feeding and lifting techniques pumps reduction surgery and seat belts and tactile situation awareness system (TSAS) and uniforms Bretherton, Joanne Brexit Bricks, New Orleans brilliance bias Brin, Sergey British Electoral Survey British Journal of Pharmacology British Medical Journal British Medical Research Council British National Corpus (BNC) Broadly Brophy, Jim and Margaret Buick Bulgaria Burgon, Richard Bush, Stephen Buvinic, Mayra BuzzFeed Cabinet caesarean sections Cairns, Alex California, United States Callanan, Martin Callou, Ada Calma, Justine calorie burning Cambridge Analytica Cameron, David Campbell Soup Canada banknotes chemical exposure childcare crime homelessness medical research professor evaluations sexual assault/harassment toilets unpaid work Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) Canadian Institutes of Health cancer canon formation Cape Town, South A.ica carcinogens cardiac resynchronisation therapy devices (CRT-Ds) cardiovascular system care work and agriculture elderly people and employment gross domestic product (GDP) occupational health and paternity leave time-use surveys and transport and zoning Carnegie Mellon University carpenters cars access to crashes driving tests motion sickness navigation systems Castillejo, Clare catcalling Cavalli, Francesco cave paintings CCTV Ceccato, Vania cell studies Center for American Progress Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) Center for Talent Innovation Central Asia Centre of Better Births, Liverpool Women’s Hospital chemicals Chiaro Chicago, Illinois chief executive officers (CEO) child benefit child marriage childbirth childcare and agriculture cost of and employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and paternity leave time-use surveys and zoning children’s television China cholera Chopin, Frédéric Chou, Tracy chromosomes chronic illness/pain Chronic Pain Policy Coalition chulhas Cikara, Mina circadian rhythms Citadel classical music clean stoves cleaning climate change Clinton, Hillary clitoridectomies Clue coal mining coastguards Collett Beverly colon cancer Columbia University competence vs warmth composers Composers’ Guild of Great Britain computer science confirmation bias confounding factors Congo, Democratic Republic of the Connecticut, United States Conservative Party construction work contraception contractions cooking cookstoves Corbusier, Le Cornell University coronary stents Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) corrective rape cosmetology Cosmopolitan Cotton, Dany Coyle, Diane crash test dummies Crazy Ex-Girlfriend Crewe, Emma Crick, Francis Crime Prevention and Community Safety crime crime scene investigators Croatia crochet Crockety, Molly CurrMIT CVs (curriculum vitaes) Czech Republic daddy quotas Daly, Caroline Louisa Data2x Davis-Blake, Alison Davis, Wendy Davison, Peter defibrillators deforestation Delhi, India dementia Democratic Party Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic United Party dengue fever Denmark dental devices Department for Work and Pensions depression diabetes diarrhoea diet diethylstilbestrol (DES) disabled people disasters Ditum, Sarah diversity-valuing behavior DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Do Babies Matter (Goulden, Mason, and Wolfinger) Doctor Who domestic violence Donison, Christopher Doss, Cheryl ‘draw a scientist’ driving dry sex Dyas-Elliott, Roger dysmenorrhea E3 Eagle, Angela early childhood education (ECE) Ebola economics Economist, The Edexcel education Edwards, Katherine Einstein, Albert elderly people Eliot, George Elks lodges Elvie emoji employment gender pay gap occupational health parental leave precarious work sexual assault/harassment and unpaid work ‘End of Theory, The’ (Anderson) endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Society endometriosis endovascular occlusion devices England national football English language ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) Enlightenment entrepreneurs epilepsy Equal Times Equality Act (2010) erectile dysfunction Estonian language Ethiopia EuroNCAP European Parliament European Union academia bisphenol A (BPA) chronic illnesses crash test dummies employment gap endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) gender-inflected languages life expectancy medical research parental leave precarious work sexual harassment taxation transport planning Evernote EverydaySexism evolution exercise extension services Facebook facial wrinkle correction fall-detection devices Fallout Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) farming Fawcett Society Fawlty Towers female Viagra feminism Feminist Frequency films Financial crash (2008) Finland Finnbogadóttir, Vigdís Finnish language firefighters first past the post (FPTP) First World War (1914–18) Fiske, Susan Fitbit fitness devices flexible working Folbre, Nancy Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) football forced marriage Ford Fordham, Maureen fragile states France Franklin, Rosalind Frauen-Werk-Stadt free weights Freeman, Hadley French language Freud, Sigmund From Poverty to Power (Green) funeral rites FX gaming GapJumpers Gates Foundation Gates, Melinda gathering Geffen, David gender gender data gap academia agriculture algorithms American Civil War (1861–5) brilliance bias common sense crime Data2x female body historical image datasets innovation male universality medical research motion sickness occupational health political representation pregnancy self-report bias sexual assault/harassment smartphones speech-recognition technology stoves taxation transport planning unpaid work warmth vs competence Gender Equality Act (1976) Gender Global Practice gender pay gap gender-fair forms gender-inflected languages gendered poverty genderless languages Gendersite General Accounting Office generic masculine genius geometry Georgetown University German language German Society of Epidemiology Germany academia gender pay gap gender-inflected language Landesamt für Flüchtlingsangelegenheiten (LAF) medical research precarious work refugee camps school textbooks unpaid work Gezi Park protests (2013) Ghana gig economy Gild Gillard, Julia GitHub Glencore Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves Global Gender Gap Index Global Media Monitoring Project Golden Globes Google artificial intelligence (AI) childcare Images maternity leave News Nexus petabytes pregnancy parking promotions search engine speech-recognition software Translate Gosling, Ryan Gothenburg, Sweden Gove, Michael Government Accounting Office (GAO) Great Depression (1929–39) Greece Green, Duncan Greenberg, Jon groping gross domestic product (GDP) Grown, Caren Guardian Gujarat earthquake (2001) Gulf War (1990–91) gyms H1N1 virus Hackers (Levy) hand size/strength handbags handprints haptic jackets Harman, Harriet Harris, Kamala Harvard University hate crimes/incidents Hawking, Stephen Haynes, Natalie Hayward, Sarah Hazards Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) Health and Safety Executive (HSE) health-monitoring systems healthcare/medicine Hearst heart attacks disease medication rhythm abnormalities surgery Heat St Heinrich Böll Foundation Helldén, Daniel Henderson, David Henry Higgins effect Henry VIII, King of England Hensel, Fanny hepatitis Hern, Alex high-efficiency cookstoves (HECs) Higher Education Statistics Agency Himmelweit, Sue hip belts history Hodgkin’s disease Holdcrofity, Anita Hollaback ‘Hollywood heart attack’ Homeless Period, The homelessness hopper fare Hopper, Grace hormones House of Commons Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey housekeeping work Howard, Todd human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Human Rights Act (1998) Human Rights Watch human–computer interaction Hungary hunter-gatherer societies Huntingdon, Agnes Hurricane Andrew (1992) Hurricane Katrina (2005) Hurricane Maria (2017) hyperbolic geometry hysterectomies hysteria I Am Not Your Negro Iceland identity Idomeni camp, Greece Illinois, United States images immune system Imperial College London Inc Income of Nations, The (Studenski) indecent exposure Independent India Boxing Day tsunami (2004) gendered poverty gross domestic product (GDP) Gujarat earthquake (2001) political representation sexual assault/harassment stoves taxation toilets unpaid work Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) Industrial Revolution (c. 1760–1840) influenza Inmujeres innovation Institute for Fiscal Studies Institute for Women’s Policy Research Institute of Medicine Institute of Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) institutionalised rape Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises Inter-Parliamentary Union’s (IPU) Internal Revenue Service (IRS) International Agency Research on Cancer International Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning International Council of Nurses International Encyclopaedia of Women Composers International Labour Organization (ILO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Peace Institute International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) interrupting intestinal enzymes iPhone Ireland IRIN irritable bowel syndrome Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) isometric exercises Israel Italy Jackson, Henry Japan Jenkins, Simon Jepson, Peter job interviews job vacancies Jones, Anna Jones, Brigid Juárez, Victoria ‘just in time’ scheduling so.ware Kail, Eva Karlskoga, Sweden Karnataka Household Asset Survey Katebe, Uganda Keecoo K1 Kelly, Paul Kenya Khayelitsha, South Africa kidneys kinesiology Knausgaard, Karl Ove Knope, Leslie Koofi, Fawzia Korea Kronos Kuznets, Simon Labour Party Lammy, David Lancet Lancet Planetary Health Landesamt für Flüchtlingsangelegenheiten (LAF) language Latin America Latvia Lau, Tessa Lauer, Matt Lawrence, David Lean In (Sandberg) Lebanon Legro, Richard Leicester, Leicestershire leisure time lesbians Lesotho lethal violence Levy, Steven Lewis, Brandon Leyster, Judith Liberal Democrats Liberia libertarianism life expectancy Life of Pi Lilla, Mark Lim, Angelica Limpsfield Grange, Surrey Lin Qing Linder, Astrid literacy literature Littman, Ellen liver failure Liverpool, Merseyside lobotomies Local Government Act (1972) London, England Fire Brigade general election (2017) precarious work sexual assault/harassment transportation London School of Economics (LSE) London Review of Books Long Friday long-hours culture longevity Los Angeles Times Los Angeles, California Loughborough University Louisiana, United States Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia lubricant lung capacity lung diseases Macedonia Mackinnon, Catherine Maconchy, Elizabeth Made by Many Madrid, Spain malaria Malawi male universality Malmö, Sweden Malta mammary carcinogens ‘Man the Hunter’ Manchester University Martínez-Román, Adi Martino, Tami Marvel Comics maternal mortality maternity leave mathematics Mazarra, Glen McCabe, Jesse McCain, John McGill University McKinsey McLean, Charlene Medela medicine/healthcare Medline Memorial University Mendelssohn, Felix Mendes, Eva Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo menopause menstruation mental health meritocracy Messing, Karen meta gender data gap MeToo movement Metroid mewar angithi (MA) Mexico Miami, Florida mice Microsoft migraines military Milito, Beth Miller, Maria Minassian, Alek Minha Casa, Minha Vida miscarriages Mismeasure of Woman, The (Tavris) misogyny Mitchell, Margaret Mogil, Jeffrey Mongolia Montreal University Morgan, Thomas Hunt morphine motion parallax motion sickness Motorola multiple myeloma Mumbai, India murders Murray, Andrew muscle music My Fair Lady myometrial blood ‘Myth’ (Rukeyser) nail salons Naipaul, Vidiadhar Surajprasad naive realism National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Autistic Society National Democratic Institute National Health Service (NHS) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) National Institute for Health and Case Excellence (NICE) National Institute of Health Revitalization Act (1993) National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Union of Students (NUS) natural gender languages Nature Navarro, Jannette Naya Health Inc Nea Kavala camp, Greece Neitzert, Eva Neolithic era Netflix Netherlands neutrophils New Jersey, United States New Orleans, Louisiana New Statesman New York, United States New York Committee for Occupational Safety & Health (NYCOSH) New York Philharmonic Orchestra New York Times New Yorker New Zealand Newham, London Nigeria Nightingale, Florence Nobel Prize nomunication Norris, Colleen Norway Nottingham, Nottinghamshire nurses Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane O’Neil, Cathy O’Neill, Rory Obama, Barack Occupational Health and Safety Administration occupational health Oedipus oestradiol oestrogen office temperature Olympic Games Omron On the Generation of Animals (Aristotle) orchestras Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organisation for the Study of Sex Differences Orissa, India osteopenia osteoporosis ovarian cancer Oxfam Oxford English Dictionaries Oxford University oxytocin pacemakers pain sensitivity pairing Pakistan Pandey, Avanindra paracetamol parental leave Paris, France Parkinson’s disease parks passive tracking apps paternity leave patronage networks pattern recognition Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia peace talks pelvic floor pelvic inflammatory disease pelvic stress fractures pensions performance evaluations periods Persian language personal protective equipment (PPE) Peru petabytes Pew Research Center phantom-limb syndrome phenylpropanolamine Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philippines phobias phthalates Physiological Society pianos Plato plough hypothesis poetry Poland police polio political representation Politifact Pollitzer, Elizabeth Portland, Oregon Portugal post-natal depression post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) poverty Powell, Colin PR2 Prada prams precarious work pregnancy Pregnant Workers Directive (1992) premenstrual syndrome (PMS) primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PPCI) Prinz-Brandenburg, Claudia progesterone projection bias prolapse promotions proportional representation (PR) Prospect Union Prospect Public Monuments and Sculptures Association public sector equality duty (PSED) public transport Puerto Rico purchasing authority ‘quantified self’ community Quebec, Canada QuiVr radiation Rajasthan, India rape RateMyProfessors.com recruitment Red Tape Challenge ‘Redistribution of Sex, The’ Reference Man Reformation refugees Renaissance repetitive strain injury (RSI) Representation of the People Act (1832) Republican Party Resebo, Christian Reykjavik, Iceland Rhode Island, United States Rio de Janeiro, Brazil risk-prediction models road building Road Safety on Five Continents Conference Roberts, David Robertson, Adi robots Rochdale, Manchester Rochon Ford, Anne Rudd, Kevin Rukeyser, Muriel Russian Federation Rwanda Sacks-Jones, Katharine Saenuri Party Safecity SafetyLit Foundation Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés Sandberg, Sheryl Sanders, Bernard Santos, Cristine Schalk, Tom Schenker, Jonathan Schiebinger, Londa School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) school textbooks Schumann, Clara science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) Scientific American scientists Scotland Scythians ‘sea of dudes’ problem Seacole, Mary seat belts Second World War (1939.45) self-report bias September 11 attacks (2001) Serbia Sessions, Jefferson severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) sex Sex Discrimination Act (1975) sex robots sex-disaggregated data agriculture chemical exposure conflict employment fall-detection devices fitness devices gendered poverty medical research precarious work smartphones taxation transport urban design virtual reality voice recognition working hours sexual violence/harassment shape-from-shading Sherriff, Paula Shield, The shifting agriculture Sierra Leone sildenafil citrate Silicon Valley Silver, Nate Singh, Jyoti single parents single-member districts (SMD) Siri Skåne County, Sweden skeletons skin Slate Slocum, Sally Slovenia smartphones snow clearing social capital social data Social Democratic Party (SDP) social power socialisation Solna, Sweden Solnit, Rebecca Somalia Sony Ericsson Sounds and Sweet Airs (Beer) South Africa South Korea Soviet Union (1922–91) Spain Spanish language Speak with a Geek speech-recognition technology Sphinx sports Sprout Pharmaceuticals Sri Lanka St Mark’s, Venice St Vincent & the Grenadines stab vests Stack Overflow Stanford University staple crops Star Wars Starbucks Starkey, David statins statues stem cells Stevens, Nettie Stockholm, Sweden Stoffregen, Tom stoves Streisand, Barbra streptococcal toxic shock syndrome stress strokes Strozzi, Barbara Studenski, Paul Sulpicia Supreme Court Sweden Birka warrior car crashes councils crime depression gender pay gap heart attacks murders paternity leave political representation refugee camps snow clearing sports taxation unpaid work youth urban regeneration Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute Swift, Taylor swine flu Swinson, Joanne Kate ‘Jo’ Switzerland Syria Systran tactile situation awareness system (TSAS) Taimina, Daina Taiwan Tate, Angela Tatman, Rachael Tavris, Carol taxation teaching evaluations Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) tear gas tech industry television temperature Temperature Temporary Assistance to Needy Families tennis tenure-track system text corpora thalidomide ThinkProgress Thor three-stone fires time poverty time-use surveys TIMIT corpus Tin, Ida toilets Toksvig, Sandi tools Toronto, Ontario Tottenham, London Toyota Trades Union Congress (TUC) tradition transit captives transportation treadmills trip-chaining troponin Trump, Donald tuberculosis (TB) Tudor period (1485–1603) Tufekci, Zeynep Turkey Twitter Uberpool Uganda Ukraine ulcerative colitis Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher Umeå, Sweden Understanding Girls with ADHD (Littman) unemployment unencumbered people Unicode Consortium Unison United Association of Civil Guards United Kingdom academia austerity autism banknotes breast pumps Brexit (2016–) Fire Brigade caesarean sections children’s centres chronic illness/pain coastguards councils employment gap endometriosis Equality Act (2010) flexible working gender pay gap gendered poverty general elections generic masculine gross domestic product (GDP) heart attacks homelessness Human Rights Act (1998) leisure time maternity leave medical research military murders music nail salons occupational health paternity leave pedestrians pensions personal protective equipment (PPE) police political representation precarious work public sector equality duty (PSED) Representation of the People Act (1832) scientists Sex Discrimination Act (1975) sexual assault/harassment single parents statues stress taxation toilets transportation trip-chaining universities unpaid work Yarl’s Wood Detention Centre United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Commission on the Status of Women Data2x Economic Commission for Africa Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) homicide survey Human Development Report and peace talks Population Fund Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) and stoves and Switzerland and toilets and unpaid childcare Women’s Year World Conference on Women United States academia Affordable Care Act (2010) Agency for International Development (USAID) Alzheimer’s disease banknotes bisphenol A (BPA) breast pumps brilliance bias Bureau of Labor Statistics car crashes chief executive officers (CEO) childbirth, death in Civil War (1861–5) construction work councils crime early childhood education (ECE) employment gap endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) endometriosis farming flexible working gender pay gap gendered poverty generic masculine Great Depression (1929–39) gross domestic product (GDP) healthcare heart attacks Hurricane Andrew (1992) Hurricane Katrina (2005) Hurricane Maria (2017) immigration detention facilities job interviews ‘just in time’ scheduling so.ware leisure time maternity leave medical research meritocracy military mortality rates murders nail salons National Institute of Health Revitalization Act (1993) occupational health personal protective equipment (PPE) political representation precarious work presidential election (2016) school textbooks September 11 attacks (2001) sexual assault/harassment single parents soccer team Supreme Court taxation tech industry toilets transportation Trump administration (2017–) universities unpaid work universal credit (UC) universality universities University and College Union University of California, Berkeley University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) University of Chicago University of Liverpool University of London University of Manchester University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of North Carolina University of Stirling University of Sussex University of Washington University of York unpaid work agriculture and algorithms and gross domestic product (GDP) and occupational health and stoves and transport in workplace and zoning upper body strength upskirting urinals urinary-tract infections urination uro-gynaecological problems uterine failure uterine tybroids Uttar Pradesh, India Uzbekistan vaccines vagina Valium Valkrie value-added tax (VAT) Van Gulik, Gauri Venice, Italy venture capitalists (VCs) Veríssimo, Antônio Augusto Viagra Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom video games Vienna, Austria Vietnam Vikings Villacorta, Pilar violence virtual reality (VR) voice recognition Volvo voting rights Vox voyeurism Wade, Virginia Walker, Phillip walking wallet to purse Walmart warfare warmth vs competence Warsaw Pact Washington Post Washington Times Washington, DC, United States WASHplus WaterAid Watson, James We Will Rebuild weak contractions Weapons of Math Destruction (O’Neil) West Bengal, India whiplash Wiberg-Itzel, Eva Wikipedia Wild, Sarah Williams, Gayna Williams, Serena Williams, Venus Williamson, £eresa Willow Garage Wimbledon Windsor, Ontario Winter, Jessica Wired Wolf of Wall Street, The Wolfers, Justin Wolfinger, Nicholas ‘Woman the Gatherer’ (Slocum) Women and Equalities Committee Women Will Rebuild Women’s Budget Group (WBG) Women’s Design Service Women’s Engineering Society Women’s Refugee Commission Women’s Year Woolf, Virginia workplace safety World Bank World Cancer Research Fund World Cup World Economic Forum (WEF) World Health Organization (WHO) World Meteorological Organisation worm infections Woskow, Debbie Wray, Susan Wyden, Robert XY cells Y chromosome Yale University Yarl’s Wood Detention Centre, Bedford Yatskar, Mark Yemen Yentl syndrome Yezidis Youth Vote, The youthquake Zambia zero-hour contracts Zika zipper quotas zombie stats zoning Zou, James Photo by Rachel Louise Brown CAROLINE CRIADO PEREZ is a writer, broadcaster, and feminist activist and was named Liberty Human Rights Campaigner of the Year and OBE by the Queen.


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Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Garrett Hardin, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, Tragedy of the Commons, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

People already routinely tap “yes” to allow tracking options in their phones, and then expect the cloud to recommend nearby restaurants, keep track of their jogging, and warn about where the nearby traffic jams have formed. Could there be even more compelling reasons to accept being tracked, and being observed by remote algorithms in computer clouds? Yes, there will be many good reasons. I gave one earlier: knowing your carbon footprint moment to moment. Other examples will come about because of Mixed, or Augmented, Reality. This is a technology that brings Virtual Reality into the everyday physical world. A typical way it might work is that your sunglasses would gain the ability to add an illusion of virtual stuff placed in the physical world. The glasses might reveal something about a flower as you walk by a garden in springtime.

., 296, 298 lawyers, 98–99, 100, 136, 184, 318–19 leadership, 341–51 legacy prices, 272–75, 288 legal issues, 49, 63, 74–82, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 136, 184, 204, 206, 318–19 Lehman Brothers, 188 lemonade stands, 79–82 “lemons,” 118–19 Lennon, John, 211, 213 levees, economic, 43–45, 46, 47, 48, 49–50, 52, 92, 94, 96, 98, 108, 171, 176n, 224–25, 239–43, 253–54, 263, 345 leveraged mortgages, 49–50, 61, 227, 245, 289n, 296 liberal arts, 97 liberalism, 135–36, 148, 152, 202, 204, 208, 235, 236, 251, 253, 256, 265, 293, 350 libertarianism, 14, 34, 80, 202, 208, 210, 262, 321 liberty, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 licensing agreements, 79–82 “Lifestreams” (Gelernter), 313 Lights in the Tunnel, The (Ford), 56n Linux, 206, 253, 291, 344 litigation, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 184 loans, 32–33, 42, 43, 74, 151–52, 306 local advantages, 64, 94–95, 143–44, 153–56, 173, 203, 280 Local/Global Flip, 153–56, 173, 280 locked-in software, 172–73, 182, 273–74 logical copies, 223 Long-Term Capital Management, 49, 74–75 looms, 22, 23n, 24 loopholes, tax, 77 lotteries, 338–39 lucid dreaming, 162 Luddites, 135, 136 lyres, 22, 23n, 24 machines, 19–20, 86, 92, 123, 129–30, 158, 261, 309–11, 328 see also computers “Machine Stops, The” (Forster), 129–30, 261, 328 machine translations, 19–20 machine vision, 309–11 McMillen, Keith, 117 magic, 110, 115, 151, 178, 216, 338 Malthus, Thomas, 132, 134 Malthusian humor, 125, 127, 132–33 management, 49 manufacturing sector, 49, 85–89, 99, 123, 154, 343 market economies, see economies, market marketing, 211–13, 266–67, 306, 346 “Markets for Lemons” problem, 118–19 Markoff, John, 213 marriage, 167–68, 274–75, 286 Marxism, 15, 22, 37–38, 48, 136–37, 262 as humor, 126 mash-ups, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 Maslow, Abraham, 260, 315 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 75, 93, 94, 96–97, 157–58, 184 mass media, 7, 66, 86, 109, 120, 135, 136, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 material extinction, 125 materialism, 125n, 195 mathematics, 11, 20, 40–41, 70, 71–72, 75–78, 116, 148, 155, 161, 189n, 273n see also statistics Matrix, The, 130, 137, 155 Maxwell, James Clerk, 55 Maxwell’s Demon, 55–56 mechanicals, 49, 51n Mechanical Turk, 177–78, 185, 187, 349 Medicaid, 99 medicine, 11–13, 17, 18, 54, 66–67, 97–106, 131, 132–33, 134, 150, 157–58, 325, 346, 363, 366–67 Meetings with Remarkable Men (Gurdjieff), 215 mega-dossiers, 60 memes, 124 Memex, 221n memories, 131, 312–13, 314 meta-analysis, 112 metaphysics, 12, 127, 139, 193–95 Metcalf’s Law, 169n, 350 Mexico City, 159–62 microfilm, 221n microorganisms, 162 micropayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 Microsoft, 19, 89, 265 Middle Ages, 190 middle class, 2, 3, 9, 11, 16–17, 37–38, 40, 42–45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 74, 79, 91, 92, 95, 98, 171, 205, 208, 210, 224–25, 239–43, 246, 253–54, 259, 262, 263, 280, 291–94, 331, 341n, 344, 345, 347, 354 milling machines, 86 mind reading, 111 Minority Report, 130, 310 Minsky, Marvin, 94, 157–58, 217, 326, 330–31 mission statements, 154–55 Mixed (Augmented) Reality, 312–13, 314, 315 mobile phones, 34n, 39, 85, 87, 162, 172, 182n, 192, 229, 269n, 273, 314, 315, 331 models, economic, 40–41, 148–52, 153, 155–56 modernity, 123–40, 193–94, 255 molds, 86 monetization, 172, 176n, 185, 186, 207, 210, 241–43, 255–56, 258, 260–61, 263, 298, 331, 338, 344–45 money, 3, 21, 29–35, 86, 108, 124, 148, 152, 154, 155, 158, 172, 185, 241–43, 278–79, 284–85, 289, 364 monocultures, 94 monopolies, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 Moondust, 362n Moore’s Law, 9–18, 20, 153, 274–75, 288 morality, 29–34, 35, 42, 50–52, 54, 71–74, 188, 194–95, 252–64, 335–36 Morlocks, 137 morning-after pill, 104 morphing, 162 mortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 mortgages, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 300 motivation, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 motivational speakers, 216 movies, 111–12, 130, 137, 165, 192, 193, 204, 206, 256, 261–62, 277–78, 310 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 23n MRI, 111n music industry, 11, 18, 22, 23–24, 42, 47–51, 54, 61, 66, 74, 78, 86, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95–96, 97, 129, 132, 134–35, 154, 157, 159–62, 186–87, 192, 206–7, 224, 227, 239, 253, 266–67, 281, 318, 347, 353, 354, 355, 357 Myspace, 180 Nancarrow, Conlon, 159–62 Nancarrow, Yoko, 161 nanopayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 nanorobots, 11, 12, 17 nanotechnology, 11, 12, 17, 87, 162 Napster, 92 narcissism, 153–56, 188, 201 narratives, 165–66, 199 National Security Agency (NSA), 199–200 natural medicine, 131 Nelson, Ted, 128, 221, 228, 245, 349–50 Nelsonian systems, 221–30, 335 Nelson’s humor, 128 Netflix, 192, 223 “net neutrality,” 172 networked cameras, 309–11, 319 networks, see digital networks neutrinos, 110n New Age, 211–17 Newmark, Craig, 177n New Mexico, 159, 203 newspapers, 109, 135, 177n, 225, 284, 285n New York, N.Y., 75, 91, 266–67 New York Times, 109 Nobel Prize, 40, 118, 143n nodes, network, 156, 227, 230, 241–43, 350 “no free lunch” principle, 55–56, 59–60 nondeterministic music, 23n nonlinear solutions, 149–50 nonprofit share sites, 59n, 94–95 nostalgia, 129–32 NRO, 199–200 nuclear power, 133 nuclear weapons, 127, 296 nursing, 97–100, 123, 296n nursing homes, 97–100, 269 Obama, Barack, 79, 100 “Obamacare,” 100n obsolescence, 89, 95 oil resources, 43, 133 online stores, 171 Ono, Yoko, 212 ontologies, 124n, 196 open-source applications, 206, 207, 272, 310–11 optical illusions, 121 optimism, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 optimization, 144–47, 148, 153, 154–55, 167, 202, 203 Oracle, 265 Orbitz, 63, 64, 65 organ donors, 190, 191 ouroboros, 154 outcomes, economic, 40–41, 144–45 outsourcing, 177–78, 185 Owens, Buck, 256 packet switching, 228–29 Palmer, Amanda, 186–87 Pandora, 192 panopticons, 308 papacy, 190 paper money, 34n parallel computers, 147–48, 149, 151 paranoia, 309 Parrish, Maxfield, 214 particle interactions, 196 party machines, 202 Pascal, Blaise, 132, 139 Pascal’s Wager, 139 passwords, 307, 309 “past-oriented money,” 29–31, 35, 284–85 patterns, information, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 Paul, Ron, 33n Pauli exclusion principle, 181, 202 PayPal, 60, 93, 326 peasants, 565 pensions, 95, 99 Perestroika (Kushner), 165 “perfect investments,” 59–67, 77–78 performances, musical, 47–48, 51, 186–87, 253 perpetual motion, 55 Persian Gulf, 86 personal computers (PCs), 158, 182n, 214, 223, 229 personal information systems, 110, 312–16, 317 Pfizer, 265 pharmaceuticals industry, 66–67, 100–106, 123, 136, 203 philanthropy, 117 photography, 53, 89n, 92, 94, 309–11, 318, 319, 321 photo-sharing services, 53 physical trades, 292 physicians, 66–67 physics, 88, 153n, 167n Picasso, Pablo, 108 Pinterest, 180–81, 183 Pirate Party, 49, 199, 206, 226, 253, 284, 318 placebos, 112 placement fees, 184 player pianos, 160–61 plutocracy, 48, 291–94, 355 police, 246, 310, 311, 319–21, 335 politics, 13–18, 21, 22–25, 47–48, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 149–51, 155, 167, 199–234, 295–96, 342 see also conservatism; liberalism; libertarianism Ponzi schemes, 48 Popper, Karl, 189n popular culture, 111–12, 130, 137–38, 139, 159 “populating the stack,” 273 population, 17, 34n, 86, 97–100, 123, 125, 132, 133, 269, 296n, 325–26, 346 poverty, 37–38, 42, 44, 53–54, 93–94, 137, 148, 167, 190, 194, 253, 256, 263, 290, 291–92 power, personal, 13–15, 53, 60, 62–63, 86, 114, 116, 120, 122, 158, 166, 172–73, 175, 190, 199, 204, 207, 208, 278–79, 290, 291, 302–3, 308–9, 314, 319, 326, 344, 360 Presley, Elvis, 211 Priceline, 65 pricing strategies, 1–2, 43, 60–66, 72–74, 145, 147–48, 158, 169–74, 226, 261, 272–75, 289, 317–24, 331, 337–38 printers, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 privacy, 1–2, 11, 13–15, 25, 50–51, 64, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 204, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–13, 314, 315–16, 317, 319–24 privacy rights, 13–15, 25, 204, 305, 312–13, 314, 315–16, 321–22 product design and development, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 236 productivity, 7, 56–57, 134–35 profit margins, 59n, 71–72, 76–78, 94–95, 116, 177n, 178, 179, 207, 258, 274–75, 321–22 progress, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 promotions, 62 property values, 52 proprietary hardware, 172 provenance, 245–46, 247, 338 pseudo-asceticism, 211–12 public libraries, 293 public roads, 79–80 publishers, 62n, 92, 182, 277–78, 281, 347, 352–60 punishing vs. rewarding network effects, 169–74, 182, 183 quants, 75–76 quantum field theory, 167n, 195 QuNeo, 117, 118, 119 Rabois, Keith, 185 “race to the bottom,” 178 radiant risk, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 Ragnarok, 30 railroads, 43, 172 Rand, Ayn, 167, 204 randomness, 143 rationality, 144 Reagan, Ronald, 149 real estate, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 reality, 55–56, 59–60, 124n, 127–28, 154–56, 161, 165–68, 194–95, 203–4, 216–17, 295–303, 364–65 see also Virtual Reality (VR) reason, 195–96 recessions, economic, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 79, 151–52, 167, 204, 311, 336–37 record labels, 347 recycling, 88, 89 Reddit, 118n, 186, 254 reductionism, 184 regulation, economic, 37–38, 44, 45–46, 49–50, 54, 56, 69–70, 77–78, 266n, 274, 299–300, 311, 321–22, 350–51 relativity theory, 167n religion, 124–25, 126, 131, 139, 190, 193–95, 211–17, 293, 300n, 326 remote computers, 11–12 rents, 144 Republican Party, 79, 202 research and development, 40–45, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 215, 229–30, 236 retail sector, 69, 70–74, 95–96, 169–74, 272, 349–51, 355–56 retirement, 49, 150 revenue growth plans, 173n revenues, 149, 149, 150, 151, 173n, 225, 234–35, 242, 347–48 reversible computers, 143n revolutions, 199, 291, 331 rhythm, 159–62 Rich Dad, Poor Dad (Kiyosaki), 46 risk, 54, 55, 57, 59–63, 71–72, 85, 117, 118–19, 120, 156, 170–71, 179, 183–84, 188, 242, 277–81, 284, 337, 350 externalization of, 59n, 117, 277–81 risk aversion, 188 risk pools, 277–81, 284 risk radiation, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 robo call centers, 177n robotic cars, 90–92 robotics, robots, 11, 12, 17, 23, 42, 55, 85–86, 90–92, 97–100, 111, 129, 135–36, 155, 157, 162, 260, 261, 269, 296n, 342, 359–60 Roman Empire, 24–25 root nodes, 241 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 129 Rousseau humor, 126, 129, 130–31 routers, 171–72 royalties, 47, 240, 254, 263–64, 323, 338 Rubin, Edgar, 121 rupture, 66–67 salaries, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 sampling, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 San Francisco, University of, 190 satellites, 110 savings, 49, 72–74 scalable solutions, 47 scams, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 scanned books, 192, 193 SceneTap, 108n Schmidt, Eric, 305n, 352 Schwartz, Peter, 214 science fiction, 18, 126–27, 136, 137–38, 139, 193, 230n, 309, 356n search engines, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293 Second Life, 270, 343 Secret, The (Byrne), 216 securitization, 76–78, 99, 289n security, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 self-actualization, 211–17 self-driving vehicles, 90–92, 98, 311, 343, 367 servants, 22 servers, 12n, 15, 31, 53–57, 71–72, 95–96, 143–44, 171, 180, 183, 206, 245, 358 see also Siren Servers “Sexy Sadie,” 213 Shakur, Tupac, 329 Shelley, Mary, 327 Short History of Progress, A (Wright), 132 “shrinking markets,” 66–67 shuttles, 22, 23n, 24 signal-processing algorithms, 76–78, 148 silicon chips, 10, 86–87 Silicon Valley, 12, 13, 14, 21, 34n, 56, 59, 60, 66–67, 70, 71, 75–76, 80, 93, 96–97, 100, 102, 108n, 125n, 132, 136, 154, 157, 162, 170, 179–89, 192, 193, 200, 207, 210, 211–18, 228, 230, 233, 258, 275n, 294, 299–300, 325–31, 345, 349, 352, 354–58 singularity, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 Singularity University, 193, 325, 327–28 Sirenic Age, 66n, 354 Siren Servers, 53–57, 59, 61–64, 65, 66n, 69–78, 82, 91–99, 114–19, 143–48, 154–56, 166–89, 191, 200, 201, 203, 210n, 216, 235, 246–50, 258, 259, 269, 271, 272, 280, 285, 289, 293–94, 298, 301, 302–3, 307–10, 314–23, 326, 336–51, 354, 365, 366 Siri, 95 skilled labor, 99–100 Skout, 280n Skype, 95, 129 slavery, 22, 23, 33n Sleeper, 130 small businesses, 173 smartphones, 34n, 39, 162, 172, 192, 269n, 273 Smith, Adam, 121, 126 Smolin, Lee, 148n social contract, 20, 49, 247, 284, 288, 335, 336 social engineering, 112–13, 190–91 socialism, 14, 128, 254, 257, 341n social mobility, 66, 97, 292–94 social networks, 18, 51, 56, 60, 70, 81, 89, 107–9, 113, 114, 129, 167–68, 172–73, 179, 180, 190, 199, 200–201, 202, 204, 227, 241, 242–43, 259, 267, 269n, 274–75, 280n, 286, 307–8, 317, 336, 337, 343, 349, 358, 365–66 see also Facebook social safety nets, 10, 44, 54, 202, 251, 293 Social Security, 251, 345 software, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 68, 86, 99, 100–101, 128, 129, 147, 154, 155, 165, 172–73, 177–78, 182, 192, 234, 236, 241–42, 258, 262, 273–74, 283, 331, 347, 357 software-mediated technology, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 South Korea, 133 Soviet Union, 70 “space elevator pitch,” 233, 342, 361 space travel, 233, 266 Spain, 159–60 spam, 178, 275n spending levels, 287–88 spirituality, 126, 211–17, 325–31, 364 spreadsheet programs, 230 “spy data tax,” 234–35 Square, 185 Stalin, Joseph, 125n Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 215 Stanford University, 60, 75, 90, 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 162, 325 Starr, Ringo, 256 Star Trek, 138, 139, 230n startup companies, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 starvation, 123 Star Wars, 137 star (winner-take-all) system, 38–43, 50, 54–55, 204, 243, 256–57, 263, 329–30 statistics, 11, 20, 71–72, 75–78, 90–91, 93, 110n, 114–15, 186, 192 “stickiness,” 170, 171 stimulus, economic, 151–52 stoplights, 90 Strangelove humor, 127 student debt, 92, 95 “Study 27,” 160 “Study 36,” 160 Sumer, 29 supergoop, 85–89 supernatural phenomena, 55, 124–25, 127, 132, 192, 194–95, 300 supply chain, 70–72, 174, 187 Supreme Court, U.S., 104–5 surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 98, 157–58, 363 surveillance, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 Surviving Progress, 132 sustainable economies, 235–37, 285–87 Sutherland, Ivan, 221 swarms, 99, 109 synthesizers, 160 synthetic biology, 162 tablets, 85, 86, 87, 88, 113, 162, 229 Tahrir Square, 95 Tamagotchis, 98 target ads, 170 taxation, 44, 45, 49, 52, 60, 74–75, 77, 82, 149, 149, 150, 151, 202, 210, 234–35, 263, 273, 289–90 taxis, 44, 91–92, 239, 240, 266–67, 269, 273, 311 Teamsters, 91 TechCrunch, 189 tech fixes, 295–96 technical schools, 96–97 technologists (“techies”), 9–10, 15–16, 45, 47–48, 66–67, 88, 122, 124, 131–32, 134, 139–40, 157–62, 165–66, 178, 193–94, 295–98, 307, 309, 325–31, 341, 342, 356n technology: author’s experience in, 47–48, 62n, 69–72, 93–94, 114, 130, 131–32, 153, 158–62, 178, 206–7, 228, 265, 266–67, 309–10, 325, 328, 343, 352–53, 362n, 364, 365n, 366 bio-, 11–13, 17, 18, 109–10, 162, 330–31 chaos and, 165–66, 273n, 331 collusion in, 65–66, 72, 169–74, 255, 350–51 complexity of, 53–54 costs of, 8, 18, 72–74, 87n, 136–37, 170–71, 176–77, 184–85 creepiness of, 305–24 cultural impact of, 8–9, 21, 23–25, 53, 130, 135–40 development and emergence of, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 digital, 2–3, 7–8, 15–16, 18, 31, 40, 43, 50–51, 132, 208 economic impact of, 1–3, 15–18, 29–30, 37, 40, 53–54, 60–66, 71–74, 79–110, 124, 134–37, 161, 162, 169–77, 181–82, 183, 184–85, 218, 254, 277–78, 298, 335–39, 341–51, 357–58 educational, 92–97 efficiency of, 90, 118, 191 employment in, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 123, 135, 178 engineering for, 113–14, 123–24, 192, 194, 217, 218, 326 essential vs. worthless, 11–12 failure of, 188–89 fear of (technophobia), 129–32, 134–38 freedom as issue in, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 government influence in, 158, 199, 205–6, 234–35, 240, 246, 248–51, 307, 317, 341, 345–46, 350–51 human agency and, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 ideas for, 123, 124, 158, 188–89, 225, 245–46, 286–87, 299, 358–60 industrial, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 information, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 investment in, 66, 181, 183, 184, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 limitations of, 157–62, 196, 222 monopolies for, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 morality and, 50–51, 72, 73–74, 188, 194–95, 262, 335–36 motivation and, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 nano-, 11, 12, 17, 162 new vs. old, 20–21 obsolescence of, 89, 97 political impact of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 progress in, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 resources for, 55–56, 157–58 rupture as concept in, 66–67 scams in, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 singularity of, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 social impact of, 9–21, 124–40, 167n, 187, 280–81, 310–11 software-mediated, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 startup companies in, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 utopian, 13–18, 21, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 see also specific technologies technophobia, 129–32, 134–38 television, 86, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 temperature, 56, 145 Ten Commandments, 300n Terminator, The, 137 terrorism, 133, 200 Tesla, Nikola, 327 Texas, 203 text, 162, 352–60 textile industry, 22, 23n, 24, 135 theocracy, 194–95 Theocracy humor, 124–25 thermodynamics, 88, 143n Thiel, Peter, 60, 93, 326 thought experiments, 55, 139 thought schemas, 13 3D printers, 7, 85–89, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 Thrun, Sebastian, 94 Tibet, 214 Time Machine, The (Wells), 127, 137, 261, 331 topology, network, 241–43, 246 touchscreens, 86 tourism, 79 Toyota Prius, 302 tracking services, 109, 120–21, 122 trade, 29 traffic, 90–92, 314 “tragedy of the commons,” 66n Transformers, 98 translation services, 19–20, 182, 191, 195, 261, 262, 284, 338 transparency, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 176, 190–91, 205–6, 278, 291, 306–9, 316, 336 transportation, 79–80, 87, 90–92, 123, 258 travel agents, 64 Travelocity, 65 travel sites, 63, 64, 65, 181, 279–80 tree-shaped networks, 241–42, 243, 246 tribal dramas, 126 trickle-down effect, 148–49, 204 triumphalism, 128, 157–62 tropes (humors), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 trust, 32–34, 35, 42, 51–52 Turing, Alan, 127–28, 134 Turing’s humor, 127–28, 191–94 Turing Test, 330 Twitter, 128, 173n, 180, 182, 188, 199, 200n, 201, 204, 245, 258, 259, 349, 365n 2001: A Space Odyssey, 137 two-way links, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 underemployment, 257–58 unemployment, 7–8, 22, 79, 85–106, 117, 151–52, 234, 257–58, 321–22, 331, 343 “unintentional manipulation,” 144 United States, 25, 45, 54, 79–80, 86, 138, 199–204 universities, 92–97 upper class, 45, 48 used car market, 118–19 user interface, 362–63, 364 utopianism, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 value, economic, 21, 33–35, 52, 61, 64–67, 73n, 108, 283–90, 299–300, 321–22, 364 value, information, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles (VALS), 215 variables, 149–50 vendors, 71–74 venture capital, 66, 181, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 videos, 60, 100, 162, 185–86, 204, 223, 225, 226, 239, 240, 242, 245, 277, 287, 329, 335–36, 349, 354, 356 Vietnam War, 353n vinyl records, 89 viral videos, 185–86 Virtual Reality (VR), 12, 47–48, 127, 129, 132, 158, 162, 214, 283–85, 312–13, 314, 315, 325, 343, 356, 362n viruses, 132–33 visibility, 184, 185–86, 234, 355 visual cognition, 111–12 VitaBop, 100–106, 284n vitamins, 100–106 Voice, The, 185–86 “voodoo economics,” 149 voting, 122, 202–4, 249 Wachowski, Lana, 165 Wall Street, 49, 70, 76–77, 181, 184, 234, 317, 331, 350 Wal-Mart, 69, 70–74, 89, 174, 187, 201 Warhol, Andy, 108 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 137 water supplies, 17, 18 Watts, Alan, 211–12 Wave, 189 wealth: aggregate or concentration of, 9, 42–43, 53, 60, 61, 74–75, 96, 97, 108, 115, 148, 157–58, 166, 175, 201, 202, 208, 234, 278–79, 298, 305, 335, 355, 360 creation of, 32, 33–34, 46–47, 50–51, 57, 62–63, 79, 92, 96, 120, 148–49, 210, 241–43, 270–75, 291–94, 338–39, 349 inequalities and redistribution of, 20, 37–45, 65–66, 92, 97, 144, 254, 256–57, 274–75, 286–87, 290–94, 298, 299–300 see also income levels weather forecasting, 110, 120, 150 weaving, 22, 23n, 24 webcams, 99, 245 websites, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Wells, H.


Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science) by Thierry Bardini

Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

In fact, the past fifty years of computing advances have ex- panded the very idea of "reality," and current research programs cover the whole spectrum of these possible alternate realities, from the "classic reality" of ubiquitous computers in what has been ordinary daily life to the intermediate 228 Coda mix of "augmented realities" and eventually to the virtual realities of cyber- space and simstim. In augmented realities, computer-generated information is superimposed onto the "real world" through a minimally intrusive head-mounted display or any other wearable output device. In this case, the human user is immersed at the same time in the "real world" and in an artificially generated, but also real world.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, impact investing, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

US firms are now copying Chinese innovations. LimeBike in California is copying China’s dockless bike sharing as pioneered by Ofo and MoBike. DiDi has algorithms that predict which ride-sharing users will want a ride at certain times and locations and is designing driverless car interiors for shared augmented-reality experiences—programs that Uber and others will surely copy. Apple is conducting payments through the iMessage chat service, following what Tencent has done. Amazon now has a lending service similar to that of Alibaba. Facebook plans to follow WeChat by becoming a complete ecosystem of digital services.

Much of Asia needs a major boost in capital stock to raise productivity, creating huge opportunities for exporting high-quality industrial and technological goods to Asia. For chip manufacturers such as Qualcomm, Asian companies’ rise in the handset market is a huge opportunity: most of its revenue comes from selling chips and technology licenses in China, and its chips are boosting the processing power of Samsung phones, enabling the company to offer new augmented-reality features. Similarly, the United States’ few remaining industrial titans, such as General Electric and Honeywell, are more reliant than ever on gas turbines, nuclear power plants, and aircraft components sold to Asian markets. GE has two-thirds of its revenues outside the United States. After China, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey, India and Pakistan are large, fast-growing markets for GE.


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

A New Yorker article by Nicholas Schmidle entitled “A Very Rare Book” cited an unnamed historian who said the book contained “more discoveries that changed the world than anyone has ever made before or since.”30 Rick Watson, an American bookseller, described the moon copperplate etchings, known as the Florence Sheet, as the “Declaration of Independence in the history of scientific discovery.”30 On the page of Galileo’s depiction of Jupiter’s moons, Owen Gingerich, a retired Harvard anatomy professor, proclaimed it as “the most exciting single manuscript page in the history of science.”30 It was even compared with the Gutenberg Bible itself, so powerful has Galileo’s achievement been.30 Although this example, albeit one of striking historical importance, came from science, the spawning of creativity and idea sharing certainly wasn’t limited to science, but has clearly extended to all walks of life. That little mobile devices have likewise been engines for creativity is not hard to accept. There are now millions of apps that have been specifically designed for smartphones and tablets, markedly enhancing the functionality of these devices. For example, related to astronomy, there are augmented reality apps like Star Chart, which has been downloaded by more than ten million people. By simply pointing your mobile device to the sky, the app tells exactly what constellation you’re looking at, with information on 120,000 stars. Later in this book we will get into the full medical package of sensors, lab-on-a-chip body fluid assays, and conversion to high-powered microscope and physical examination tools.

Once there is congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney failure, cirrhosis, dementia, or any significant organ failure, there’s no real hope for a cure. That seems a pretty grim prognosis. But medicine is morphing into a data science, now that big data, unsupervised algorithms, predictive analytics, machine learning, augmented reality, and neuromorphic computing are coming in. There’s still an opportunity to change medicine for the better and at least a chance for prevention. That is, if there was a surefire signal before a disease had ever manifested itself in a person—and this information was highly actionable—the individual’s illness might be preempted.


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disinformation, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

It is much easier to focus design effort on the boxes because they represent tangible touchpoints – the website, the ticket machine, and so on – but most people forget to think about designing the experience of the arrows, which are the transitions from one touchpoint to the next.lxxi Links afford movement in space and time and help us make what we can barely imagine. In augmented reality with a heads-up display, places are links to people, content, and services. We must be careful where we step. And in the Internet of Things, objects are links to their own stories, spime that may change culture by absorbing externality. The service evidence of folded toilet paper is but a sign of things to come.


pages: 181 words: 52,147

The Driver in the Driverless Car: How Our Technology Choices Will Create the Future by Vivek Wadhwa, Alex Salkever

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Google bus, Hyperloop, income inequality, Internet of things, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, life extension, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Menlo Park, microbiome, mobile money, new economy, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, Thomas Davenport, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

When Clifford found out that I love the Egyptian pyramids, for instance, he devised a lesson plan that used the pyramids to cover the geometry of different types of triangles, and the mathematics behind those ancient structures. We start with a guided virtual-reality (VR) tour of the pyramids, with augmented-reality overlays to connect the abstract geometry to the physical world. In this way, I can solve geometric problems that use rooms and facades of the pyramids to illustrate them. I feel that I am in the middle of history and following the minds of the Egyptian builders, the geniuses who planned and constructed these massive timeless monuments.


pages: 309 words: 54,839

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard

altcoin, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Dogecoin, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, functional programming, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, margin call, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, slashdot, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, tulip mania, Turing complete, Turing machine, WikiLeaks

Ayton spends the first third of the article repeating how devastating Blockchain will be to business, the second third making technically garbled or meaningless unsubstantiated claims about the future and the last third on a list of predictions, many of which have already been shown unfeasible and three or four of which are literally out of ’80s cyberpunk science fiction, as if he read too much William Gibson as a lad and thinks Blockchain will make Mona Lisa Overdrive real – “augmented reality using VR and holographic systems will feed off sensory layers that will sit on the Ledger of Things connecting the world”, presumably visible to your new Zeiss-Ikon eyeballs. “Someone asked me what Ethereum was… My response: ‘Imagine giving the Internet a dose of Viagra and increasing the dose each day’… The Blockchain Age is here!”


pages: 174 words: 56,405

Machine Translation by Thierry Poibeau

AltaVista, augmented reality, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, crowdsourcing, easy for humans, difficult for computers, en.wikipedia.org, Google Glasses, information retrieval, Internet of things, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, natural language processing, Necker cube, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Robert Mercer, Skype, speech recognition, statistical model, technological singularity, Turing test, wikimedia commons

The future of these objects is without a doubt more promising in professional contexts requiring people to work hands-free, for maintenance in particular (such as in the nuclear, aeronautic, and computer science fields). Other professional contexts could also provide opportunities, such as applications in medicine or sales or in the cultural domain (e.g., visits of museums with augmented reality devices). Translation Aid Tools While there has been renewed interest in machine translation since the 2000s, translation aid tools still lag behind. Companies now provide efficient specialized tools, especially “translation memories,” or databases where translators can find examples based on previous translations.


Designing Web APIs: Building APIs That Developers Love by Brenda Jin, Saurabh Sahni, Amir Shevat

active measures, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, blockchain, business process, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Google Hangouts, if you build it, they will come, Lyft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, premature optimization, pull request, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software as a service, the market place, uber lyft, web application, WebSocket

In some cases, iOS developers will often connect with other iOS developers at meetups and events, but not as often with Android developers. Some devel‐ opers, like the members of Google’s GDGs, develop a strong sense of identity, whereas others might not be so strongly affiliated. Building a Developer Strategy | 147 Developer proficiency How proficient should a developer be to use your API? Some APIs, such as those for augmented reality and artificial intelligence, might require a steeper learning curve. Sometimes the API is rather simple but requires a complex OAuth and security setup. Some APIs target developers who are highly proficient, like game developers, whereas others, such as the Google Apps Script API, tar‐ get a broader audience.


pages: 199 words: 56,243

Trillion Dollar Coach: The Leadership Playbook of Silicon Valley's Bill Campbell by Eric Schmidt, Jonathan Rosenberg, Alan Eagle

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, cloud computing, El Camino Real, Erik Brynjolfsson, fear of failure, Jeff Bezos, longitudinal study, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple

With one gesture, a short outburst of enthusiastic clapping, he would both tell the team that he loved their work, giving them all a big pat on the back, and keep things moving. Bill’s raucous cheerleading didn’t just signal his approval, it generated momentum among the entire group in the room. What a brilliant technique! Clay Bavor, the head of virtual and augmented reality products at Google, recalls a similar thing happening. In April 2015, Clay presented at a Google executive product review, showing off a new virtual reality headset and camera. After demoing the new gear, he passed out a low-end virtual reality viewer called Cardboard that Google had created and proceeded to walk everyone through a demo of a new app designed for the device.


pages: 208 words: 57,602

Futureproof: 9 Rules for Humans in the Age of Automation by Kevin Roose

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, automated trading system, basic income, Bayesian statistics, big-box store, business process, call centre, choice architecture, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Freestyle chess, future of work, gig economy, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, hustle culture, income inequality, industrial robot, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Productivity paradox, QAnon, recommendation engine, remote working, risk tolerance, robotic process automation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

These are the people who help guide and oversee machines, explain the decisions made by algorithms to other humans, and do the messy work of integrating AI into corporate IT departments. Cognizant, a rival consulting firm, recently released a list of dozens of jobs it believes will soon be created, including “personal data broker,” “augmented reality journey builder,” and “juvenile cybercrime rehabilitation counselor.” The big questions, of course, are whether there will be enough of these jobs to replace the jobs that are lost to automation, and whether there will be a lengthy gap between the disappearance of the old jobs and the appearance of the new ones.


pages: 197 words: 59,946

The Thank You Economy by Gary Vaynerchuk

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, new economy, pre–internet, Skype, social software, Tony Hsieh

It’s bound to get harder to get earned media—now that plans like Facebook campaigns are gaining in popularity, the mainstream press won’t always fall all over itself to write about them—but while it lasts, it will be powerful, powerful stuff. Of course, the best of the best will always grab the press’s heartstrings, especially as technology continues to move forward to allow outstanding mobile and augmented reality campaigns. Brands should also do everything they can to gain first-mover advantage. Marketers have to keep their finger on the pulse of the culture and keep an eye on the incoming trains. Smart marketers shouldn’t ever get too comfortable in their seats. Brands and businesses that can see the potential of emerging platforms will always have an edge over their competition.


Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean

4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Conference 1984, Ian Bogost, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

tactic of “overidentification,” in which a position is pushed to its extreme, to question the effectiveness of online activism.106 In their related project, Tweet4Action.com (2011), they further respond to the exaggerated claims of social media to influence political processes, and use Twitter and a Smart Phone augmented-reality application called Layar to create “Twitter revolutions” from the comfort of your armchair.107 The project was developed and released against the backdrop of “pro-democracy” protests in North Africa and the Near East to draw attention to associated hypocrisy. It would appear that consumer capitalism and democracy have become interchangeable in representative democracies, as made explicit by UBERMORGEN.com’s media hack [V]ote Auction (2000–2006), an online service allowing consumers to directly participate in the US electoral process by selling their votes to the highest Coding Publics 91 bidder.108 Temporary injunctions followed from US courts for alleged illegal vote trading, and the server was shut down without notice.109 The inconsistencies around this inspired another project, a public shutdown service called The Injunction Generator (2003), consisting of software to autogenerate an injunction which is then sent to the DNS registrar, to the site owner, and to the media.110 In this way, the public is encouraged to take the law into their own hands, and is able to send a cease-and-desist letter to force a site to take its contents offline.


pages: 236 words: 62,158

Marx at the Arcade: Consoles, Controllers, and Class Struggle by Jamie Woodcock

4chan, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, anti-work, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, butterfly effect, call centre, collective bargaining, Columbine, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, John Conway, Kickstarter, Landlord’s Game, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microaggression, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Oculus Rift, pink-collar, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Steve Bannon, union organizing, unpaid internship, V2 rocket

Interestingly, in a survey by Forbes, 69 percent of users of Pokémon GO said they played the game while at work, indicating the level of boredom many of us face at work in our daily lives.35 While playing Pokémon GO at work is not going to change the world, the anti-work appropriation of gamification on workers’ terms should be celebrated. The widespread adoption of smart-phones has meant that many workers have found ways to access videogames away from the electronic supervision of their work computer. Pokémon GO was clearly able to capitalize on this anti-work sentiment, as the augmented reality (AR) mobile game was downloaded over 100 million times on Google Play and generated $200 million in sales. Nintendo’s share price initially soared. Although, amusingly, it later dived as investors realized the company itself would not profit that much from the game, given it was developed by Niantic (and draws on data from Google, who also incubated the company).


pages: 522 words: 162,310

Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disinformation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional

Unlike on an acid trip, not for a moment did I really think I had magical powers or faced death, but to my mind’s more primitive, unconscious parts, the experiences seemed absolutely real. The next step is augmented reality. It exists and works, and before long it will be available to everyone. Google, Warner Bros., and blue-chip Silicon Valley venture capitalists have shoveled $1.4 billion into the start-up Magic Leap, which has no products or revenues and almost a thousand employees. Its augmented reality technology won’t encase your eyes in a headset’s miniature-movie-theater mask. Instead, as you look around at the real world, teeny projectors will beam images directly into your eyes, onto your retinas.


pages: 391 words: 71,600

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

Microsoft Story Labs, September 2016. https://news.microsoft.com/stories/computingcancer/. Dupzyk, Kevin. “I Saw the Future Through Microsoft’s HoloLens.” Popular Mechanics, September 6, 2016, http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/a22384/hololens-ar-breakthrough-awards/. Aukstakalnis, Steve. Practical Augmented Reality. A Guide to the Technologies, Applications, and Human Factors for AR and VR. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2016. Grunwald, Martin. Human Haptic Perception: Basics and Applications. Boston: Birkhauser, 2008. Gartner, Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2016, G00299893 Aaronson, Scott. Quantum Computing Since Democritus.


pages: 226 words: 17,533

Programming Scala: tackle multicore complexity on the JVM by Venkat Subramaniam

augmented reality, continuous integration, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, functional programming, loose coupling, semantic web, type inference, web application

The following are in print as of June 2009; be sure to check our website at pragprog.com for newer titles. Title Year ISBN Advanced Rails Recipes: 84 New Ways to Build Stunning Rails Apps 2008 9780978739225 Pages 464 Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great 2006 9780977616640 200 Agile Web Development with Rails, Third Edition 2009 9781934356166 784 Augmented Reality: A Practical Guide 2008 9781934356036 328 Behind Closed Doors: Secrets of Great Management 2005 9780976694021 192 Best of Ruby Quiz 2006 9780976694076 304 Core Animation for Mac OS X and the iPhone: Creating Compelling Dynamic User Interfaces 2008 9781934356104 200 Data Crunching: Solve Everyday Problems using Java, Python, and More 2005 9780974514079 208 Deploying Rails Applications: A Step-by-Step Guide 2008 9780978739201 280 Design Accessible Web Sites: 36 Keys to Creating Content for All Audiences and Platforms 2007 9781934356029 336 Desktop GIS: Mapping the Planet with Open Source Tools 2008 9781934356067 368 Developing Facebook Platform Applications with Rails 2008 9781934356128 200 Enterprise Integration with Ruby 2006 9780976694069 360 Enterprise Recipes with Ruby and Rails 2008 9781934356234 416 Everyday Scripting with Ruby: for Teams, Testers, and You 2007 9780977616619 320 FXRuby: Create Lean and Mean GUIs with Ruby 2008 9781934356074 240 From Java To Ruby: Things Every Manager Should Know 2006 9780976694090 160 GIS for Web Developers: Adding Where to Your Web Applications 2007 9780974514093 275 Google Maps API, V2: Adding Where to Your Applications 2006 PDF-Only Groovy Recipes: Greasing the Wheels of Java 2008 9780978739294 264 Hello, Android: Introducing Google’s Mobile Development Platform 2008 9781934356173 200 Interface Oriented Design 2006 9780976694052 240 Land the Tech Job You Love 2009 9781934356265 280 Learn to Program, 2nd Edition 2009 9781934356364 230 Continued on next Download page at Boykma.Com Prepared exclusively for sam kaplan 83 Title Year ISBN Manage It!


pages: 244 words: 66,977

Subscribed: Why the Subscription Model Will Be Your Company's Future - and What to Do About It by Tien Tzuo, Gabe Weisert

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, connected car, death of newspapers, digital twin, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, hockey-stick growth, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Lean Startup, Lyft, manufacturing employment, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pets.com, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart meter, social graph, software as a service, spice trade, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, transport as a service, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, WeWork, Y2K, Zipcar

A jet engine that’s being operated in the US Southwest, for example, has a different digital twin from one that primarily flies across the North Sea. Over time, those engines behave and degrade in different ways, and they transmit usage data accordingly. Very soon, engineers on the ground will use augmented reality headsets to see all this information overlaid on the jet engines when they inspect them. The digital twins will point out wear and trouble spots and offer opinions on how to resolve issues based on asset history. Essentially, GE operates its own social network for heavy industrial machinery.


pages: 260 words: 67,823

Always Day One: How the Tech Titans Plan to Stay on Top Forever by Alex Kantrowitz

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, hive mind, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, new economy, Peter Thiel, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, robotic process automation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, super pumped, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, wealth creators, zero-sum game

“One of the things that I hope to do—and that I hope we do in AR and VR—is influence the direction of the next computing platform to be more focused on the organizational principle, making it around people, rather than just tasks,” he said. “This is an area where I really care about the direction that computing goes in.” Zuckerberg knows what it’s like to depend on others, and he doesn’t want to do it forever. If virtual or augmented reality takes off, Facebook, through Oculus, will have its own popular operating system, giving it a say in the way people interact with its services, the likes of which it doesn’t have on desktop, mobile, or voice. Zuckerberg wants this badly, and is investing in Oculus to set the stage for Facebook’s next big reinvention.


pages: 586 words: 186,548

Architects of Intelligence by Martin Ford

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, algorithmic bias, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flash crash, future of work, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, information retrieval, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game, Zipcar

She was also featured on Fortune Magazine’s 40 under 40 and TechCrunch’s 40 Female founders who crushed it in 2016 lists. Chapter 11. RAY KURZWEIL The scenario that I have is that we will send medical nanorobots into our bloodstream. [...] These robots will also go into the brain and provide virtual and augmented reality from within the nervous system rather than from devices attached to the outside of our bodies. DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING AT GOOGLE Ray Kurzweil is one of the world’s leading inventors, thinkers, and futurists. He has received 21 honorary doctorates, and honors from three US presidents. He is the recipient of the MIT Lemelson Prize for innovation and in 1999, he received the National Medal of Technology, the nation’s highest honor in technology, from President Clinton.

That’s what I call the third bridge to radical life extension. The first bridge is what we can do now, and bridge two is the perfecting of biotechnology and reprogramming the software of life. Bridge three constitutes these medical nanorobots to perfect the immune system. These robots will also go into the brain and provide virtual and augmented reality from within the nervous system rather than from devices attached to the outside of our bodies. The most important application of the medical nanorobots is that we will connect the top layers of our neocortex to synthetic neocortex in the cloud. MARTIN FORD: Is this something that you’re working on at Google?


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Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, Ian Bogost, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

It is not so much that we write today with bricks attached, but rather that writing in the most general sense, our textual systems and institutions, has become distinctly hard, massy, and gritty to the touch. We think with the benefit of masonry. Writing has become the brick. As the experiment suggests, it is no wonder we do not succeed at our assigned tasks, let alone find the way to Engelbart’s or Nelson’s augmented realities. Our failure is inevitable, or as my friends from Generation M like to say, it’s epic. As anyone whose mind has been warped by videogames knows, computational sign-systems (sometimes called ‘cybertexts’) radically revise the function, and perhaps the core meaning, of failure. When a story unfolds according to contingencies determined equally by logic, chance, and player action, there is no simple way to move from start to finish, no single streambed of discourse.


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Time Travel: A History by James Gleick

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, Doomsday Book, index card, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Marshall McLuhan, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, The future is already here, wikimedia commons

It can seldom be remembered, must be imagined. Yet here in our information-rich present, the past seems more with us than ever. The more vivid it gets, the more real it seems, the greater the craving. Feeding the addiction are Ken Burnsian documentaries, Renaissance faires, Civil War reenactments, history cable channels, and augmented-reality apps. Anything that “brings the past to life.” Under the circumstances, time machines might seem surplus to requirements, but the practitioners of time travel show no signs of slowing down—not in fiction or in film. Woody Allen has explored time travel several times—into the future with Sleeper (1973) and then, in 2011, with Midnight in Paris, he throws the lever to the past.


pages: 300 words: 76,638

The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bear Stearns, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, San Francisco homelessness, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The future is already here, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

The advent of big farms, tractors, factories, assembly lines, and personal computers, while each a very big deal for the labor market, were orders of magnitude less revolutionary than advancements like artificial intelligence, machine learning, self-driving vehicles, advanced robotics, smartphones, drones, 3D printing, virtual and augmented reality, the Internet of things, genomics, digital currencies, and nanotechnology. These changes affect a multitude of industries that each employ millions of people. The speed, breadth, impact, and nature of the changes are considerably more dramatic than anything that has come before. It is true that this would be the first time that the labor market did not meaningfully adapt and adjust.


pages: 296 words: 78,631

Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms by Hannah Fry

23andMe, 3D printing, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, Brixton riot, chief data officer, computer vision, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, ransomware, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, Shai Danziger, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web of trust, William Langewiesche, you are the product

Clive Thompson, Anna Wiener, Ferris Jabr, Rahawa Haile, Geoff Manaugh, Jamie Lauren Keiles, Jennifer Kahn and Malia Wollan, ‘Full tilt: when 100 per cent of cars are autonomous’, New York Times, 8 Nov. 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/11/08/magazine/tech-design-autonomous-future-cars-100-percent-augmented-reality-policing.html#the-end-of-roadkill. 19. Peter Campbell, ‘Trucks headed for a driverless future: unions warn that millions of drivers’ jobs will be disrupted’, Financial Times, 31 Jan. 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/7686ea3e-e0dd-11e7-a0d4-0944c5f49e46. 20. Markus Maurer, J. Christian Gerdes, Barbara Lenz and Hermann Winner, Autonomous Driving: Technical, Legal and Social Aspects (New York: Springer, May 2016), p 48. 21.


pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, superconnector

Teller is the goatee-and-ponytailed head of a rather secret Google laboratory in California called Google[x]. He holds a PhD in artificial intelligence. Teller’s job is to dream big. 10x big. Google’s founders have endowed him with an engineer-filled building and a mandate to blow their minds. His team has built self-driving cars, augmented reality glasses, and WiFi balloons meant to roam the stratosphere. He’s hired some brilliant minds onto his team, but that’s not the secret of their success. The secret sounds a bit crazy. Says Teller, “It’s often easier to make something 10 times better than it is to make it 10 percent better.” Hmm.


pages: 326 words: 74,433

Do More Faster: TechStars Lessons to Accelerate Your Startup by Brad Feld, David Cohen

augmented reality, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, hiring and firing, hockey-stick growth, Inbox Zero, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software as a service, Steve Jobs

As RedLaser took off, they had a set of interesting investment offers but no longer needed outside capital and chose not to take any of the offers. While Jeff and Vikas were on their way to creating an interesting mobile e-commerce company, they wanted to work on a much bigger set of technical challenges than RedLaser in computer vision and augmented reality, their areas of passion and technical expertise. In their travels, they had a few inquiries for an acquisition of the company, but really only wanted to sell the RedLaser product, not the entire company. Fortunately, they found a buyer in eBay, which was very interested in the RedLaser product without requiring Jeff and Vikas to stay involved long term.


pages: 268 words: 75,850

The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems-And Create More by Luke Dormehl

3D printing, algorithmic bias, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, disruptive innovation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, lifelogging, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

That same decade saw the advent of the portable technology known as the Sony Walkman (a nascent vision of Google Glass to come), which transformed public spaces into a controllable private experience.7 Building on this paradigm, the 1990s was home to MIT’s Wearable Computing Group, who took issue with what they considered to be the premature usage of the term “personal computer” and insisted that: A person’s computer should be worn, much as eyeglasses or clothing are worn, and interact with the user based on the context of the situation. With heads-up displays, unobtrusive input devices, personal wireless local area networks, and a host of other context sensing and communication tools, the wearable computer can act as an intelligent assistant, whether it be through a Remembrance Agent, augmented reality, or intellectual collectives.8 There appear to be few limits to what today’s Quantified Selfers can measure. The beauty of the movement (if one can refer to it in such aesthetic terms) is the mass customization that it makes possible. By quantifying the self, a person can find apparently rigorous answers to questions as broad or specific as how many minutes of sleep are lost each night per unit of alcohol consumed, how consistent their golf swing is, or whether or not they should stay in their current job.


pages: 280 words: 82,355

Extreme Teams: Why Pixar, Netflix, AirBnB, and Other Cutting-Edge Companies Succeed Where Most Fail by Robert Bruce Shaw, James Foster, Brilliance Audio

Airbnb, augmented reality, call centre, cloud computing, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, future of work, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, loose coupling, meta-analysis, nuclear winter, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh

Netflix failed to meet its customer expectations when it separated its DVD and streaming businesses. There is no reason to believe that these firms, as great as they are, will not make more mistakes as they move forward. A variety of external forces can also undermine a firm’s success. New technologies, for example, can overtake a firm. Netflix may see its business model eroded if augmented reality overtakes movies and TV as a dominant form of entertainment. At this point, we don’t know how that technology will evolve but it may be as disruptive as Netflix was to traditional media companies.42 Finally, a risk in profiling a set of exemplary firms and teams is that others attempt to mimic them.


pages: 290 words: 87,084

Branded Beauty by Mark Tungate

augmented reality, Berlin Wall, call centre, corporate social responsibility, double helix, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, haute couture, independent contractor, invention of the printing press, joint-stock company, liberal capitalism, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, stem cell

She added that early research suggested around 20 per cent of its subscribers went on to purchase full-sized products after testing a sample. The site also incorporates a blog about beauty trends. Advances in technology are constantly making the online experience richer for consumers. ‘It’s great that they can upload photographs of themselves and then experiment with make-up, for example,’ Xavier says. ‘Augmented reality will transform the shopping experience, too, with virtual mirrors that allow you to test looks without the need to apply actual product. The borders between screen and reality are coming down.’ The size and mutability of the digital world make it a daunting environment for any company. In 2010 Unilever was one of a number of organizations that sent executives on a digital safari to Silicon Valley to explore the opportunities available to them.


pages: 303 words: 81,071

Infinite Detail by Tim Maughan

3D printing, augmented reality, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, friendly fire, global supply chain, Internet of things, Mason jar, off grid, Panamax, post-Panamax, ransomware, RFID, security theater, self-driving car, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, surveillance capitalism, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning

Hundred-foot-high superheroes fill the air, punching their cartoon nemeses into skyscrapers that explode into glass-shard blizzards, only to be replaced by hundred-foot-tall anthropomorphic M&Ms, arguing and laughing and falling over, only to be replaced by hundred-foot-tall teen pop stars, peering down at him and smiling over the rims of the latest Samsung spex, only to be replaced by koi carp the size of humpback whales, lazily orbiting a Sony logo built from iridescent bubbles, only to be replaced by hundred-foot-tall NBA legends, slam-dunking— Rush yanks his spex away from his face and the augmented-reality adverts disappear, the towering hyperreal simulations vanishing from the warm night air, but the screens are still there, still everywhere. Some are the size of apartment blocks, some mere tennis courts, but they’re fucking everywhere, everywhere that isn’t a shop front or a Starbucks, on every wall and building.


pages: 252 words: 78,780

Lab Rats: How Silicon Valley Made Work Miserable for the Rest of Us by Dan Lyons

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, impact investing, income inequality, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, RAND corporation, remote working, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software is eating the world, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, super pumped, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, web application, WeWork, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, young professional

Flynn, who previously worked at Microsoft, says companies (and workspace designers like Steelcase) also need to do a better job of adopting new technologies so that people don’t feel as overwhelmed as they do right now. Technology has started to evolve at such a rapid pace that people can’t keep up, which is creating a backlash. “There is a big tension emerging,” Flynn says. “We’re introducing sensors, big data, virtual reality, augmented reality, and there is so much opportunity for these technologies—but at the same time there is a force pushing for work to be more human, to have more authenticity, more social connection. It’s two opposing ideas. How are we going to resolve that?” Technology should be a tool in the service of mankind, but sometimes it seems that humans are made subordinate to technology.


pages: 297 words: 84,009

Big Business: A Love Letter to an American Anti-Hero by Tyler Cowen

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, compensation consultant, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, experimental economics, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, offshore financial centre, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, ultimatum game, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

There is no particular reason to think Google will dominate those new dimensions, and in fact Google’s success may stop it from seeing the new paradigms when they come along. I don’t pretend I am the one who can name those new dimensions of competition, but what about search through virtual or augmented reality? Search through the Internet of Things? Search through the offline “real world” in some manner? Search through an assemblage of AI capabilities, or perhaps in some longer-run brain implants or genetic information? I genuinely don’t know. What I do know is that new dimensions of product quality arise all the time, and supposed natural monopolies find out their monopolies are not so natural after all.


pages: 306 words: 85,836