the market place

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The Trade Lifecycle: Behind the Scenes of the Trading Process (The Wiley Finance Series) by Robert P. Baker

asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, business continuity plan, business process, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, diversification, fixed income, functional programming, hiring and firing, implied volatility, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, locking in a profit, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, market clearing, millennium bug, place-making, prediction markets, short selling, statistical model, stochastic process, the market place, the payments system, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, value at risk, Wiener process, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

They are sometimes referred to as the ‘sell side’ of the industry because they are supplying products for the market place. Investment banks are active in trading activities in order to: 1. Service their clients The clients come to the bank with requirements that are satisfied by trading. The bank can either act as the middleman or broker to execute trades on behalf of the client who has no access to counterparties or it can trade directly with the client and either absorb the trade or deal an equal and opposite trade (known as back-to-back) in the market place, making a profit by enjoying lower trade costs. 2. Proprietary trading Most investment banks have proprietary (or ‘prop’) desks with the aim of using the bank’s resources to make profit.

Such options may trade regularly with a three and six-month maturity, but not the exact maturity of the trade. The basic product (call options on BT) is liquid, but the specific trade is not. No prices available For complicated or illiquid trades there may be no equivalent trade available in the market place and so mark-to-market is impossible. To take the 340 THE TRADE LIFECYCLE car example, if I owned a car which I customised in some way so that very few cars like it were available in the market place, I would not be able to get a direct valuation. I would have to estimate how much difference my modification had made to the price of the standard model and add that to the standard model price.

He does however take a keen interest in the apple market, understands the factors affecting it such as weather, blight and consumer demands and can therefore offer financial products to both buyers and sellers of apples and take profit in order to help them offset their risk. The facilitator brings all of the market participants together hence creating a market place for apples and financial products based on apples. 54 THE TRADE LIFECYCLE Typical activities in the market place might be: buying and selling apples now buying and selling apples at a later date for a fixed price options to buy and sell apples later insurance against apples not being grown (because of bad weather etc) or not being available (due to high demand). Let’s consider how one of the market participants, the grower, can take advantage of financial products in apples.


pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, Herbert Marcuse, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, Money creation, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, sharing economy, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

In this case the capitalist starts the day with a certain amount of money, and, having selected a technology and organisational form, goes into the market place and buys the requisite amounts of labour power and means of production (raw materials, physical plant, intermediate products, machinery, energy and the like). The labour power is combined with the means of production through an active labour process conducted under the supervision of the capitalist. The result is a commodity that is sold by its owner, the capitalist, in the market place for a profit. The next day, the capitalist, for reasons that will shortly become apparent, takes a portion of yesterday’s profit, converts it into fresh capital and begins the process anew on an expanded scale.

This reserve army needs to be accessible, socialised, disciplined and of the requisite qualities (i.e. flexible, docile, manipulable and skilled when necessary). If these conditions are not met, then capital faces a serious barrier to continuous accumulation. The dispossession of the mass of the population from direct access to the means of production (land in particular) releases labour power as a commodity into the market place. Marx’s account of so-called ‘primitive accumulation’ may be overdramatised and oversimplified but its essential truth is undeniable. Somehow or other the mass of a population has been put in a position of having to work for capital in order to live. Primitive accumulation did not end with the rise of industrial capitalism in Britain in the late eighteenth century.

They can also support investing in improvements to the qualities of labour supply through health care, education and housing and ultimately, as did Henry Ford when he moved to establish a $5 dollar 8-hour day in the 1920s, propose higher wages and rationalised worker consumption as a means to ensure a stronger effective demand in the market place. The role of state power in relation to such struggles is by no means fixed. To be sure, if labour is too well organised and too powerful in a particular location, then the capitalist class will seek to command the state apparatus to do its bidding, as happened, noted earlier, with Pinochet, Reagan, Thatcher, Kohl et al.


The Rough Guide to England by Rough Guides

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bike sharing scheme, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, Columbine, congestion charging, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Downton Abbey, Edmond Halley, Etonian, food miles, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, period drama, Plutocrats, plutocrats, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl

Corinium Museum Park St, GL7 2BX • Mon–Sat 10am–5pm, Sun 2–5pm; Nov–March closes 4pm • £5.40 • 01285 655611, coriniummuseum.org West of the Market Place, the sleek Corinium Museum is devoted to the history of the town from Roman to Victorian times. The collection of Romano-British antiquities is particularly fine, including wonderful mosaic pavements. Other highlights include a trove of Bronze Age gold and an excellent video on Cotswold life in the Iron Age. New Brewery Arts Centre Brewery Court, off Cricklade St, GL7 1JH • Mon–Sat 9am–5pm; April–Dec also Sun 10am–4pm • Free • 01285 657181, newbreweryarts.org.uk Just south of the Market Place, the New Brewery Arts Centre is occupied by more than a dozen resident artists whose studios you can visit and whose work you can buy in the shop.

Opposite, just across the street to the north, is former Ossington Coffee Palace, a flashy structure whose Tudor appearance is entirely fraudulent – it was built in the 1880s as a temperance hotel by a local bigwig, in an effort to save drinkers from themselves. From here, it’s just a couple of minutes’ walk east through a network of narrow lanes and alleys to the Market Place, an expansive square framed by attractive Georgian and Victorian facades. Church of St Mary Magdalene Church Walk, NG24 1JS • Mon–Sat 8.30am–4pm, but often closed for lunch; May–Sept also Sun noon–4pm • Free • 01636 706473 Standing just off the Market Place, the mostly thirteenth-century church of St Mary Magdalene is a handsome if badly weathered structure whose massive spire (236ft) soars high above the town centre.

Henley-on-Thames Three counties – Oxfordshire, Berkshire and Buckinghamshire – meet at HENLEY-ON-THAMES, long a favourite stopping place for travellers between London and Oxford. Nowadays, Henley is a good-looking, affluent commuter town at its prettiest among the old brick and stone buildings that flank the short main drag, Hart Street. At one end of Hart Street is the Market Place and its fetching Town Hall, while at the other stand the easy Georgian curves of Henley Bridge. Overlooking the bridge is the parish church of St Mary, whose square tower sports a set of little turrets worked in chequerboard flint and stone. River and Rowing Museum Mill Meadows, RG9 1BF • Daily 10am–5pm • £12.50 • 01491 415600, rrm.co.uk A five-minute walk south along the riverbank from the foot of Hart Street lies Henley’s imaginative River and Rowing Museum.


pages: 1,497 words: 492,782

The Complete Novels Of George Orwell by George Orwell

British Empire, fixed income, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, the market place, traveling salesman, union organizing, white flight

This was Binfield House (‘The Hall’, everybody called it), and the top of the hill was known as Upper Binfield, though there was no village there and hadn’t been for a hundred years or more. I must have been nearly seven before I noticed the existence of Binfield House. When you’re very small you don’t look into the distance. But by that time I knew every inch of the town, which was shaped roughly like a cross with the market-place in the middle. Our shop was in the High Street a little before you got to the market-place, and on the corner there was Mrs Wheeler’s sweet-shop where you spent a halfpenny when you had one. Mother Wheeler was a dirty old witch and people suspected her of sucking the bull’s-eyes and putting them back in the bottle, though this was never proved.

Behind the houses you could see the chimneys of the brewery. In the middle of the market-place there was the stone horse-trough, and on top of the water there was always a fine film of dust and chaff. Before the war, and especially before the Boer War, it was summer all the year round. I’m quite aware that that’s a delusion. I’m merely trying to tell you how things come back to me. If I shut my eyes and think of Lower Binfield any time before I was, say, eight, it’s always in summer weather that I remember it. Either it’s the market-place at dinner-time, with a sort of sleepy dusty hush over everything and the carrier’s horse with his nose dug well into his nosebag, munching away, or it’s a hot afternoon in the great green juicy meadows round the town, or it’s about dusk in the lane behind the allotments, and there’s a smell of pipe-tobacco and night-stocks floating through the hedge.

Another couple of hundred yards and I’d be in the market-place. The old shop was down the other end of the High Street. I’d go there after lunch–I was going to put up at the George. And every inch a memory! I knew all the shops, though all the names had changed, and the stuff they dealt in had mostly changed as well. There’s Lovegrove’s! And there’s Todd’s! And a big dark shop with beams and dormer windows. Used to be Lilywhite’s the draper’s, where Elsie used to work. And Grimmett’s! Still a grocer’s apparently. Now for the horse-trough in the market-place. There was another car ahead of me and I couldn’t see.


The Hour of Fate by Susan Berfield

bank run, buy and hold, capital controls, collective bargaining, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, the market place, transcontinental railway, wage slave, working poor

Honorable Justice: The Life of Oliver Wendell Holmes. Lexington, MA: Plunkett Lake Press, 1989. Noyes, Alexander Dana. Forty Years of American Finance: A Short Financial History of the Government and People of the U.S. since the Civil War, 1865–1907. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1909. ________. The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1938. Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxon. Jay Cooke: Financier of the Civil War. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1907. Painter, Nell Irvin. Standing at Armageddon: A Grassroots History of the Progressive Era.

Be worth double: Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789–1945, 296. 15. A courier had earlier: Albro Martin, James J. Hill and the Opening of the Northwest, 427. 16. Morgan put on: Morgan’s reaction described in “Leaders of Finance Amazed,” New York Times, September 7, 1901, 3; “Financiers Shocked,” New York Tribune, September 7, 1901, 5; Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor, 215. 17. McKinley was put under: Details of the operation drawn from “The Case of President McKinley,” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (now New England Journal of Medicine) CXLV, no. 17 (October 12 1901): 451–57; “Report of the Medical Department of the Pan-American Expo, Buffalo 1901,” Buffalo Medical Journal, December 1901. 18.

It was responsible: Strouse, Morgan: American Financier, 404; employment number, Craig Phelan, Divided Loyalties: The Public and Private Life of Labor Leader John Mitchell, 135; Philip S. Forner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States, 78. 17. Orders came from: Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor, 191. 18. So many checks: John Winkler, Morgan the Magnificent, 197–98. 19. “Mr. Morgan’s power”: “J. Pierpont Morgan Dazzles Mr. McKinley,” The World, March 9, 1901. 20. “Pierpont Morgan is”: Henry Adams to Elizabeth Cameron, February 11, 1901, Letters of Henry Adams, vol. 5: 199. 21.


pages: 312 words: 93,836

Barometer of Fear: An Insider's Account of Rogue Trading and the Greatest Banking Scandal in History by Alexis Stenfors

Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, foreign exchange controls, game design, Gordon Gekko, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, mental accounting, millennium bug, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, oil shock, Post-Keynesian economics, price stability, profit maximization, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Rubik’s Cube, Snapchat, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, Y2K

One by one, these prices would be shouted across the dealing room to the chief dealer, who would then decide what to do and would shout back ‘Mine!’, ‘Yours!’ or ‘Thanks, but nothing there!’ We would then immediately repeat ‘Mine!’, ‘Yours!’ or ‘Thanks, but nothing there!’ to the person on the other line. Clients were referred to as market or price ‘takers’, referring to how they approached the market place. We and our competitors, on the other hand, were market or price ‘makers’, as we quoted the prices they could trade at. One of the key requirements to becoming a member of the market-making club was that you always had to quote two-way prices to the other club members: a bid and an offer at the same time.

The bank can lower the interest rate it charges on its loans, which is linked to LIBOR. Households with mortgages gain. Companies can borrow at lower interest rates, invest more and create more jobs. And so on. Despite the success story of the exchange-traded LIBOR-based derivatives, such as Eurodollar futures, it was the OTC derivatives market that truly changed the market place. This was the largely unregulated market for interest rate and foreign exchange derivatives that always involved two counterparties: a bank and a client, or, more frequently, a bank and another bank. OTC derivatives, such as IRSs, CRSs, FRAs, caps and floors differed from exchange-traded derivatives in the sense that they were much less standardised and could be tailor-made to suit the needs and wants of those involved in the transaction.

The ability to participate in auctions or to be a vehicle through which interventions take place is often profitable, but sometimes also loss making. The information, however, is useful. If you cannot profit from it directly, it is still perceived to be valuable, as others not belonging to the club might think you know something they don’t. This enhances your reputation tremendously in the market place. When I was working for HSBC in Stockholm, we were desperate to become primary dealers in government bonds. Being part of the T-bill club was not enough. Some of our sales people even complained that their customers refused to trade with us unless we also joined the bond club. The information they got from the primary dealers was superior to what we had to offer.


pages: 273 words: 34,920

Free Market Missionaries: The Corporate Manipulation of Community Values by Sharon Beder

anti-communist, battle of ideas, business climate, corporate governance, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, Herbert Marcuse, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, invisible hand, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Powell Memorandum, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, risk/return, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Torches of Freedom, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, two and twenty, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, young professional

The supply-siders will always have a safe haven in the world of Free Enterprise Institutes and Centers for the Study of Capitalism, outlets in the pages of Forbes and the Wall Street Journal, and new recruits who never tire of saying the same things again and again.33 Similarly, Sidney Blumenthal, in his book The Rise of the Counter-Establishment, argued that supply-side economics ‘travelled from lunatic panacea to official catechism in a few short years’.34 It also had popular appeal because of its ‘have your cake and eat it too’ message: Supply-side economics provided the theoretical underpinnings for oldfashioned optimism. The doctrine restated the free-market myth with verve and originality. In an era when the ‘limits to growth’ were proclaimed, the gnostic supply-siders made claims to knowing the secret of endless wealth: the magic of the market place . . . a theory for the multitude of go-getters, promising that the cornucopia was bottomless.35 This optimism helped Ronald Reagan to get elected, despite George Bush labelling supply-side theories as ‘voodoo economics’ when he was a rival candidate for presidential nomination in the 1980 primaries.

Without market pressures, government managers have no incentive to reduce waste or become economically efficient. In this way, governments tend to oversupply public goods, or supply them in a wasteful way. However, critics do not accept the assumption that motivations in the political sphere are the same as those in the market place. Surveys seem to back this up: In almost every case there is a relationship between the way the individual views the state of the economy or the competence of the government and how she votes; but little relationship between her vote and her personal financial status . . . Of course the voter will hope that what is best for the PRO-BUSINESS POLICIES AS IDEOLOGY 105 national prosperity will also in due course benefit him or herself but this is a different kind of judgement from ‘pocketbook voting’.52 Ideology, which also plays a key role in politics, cannot easily be explained in terms of self-interest.

Politicians and government officials therefore look to experts in the think tanks to interpret and make sense of all that information. This gives rise to a set of policy entrepreneurs based in think tanks who usually have the coherent vision that politicians lack, particularly the conservative think tanks that promote the market place as an alternative to big government.36 Corporate-funded neoconservative think tanks proliferated and expanded in the US in the 1970s, promoting the free market and campaigning against big government and government regulation. Their explicit political goals caused them to be referred to as advocacy think tanks.


pages: 273 words: 21,102

Branding Your Business: Promoting Your Business, Attracting Customers and Standing Out in the Market Place by James Hammond

Albert Einstein, call centre, Donald Trump, intangible asset, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, market design, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steve Jobs, the market place

Well-written, clearly structured, and packed full of sound advice, James has produced an outstanding and intelligent guide to branding in the 21st century.” Roderick Wilkes, CEO, The Chartered Institute of Marketing E N T E R P R I S E S E R I E S Branding Your Business Promoting your business, attracting customers and standing out in the market place James Hammond Branding Your Business THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ii Branding Your Business Promoting your business, attracting customers and standing out in the market place James Hammond London and Philadelphia Publisher’s note Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at the time of going to press, and the publishers and author cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions, however caused.

ISBN 978 0 7494 5073 1 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hammond, James, 1952– Branding your business : promoting your business, attracting customers, and standing out in the market place / James Hammond. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7494-5073-1 1. Branding (Marketing)– –Management. 2. Consumer behavior. 3. Brand name products– –Psychological aspects. 4. Senses and sensation. 5. Communication in marketing. I. Title. HF5415.1255.H36 2008 658.8'27– –dc22 2007047429 Typeset by JS Typesetting Ltd, Porthcawl, Mid Glamorgan Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd Contents Acknowledgements About the author ix xi Introduction 1 Part 1 Nothing but the brand 5 1.


Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits and Other Writings by Philip A. Fisher

business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, El Camino Real, estate planning, fixed income, index fund, market bubble, market fundamentalism, profit motive, RAND corporation, the market place, transaction costs

Informed chemical businessmen would not give this kind of award in the industry to a company that did not have the research departments to keep developing worthwhile new products and the chemical engineers to produce them profitably. Secondly, this type of award will leave its impression on the investment community. Nothing is more desirable for stockholders than the influence on share prices of an upward trend of earnings multiplied by a comparable upward trend in the way each dollar of such earnings is valued in the market place, as I mentioned in my concluding remarks about this company in the original edition. Other matters besides the introduction of new products and the problems of starting complex plants can also open up buying opportunities in the unusual company. For example, a Middle Western electronic company was, among other things, well known for its unusual and excellent labor relations.

Furthermore, since by definition he is only buying into a situation which for one reason or another is about to have a worthwhile increase in its earning power in the near- or medium-term future, he has a second element of support. Just as his stock would have risen more than the average stock when this new source of earning power became recognized in the market place if business had remained good, so if by bad fortune he has made his new purchase just prior to a general market break this same new source of earnings should prevent these shares from declining quite as much as other stocks of the same general type. However, many investors are not in the happy position of having a backlog of well-chosen investments bought comfortably below present prices.

But most important of all, as already discussed in an earlier chapter, the corporation of today is a very different thing from what it used to be. For the reasons already explained, today's corporation is designed to be far more suitable as an investment medium for those desiring long-range growth than as a vehicle for in-and-out trading. All this has profoundly changed the market place. It undoubtedly represents tremendous improvement—improvement, however, at the expense of marketability. The liquidity of the average stock has decreased rather than increased. In spite of breathtaking economic growth and a seemingly endless procession of stock splits, the volume of trading on the New York Stock Exchange has declined.


pages: 494 words: 128,801

Battle: The Story of the Bulge by John Toland

always be closing, Mason jar, the market place

But as his tanks approached the center of Stavelot heavy bazooka fire broke out. The first tank spun out of control into a house. Then the roar of antitank guns came from the market place. Two more German tanks burst into flames. Peiper angrily ordered a task force to detach itself from the main column, blast through the nest of resistance in the market place and secure the right flank. Then he ordered the main group to head west toward Trois Ponts and the Meuse. Over an hour had been senselessly lost already. The market place was defended by a company of infantrymen and a platoon of tank destroyers, commanded by Major Paul J. Sollis. They had entered Stavelot at 4 a.m.

But by dawn none of the reinforcing American units was as yet a threat to Kampfgruppe Peiper as it stood poised at the southern outskirts of Stavelot, only 25 air miles from its goal, the Meuse River. Peiper's men had bivouacked on the heights just south of the Ambleve River. First they would cross to the north bank over an ancient stone bridge, into the center of Stavelot, an industrial town of 3,000. After a hundred yards they would reach the market place and the main highway to the west. They would turn sharp left onto this road and continue to the next town on their route, Trois Ponts. Peiper's primary concern was the stone bridge. The night before an attempt to cross had brought a volley of rifle fire. But no matter how strongly defended, the bridge had to be seized before the Amis blew it up.


pages: 1,164 words: 309,327

Trading and Exchanges: Market Microstructure for Practitioners by Larry Harris

active measures, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, automated trading system, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, compound rate of return, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, data acquisition, diversified portfolio, fault tolerance, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, High speed trading, index arbitrage, index fund, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, invention of the telegraph, job automation, law of one price, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, market fragmentation, market friction, market microstructure, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, open economy, passive investing, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-materialism, price discovery process, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, risk free rate, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, selection bias, shareholder value, short selling, Small Order Execution System, speech recognition, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, survivorship bias, the market place, transaction costs, two-sided market, winner-take-all economy, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

We assume that the limit order book was empty at the start of trading. 1. At 10:01, Bea submits the first order. The market cannot match it with any other order because no standing orders are in the book. The market places Bea’s order to buy 3 limit 20.0 in the book. The market quote is now 20.0 bid for 3, no offer. 2. At 10:05, Sam submits the second order, to sell 2 limit 20.1. Sam cannot trade with Bea because Bea will not pay what Sam demands. The market places Sam’s order in the book. The market quote is now 20.0 bid for 3, 2 offered at 20.1. In some electronic screens, the quote would appear as “20.0-20.1 3 × 2.” Traders read this as “20 to a dime, 3 by 2,” or “20 bid for 3, 2 offered at a dime.” 3.

If the new order is a buy order, the order must indicate that the trader will pay at least the best offer price. If it is a sell order, the order must indicate that the trader will sell at or below the best bid. If a trade is possible, the new order is marketable. Market orders and aggressively priced limit orders are marketable orders. If the new order is not marketable, the market places it in the order book—according to its precedence—to wait for orders to arrive on the opposite side. Traders who do not want their unfilled orders to stand in the book must attach a fill-or-kill or an immediate-or-cancel instruction to their orders. If the new order is marketable, the matching system arranges a trade by matching the new order with the highest-ranking order on the other side of the market.

If the new order is marketable, the matching system arranges a trade by matching the new order with the highest-ranking order on the other side of the market. If this trade does not completely fill the new order, the market then matches the remainder of the new order with the next highest-ranking order on the other side. This process continues until the new order fills completely or until no further trades are feasible. The market places any remaining size in the order book unless the trader instructs otherwise. Under the discriminatory pricing rule, the limit price of the standing order determines the price for each trade. If the market matches a large incoming order with several standing limit orders placed at different prices, trades will take place at the various limit order prices. 6.4.1 Continuous Trading Example Suppose that traders submit the same set of orders used in the single price auction example to a continuous two-sided auction market.


pages: 403 words: 138,026

Arabian Sands by Wilfred Thesiger

back-to-the-land, clean water, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, MITM: man-in-the-middle, the market place

Khartoum seemed like the suburbs of North Oxford dumped down in the middle of the Sudan. I hated the calling and the cards, I resented the trim villas, the tarmac roads, the meticulously aligned streets in Omdurman, the signposts, and the public conveniences. I longed for the chaos, the smells, the untidiness, and the haphazard life of the market-place in Addis Ababa; I wanted colour and savagery, hardship and adventure. Had I been posted to one of the towns I have no doubt that, disgruntled, I should have left the Sudan within a few months, but Charles Dupuis, Governor of Darfur, had anticipated my reaction and had asked that I should be sent to his Province.

They were small and wiry, about five feet four inches in height, and were dressed in a length of dark-blue cloth wound round their waists, with an end thrown over one shoulder; the indigo had run out from the cloth and smeared their chests and arms. They were bare-headed, and their hair was long and untidy. Both of them wore daggers and carried rifles. My guard said that they were Bedu from beyond the mountains and that they belonged to the Bait Kathir. In the market-place were more of them, while others waited outside the palace gates. They reminded me of the tribesmen whom I had seen recently at Dhala on the Yemen border, and seemed very different to the Arabs from the great Bedu tribes I had met in Syria and the Najd. The palace gates were guarded by armed men dressed in long Arab shirts and head-cloths.

The Dahm had a blood-feud with his own tribe and was living among the Yam. He told me that he had been in Najran in the summer when a Christian had come there from Abha and stayed for two days with bin Madhi, the Amir. He was amused when I told him that I was this Christian. He said he had seen me in the distance in the market-place, but that I was then wearing different clothes. This was true, as at that time I was dressed as a Saudi. When we left them they explained how to find the next well. There was a clearly-marked track to Laila, and this route, surveyed by Philby, was shown on the map I had with me. The following afternoon, seeing dark clouds banking up in the west, I asked Muhammad, without thinking, if it would rain, and he answered immediately, ‘Only God knows.’


pages: 495 words: 138,188

The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, borderless world, business cycle, central bank independence, Corn Laws, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, inflation targeting, joint-stock company, Kula ring, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price mechanism, profit motive, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor, Works Progress Administration

If any occurrence should prevent the holding of the market on one or more days, business cannot be resumed until the market-place has been purified.… Every injury occurring on the market-place and involving the shedding of blood necessitated immediate expiation. From that moment no woman was allowed to leave the market-place and no goods might be touched; they had to be cleansed before they could be carried away and used for food. At the very least a goat had to be sacrificed at once. A more expensive and more serious expiation was necessary if a woman bore a child or had a miscarriage on the market-place. In that case a milch animal was necessary. In addition to this, the homestead of the chief had to be purified by means of sacrificial blood of a milch-cow.


pages: 343 words: 41,228

Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds - the Original Classic Edition by Charles MacKay

clean water, invention of gunpowder, invisible hand, joint-stock company, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, the market place

He saw immediately how the mischief had been done; and, dismissing all the inferior imps, asked the principal demon how he could have been so rash as to kill the young man. The demon replied, that he had been needlessly invoked by an insulting youth, and could do no less than kill him for his presumption. Agrippa reprimanded him severely, and ordered him immediately to reanimate the dead body, and walk about with it in the market-place for the whole of the afternoon. The demon did so: the student revived; and, putting his arm through that of his unearthly murderer, walked very lovingly with him in sight of all the people. At sunset, the body fell down again, cold and lifeless as before, and was carried by the crowd to the hospital, it being the general opinion that he had expired in a fit of apoplexy.

One man had brooded over such tales till he became firmly convinced that the wild flights of his own fancy were realities. He stationed himself 13/10/2008 17:39 Printable format for Mackay, Charles, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular ... 4 of 14 http://www.econlib.org/cgi-bin/printarticle.pl in the market-place of Milan, and related the following story to the crowds that gathered round him. He was standing, he said, at the door of the cathedral, late in the evening; and when there was nobody nigh, he saw a dark-coloured chariot, drawn by six milk-white horses, stop close beside him. The chariot was followed by a numerous train of domestics in dark liveries, mounted on dark-coloured steeds.

Several who had been thus informed against, were thrown into prison, and so horribly tortured, that reason fled, and, in their ravings of pain, they also confessed their midnight meetings with the devil, and the oaths they had taken to serve him. Upon these confessions judgment was pronounced: the poor old women, as usual in such cases, were hanged and burned in the market-place; the more wealthy delinquents were allowed to escape, upon payment of large sums. It was soon after universally recognized that these trials had been conducted in the most odious manner, and that the judges had motives of private vengeance against many of the more influential persons who had been implicated.


Free Money for All: A Basic Income Guarantee Solution for the Twenty-First Century by Mark Walker

3D printing, 8-hour work day, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, commoditize, financial independence, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, market clearing, means of production, new economy, obamacare, off grid, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, science of happiness, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, universal basic income, working poor

Coercion and Capitalism An important objection to U.$. Inc. is that there is a major dis-analogy between the profit-seeking activity of U.$. Inc. and its other business activities, namely, that U.$. Inc. is able to extract wealth only because it is a monopoly backed by illegitimate use of force. The thought is that there is choice in the market place: we can choose between different car brands, restaurants, and so on. Indeed, the eBay analogy supports this claim: there are alternative online auction companies to eBay if one does not like the price or services offered by eBay. The state offers no such alternatives and so it is a monopoly.

Some libertarians, for example, have considered buying an island or setting up a nation at sea, perhaps refurbishing an ocean liner. An appropriate name might be, “Our Lady Of Taxes Are Theft.” I predict that should she ever set sail, Our Lady Of Taxes Are Theft will sink—qua business model. For if it is launched as a business venture where it seeks to give a return to investors, it will have trouble competing in the market place for the usual reasons: would-be entrepreneurs who think they can undercut the price of existing business typically underestimate the costs of doing business and overestimate 62 FREE MONEY FOR ALL revenues. If Our Lady Of Taxes Are Theft is run on a socialistic co-op model, then I predict it will not work for the reason that many co-ops fail: it is hard to apportion the costs and benefits of such ventures.

Notice, however, the structure of this line of thought: negative liberty is used as an instrument to promote or preserve substantive autonomy. If it is correct that negative freedoms are tools for promoting substantive autonomy, then these tools can be evaluated in terms of how effective they are in achieving their ends. Laws permitting freedom of expression have, by and large, been successful in promoting substantive autonomy. The market place of ideas, as Mill termed it, has helped individuals explore a variety of viewpoints. It need not have turned out this way. It is possible to imagine Dr. Mesmer with the power of hypnotic speech such that he can hypnotize anyone into doing anything. As millions under the hypnotic influence line up to give away all their possessions to the doctor, we might insist that he refrain from using his hypnotic speech.


pages: 32 words: 7,759

8 Day Trips From London by Dee Maldon

Doomsday Book, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Stephen Hawking, the market place

The Whipple Museum of Science (Free School Lane off Pembroke Street) hosts scientific instruments that date from the Middle Ages. The Botanic Gardens (Bateman Street) offers a quiet stroll through a vast array of botanic specimens. Non-University sites worth seeing Most of the roads in the centre lead to Market Square, a comfortable place for walking. The market place offers a large plaza of independent traders. On its far side, you will see a tall church, St Mary the Great. This Gothic building is the main university and city church. Visitors are usually welcome and, for a fee, you can climb to the top of its church tower and survey the city and the surrounding countryside.


pages: 225 words: 61,814

The Consolations of Philosophy by Alain de Botton

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Socratic dialogue, the market place, urban planning

Intuitively, he places the blame on his choice of occupation and begins searching for an alternative, despite the high costs of doing so. It was the last time I would turn to See Inside an Ancient Greek Town. a blacksmith; a shoemaker; a fishmonger (Ill. 8.2) Deciding rapidly that he would be happy in the fish business, the man acquires a net and an expensive stall in the market-place. And yet his melancholy does not abate. We are often, in the words of the Epicurean poet Lucretius, like ‘a sick man ignorant of the cause of his malady’. It is because they understand bodily maladies better than we can that we seek doctors. We should turn to philosophers for the same reason when our soul is unwell – and judge them according to a similar criterion: Just as medicine confers no benefit if it does not drive away physical illness, so philosophy is useless if it does not drive away the suffering of the mind.

It was just that after rational analysis, he had come to some striking conclusions about what actually made life pleasurable – and fortunately for those lacking a large income, it seemed that the essential ingredients of pleasure, however elusive, were not very expensive. Happiness, an Epicurean acquisition list 1. Friendship On returning to Athens in 306 BC at the age of thirty-five, Epicurus settled on an unusual domestic arrangement. He located a large house a few miles from the centre of Athens, in the Melite district between the market-place and the harbour at Piraeus, and moved in with a group of friends. He was joined by Metrodorus and his sister, the mathematician Polyaenus, Hermarchus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, and a merchant called Idomeneus (who soon married Metrodorus’s sister). There was enough space in the house for the friends to have their own quarters, and there were common rooms for meals and conversations.


The City on the Thames by Simon Jenkins

Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, clean water, computerized trading, congestion charging, Corn Laws, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, estate planning, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, light touch regulation, Louis Blériot, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, place-making, railway mania, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

Wherever people congregate there is potential for unrest but, over the two millennia of its existence, London’s conflicts have been remarkably peaceful. Fewer people have died from political violence in its streets than in any of the world’s other great cities. Its struggles have been organic, deriving from the nature of its growth, the forces of the market place and attempts to plan or regulate that market. That those attempts have largely failed is the outstanding fact of this story. London has long been its own master. When it has been traumatized – by Boudicca’s revolt, Norman conquest, Henrician Reformation, plague, fire or bombs – it has put its head down and minded its own business, with extraordinary success.

No one demurred from the ideal. Acts were even passed, one of 1935 ambitiously called the Restriction of Ribbon Development Act. But the disconnect between government in Whitehall and reality on the ground was total. Authority could say what it liked. Nothing linked steering wheel to engine, and the engine was the market place. Where there are people and space without regulation, the one will occupy the other. Britain’s parliament was unsettled by the labour unrest of the 1920s, and by the furious revival of autocracy across Europe. It seemed to regard sprawl as a pacifying force, almost a narcotic. The truth was that Londoners craved what sprawl offered: a house, a garden and a train station.

Bond Street’s ‘suburb’ Avery Row, is the Crown Estate’s model restoration of what was a scruffy ‘borderland’ of studios and warehouses, running through to the deserted streets of west Mayfair. These are streets that have prospered where the city has kept its nerve and not run screaming into the market place. They are where fabric was the essence, offering a welcome to whatever the transient market ordains. London has its clusters and some of them are splendid. But it is clear that the creative juices that keep the city constantly on the alert crave the patina of time passing. The neighbourhoods through which I walk can be replicated in Paddington, King’s Cross, Clerkenwell, Shoreditch, Bermondsey and Lambeth.


pages: 193 words: 11,060

Ethics in Investment Banking by John N. Reynolds, Edmund Newell

accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, financial independence, index fund, invisible hand, light touch regulation, margin call, moral hazard, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, quantitative easing, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, two and twenty, zero-sum game

Goodhart, C.A.E. (2009) The Regulatory Response to the Financial Crisis (Cheltenham and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar). Green, R.M. (1994) The Ethical Manager: A New Method for Business Ethics (Eaglewood, NJ: Macmillan). Green, S. (2009) Good Value: Reflections on Money, Morality and an Uncertain World (London: Allen Lane). Griffiths, B. (1982) Morality and the Market Place (London: Hodder and Stoughton). Bibliography 167 Griffiths, B. (2001) Capitalism, Morality and Markets (London: Institute of Economic Affairs). Griseri, T. (2010) Business Ethics (London: Cengage Learning). Harries, R. (1995) Questioning Belief (London: SPCK). Harvard Business School (2003) Harvard Business Review on Corporate Ethics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press).

Clough (2010) The Ethics of Executive Remuneration: A Guide for Christian Investors (Church Investors Group). Higgs-Kleyn, N. and D. Kapeliansis (1999) “The Role of Professional Codes in Regulating Ethical Conduct”, Journal of Business Ethics, 19, 363–74. Hill, A. (1998) Just Business: Christian Ethics for the Market Place (Carlisle: Paternoster Press). Hotten, R. (2008) “Shell Plots $1.2 bn Regal Takeover Bid”, Daily Telegraph, 2 October. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/ 3124785/Shell-plots-1.2bn-Regal-takeover-bid.html, accessed 12 May 2011. Howes, S., and P. Robins (1994) A Theory of Moral Organization: A Buddhist View of Business Ethics (Birmingham: Aston Business School Research Institute).


pages: 253 words: 69,529

Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins

Beeching cuts, British Empire, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, market bubble, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, starchitect, the market place, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Railway mania: John Bull drunkenly accepts proposals for investing in railways, cartoon, 1836 In November 1845, The Times calculated that parliament had that year projected 1,200 new railways in Britain, notionally requiring £500m in public subscription (or £50bn today). Some were for lines along parallel routes, some for trains running the length and breadth of the land. The freedom of the market place was given the job of regulating the industry, with no attempt to impose network coherence or national plan. Massive duplication occurred. When the Great Eastern company came to be formed in 1862, it needed the amalgamation of thirty-two approved railways in East Anglia alone. Like all such bubbles, the Mania over-reached itself, bursting in 1847.

It redefined geographical identity and rewrote the conversation between London and the nation, town and country, rich and poor. It also introduced a new realm of classlessness. The Liverpool & Manchester’s segregation of passengers in different buildings did not last. Two (initially three) classes of waiting-rooms and carriages survived, but the concourse, ticket office and platform became, like the church nave and the market place, a common space. Travel beyond the bounds of one village or town had been confined to a few, mostly prosperous, people. Most humans lived, worked, played and died within single communities. Travel now became an obsession, abetted by Thomas Cook’s innovation of rail excursions in the 1850s (see here).


pages: 275 words: 77,955

Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, Corn Laws, Deng Xiaoping, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liquidity trap, market friction, minimum wage unemployment, price discrimination, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing

The challenge to the believer in liberty is to reconcile this widespread interdependence with individual freedom. Fundamentally, there are only two ways of co-ordinating the economic activities of millions. One is central direction involving the use of coercion—the technique of the army and of the modern totalitarian state. The other is voluntary co-operation of individuals—the technique of the market place. The possibility of co-ordination through voluntary co-operation rests on the elementary—yet frequently denied—proposition that both parties to an economic transaction benefit from it, provided the transaction is bi-laterally voluntary and informed. Exchange can therefore bring about co-ordination without coercion.

The logical conclusion is presumably “Past labor is exploited,” and the inference for action is that past labor should get more of the product, though it is by no means clear how, unless it be in elegant tombstones. The achievement of allocation of resources without compulsion is the major instrumental role in the market place of distribution in accordance with product. But it is not the only instrumental role of the resulting inequality. We have noted in chapter i the role that inequality plays in providing independent foci of power to offset the centralization of political power, as well as the role that it plays in promoting civil freedom by providing “patrons” to finance the dissemination of unpopular or simply novel ideas.


pages: 105 words: 18,832

The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View From the Future by Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway

anti-communist, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kim Stanley Robinson, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, Pierre-Simon Laplace, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, the built environment, the market place

Their views came out of the Cold War—particularly the writings of Milton Friedman and Friedrich von Hayek—but the essential idea remains a tenet for many people on the right wing of the American political spectrum today. While rarely stated quite this bald-ly, the reasoning goes like this: Government intervention in the market place is bad. Accepting the reality of climate change requires us to acknowledge the need for government intervention either to regulate the use of fossil fuels or to increase the cost of doing so. So we won’t accept the reality of climate change. Erik and I have pointed out that besides being illogical, this sort of thinking—by delaying action— increases the risk that disruptive climate change will lead to the very sort of heavy-handed interventions that conservatives wish to avoid.


Basic Income And The Left by henningmeyer

basic income, Bernie Sanders, centre right, eurozone crisis, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labour market flexibility, land value tax, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, precariat, quantitative easing, Silicon Valley, the market place, Tobin tax, universal basic income

who are not, or are only partially, employed. Comprehensive social services that go beyond pure poverty control, however, are legitimised by existing concepts of social justice. How else? Norms of social justice include the idea of equal opportunity, giving everyone a shot at making it on the labour market and in the market place. This justifies, for instance, public spending on education or inheritance tax. Or the idea of social insurance which links contribution for unemployment and old age insurance to social transfers. Social Values Thirdly, an unconditional basic income runs counter to the needs of a society with rapidly growing immi‐ gration.


pages: 93 words: 24,584

Walk Away by Douglas E. French

Bear Stearns, business cycle, Elliott wave, forensic accounting, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, loss aversion, McMansion, mental accounting, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Journalism, Own Your Own Home, Richard Thaler, risk free rate, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Savings and loan crisis, Tax Reform Act of 1986, the market place, transaction costs, unbiased observer, wealth creators

Housing didn’t have to compete with business for credit in post-war America, a “federally insured ‘loop’ directed the savings of small investors into savings and loan institutions, where they were channeled directly into short term loans for builders or mortgages for buyers.” Another government loan guaranty program was born in 1944 after WWII. The U.S. Department of Veterans Administration (VA) loan program was to make it possible for military veterans “to compete in the market place for credit with persons who were not obliged to forego the pursuit of gainful occupations by reason of service in the Armed Forces of the nation. The VA programs are intended to benefit men and women because of their service to the country, and they are not designed to serve as instruments of attaining general economic or social objectives.”


pages: 287 words: 44,739

Guide to business modelling by John Tennent, Graham Friend, Economist Group

business cycle, correlation coefficient, discounted cash flows, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, intangible asset, iterative process, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, risk free rate, shareholder value, the market place, time value of money

Macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product (gdp), interest rates, inflation, exchange rates, income levels and income distribution are likely to be important factors. Population growth, urbanisation and trends in transport may also be relevant. At a microeconomic level, customer needs, market size and market growth will be essential. Current and future competitors, the nature of their product offerings and their positioning in the market place should be identified. Once all the critical factors have been identified they should be divided into those that will be explicitly modelled and those that simply provide the context for the forecast and are likely to be described in a business planning document. Critical factors for wind-farm operators Chart 3.2 on the next page shows some of the critical factors for a wind-farm operator.

The macroeconomic variables discussed in detail here will provide a solid basis for most business planning exercises. 85 10 Forecasting revenue Forecasting revenue is one of the greatest challenges for the business modeller. The first problem is producing a meaningful and useful definition of the market place. In the telecommunications, information technology and media sectors, for example, there is such a high degree of convergence that it is becoming increasingly difficult to differentiate between the separate markets. Modellers may also have incomplete or inaccurate data as a basis for their forecasts.


Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, Sixth Edition by Kindleberger, Charles P., Robert Z., Aliber

active measures, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, break the buck, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency peg, death of newspapers, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, edge city, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Honoré de Balzac, Hyman Minsky, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, large denomination, law of one price, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, price stability, railway mania, Richard Thaler, riskless arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, telemarketer, The Chicago School, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, very high income, Washington Consensus, Y2K, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Some of the senior executives of Lehman would be given positions in the acquiring firm, most would not. The owners of Lehman’s short-term IOUs would be made whole, and perhaps the owners of its bonds would be made whole like those of Fannie and Freddie; alternatively these bondholders might have been given haircuts. The Lehman name would disappear from the market place. The financial cost to the Federal Reserve might have been $50 billion or $60 billion or $70 billion that it would have used to buy the toxic securities – but these securities would have had some value after the economy stabilized. A second model is provided by the US Treasury’s investment of Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) money in Citibank and Bank of America; the US government would buy 60 or 80 million new shares in Lehman at $1 a share – the amount needed to re-capitalize the firm.

., tables 7 and, pp. 136, 144, 145. 42. John Carswell, The South Sea Bubble (London: Cresset Press, 1960), p.171. 43. Bouvier, Le krach, pp. 112, 113. 44. Federal Reserve System, Banking and Monetary Statistics (Washington, DC: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 1943), p. 494. 45. Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor (Boston: Little, Brown, 1937), p. 353. 46. Peter H. Lindert, Key Currencies and Gold, 1900–1913, Princeton Studies in International Finance, no. 24 (August 1969). 47. Jeffrey G. Williamson, American Growth and the Balance of Payments, 1830– 1913: a Study of the Long Swing (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1964). 48.

Andréadès, Bank of England, p. 137, citing Henry D. McLeod, Theory and Practice of Banking, 3rd edn (London: Longman Green, Reader & Dyer, 1879), p. 428. 31. John Carswell, The South Sea Bubble (London: Cresset Press, 1960), p. 184. 32. Andréadès, Bank of England, p. 151. 33. Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor (Boston: Little, Brown, 1938), p. 333. 34. Sprague, History of Crises, p. 259. 35. Ibid. 36. Ibid., p. 181. 37. Max Wirth, Geschichte der Handelskrisen, 4th edn (1890; reprint edn, New York: Burt Franklin, 1968), p. 521. 38. Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, Les banques européennes et l’industrialisation internationale dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1964), p. 480, text and note 5. 39.


pages: 358 words: 104,664

Capital Without Borders by Brooke Harrington

banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, diversified portfolio, estate planning, eurozone crisis, family office, financial innovation, ghettoisation, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, information asymmetry, Joan Didion, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, mobile money, offshore financial centre, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, wealth creators, web of trust, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

Salmon: “A trustee is held to something stricter than the morals of the market place. Not honesty alone, but the punctilio of an honor the most sensitive, is then the standard of behavior.… [T]he level of conduct for fiduciaries [has] been kept at a level higher than that trodden by the crowd.”40 These are precisely the characteristics attributed to medieval knights: punctilio (a regard for formalities and etiquette), honor, honesty, and a sense of being above the crowd, bound to a duty “stricter than the morals of the market place.” In fact, it reads like an updated portrait of the pilgrim knight in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, who “loved chivalry, truth, honor … and all courtesy.”41 The medieval becomes modern But these historical continuities also raise the question: Why did an adaptation to feudal conditions survive the Middle Ages?


The Darkening Age: The Christian Destruction of the Classical World by Catherine Nixey

Eratosthenes, Index librorum prohibitorum, Socratic dialogue, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons

Celsus, however, implied that if people were better educated they would be more resistant to such hucksters as Peregrinus – or indeed to Jesus, who Celsus considered little more than a ‘sorcerer’.62 The ‘miracles’ that Jesus performed were, he felt, no better than the sort of thing that was constantly being peddled by tricksters to the gullible across the Roman Empire. In a world in which medical provision was rare, many laid claim to magical powers. Travel in the East and you would come across any number of men who, ‘for a few obols make known their sacred lore in the middle of the market-place and drive daemons out of men and blow away diseases’, and display ‘dining-tables and cakes and dishes which are non-existent’.63 Even Jesus himself, observes Celsus, admits the presence of such people when he talks about men who can perform similar wonders to his own. Modern scholarship supports Celsus’s accusations: ancient papyri tell of sorcerers who had the power to achieve such biblical-sounding feats as stilling storms and miraculously providing food.64 Celsus touches on a sore point here.

By constantly accusing yourself, said another monk, by ‘constantly reproaching myself to myself.’24 Sit in your cell all day, advised another, weeping for your sins.25 A hint of desert isolationism started to find its way into pious city life, too. In John Chrysostom’s writings, contact with women of all kinds was something to be feared and, if possible, avoided altogether. ‘If we meet a woman in the market-place,’ Chrysostom told his congregation, herding his listeners into complicity with that first-person plural, then we are ‘disturbed’.26 Desire was dangerously easy to inflame. Women who inflamed it were not to be relished as Ovid had relished them, but eschewed, scorned and denigrated in writings that made it abundantly clear that the fault of the man’s desire lay with them.


pages: 95 words: 32,910

The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli, Peter Bondanella

the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

And knowing that past severities had generated ill-feeling against himself, in order to purge the minds of the people and gain their good-will, he sought to show them that any cruelty which had been done had not originated, with him, but in the harsh disposition of his minister. Availing himself of the pretext which this afforded, he one morning caused Remiro to be beheaded, and exposed in the market place of Cesena with a block and bloody axe by his side. The barbarity of which spectacle at once astounded and satisfied the populace. But, returning to the point whence we diverged, I say that the Duke, finding himself fairly strong and in a measure secured against present dangers, being furnished with arms of his own choosing and having to a great extent got rid of those which, if left near him, might have caused him trouble, had to consider, if he desired to follow up his conquests, how he was to deal with France, since he saw he could expect no further support from King Louis, whose eyes were at last opened to his mistake.


pages: 349 words: 109,304

American Kingpin: The Epic Hunt for the Criminal Mastermind Behind the Silk Road by Nick Bilton

bitcoin, blockchain, crack epidemic, Edward Snowden, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Ross Ulbricht, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the market place, trade route, Travis Kalanick, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

In a message to DPR, while pretending to be French Maid, he accidentally signed the message with his own name, Carl. A short while later, when Carl realized what he had done, he quickly followed up with another message to Dread. “Whoops! I am sorry about that. My name is Carla Sophia and I have many boyfriends and girlfriends on the market place. DPR will want to hear what I have to say ;) xoxoxo.” Luckily for Carl, the Dread Pirate Roberts could care less who Carl or Carla was; Dread just wanted the information that was for sale and gladly handed more than $100,000 to French Maid for more information that could help him keep the Feds at bay.

But as the FBI started to look further, they noticed that one of the messages sent from French Maid to DPR was bizarrely signed “Carl.” And then another message sent shortly afterward provided a clarification: “I am sorry about that. My name is Carla Sophia and I have many boyfriends and girlfriends on the market place.” It was evident that Carl had fucked up and accidentally written his own name when selling information to DPR as someone else. The Feds later learned that Carl had created several other fake accounts that were used to threaten, coerce, or bribe the Dread Pirate Roberts. As all the loose ends were tied back together, they found dozens of clues that linked Carl to $757,000 in stolen Bitcoins.


pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game

We’ve been imagining a flat plane stretching in every direction, but now let’s change the picture and say that on our fitness landscape: the better the solution, the higher the altitude of the square that contains it. Now the fitness landscape is a jumble of cliffs and chasms, plateaus and jagged summits. Valleys represent bad solutions; mountain tops are good. In an ecosystem, the latter are creatures more likely to survive and reproduce; in the market place, they are the profitable business ideas; and at the dinner party, they are the tastiest dishes. In our dinnerparty landscape, a deep, dark pit might contain a recipe for spaghetti with fish fingers and a jar of curry sauce. From there, the only way is up. Trek in one direction and you might eventually ascend to the soaring peak of Bolognese ragù.

Selection happens through heredity: successful creatures reproduce before they die and have offspring that share some or all of their genes. In a market economy, variation and selection are also at work. New ideas are created by scientists and engineers, meticulous middle managers in large corporations or daring entrepreneurs. Failures are culled because bad ideas do not survive long in the market place: to succeed, you have to make a product that customers wish to buy at a price that covers costs and beats obvious competitors. Many ideas fail these tests, and if they are not shut down by management they will eventually be shut down by a bankruptcy court. Good ideas spread because they are copied by competitors, because staff leave to set up their own businesses, or because the company with the good ideas grows.


pages: 1,042 words: 266,547

Security Analysis by Benjamin Graham, David Dodd

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, asset-backed security, backtesting, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, diversified portfolio, fear of failure, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, index fund, intangible asset, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, low cost carrier, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Right to Buy, risk free rate, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, secular stagnation, shareholder value, The Chicago School, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, two and twenty, zero-coupon bond

These considerations do not gainsay the principle that untrained investors should confine themselves to the best regarded enterprises. It should be realized, however, that this preference is enjoined upon them because of the greater risk for them in other directions, and not because the most popular issues are necessarily the safest. The analyst must pay respectful attention to the judgment of the market place and to the enterprises which it strongly favors, but he must retain an independent and critical viewpoint. Nor should he hesitate to condemn the popular and espouse the unpopular when reasons sufficiently weighty and convincing are at hand. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE FACTORS IN ANALYSIS Analyzing a security involves an analysis of the business.

The company’s securities were selling together for less than one-third of the cash alone, and for only one-seventh of the net current assets, allowing nothing for the fixed property.9 STUDEBAKER CORPORATION, SEPTEMBER 1933 The company’s debt, selling at 40 cents on the dollar, was entitled to prompt payment in full before the stockholder received anything. Nevertheless, the market placed a much larger value upon the stock issues than upon the prior debt. Voluntary Readjustment Plans. Realization of the manifest disadvantages of receivership has often led bondholders to accept suggestions emanating from the management for a voluntary reduction of their contractual claims. Arrangements of this kind have varied from the old-fashioned type of “composition” (in which creditors extended or even curtailed their claims, while the stockholders retained their interest intact) to cases where the bondholders received a substantial part of the stock equity.

And it must always be remembered that the truth that the analyst uncovers is first of all not the whole truth and, secondly, not the immutable truth. The result of his study is only a more nearly correct version of the past. His information may have lost its relevance by the time he acquires it, or in any event by the time the market place is finally ready to respond to it. With full allowance for these pitfalls, it goes without saying, none the less, that security analysis must devote thoroughgoing study to corporate income accounts. It will aid our exposition if we classify this study under three headings, viz.: 1. The accounting aspect.


pages: 127 words: 39,771

The Richest Man in Babylon by George S. Clason

the market place, trade route

Tarkad, the son of Azure, certainly thought so. For two whole days he had tasted no food except two small figs purloined from over the wall of a garden. Not another could he grab before the angry woman rushed forth and chased him down the street. Her shrill cries were still ringing in his ears as he walked through the market place. They helped him to retrain his restless fingers from snatching the tempting fruits from the baskets of the market women. Never before had he realized how much food was brought to the markets of Babylon and how good it smelled. Leaving the market, he walked across to the inn and paced back and forth in front of the eating house.


pages: 403 words: 119,206

Toward Rational Exuberance: The Evolution of the Modern Stock Market by B. Mark Smith

bank run, banking crisis, business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, compound rate of return, computerized trading, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, income inequality, index arbitrage, index fund, joint-stock company, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market clearing, merger arbitrage, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Paul Samuelson, price stability, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk free rate, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, stocks for the long run, the market place, transaction costs

“But if I do, I will not be explaining how the process is working … There is no way to understand what is going on in this economy without reference to [stock] prices.”3 NOTES 1. STEEL 1 Jean Strouse, Morgan: American Financier (New York: Random House, 1999), p. 406. 2 Ibid., p. 405. 3 Ibid. 4 Frederick Lewis Allen, The Lords of Creation (New York: Harper Bros., 1935), p. 30. 5 Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place (Boston: Little Brown, 1938). 6 Alfred Cowles, Common Stock Indices (Bloomington, Ind.: Principia Press, 1939), p. 372. 7 Ibid. 8 Richard Schabacker, Stock Market Theory and Practice (New York: B. C. Forbes, 1930), p. 407. 9 Peter Bernstein, Capital Ideas (New York: Free Press, 1992), p. 19. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid., p. 22. 12 Ibid., p. 18. 13 Ibid., p. 20. 14 Allen, p. 25. 15 Ibid., p. 27. 16 Dan Bowmar, Giants of the Turf (Lexington, Ky.: The Blood-Lines, 1930), p. 103. 2.

Baruch (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983), p. 146. 5 New York Times, 4 January 1917. 6 Frederick Lewis Allen, The Lords of Creation, p. 197. 7 Gardiner Means, “Diffusion of Stock Ownership,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 1930. 8 H. T. Warshow, “The Distribution of Stock Ownership in the United States,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1924. 9 Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place, p. 184. 10 Warshow, p. 37. 11 Noyes, p. 225. 12 Cowles, p. 405. 13 Grant, p. 131. 5. A NEW ERA 1 John Brooks, Once in Golconda: A True Drama of Wall Street (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 1. 2 Robert Sobel, The Great Bull Market (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1968), p. 99. 3 Kenneth Van Strum, Investing in Purchasing Power (New York: Barron’s, 1925), p. vii. 4 Paul Sarnoff, Jesse Livermore: Speculator King, p. 7. 5 Ibid., p. 51. 6 Ibid., pp. 70–71. 7 Ibid., p. 71. 8 Ronald Kessler, Sins of the Father (New York: Warner Books, 1996), p. 34. 9 Brooks, p. 81. 10 Ibid., p. 110. 11 Sobel, The Great Bull Market, p. 57. 12 John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash, 1929 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), p. 10. 13 Martin Fridson, It Was a Very Good Year (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998), pp. 55–56. 14 Sarnoff, p. 78. 15 Ibid. 16 Sobel, The Great Bull Market, p. 113. 17 Harold Bierman, The Causes of the 1929 Stock Market Crash (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998), p. 30. 18 Ibid., p. 31. 6.


pages: 395 words: 118,446

The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Martha Banta

Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, greed is good, Ida Tarbell, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair

Next came the first of the ‘barbarians’—warlike, given to violent seizures of others’ lives and property. In turn, early forms of capitalism were introduced by institutions backed by power figures of the quasi-predatory, overtly bellicose type. Veblen’s story, brought into the present, features the modern barbarians of the ‘pecuniary culture’ who displace on to the market place the brutal ruthlessness of the previous warrior class. Once humans had only needed ‘just enough’ to get by, but with time the aggressive urge to want ‘more’ did away with contentment over maintaining basic norms of subsistence. For Veblen’s generation the sign of masculine success was linked to obsession with ‘ownership’ and the competition to gain things whether they are necessary or not.15 Lest Veblen’s readers lull themselves into believing that violent urges were lost over time as the days of feudal warriors waned, The Theory of the Leisure Class insists on the continuing presence of ‘vestiges’ from the past.

Midway between these extremes lies the everyday speech of leisure-class conversation and literature. Elegant diction, whether in writing or speaking, is an effective means of reputability. It is of moment to know with some precision what is the degree of archaism conventionally required in speaking on any given topic. Usage differs appreciably from the pulpit to the market-place; the latter, as might be expected, admits the use of relatively new and effective words and turns of expression, even by fastidious persons. A discriminate avoidance of neologisms is honorific, not only because it argues that time has been wasted in acquiring the obsolescent habit of speech, but also as showing that the speaker has from infancy habitually associated with persons who have been familiar with the obsolescent idiom.


pages: 685 words: 203,431

The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant

George Santayana, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, music of the spheres, Plutocrats, plutocrats, science of happiness, Socratic dialogue, the market place, the scientific method

Again, “some dispositions evince an unbounded admiration for antiquity, others eagerly embrace novelty; only a few can preserve the just medium, and neither tear up what the ancients have correctly established, nor despise the just innovations of the moderns.”87 Truth knows no parties. Thirdly, Idols of the Market-place, arising “from the commerce and association of men with one another. For men converse by means of language; but words are imposed according to the understanding of the crowd; and there arises from a bad and inapt formation of words, a wonderful obstruction to the mind.”88 Philosophers deal out infinites with the careless assurance of grammarians handling infinitives; and yet does any man know what this “infinite” is, or whether it has even taken the precaution of existing?

Later he destroyed the book. In politics too he showed a spirit of rebellion hardly to be suspected from his later sanctification of the status quo. While studying for the ministry at Tübingen, he and Schelling hotly defended the French Revolution, and went out early one morning to plant a Liberty Tree in the market-place. “The French nation, by the bath of its revolution,” he wrote, “has been freed from many institutions which the spirit of man has left behind like its baby shoes, and which therefore weighed upon it, as they still weigh upon others, like lifeless feathers.” It was in those hopeful days, “when to be young was very heaven,” that he flirted, like Fichte, with a kind of aristocratic socialism, and gave himself, with characteristic vigor, to the Romantic current in which all Europe was engulfed.

., 345, 347, 348f., 356, 373, 379, 409, 460, 462, 464, 607, 641f., 665f. Huneker, J., 528, 564, 677 Huxley, T., 465, 468f., 501, 519, 586f. Huyghens, 204 Ibn Ezra, 191 Ibn Gebirol, 191 Idealism, 354, 402f., 612, 641 Ideas, Plato’s theory of, 38f., 436, 439, 624 Idols of the Cave, 167f. Idols of the Market-place, 168 Idols of the Theatre, 168f. Idols of the Tribe, 165f. Immortality, 191, 195, 240f., 312f., 360, 602f., 652 Individualism, 517 Induction, 170f., 177 Industrial Revolution, 460 Inquisition, 189, 192 Insanity, 428f. Instinct, 488f., 601f., 684 Instrumentalism, 681f. Intellect, 226f., 404f., 594f.


pages: 478 words: 126,416

Other People's Money: Masters of the Universe or Servants of the People? by John Kay

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, disinformation, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", John Meriwether, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, Money creation, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, NetJets, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, risk free rate, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, salary depends on his not understanding it, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War

In this instance the purchaser (the Dutch governor-general of New Netherland, Peter Minuit) tricked the sellers: the Natives simply made a mistake. Or perhaps not. Another version of the legend has the Natives getting the better of the deal, since they never owned Manhattan Island in the first place.10 In either case the trade was based on misinformation and disinformation. The notion that the market-place was a venue in which unscrupulous merchants robbed unwitting customers, and foreign trade a means of extracting wealth from foreigners, dominated economic thought from the days of Aristotle until the mid-eighteenth century. We might honour the seventeenth-century French economist and politician Jean-Baptiste Colbert as the champion of this doctrine, since many of his compatriots – along with Ruskin, whose grasp of economics was never strong, and more recent critics of commercial activity – adhere to it still.

A lending bank would require security, and property was the preferred collateral – the assets of the business might serve for this purpose, but often the bank would place a charge on the homes of the founders. Bank finance was, and continues to be, more suitable for businesses that needed to buy plant and fit out premises than for new companies which need to spend money to develop products or test them in the market-place. But as financialisation gathered pace, and the traditional bank manager retired, or was made redundant, business lending operations were removed from bank branches and transferred to regional offices. More professional analysis of business plans replaced information gained at the nineteenth hole.


Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Garrett Hardin, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Tragedy of the Commons, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

But in both Europe and America, this approach is not working. While there are winners from globalization, there are numerous losers. Globalization is, of course, only one of the many forces affecting our societies and our economies. Even without it, there would be increasing inequality. Changes in technology have increased the premium the market places on certain skills, so that the winners in today’s economy are those who have or can acquire those skills. These changes in technology may in the end be more important than globalization in determining the increase in inequality, and even the decline in unskilled wages. Voters can do little about the march of technology; but they can—through their elected representatives—do something about globalization.

In chapter 9, I described the attempt by Japan in 1997 to establish an Asian Monetary Fund, with $100 billion—partly motivated by dissatisfaction with the way that the IMF was dealing with the Asian financial crisis. The United States and the IMF managed to stop this initiative—as much as they believe in competition in the market place, they were appalled at the idea of competition in providing assistance for countries in need, or in providing advice on how to manage one’s economy. In February 2007, Venezuela, enriched by the high oil prices that had followed the Iraq War, joined several other countries, including Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Brazil, to found a new bank, the Bank of the South.


pages: 182 words: 53,802

The Production of Money: How to Break the Power of Banks by Ann Pettifor

Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, bond market vigilante , borderless world, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Money creation, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, Post-Keynesian economics, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, The Chicago School, the market place, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail

The rates on loans made to firms and individuals are determined – socially constructed – by those engaged in the creation of loans: commercial bankers. Bankers make decisions about the rate of interest on a loan based on their assessment of the riskiness of the borrower, and on the rate of return they seek for themselves, but also on what other creditors are offering borrowers in the market place. Given that the banking sector is oligopolistic, there is in reality very little competition and instead a great deal of collusion on decisions about rates. How rates are ‘fixed’ by private, commercial bankers The LIBOR – London Interbank Offered Rate – is critical to determining the rate of interest on $800 trillion–worth of global financial instruments, including millions of mortgages.


pages: 211 words: 55,075

Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city

Accommodating Everyone and Everything The Berne structure, with enclosed blocks at a human scale, can accommodate uses of almost any size, from extra-small to extra-extra-large, while maintaining its human scale. Extra-small might be a food stand or a flower seller in the shelter of the arcade, a stall on the market place, a kiosk tucked into a corner, or a tiny studio apartment in an attic, under the big roofs. Extra-extra-large could be a supermarket with an expansive floorplate, a department store, or a major hotel. In between is everything else: shops of all sizes, banks and showrooms, cafés, bars and restaurants, lawyers’ offices, and medical practices.


Frommer's England 2011: With Wales by Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince

airport security, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, congestion charging, double helix, Edmond Halley, George Santayana, haute couture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Murano, Venice glass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Sloane Ranger, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, sustainable-tourism, the market place, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

Dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, many well-preserved old stone houses are still intact, some having bow-fronted shops of the type familiar to Charles Dickens. Once known as Corinium, the town had five roads converging here during the Roman occupation. In size, it ranked second only to London. Today, it is chiefly a market town and a good base for touring. We prefer to visit the Market Place in the center of town on Monday or Friday morning, when the people from the country flock to town to hawk their produce. (And don’t worry about how to pronounce Cirencester. Even the English disagree. Say Siren-cess-ter and you’ll be close enough.) Essentials Cirencester has no railway station, but trains depart several times a day from London’s Paddington Station for the 80-minute trip to Kemble, which is 6.5km (4 miles) southwest of Cirencester.

Brewery Court. & 01285/657181. www.breweryarts.org.uk. Free admission. Mon–Fri 10am–5pm; Sat 9:30am–5:30pm. 464 16_615386-ch13.indd 46416_615386-ch13.indd 464 8/24/10 2:13 PM8/24/10 2:13 PM Church of St. John the Baptist A church may have stood here in Saxon times, but the present building overlooking the Market Place in the town center dates from Norman times and Henry I. In size, it appears more like a cathedral than a mere parish church, with a variety of styles, largely Perpendicular, as in the early-15thcentury tower. Among the treasures inside are a 15th-century “wineglass” pulpit and a silver-gilt cup given to Queen Anne Boleyn 2 years before her execution.

The duke’s plan to make this a model of the Royal Crescent in Bath was never realized, but it’s worth a look anyway. At the eastern end of the Crescent rises the castiron and glass canopy sheltering the Cavendish Arcade Shopping Centre in the original 18th-century bathhouses of the spa. In front of the Crescent is a beautiful park, the Slopes, dating from 1818. It leads up to the center of town, the Market Place, which is sleepy all winter but filled with heavy traffic in summer. Buxton’s spa days have come and gone, but it’s still the best center for exploring the peak district. The climate is amazingly mild, considering that at 300m (1,000 ft.) altitude, Buxton is the second-highest town in England.


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost

Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

A history of the IBM 1401 is given in Charles J. Bashe et al.’s IBM’s Early Computers (1986). The technical development of the IBM 360 and 370 computer series is described in Emerson W. Pugh et al.’s IBM’s 360 and Early 370 Systems (1991). Tom Wise’s Fortune articles “I.B.M.’s $5,000,000,000 Gamble” and “The Rocky Road to the Market Place” (1966a and 1966b) remain the best external account of the System/360 program. A good internal account is contained in Thomas DeLamarter’s Big Blue (1986). Thomas Haigh’s “Inventing Information Systems” (2001) describes the rise of the systems men in computing. James Cortada’s three-volume Digital Hand provides a sweeping survey of the use of computers in industry.

“Early Computers at Manchester University.” The Radio and Electronic Engineer 45, no. 7: 327–331. Williams, Michael R. 1997. A History of Computing Technology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Wise, Thomas A. 1966a. “I.B.M.’s $5,000,000,000 Gamble.” Fortune, September, p. 118. ———. 1966b. “The Rocky Road to the Market Place.” Fortune, October, p. 138. Wolfe, Tom. 1983. “The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce: How the Sun Rose on Silicon Valley.” Esquire, December, pp. 346–374. Yates, JoAnne. 1982. “From Press Book and Pigeonhole to Vertical Filing: Revolution in Storage and Access Systems for Correspondence.” Journal of Business Communication 19 (Summer): 5–26. ———. 1989.


pages: 651 words: 161,270

Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism by Sharon Beder

American Legislative Exchange Council, battle of ideas, business climate, centre right, clean water, corporate governance, Exxon Valdez, Gary Taubes, global village, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, price mechanism, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, two and twenty, urban planning

Politicians and government officials therefore looked to experts in the think-tanks to interpret and make sense of the massive amounts of information that they were receiving. This gave rise to a set of policy entrepreneurs based in think-tanks who often had the coherent vision that politicians lacked, particularly in the conservative think-tanks which promoted the market place as an alternative to big government.53 An additional function that think-tanks provide in the US, which is often carried out by political parties in other countries, is the facilitation of ‘élite transfer’. In Britain and Australia, cabinet ministers are chosen from the elected members of government, whereas in the United States this is not necessarily the case.

Recycling, he says, should only be carried out where there is an economic reason to do it; “Recycling is the biggest hoax perpetuated on the American public since the synthetic fuels debacle of the early ’80s.”32 In a similar vein, CEI’s Environmental Briefing Book for Congressional Candidates states: “Recycling can also be a wasteful use of energy, time and money. . . Whether or not to recycle a particular material or product should be determined by the market place, not by government fiat.”33 In its magazine Facts, the Australia Institute for Public Policy also attacks recycling. Drawing on an Industry Commission report, it argues that packaging only accounts for a tenth of the waste stream ‘by weight’ and that recycling can be costly and produce pollution problems.


pages: 434 words: 150,773

When the Iron Lady Ruled Britain by Robert Chesshyre

Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, corporate raider, deskilling, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, full employment, housing crisis, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, means of production, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, oil rush, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, the market place, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wealth creators, young professional

Anti-Americanism is often the old codger in the corner’s objection to having the window opened an inch to let in fresh air. ‘Enterprise’ has become a loaded word in Britain, almost interchangeable with Thatcherism. Enterprise is part of Thatcherism, certainly, but Thatcherism is an ideology which has been applied to matters that ought to lie outside the market-place, like university research and race relations. It has an intellectual purity which offends common sense. Many who ‘fail’ are not equipped to compete, and their failure is not due to some deep moral flaw or inadequacy which is susceptible to exhortation or bullying. That most over-borrowed of Hamlet’s notions is perfectly applicable to Mrs Thatcher – there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in her philosophy.

Being an advocate required very different skills from those of the laboratory scientist, who had to lay out all his doubts on the bench. Professor Noble, a fluent French speaker, supported the idea of an exam like the baccalaureate, with its compulsory breadth of subjects. He argued that British science was a victim of the government’s ideology. Science, according to ministers he had dealt with, should be out in the market-place. But, he argued, they overlooked such foreign practices as massive Federal funding in the United States and 150 per cent research and development tax breaks in Australia. Sir Keith Joseph, when Secretary of State for Education and Science, had told an Oxford audience of scientists – worth, according to Professor Noble, thirty million pounds of public investment – that, since the government could not possibly afford what they wanted, they should go abroad.


Designing Web APIs: Building APIs That Developers Love by Brenda Jin, Saurabh Sahni, Amir Shevat

active measures, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, blockchain, business process, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Google Hangouts, if you build it, they will come, Lyft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, premature optimization, pull request, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software as a service, the market place, uber lyft, web application, WebSocket

Expert Advice The best APIs are treated like any other product that’s important to a business: they’re supported, maintained, improved, and altered to fit changing customer needs and expectations. It’s important that API teams stay ahead of the demands of their cus‐ tomers and anticipate where new needs are cropping up and where competitive threats are appearing throughout the market‐ place. The moment you tell yourself that you’ve achieved “lockin” because your customers can’t afford to switch away from you is the moment that you’ve already started to lose. —Chris Messina, developer experience lead at Uber 190 | Chapter 10: Developer Programs Design Sprints The design sprint is a process for answering critical product ques‐ tions through design, prototyping, and testing ideas with develop‐ ers.


Digital Transformation at Scale: Why the Strategy Is Delivery by Andrew Greenway,Ben Terrett,Mike Bracken,Tom Loosemore

Airbnb, bitcoin, blockchain, butterfly effect, call centre, chief data officer, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, Diane Coyle, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, loose coupling, M-Pesa, minimum viable product, nudge unit, performance metric, ransomware, robotic process automation, Silicon Valley, social web, The future is already here, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds

They provide the infrastructure for whole markets to build themselves upon, and take a small cut off the millions that use them. This is true in taxis, holiday accommodation, advertising, news, retail, and many more besides. The biggest companies in all of these sectors often don’t own stock or property. They own the market place. For government, the opportunities in building platforms like these are real. Most public services are made of online and offline components that have been rebuilt or bought hundreds of times at the public’s expense. Making payments, taking payments, publishing information, progress notifications through text and email, appointment booking, licences, grant applications.


pages: 135 words: 53,708

Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing

California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, East Village, El Camino Real, G4S, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Silicon Valley, the market place, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

Leaving the hotel, bear left to Ocean Avenue; the Pacific Ocean is on the left and several 100-year-old mansions on the right. Turn right on Alameda and ride through a typical Coronado neighborhood with Spanish-style houses and bungalows. At 4th, cross the street and walk one block; the Naval Air Station will be on your left. Turn right on 1st. It’s a straight stretch back to the Market Place. Around Town – Southern San Diego As the endangered Western snowy plover seeks a place in which to lay her fragile eggs, the green-and-white vehicles of the US Border Patrol swoop down hillsides, lights blazing, in search of the illegal immigrant. An enormous, rusty, corrugated metal fence, which separates the US and Mexico, slices through the park before plunging into the sea.


Rough Guide Directions Bruges & Ghent by Phil Lee

British Empire, Kickstarter, place-making, spinning jenny, the market place

Undeterred, the Flemings promptly added a third spire, though when this went up in smoke in 1741 the locals gave up, settling for the present structure with the addition of a stone parapet in 1822. It’s a pity they didn’t have another go, if only to sabotage Longfellow’s metre in his dire but oft-quoted poem The Belfry of Bruges: “In the market place of Bruges/Stands the Belfry old and brown/Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilt …”, and so P L A C E S Bruges: The Markt THE MARKT CONINCK AND BREYDEL MONUMENT 12/20/07 1:07:49 PM Bruges: The Markt P L A C E S 52 behind a set of fancy – and still surprisingly well-preserved – iron grilles.


pages: 256 words: 63,092

Forever Summer by Nigella Lawson

the market place

Also by Nigella Lawson HOW TO EAT THE PLEASURES AND PRINCIPLES OF GOOD FOOD HOW TO BE A DOMESTIC GODDESS BAKING AND THE ART OF COMFORT COOKING NIGELLA BITES FEAST FOOD THAT CELEBRATES LIFE NIGELLA EXPRESS GOOD FOOD FAST NIGELLA CHRISTMAS FOOD, FAMILY, FRIENDS, FESTIVITIES KITCHEN RECIPES FROM THE HEART OF THE HOME List of Recipes Barbecue Barbecued Loin of Lamb, Three Ways Barbecued Quail Barbecued Sea Bass with Preserved Lemons Black and Blue Beef Coconut and Chilli Salmon Kebabs Grilled Sardines with Lemon Salsa Grilled Tuna with Wasabi Butter Sauce Lamb Kebabs Red Mullet with Sweet and Sour Shredded Salad Salmon Kebabs with Pomegranate Molasses and Honey Steak with Barbecue Butters Beef Black and Blue Beef Cold Roast Beef with Lemon Salad Steak with Barbecue Butters Thai Crumbled Beef in Lettuce Wraps Bread Brioches Crostini del Mare Flatbread Pizzas Garlic Bread Za’atar Chicken with Fattoush Dips Cacik Feta, Walnut and Herb Salad Moutabal Cheese Baked Pasta Shells Stuffed with Spinach and Ricotta Baked Ricotta with Grilled Radicchio Capellini con Cacio e Pepe Corsican Omelette Feta, Walnut and Herb Salad Flatbread Pizzas Griddled Aubergines with Feta, Mint and Chilli Puy Lentil, Goat’s Cheese and Mint Salad Ricotta Hotcakes The Ultimate Greek Salad Watermelon, Feta and Black Olive Salad Chocolate Baci Ice Cream Blonde Mocha Layer Cake Caramelised Pineapple with Hot Chocolate Sauce Chocolate Peanut Squares Chocolate Raspberry Pavlova Dime Bar Ice Cream Frozen Chocolate Truffles Mint Chocolate Mousse White Chocolate Almond Cake White Chocolate and Passionfruit Mousse White Chocolate Ice Cream with Hot Blackberry Sauce Curries Chicken and Cashew Nut Curry Green Vegetable Curry Keralan Fish Curry with Lemon Rice Mauritian Prawn Curry Seafood Laksa Desserts Anglo-Italian Trifle Arabian Pancakes with Orange-Flower Syrup Banana and Butterscotch Upside-Down Tart Blonde Mocha Layer Cake Brioches Caramelised Pineapple with Hot Chocolate Sauce Chilled Caramelised Oranges with Greek Yoghurt Chocolate Peanut Squares Chocolate Raspberry Pavlova Coconut Slab Eastern Mediterranean Cheesecake Figs for a Thousand and One Nights Frozen Chocolate Truffles Gingered and Minty Fruit Salad Gooseberry Fool Honey Semifreddo Lavender Trust Cupcakes Lemon Cupcakes Lemon Rice Pudding Mint Chocolate Mousse Mint Julep Peaches Orange Cornmeal Cake Passionfruit Pavlova, Again Passionfruit Shortcakes Red Roast Quinces Red-Hot Chilli Syrup Rhubarb Fool Ricotta Hotcakes Slut-Red Raspberries in Chardonnay Jelly Strawberry Meringue Layer Cake Summer Crumble Vanilla Shortbread White Chocolate Almond Cake White Chocolate and Passionfruit Mousse Drinks Alcoholic Iced Coffee Blue Lagoon Campari Soda Elderflower and Passionfruit Cooler Fragonard Fresh Green Gimlet Gina Ginger Beer Shandy Journalist Kiwitini Lemon Drop Mint and Lime Cool Aid Moscow Mule Passione Pimms Pina Colada Pomme Pomme Sangria Tom Collins White Lady Eggs Corsican Omelette Potato and Pea Frittata Fish and Seafood Baby Octopus and Potato Salad Barbecued Sea Bass with Preserved Lemons Coconut and Chilli Salmon Kebabs Crostini del Mare Ginger-Cured Salmon Grilled Sardines with Lemon Salsa Grilled Tuna with Wasabi Butter Sauce Keralan Fish Curry with Lemon Rice Lemony Prawn Salad Linguine alle Vongole Linguine with Chilli, Crab and Watercress Linguine with Mussels Marinated Salmon with Capers and Gherkins Mauritian Prawn Curry Pepper-Seared Tuna Prawn and Black Rice Salad with Vietnamese Dressing Red Mullet with Sweet and Sour Shredded Salad Salmon Kebabs with Pomegranate Molasses and Honey Salt Cod Fritters Sea Bass with Saffron, Sherry and Pine Nuts Seafood Laksa Seafood Salad Seared Mustard-Coated Salmon Squid Salad with Lime, Coriander, Mint and Mizuna Tagliolini al Pesto Amaro Three Fishes with Three-Herb Salsa Fruit Apple Ice Cream Banana and Butterscotch Upside-Down Tart Caramelised Pineapple with Hot Chocolate Sauce Chilled Caramelised Oranges with Greek Yoghurt Chocolate Raspberry Pavlova Coconut and Chilli Salmon Kebabs Coconut Slab Elderflower and Passionfruit Cooler Figs for a Thousand and One Nights Gammon with Pineapple Gingered and Minty Fruit Salad Golden Jubilee Chicken Gooseberry and Elderflower Ice Cream Gooseberry Fool Kiwitini Mint Julep Peaches Orange Cornmeal Cake Passione Passionfruit Pavlova, Again Passionfruit Shortcakes Peach Ice Cream Raspberry Ripple Ice Cream Red Roast Quinces Redcurrant Slush Sorbet Rhubarb Fool Slut-Red Raspberries in Chardonnay Jelly Strawberry Ice Cream Strawberry Meringue Layer Cake Summer Crumble Watermelon, Feta and Black Olive Salad White Chocolate and Passionfruit Mousse Ice Creams and Sorbets Apple Ice Cream Baci Ice Cream Cheesecake Ice Cream Dime Bar Ice Cream Egg-Custard Ice Cream Frozen Chocolate Truffles Gooseberry and Elderflower Ice Cream Honey Semifreddo Margarita Ice Cream Peach Ice Cream Raspberry Ripple Ice Cream Redcurrant Slush Sorbet Strawberry Ice Cream Vin Santo Ice Cream with Cantuccini White Chocolate Ice Cream with Hot Blackberry Sauce Lamb Barbecued Loin of Lamb, Three Ways Bulgar Wheat Salad with Pink-Seared Lamb Crispy Lamb Chops Greekish Lamb Pasta Lamb Cutlets with Yoghurt and Cumin Lamb Kebabs Lamb Patties with Hummus and Pitta Moroccan Roast Lamb Rack of Lamb with Mint Salsa Nuts and Pulses Chocolate Peanut Squares Chicken, Almond and Parsley Salad Chicken and Cashew Nut Curry Chilled Pea and Mint Soup Double Courgette and Bean Salad Feta, Walnut and Herb Salad Lamb Patties with Hummus and Pitta Pappardelle with Courgettes, Sultanas and Pine Nuts Puy Lentil, Goat’s Cheese and Mint Salad Sea Bass with Saffron, Sherry and Pine Nuts Summer Minestrone Alla Genovese The Rainbow Room’s Carrot and Peanut Salad White Chocolate Almond Cake Pasta Baked Pasta Shells Stuffed with Spinach and Ricotta Capellini con Cacio e Pepe Greekish Lamb Pasta Linguine alle Vongole Linguine with Chilli, Crab and Watercress Linguine with Mussels Pappardelle with Courgettes, Sultanas and Pine Nuts Rigatoni al Pomodoro e Prezzemolo Short Pasta with Asparagus, Lemon, Garlic and Parsley Spaghetti Aglio Olio Peperoncino Spaghettini al Sugo Crudo Tagliolini al Pesto Amaro Pork Gammon with Pineapple Lomo de Orza Porchetta Spare Ribs Potatoes Baby Octopus and Potato Salad Baked Potato Salad Hasselback Potatoes Potato and Pea Frittata Salt Cod Fritters Poultry Barbecued Quail Caesar Cleopatra Chicken, Almond and Parsley Salad Chicken and Cashew Nut Curry Chicken Salad with Spinach and Lardons Gingery Duck with Red Onion and Orange Salad Golden Jubilee Chicken Picnic-Fried Chicken Saffron-Scented Chicken Pilaf Sicilian Vinegar Chicken Slow-Roasted Garlic and Lemon Chicken Spatchcock Chicken with Lemon and Rosemary Za’atar Chicken with Fattoush Rice and Noodles Happiness Soup Lemon Rice Lemon Rice Pudding Prawn and Black Rice Salad with Vietnamese Dressing Rice Paper Rolls Risi e Bisi Saffron-Scented Chicken Pilaf Seafood Laksa Soba Noodles with Sesame Seeds Salads, Snacks and Sides Baby Octopus and Potato Salad Baked Potato Salad Braised Little Gems Bulgar Wheat Salad with Pink-Seared Lamb Cacik Caesar Cleopatra Caponata Chicken, Almond and Parsley Salad Chicken Salad with Spinach and Lardons Cold Roast Beef with Lemon Salad Courgette Fritters Double Courgette and Bean Salad Feta, Walnut and Herb Salad Garlic Bread Golden Jubilee Chicken Griddled Aubergines with Feta, Mint and Chilli Hasselback Potatoes Italian Beetroot Salad Lemony Prawn Salad Old-Fashioned Tomato Salad Prawn and Black Rice Salad with Vietnamese Dressing Puy Lentil, Goat’s Cheese and Mint Salad Raw Beetroot, Dill and Mustard Seed Salad Rice Paper Rolls Roasted New Season’s Vegetables Seafood Salad Spare Ribs Squid Salad with Lime, Coriander, Mint and Mizuna The Rainbow Room’s Carrot and Peanut Salad The Ultimate Greek Salad Watermelon, Feta and Black Olive Salad Soups and Stews Chilled Pea and Mint Soup Happiness Soup Risi e Bisi Seafood Laksa Spiced Pink Soup Summer Minestrone alla Genovese Vegetarian Baked Pasta Shells Stuffed with Spinach and Ricotta Baked Ricotta with Grilled Radicchio Capellini con Cacio e Pepe Chilled Pea and Mint Soup Corsican Omelette Green Vegetable Curry Griddled Aubergines with Feta, Mint and Chilli Pappardelle with Courgettes, Sultanas and Pine Nuts Potato and Pea Frittata Rigatoni al Pomodoro e Prezzemolo Risi e Bisi Short Pasta with Asparagus, Lemon, Garlic and Parsley Soba Noodles with Sesame Seeds Spaghetti Aglio Olio Peperoncino Spaghettini al Sugo Crudo Spiced Pink Soup INTRODUCTION In the ideal world inhabited by the chef, there may indeed be a place for the lyrical insistence on using only those ingredients that the month in hand offers up to the market place, but my kitchen, my home, the way I cook, resist such purist strictures. For much as I love the idea of wandering out to the shops, basket dangling from my arm, to gather each new season’s freshly ripened produce, I neither have the time to shop that way, nor the discipline – and, frankly, I baulk at such loftily imposed restraints.


pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

What we now call ‘the public sphere’ – that complex amalgamation of a free press, independent universities, organized and legitimate public opposition (pressure groups, trade unions) – grew rapidly from its eighteenth-century origins in the coffee houses of London, Bristol, Edinburgh and other mercantile centres of Europe and the burgeoning Empire. One may think of it as the market-place of public opinion. Free speech and free ideas could flourish in an ambience that was partly detached from court society. As the powers of the court waned in favour of the growth of Parliament and representative democracy, persuading the public by winning over the public sphere became the precondition of successful political policy and strategy.


pages: 218 words: 60,935

How to Buy Property at Auction: The Essential Guide to Winning Property and Buy-To-Let Bargains by Samantha Collett

Firefox, proxy bid, the market place, time value of money

Perhaps a top-of-the-range wet room, a large high-specification kitchen/diner or space for a home office/study? Estate agents can provide a huge amount of information on the local property market, the buying and selling dynamics, the profile of the population and the key motivations and barriers in the market place. They are also well placed to identify areas where value can be added to a property and even specify the nature of works which buyers demand. Detailed research and analysis needs to be undertaken to accurately assess the future value of a property and identify the potential for opportunities to improve the end value.


pages: 250 words: 9,029

Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Popular Culture Is Making Us Smarter by Steven Johnson

Columbine, complexity theory, corporate governance, delayed gratification, edge city, Flynn Effect, game design, Marshall McLuhan, pattern recognition, profit motive, race to the bottom, sexual politics, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, the market place

This progressive trend alone would probably surprise someone who only read popular accounts of TV without watching any of it. But perhaps the most surprising thing is this: that the shows that have made the most demands on their audience have also turned out to be among the most lucrative in television history. PUT A S ID E for a moment the question of why the market­ place is rewarding complexity, and focus first on the ques­ tion of what this complexity looks like. It involves three primary elements : multiple threading, flashing arrows, and social networks. Multiple threading is the most acclaimed structural con­ vention of modern television progra mming, which is ironic because it's also the convention with the most debased pedi­ gree.


pages: 319 words: 64,307

The Great Crash 1929 by John Kenneth Galbraith

Bernie Madoff, business cycle, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, full employment, housing crisis, invention of the wheel, joint-stock company, margin call, market fundamentalism, short selling, South Sea Bubble, the market place

[back] *** 5 The American Mazagine, June 1929. [back] *** 6 Wall Street and Washington, p. 179. These passages were later quoted editorially by the New York Times and are reproduced in turn from there. [back] *** 7 The Commercial and Financial Chronicle, March 9. 1929, p. 1444. [back] *** 8 Alexander Dana Noyes, The Market Place (Boston: Little, Brown, 1938), p. 324. [back] *** 9 Stock Exchange Practices. Hearings, April-June 1932, Pt. 2, pp. 601 ff. [back] *** 10 Ibid., p. 676 ff. [back] *** 11 Quoted by Allen, Only Yesterday, p. 322. [back] *** 12 Only Yesterday, p. 315. [back] *** 13 Stock Exchange Practices, Report, 1934, pp. 9, 10.


pages: 206 words: 67,030

Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches: The Riddles of Culture by Marvin Harris

colonial exploitation, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, stakhanovite, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, zero-sum game

It does seem that there are enormous numbers of surplus, useless, and uneconomic animals, and that this situation is a direct result of irrational Hindu doctrines. Tourists on their way through Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, and other Indian cities are astonished at the liberties enjoyed by stray cattle. The animals wander through the streets, browse off the stalls in the market place, break into private gardens, defecate all over the sidewalks, and snarl traffic by pausing to chew their cuds in the middle of busy intersections. In the countryside, the cattle congregate on the shoulders of every highway and spend much of their time taking leisurely walks down the railroad tracks.


Top 10 Greek Islands by Dorling Kindersley Publishing Staff

centre right, G4S, the market place

Other exhibits on display are the Snake Goddess figurine and the Bull’s Head Rhyton, dating from the 16thcentury-BC Palace of Knossos, along with pieces dating from Neolithic through to Roman times (see p22). d Map E6 of elegant Venetian mansions, busy streets, a • 28102 79086 • Open summer: 8am– harbour full of fishing boats 8pm, 1:30–8pm Mon, winter: 8:30am– and squares full of chic 3pm daily • Adm • Special ticket Vase, Irákleio Archaeological Museum available (see p22). restaurants, tavernas 97 Around the Greek Islands – Crete Left Stepped path, Chaniá Right Ruins at Górtys ^ Chaniá A sprawling fortified city in the foothills of the Lefká Óri inhabited since Neolithic times, mountains, Chaniá was the cityGórtys, or Gortyn, became the state of Kydonia in ancient times. powerful capital of Crete, ahead Along with Phaestos and Knossos, of Phaestos, after the Roman it was one of the most powerful invasion of 65 BC. Its power cities during the Minoan period. lasted until AD 7, when invading Decline was followed by renewed Arabs destroyed the city. The importance under the remains of its citadel and agora Venetians. Chaniá was the (market place), the praetorium capital of Crete until 1971. (governor’s house), temples Today, life in the city and a cemetery can be revolves around its visited. A three-aisled scenic harbour and the basilica, Ágios Títos, historic Spiántza Quarter, dominates the entrance. with its Venetian houses The odeion (small theatre) lining cobbled streets, ruins are famous for their modern restaurants and Traditional weaving, inscriptions. d Ágii Déka, art galleries. d Map D6 Réthymno museum Irákleio • Map E6 • 28920 31144 & Réthymno With a well-preserved Venetian fortress, picturesque harbour famous for its 13th-century lighthouse, and fish tavernas, Réthymno is a refined holiday destination.


Work in the Future The Automation Revolution-Palgrave MacMillan (2019) by Robert Skidelsky Nan Craig

3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, anti-work, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data is the new oil, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, Internet of things, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, job polarisation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, post-work, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, wealth creators, working poor

I think the important thing I want to say here is that the reasons they have not been borne out is because people have underestimated the depth of human demand, new demand that is generated. In a general sense, jobs will persist as long as there are major sources of unmet demand that can be satisfied through the market place. Those are two important conditions, but this really raises and gets to some of the broader issues we just started talking about. What is it that humans want? Are there markets or industries where demand will not be satiated, where technology will never meet all of our needs and wants? Will we ever run out of a desire to have better health and longer life?


pages: 741 words: 179,454

Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bear Stearns, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, buy the rumour, sell the news, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, foreign exchange controls, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Bogle, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, National Debt Clock, negative equity, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk free rate, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Satyajit Das, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, tail risk, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, two and twenty, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

As a result, regulators have not considered it their role to judge the value of different financial products, and they have in general avoided direct products regulation, certainly in wholesale markets with sophisticated investors.6 It was a matter of faith: Our soundness standards should be no more or no less stringent than those the market place would impose. If banks were unregulated, they would take on any amount of risk they wished, and the market would price their capital and debt accordingly.7 Capital held by banks and brokers against loss decreased, increasing their leverage. The definition of capital was expanded to include hybrid capital, debt ranking below deposits and senior borrowings.

Michael Greenberger, a director at the CFTC, noted: “Brooksley was this woman...not playing tennis with these guys...not having lunch with these guys...this woman was not of Wall Street.”29 Greenspan told Born that she did not understand what she was doing: “regulation of derivatives transactions that are privately negotiated by professionals is unnecessary.”30 Regulation would reduce market efficiency, create uncertainty, and reduce standards of living. The market place was automatically self-regulating. Market regulation was superior to even minimal intervention. Acknowledging that derivatives create linkages that transmit risks, Greenspan dismissed the possibility of problems in the financial system as extremely remote. Regulation would cause a flight of capital from America, reducing its financial influence.


pages: 7,371 words: 186,208

The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times by Giovanni Arrighi

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial rule, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, double entry bookkeeping, European colonialism, financial independence, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kōnosuke Matsushita, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, means of production, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, profit maximization, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, reserve currency, spice trade, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

To the extent that this recognition actually materializes in restraining the tendency of trading centers to reinvest surplus capital in the further expansion of their business, competitive struggles can be brought under control and the centers of accumulation can enjoy the best of times: What can be better? The hurly-burly of the market-place has been brought into order. People have their place in society, places to which they must keep, but which are preserved for them, by protection against the intrusion of others. Through their guilds and suchlike associations, which are the means to this protection, they can explore new forms of human fellowship. . . .

It was also a means that suited well the skills and dispositions of the ruling groups of the city-states. It was . . . natural for the ruling groups — merchants and professional men — most of them with some legal or notarial training . . . and most of them experienced in the haggling of the forum and the market place — to believe that words might be as potent as swords. The faith of the merchants and the politicos in the efhcacy of diplomatic and forensic persuasion as an auxiliary to or substitute for military force was probably heightened by the reviving interest in classical literature. In turn, no doubt, this faith strengthened the new humanism and helped give it its prevailing bias towards public rhetoric.


pages: 602 words: 186,977

Collision of Empires: The War on the Eastern Front in 1914 by Prit Buttar

bank run, facts on the ground, the market place

The success reinvigorated us; we moved forwards through the darkened streets. Doors to right and left were kicked open, the grenadiers and fusiliers dragged the sleeping Russians out. Those who did not submit easily were silently subdued… But bitter fighting erupted in the market place. The Russians finally awoke and opened fire from doors and windows. They were overwhelmed, and the houses around the market place were swiftly stormed.52 Vasiliev, commander of the Russian Lowicz detachment, barely succeeded in escaping capture.53 The line of march of 3rd Guards Division had taken it past the flank of the Russian forces that had held up Scheffer’s central column, and these Russians, with additional troops from the east, launched a counterattack barely an hour later.


Mastering Book-Keeping: A Complete Guide to the Principles and Practice of Business Accounting by Peter Marshall

accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset allocation, double entry bookkeeping, information retrieval, intangible asset, the market place

Revaluing is also useful in dealing with livestock, for their values go up and down; a dairy cow for example will be less valuable when very young than when fully grown, but then its value will decline as it gets old. Throughout its life this rise and fall in value may be further affected by changes in food prices in the market place. If revaluation is used, no provision for depreciation is needed. 108 43 Other methods of depreciationcont. The depletion method This is used in the adjusting of values of ore bodies, mines, quarries and oil wells. The initial value of the mine, etc is divided by the quantity of ore or mineral that it contained at the beginning; the quotient is then multiplied by the quantity actually mined in the accounting year to give the amount of depletion in value.


pages: 278 words: 74,880

A World of Three Zeros: The New Economics of Zero Poverty, Zero Unemployment, and Zero Carbon Emissions by Muhammad Yunus

active measures, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, distributed generation, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tragedy of the Commons, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban sprawl, young professional

Back in 2008, on top of the food crisis, the oil price crisis, and the environmental crisis, came the biggest crisis of all—the crushing collapse of the US financial system. Giant financial institutions along with major manufacturing firms like the automakers either went bankrupt or were kept alive through unprecedented government bailout packages. Many reasons have been suggested for this historic economic collapse: excessive greed in the market place, the transformation of investment markets into gambling casinos, the failure of regulatory institutions, and so on. But one thing is clear: the financial system broke down because of a fundamental distortion of its basic purpose. Credit markets were originally created to serve human needs—to provide businesspeople with capital to start or expand companies.


pages: 243 words: 77,516

Straight to Hell: True Tales of Deviance, Debauchery, and Billion-Dollar Deals by John Lefevre

airport security, Bear Stearns, blood diamonds, buy and hold, colonial rule, credit crunch, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, jitney, lateral thinking, market clearing, Occupy movement, Sloane Ranger, the market place

If we don’t do it, we suffer. Our European competitors tend to be more aggressive when it comes to disregarding the rules. If we lose the mandate, the investment bankers who are directly responsible for the client relationship will argue it’s because our competitors were armed with a better read of the market, placing the blame squarely on my shoulders, which won’t be forgotten come bonus time. I’ve gone to plenty of pitches and confidently pounded the table, saying, “Mandate us. We’re in touch with specific investor appetite for your name and size.” This is an attempt to coax the client into doing a deal and to demonstrate to them that we’re better informed.


pages: 274 words: 73,344

Found in Translation: How Language Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World by Nataly Kelly, Jost Zetzsche

airport security, Berlin Wall, Celtic Tiger, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, glass ceiling, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the market place

He knew that his translation would be read aloud, so he took care to make sure that the words sounded pleasant when spoken. He listened carefully to the rhythm of the language, avoiding sentences with too many unwieldy subordinate clauses and complex structures. “To translate properly is to render the spirit of a foreign language into our own idiom,” he wrote. “I try to speak as men do in the market place.” For example, Luther took Matthew 12:34b and broke it into two sentences to make it easier to read aloud—and simpler to memorize and understand. The King James Version follows the Greek syntax closely: “for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.” Luther translated this verse into German as, “Wes das Hertz vol ist, des gehet der Mund vber,” or in English, “The person with a full heart has an overflowing mouth.”


pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, disinformation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

Not surprisingly, these measures have reduced the peasants' incentives to produce.” Correspondent Paul Vallely described this policy in progress in an article entitled “How Mengistu Hammers the Peasants” in the March 1, 1985, issue of The Times of London. The government men were lying in wait for the peasant farmers in the market place of the small town of Areka. The harvest of teff, Ethiopia's staple grain, had not been plentiful in the southern province of Sidamo but at least that meant, the peasants thought, that they would get a good price for what little surplus they had. They were reckoning without the fixed-price marketing strategy of Mengistu's government.


pages: 293 words: 78,439

Dual Transformation: How to Reposition Today's Business While Creating the Future by Scott D. Anthony, Mark W. Johnson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversified portfolio, Internet of things, invention of hypertext, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, long term incentive plan, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, obamacare, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, pez dispenser, recommendation engine, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, the market place, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transfer pricing, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

So it’s easier for our board directors to understand the threats of disruption and better appreciate the exciting opportunities out there that we bring to their attention having seen it themselves. That’s why we took the board to Silicon Valley, Israel, and more recently to India. We recently increased our exposure to India, and we wanted them to feel the buzz in the market place to really appreciate it.” On Clarifying and Communicating Focus Bertolini (Aetna): “Changes are rarely going to happen as fast as you think they will. When they don’t, doubt can start to creep in with your stakeholders. This is why it’s so important to frame the vision as resting on a foundation of clear assumptions about the future.


pages: 273 words: 78,850

The Millionaire Next Door: The Surprising Secrets of America's Wealthy by Thomas Stanley, William Danko

affirmative action, estate planning, financial independence, high net worth, index fund, money market fund, mortgage tax deduction, the market place, very high income, Yogi Berra

Most businesses today require some investment in land, equipment, and buildings. The Johnson Coal Mining business ownsmountains that contain coal. It owns millions of dollars’ worth of equipment. It employs many miners and must constantly upgrade the safety of its operation. It must conform to OSHA’s mandates. It must deal with the uncontrollable price the market places on a ton of coal. It must constantly be vigilant about competitors who are trying to steal its customers. It must keep a careful watch on changes in America’s energy policy. It also must keep its workers happy and safe. It must constantly deal with the possibility of a mine cave-in and halted production.


pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Third, starting with the Mexican and the Chinese Revolution, the most antisystemic struggles of the last century have not been fought only or primarily by waged industrial workers, Marx’s projected revolutionary subjects, but have been fought by rural, indigenous, anticolonial, antiapartheid, feminist movements. Today as well, they are fought by subsistence farmers, urban squatters, as well as industrial workers in Africa, India, Latin America, and China. Most important, theses struggles are fought by women who, against all odds, are reproducing their families regardless of the value the market places on their lives, valorizing their existence, reproducing them for their own sake, even when the capitalists declare their uselessness as labor power. What are the prospects, then, that Marxist theory may serve as a guide to “revolution” in our time? I ask this question by analyzing the restructuring of reproduction in the global economy.


pages: 320 words: 24,110

Elements of Mathematics for Economics and Finance by Vassilis C. Mavron, Timothy N. Phillips

constrained optimization, discrete time, the market place

The dashed line corresponds to T R = 5. 2. What is the market saturation level? 3. After how many years will the percentage of Europeans possessing mobile phones first reach 75%? Solution. 1. a) The launch of the product corresponds to t = 0 since t measures the time from the introduction of mobile phones into the market place. So putting t = 0 into the expression for y gives y = 80 − 70e0 = 80 − 70 = 10%. b) After three years t = 3, the percentage of Europeans possessing mobile phones is given by y = 80 − 70e−0.2×3 = 80 − 70e−0.6 = 41.58%. c) After ten years t = 10, the percentage of Europeans possessing mobile phones is given by y = 80 − 70e−0.2×10 = 80 − 70e−2 = 70.53%. 5.


pages: 289 words: 77,532

The Secret Club That Runs the World: Inside the Fraternity of Commodity Traders by Kate Kelly

Bakken shale, bank run, Bear Stearns, business cycle, Credit Default Swap, diversification, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, index fund, light touch regulation, locking in a profit, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, oil-for-food scandal, paper trading, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Sloane Ranger, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, the market place

But the comprehensive approach taken by Glencore and others, helped by a creative use of corporate regulatory havens, had given them elite status in certain commodity markets and made their executives exceedingly wealthy. Most hedge-fund traders sat somewhere in the middle of the totem pole. In the larger scheme of commodity trading, they were essentially money changers, pooling other people’s cash to try to outmaneuver the markets, placing bets on where prices would go, and skimming profits off the top of whatever they made when they were right—generally 20 percent of a year’s earnings and about 2 percent of the money investors gave them. A Frenchman who had socialist influences growing up, Andurand considered the physical oil business to be dirty and distasteful, and told me at one point he would never consider taking delivery of an actual barrel of crude.


pages: 708 words: 196,859

Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Etonian, full employment, German hyperinflation, index card, invisible hand, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mobile money, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, rolodex, the market place

“to establish some sort of dictatorship”: Letter from Strong to Walter Stewart, quoted in Clay, Lord Norman, 265. 303 “speculation on the stock market”: Chicago Tribune, July 14, 1928. 303 “most vehement language”: “Memorandum on Bank of England—Bank of France Relations,” May 24, 1928, quoted in Chandler, Benjamin Strong, 417-18. 304 At one point, several frustrated senior directors: Letter from Siepmann to Steward, July 8, 1928, cited in Boyce, British Capitalism, 23, n. 69. 304 “One moment he would be sunny”: Boyle, Montagu Norman, 235. 304 “How hard and how cruel”: Chandler, Benjamin Strong, 472. 304 “I am desolate and lonesome”: Boyle, Montagu Norman, 238. 16: INTO THE VORTEX 307 At particular times: Bagehot, “Edward Gibbon,” National Review, January 1856, in The Collected Works: Literary Essays, 352. 307 “stocks could be beat”: “The Magnet of Dancing Stock Prices,” New York Times, March 24, 1929. 308 The bubble began: Acampora, The Fourth Mega-Market, 129. 309 “The old-timers”: “The Magnet of Dancing Stock Prices,” New York Times, March 24, 1929. 310 “You could talk about Prohibition”: Cockburn, In Time of Trouble, quoted in Brooks, Once in Golconda, 82. 310 Anyone trying to throw doubt: Noyes, The Market Place, 322. 310 As the crowd piling into the market: Charles, Merz. “Bull Market,” Harpers Monthly Magazine, April 1929, 643. 310 “bootblacks, household servants”: Charles, Merz. “Bull Market.” Harpers Monthly Magazine, April 1929, 643. 311 “Taxi drivers told you what to buy”: Baruch, The Public Year, 220. 311 “When the time comes that a shoeshine boy”: Goodwin, The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, 488. 311 “hard losers and naggers”: Patterson, The Great Boom and Panic, 18. 311 Even the New York Times: “The Army of Women Who Watch the Ticker,” New York Times, March 31, 1929. 312 Biggest of them was Billy Durant: Sparling, Mystery Men of Wall Street, 3-42. 312 “History, which has a painful way”: “Warburg Assails Federal Reserve,” New York Times, March 8, 1929. 312 “sandbagging American prosperity”: Galbraith, The Great Crash, 77. 313 “Monty and Ben sowed the wind”: Chernow, The House of Morgan, 313. 313 “speculative orgy,” “There are many underlying reasons,” “stock speculation,” “The prevailing bull market”: “The Stock-Speculating Mania,” The Literary Digest, December 8, 1928. 314 It was from Washington: Ellis, A Nation in Torment, 40. 315 “displayed some life”: Moreau, The Golden Franc, 89. 315 “When the American people”: Interview with Roy Young, Committee on the History of the Federal Reserve System, Washington: Brookings Institution, 1954-55. 316 The following exchange: Hearings of Senate Committee on Banking and Currency on Brokers’ Loans.

Histoire de la Banque de France entre les deux Guerres. Pomponne: Monique de Tayrac, 1993. NICOLSON, HAROLD. Dwight Morrow. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1935. ____________ Peacemaking 1919. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1939. Norris, George W. Ended Episodes. Philadelphia: John C. Winston. 1937. Noyes, ALEXANDER D. The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor. New York: Little Brown, 1938. Nurske, RAGNAR. International Currency Experience. Geneva: League of Nations, 1944. Overy, RICHARD. Interrogations: The Nazi Elite in Allied Hands, 1945.London: Penguin, 2001. PALYI, MELCHIOR. The Twilight of Gold. Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Company, 1972.


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Blake lived and worked in the same house and wrote with dry wit about the historical Green: “Before [October 1639] . . . the stocks and doubtless the whipping post had been erected on the market place; and thus these emblems of Christian civilization were the earliest tokens of its dedication to free institutions and public enjoyment. Four days later . . . as the record tersely informs us, ‘the Indian’s head was cut off and pitched upon a pole in the market place,’ this being the second step in the improvement of the Green and the first attempt to put a cheerful face upon the public pleasure ground.”34 Trowbridge had a walk of just four hundred yards to and from work.


pages: 287 words: 80,050

The Wisdom of Frugality: Why Less Is More - More or Less by Emrys Westacott

Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bonfire of the Vanities, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate raider, critique of consumerism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Diane Coyle, discovery of DNA, Downton Abbey, dumpster diving, financial independence, full employment, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, McMansion, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, negative equity, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Ralph Waldo Emerson, salary depends on his not understanding it, sunk-cost fallacy, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Veblen good, Zipcar

The sight of a mouse running around without any concern for finding a bed or protective shelter is supposed to have inspired him to accept cheerfully even greater poverty. Thereupon he doubled up his cloak to make a bed, kept his food in a bag, and ate, slept, and did whatever else he felt like doing wherever he felt like doing it. Reproached for eating in the marketplace, he said, “I did it, for it was in the market place I felt hungry”—a classic example of criticizing conventions in the name of what is natural. Yet he found he could still make do with even less. Seeing a child drinking out of his hands, he threw away the one cup he owned, saying, “That child has beaten me in simplicity.” On another occasion he threw away his spoon, after seeing a boy whose bowl had broken eat his lentils using a crust of bread.6 Like Socrates, Diogenes seems to have had no problem accepting things from others.


The Disciplined Trader: Developing Winning Attitudes by Mark Douglas

Albert Einstein, conceptual framework, fear of failure, financial independence, prediction markets, risk tolerance, the market place

The most essential component in the process of transformation is learning how to recognize and then clear out beliefs that argue for the status quo, beliefs that defend against the intrusion of environmental information you refuse to consider, and learning how to read the environment in a way that will clearly point to the most appropriate path to fulfilling yourself. 71 PART III Building a Framework for Understanding Ourselves 72 At the start of this book, I said it would be a step-by-step guide in the process of adapting yourself to the trading environment. The first step in this process of adaptation is recognizing the need to adapt. If you can't manipulate or force the markets to change in a way that suits your needs, then you will need to learn how to change yourself to suit the conditions. The market places no limits or constraints on the ways in which you choose to express yourself, in that respect; unlike in the cultural environment, you have all the power. The primary purpose of Part II, The Nature of the Trading Environment from a Psychological Perspective, was to point out some of the vast differences between the trading environment and the social environment we were taught to function in and to demonstrate clearly a need for a new perspective.


pages: 341 words: 87,268

Them: Adventures With Extremists by Jon Ronson

disinformation, friendly fire, Livingstone, I presume, Mikhail Gorbachev, Silicon Valley, the market place

As I pondered this, a startling thundercrack rang out through the trees, followed by a scary, cackly voice. It was the voice of Dull Care. ‘Fools!’ he roared. ‘Fools! Ha ha ha! When will ye learn that me ye cannot slay?’ Dull Care suggested to the High Priest that he was invincible. ‘When ye turn your feet to the market place,’ he mocked cacklingly, ‘am I not waiting for you as of old? Fools! To dream ye conquer Care.’ At this, and in a breathtaking display of pyrotechnic wizardry, the spirit of Dull Care spat fire onto the High Priest. From the treetops, a gob of fire rained down upon the High Priest’s hat. This infuriated the High Priest.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, disinformation, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The future is already here, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yochai Benkler

That is to say, protocol is nothing but an elaborate instruction list of how a given technology should work, from the inside out, from the top to the bottom, as exemplified in the RFCs described in chapter 4. While many closed source technologies appear to be protocological due to their often monopolistic position in the market place, a true protocol cannot be closed or proprietary. It must be paraded into full view before all, and agreed to by all. It benefits over time through its own technological development in the public sphere. It must exist as pure, transparent code (or a pure description of how to fashion code). As concerned protocological actors, hackers have often called attention to commercial or governmental actions that impede protocol through making tomu Shimomura, Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America’s Most Wanted Computer Outlaw—By the Man Who Did It (New York: Hyperion, 1996); Jonathan Littman, The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick (New York: Little Brown & Co, 1997); Jeff Goodell, The Cyberthief and the Samurai: The True Story of Kevin Mitnick—And the Man Who Hunted Him Down (New York: Dell, 1996).


pages: 258 words: 83,303

Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller: Oil and the End of Globalization by Jeff Rubin

addicted to oil, air freight, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, big-box store, BRICs, business cycle, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

And if transportation and carbon costs don’t bring that factory home, it is likely to be swept back to where it came from on a rising tide of protectionism. Governments around the world, led by the US, are insisting that taxpayers’ money be spent on locally produced goods. As government spending becomes a bigger part of the economy, its bias towards local procurement will shut imports out of more and more of the market place. And once the United States slaps “Buy American” restrictions on its economic stimulus packages, as it has already done on everything from water and sewage projects to bridge repairs, expect Europe, Japan, Canada, Australia, and just about everybody else to follow suit. With the recession claiming as many as 50 million jobs around the world, according to the latest estimates from the International Labor Organization (ILO), there will be a groundswell of public pressure for governments to save local jobs.


pages: 300 words: 81,961

City by Clifford D. Simak

the market place

Downright, shameful homesickness, he told himself. Something that boys are supposed to feel when they first leave home, when they first go out to meet the world. There was a fancy word for it—agoraphobia, the morbid dread of being in the midst of open spaces—from the Greek root for the fear—literally, of the market place. If he crossed the room to the television booth, he could put in a call, talk with his mother or one of the robots—or, better yet, just sit and look at the place until Jenkins came for him. He started to rise, then sank, back in the chair again. It was no dice. Just talking to someone or looking in on the place wasn't being there.


pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu

air freight, back-to-the-land, Biosphere 2, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Tragedy of the Commons, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Longmans, Green & Co, p. 320 From the beginning of markets and civilization, intermediaries have been engaged in the assembling, grading, packaging, processing, storing, transporting, financing, distributing, and advertising of goods and services of all kinds. As a result of their activities, primary producers and final consumers quickly lost track of each other. Writing more than two millennia ago, Plato described in his Republic a class of “retailers” who “sit in the market-place [and] engaged in buying and selling.” These individuals proved especially useful when a farmer brought “some production to market . . . at a time when there is no one to exchange with him.”1 Closer to us, in an economic fable written in the 1840s, the economist Frédéric Bastiat described a French shoemaker who could not identify the countries of origins for the wheat that fed him, the coal that kept him warm, and the leather, nails, and hammer that he used in his trade.2 In Tess of the d’Ubervilles, Thomas Hardy’s 1891 novel, two protagonists talk about the milk they have just loaded onto a train in the following way:“Londoners will drink it at their breakfasts to-morrow, won’t they?”


pages: 219 words: 15,438

The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for Corporate America by Warren E. Buffett, Lawrence A. Cunningham

buy and hold, compensation consultant, compound rate of return, corporate governance, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversified portfolio, dividend-yielding stocks, fixed income, George Santayana, index fund, intangible asset, invisible hand, large denomination, low cost airline, low cost carrier, oil shock, passive investing, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Tax Reform Act of 1986, the market place, transaction costs, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond

(We can't resist pausing here for a short commercial. One usage of retained earnings we often greet with special enthusiasm when practiced by companies in which we have an investment interest is repurchase of their own shares. The reasoning is simple: if 168 CARDOZO LAW REVIEW [Vol. 19:1 a fine business is selling in the market place for far less than intrinsic value, what more certain or more profitable utilization of capital can there be than significant enlargement of the interests of all owners at that bargain price? The competitive nature of corporate acquisition activity almost guarantees the payment of a full-frequently more than full-price when a company buys the entire ownership of another enterprise.


pages: 365 words: 88,125

23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, rent control, shareholder value, short selling, Skype, structural adjustment programs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Bush and subsequently named TARP (Troubled Asset Relief Program), the US government was to use at least $700 billion of taxpayers’ money to buy up the ‘toxic assets’ choking up the financial system. President Bush, however, did not see things quite that way. He argued that, rather than being ‘socialist’, the plan was simply a continuation of the American system of free enterprise, which ‘rests on the conviction that the federal government should interfere in the market place only when necessary’. Only that, in his view, nationalizing a huge chunk of the financial sector was just one of those necessary things. Mr Bush’s statement is, of course, an ultimate example of political double-speak – one of the biggest state interventions in human history is dressed up as another workaday market process.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Garrett Hardin, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Herbert Marcuse, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tragedy of the Commons, Whole Earth Catalog, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

So on balance, will the open web be good for democracy? Yes, it will. Equality The Utopian hopes invested in the web’s democratic potential are matched by claims for its capacity to promote equality by breaking down concentrations of power based on information and knowledge, and lowering barriers to entry into the market-place for ideas. In a global economy that trades information and ideas as much as raw materials and physical goods, anyone with a computer and a modem can become a participant. At least that is the theory. There are serious doubts as to whether the web will do much to make the world less unequal and make any difference to the most pressing problems facing the poorest societies in the developing world.


pages: 304 words: 80,965

What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, compensation consultant, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, John Bogle, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, post-work, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

Carola Frydman and Dirk Jenter, “CEO Compensation,” Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Working Paper no. 77 (March 19, 2010): “The literature provides ample evidence that CEO compensation and portfolio incentives are correlated with a wide variety of corporate behaviors, from investment and financial policies to risk taking and manipulation”; Lucian Bebchuk and Yaniv Grinstein, “Firm Expansion and CEO Pay,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 11886 (November 2005). 30. Bebchuk and Grinstein, “Firm Expansion and CEO Pay.” 31. In the United Kingdom, for example, it was RBS, which had embarked on rapid acquisition, and HBOS and Northern Rock, which had been aggressive in the market place, who found themselves in greatest trouble. 32. “Governing Banks” (Global Governance Forum/International Finance Corporation, 2010). 33. Upton Sinclair, “I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked” (University of California Press, 1994). (Originally printed 1936.) 34. Ronald J. Gilson and Jeffrey N.


pages: 268 words: 81,811

Flash Crash: A Trading Savant, a Global Manhunt, and the Most Mysterious Market Crash in History by Liam Vaughan

algorithmic trading, backtesting, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Elliott wave, eurozone crisis, family office, Flash crash, Great Grain Robbery, high net worth, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, margin call, market design, market microstructure, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nelson Elliott, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, spectrum auction, Stephen Hawking, the market place, Tobin tax, tulip mania, yield curve, zero-sum game

CHAPTER 9 ◼ BUILDING THE MACHINE Ever since Nav started trading at Futex, he’d used a suite of programs provided by the Chicago-based software vendor Trading Technologies. Founded in 1994, TT was run by a futures legend named Harris Brumfield who started using the software after leaving the pits and liked it so much that he bought the company. The software, which was ubiquitous among day traders, gave users the tools they needed to observe the market, place assorted order types, and connect to the exchanges with minimal delays. TT also offered a product called Autotrader that allowed customers with no background in programming to create their own algos in Excel, offering a low-cost way to introduce an element of automation into their trading. On Friday, June 12, 2009, Nav emailed his broker at GNI Touch asking to be put in touch with “a TT technician that will be able to programme for me extra features on TT…Obviously I would be prepared to pay for their time / excellence.”


pages: 300 words: 87,374

The Light That Failed: A Reckoning by Ivan Krastev, Stephen Holmes

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, anti-globalists, bank run, Berlin Wall, borderless world, corporate governance, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, kremlinology, liberal world order, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, nuclear winter, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, postnationalism / post nation state, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, South China Sea, Steve Bannon, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

So finding some way to anchor state power in popular sentiments remains the leadership’s central dilemma. The Kremlin became aware that combustible emotions are just as important for its legitimacy as combustible hydrocarbons. It helps to remember that Putin’s first interview after he assumed the presidency included the following claim: ‘there is harsh competition taking place not only on the market place, but also between governments, on the international arena. I am very sorry to say – for it is very worrying – but we are not listed in the top ranks of leaders in this competition.’62 Putin’s self-assigned task from the beginning, therefore, was to revive Russia’s role as a serious player in the Great Game from which Moscow had been unceremoniously ejected in 1991.


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

THE PERSIAN VERSION A Persian version would probably start in the sixth century bc: its empire thereafter spread from the Mediterranean and Egypt to its west, through to the Himalayas to its east. For hundreds of years it was the centre of world trade, helped along by its willingness to construct an extraordinary network of roads and its openness to the ideas of others. Its bureaucrats made sure that standards were adhered to in the market place, leading to a rapid expansion of commerce. A vast array of irrigation systems created an agricultural bounty that others could only dream of. Following its retreat in the face of counter-attacking Roman forces and its ensuing collapse in the early seventh century ad, it proved an easy target for the spread of Islam.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, salary depends on his not understanding it, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

. | POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / Economic Policy. | BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Economic Conditions. Classification: LCC HD82 .D31477 2016 | DDC 330.9–dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015037561 Printed in the United States of America The truth is sometimes a poor competitor in the market place of ideas—complicated, unsatisfying, full of dilemmas, always vulnerable to misinterpretation and abuse. GEORGE F. KENNAN In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act. GEORGE ORWELL PROLOGUE Reality Bites 1. GREAT EXPECTATIONS Postwar Booms and Busts 2.


Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution by Wendy Brown

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Food sovereignty, haute couture, Herbert Marcuse, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, late capitalism, means of production, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, Philip Mirowski, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, shareholder value, sharing economy, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, young professional, zero-sum game

As one benchmarking expert puts the matter, “benchmarking is a positive, proactive, structured process which leads to changing operations and eventually attaining superior performance and a competitive advantage.”51 Benchmarking works because “solving ordinary business problems, conducting management battles and surviving in the market place are all forms of war, fought by the same rules [know your enemy and know yourself].”52 While benchmarking manuals for the nonprofit and public sectors may issue cautions about organizations P o l i t i c a l R at i o n a l i t y a n d G o v e rn a n c e 137 importing “unproven ideas” with great expenditures and “minimal fiscal returns as a result,” the issue is not one of borrowing from a sector with different purposes from one’s own.53 Rather, the problem is mistaking untested “promising practices” for “Best Practices.”54 Thus, one scholar of benchmarking notes that “as educational institutions have been focusing more and more on quality related issues,” they are wisely employing benchmarking because “educational institutions tend to have quite similar core competence areas, that is, educating the customer to her needs.”55 The third implication of benchmarking’s presumptive isolation of practices builds on the first two: if practices can be separated from products precisely because every organization is presumed to be driven by the aim of succeeding in a competitive marketplace, the employment of benchmarking and best practices themselves challenge or simply wither other aims in nonprofit institutions by marketizing their cultures.


words: 49,604

The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, George Santayana, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Mahbub ul Haq, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McJob, microcredit, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, Tragedy of the Commons, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population

There is much less of a market for the tenth best or twentieth best. Frank and Cook point out that superstar status increasingly applies outside the conventional areas of sport and entertainment. A global brand will make its manufacturer far, far more money than a very similar product that does not achieve the same recognition in the market place. That means that there are superstar product designers, engineers, advertising executives and so on — anybody with a proven record of success will become a celebrity in his or her own field. The authors write: ‘The winner-take-all markets ... have become an increasingly important feature of modern economic life.


pages: 250 words: 88,762

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the strength of weak ties, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The first researchers were British sociologists Roger Jowell and Patricia Prescott-Clarke, whose work, published in 1970, strongly influenced parliamentary debate at the time. Economists Peter Riach and Judith Rich, who have themselves carried out many such trials, survey the history of the method in “Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place,” Economic Journal 112 (November 2002): 480–518. To find out who suffers: Gary Becker, The Economics of Discrimination (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971). Also see Glen Cain, “The Economic Analysis of Labor Market Discrimination: A Survey,” in Orley Ashenfelter and Richard Layard, eds., Handbook of Labor Economics (New York: Elsevier, 1986), chapter 13.


pages: 310 words: 90,817

Paper Money Collapse: The Folly of Elastic Money and the Coming Monetary Breakdown by Detlev S. Schlichter

bank run, banks create money, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, currency peg, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, inflation targeting, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, Money creation, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, open economy, Ponzi scheme, price discovery process, price mechanism, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, savings glut, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Y2K

We conclude that the fractional-reserve banks are constrained in their money creation neither by any independent demand for money nor by any independent demand for loans. If they are willing to lower reserve ratios and thus run a higher risk of illiquidity—that is, being unable to meet redemption requests—they can increase their loan portfolio by encouraging additional borrowing through lower rates and place the additional money in the market place independent of the state of money demand. If money demand has not risen, the additional money will be absorbed via a tendency toward higher prices, that is, a lower purchasing power of the individual monetary unit. The only constraining factor is the overall level of reserves and the risk of a bank run.


Monte Carlo Simulation and Finance by Don L. McLeish

algorithmic bias, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, compound rate of return, discrete time, distributed generation, finite state, frictionless, frictionless market, implied volatility, incomplete markets, invention of the printing press, martingale, p-value, random walk, risk free rate, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, survivorship bias, the market place, transaction costs, value at risk, Wiener process, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

We can determine the corresponding weights on the bond and stocks (x, y) simply by solving the two equations in two unknowns x(1 + r) + ysu = V (su) x(1 + r) + ysd = V (sd) Solving: y ∗ = V (su)−V (sd) su−sd and x∗ = V (su)−y∗ su . 1+r By buying y ∗ units of stock and x∗ units of bond, we are able to replicate the contingent claim V (S1 ) exactly- i.e. produce a portfolio of stocks and bonds with exactly the same return as the contingent claim. So in this case at least, there can be only one possible present value for the contingent claim ∗ and that is the present value ∗ of the replicating portfolio x + y s. If the market placed any other value on the contingent claim, then a trader could guarantee a positive return by a simple trade, shorting the contingent claim and buying the equivalent portfolio or buying the contingent claim and shorting the replicating portfolio. Thus this is the only price that precludes an arbitrage opportunity.


The Map of Knowledge: How Classical Ideas Were Lost and Found: A History in Seven Cities by Violet Moller

Book of Ingenious Devices, British Empire, double entry bookkeeping, Johannes Kepler, Murano, Venice glass, Republic of Letters, spice trade, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons

In return for ‘nine hundred excellent volumes in Greek and Latin, worth about 15,000 ducats,’9 the Venetian state would provide a suitable library building to house the books, make them accessible to ‘students of all nations’10 and ensure they were not taken out of the city. In the late fifteenth century, Venice was at the peak of her mercantile supremacy. It was said that anything you dreamed of could be bought there. According to one visitor, the Piazza San Marco was ‘the market-place of the world.’11 It must have been intoxicating for travellers arriving from Northern Europe, assaulted by the crowds, the hawkers, guides, quacks and beggars, the stench of the canals and the scent of spices, the laments of the gondoliers and the constant slapping of water on stone. Every year, a glorious fair filled the piazza for two riotous weeks.


pages: 384 words: 89,250

Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America by Giles Slade

Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, creative destruction, disinformation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, global village, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, invention of radio, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the market place, the medium is the message, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, white picket fence, women in the workforce

An internationally respected economist, Galbraith brought the planned obsolescence controversy into academia by observing that a society which sets for itself the goal of increasing its supply of goods will tend, inevitably, to identify all innovation with additions to, changes in, or increases in its stock of goods. It will assume, accordingly, that most research will be induced and rewarded in the market place. Much will be . . . Under the proper circumstances . . . we may expect the economy to do a superior job of inventing, developing and redesigning consumer goods and improving their process of manufacture . . . Much of this achievement will impress us only so long as we do not inquire how the demand for the products . . . is contrived and sustained.


pages: 307 words: 92,165

Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing by Hod Lipson, Melba Kurman

3D printing, a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, game design, global supply chain, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, lifelogging, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, Minecraft, new economy, off grid, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, the market place

When Cathy Lewis first showed off the Cube at electronics trade shows and industry events, she discovered an unexpected degree of interest not just from consumers, but also from small manufacturing companies. “At first we were surprised by the number of people who started asking about whether they could use the Cube for end-use manufacturing,” said Cathy. “I think there’s a need in the market place to help companies envision how to break through their current paradigms to capture the benefits of this new type of manufacturing.” Today, 3D Systems keeps track of several game-changing trends that will shape the future of the 3D printing business. The company believes that cloud-based computing, Big Data analysis, and the ever-growing presence of powerful and smart mobile devices will open up new creative and business opportunities for everyone.


pages: 325 words: 89,374

Municipal Dreams: The Rise and Fall of Council Housing by John Boughton

British Empire, deindustrialization, full employment, garden city movement, ghettoisation, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Right to Buy, rising living standards, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, young professional

The lack of available building land in inner London, the necessity to house residents close to local employment, and the pressing need, above all, to build something better than the existing slums, compelled this shift for them as for others. In Stepney, where a large Jewish population needed to be ‘near the market places where they can obtain Kosher meat and also to be near their Synagogues’, moving out to Becontree or another of the LCC’s peripheral estates was seen as even less of an option.11 If such local pragmatism was one factor in the retreat from the high idealism of Tudor Walters and Addison, another and more important one was a powerful shift in the national political mood.


pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, different worldview, do-ocracy, feminist movement, garden city movement, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

As such it ‘prepares the woman for a life of a parasite, a dependent helpless servant, while it furnishes the man the right to a chattel mortgage over a human life’.45 A woman therefore emancipates herself when she admires a man only for the qualities of his heart and mind, asserts the right to follow that love without hindrance, and declares the absolute right to free motherhood. No anarchist thinker other than Godwin has compiled such a trenchant critique of the ‘market place of marriage’. Goldman not only advocated free love but practised it. She had at least one affair with another woman. In her twenties, she lived with Berkman and the artist Fedya as a ménage à trois. In 1908 when she was thirty-eight she took a lover called Ben Reitman who was nine years her junior.

Like Kropotkin, Bookchin believes that nature can offer the basis for objective ethics. Since ’nature is writing its own nature philosophy and ethics’, it is possible to draw moral lessons from the ways of nature.12 And the most important lesson is that nature is not blind, mute or stingy, but provides the grounds for human freedom.13 Rejecting the market-place image of nature, he adopts an ecological image which sees it as essentially creative, directive, mutualistic and fecund. Bookchin develops Hegel’s argument that substance is subjectivity but tries to release it from its idealist implications. He maintains that nature organizes itself into more complex and conscious forms, ever greater ‘complexity, subjectivity and mind’.14 Bookchin further gives an account of evolution which confirms Kropotkin’s stress on co-operation as the key factor in the survival of the species but adds that it takes place through an immanent striving rather than as the chance product of external forces.

Mill who are concerned with civil liberties like to call themselves libertarians. They tend to be individualists who trust in a society formed on the basis of voluntary agencies. They reject a strong centralized State and believe that social order, in the sense of the security of persons and property, can best be achieved through private firms competing freely in the market-place. In its moderate form, right libertarianism embraces laissez-faire liberals like Robert Nozick who call for a minimal State, and in its extreme form, anarcho-capitalists like Murray Rothbard and David Friedman who entirely repudiate the role of the State and look to the market as a means of ensuring social order.


The rough guide to walks in London and southeast England by Helena Smith, Judith Bamber

Alfred Russel Wallace, Isaac Newton, land tenure, the market place, trade route, urban sprawl

At the bottom of the track, 600m beyond Audley End Road, head out of the gate and into Saffron Walden via Abbey Lane, passing red-brick Victorian almshouses to your left before coming to a crossroads after 400m. From here, head straight on up George Street and then left onto Market Street, which takes you to the market place at the centre of this historic medieval town. Set at the heart of rich farmland, there has been a wealthy market town here since Saxon times, when the area became a major supplier of wheat and barley, as well as the country’s only producer of the saffron crocus, the tiny autumn flower used to dye wool that gave the town its name.


pages: 337 words: 89,075

Understanding Asset Allocation: An Intuitive Approach to Maximizing Your Portfolio by Victor A. Canto

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, commodity trading advisor, corporate governance, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, frictionless, high net worth, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Meriwether, law of one price, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, market bubble, merger arbitrage, money market fund, new economy, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Performance of Mutual Funds in the Period, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, risk free rate, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, selection bias, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, statistical arbitrage, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, Tax Reform Act of 1986, the market place, transaction costs, Y2K, yield curve, zero-sum game

Graphically, a tax increase’s effect can be depicted as a supply curve’s upward shift, where the vertical distance between the two supply curves is the tax’s amount (see Figure 11.3a). Consumers facing a higher price (P*) move upward along the demand curve and cut back on their purchases. Consumption of the taxed commodity falls to Q1 from Q0. Suppliers facing a lower price (P1) reduce the quantity delivered to the market place. Because consumers want to buy a lower quantity and suppliers want to sell a lower quantity, the new equilibrium requires that a lower quantity is transacted. The difference between the price the consumer paid (P*) and the price the suppliers paid (P1) denotes the marginal tax rate while the new quantity transacted denotes the tax base.


pages: 317 words: 106,130

The New Science of Asset Allocation: Risk Management in a Multi-Asset World by Thomas Schneeweis, Garry B. Crowder, Hossein Kazemi

asset allocation, backtesting, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, commodity trading advisor, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, high net worth, implied volatility, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, market microstructure, merger arbitrage, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, passive investing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk free rate, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, selection bias, Sharpe ratio, short selling, statistical model, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, systematic trading, technology bubble, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, value at risk, yield curve, zero-sum game

., because of access to technology or information), the investor may be charged a fee equal to the excess return such that the net return will be similar to that of investment in the passive index (e.g., manager returns – manager fee ≥ return on passive index). The manager’s fee is supposed to cover the cost of acquiring the technology and/or information plus the investment made in time and effort to use that technology and information. The combination of the CAPM and the EMH gave the market place the twin academic pillars required for the development of the asset allocation industry. All that was needed was a third pillar, a business model capable of developing the infrastructure required to market this new industry. Fortunately, computers and information technology had advanced such that in the late 1960s the investment industry witnessed the expansion of the index business.


pages: 323 words: 100,772

Prisoner's Dilemma: John Von Neumann, Game Theory, and the Puzzle of the Bomb by William Poundstone

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, Douglas Hofstadter, Frank Gehry, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Jacquard loom, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Richard Feynman, statistical model, the market place, zero-sum game

It read: Statement re: CUBA CRISIS YOU ARE TO DIE Not in the course of nature, but within a few weeks, and not you alone, but your family, your friends, and all the inhabitants of Britain, together with many hundreds of millions of innocent people elsewhere. WHY? Because rich Americans dislike the Government that Cubans prefer, and have used part of their wealth to spread lies about it. WHAT CAN YOU DO? You can go out into the streets and into the market place, proclaiming, ‘Do not yield to ferocious and insane murderers. Do not imagine that it is your duty to die when your Prime Minister and the President of the United States tell you to do so. Remember rather your duty to your family, your friends, your country, the world you live in, and that future world which, if you so choose, may be glorious, happy, and free.’


pages: 550 words: 89,316

The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspirational Class by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

assortative mating, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, income inequality, iterative process, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, Mason jar, means of production, NetJets, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit maximization, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Veblen good, women in the workforce

It was expensive and not [readily] available. I was practicing law at the time and we used a lot more paper then, more than we do now. I was part of a state bar committee that reviewed rules for the state and a proposal came to require the use of recycled paper. My view then was we need to require people to do this then the market place will catch up. You know now that [this] is the case: you can go to Staples and buy 100% consumer waste paper that will work in your printer and it is cheaper [than standard paper]. I’m pretty convinced we can do this with food systems. That system is more complex … [But if we] create more scale, more support for local economies and farmers, we can encourage more wide-scale regenerative production practices.15 FASHION AND THE NOT-MADE-IN-CHINA MOVEMENT In 1919, in his treatise, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, John Maynard Keynes, commenting on the diversity of consumer choice at his disposal, remarked that “The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth.”16 This observation was pre–World War II and pre-globalization as we know it.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disinformation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Garrett Hardin, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

The entire investment profession, which is structured around the delayed release of official, audited financial figures, is also very much at risk. The investment cycle of Wall Street stock brokerage and research is built around those data releases—analysts come up with updated projections on what they expect a company’s quarterly earnings per share will look like; the market places its bets; and then, when the numbers are dumped on them every three months, investors re-calibrate the share price, either positively or negatively. Everything in equities revolves around the quarterly numbers. The same is true for asset managers at mutual funds, pension funds, and hedge funds, whose compensation is determined by how well their portfolios perform on a quarterly basis compared with the broader market.


pages: 227 words: 32,306

Using Open Source Platforms for Business Intelligence: Avoid Pitfalls and Maximize Roi by Lyndsay Wise

barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, different worldview, en.wikipedia.org, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, Richard Stallman, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the market place

If using BI as an analytics tool only, with end user use being relegated to more technical business and data analysts, then the ability to interact with the data and to create new joins and analytics may be more important than providing high-level information. There is a term floating around the market place called “self-service.” The problem is that this term differs based on which vendor is discussing it. The importance of self-service is that solution providers are trying to expand BI use by creating easy-to-use applications. This ease of use should reflect who is using the solution. Just as different business users have different roles within the organization, the way they use BI will be different.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, functional programming, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

As we have seen in the previous paragraphs, the datafication of urban life and the emergence of the real-time city have led to digital interfaces that have started to represent what Castells referred to as the rhythms, collective experience and shared social representations. Even more so: these interfaces have started to function as the market places and theatre spaces through which citizens perform part of their lives and forge connections with others. If Castells’s city can be understood as an offline interface that produces urban publics, our digital interfaces have taken over some of the functions of the city. Whether it is finding a date through Tinder, a ride through Uber, a power drill to borrow through Peerby, funders through Kickstarter, or a plumber through Taskrabbit, the network society has been turning into a platform society.


The Basque History of the World by Mark Kurlansky

anti-communist, borderless world, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, joint-stock company, open economy, spice trade, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

It is inevitable that in such an era, the Church would also grow concerned about Basque heresy. In past times of intolerance, Basques had been lumped with other undesirable groups. In fourteenth-century Huesca, an area east of Navarra, an ordinance forbade the speaking of “Alavan, Basque, or Hebrew” in the market place. The Basques had accepted the persecution of Jews, Muslims, Lutherans, Gypsies, and Cagots. They should have been able to see that they would be next. BY THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, witchcraft should have seemed a ridiculously old-fashioned accusation. In 787, Charlemagne had outlawed the execution of witches and made it a capital crime to burn a witch.


pages: 493 words: 98,982

The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good? by Michael J. Sandel

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, global supply chain, helicopter parent, High speed trading, immigration reform, income inequality, Khan Academy, laissez-faire capitalism, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Washington Consensus, Yochai Benkler

This confers divine sanction on the division of labor and supports a “providential interpretation of the economic order.” 17 Proving one’s state of grace through worldly activity brings meritocracy back in. The monks of the Middle Ages constituted a kind of “spiritual aristocracy,” pursuing their ascetic calling far removed from worldly pursuits. But with Calvinism, Christian asceticism “strode into the market-place of life” and “slammed the door of the monastery behind it.” All Christians were called to work and to prove their faith in worldly activity. “By founding its ethic in the doctrine of predestination,” Calvinism substituted for “the spiritual aristocracy of monks outside of and above the world the spiritual aristocracy of the predestined saints of God within the world.” 18 Confident of their election, this spiritual aristocracy of the elect looked down with disdain on those apparently destined for damnation.


pages: 336 words: 101,894

Rogue Trader by Nick Leeson

corporate governance, margin call, Nick Leeson, price anchoring, the market place

Of course the markets move on, are more sophisticated, more complex, more innovated but the problems that face the industry in keeping it safe and beyond reproach remain largely the same as they were twenty years ago. Regulators around the globe are now very focused on the subject of Conduct Risk and how this can be controlled. Conduct Risk is an amalgam of many things but it is not dissimilar to the problems that Nick Leeson, those before and those after him, presented to the market place. PREFACE T his is the part of the book where you might normally expect to find a short passage dedicating it to someone. I am not going to do that, as Rogue Trader recounts an episode in my life that I am not very proud of, and represents a part of my life that I am trying desperately hard to leave behind.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight, Yochai Benkler

Both factors stimulate organizational growth and appear to enhance innovation.”43 This uptick in collaborations came about because companies realized that they needed to get smarter and faster, producing more complex, technologically advanced products on a shorter time scale than ever before.44 Here’s how Hagel and Brown describe the shift (in terms more sociological than technical): In times of relative stability, what we uniquely know—our stock of distinctive knowledge—is extremely valuable and needs to be carefully protected. . . . If others acquire this knowledge . . . they threaten to erode our distinction in the market place—we are in a zero sum world—so it pays to be extremely protective of our stocks of knowledge. . . . As change accelerates, something interesting happens—and it can be very unsettling to leaders of large, established institutions. . . . Stocks of knowledge become progressively less valuable while flows of knowledge—the relationships that can help to generate new knowledge—become more and more valuable.


pages: 477 words: 106,069

The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century by Steven Pinker

butterfly effect, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, Douglas Hofstadter, feminist movement, functional fixedness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, index card, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, McMansion, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, short selling, Steven Pinker, the market place, theory of mind, Turing machine

Pullum, “Lying feminist ideologues wreck English language, says Yale prof,” Language Log, 2008, http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl /languagelog/archives/005423.html, and Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, 1994. 51. Foertsch & Gernsbacher, 1997. 52. From G. J. Stigler, “The intellectual and the market place,” Selected Papers No. 3, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, 1967. 53. H. Churchyard, “Everyone loves their Jane Austen,” http://www.crossmyt.com/hc/linghebr/austheir.html. 54. G. K. Pullum, “Singular they with known sex,” Language Log, 2006, http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002742.html. 55.


pages: 308 words: 103,890

Hell's Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga by Hunter S. Thompson

air freight, anti-communist, Golden Gate Park, Mason jar, the market place, traffic fines, traveling salesman, urban sprawl

With all its machinery and thinking geared to 1,200-cubic-inch engines, the company has little hope of competing on the light and middleweight markets until at least 1970 … but they still have plenty of muscle in the heavyweight class, and in 1966 Harleys were winning as many big races as BSAs or Triumphs. This hazy equality has not been maintained, however, in the market place. Most H-D racers are custom-built originals, made to order for some of the best riders in America and with much larger engines than their British competitors. Harley has yet to come up with a production model that can compete with Japanese or European imports—on the street, the track or in dirt—in terms of weight, price, handling ability or engine size.


pages: 361 words: 105,938

The Map That Changed the World by Simon Winchester

British Empire, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, mortgage debt, spinning jenny, the market place, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman

If Townsend could do such a thing, Richardson suddenly thought, then perhaps some less scrupulous men—maybe numbered among those who had been so generously sent details of Smith’s thinking—might also be drawn to publishing, and to stealing Smith’s glory for themselves. Richardson heard that Smith was passing through Bath on one of his countless freelance excursions, found out that he was putting up at “the Pack Horse, in the Market Place,” and penned him a hurried warning, a document that later turned out to be as prescient as its language was orotund. “My dear friend,” he wrote: To prevent the first admission of the ideas of your communication being turned to another’s advantage (which however I cannot injure our friend the Rev.


pages: 319 words: 106,772

Irrational Exuberance: With a New Preface by the Author by Robert J. Shiller

Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, business cycle, buy and hold, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, diversification, diversified portfolio, equity premium, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, experimental subject, hindsight bias, income per capita, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahbub ul Haq, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Small Order Execution System, spice trade, statistical model, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, the market place, Tobin tax, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Y2K

Despite some initial difficulties getting its site launched, it has a longer-run advantage over eToys in that dissatisfied purchasers of toys on the Internet can go to one of its numerous retail outlets for returns or advice. In addition, customers who are already shopping at one of those outlets may naturally gravitate to the Toys “R” Us Web site when they make Web purchases. The valuation the market places on stocks such as eToys appears absurd to many observers, and yet the influence of these observers on market prices does not seem to correct the mispricing. What could they do that would have the effect of correcting it? Those who doubt the value of these stocks could try to sell them short, and some will, but their willingness to do so is limited since there is always a possibility that the stock will be bid up even further by enthusiastic investors.


The Future of Money by Bernard Lietaer

agricultural Revolution, banks create money, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, complexity theory, corporate raider, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, Golden Gate Park, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, price stability, reserve currency, risk free rate, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Future of Employment, the market place, the payments system, Thomas Davenport, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, two and twenty, working poor

Some people would like to extrapolate such dizzying trends Forever; as of November 1998, the Amazon.com stock market valuation was $6.3 billion. In 1998, the largest publisher the world. Bertelsmann of Germany, decided to acquire Barnes and Noble's Internet shop so it could partake directly in the electronic fray. However, the real Internet book revolution is still invisible in the market place. Patents have been issued for a thin-leafed 'electronic book'. Such an 'e-book' looks like a normal book with a few hundred paper-thin pages, but each 'intelligent' page is controlled by its own computer chip and covered with millions of microscopic two-toned particles. The book's 'spine' hides the chips, power and connection plugs needed.


pages: 374 words: 110,238

Fall: The Mysterious Life and Death of Robert Maxwell, Britain's Most Notorious Media Baron by John Preston

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, computer age, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, global village, intangible asset, invention of the wheel, Jeffrey Epstein, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, the market place

If you were very lucky, you might spot a wolf, or a wild boar, in the forest. As for the people, there wasn’t much to recommend them either. According to the pamphlet, they were not only unusually thick, but apt to be surly with it: ‘The rather unintelligent Ruthenians, whose expression is almost blank-stare, sit in the market-place, side by side, gazing at the distance, seldom speaking a word or moving a muscle.’ A far better bet was Ruthenia’s large population of Jews, who were generally better-looking, more sophisticated and less grumpy. In later life, Robert Maxwell seldom talked about his childhood, and what snippets of information he did provide tended to come richly coated in myth.


pages: 409 words: 107,511

Antwerp: The Glory Years by Michael Pye

European colonialism, Gerolamo Cardano, moral hazard, Republic of Letters, spice trade, the market place, trade route, traveling salesman

Bii. 2 Mario Mazzolani, Simone Turchi: storia di un delitto famoso e commento a una novella del Bandello (Lucca, 1937); and in Bolletino storico Lucchese A – B (Lucca, 1936), Mazzolani checked Bandello’s version against the archive material in Antwerp and found it remarkably accurate: p. 29, n. 3. 3 Cf. Adelin Charles Fiorato, Bandello entre l’histoire et l’écriture (Florence, 1979), pp. 506ff. 4 Ibid., p. 506. 5 Novelle di Matteo Bandello (Milan, 1814), 4:9, p. 11. 6 Fiorato, Bandello entre l’histoire et l’écriture, p. 567. 7 Ian Maclean, Learning and the Market Place: Essays in the History of the Early Modern Book (Leiden, 2009), p. 231, n. 15. 8 In Bandello’s letter to his readers: Novelle di Matteo Bandello 4:9, p. 8. 9 Girolamo Cardano, De rerum varietate (Avignon, 1558), book 17, ch. 96, pp. 856–7 for Antwerp in general; book 9, ch. 53, pp. 334–5 for the murder and the chair. 10 See Giovanni M.


pages: 457 words: 109,524

Around the World in 80 Plants by Steven Barstow

food miles, peak oil, the market place

The father of modern US foraging, Euell Gibbons (1961) tells how he once prepared a complete dandelion meal with the roots as a root vegetable, the crowns as a cooked green, dandelion leaf salad, all washed down with dandelion wine, finishing the meal with dandelion coffee! Dandelion: the complete edible! You’d be forgiven for wondering why on earth one would ever want to grow dandelions. However, commercial cultivation started in the 19th century in response to increasing demand at the market place. Hedrick (1919) tells us that dandelions were already being cultivated for the Boston Market in the US in 1836, cultivation is first mentioned in the UK in 1846, and Vilmorin-Andrieux has dandelions being cultivated in France from 1868. The upright dense-leaved variety ‘Coeur Plein Ameliore’ (literally ‘Improved Full Heart’) has been one of the most popular varieties since at least 1883 as it is productive with many leaves and the erect leaf habit also being an advantage, as they don’t so easily get soiled.


pages: 879 words: 272,328

The Naked and the Dead by Norman Mailer

back-to-the-land, Norman Mailer, the market place

(All the frenetic schemings, the cigar smoke, the coke smoke, the carbolic and retch of the el, the frightened passion for movement of an ant nest suddenly jarred, the vast hurried grabbing plans of thousands of men whose importance is confined to a street, a café, and there is no other sense than one of the present. History is remembered with a shrug; its superlatives do not match ours. The immense ego of city people. How do you conceive your own death, your own unimportance in all that man-created immensity, through all the marble vaults and brick ridges and the furnaces that lead to the market place? You always believe somehow that the world will end with your death. It is all more intense, more violent, more rutted than life anywhere else.) And in the humus around the mushroom stem grow the suburbs. Since we added that last wing, we got twenty-two rooms now, Lord knows what the hell we’re gonna do with ’em, Bill Hearn shouts.

Somewhere in America now were the cities, and the refuse sitting on the steps, the electric lights and the obeisance to them. (All the frenetic schemings, the cigar smoke, the coke smoke, the passion for movement like an ant nest suddenly jarred. How do you conceive your own death in all the marble vaults, the brick ridges and the furnaces that lead to the market place?) It was disappearing now, the water washing almost completely over the land, the long vast night of the Pacific settling overhead. And there was the yearning toward the land that disappeared. Not love, not hate necessarily, but an emotion when he had expected none at all. Always there was the power that leaped at you, invited you.


pages: 897 words: 260,608

Seven Pillars of Wisdom by T. E. Lawrence

intangible asset, invention of gunpowder, the market place

CHAPTER XXIV EARLY next morning, having seen that the Hardinge was unloading without friction, I went ashore to Sheikh Yusuf, and found him helping his Bisha police, the frightened villagers and a squad of old Maulud's men to throw a quick barricade across the end of the main street. He told me that fifty wild mules, without halter or bridle or saddle, had been loosed on shore that morning from a ship. By luck rather than skill they had been stampeded into the market-place: the exits were now safely barred, and there they must remain, ramping about the stalls, till Maulud, to whom they were addressed, invented saddlery in the wilderness. This was the second batch of fifty mules for the mounted unit, and by the chance of our fear at Yenbo we, fortunately, had spare ropes and bits enough for them on board the Hardinge.

Things were almost at a break. Auda affected a magnanimity very galling to the Motalga boys, Metaab and Annad, sons of Abtan, whom Auda's son had killed. They, lithe, definite, self-conscious figures, began to talk big about revenge — tom-tits threatening a hawk. Auda declared he would whip them in the market-place if they were rude. This was very well, but their followers were two to every man of his, and we should have the village in a blaze. The young fellows, with Rahail, my ruffler, went flaunting in every street. Zeid thanked and paid Auda and sent him back to his desert. The enlightened heads of the Muhaisin had to go as forced guests to Feisal's tent.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, Garrett Hardin, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Money creation, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, salary depends on his not understanding it, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, Tragedy of the Commons, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Throughout the twentieth century, widespread use of the word ‘consumer’ grew steadily in public life, policymaking and the media until it far outstripped the word ‘citizen’: in English-language books and newspapers, that happened in the mid 1970s.19 Why does it matter? Because, explains the media and cultural analyst Justin Lewis, ‘Unlike the citizen, the consumer’s means of expression is limited: while citizens can address every aspect of cultural, social and economic life … consumers find expression only in the market place.’20 The Chicago Board Options Exchange, where markets came to mimic market theory. The twenty-first-century portrait The portrait we paint of ourselves clearly shapes who we become. That is why it is essential for economics to portray humankind anew. By better understanding our own complexity, we can nurture human nature and give ourselves a far greater chance of creating economies that enable us to thrive within the Doughnut’s safe and just space.


pages: 492 words: 118,882

The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Money creation, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, Savings and loan crisis, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

Days before Lehman Brothers fell, we were watching credit spreads on Lehman and a number of the world’s trading banks’ gap-out basis points indicating real stress in their viability….” “… We were in conversations with bank prudential regulators who were asking us questions as to what we were seeing in the market place, where were the credit spreads, how much stress were the trading counter parties under, whether certain counterparts were not trading with other counter parties …basically what signals was the market giving the trading platforms that the regulators didn’t have in their data sets…. It became clear to me, [that] at the core of the financial crisis was a lack of visibility by regulators into the counterparty credit exposures of the world’s largest trading banks between each other….” “… Now, the regulatory solution to that in Dodd Frank was to create swap data repositories where information can be gathered and then reassembled to somehow look like the actual trading ledgers of the different financial institutions…and eight years after the crisis, that’s where we are.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP The collaborative nature of the new economy is fundamentally at odds with classical economic theory, which puts great store on the assumption that individual self-interest in the marketplace is the only effective way to drive economic growth. The Third Industrial Revolution model also eschews the kind of centralized command and control associated with traditional Soviet-style socialist economies. The new model favors lateral ventures, both in social commons and in the market place, on the assumption that mutual interest, pursued jointly, is the best route to sustainable economic development. The new era represents a democratization of entrepreneurship—everyone becomes a producer of their own energy—but also requires a collaborative approach to sharing energy across neighborhoods, regions, and whole continents.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, functional programming, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

The continuous gap between the demand and supply of qualified computer personnel had in recent years pushed up their salary levels far faster (and in many cases higher) than those of other professionals and managers. In 1965 the ADP (Automatic Data Processing, Inc.) newsletter predicted average salary increases in data processing in the range of 40 to 50 percent over the next five years.36 Programming professionals had a “personal monopoly” that “manifests itself in the market place,” which provided them with considerable opportunities for horizontal mobility, either in pursuit of higher salaries or more challenging positions.37 Simply maintaining existing programming staff levels proved a real trial for personnel managers.38 One large employer experienced a sustained turnover rate of 10 percent per month.39 For entry-level programmers whose marketability increased rapidly the turnover rate was a high as 100 percent, one personnel manager estimated, which further exacerbated the problem of training and recruitment.40 Who was willing to train programmers only to see them leverage that investment into a higher salary elsewhere?


pages: 298 words: 43,745

Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information asymmetry, information retrieval, intangible asset, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, longitudinal study, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

How do people think and talk about you when you are not present? How do people think and talk about your company? What positioning do you have in your market, in terms of the specific words people use when they describe you and your offerings to others? Position advertising is a direct method of achieving position in the market place. How customers view a business can be a critical determinant of success in a competitive marketplace [80]. Many times a customer’s view of a business may be a single attribute, either positive or negative. For example: “the service of this airline sucks,” “this store always has cool stuff!” or “the chef in this restaurant always makes great desserts!”


A People’s History of Computing in the United States by Joy Lisi Rankin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, corporate social responsibility, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pink-collar, profit motive, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, wikimedia commons

EDUCOM: Bulletin of the Interuniversity Communications Council 9, no. 1 (Spring 1974): 14–15. Wiener, Norbert. Cybernetics: Or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948. Wise, Thomas A. “IBM’s $5,000,000,000 G ­ amble.” Fortune, September 1966, 118. —­—­—. “The Rocky Road to the Market Place.” Fortune, October 1966, 138. Wolfe, Audra J. Competing with the Soviets: Science, Technology, and the State in Cold War Amer­i­ca. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013. —­—­—. “Speaking for Nature and Nation: Biologists as Public Intellectuals in Cold War Culture.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2002.


Cards of Identity by Nigel Dennis

anti-communist, centre right, the market place

As in a dream, I saw policemen pulling her off and Vinson being carried away with the bread. I was alone; but processions, once started, never stop. The badger was undamaged. So was I. On we marched, to Euston and the grave. * Today, it is I who sit at the auctioneer’s raised table, holding in my hand the ivory emblem of the market-place. And it is she, my darling wife, who sits at my elbow, her slim fingers quickly noting the final bid, her eyes alert for the twitched ear, the flared nostril, the jumping shoulder. And below us, more often than not, sit my four aunts, gazing up at us with expressions of permanent astonishment.


pages: 426 words: 118,913

Green Philosophy: How to Think Seriously About the Planet by Roger Scruton

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate social responsibility, demand response, edge city, endowment effect, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, food miles, garden city movement, Garrett Hardin, ghettoisation, happiness index / gross national happiness, Herbert Marcuse, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, market friction, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, Thomas Malthus, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

By separating ownership from control, and insulating both the shareholder and the director from the full costs of their mistakes, these legal devices encourage risk-taking beyond anything that the market would otherwise allow. In the words of Kenneth Arrow, ‘the law steps in and forces a risk shifting not created in the market-place’.193 Hence in the last two years we have seen bankers carelessly destroying the savings entrusted to them, and paying themselves vast bonuses at the very moment of doing so. Whatever the adverse effects of limited liability and shareholding, however, we should not take them as a reason for welcoming the intrusion of the state.


pages: 382 words: 127,510

Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire by Simon Winchester

borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, laissez-faire capitalism, offshore financial centre, sensible shoes, South China Sea, special economic zone, the market place

Today it is more difficult to find. In all today’s classic pictures of modern Hong Kong—whether they are taken from the Peak, or from the crowded waterway below—there seems to be no church. It does, however, still exist, though it is well hidden by skyscraping monsters of steel and glass, monuments to the newer religions of the market-place. There is one view, taken from the upper terminus of the Peak Tram, where you can see Government House and the Botanical Gardens, and some of the green of what they now call Chater Gardens (and which was the cricket pitch, beside the Bank of China, where teams once had to play beneath huge pictures of Mao Tse-Tung, and exhortations to the Cantonese proletariat).


pages: 490 words: 117,629

Unconventional Success: A Fundamental Approach to Personal Investment by David F. Swensen

asset allocation, asset-backed security, buy and hold, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, index fund, law of one price, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, money market fund, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pez dispenser, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, technology bubble, the market place, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, yield curve, zero-sum game

Treasury issues and Private Export Funding Corporation (PEFCO) bonds. Even though both bonds enjoy full-faith-and-credit backing of the U.S. government, the less liquid PEFCO bonds trade at prices that produce yields of as much as 0.6 percent per annum higher than comparable-maturity Treasuries. The difference in yield stems entirely from the value that the market places on liquidity. Liquidity of most corporate bonds tends to stand closer to the PEFCOs than to the Treasuries, illustrating the significant yield premium that corporate bond issuers pay to compensate investors for lack of liquidity. Highly liquid markets allow market players to pursue trading-intensive investment strategies.


pages: 425 words: 122,223

Capital Ideas: The Improbable Origins of Modern Wall Street by Peter L. Bernstein

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, asset allocation, backtesting, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, corporate raider, debt deflation, diversified portfolio, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, full employment, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, law of one price, linear programming, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, martingale, means of production, money market fund, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Journalism, Paul Samuelson, Performance of Mutual Funds in the Period, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk free rate, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, Thales and the olive presses, the market place, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, transfer pricing, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

What happens if the Law of One Price is violated? Suppose General Motors stock is selling for its issue value of $100 million, while General Electric stock is selling for $70 million, or $10 million more than its issue value of $60 million. Together with its $40 million in bonds, General Electric as a totality is valued in the market place at $110 million, more than the market value of General Motors. Despite the different market valuations, the two companies still have identical earning power and riskiness. Now Mr. Arbitrager smells a free lunch. He owns 1 percent of General Electric’s stock, which makes him worth $700,000 and earns him an income of $80,000 a year.


pages: 434 words: 124,153

Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization by Iain Gately

Albert Einstein, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cape to Cairo, financial independence, Francisco Pizarro, Isaac Newton, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, profit motive, surplus humans, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, women in the workforce

Rolfe returned alone to America with money and goods in time to celebrate Virginia’s first Thanksgiving festival, held to celebrate the safe harvest of the 1617 tobacco crop. The same year Captain John Smith, a Jamestown leader, wrote that the colony’s new governor arrived to find ‘only five or six houses, the Church downe, the palisades broken, the Bridge in pieces, the Well of fresh water spoiled’ but, a lone sign of success, ‘the market-place, and streets, and all other spare places planted with Tobacco’. John Rolfe’s experiment heralded a rapid and permanent change in the fortunes of England’s colonial enterprises. Englishmen understood the value of tobacco and needed little persuasion to finance its cultivation. The London marketplace welcomed increasing shipments of Virginian weed.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Garrett Hardin, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, young professional

Moving left to right, then, is a double-edged sword for the professional provider—costs are likely to fall, but so too might prices. Margins, as a result, are uncertain. Carl Shapiro and Hal Varian, experts on the economics of information, note the two dimensions of this move to the right: Because the marginal cost of reproducing information tends to be very low the price of an information product, if left to the market place, will tend to be low as well. What makes information products economically attractive—their low reproduction cost—also makes them economically dangerous.14 For a profit-seeking organization, there are two strategic options in moving its work rightwards—one is to seek to limit the competition (for example, by differentiating the offering), which then allows prices to be kept high.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, different worldview, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh, zero-sum game

On the company’s intranet is a file where colleagues can “rate” every role they currently fill, using a scale of -3 to +3: If they find the role energizing (+) or draining (-) If they find their talents aligned (+) or not (-) with this role If they find their current skills and knowledge conducive to (+) or limiting in (-) this role Using the same scale of -3 to +3, people can also signal their interest in roles currently filled by other people. The market place helps people wanting to offload and people wanting to pick up roles to find each other more easily. Talent management In the last 20 years, it’s become a general practice in large corporations to set up talent management programs. Managers throughout the company are asked to identify high potentials, which HR puts on special training tracks and provides with stretch assignments to prepare them for higher offices.


pages: 400 words: 129,841

Capitalism: the unknown ideal by Ayn Rand

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, East Village, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, profit motive, the market place, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, War on Poverty, yellow journalism

There is, however, a whole series of American legislative acts that increase either government regulation of private business or government responsibility for individual welfare. [True.] It is to such legislation that warning cries of “socialism!” refer. Besides the Constitutional provision for Federal regulation of interstate commerce, such “intrusion” of government into the market-place begins with the antitrust laws. [Very true.] To them we owe the continued existence of competitive capitalism and the non-arrival of cartel capitalism. [Untrue.] Inasmuch as socialism is the product, one way or another, of cartel capitalism [untrue], it may reasonably be said that such government interference with business has in fact prevented socialism.


pages: 434 words: 128,151

After the Flood: What the Dambusters Did Next by John Nichol

British Empire, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, the market place

He ‘played the role of wounded hero quite well’ in the Boston and Lincoln pubs, and never told those who bought him a drink why he was on crutches. The Boston pubs were always packed with aircrew from the surrounding RAF bases, and for those without cars, the scramble to get aboard the last buses that all left from the Market Place at 10.15 every night was, said one airman, ‘a sight which had to be seen to be believed’. Most of them just drank beer, and it was ‘rather innocuous’ because, by government decree, beer was no more than 2 per cent alcohol – less than half pre-war strength – and, says Larry Curtis, ‘you had to drink an awful lot of it before you got merry.’


pages: 462 words: 129,022

People, Power, and Profits: Progressive Capitalism for an Age of Discontent by Joseph E. Stiglitz

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disinformation, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, global supply chain, greed is good, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, late fees, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, two-sided market, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working-age population, Yochai Benkler

Galbraith had described in the middle of the twentieth century as an economy based on countervailing power has become an economy based on the dominance of large corporations and financial institutions—and even more, of the power of the CEOs and the other executives within the corporation.62 Curbing Market Power: Updating Antitrust Laws for the Twenty-First Century In the late nineteenth century, the United States faced a situation similar to that of today with growing market power and increasing inequality. Congress responded by passing a slew of laws to limit market power and its abuse. It passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. This was followed in the next twenty-five years by other legislation trying to ensure competition in the market place. Importantly, these laws were based on the belief that concentrations of economic power would inevitably lead to concentrations in political power. Antitrust policy was not based on finely honed economic analysis. It was really about the nature of our society and democracy.63 For a while, antitrust laws worked.


pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, corporate raider, creative destruction, disinformation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

In this form, AT&T would remain in charge until the 1980s, and in not substantially different form it would return in the new millennium. As Milton Mueller writes, Vail had completed the “political and ideological victory of the regulated monopoly paradigm, advanced under the banner of universal service.”26 Vail’s biographer adds, “the great work he created remains, never to come to an end so long as men buy and sell in the market place and social life endures.” What to make of Vail’s legacy? Outside official Bell histories, Vail remains a controversial figure for being such a staunch and vocal monopolist. A man who takes a highly diverse and competitive industry and eradicates all competitors is an unlikely hero beyond his own company.


pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business cycle, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, independent contractor, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Y2K

For this reason, private and commercial database owners cannot compete with copiers in an open market. If databases cannot earn a fair return under existing law, no rational business would invest in them until Congress changed the rules. Instead, databases flourish.33 Furthermore: Finally, many of the most popular and powerful methods depend on the market-place. If consumers want frequent updates, a would-be copier has little to gain by offering last month’s database at a bargain price. Similarly, consumers may think that a particular database is more valuable if it comes with copyrighted search software. In either case, copiers can only compete by making substantial investments of their own.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disinformation, disintermediation, Dogecoin, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

We’ve mentioned that bitcoin’s software is preprogrammed to generate a consistent amount of new bitcoins over a 130-year period, and that these are issued as rewards to computer owners known as miners for their work confirming transactions. Of course, this doesn’t mean people won’t be able to keep using bitcoins, which can each be divided into tiny fractions. They will still be shared back and forth, their value shifting according to what price the market places on the goods and services they can buy. But for now the release of those rewards is what ensures that bitcoin’s public ledger, its blockchain, is updated, maintained, and preserved. Over time, as the generation of new bitcoins slows, the reward system will shift to one in which miners are compensated with modest transaction fees imposed on anyone making payments.


pages: 486 words: 132,784

Inventors at Work: The Minds and Motivation Behind Modern Inventions by Brett Stern

Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Build a better mousetrap, business process, cloud computing, computer vision, cyber-physical system, distributed generation, game design, Grace Hopper, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart transportation, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the market place, Yogi Berra

Properties that we’ve been able to improve include stain blocking, washability, adhesion to a variety of substrates, film opacity, odor in the paint, and flow and leveling. Stern: The product that you’re selling, in a sense, is not an end product. You were fairly removed from the actual end user. How did you find the problems to work on then? Does the customer come to you? Did you go into the market place? Maurice: We talk about it in one of two categories. First, there is a technology push, where you’re working in the lab and you come up with some new chemistry, some new reaction, and some new component that is going to give you some improvements in performance. Then what you do is you can take that technology and build it into something.


pages: 461 words: 139,924

The Habsburgs: To Rule the World by Martyn Rady

Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, night-watchman state, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, spice trade, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise

Sexual connoisseurs elaborated checklists of foreign women in a descending order of depravity, their debasement evident from the degree to which they deviated from the observer’s own supposed national norm of femininity.1 Space too was demarcated. In the 1860s (and after a decade-long discussion), the market place of Zagreb, previously a gathering place for peoples from across the Balkans, was made Croat by the insertion of a giant statue of Jelačić on horseback. In Prague, a cordon of monuments to Czech saints and German heroes divided the Czech from the German residential quarters. Streets and shops were also sites of belonging, the different national groups displaying their allegiance by where they chose to live and shop.


First Time Ever: A Memoir by Peggy Seeger

Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Attenborough, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, index card, Kickstarter, Nelson Mandela, place-making, pre–internet, Skype, the market place

* The Nazis had deported Poland’s Jews, homosexuals, disabled people, Gypsies and political opponents to the concentration camps and then systematically razed the Warsaw ghetto, slaughtering the remaining two hundred thousand residents. Hitler vowed that Poland would never rise again. Oh, yes, it will. Poles came back from all over the world. Some saw the devastation and committed suicide. Others just began rebuilding. By the time I arrived in 1957, the Market Place was the only part of Warsaw that had been reconstructed exactly as it had been, to the last brick and cobblestone. They even found – and brought back – the woman who had traditionally sold peanuts in the square. I bought peanuts from an old woman there … After the vengeful carpet bombing of Dresden by the Allies in February 1945, the Dresdeners also rebuilt their historic centre as it had been.


pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker

airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

A master of the genre was Rebecca West. In her Black Lamb and Grey Falcon, A Journey Through Yugoslavia, Ms. West produced a travelogue that any tourist could follow, bringing the country and culture to life and plotting out the routes she took across the region, painting unforgettable portraits: “Under red and white umbrellas in the market place of Zagreb the peasants stood sturdy and square on their feet. The women wore two broad aprons, one covering the front part of the body and one the back, overlapping at the sides, and underneath showed very brave red woolen stockings. They gave the sense of the very opposite of what we mean by the word ‘peasant’ when we use it in a derogatory sense, thinking of women made doltish by repeated pregnancies and a lifetime spent in the service of oafs in villages that swim in mud to the thresholds every winter.


pages: 497 words: 153,755

The Power of Gold: The History of an Obsession by Peter L. Bernstein

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, central bank independence, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, falling living standards, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, large denomination, liquidity trap, long peace, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, random walk, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route

The demand for gold and silver depends on more than monetary factors, for these metals have additional uses such as adornment or as hoards against uncertain futures. At the same time, nobody knows when new discoveries will occur. Thus, a variety of forces played upon world prices for gold and silver in the nineteenth century, creating constant disturbances within the monetary system as divergences developed between prices set in the market place and prices set at the mints. The experience of 1834 was just the first act in the drama. More violent upheavals were yet to come. The discoveries at Sutter's Mill in California in 1848 and Hargrove's discovery in Australia in 1852 shook the world. The supply of gold coming into the markets ballooned and pushed the price of gold in the marketplace downward.


pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, social intelligence, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

THE FAD MACHINE Fast-shifting preferences, flowing out of and interacting with high-speed technological change, not only lead to frequent changes in the popularity of products and brands, but also shorten the life cycle of products. Automation expert John Diebold never wearies of pointing out to businessmen that they must begin to think in terms of shorter life spans for their goods. Smith Brothers' Cough Drops, Calumet Baking Soda and Ivory Soap, have become American institutions by virtue of their long reign in the market place. In the days ahead, he suggests, few products will enjoy such longevity. Every consumer has had the experience of going to the supermarket or department store to replace some item, only to find that he cannot locate the same brand or product. In 1966 some 7000 new products turned up in American supermarkets.


pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, foreign exchange controls, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

In his later memoirs, the ‘maestro’, as he was dubbed in a biography published in 2001, modestly noted that ‘history told us booms like this couldn’t and wouldn’t last forever’.3 He behaved, during the period itself, with much less circumspection than the prudent modesty of his memoirs subsequently suggested. He was, as has already been noted, a doctrinaire advocate of the free market, who believed passionately in the ‘spontaneous order’ of the market place. Towards the end of a historic tenure of the chairmanship of the Federal Reserve, a New York Times profile of the great central banker pithily summed up Greenspan’s philosophy: ‘The doctrine was not to have one.’ The article appeared on 25 August 2005, less than six months before Greenspan finally departed the Federal Reserve.


Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide by Henry Jenkins

barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, Columbine, deskilling, disinformation, Donald Trump, game design, George Gilder, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, means of production, moral panic, new economy, profit motive, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, slashdot, Steven Pinker, the market place, Y Combinator

But, as Nelson acknowledged, the fan's "sense of ownership over a particular property" posed challenges for the studio: When we stray from the source material or what fans perceive as the true roots of a property, we are under their scrutiny. They can become either advocates for what we are doing or strong dissenters. They can shift the tide of how a property is introduced into the market place depending on whether they perceive us as having presented it carefully, respectfully, and accurately. . . . Fans may be trying to promote the property on the internet in their terms but they can sometimes compromise our responsibility to protect that intellectual property so as to keep it pure and to keep our legal rights in tact.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Whereas other religions associated holiness with the renunciation of worldly things – monks in cloisters, hermits in caves – the Protestant sects saw industry and thrift as expressions of a new kind of hard-working godliness. The capitalist ‘calling’ was, in other words, religious in origin: ‘To attain … self-confidence [in one’s membership of the Elect] intense worldly activity is recommended … [Thus] Christian asceticism … strode into the market-place of life.’4 ‘Tireless labour’, as Weber called it, was the surest sign that you belonged to the Elect, that select band of people predestined by God for salvation. Protestantism, he argued, ‘has the effect of liberating the acquisition of wealth from the inhibitions of traditionalist ethics; it breaks the fetters on the striving for gain not only by legalizing it, but … by seeing it as directly willed by God’.


pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Herbert Marcuse, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

It follows that “by the time children head off to school most can recognize hundreds of brand logos.”74 Kids’ marketer James McNeal splits the difference, identifying the ideal “kid customer” as “a confident little 9 year old with a cute little nose and arms full of shopping bags, emerging from a department store…confident, a big spender, able to cope in the market place.”75 No wonder that spending on advertising to children increased from less than $100 million in 1990 to more than $2 billion in 2000. After all, “kids are the most unsophisticated of all consumers. They have the least and therefore want the most. Consequently, they are in a perfect position to be taken.”76 Peter Zollo, one of those children’s market researchers who seems to salivate as he surveys his research, writes with mocking disdain about the stereotype of today’s teen as “a brand-obsessed, label-driven, mall-congregating, free-spending, compulsive shopper.”


Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism by Quinn Slobodian

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, full employment, Garrett Hardin, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, Mahbub ul Haq, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mercator projection, Mont Pelerin Society, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Pearl River Delta, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, quantitative easing, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, statistical model, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

Social justice was a teleocratic demand that paved the way to totalitarianism, and an atavistic spasm sending humanity from the extended order and ­Great Society back to the “tribal society.”81 Petersmann’s selective reading of history was displayed again in his gloss on the cover of a book he published in 2012. The cover featured Mexican painter Diego Rivera’s Calla Lilly Vendor (1941), depicting a ­woman bowed u ­ nder the weight of a mountain of beautiful white flowers. In the text, he called it an icon of “the freedom to sell in the market place.”82 The fact that Rivera was a card-­carrying Communist best known for his workerist murals was no obstacle to Petersmann’s misrepre­sen­ta­tion of Rivera’s work to reinforce his own dedication to market rights as the most fundamental of ­human rights.83 A more fitting choice was made by Lamy for his book on the Geneva Consensus: one of the newer paintings that decorated the WTO’s walls, from the Danaé World Suite, 2001 by Jean-­Claude Prêtre.


pages: 535 words: 144,827

1939: A People's History by Frederick Taylor

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, delayed gratification, facts on the ground, full employment, mass immigration, rising living standards, the market place, women in the workforce

There were two more bombing waves of similar size during the course of the morning, one shortly after Sigel’s, the next around 9 a.m., led by Major Oskar Dinort. Later, in a Nazi propaganda publication entitled The Hell-Birds (Die Höllenvögel), Dinort would recall with satisfaction dropping the most powerful single bomb of the raid ‘directly onto the market place’. As an eight-year-old boy, Józef Musta stood with his sister on the edge of town and watched the mayhem. He recalled: There were big grey aircraft with black crosses. Many people were running from the town. After the attack, we went into the centre to see what had happened there. It was very badly destroyed.


pages: 543 words: 147,357

Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Blythe Masters, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, disinformation, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, long term incentive plan, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Money creation, money market fund, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, tail risk, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working poor, zero-sum game, éminence grise

For example, the electoral success of the German Greens in the 1980s indicated a widespread sensitivity to environmental issues that was not being met by German producers. The regulatory initiatives that the Green Party demanded as its price for supporting successive governments were resisted by the German motor industry in the 1990s, but they expressed genuine consumer preference that could not be expressed in the market place because there were simply no green or even greenish cars. So the regulators made the demands in the consumers’ place. And regulation need not be heavy handed: by setting performance and target standards rather than prescriptive specifications, firms had plenty of freedom to choose how they would achieve the required results.


pages: 524 words: 143,993

The Shifts and the Shocks: What We've Learned--And Have Still to Learn--From the Financial Crisis by Martin Wolf

air freight, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bear Stearns, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, foreign exchange controls, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandatory minimum, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fragmentation, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Modern Monetary Theory, Money creation, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, tail risk, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, very high income, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Charles ‘Chuck’ Prince, Former Chairman and Chief Executive of Citigroup, 9 July 2007, Financial Times2 You never know who’s swimming naked until the tide goes out. Warren Buffett3 Simply stated, the bright new financial system – for all its talented participants, for all its rich rewards – has failed the test of the market place. Paul Volcker, 20084 What is most fascinating about the now notorious remarks by Chuck Prince, the man who led Citigroup into the disaster, is that he understood what might happen and yet felt he could do nothing to prevent it. Such was the pressure he was under, from both shareholders and the analysts to whom they listened, that he dared not try to prevent one of the world’s biggest, most complex and most highly interconnected financial groups from going ever closer to the waterfall he could see ahead.


pages: 1,213 words: 376,284

Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, critique of consumerism, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, Herbert Marcuse, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, Pier Paolo Pasolini, post-industrial society, Post-Keynesian economics, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

New prescriptions brought new politics. The New Deal made the consumer an integral part of democratic state building. Freedom was ‘no half-and-half affair’, Roosevelt told the 1936 Democratic Convention. ‘If the average citizen is guaranteed equal opportunity in the polling place, he must have equal opportunity in the market place.’35 And for this a strong state was needed. Mr and Mrs Consumer went to Washington. The National Recovery Administration (NRA), set up in the summer of 1933, included a Consumer Advisory Board to protect the public against unfair pricing, poor quality and misleading labelling. Similarly, in the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other branches of the New Deal state, there was an Office of the Consumer Counsel.

Squeezing the child into an adult environment led to moral and physical retardation. Excessive thrift bottled up unmet needs, with potentially dangerous consequences later. Possessions were vital for personal development and mental health. What linked these twin transformations in work and mentality was the child’s role reversal in the market place. Children ceased to be workers who contributed to the family income and instead were embraced as consumers. In the words of the sociologist Viviana Zelizer, the more children were becoming economically useless, the more they appeared to be emotionally ‘priceless’.8 As children put down their tools and picked up their schoolbooks, earnings were replaced by allowances.


pages: 710 words: 164,527

The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order by Benn Steil

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, fiat currency, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, margin call, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, psychological pricing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, seigniorage, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, the market place, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration

“It is not easy to have patience with those who pretend that some of us who were very early in the field to attack and denounce the false premises and false conclusions of unrestricted laissez-faire and its particular manifestations in the former gold standard … are now spending their later years in the service of the State to walk backwards and resurrect and re-erect the idols which they had played some part in throwing out of the market place.” Keynes was clearly determined to cement his legacy as a revolutionary of biblical proportions, one who had broken with the dogmas of the past and set the world on “a great step forward towards the goal of international economic order amidst national diversities of policies.” He could not abide being painted as a reactionary who had merely signed up for a reconstituted gold standard.


pages: 1,239 words: 163,625

The Joys of Compounding: The Passionate Pursuit of Lifelong Learning, Revised and Updated by Gautam Baid

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, backtesting, barriers to entry, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, business process, buy and hold, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, dividend-yielding stocks, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, Everything should be made as simple as possible, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, follow your passion, framing effect, George Santayana, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, index fund, intangible asset, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Bogle, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive income, passive investing, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk free rate, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, salary depends on his not understanding it, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, six sigma, software as a service, software is eating the world, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, stocks for the long run, sunk-cost fallacy, tail risk, the market place, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, wealth creators, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Fewer than 12 percent of the Fortune 500 companies in 1955 were still on the list sixty-two years later in 2017, and 88 percent of the companies in 1955 had either gone bankrupt or had merged with (or were acquired by) another firm. If they still exist, they have fallen from the top Fortune 500 companies (as ranked by total revenues).7 This is Joseph Schumpeter’s “creative destruction” at its very best. The market places a heavy weight on certainty. Stocks with the promise of years of predictable earnings growth tend to go into a long period of overvaluation, until such time that they are no longer able to grow earnings in a steady manner. Predictability of long-term growth matters more to the market than the absolute rate of near-term growth, so a stock that promises to grow earnings at 50 percent for the next couple of years, with no clarity thereafter, is given a lower valuation multiple by the market than a stock that has slower but highly predictable growth for a much longer period.


pages: 1,199 words: 384,780

The system of the world by Neal Stephenson

bank run, British Empire, cellular automata, Edmond Halley, Fellow of the Royal Society, high net worth, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, large denomination, MITM: man-in-the-middle, place-making, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

The mention of Isaac’s created a sensation. Daniel suspected this had less to do with Isaac’s invention of the calculus than with the fact that he was running the Mint. The suspicion was confirmed by the next words of William Comstock, Earl of Lostwithiel: “It has been years since silver coins were to be seen in the market-places of this land. As many as are minted are taken to the furnaces of the money-goldsmiths and made over into bullion and sent into the East. Golden guineas are the currency of England now; but that is too great a denomination for common folk to use in their dealings. Smaller coins are wanted. Will they be minted of copper?

A Man who hoards Power is therefore like a miser who sits on a heap of Coins, in a Realm where the Currency is being continually debased by production of more coins than the market can bear; so that what was a great Fortune when first he raked it together, insensibly becomes a slag-heap, and is found to be devoid of value, when at last he takes it to the market-place to be spent. Thus my lord B—and his vaunted Power-hoard. What is true of him is likely to be true of his lackeys, particularly his most base and slavish followers, such as MR. CHARLES WHITE. This varlet has asserted that he owns me. He phant’sies that to own a Man, is to have Power; yet he has got nothing by claiming to own me, while I, who was supposed to be rendered Powerless, am now writing for a Grub Street newspaper that is being perused by you, esteemed reader.


pages: 687 words: 189,243

A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy by Joel Mokyr

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Copley Medal, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Deng Xiaoping, Edmond Halley, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, framing effect, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, Herbert Marcuse, hindsight bias, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land tenure, law of one price, Menlo Park, moveable type in China, new economy, phenotype, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, survivorship bias, the market place, the strength of weak ties, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, ultimatum game, World Values Survey, Wunderkammern

But institutions differ in the way they treat cultural deviants, from persecuting heretics and banishing innovators, to pursuing a liberal let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom policy. In that sense, cultural choices are reflexive. One important cultural value is pluralism: whether to tolerate incompatible values and beliefs, and whether to give new cultural elements—no matter how outrageous they sound—a fair chance to compete in the market place for ideas and values is itself a value that needs to be accepted. A belief in cultural (including religious) tolerance and free speech and thought, and the institutions it implies (such as the first amendment to the US Constitution) can be of great economic value when it is relatively rare; it allows an economy to attract and absorb religious and political refugees, who tend to be creative and well-networked.8 The willingness of the Netherlands and later Britain and the United States to tolerate Jews and dissenting Christians contributed a great deal to their economies, especially in high-skilled manufacturing and financial services.


pages: 613 words: 181,605

Circle of Greed: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of the Lawyer Who Brought Corporate America to Its Knees by Patrick Dillon, Carl M. Cannon

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, buy and hold, collective bargaining, Columbine, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, desegregation, energy security, estate planning, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, index fund, John Markoff, mandatory minimum, margin call, Maui Hawaii, McDonald's hot coffee lawsuit, money market fund, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Savings and loan crisis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, the High Line, the market place, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

When she called Young the next time, she told the HP president that she was hiring Steve Schatz, a former federal prosecutor, and Bruce Vanyo, a securities specialist, both Wilson Sonsini partners, to help them prepare a defense. After HP spent nearly $2 million, used more than one thousand hours of its officers’ and managers’ time, and, as Baskins had predicted, provided a million documents, Vanyo and Schatz concluded that the specter of a jury trial was very real. “We are vulnerable to the market place,” Vanyo told his clients. Then a momentous thing happened. HP’s share price started rising. And it kept rising. Simon and Lerach followed the trajectory. Would the price bounce help the defense argument and influence the jury? The element of doubt worked both ways. A trial could be long and certainly costly—to Milberg Weiss as well as to Hewlett-Packard.


pages: 564 words: 182,946

The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989 by Frederick Taylor

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, German hyperinflation, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, the market place, young professional, éminence grise

Many children and young people were given these powerful and often damaging drugs without their parents’ permission, and many, as they experience middle age, suffer from disastrous long-term effects.19 In his twilight years, Walter Ulbricht presided over a walled fiefdom that eerily resembled the autocratic Prussian state of two centuries previously. East Germany was likewise an obsessively micro-managed, paternalistic, militarised economy in which the market-place played second fiddle to necessities of state, and where freakishly pumped-up fighters (in this case from the sports arena rather than the battlefield) were paraded for its ruler’s delectation. We do not know if the ‘tall 350 / THE BERLIN WALL fellows’ of the East German athletics team were marched through Ulbricht’s bedroom, with the Communist leader in the voyeuristic role of the order-besotted ‘soldier king’ Frederick Wilhelm I.


The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan by Robert Kanigel

Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, British Empire, computer age, Copley Medal, creative destruction, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filipino sailors, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, the market place, upwardly mobile

But this time, there was a difference. A million fresh American soldiers had arrived in France. The Germans, exhausted by years of war, rolled back, and soon had to sue for peace. The armistice was declared on November 11, 1918. Very shortly, in the words of the Cambridge Review, “there was a very creditable pre-war bonfire in the Market Place, fed chiefly with packing cases round which there was dancing; but not all the dancers performed with two sound legs.” By one o’clock that afternoon, some Girton College women, normally sequestered in their own campus on the fringes of town, had joined the afternoon revels. At five that evening, many went to the Thanksgiving Service at King’s College Chapel.


pages: 670 words: 194,502

The Intelligent Investor (Collins Business Essentials) by Benjamin Graham, Jason Zweig

3Com Palm IPO, accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, corporate governance, corporate raider, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, dogs of the Dow, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, George Santayana, hiring and firing, index fund, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, John Bogle, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, merger arbitrage, money market fund, new economy, passive investing, price stability, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, the market place, the rule of 72, transaction costs, tulip mania, VA Linux, Vanguard fund, Y2K, Yogi Berra

It is true that current earnings and the immediate prospects may both be poor, but a levelheaded appraisal of average future conditions would indicate values far above ruling prices. Thus the wisdom of having courage in depressed markets is vindicated not only by the voice of experience but also by application of plausible techniques of value analysis. The same vagaries of the market place that recurrently establish a bargain condition in the general list account for the existence of many individual bargains at almost all market levels. The market is fond of making mountains out of molehills and exaggerating ordinary vicissitudes into major setbacks.* Even a mere lack of interest or enthusiasm may impel a price decline to absurdly low levels.


The Concepts and Practice of Mathematical Finance by Mark S. Joshi

Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, delta neutral, discrete time, Emanuel Derman, fixed income, implied volatility, incomplete markets, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, London Interbank Offered Rate, martingale, millennium bug, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, risk free rate, short selling, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, the market place, time value of money, transaction costs, value at risk, volatility smile, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

From the bank's point of view, this is equivalent to granting the company an option to swap a fixed rate of interest for a floating rate of interest at a time of the company's choice. Would the bank be willing to include such a clause? Yes - for the right price. All the bank does is charge a fee, or increase the interest rate to cover the cost of the option. The bank may well cover the option by buying an identical one in the market place. 300 13.1 Introduction 301 This option is called an American swaption as it gives the right to swap interest payments at an arbitrary time. Rather than going straight to a bank for a loan, a company may instead issue bonds in the market. Investors buy the bonds from the company and typically receive a fixed interest payment once a year called the coupon, and at the expiry of the bond, their original investment, the principal, is returned.


pages: 661 words: 193,092

The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

car-free, the market place

This you may say of man—when theories change and crash, when schools, philosophies, when narrow dark alleys of thought, national, religious, economic, grow and disintegrate, man reaches, stumbles forward, painfully, mistakenly sometimes. Having stepped forward, he may slip back, but only half a step, never the full step back. This you may say and know it and know it. This you may know when the bombs plummet out of the black planes on the market place, when prisoners are stuck like pigs, when the crushed bodies drain filthily in the dust. You may know it in this way. If the step were not being taken, if the stumbling-forward ache were not alive, the bombs would not fall, the throats would not be cut. Fear the time when the bombs stop falling while the bombers live—for every bomb is proof that the spirit has not died.


pages: 729 words: 195,181

The mote in God's eye by Larry Niven; Jerry Pournelle

British Empire, clean water, gravity well, risk tolerance, the market place

In those days Imperial policies were different and the planet came into the Empire with a standing nearly equal to more advanced worlds. Horace Bury's father soon realized Imperialism could be made to pay. By becoming one of those the Imperials used to govern the planet, he had amassed immense wealth: he'd sold audiences with the governor, and hawked justice like cabbages in the market place, but always carefully, always leaving others to face the wrath of the hardnosed men of the Imperial service. His father was careful with investments, and he'd used his influence to have Horace Hussein educated on Sparta. He'd even given him a name suggested by an Imperial Navy officer; only later did they learn that Horace was hardly common in the Empire and was a name to be laughed at.


Switzerland by Damien Simonis, Sarah Johnstone, Nicola Williams

Albert Einstein, bank run, car-free, clean water, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, the market place, trade route, young professional

A kitsch mix of original 19th-century furnishings, Niki de Saint Phalle drawings and art nostalgia, the traditional bistro is legendary. Les Halles (Pl des Ormeaux 1; meals Sfr15-17; h11am6pm Mon-Sat) Market-driven creations with an inventive twist are the mainstay of this bright and bold eating hall above the market place. La Petite Brasserie (%026 321 36 46; Rue de Lausanne overlooking people-busy Rue de Lausanne makes this free Wi-Fi zone a hot lunchtime spot. Cooking is modern European. Café du Midi (%026 322 31 33; www.lemidi.ch; Rue de Romont 25; salads Sfr6.50-21.50, menu fondue Sfr36) Fribourg’s old boy pulls the punters on its busy pavement terrace with seven types of fondue and a menu fondue featuring air-dried beef, fondue and meringues with cream.


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, hockey-stick growth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

Thus, the National Science Foundation followed the precedent of Vannevar Bush’s OSRD: it did not conduct basic research itself, but allocated grants to university researchers through a highly competitive selection process. “Every idea,” wrote NSF officials in their first annual report, “must compete against all other ideas in the market place of science.”19 The same thing happened on the “D” side of R&D: the Army and Navy outsourced the job of designing and building high-tech weapons to private electronics and aerospace companies, reanimating industries that had boomed during wartime and slumped after V-J Day. Defense Department officials persuaded Congress to authorize bigger tax breaks for electronics plant construction, and bought companies the expensive machines needed to build military-grade equipment.


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Although when ‘the night approached the plundering ceased a little, with the day break they began to plunder again’.29 On 12 June 1648 the crowd torched some 70 residences of nobles and merchants, apparently following some plan, and almost 40 more the following day; then they ‘ran’ (the word used by all the sources) back inside the Kremlin and demanded that the tsar surrender Pleschcheev, Trakhaniotov and Morozov.30 Alexei immediately surrendered Pleschcheev, and even provided two executioners, ‘but as soon as he arrived in the market place the common people [gemene mannen] put him to death there, and eventually a monk threw his body onto a fire’. The tsar now asked for two days to consider the fate of his other ministers, and the demonstrators (perhaps surprisingly) dispersed. No sooner had they done so than fires broke out in five distinct places across Moscow.

An English pamphlet published during food riots in Essex in 1629 described the plight of the local weavers in remarkably similar terms: most ‘cannot live unless they bee paied every night, many hundreds of them havinge no bedds to lye in, nor foode; but from hand to mouth mainteyne themselves, their wives and children’. In France, insurgents half a century later exclaimed when faced by famine that ‘you only die once’ and so they ‘would prefer to be hanged than to die of hunger’, and that ‘they were dying of hunger, and would rather hang to finish their lives sooner’. In Paris ‘you could hear women in the market-place cry out that they would rather slit their children's throats than watch them die of hunger’. In such circumstances, ‘survival’ could easily lead to resistance and even revolt.22 European women lost their immunity only when resistance got out of hand. During the famine year of 1629, Ann Carter, a butcher's wife from the town of Malden in Essex, led a large crowd of women to prevent the export of grain from the region and, motivated by ‘the crie of the country and her own want’, they forced the would-be exporters to pour their grain into their bonnets and aprons.


pages: 913 words: 219,078

The Marshall Plan: Dawn of the Cold War by Benn Steil

Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, foreign exchange controls, full employment, imperial preference, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, open economy, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, Transnistria, Winter of Discontent, Works Progress Administration, éminence grise

When the Soviets offered to feed West Berliners who registered in the East a mere 2,050 (out of 2.4 million) showed up.36 In western Germany broadly, the new Allied currency, combined with price decontrols and other liberalizing reforms overseen by bizonal economics director Ludwig Erhard, had an immediate regenerative effect on business. “Almost overnight, hoarded goods in manufacturing plants began to move to the stores,” Clay wrote to Byrnes. “Even fruits and vegetables from the farm once more went on sale in the market place. . . . Germany is going back to work. . . . [T]he people on the street visibly have taken a new hold on life.”37 Yet at the time the outlook was ominous. There were now two police forces in the city. Two water and sewage systems. Two gas and light systems—though those in the West operated only during daylight.


pages: 684 words: 212,486

Hunger: The Oldest Problem by Martin Caparros

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, commoditize, David Graeber, disinformation, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, income inequality, index fund, invention of agriculture, Jeff Bezos, Live Aid, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, Slavoj Žižek, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, Tobin tax, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%

In many places the bodies of the dead were dragged from the earth, also to appease hunger. This raging madness rose to such proportions that solitary beasts were less likely to be attacked by brigands than men. The custom of eating human flesh had grown so common that one fellow sold it ready cooked in the market-place of Tourmis like that of some beast. When he was arrested he did not deny the shameful charge. He was bound and burned to death. The meat was buried in the ground; but another fellow dug it up and ate it, and he too was put to death by fire. Cannibalism was somewhat extraordinary, but not hunger.


The Eternal City: A History of Rome by Ferdinand Addis

Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, Defenestration of Prague, friendly fire, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, moral panic, New Urbanism, Peace of Westphalia, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Plutocrats, plutocrats, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons

His hair and beard were long and fair, framing an open, freckled face. In battle, he looked like a roused lion, shaking his shaggy mane. Many of those who met him found his appeal almost overwhelming. A young Italian artist remembered going to see him ‘out of curiosity’: Oh! I shall never forget that day when I first saw him on his beautiful white horse in the market-place, with his noble aspect, his calm kind face, his high smooth forehead, his light hair and beard – everyone said the same. He reminded us of nothing so much as of our Saviour’s head in the galleries. I could not resist him. I left my studio. I went after him; thousands did likewise. He had only to show himself.


pages: 556 words: 46,885

The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain by Mark Casson

banking crisis, barriers to entry, Beeching cuts, British Empire, business cycle, combinatorial explosion, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Garrett Hardin, independent contractor, intermodal, iterative process, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, linear programming, Network effects, New Urbanism, performance metric, railway mania, rent-seeking, strikebreaker, the market place, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs

Thus, despite a relatively late start, Shrewsbury had become a major railway hub by 1860. Furthermore it possessed a grandiose neo-Gothic joint station built to rival the great joint station at Chester. It occupied a magniWcent position underneath the Castle, opposite the Grammar School, and near the Market Place. The harmonious appearance is misleading, however, because in its early years Shrewsbury was the focus of bitter rivalry between the GWR and the LNWR for control of traYc in the West Midlands and Welsh Borders. The initiative for the joint station came from the mayor and corporation rather than the railway companies, and the joint ownership of the lines was due as much to local political pressure as to amicable relations between the companies.


pages: 778 words: 239,744

Gnomon by Nick Harkaway

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Burning Man, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, fault tolerance, fear of failure, gravity well, high net worth, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, lifelogging, neurotypical, pattern recognition, place-making, post-industrial society, Potemkin village, Richard Feynman, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, the market place, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, urban planning, urban sprawl

But … but. I think I will make you an offer instead. You are a man of commerce, after all. Do you know, first of all, what it is that you have made? What our country is like, out there in the streets, right now? Everything has come to a halt. Soon it will be dark and grim. There will be no food in the market places, no petrol in the pumps, no medicine in the hospitals. There will be no clean water, even, in the pipes. Can you imagine a more horrible thing to a modern man than the discovery that the basic stuff of life – pure water, that he considers so absolutely tamed and delivered by the system in which he is invested – is not any longer his to command?


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

As Hobbes would have expected, the absence of Warre led to flourishing commerce. Cruickshank observed, “There was not a nook or corner of the land to which the enterprize of some sanguine trader had not led him. Every village had its festoons of Manchester cottons and China silks, hung upon the walls of the houses, or round the trees in the market-place, to attract the attention and excite the cupidity of the villagers.” You couldn’t have such bustling enterprise in a society that was incapable of resolving conflicts and ensuring some type of justice. Indeed, as the French trader Joseph-Marie Bonnat observed later in the nineteenth century: It is to the exercise of justice, in the small villages, that the first hours of the day are devoted.


pages: 768 words: 252,874

A History of Judaism by Martin Goodman

British Empire, liberation theology, mass immigration, place-making, spice trade, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons, Yom Kippur War

On the one hand, the herem bet din (‘ban of the court’) gave authority to local courts over all those who passed through a community: ‘If a man passes through a community where there is a ban of the court and he is summoned to court under the ban in the presence of proper witnesses, even if he be in the market place, the ban is upon him until he repairs to the court to plead his case.’ On the other hand, we have noted (Chapter 10) that the ban which prohibited polygamy (conventionally, but probably incorrectly, also attributed to Rabbenu Gershom) was taken as authoritative throughout the Jewish world in Germany and France but ignored by the Jews of Islamic lands.15 Both the subjects and the mode of rabbinic discourse had developed greatly in the thousand years between the time of Yohanan b.


pages: 904 words: 246,845

A History of the Bible: The Story of the World's Most Influential Book by John Barton

complexity theory, feminist movement, invention of the printing press, Johannes Kepler, lateral thinking, liberation theology, Republic of Letters, source of truth, the market place, trade route

Take the parable of the labourers in the vineyard (Matthew 20:1–16): ‘For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire labourers for his vineyard. After agreeing with the labourers for the usual daily wage, he sent them into his vineyard. When he went out about nine o’clock, he saw others standing idle in the market-place; and he said to them, “You also go into the vineyard, and I will pay you whatever is right.” So they went. When he went out again about noon and about three o’clock, he did the same. And about five o’clock he went out and found others standing around; and he said to them, “Why are you standing here idle all day?’’


Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities by Vaclav Smil

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, caloric restriction, caloric restriction, colonial rule, complexity theory, coronavirus, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, endogenous growth, energy transition, epigenetics, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Law of Accelerating Returns, longitudinal study, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, megastructure, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, optical character recognition, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Republic of Letters, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, technoutopianism, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, yield curve

He asked who could place a value on the country’s rivers or on the skills and capacities of housewives and his suggested subtraction of dis-services from national income estimates was far more radical than most of the recent calls for GDP redefinition. His preference is worth quoting at length. This writer, for one, would like to see work begun on national income estimates that would not be based upon the acceptance, prevailing heretofore, of the market place as the basis of social productivity judgments. It would be of great value to have national income estimates that would remove from the total the elements which, from the standpoint of a more enlightened social philosophy than that of an acquisitive society, represent dis-service rather than service.


pages: 1,233 words: 239,800

Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design by Matthew Carmona, Tim Heath, Steve Tiesdell, Taner Oc

A Pattern Language, Arthur Eddington, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, City Beautiful movement, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, deindustrialization, disinformation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, East Village, edge city, food miles, Frank Gehry, game design, garden city movement, global supply chain, Guggenheim Bilbao, income inequality, invisible hand, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, longitudinal study, Masdar, megastructure, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-oil, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the market place, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

According to Ambrose (1986), the process can be thought of as a series of transformations: (i) capital is converted into supplies of raw materials and labour, brought as commodities in the marketplace; (ii) which are converted into some other saleable commodity (a building); and (iii) which, in turn, is then converted back into money (i.e. capital) by selling the commodity in the market place. Successful real estate development requires sale or otherwise profitable disposal of the completed development. Indeed, realising capital has come to be seen as more significant in capitalist accumulation strategies than production. As Gottdiener (2001: 44) explains, the manufacturing process ‘valorises’ commodities by creating value through production.


pages: 870 words: 259,362

Austerity Britain: 1945-51 by David Kynaston

Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, continuous integration, deindustrialization, deskilling, Etonian, full employment, garden city movement, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labour mobility, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, occupational segregation, price mechanism, rent control, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional

Smith himself, born in 1915, became a painter and decorator when he left school, soon working in Newcastle, but before and during the war, this autodidact devoted most of his energies to the cause of revolutionary socialism (but not the Communist Party), becoming a fluent, locally well-known speaker in such forums as the Market Place at Blyth or the Newcastle Bigg Market. His politics changed after 1945. Not only did the revolution become an ever more distant prospect each year, but he himself started a painting-and-decorating business that was soon employing up to 200 people. It was probably not long after the local Labour Party had lost control of Newcastle City Council in May 1949, following four years in power, that Smith complained bitterly to a local Labour MP, Arthur Blenkinsop, that pathetically little had been achieved in that time.


pages: 965 words: 267,053

A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, business cycle, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Mount Scopus, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise

Few Jews lived from the soil; efforts were made to increase the number in agriculture, and this did indeed rise from 80,000 to 180,000 between 1860 and 1897. But the majority in the pale of settlement were men without a definite occupation, living from hand to mouth, ‘Luft-menschen’ without roots and without hope. Each morning they congregated in the market place or in front of the synagogue, waiting for any job, however degrading, however badly paid, to come their way. Many professions were closed to them; they were virtually barred from entering government service, except as physicians, but few had the opportunity to study medicine; there was a numerus clausus for Jews in the universities - 10 per cent in the pale, 5 per cent outside it, and 3 per cent in Moscow and St Petersburg.


pages: 1,042 words: 273,092

The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan

access to a mobile phone, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, disinformation, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South China Sea, spice trade, statistical model, Stuxnet, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, wealth creators, WikiLeaks, yield management, Yom Kippur War

Cardamom oil soothed the intestines and helped reduce flatulence.32 In one Arabic manual written in the Mediterranean around this time, a chapter entitled ‘Prescriptions for increasing the dimensions of small members and for making them splendid’ suggested rubbing a mixture of honey and ginger on to the private parts; the effect would be so powerful and produce such pleasure that the man’s sexual partner would ‘object to him getting off her again’.33 Competition to supply these newly minted markets was ferocious. Despite the alarm in Venice that followed news of Vasco da Gama’s first expedition, the long-established trade routes were not replaced overnight. If anything, they thrived thanks to rising demand in Europe: then as now, consumers were not interested in how goods reached the market place; the only thing that mattered was price. Traders watched each other jealously, recording what was being bought and for how much. The Portuguese recruited merchants such as Mathew Becudo in the Levant to spy on the size of caravans and convoys coming from Egypt and Damascus overland and by sea, and to report on the quantities of goods they were carrying.


Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook That Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and The... by Sally Fallon, Pat Connolly, Mary G. Enig, Phd.

British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, germ theory of disease, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, out of africa, profit motive, the market place, the scientific method

This advertising, which necessarily glosses over such drawbacks as tooth decay in peddling candy to children, is adroit at deception. In 1982 "Sugar Smacks" was rechristened "Honey Smacks," presumably because honey is healthier. Of course, both versions of the cereal contain 57 percent refined sugars. Although the motto of the market place, supposedly, is to "give the people what they want," the reality is more a matter of giving the people whatever increases one's market share. Most parents are trying to wean their children from excessive sweets; yet supermarkets and drug stores across the country always have candy prominently displayed at checkout counters—where parents are stuck in line with restless, candy-craving children.


Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

active measures, American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, disinformation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

He saw “refugees wandering amidst swarms of flies, dressed in rags, their faces expressing terror and their eyes, bewilderment..., the women wailing and the children sobbing” (he noticed Henry Kamm of the New York Times nearby; one may usefully compare his account of the same scenes). Tyre was a “destroyed city”; in the market place there was not a store undamaged. Here and there people were walking, “as in a nightmare.” “A terrible smell filled the air”—of decomposing bodies, he learned. Archbishop Georges Haddad Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Peace for Galilee 387 told him that many had been killed, though he did not know the numbers, since many were still buried beneath the ruins and he was occupied with caring for the many orphans wandering in the streets, some so young that they did not even know their names.


Theory of Games and Economic Behavior: 60th Anniversary Commemorative Edition (Princeton Classic Editions) by John von Neumann, Oskar Morgenstern

Albert Einstein, business cycle, collective bargaining, full employment, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, linear programming, Nash equilibrium, Parkinson's law, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, RAND corporation, the market place, zero-sum game

In short, von Neumann distinguishes “two varieties of ‘Bluffing’: an aggressive one practiced by the player who has the initiative and a defensive one—‘seeing’ irregularly, even with a medium hand, the opponent who is suspected of ‘Bluffing.’ ” Defensive bluffing enforces the minimax strategy. If your opponent leaves it, you win. Although these are real contributions to poker, von Neumann has not produced the complete poker player. The real game, like the market place, of which it is (he model, has many additional complications. One of the complications of expanding the treatment of games beyond two-man poker led to the second important illumination in the theory. In the two-man game, which brought about the principle of minimax, the two players are unable to reconcile their differences except at a “price” (the bet and the call).


pages: 1,088 words: 297,362

The London Compendium by Ed Glinert

1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nick Leeson, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket

In April 1987 Whittam Smith published extracts from the banned book Spycatcher, the memoirs of Peter Wright, a former British spy, which alleged that MI5 had tried to destabilize the Labour government of Harold Wilson in the 1960s. Whittam Smith risked going to jail under the Official Secrets Act, but when the government backed down the editor became a hero. A Sunday edition was soon begun, with mixed results, failing to find its own identity in the market place, and in 1994, when circulation fell below 300,000 for the first time in six years, Whittam Smith announced that a consortium of investors led by Mirror Group Newspapers was to take over the paper, a move that ended the Independent’s autonomy and removed its unique status. The paper is now based at Canary Wharf


pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

No concomitant evidence of social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a ‘temple elite’ has been found. Nor is there any evidence of external threats to Jenne-jeno, so if the wall was built for defensive purposes, it probably was with the intention of protecting the settlement from high and destructive floods; or else the wall served to control access to the market place and trade.21 The mound that rose from the Niger floodplain with the growth of Jenne-jeno did not stand alone. Indeed, it was surrounded by twenty-five smaller mounds, all within a distance of one kilometre, all occupied simultaneously. The total surface area of Jenne-jeno and its satellites was 69 hectares; the total population when most densely occupied approached 27,000.22 This was large enough to qualify as an urban centre, but urban cluster is the term that best describes Jenne-jeno.


The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970 by John Darwin

anti-communist, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive bias, colonial rule, Corn Laws, disinformation, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, labour mobility, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, railway mania, reserve currency, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Scientific racism, South China Sea, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, undersea cable

Secondly, Britain had become an open economy with the adoption of free trade in the 1840s and 1850s (the repeal of the Navigation laws in 1850–1 almost completed the process). The motives behind this have been fiercely debated. They may have owed more to the political need to rebalance commercial and agrarian interests than to commercial calculation.123 But, once enacted, free trade reinforced Britain's role as the world's principal entrepot, the market-place to which the world's goods could be carried without commercial restriction. It removed any limit on the City's development as the eyes and ears of the new world economy, its banker, insurer, shipping-agent and dealer. It allowed British merchants to open commercial relations with any part of the world and offer its produce to the widest selection of buyers through the London exchanges.


pages: 1,335 words: 336,772

The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance by Ron Chernow

always be closing, bank run, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bolshevik threat, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Etonian, financial deregulation, fixed income, German hyperinflation, index arbitrage, interest rate swap, margin call, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, paper trading, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, strikebreaker, the market place, the payments system, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Yom Kippur War, young professional

New York: New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, 1880. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Nicolson, Harold. Diaries & Letters 1930–1964. Edited by Stanley Olson. New York: Atheneum, 1980. ———. Dwight Morrow. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1935. Nicolson, Nigel, Portrait of a Marriage. New York: Atheneum, 1973. Noyes, Alexander Dana. The Market Place. New York: Greenwood Press, 1938. Pankhurst, E. Sylvia. The Home Front. 1932. Reprint. London: Cresset Library, 1987. ———. The Suffragette Movement. London, New York, and Toronto: Long mans, Green, 1931. Parker, Franklin. George Peabody—1795–1869: Founder of Modern Philanthropy. Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955.


The Transformation Of Ireland 1900-2000 by Diarmaid Ferriter

anti-communist, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, deliberate practice, edge city, falling living standards, financial independence, ghettoisation, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, immigration reform, income per capita, land reform, manufacturing employment, moral panic, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, sensible shoes, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, women in the workforce

MacGill was frank about the fact that many children of his generation and background were born and bred merely to support their parents, and that parents took great care to drive that fact into their minds from infancy. As for his ‘Master’, the farmer who hired him out, and worked him to the bone, he noted that ‘to him I was not a human being, a boy with an appetite and a soul. I was merely a ware purchased in the market place, something less valuable than a plough, and of no more account than a barrow.’39 Such treatment was by no means unique to Irish children, but it ironically coincided with a time when some of Ireland’s cultural and literary nationalists sought to make childhood a sort of ‘expendable cultural object’: in plays and literature, childhood, like Ireland itself, had to be re-created as a place of innocence.40 The Victorian interest in the plight of the vulnerable child had a knock-on effect in Ireland, but it was also countered by delusion, as evidenced by the fact that some Dubliners had objected to the establishment of a Dublin Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in 1889.


pages: 1,169 words: 342,959

New York by Edward Rutherfurd

Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, illegal immigration, margin call, millennium bug, out of africa, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rent control, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, the market place, urban renewal, white picket fence, Y2K, young professional

He doesn’t want to see me, Charlie thought, because I remind him of what he’s trying to get away from. I remind him of what he used to be. He understood it, but he was still hurt. They’d see each other from time to time, even go for a drink. But it wasn’t the same any more. Charlie had made a small mistake once. He’d been in the market place, and happened to see John standing near the entrance to the fort, talking to a merchant. He’d gone over and greeted his friend, as he usually would, and John had given him a cold look, because he was interrupting him. The merchant hadn’t been too pleased either that a fellow like him would interrupt them.


The Rough Guide to Ireland by Clements, Paul

Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Columbine, digital map, East Village, haute couture, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, Murano, Venice glass, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, sustainable-tourism, the market place, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl

The North’s only Australian restaurant and a must for anyone keen to explore the delights of marinated kangaroo medallions or various cuts of crocodile and ostrich – the less adventurous will stick with the steaks and seafood. Tues–Sat noon–3pm & 5–10pm, Sun 5–10pm. ENTERTAINMENT The Market Place Theatre and Arts Centre Market St 028 3752 1820, marketplacearmagh.com. A four-hundred-seat auditorium and a smaller studio theatre, which, between them, host an imaginative programme of theatrical and musical events. There’s also a gallery, bar and coffee house.


pages: 1,402 words: 369,528

A History of Western Philosophy by Aaron Finkel

British Empire, Eratosthenes, Georg Cantor, George Santayana, invention of agriculture, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, source of truth, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, the market place, William of Occam

Of these he enumerates five kinds. “Idols of the tribe” are those that are inherent in human nature; he mentions in particular the habit of expecting more order in natural phenomena than is actually to be found. “Idols of the cave” are personal prejudices, characteristic of the particular investigator. “Idols of the market-place” are those that have to do with the tyranny of words and the difficulty of escaping from their influence over our minds. “Idols of the theatre” are those that have to do with received systems of thought; of these, naturally Aristotle and the scholastics afforded him the most noteworthy instances.


Frommer's Mexico 2008 by David Baird, Juan Cristiano, Lynne Bairstow, Emily Hughey Quinn

airport security, AltaVista, Bartolomé de las Casas, centre right, colonial rule, East Village, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Maui Hawaii, out of africa, Pepto Bismol, place-making, Skype, sustainable-tourism, the market place, urban planning

The difference in weave is easy to see, as a fine weave improves the shape of a hat. It has more body and retains its shape better. You’ll find Panama hats for sale in several places, but often without much selection. There is a hat store in one of the market buildings: Walk south down Calle 56 past the post office; right before the street ends in the market place, turn left into a passage with hardware stores at the entrance. The fourth or fifth shop is the Casa de los Jipis. WHERE TO STAY Mérida is easier on the budget than the resort cities. The stream of visitors is steadier than on the coast, so most hotels no longer use a high-season/low-season rate structure.


The Secret World: A History of Intelligence by Christopher Andrew

active measures, Admiral Zheng, airport security, anti-communist, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, disinformation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francisco Pizarro, Google Earth, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, two and twenty, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

After a series of defeats, Theodosius agreed in 447 to treble the gold payments to 2,100 pounds a year, with an additional 6,000 pounds to cover arrears. The historian Priscus of Panium denounced the cowardice towards the Huns of the Emperor and his generals which led them to accept these almost impossible demands for protection money: ‘Once prosperous men were setting out their wives’ jewellery and their furniture in the market place.’55 Theodosius and his chief advisers came to the conclusion that the best, if not the only, way to end Attila’s escalating demand for huge amounts of gold as the price of peace was to assassinate him: an operation which necessitated the recruitment of a well-placed agent in his entourage. An apparent opportunity presented itself in the spring of 449 when Edekon, an envoy from Attila, arrived at the imperial court in Constantinople.


pages: 803 words: 415,953

Frommer's Mexico 2009 by David Baird, Lynne Bairstow, Joy Hepp, Juan Christiano

airport security, AltaVista, Bartolomé de las Casas, centre right, colonial rule, East Village, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, low cost airline, low cost carrier, out of africa, Pepto Bismol, place-making, Skype, sustainable-tourism, the market place, urban planning, young professional

The difference in weave is easy to see, as a fine weave improves the shape of a hat. It has more body and retains its shape better. You’ll find Panama hats for sale in several places, but often without much selection. One of the market buildings has a hat store: Walk south down Calle 56 past the post office; right before the street ends in the market place, turn left into a passage with hardware stores at the entrance. The fourth or fifth shop is Casa de los Jipis. WHERE TO STAY Mérida is easier on the budget than the resort cities. The stream of visitors is steadier than on the coast, so most hotels no longer use a high-season/low-season rate structure.


England by David Else

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

ROSS-ON-WYE pop 10,085 Snoozy little Ross-on-Wye, which perches prettily on a red sandstone bluff over a kink in the River Wye, is a gentle place to rest before or after exertions in the beautiful countryside that surrounds it. The town sparks to life in mid-August, when the International Festival brings fireworks, raft races, music and street theatre. The salmon-pink 17th-century Market House sits atop its weathered sandstone col­umns in the Market Place. It contains a Heritage Centre ( 01989-260675; 10am-5pm Mon-Sat, 10.30am-4pm Sun Apr-Oct, 10.30am-4pm Mon-Sat Nov-Mar) with local-history displays. The tourist office ( 01989-562768; tic-ross@herefordshire.gov.uk; Edde Cross St; 9am-5pm Mon-Sat) has information on activities and walks. Sleeping & Eating White House Guest House ( 01989-763572; www.whitehouseross.com; Wye St; s/d £45/65; wi-fi) This 18th-century stone house has a great location across the road from the River Wye.


Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Return to beginning of chapter ROSS-ON-WYE pop 10,085 Snoozy little Ross-on-Wye, which perches prettily on a red sandstone bluff over a kink in the River Wye, is a gentle place to rest before or after exertions in the beautiful countryside that surrounds it. The town sparks to life in mid-August, when the International Festival brings fireworks, raft races, music and street theatre. The salmon-pink 17th-century Market House sits atop its weathered sandstone columns in the Market Place. It contains a Heritage Centre ( 01989-260675; 10am-5pm Mon-Sat, 10.30am-4pm Sun Apr-Oct, 10.30am-4pm Mon-Sat Nov-Mar) with local-history displays. The tourist office ( 01989-562768; tic-ross@herefordshire.gov.uk; Edde Cross St; 9am-5pm Mon-Sat) has information on activities and walks. Sleeping & Eating White House Guest House ( 01989-763572; www.whitehouseross.com; Wye St; s/d £45/65; wi-fi) This 18th-century stone house has a great location across the road from the River Wye.


pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, disinformation, Farzad Bazoft, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

But it was a Ruritanian affair because, just after the call for morning prayers, Jalalabad would wake up as if the battles had been fought in a dream and reassume its role as a dusty frontier town, its bazaar touting poor-quality Pakistan cloth and local vegetables while the Afghan soldiers ostensibly guarding the market place nodded in fatigue over their ancient—and British—Lee Enfield rifles. I would take a rickshaw out of town to look at a damaged tank or a burned-out government office, type up my report of the fighting for the paper, and at mid-morning Ali would arrive with the “down” bus—Peshawar being 4,700 feet lower than Kabul—to pick up my report.