sharing economy

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pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Zipcar

It is also reminiscent of the sentiment expressed by the public intellectual Diana Fillipova in her 2014 essay, “The Mock Trial of the Collaborative Economy,” in which she noted: “Of course, as with technology, the problem is not the collaborative economy itself but, at least partly, the way we have been thinking about it and the unlimited hopes we were putting into it.”9 This discussion within OuiShare as well as at their Fest, mirrors both the evolving use of the term “sharing economy” and the nature of the exchange it is used to describe. Looking at the sharing economy as I write this book in 2015, I see commercial activity resembling that of a fairly standard market economy. Yet I also see exchange that might best be described as part of a “gift economy” that serves not only an economic purpose but also has other social and cultural function. Most exchange, however, seems like an interesting meld of market and gift. As I will argue later in this chapter, it is quite natural that the sharing economy spans the continuum between market economies and gift economies. But to get there, I first need to better bound the scope of what is meant by the “sharing economy,” and discuss the evolution of recent thinking about it. What Is the Sharing Economy? In the introduction, I provided a number of examples that fall under the umbrella of what I call the “sharing economy” or “crowd-based capitalism,” terms I use more precisely (and interchangeably) to describe an economic system with the following five characteristics: Largely market-based: the sharing economy creates markets that enable the exchange of goods and the emergence of new services, resulting in potentially higher levels of economic activity.

He is explicit, however, in his interest in the “business” of sharing, and, realizing the inherent potential contradiction, explains his use of the term “sharing economy”: Why am I using the term “sharing economy” time and time again in this book? In part, I do so because this term has come to dominate discourse on the subject. The genie is out of the bottle. It would be near-impossible to dislodge the term without the risk of fracturing a growing movement of people who largely have no problem with the term, and who are building something that—for the most part, as we will see—is a social and economic good.17 How Key Early Thinking on the Sharing Economy Evolved What I defined as the sharing economy (or as crowd-based capitalism) emerged at scale around 2010. Different conceptions of a “sharing economy,” however, predate the point at which the conditions were finally in place for it to expand beyond niche markets.

“As Yochai Benkler puts it, in commercial economies ‘prices are the primary source of information about, and incentive for, resource allocation’”; in sharing economies “non-price-based social relations play these roles.”26 However, he argues, this “is not because people are against money (obviously)” but rather because “people live within overlapping spheres of social understanding. What is obviously appropriate in some spheres is obviously inappropriate in others.”27 In other words, Lessig contends that there is more circulating in sharing economies than services and goods. To put it simply, “good feelings” are what circulate in Lessig’s version of a sharing economy. So, as Lessig asserts, “not only is money not helpful, in many cases, adding money into the mix is downright destructive.”28 Lessig further contends that not all sharing economies are built alike. On the one hand there are “thin sharing economies” or “those economies where the motivation is primarily me-regarding” or meant to serve the individual (and not necessarily on a monetary level, for example, as with joining a local softball league).


pages: 289

Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy by Alexandrea J. Ravenelle

"side hustle", active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Howard Zinn, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, precariat, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, very high income, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

. ———. 2014a. “Debating the Sharing Economy.” Great Transition Initiative, October. www.greattransition.org/publication/debating-the-sharing-economy. ———. 2014b. “Risks and Rewards of Cultivating a Sharing Economy.” Brink, December 23. ———. 2015. “The Sharing Economy: Reports from Stage One.” Unpublished paper. ———. 2017. “Does the Sharing Economy Increase Inequality within the Eighty Percent?: Findings from a Qualitative Study of Platform Providers.” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 10(2):263–79. Schor, Juliet B., and William Attwood-Charles. 2015. “Platform Providers in the ‘Sharing’ Economy.” Work in Progress: Sociology on the Economy, Work and Equality, July 28. https://workinprogress.oowsection.org/2015/07/28/platform-providers-in-the-sharing-economy/. ———. 2017. “The ‘Sharing’ Economy: Labor, Inequality, and Social Connection on For-Profit Platforms.”

Although the workplace protections dealing with safety and the right to unionize date back to the early industrial age and the beginning of the 1900s, American protections against sexual harassment are a direct outcropping of second-wave feminism and the current #MeToo movement. Yet even the latest workplace policies are no match for the sharing economy’s bulldozing of workplace protections. Chapter 5 examines sexual harassment in the sharing economy and how the egalitarianism of peer-to-peer employment results in the loss of political language as workers “explain away” sexual harassment. In chapter 6, I explore the shady underbelly of the sharing economy through stories of workers who find themselves engaging in illegal or at least legally questionable activities as part of their sharing economy work. I argue that the anonymity of the sharing economy can make it easier to source otherwise law-abiding workers for drug deliveries and can lead to unsuspecting workers involved in various scams.

The early days of the sharing economy—often described as collaborative consumption—included such free services as Couchsurfing.com and Craigslist, which were viewed as a way to decrease the expenses of consumption. Makerspaces and swaps allowed users access to low-cost or free products. As the sharing economy grew, free services were replaced with fee-based services. Couchsurfing.com was largely usurped by Airbnb.com; clothing swaps were replaced with Tradesy.com, an online designer-clothing reseller marketplace. Instead of cutting expenses through sharing, the focus moved to growing income by renting out one’s “surplus,” such as an unused room or one’s free time on evenings or weekends. In this way, the sharing economy became a way for workers to supplement their incomes. And the sharing economy appears to be fulfilling a real need.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

There has been a lot of debate about whether “sharing economy” is the right name to use to describe this new wave of businesses, and a raft of other names have been tried out—collaborative consumption, the mesh economy, peer-to-peer platforms, the gig economy, concierge services, or, increasingly, the “on-demand economy.” There is no doubt that the word “sharing” has been stretched beyond reasonable limits as the “sharing economy” has grown and changed, but we still need a name when we talk about the phenomenon. While it may not last more than another year or so, “sharing economy” is the name used right now in 2015. I will use the name, but to avoid repeated use of the word “alleged” or annoyingly frequent scare quotes I will capitalize it as the Sharing Economy.2 Definitions don’t take us very far when talking about something as fluid and rapidly changing as the Sharing Economy, but we still need to draw some boundaries around the topic to talk about it coherently. Chapter 2 surveys the Sharing Economy landscape: it explores what kind of organizations are included, where they come from, what they do, and how they are funded.

New businesses may be built around sharing and openness, but commercial instincts will tend to drive out altruistic behavior, and the generous impulses that inspired the Sharing Economy will be crushed by monetary incentives. The Sharing Economy is young and it is changing rapidly. It will be shaped by our behavior as consumers, but also by our behavior as citizens and our behavior as workers. Sharing Economy companies claim we should trust them and their technologies to take over functions provided by governments: guaranteeing a safe consumer experience, ensuring that employment is fair and dignified, and shaping cities to be livable and sustainable. We should not do so. I wrote this book because the Sharing Economy agenda appeals to ideals with which I and many others identify; ideals such as equality, sustainability, and community. The Sharing Economy continues to have the support and allegiance of many progressive-minded people—particularly young people who identify strongly with the technologies they use—who are having their best instincts manipulated and who will be betrayed.

I do not doubt that new technologies can play an important part in building a better future, but they do not provide a shortcut to solving complex social problems or to resolving longstanding sources of social conflict. If the Sharing Economy proponents who do believe in equality and sustainability want to build something useful, they need to drop the hubris of Internet culture and learn some lessons from those in other fields who have been engaged in sharing for years. Just as there are no shortcuts to solving complex social problems, so there is no simple Big Idea to countering the worst of the Sharing Economy. A starting point is that we recognize it for what it is. 2. The Sharing Economy Landscape One way to explore the makeup of the Sharing Economy is to look at an organization called Peers. Formed in 2013, Peers described itself as “a grassroots, member-driven organization that supports the Sharing Economy movement.” When Airbnb ran into business permit problems in Grand Rapids, Michigan or when a neighborhood council threatened to ban Airbnb in Silver Lake, California, it was Peers that rallied Airbnb hosts to lobby councilors on the company’s behalf.


pages: 491 words: 77,650

Humans as a Service: The Promise and Perils of Work in the Gig Economy by Jeremias Prassl

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, call centre, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market friction, means of production, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, pattern recognition, platform as a service, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, remote working, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Singh, software as a service, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, two tier labour market, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, working-age population

Tom Slee, What’s Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy (O/R Books 2015), 27. The website itself seems to have gone offline at the time of final editing. 6. Anya Kamenetz, ‘Is Peers the sharing economy’s future or just a great Silicon Valley PR stunt?’, Fast Company (9 December 2013), http://www.fastcompany. com/3022974/tech-forecast/is-peers-the-sharing-economys-future-or-just-a- great-silicon-valley-pr-stunt, archived at https://perma.cc/6DMG-DGBJ 7. Andrew Leonard, ‘The sharing economy gets greedy’, Salon (1 August 2013), http://www.salon.com/2013/07/31/the_sharing_economy_gets_greedy/, archived at https://perma.cc/M9E6-EVF5. For subsequent details, see Andrew Leonard, ‘Who owns the sharing economy?’, Salon (2 August 2013), http:// www.salon.com/2013/08/02/who_owns_the_sharing_economy/, archived at https://perma.cc/AL8X-VZXT 8.

Frank Pasquale and Siva Vaidhyanathan, ‘Uber and the lawlessness of “sharing economy” corporates’, The Guardian (28 July 2015), http://www.theguardian. com/technology/2015/jul/28/uber-lawlessness-sharing-economy-corporates- airbnb-google, archived at https://perma.cc/2ETJ-V3GX 33. House of Commons Business, Innovation and Skills Committee, Employment Practices at Sports Direct: 3rd Report of Session 2016/17 (HC 2016–17, 219), 3. 34. ‘Swalwell, Issa announce the Sharing Economy Caucus’, Eric Swalwell press release (12 May 2015), https://swalwell.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/ swalwell-issa-announce-sharing-economy-caucus, archived at https://perma. cc/7SN7-M4XG. Ride platform Lyft was ‘excited to continue that conversa- tion in Washington, D.C.’: ‘Lyft joins Sharing Economy Caucus’, Lyft Blog (13 May 2015), https://blog.lyft.com/posts/2015/5/13/lyft-joins-sharing-economy- caucus, archived at https://perma.cc/875C-N376.

.’: ‘Lyft joins Sharing Economy Caucus’, Lyft Blog (13 May 2015), https://blog.lyft.com/posts/2015/5/13/lyft-joins-sharing-economy- caucus, archived at https://perma.cc/875C-N376. It was focused on limiting regulation—not least by ensuring more favourable tax treatment. Other oper- ators similarly called for changes to help ‘participants [who] feel the sting of the taxman when filing season comes around’: John Kartch, ‘Meet the congres- sional Sharing Economy Caucus’, Forbes (15 May 2015), http://www.forbes. com/sites/johnkartch/2015/05/15/issa-swalwell-launch-congressional-sharing- economy-caucus/2/, archived at https://perma.cc/2J5Y-EX6D 35. ‘Swalwell, Issa announce the Sharing Economy Caucus’, Eric Swalwell press release (12 May 2015), https://swalwell.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/ swalwell-issa-announce-sharing-economy-caucus, archived at https://perma.


Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

For despite the intuitions that names give to the contrary, a thin sharing economy is often easier to support than a thick sharing economy. This is because inspiring or sustaining thee motivations is not costless. Or at least, all things being equal, a me motivation (for us, now) comes more easily to most. Thus, distinguishing cases where a thee motivation is necessary from cases where it isn’t will be helpful in predicting whether a certain sharing economy will survive. 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 154 8/12/08 1:55:26 AM T W O EC O NO MIE S: C O MMERC I A L A ND SH A RING 155 Internet Sharing Economies The Internet has exploded the range and thickness of sharing economies too. As with commercial economies, the plasticity of the Internet’s design, and the scale of its reach, offer a vast range of new opportunities for sharing economies everywhere. As with commercial economies, these sharing economies flourish in part because of their design.

Then I thought, but didn’t say: Anyway, if you were going to pay me for this hassle, it’s going to be a lot more than $5. As with any economy, the sharing economy is built upon exchange. And as with any exchange that survives over time, it must, on balance, benefit those who remain within that economy. When it doesn’t, people leave. Or at least they should (think about the battered spouse). But of all the ways in which the exchange within a sharing economy can be defined—or put differently, of all the possible terms of the exchange within a sharing economy—the one way in which it cannot be defined is in terms of money. As Yochai Benkler puts it, in commercial economies “prices are the primary source of information about, and incentive for, resource allocation”; in sharing economies “non-price-based social relations play those roles.”34 Indeed, not only is money not helpful.

They are thin sharing economies. By contrast, in a thick sharing economy, motivations are more complex. A father might spend Sunday mornings teaching a Bible class at his church. Part of that motivation is about him. But certainly, part is also about improving the community of his church— a thee motivation. What the proportion is we need not specify. The only important point is that there are both, and that the more we think that there is a thee motivation, the thicker the community is. This distinction between thick and thin will be important when considering differences among sharing economies. It will also be important in understanding the likelihood that any particular economy will survive over time. For despite the intuitions that names give to the contrary, a thin sharing economy is often easier to support than a thick sharing economy.


pages: 343 words: 91,080

Uberland: How Algorithms Are Rewriting the Rules of Work by Alex Rosenblat

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, call centre, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Chrome, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, job automation, job satisfaction, Lyft, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ralph Waldo Emerson, regulatory arbitrage, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social software, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, urban planning, Wolfgang Streeck, Zipcar

Points, July 12, 2017, https://points.datasociety.net/who-cares-in-the-gig-economy-6d75a079a889. For a description of the sharing economy as a signifier of a constellation of business activities with roots in collaborative commerce, see sociologist Juliet B. Schor, “On the Sharing Economy,” Contexts 14, no. 1 (2015): 12–19, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1536504214567860; see also Edward T. Walker, “Beyond the Rhetoric of the ‘Sharing Economy,’” Contexts 14, no. 1 (2015): 12–19, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1536504214567860; Natasha Singer, “Twisting Words to Make ‘Sharing’ Apps Seem Selfless,” New York Times, August 8, 2015; Caroline Jack, “Imagining the Sharing Economy,” Points, November 21, 2016, https://points.datasociety.net/imagining-the-sharing-economy-3a2048469da5. 52. Axel Bruns, Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (New York: Peter Lang, 2008), 3, also see chap. 12. 53.

By July 2017, the Oxford Internet Institute’s iLabour Project published a report finding that the online sharing economy, which includes clerical and data entry services for jobs posted online, had grown 26 percent in the previous year.37 But as the sharing economy has grown, things have gotten complicated. Increasingly, the “sharing economy” has been identified as an intensification of the “gig economy,” as people have become suspicious of the way that words like sharing euphemistically describe precarious, part-time, and piecework employment.38 Scholars, as well as media outlets like the New York Times and Buzzfeed, have moved to rechristen “ridesharing” as “ridehailing” in an attempt to ease the contradiction between altruism and employment. The sharing-economy language has long been both expansive and imprecise, recasting service industry and white-collar jobs alike in the amorphous terms of digital culture and the New Economy.

And Silicon Valley has a strong stake in national debates over whether automation technology, such as self-driving cars, will take all our jobs. Universal basic income is one form of “automation alimony” that is proposed to relieve the rising inequality often attributed to automation. It was in this economic and cultural climate that the buzz around “the sharing economy” began. Its promise was seductively simple. The sharing economy was a social technology movement designed to use tech to share resources more efficiently—a true “commonwealth” aimed at remedying some of the insecurity fostered by the Great Recession. The sharing economy was built atop earlier cultural conversations, like those about rental commerce, car-sharing, and cooperative housing. Technology could connect those who possessed underutilized assets, skills, or time with potential consumers, a form of commerce that reduced the costs of ownership and more efficiently distributed goods and services.17 For struggling millennials displaced by the recession, this new model provided a hopeful new paradigm for earning income.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

ECONOMIC BARRIERS AND ENABLERS OF DISTRIBUTED OWNERSHIP ARUN SUNDARARAJAN In May 2015, I chatted with OuiShare’s co-founders Antonin Léonard and Benjamin Tincq during their OuiShare Fest, the annual gathering of over a thousand sharing-economy enthusiasts in Paris. I sensed a tension at the Fest between the purpose-driven and profit-driven participants: those who saw the sharing economy as a path to a more equitable and environmentally sensible world, and those who were excited by the massive infusions of venture capital into hundreds of burgeoning sharing-economy platforms. Léonard spoke of the confusion and disappointment he detected from those who had hoped that the sharing economy would really change the world. “And because there was so much hope, the ones that were once so hopeful are now so disappointed, in a way,” he said. “But maybe the problem is not so much how much money was invested, but why did we have this hope?”

This episode showed me how a culture of genuine sharing can also mean sharing technology, just like anything else. Over the past five years, the technological ingenuity of the “sharing economy” deeply resonated with the zeitgeist. Emphasizing community, underutilized resources, and open data, the genuine sharing economy was initially presented as a challenge to corporate power. Just like my Buddhist friends, the pioneers of this economy proposed to split the use of lawn mowers, drills, and cars. But soon, the non-commercial values behind many platforms were rewritten in the boardrooms of Silicon Valley, turning the “sharing economy” into a misnomer. Today, facing various prophecies about sharing and the future of work, we need to remind ourselves that there is no unstoppable evolution leading to the uberization of society; more positive alternatives are possible.

In many ways, the core of the political potential of sharing economies lies in the new kinds of social groups that they can sustain. Prior to the rise of digital platform-based labor economies, these groups tended to be formal organizations, like community organizations, cooperatives, or unions. Platform cooperativism presents the possibility that much of the current sharing economy should be restructured around and beyond these existing organizations. But the work required to sustain such structures can limit involvement to those with the time and skills to do so. The interaction designer for platform co-ops should therefore work to enable participants to create and maintain “lighter,” but no less sustainable, communities. At the outset of what is now called the sharing economy, many systems were membership-based: for instance, Zipcar.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

The most obvious point is the category of independent contractors and freelancers. This category has registered an increase of 1.7 per cent (2.9 million) between 2005 and 2015,71 but most of these increases have been for offline work. Given that no direct measures of the sharing economy are currently available, surveys and other indirect measures have been used instead. Nearly all of the estimates suggest that around 1 per cent of the US labour force is involved in the online sharing economy formed by lean platforms.72 Even here, the results have to take into account that Uber drivers probably form the majority of these workers.73 The sharing economy outside of Uber is tiny. In the United Kingdom less evidence is presently available, but the most thorough survey done so far suggests that a slightly higher number of people routinely sell their labour through lean platforms.

December. http://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/modernizing_labor_laws_for_twenty_first_century_work_krueger_harris.pdf (accessed 25 May 2016). Henwood, Doug. 2003. After the New Economy. New York: New Press. Henwood, Doug. 2015. ‘What the Sharing Economy Takes’. The Nation, 27 January. http://www.thenation.com/article/what-sharing-economy-takes (accessed 25 May 2016). Herrman, John. 2016. ‘Media Websites Battle Faltering Ad Revenue and Traffic’. The New York Times, 17 April. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/18/business/media-websites-battle-falteringad-revenue-and-traffic.html (accessed 30 June 2016). Hesse, Jason. 2015. ‘6 per cent of Brits Use Sharing Economy to Earn Extra Cash’. Real Business. 15 September. http://realbusiness.co.uk/article/31360-6-per-cent-of-brits-use-sharing-economyto-earn-extra-cash (accessed 25 May 2016). Hook, Leslie. 2016.

The dominant narrative in the advanced capitalist countries has been one of change. In particular, there has been a renewed focus on the rise of technology: automation, the sharing economy, endless stories about the ‘Uber for X’, and, since around 2010, proclamations about the internet of things. These changes have received labels such as ‘paradigm shift’ from McKinsey1 and ‘fourth industrial revolution’ from the executive chairman of the World Economic Forum and, in more ridiculous formulations, have been compared in importance to the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.2 We have witnessed a massive proliferation of new terms: the gig economy, the sharing economy, the on-demand economy, the next industrial revolution, the surveillance economy, the app economy, the attention economy, and so on. The task of this chapter is to examine these changes.


pages: 290 words: 87,549

The Airbnb Story: How Three Ordinary Guys Disrupted an Industry, Made Billions...and Created Plenty of Controversy by Leigh Gallagher

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, housing crisis, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Justin.tv, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Network effects, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, RFID, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tony Hsieh, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Y Combinator, yield management

Weaver and Kayla Deru, “Carbon Monoxide Poisoning at Motels, Hotels, and Resorts,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, July 2007. 98 According to the National Fire Protection Association: Richard Campbell, “Structure Fires in Hotels and Motels,” National Fire Protection Association, September 2015. 100 relative to nonblack hosts: Benjamin Edelman and Michael Luca, “Digital Discrimination: The Case of Airbnb.com,” Harvard Business School Working Paper, no. 14-054, January 2014. 100 compared with white guests: Benjamin Edelman, Michael Luca, and Dan Svirsky, “Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, September 16, 2016, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2701902. 101 rejections stopped: Shankar Vedantam, Maggie Penman, and Max Nesterak, “#AirbnbWhileBlack: How Hidden Bias Shapes the Sharing Economy,” Hidden Brain, NPR, podcast audio, April 26, 2016, http://www.npr.org/2016/04/26/475623339/-airbnbwhileblack-how-hidden-bias-shapes-the-sharing-economy. 101 “your XXX head”: Elizabeth Weise, “Airbnb Bans N. Carolina Host as Accounts of Racism Rise,” USA Today, June 2, 2016, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2016/06/01/airbnb-bans-north-carolina-host-racism/85252190/. 102 the experts’ recommendations: Laura W.

, Commercial Observer, October 12, 2015, https://commercialobserver.com/2015/10/airbnb-is-a-growing-force-in-new-york-but-just-how-many-laws-are-being-broken/. 143 industry-demand growth: Lodging and Cruise—US: Lowering Our Outlook to Stable on Lower Growth Prospects in 2017, Moody’s Investors Service, September 26, 2016, https://www.moodys.com/. 143 The Sharing Economy Checks In: Jamie Lane, The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States, CBRE, January 2016, https://cbrepkfcprod.blob.core.windows.net/downloads/store/12Samples/An_Analysis_of_Airbnb_in_the_United_States.pdf. 143 the most vulnerable hotels: Georgios Zervas, “The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Estimating the Impact of Airbnb on the Hotel Industry,” Boston University School of Management Research Paper Series, May 7, 2015, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2bb7/f0eb69a4b026bccb687b546405247a132b77.pdf. 144 “pace of growth continue”: Kevin May, “Airbnb Tipped to Double in Size and Begin Gradual Impact on Hotels,” Tnooz, January 20, 2015, https://www.tnooz.com/article/airbnb-double-size-impact-hotels/. 146 deals were announced: Alison Griswold, “It’s Time for Hotels to Really, Truly Worry about Airbnb,” Quartz, July 12, 2016, http://qz.com/729878/its-time-for-hotels-to-really-truly-worry-about-airbnb/. 146 the meetings industry: Greg Oates, “Airbnb Explains Its Strategic Move into the Meetings and Events Industry,” Skift, June 29, 2016, https://skift.com/2016/06/29/airbnb-explains-its-peripheral-move-into-the-meetings-and-events-industry/. 146 from early 2015 to early 2016: “Airbnb and Peer-to-Peer Lodging: GS Survey Takeaways,” Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, February 15, 2016. 148 “to come to it”: Susan Stellin, “Boutique Bandwagon,” New York Times, June 3, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/03/business/03boutique.html. 149 to list it: “VRBO/HomeAway Announcement,” Timeshare Users Group, June 6, 2005, http://www.tugbbs.com/forums/showthread.php?

All that extra space could be put to work, my partner would say—and he genuinely liked having global student types around for interesting conversation and a broader perspective. And then of course, there is the more modern era of short-term vacation rentals, which has been with us for decades, whether through big players like HomeAway or VRBO or niche sites like BedandBreakfast.com, or, before that, advertisements on Craigslist or classified ads. “One of the signature elements of the sharing economy is that the ideas themselves are not new,” says Arun Sundararajan, professor at New York University and author of the book The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism. What is new, though, and what Airbnb specifically has done, is to toss aside the barriers and build an easy, friendly, accessible platform inviting anyone to do it. Unlike on previous websites, Airbnb listings were designed to showcase home renters’ personalities; the company invested in individual professional photography services to make sure the spaces would look lush and inviting; and searching, messaging, and payment were all self-contained, seamless, and friction-free.


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Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Aug. 6, 2013. sfbg.com/2013/08/06/thin-air. 238 “grassroots organization”: “About Peers.” Peers. peers.org/about. 238 “sharing economy startups”: Andrew Leonard. “Who Owns the Sharing Economy?” Salon. Aug. 2, 2013. salon.com/2013/08/02/who_owns_the_sharing_economy. 239 “It’s like the United Nations”: Jones and Yesko. “Into Thin Air.” 239 “a shared identity”: Tom Slee. “Why the Sharing Economy Isn’t.” Whimsley. Aug. 30, 2013. tomslee.net/2013/08/why-the-sharing-economy-isnt.html. 239 “unreasonable obstacles”: ibid. 239 Atkin’s connection to Peers: Nitasha Tiku. “Airbnb’s Industry Mouthpiece Astroturfs for Donations.” Valleywag, a blog on Gawker. Dec. 11, 2013. valleywag.gawker.com/airbnbs-industry-mouthpiece-astroturfs-for-donations-1481305550. 239 Pierre Omidyar and Peers: Ryan Chittum. “Fortune Flacks for the ‘Sharing Economy.’” Columbia Journalism Review. Dec. 10, 2013. cjr.org/the_audit/fortune_flacks_for_the_sharing.php. 239 “We’ll provide everything”: Peers.

Welcome to the sharing economy. BAIT AND SWITCH The sharing economy combines all the elements of online labor, reputation, and social media’s marketing-of-the-self to help make one’s entire life purely transactional. Playing off the notion that a gig-based economy, filled with mobile freelancers, is inherently liberating, partisans of the sharing economy preach flexibility and personal empowerment. The sharing economy offers services that let you turn the core elements of your life—housing, transportation, physical labor, expensively earned skills—into rentable commodities. As with online labor, the emphasis is on reducing perceived market inefficiencies—regulation, middlemen, storefronts, the petty mundanities of paying fixed prices for goods and services. In the sharing economy, everybody is an entrepreneur and everything is negotiable.

Among the most pernicious aspects of the sharing economy is the way it presents itself as a populist operation, a loose community coming together to engage in mutually beneficial, informal economic exchanges. In reality, it is anything but these things. What is shared most among participants in the sharing economy is risk—risk that the platform owners displace onto workers and customers. But the industry’s self-mythologizing masks this reality. Peers, an industry lobbying group that calls itself a “grassroots organization to support the sharing economy movement,” acknowledged after its launch that its “mission-aligned independent donors” included “investors and executives of sharing economy start-ups.” That’s not much of a surprise, considering that its work directly benefits the companies comprising the sharing economy, as well as their billionaire backers.


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City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Or worse, you’re wasting scarce money on it. Viewed through that lens, the sharing economy has the potential to address some of the biggest problems of cities. It’s not just a survival strategy for low-wage workers living in a costly metropolis. It’s a strategy for urban planning. “It changes everything,” says Janelle Orsi, executive director of the Sustainable Economies Law Center and a sharing economy lawyer. Bike and car sharing will influence municipal policies for improving transportation flow. Getaround will contribute to reducing carbon emissions (studies suggest that one shared car can take 13 or 14 others off the road). Airbnb will help provide housing flexibility in cities that now have a severe mismatch in supply (of outdated, oversized housing) and demand. The sharing economy, Orsi believes, could even address urban crime, through the stability of social networks that it will spawn and the greater number of people it will be able to provide for.

The commercial kitchen also serves as an event space, maximizing the building’s efficiency. Image: Daniel Harris “The reality is that if D.C. swells from a place where there are 500,000 people in 2010 to a place where there are 850,000 in 2020, well, what are we doing with those 350,000 extra people?” Singer asks. “A lot of the sharing economy just has to do with the number of people living per square foot of land. It’s all about physical space.” The rise of the so-called sharing economy has been chalked up to many things: Millennials rejecting car ownership, the environmentally conscious glomming onto the latest eco-trend, even broke urbanites who will want all their own stuff again as soon as the economy recovers. Ron Williams, CEO of online gear-lending outlet SnapGoods, admits that the sharing pioneers (himself included) enabled too many articles describing all of this as a precious curiosity: People are sharing whoopee-pie makers!

But she predicts that services meeting the needs of both sides of a market — the givers and receivers in sharing — will succeed. Airbnb, for instance, helps homeowners and also increasingly serves a freelance work force as prone to temporarily changing cities as jobs. Some physical goods — maybe not dogs or toilets — are exchanging hands in the shared economy, too. There actually is someone in Manhattan on SnapGoods offering whoopee-pie makers (includes a recipe book!). But the shared economy of stuff works best with assets that are expensive to own and infrequently used, like camera and music accessories, or high-end home tools. SnapGoods sells itself with the slogan “Own less, do more,” a nod to the idea that our culture increasingly values the accumulation of experiences over assets (if you don’t own a high-end camera with multiple lenses and tripods, maybe you can afford to take a trip to Yosemite as an amateur photographer with borrowed gear).


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The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Airbnb has succeeded in bringing eBay’s trust-through-algorithms-and-ratings model to lodging and built a business around it. Nobody is really sharing anything in the sharing economy. You can call it the sharing economy, but don’t forget your credit card. At last measure, the estimated size of the global sharing economy was $26 billion, and it’s growing fast, with some estimates projecting it will be more than 20 times larger in size by 2025. Part of why Chesky’s story is cloying is that Airbnb is now a destination for castles in addition to couches. When I last checked, there were more than 600 castles available, with prices often approaching $10,000 a night. There is absolutely nothing wrong with this, but the techno-utopianism behind its origins and narrative has long been passed by economic reality. In some cases, the sharing economy has turned what might have once been a casual favor into a financial transaction.

For millennials, the appification of lodging, labor, and travel is more native and gives credence to the idea that the sharing economy is only in its earliest stages. Uber and Airbnb have inspired a host of imitators, and the sharing economy is growing far beyond lodging and transport. Companies have been established to sell (not share) latent goods and services ranging from home-cooked meals and day care for pets to tutoring in math. Imagining what is next, I think it is nearly inevitable that the sharing economy will come to include more specialized forms of labor. In the early years of its existence when eBay made anyone a retailer, the platform was dominated by low-cost trinkets and gadgets. It was basically an online garage sale. Today you can buy any make or model of Ferrari, the most precious item you might find in anyone’s garage. The sharing economy started with sleeping on couches and car rides.

She won’t buy anything from low-rated sellers, and she always rushes to the post office within a day of making a sale so that her merchant rating stays high. She has done business with people all over America, none of whom she has met but all of whom she trusts because of algorithm-generated trust. The next leap forward in the code-ification of trust and markets is in the so-called sharing economy. I think of the sharing economy as a way of making a market out of anything and a microentrepreneur out of anybody. The sharing economy uses a combination of technology platforms packaged as apps on mobile phones, behavioral science, and mobile phone location data to create peer-to-peer marketplaces. These marketplaces take underused assets (e.g., an empty apartment, empty seats in a car, or skill as a math tutor) and connect them with people looking for a specific service.


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The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The transformation that will take place in other service businesses with high information proxy content will be similar. A SHARED FUTURE Many of the most disruptive new business models will emerge in what has been called the sharing economy. Information equivalence is the primary driving force behind the sharing economy, which is also known as the shareconomy, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, or peer economy. All of these terms are used to describe a broad range of economic activities.40 Arun Sundararajan does an excellent job of characterizing this phenomenon in his book, The Sharing Economy.41 The sharing economy, he writes, is market based and facilitates the efficient exchange and sharing of goods, services, and human skills. It is crowd-based and not organized around corporate hierarchies. Its supply of labor and capital comes from decentralized sources and exchange is generally mediated by third parties.

A MATTER OF RATIOS Office space, temporary accommodations, and vacation rentals are another area where capital assets are underutilized, and the sharing economy is ready to help. If you are looking for vacation rentals, Airbnb is just one of many services that you can use. Tripping.com has more than 8 million vacation properties listed. Tripping.com competes with Flip-Key, Roomorama, VacayHero, and Wimdu.52 ShareDesk lets you find on-demand workspace in more than four hundred cities.53 A sharing economy service or equivalent exists for just about anything you can think of. That includes sharing people as well. If you want to hire freelance labor for everyday work, TaskRabbit is operating in approximately thirty cities. If you are interested in food delivery, Postmates might be a better alternative. Sundararajan’s book on the sharing economy carries a subtitle, The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism.

“Peer Pressure,” PWC, February 2015, https://www.pwc.com/us/en/consumer-finance/publications/assets/peer-to-peer-lending.pdf (accessed June 27, 2019); and Cloud Lending, 2018, https://www.cloudlendinginc.com/about-us/. 39. Jon Henley, “Sweden Leads the Race to Become Cashless Society,” The Guardian,, June 4, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jun/04/sweden-cashless-society-cards-phone-apps-leading-europe (accessed June 27, 2019). 40. “Sharing Economy,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharing_economy (accessed June 27, 2019). 41. Arun Sundararajan, The Sharing Economy (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2016), 27. 42. Paul Barter, “‘Cars Are Parked 95% of the Time.’ Let’s Check!,” Reinventing Parking, February 22, 2013, http://www.reinventingparking.org/2013/02/cars-are-parked-95-of-time-lets-check.html (accessed June 27, 2019). 43. Brian Patrick Eha, “Zipcar Timeline: From Business Idea to IPO to $500 Million Buyout,” Entrepreneur, January 2, 2013, https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/225399 (accessed June 27, 2019). 44.


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Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

By reusing materials again and again, through multiple production cycles, and by adopting the resource-efficient design principles of biomimicry, companies are able to significantly reduce their supply chain costs and pass these savings on to customers. Widening the sharing economy In a circular economy, a product undergoes multiple incarnations – with its materials being recycled and reused again and again – thus sustaining its value over multiple lifetimes. During any particular lifetime, however, the product is most likely to be owned and used by just one customer. But what if, during even a single lifetime or incarnation, the same product could be consumed by many users? Then the same inputs could be made to create greater value for more and more users. That is the underlying premise of the sharing economy – also known as collaborative consumption – in which participants aspire to share access to goods and services rather than to have individual ownership. Sharing economy firms include Airbnb (sharing homes), RelayRides, BlaBlaCar and easyCar (sharing cars), ParkatmyHouse (sharing parking spaces), BringBee (sharing trips to the grocery store), Wishi or Wear It Share It (choosing clothes), Eatwith (sharing your dinner), yerdle.com (sharing household equipment with neighbours), Skillshare (sharing skills and knowledge) and TaskRabbit (outsourcing small jobs and errands).

Sharing economy firms include Airbnb (sharing homes), RelayRides, BlaBlaCar and easyCar (sharing cars), ParkatmyHouse (sharing parking spaces), BringBee (sharing trips to the grocery store), Wishi or Wear It Share It (choosing clothes), Eatwith (sharing your dinner), yerdle.com (sharing household equipment with neighbours), Skillshare (sharing skills and knowledge) and TaskRabbit (outsourcing small jobs and errands). As we saw in Chapter 1, these services typically take advantage of the web and social media to enable ordinary people to monetise their time, space, knowledge or skills. The sharing economy contributes to environmental sustainability because it reduces individual consumption by allowing, for instance, four people to share the same car rather than having to buy four different cars. The sharing economy also reduces waste by making excess capacity and unused resources available to those who need them most. By enabling products and assets to be fully utilised, the sharing economy increases their value. Although sharing in the UK accounts for only 1.3% of GDP, and an even smaller proportion of the US economy, it is expected to grow exponentially in coming years, especially given the preference of young consumers to share everything from flats to cars to books.

Similarly, Uber, a taxi service that connects users with drivers at the tap of a smartphone, has recently launched an extension called uberPOP in several European capitals. uberPOP is a peer-to-peer service that enables non-professional drivers to register their cars to transport individuals, thus earning extra income in their free time. The initial value of the sharing economy – powered by providers like Airbnb and Uber – was in saving customers money; now it is being used to earn money by turning customers into prosumers. In 2013, the sharing economy generated revenues of around $3.5 billion, that went straight into prosumers’ wallets. This is just the start. Growing at an annual rate of 25%, the sharing economy is expected to become a $110 billion market within a decade, without requiring any major investments. The European Commission predicts:8 At this rate, peer-to-peer sharing is transforming from an income boost through a stagnant wage market, into a disruptive economic force.


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The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Ibid. 94. “National Study Quantifies the ‘Sharing Economy’ Movement,” PRNewswire, February 8, 2012, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/national-study-quantifies-the-sharing-econo my-movement-138949069.html (accessed March 19, 2013). 95. Neal Gorenflo, “The New Sharing Economy,” Shareable, December 24, 2010, http://www.share able.net/blog/the-new-sharing-economy (accessed March 19, 2013). 96. Bryan Walsh, “10 Ideas that Will Change the World: Today’s Smart Choice: Don’t Own. Share,” Time, March 17, 2011, http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,20 59521_2059717,00.html (accessed March 19, 2013). 97. Danielle Sacks, “The Sharing Economy,” Fast Company, April 18, 2011, http://www.fast company.com/1747551/sharing-economy (accessed March 19, 2013). 98.

., 100, 104 Science, 155 Scientific American, 81–82, 199 “The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain” (Boyle), 181–182 sensors, use of, 11–13, 73–74, 143, 219, 230 Shareable, 238 SharedEarth, 239 sharing economy/good(s). see social capital and the sharing economy Siemens, 14–15 Simmel, Georg, 259 Skoll Foundation, 265–266 smart cities, 12 smart grid(s), 142–144, 149, 205–206, 294 Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS), 295 “smart” and “sustainable” society. see The Internet of Things (IoT) Smith, Adam, 3, 11, 33, 40–41, 61, 107, 159, 306–307 Smith, Alan, 123 Smith, Zach “Hoken,” 94 social Commons. see Collaborative Commons entrepreneurs, 19, 21, 99, 101, 103, 119, 144–147, 238, 262–269, 298, 309 trust, 234 web, four phases of, 234 social capital and the sharing economy, 223–269 and advertising, the end of traditional, 247–252 and automobile sharing, 225–231 and bike sharing, 227 and a biosphere lifestyle, 297–303 and clothing/accessories sharing, 236 crowdfunding capital, 19, 146, 256–257, 269 democratizing currency, 259–262 and garden sharing, 239–240 and healthcare, 240–247 humanizing entrepreneurship, 263–266 and letting go of ownership, 231–234 and lodging sharing, 234–235 and music sharing, 232 rethinking work, 266–269 shift from exchange value to sharable value, 20 and the sustainable cornucopia, 273–296 and toy sharing, 235 and the transformation from ownership to access, 225–254 Social Darwinism, 63–64 social entrepreneurship, 262–266 Social Psychological and Personality Science, 282 solar power, 81–86, 90, 95, 98, 139–140, 145–148, 215, 227, 253, 256–257, 294–295 Solow, Robert, 71 Spencer, Herbert, 63–64 Spotify, 145 Stallman, Richard M., 174–176, 179, 182, 185 Standard Oil Company, 48–49, 51 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn), 9 suburbanization, caused by auto/rail industry, 53–54, 210 Summers, Lawrence, 7–9 surplus value, 41, 62 survival of the fittest, 63–64, 286 sustainability, 147, 213, 217, 236–237, 249, 274–275, 282, 309 swadeshi, Ghandhi’s idea of, 105–106 Swanson, Richard, 82, 145 Tawney, R.

A powerful new economic movement took off overnight, in large part because a younger generation had a tool at its disposal that enabled it to scale quickly and effectively and share its personal bounty on a global Commons. The distributed, collaborative nature of the Internet allowed millions of people to find the right match-ups to share whatever they could spare with what others could use. The sharing economy was born. This is a different kind of economy—one far more dependent on social capital than market capital. And it’s an economy that lives more on social trust rather than on anonymous market forces. Rachel Botsman, an Oxford- and Harvard-educated former consultant to GE and IBM who abandoned her career to join the new sharing economy, describes the path that led up to collaborative consumption. She notes that the social Web has passed through three phases—the first enabled programmers to freely share code; Facebook and Twitter allowed people to share their lives; and YouTube and Flickr allowed people to share their creative content.


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Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

., “Manifesto” (2012), www.cooperativecommons.coop/index.php/en/manifesto; Janelle Orsi, “The Next Sharing Economy” (October 17, 2014), youtube.com/watch?v=xpg4PjGtbu0; her call was echoed in Brian Van Slyke and David Morgan, “The ‘Sharing Economy’ Is the Problem,” Grassroots Economic Organizing (July 3, 2015); see a directory of North American tech worker co-ops at techworker.coop and coops.tech for the UK; for accounts of the rationale for tech co-ops, see Brian Van Slyke, “The Argument for Worker-Owned Tech Collectives,” Fast Company (November 20, 2013), and Gabrielle Anctil, “Can Coops Revolutionize the Tech Industry?” Model View Culture 34 (March 16, 2016). 16. Nathan Schneider, “Owning Is the New Sharing,” Shareable (December 21, 2014); Trebor Scholz, “Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy” (December 5, 2014), medium.com/@trebors/platform-cooperativism-vs-the-sharing-economy-2ea737f1b5ad.

The best-selling futurist handbook of the same period, John Naisbitt’s Megatrends, likewise promised that “the computer will smash the pyramid,” and with its networks “we can restructure our institutions horizontally.”16 What we’ve gotten instead are apps from online monopolies accountable to their almighty stock tickers. The companies we allow to manage our relationships expect that we pay with our personal data. The internet’s so-called sharing economy requires its permanently part-time delivery drivers and content moderators to relinquish rights that used to be part of the social contracts workers could expect. Yet a real sharing economy has been at work all along. During the 2016 International Summit of Cooperatives in Quebec, I attended a dinner at the Château Frontenac, a palatial hotel that casts its glow across the old city. Quebec City has an especially well-developed commonwealth; many residents can recount a typical day with a litany of one co-op after another—child care, grocery stores, workplaces, and so on.

Without owning any guestrooms of its own, Airbnb was by then more valuable than Hyatt; Zipcar, which rents cars by the hour, had been bought by the international car-rental company Avis Budget. The sharing economy was also changing the way at least some people worked. Online labor brokers such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk enticed hundreds of thousands of people to take up digital piecework—data entry, transcribing audio, running errands—without expectation of paid leave, health insurance, or even a minimum wage. But it was also alluringly permissionless—no application process, no fixed hours, no managers. Compared to the rest of the global economy, these companies remained small potatoes, but they seemed like portents of a shift that we’d soon be taking for granted before we had the chance to question it. The occasion that brought Wind and me to Paris was OuiShare Fest, an annual gathering for the sharing economy held in a red circus tent, on an adjoining strip of AstroTurf, and aboard a boat floating in the nearby Canal Saint-Martin.


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Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

[back] 13. Arun Sundararajan, The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016); Airi Lampinen et al., “Studying the ‘Sharing Economy’: Perspectives to Peer-to-Peer Exchange,” in Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference Companion on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (New York: ACM, 2015), 117–21, https://doi.org/10.1145/2685553.2699339; Juliet Schor, “Debating the Sharing Economy,” Great Transition Initiative, October 2014, http://www.greattransition.org/publication/debating-the-sharing-economy; Schor et al., “Paradoxes of Openness and Distinction in the Sharing Economy,” Poetics 54 (2016): 66–81. [back] 14. Kristofer Erickson and Inge Sørensen, “Regulating the Sharing Economy,” Internet Policy Review 5, no. 3 (June 30, 2016), https://doi.org/10.14763/2016.2.414; Juho Hamari, Mimmi Sjöklint, and Antti Ukkonen, “The Sharing Economy: Why People Participate in Collaborative Consumption,” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 2015; Aaron Smith, Shared, Collaborative, and On Demand.

In CHI ’15: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1621–30. New York: ACM, 2015. http://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702508. Scholz, Trebor. Uberworked and Underpaid: How Workers Are Disrupting the Digital Economy. Cambridge, England: Polity, 2016. Schor, Juliet B. “Debating the Sharing Economy.” Great Transition Initiative, October 2014. http://www.greattransition.org/publication/debating-the-sharing-economy. Schor, Juliet B., Connor Fitzmaurice, Lindsey B. Carfagna, Will Attwood-Charles, and Emilie Dubois Poteat. “Paradoxes of Openness and Distinction in the Sharing Economy.” Poetics 54 (2016): 66–81. Schor, Juliet B., and Craig J. Thompson. Sustainable Lifestyles and the Quest for Plenitude: Case Studies of the New Economy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014. Schuman, M. “History of Child Labor in the United States—Part 1: Little Children Working.”

Kristofer Erickson and Inge Sørensen, “Regulating the Sharing Economy,” Internet Policy Review 5, no. 3 (June 30, 2016), https://doi.org/10.14763/2016.2.414; Juho Hamari, Mimmi Sjöklint, and Antti Ukkonen, “The Sharing Economy: Why People Participate in Collaborative Consumption,” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 2015; Aaron Smith, Shared, Collaborative, and On Demand. [back] 15. “We believe the new economy is creating opportunities to reinvent work, but we need to ensure the end goal is work that is good for workers.” National Domestic Workers Alliance, “The Good Work Code for the Online Economy Announces First 12 Companies Leading for Good for Workers,” press release, November 13, 2015, via Marketwired, http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/good-work-code-online-economy-announces-first-12-companies-leading-good-work-workers-2073469.htm. [back] 16. Trebor Scholz, “Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy,” Trebor Scholz (blog), December 5, 2014, https://medium.com/@trebors/platform-cooperativism-vs-the-sharing-economy-2ea737f1b5ad; Alex Wood, “Why the Digital Gig Economy Needs Co-Ops and Unions,” openDemocracy, September 15, 2016, https://www.opendemocracy.net/alex-wood/why-digital-gig-economy-needs-co-ops-and-unions; Chelsea Rustrum, “Q&A with Felix Weth of Fairmondo, the Platform Co-Op That’s Taking on eBay,” Shareable, accessed June 21, 2018, https://www.shareable.net/blog/qa-with-felix-weth-of-fairmondo-the-platform-co-op-thats-taking-on-ebay; Nithin Coca, “Nurses Join Forces with Labor Union to Launch Healthcare Platform Cooperative,” Shareable, accessed June 21, 2018, https://www.shareable.net/blog/nurses-join-forces-with-labor-union-to-launch-healthcare-platform-cooperative.


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Gigged: The End of the Job and the Future of Work by Sarah Kessler

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, financial independence, future of work, game design, gig economy, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, law of one price, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, payday loans, post-work, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

December 5, 2013. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/12/05/u-s-income-inequality-on-rise-for-decades-is-now-highest-since-1928/. 13   Friedman, Thomas. How to Monetize Your Closet. New York Times. December 21, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/22/opinion/sunday/friedman-how-to-monetize-your-closet.html; Geron, Tomio. Airbnb and the Unstoppable Rise of the Share Economy. Forbes. February 11, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2013/01/23/airbnb-and-the-unstoppable-rise-of-the-share-economy/#463a65b6790b. 14   Johnson, Justin Elof. Will You Leave Your Job to Join the Sharing Economy? VentureBeat. January 21, 2013. http://venturebeat.com/2013/01/21/will-you-leave-your-job-to-join-the-sharing-economy/. 15   Manjoo, Farhad. Uber’s Business Model Could Change Your Work. New York Times. January 28, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/29/technology/personaltech/uber-a-rising-business-model.html. 16   Retelny, Daniela, Sébastien Robaszkiewicz, Alexandra To, Walter S.

New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman, among the latter camp, held that “these entrepreneurs are not the only answer for our economic woes … but they are surely part of the answer.” A Forbes cover story in 2013 explained that the sharing economy and gig economy had created “an economic revolution that is quietly turning millions of people into part-time entrepreneurs.”13 Tech journalists and bloggers, perhaps having spent too much time immersed in the optimism of entrepreneurs, typically went for full-out hype. “Will You Leave Your Job to Join the Sharing Economy?” prompted the tech blog VentureBeat in a 2013 headline.14 The article’s author had met a Lyft driver who also worked for TaskRabbit, a website on which neighbors could hire each other to complete odd jobs. She had also posted her apartment on the peer-to-peer lodging website Airbnb.

October 23, 2017. https://work.qz.com/1106972/want-to-fix-us-corporations-put-regular-workers-on-company-boards/. 5   Cortese, Amy. A New Wrinkle in the Gig Economy: Workers Get Most of the Money. New York Times. July 20, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/21/business/smallbusiness/a-new-wrinkle-in-the-gig-economy-workers-get-most-of-the-money.html?_r=0. 6   Scholz, Trebor, and Nathan Schneider. The People’s Uber: Why the Sharing Economy Must Share Ownership. Fast Company. October 7, 2015. https://www.fastcompany.com/3051845/the-peoples-uber-why-the-sharing-economy-must-share-ownership. 7   Feeding America. Food Insecurity in the United States. http://map.feedingamerica.org/county/2015/overall/arkansas/county/desha. 8   Blanchflower, David G., and Andrew J. Oswald. What Makes an Entrepreneur? Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 16, no. 1. 1998. Pages 26–60. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1505204. 9   Carr, Michael, and Emily Wiemers.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 26/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS The Wealth Cyclone 335 Sharing The ‘sharing economy’ offers another possible model of ownership for the digital lifeworld. These days, the term is used loosely to describe most forms of ‘peer-to-peer’ online transactions conducted online. The best example is Airbnb, which allows people to rent out their vacant residential properties to strangers. Sharing, with or without strings attached, is nothing new. What’s new is the scale and extent enabled by digital technology.71 At a glance, the ethos of the sharing economy resembles that of the commons. But there are a couple of key differences. First, in a commons no one strictly owns any of the stuff held in common, while in a sharing economy individuals retain the title of their property while letting others use it. Second, in the sharing economy, people tend to pay owners for their goods and services, while this would be antithetical to the ethos of the commons.

OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 26/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 336 FUTURE POLITICS How does the sharing economy fit with our notions of social justice? Because it’s essentially just another type of market, it will always favour those with something to ‘share’ and money to spend. If, theoretically, the whole economy were a sharing economy then the poor would do pretty badly. They’d be constantly ‘asset stripping’ their own homes in order to find things to rent out.73 This would be a particular problem in the digital lifeworld, where we already expect an imbalance between asset-haves and asset-have-nots. Moreover, it increasingly looks like the people who benefit most from the sharing economy are not the participants but the platformowners themselves: Uber, Airbnb, and the like. As Jonathan Allen explains, the early wealth effects of the sharing economy are hard to calculate but any wealth created ‘will be highly concentrated in the hands of technology founders and early investors’.74 At its heart, the sharing economy doesn’t really disrupt the Private Property Paradigm.The critical issue in the long-run, I suggest, will be what is shared.

As Jonathan Allen explains, the early wealth effects of the sharing economy are hard to calculate but any wealth created ‘will be highly concentrated in the hands of technology founders and early investors’.74 At its heart, the sharing economy doesn’t really disrupt the Private Property Paradigm.The critical issue in the long-run, I suggest, will be what is shared. Sharing items of comfort, convenience, and amusement may help the asset-poor to make the most of what little they have, but it won’t make them any wealthier over time. If, by contrast, what’s shared is itself capital or productive technology then the sharing economy might just help to counteract the Wealth Cyclone. The Data Deal There are many things we could do with data. Data use could be subject to a tax. It could be held in a shared commons, free for general use or subject to constraints. It could be purchased and held by the state.


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

“I would never have foreseen this.” CHAPTER 7 ________________ A SHARED ECONOMY The fad in China’s booming sharing economy for hitching a ride has been very bumpy for bike-sharing startup Ofo, but ride-hailing leader Didi has had a good run in beating Uber. Now shared umbrellas, mobile chargers, and even takeout kitchens are here. An hour’s ride from Beijing’s Forbidden City to the high-tech zone Zhongguancun in the northwest of this sprawling megalopolis is the modern headquarters of Didi Chuxing, China’s ride-hailing service, which ranks among the most valuable venture-backed startups worldwide. You know you’ve arrived by the colorful Didi taxi sculpture parked out front. Didi is positioned in China’s sharing economy sector, the nation’s leader in the world’s largest ride-hailing market, worth $30 billion.

PART THREE Tech Sectors that Matter Most: China’s Grab for Superpower Status A look at key market sectors with strong potential to shake up leadership and overturn technology standards in the world as East and West vie for tech superpower status. Chapter 6 Face-off in AI China and the United States are racing to dominate the high-stakes AI market. China could bypass the United States with its wealth of data and quicker rollout of self-driving vehicles, facial recognition for public security, and AI technologies for fintech, edtech, and health-care startups. Chapter 7 A Shared Economy The fad in China’s booming sharing economy for hitching a ride has been very bumpy for bike-sharing startup Ofo, but ride-hailing leader Didi has had a good run in beating Uber. Now shared umbrellas, mobile chargers, and even takeout kitchens are here. Chapter 8 E-Commerce Gets Social Just when you think there’s nothing else new in e-commerce, along comes social commerce app Pinduoduo, which combines bargain shopping, games, and social sharing—and it’s very popular in China’s rural areas.

•Fintech: Alibaba affiliate Ant Financial is a one-stop financial services giant that uses big data and machine learning to dominate in money market funds, lending, insurance, mobile payments, wealth management, and blockchain services. •Social credit: China’s new, controversial social credit system judges a citizen’s trustworthiness through technological surveillance and encourages compliance by giving ratings that can determine access to loans, jobs, schools, and travel. •Sharing economy: China-invented business models for shared bikes, battery chargers, umbrellas, basketballs, and takeout kitchens have been popularized by dozens of startups. •Livestreaming: Video streaming sites from Baidu’s Netflix-like iQiyi and digital entertainment innovator YY are booming and creating online celebrities paid in virtual gifts by addicted viewers. •Virtual reality: Arcades across Chinese cities are crowded like US amusement parks and offer VR escapes for about the price of a movie ticket.


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The Upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the Killer Companies of the New Silicon Valley Are Changing the World by Brad Stone

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Boris Johnson, Burning Man, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, collaborative consumption, East Village, fixed income, Google X / Alphabet X, housing crisis, inflight wifi, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Necker cube, obamacare, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Both startups offered age-old ideas (share a vehicle, rent your home) with new twists and ended up fostering a remarkable degree of openness among people who had never previously met. In a previous decade, most of us would have stayed far away from someone’s private car or unlit home, scared by headlines about crime and by our mothers’ earnest warnings to avoid strangers. Airbnb and Uber didn’t spawn “the sharing economy,” “the on-demand economy,” or “the one-tap economy” (those labels never quite seemed to fit) so much as usher in a new trust economy, helping regular folks to negotiate transportation and accommodations in the age of ubiquitous internet access. The nearly simultaneous emergence of both companies has been striking. For most of its first year, Airbnb was a side project that many dismissed as wildly outlandish.

It was spacious, with three bedrooms, two bathrooms, a comfortable living room, and, up the main flight of stairs, a roof terrace overlooking the golden city, which was undergoing its own momentous reinvention. At the time, the two men had no way of knowing that over the next few years, this apartment would be ground zero for a worldwide social movement and global business phenomenon called the sharing economy. Surve, a native of Mumbai, India, had used the internet to rent an airbed for eighty dollars a night during the World Design Congress, a biennial conference held by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design, or ICSID. All the hotels in the city that week were either booked or too expensive for Surve, so he hadn’t expected much. But what he saw in his temporary home was promising.

With cities waking up to the problems posed by people turning their homes into ad hoc hotels, Chesky’s mettle would soon be tested further. He would have to prove to suspicious lawmakers and regulators that Airbnb’s intentions were pure and that its impact on cities was constructive. It would be his most serious challenge yet and one that Travis Kalanick, Chesky’s new friend and a peer in the proliferating movement called the sharing economy, was about to face in an even more potent form. CHAPTER 7 THE PLAYBOOK Uber’s Expansion Begins I’ve never seen an entrepreneur work as hard. He lives, eats and breathes Uber. —Shervin Pishevar, e-mail to his partners at Menlo Ventures To Travis Kalanick, Uber wasn’t merely a fecund investment opportunity or a promising startup with an auspicious set of early results. As he described it at the start of 2011 to friends and colleagues, the company was a blossoming passion—the entrepreneurial jewel that he had coveted his whole career.


pages: 285 words: 86,853

What Algorithms Want: Imagination in the Age of Computing by Ed Finn

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Claude Shannon: information theory, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, game design, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, High speed trading, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Lyft, Mother of all demos, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, software studies, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, wage slave

Little wonder that the most serious threats to these companies are not financial scandals but attacks on that trust, as when Uber was revealed to be tracking the movements of journalists, or incidents where its drivers have been arrested for sexually assaulting passengers.37 The sharing economy ultimately depends on an atomized form of intimacy, a series of fleeting, close encounters with strangers that are managed and underwritten (in emotional, financial, and liability terms) by algorithmic culture machines. While this intimacy is necessary for the sharing economy to function, it is not the primary commodity these systems are selling. The real sell is the interface itself: the experience of computationally mediated culture and its underlying algorithmic simplification and abstraction. Having a stranger you have never met arrive to clean your bathroom or sit next to you while they drive you home is intimate but also awkward.

Katherine, 21–23, 28–31, 39–40, 54, 76, 93, 191 HBO, 98 Heidegger, Martin, 53, 118 Her (film), 11, 77–85, 154, 181, 185 High frequency trading (HFT), 151–158, 168–169, 177 Hilbert, David, 23 Hindu-Arabic numerals, 17 Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, The (Adams), 123 Homeostat, 199n42 House of Cards (TV show) aesthetics of, 92, 98–112 Fincher and, 98–99, 103, 106–107 fourth wall and, 106–107 framing, 103–109 Netflix and, 11, 54, 92, 98–112 personalization and, 98–103, 109 Spacey and, 98–99, 106–107 How We Became Posthuman (Hayles), 28, 30 Human intelligence tasks (HITs), 135, 139, 141, 145 Human Use of Human Beings, The (Wiener), 27–28 IBM, 135–138 Ideology, 130, 194 algorithmic, 7, 9, 18, 20–23, 26, 33, 38, 42, 46–47, 54 artificial intelligence (AI) and, 64, 69 Bitcoin and, 161–162, 167, 169 computationalist approach and, 42 Google search and, 160 high frequency trading (HFT) and, 155 interfaces and, 130 labor and, 144 ontology and, 68 programmable culture and, 169–175 IEEE Computer Society, 6 Imagination abstraction and, 185, 189, 192, 194 algorithmic, 11, 55–56, 181–196 anticipation and, 73, 79 augmenting, 186–189 cognition and, 182, 185, 188–189, 191–193 computationalist approach and, 183–185, 192 creativity and, 46, 56 cultural, 13 culture machines and, 55, 147 desire and, 189–192 different modes of, 55 effective computability and, 46, 93, 192–193 Einstein on, 181 empathetic, 147 Enlightenment and, 184 experimental humanities and, 192–196 intelligence and, 181–183, 186 interfaces and, 189 language and, 38–39, 185, 196 machine learning and, 181–186 meaning and, 184 metaphor and, 183–184, 189 ontology and, 69, 73–74 sharing economy and, 148 software and, 186, 194 virtuous action and, 146 IMDb, 96 Implementation, 47–52 Incompleteness, 24, 40 Information theory, 10, 27 Intellectual property, 93 Intelligent assistants, 11, 57, 62, 64–65, 77. See also Siri; Star Trek computer Interface economy Airbnb and, 124 Amazon and, 124 arbitrage and, 123–131, 139–140, 145, 147 class and, 129–130 cloud warehouses and, 131–145 efficient access and, 127–128 faking sincerity and, 146–147 Google and, 124 individualism and, 126–127 intimacy and, 129 labor and, 123–145, 147 Mechanical Turk and, 135–145 moral machinery and, 144–149 Netflix and, 124 remobilization of capitalism and, 127 sharing economy and, 54, 123, 127–129, 145, 148 Uber and, 123–133, 145, 147 worker conditions and, 132–134, 139–140 work of algorithms and, 123–145 wrappers and, 129 Interface Effect, The (Galloway), 143–144 Interfaces abstraction and, 52, 54, 92, 96, 103, 108, 110–111 API, 7, 113 Bogost and, 49 clean, 8, 96, 110 community and, 52 conscious, 36 cultural processing and, 16 customized, 36 fetish and, 35 Google and, 66–67 imagination and, 189 layers of, 12, 52, 123, 126–131, 140–141, 144, 189 metaphor and, 25, 60 Ramsey and, 52 Siri and, 59–60, 63, 75, 77 Star Trek computer and, 67–68 transparency and, 189 Uber and, 54 visual abstractions and, 25 Intimacy algorithms and, 4, 11, 35, 54, 65, 74–78, 82–85, 97, 102, 107, 128–130, 172, 176, 185–189 Google and, 75–76 interface economy and, 129 meaning and, 75 Memex and, 186–189, 195 mining value and, 176–177 Samantha (Her) and, 77–85, 154, 181 iTunes, 161 Jackson, Samuel L., 59 Jenkins, Henry, 102 Johansson, Scarlett, 78 Jonze, Spike, 11, 77–79, 84–85 Journalists, 3 automatization and, 38 Bitcoin and, 12 cultural values and, 171–172 Facebook and, 116, 170, 172 gamification and, 116 Gawker Media and, 170–175, 210n35 Google and, 75 Siri and, 58 Thiel and, 170–171 transactional algorithms and, 151 “Trending Topics” widget and, 180 Uber and, 129 Kael, Pauline, 175 Kasparov, Gary, 135–138 Kindle, 195 Kirschenbaum, Matthew, 47–48 Kiva Systems, 134 Kline, Ronald, 31 KnowledgeGraph, 71–73, 75, 94 Knuth, Donald, 17–18 Kurzweil, Ray, 184 Labor, 7, 18, 46, 122 Adam Smith on, 146 affective, 145–148 arbitrage and, 97, 112, 123–145 Bitcoin and, 164, 178 capitalism and, 165 cloud warehouses and, 131–445 culture machines and, 93, 119 deep structures of, 123 faking sincerity and, 146–147 feedback systems and, 145–148 HITs and, 135, 139, 141, 145 identity and, 146–147 intellectual, 12 interface economy and, 123–145 ludic, 120 mandatory smiles and, 146 Marx on, 165 Mechanical Turk and, 135–145 pickers and, 132–134 Taylorism and, 93 worker conditions and, 8, 132–134, 139–140 Lambda calculus, 24 Langlois, Ganaele, 111 Language abstraction and, 2, 24 advertisements and, 178 algorithms and, 24–28, 33–41, 44, 51, 54–55 cognition and, 39 color words and, 4 culture machines and, 39–40 epistemological layers and, 4, 11, 148, 155, 157, 175, 177, 188 ethos of information and, 159 grammar and, 2, 16, 25, 38–41, 62–64, 110–112, 138, 178–179 imagination and, 38, 185, 196 incompleteness and, 24, 40 as intellectual technology, 4 intelligent assistants and, 11, 57, 62, 64–65, 77 machine learning and, 2, 112 many registers of, 1–2 mathematics and, 2, 55 meaning and, 1 metaphor and, 183–184 (see also Metaphor) natural language processing (NLP) and, 62–63 of new media, 112, 122 plasticity and, 38, 191 power of, 1–2, 4–5 procedural, 3–4, 6 reality and, 1 rhetoric and, 6, 16, 22, 30, 45, 89, 96, 101, 104, 110, 112, 123, 127, 136 Siri and, 57–65, 71–84 spoken, 2, 58, 60, 62–63, 67, 84, 185 symbolic, 2, 26, 38–41 tricks and, 3–4 Turing Machine and, 33, 41 universal, 5 vocabulary and, 2, 4, 25, 138, 160, 190 Wiener and, 28 Language of New Media, The (Manovich), 122 Lawsuits, 90, 171, 175 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 25–27, 72 Lem, Stanislaw, 184 Levy, Steven, 3 Lewis, Michael, 12, 151, 153, 168 Leyden, Peter, 160 Library Computer Access/Retrieval System (LCARS), 67–68 Life magazine, 31 Literacy, 5, 39, 52, 75, 109, 129, 159, 177 LiveJournal, 209n20 Loebner Prize, 87, 203n50 Logic general substitutability and, 33 Gödel and, 24, 40 halting states and, 41–46 information theory and, 10, 27 invisibly exclusionary, 110 pragmatist approach and, 18–25, 42, 58, 62 process and, 41–46 proofs and, 15, 24–25, 41, 44 rationality and, 38, 40 symbolic, 2, 21, 24, 39, 41, 44, 54–55 “Long Boom, The” (Schwartz and Leyden), 160–161 Lyft, 123, 127–130, 145, 148 Machine learning artificial intelligence (AI) and, 2, 15, 28, 42, 62, 66, 71, 85, 90, 112, 181–186, 191 big data and, 90 computationalist approach and, 183 DeepMind and, 28, 66, 181–182 Google and, 66, 181–186, 191 imagination and, 181–186 language and, 2, 112 Netflix and, 182–183 neural networks and, 28, 31, 39, 182–183, 185 Siri and, 62, 182 (see also Siri) Turing Machine and, 182 (see also Turing Machine) Macy Conferences, 30, 199n42 Madrigal, Alexis, 92, 94–95 Magic agency and, 78 artificial intelligence and, 135–136 cached content and, 159 code as, 1–5, 8, 10, 16, 49–50, 196 computation as, 4, 8, 10, 46, 52, 59–60, 94, 96, 121, 161 constructed reality and, 39 curses and, 1 data cloud and, 131, 134 fantasy and, 121, 124, 126 government currency and, 172 hacker powers as, 3, 51 incantations and, 1, 3–5, 51, 196 invisible sides of system and, 178 machines and, 137–138, 188 Memex and, 188 metaphors for, 32–36 myths and, 1–2, 10, 16 ontology and, 62–65 ratings and, 130 rational language for, 25 shamans and, 1, 3, 5 Siri and, 59–60, 62–65 sourcery and, 3, 10, 17, 21, 33–34 symbolic, 105 Manjoo, Farhad, 75 Manovich, Lev, 112, 122 Market impacts advertisements and, 34 (see also Advertisements) arbitrage and, 152, 161 attention and, 119 automobiles and, 127 Bitcoin and, 163–180 crashes and, 151 cryptocurrency and, 160–180 digital identity and, 159 digital trading and, 152 eliminating vulnerability and, 161–162 encryption and, 153, 162–163 fungible space and, 54 gaming and, 119, 121 gaming the system and, 153 Google and, 66 high frequency trading (HFT) and, 151–158, 168–169, 177 hyperinflation and, 166 international trade and, 12 invisible hand and, 33 labor and, 8 (see also Labor) Mechanical Turk and, 135–145 NASDAQ and, 152 Netflix and, 87, 97, 107–110, 114–115 NYSE and, 152 parallel computing and, 139 pension funds and, 151, 168 Siri and, 59, 75–77 stock market and, 12, 15, 154 transaction fees and, 164–165 transparency and, 160–164, 168, 171, 177–178 virtuous action and, 146 Wall Street and, 16, 66, 109, 151, 153, 171, 185 Marx, Karl, 165 Master Algorithm, The (Domingos), 183 Materiality, 26, 47–49, 53, 133 Mathematics abstract symbolism, 2, 55 algebra, 17 Babylonian, 17 Berlinski and, 9, 181 calculus, 24, 26, 30, 34, 44–45, 98, 148, 186 complexity, 28 computationalist approach and, 23, 183, 185 Conway and, 29–30 culture machines and, 49–50 Descartes and, 26, 69, 75 effective computability and, 40 “extended mind” hypothesis and, 40 Fibonacci sequence, 17 Golden Ratio, 2 Hilbert and, 23 Hindu-Arabic numerals, 17 language and, 2, 55 Leibniz and, 25–26, 72 logic, 2, 10, 24 machine duplication and, 22 materiality and, 26 Moschovakis and, 17 Nakamoto and, 161–162 Netflix Prize and, 87–91 ontology and, 84 perceived reality and, 20 Post and, 9 Pragmatic Chaos and, 90 proofs, 15, 24–25, 41, 44 pure, 47 reality and, 34 Rendell and, 30 Shannon and, 27 Strogatz and, 44, 183 theory of computation and, 18 Turing and, 6–9, 23–30, 33, 39–43, 54, 73, 79–82, 87, 138, 142, 182, 186 Mathesis universalis, 25–26, 28, 72 Matrix, The (film), 3, 36, 109 Maturana, Humberto, 28–29 McClelland, Mac, 132–133 McCloud, Scott, 110, 154–155 McCulloch-Pitts Neuron, 28, 39 Meaning acceleration of epistemological change and, 188–189 algorithms and, 35–36, 38, 44–45, 50, 54–55 belonging and, 122 black boxes and, 7, 15–16, 47–48, 51, 55, 64, 72, 92–93, 96, 136, 138, 146–147, 153, 162, 169–171, 179 Chun on, 35 Cow Clicker and, 116, 118–119 cultural exchange and, 12, 111–112 data mining and, 175 decision-making and, 20, 28, 34, 37, 90 digital culture and, 3, 7, 18, 22, 43, 49, 66, 87, 156, 160, 191, 193–194 endless hunt for, 184 imagination and, 184 (see also Imagination) intimacy and, 75 language and, 1 Mechanical Turk and, 136–140 metaphor and, 183–184 (see also Metaphor) obfuscations and, 7, 55, 64 organization of, 8 PageRank and, 169 Siri and, 65 structures of, 89, 96 value and, 155 vs. information, 9, 9–10 Mechanical Turk Google and, 12, 135–145 history of original, 136–138 meaning and, 136–140 as metaphor, 143 von Kempelen and, 135 worker conditions and, 139–140 Mechanisms (Kirschenbaum), 47–48 Memex, 186–189, 195 Memory computation and, 18, 21, 37, 43–44, 51, 56, 58, 69, 75, 159–160, 176, 185–186, 191–193 culture and, 43 human, 37, 43–44 process and, 21 technical, 51, 192 understanding and, 37 Metaphor, 121 assumption of code and, 43 cathedral of computation and, 6–8, 27, 33, 49, 51 Church-Turing thesis and, 41–42 cloud, 131 for communication, 32–36 computational, 22 cultural, 50, 54 effective computability and, 34 human cognition and, 39 imagination and, 183–184, 189 interfaces and, 25, 60 Mechanical Turk and, 143 Netflix as, 96, 104 obelisk and, 155 reality and, 10, 50 Samantha (Her) and, 84–85 Microsoft, 97, 144, 152 Miners (Bitcoin), 165, 167–168, 171–172, 175–179 Money abstraction and, 153, 159, 161, 165–167, 171–175 algorithmic trading and, 12, 20, 99, 155 arbitrage and, 151–152, 155–163, 169–171, 175–179 Bitcoin and, 160–180 as collective symbol, 165–166 ontology and, 156–159, 178–179 Moore’s Law, 43 Morowitz, Harold, 23 Moschovakis, Yiannis, 17 Moth machine (Wiener), 31–32, 34 Musk, Elon, 191 My Mother Was a Computer (Hayles), 21, 93 Myths ancient, 28 Campbell on, 94 code and, 7–8, 16, 44 cultural space and, 5 culture machine and, 55 fantasy and, 78 government currency and, 172 human-computer interaction and, 36, 51 magic and, 1–2, 10, 16 material reality and, 47 ontology and, 26 origin, 68 personalization and, 106–107 power of language and, 6, 44, 196 Sumerian, 3, 5, 16 unitary simplicity and, 49 Nakamoto, Satoshi, 161–162, 165–167 Nam-shubs, 1, 3–6, 37–40, 56, 135 Nardi, Bonnie, 121 NASDAQ, 152 Natural-Born Cyborgs (Clark), 37 Natural language processing (NLP), 62–63 Natural selection, 44 Negri, Antonio, 145 Netflix, 161 abstraction of aesthetics and, 87–112, 205n36 abundant choices and, 176 arbitrage and, 94, 97, 109–112, 124 art of personalization and, 97–103 Bogost on, 92–95 business model of, 87–88 Cinematch and, 88–90, 95 commissioned shows of, 97–98 computationalist approach and, 90, 104 consumer desire and, 93–96 disruptive technologies and, 124 effective computability and, 93 Facebook and, 91, 110 fan making and, 100–101 FCC and, 90 genre categories of, 94 ghost in the machine and, 55, 95, 183 gutter problem and, 110 Hastings and, 97–98 House of Cards and, 11, 54, 92, 98–112, 192 influence of, 87 interface economy and, 124 Leibniz and, 26 machine learning and, 182–183 market issues and, 87, 97, 107–110, 114–115 metaphor and, 96, 104 ontology and, 92, 94, 96 original content by, 97–98 parsing data and, 182 personalization and, 97–103, 109 Pragmatic Chaos and, 89–90 predictor ensemble and, 89–90 quantum mechanics and, 91–94, 96, 99, 112 recommendation algorithm competition of, 87–91 rejection of big-data approach and, 11 serendipitous glitches and, 55 Spoiler Foiler and, 101–102, 108 streaming and, 90 system behavior and, 16 taggers and, 54, 88, 92–93, 96, 99 techno-utopian rhetoric and, 16 Neural networks, 28, 31, 39, 182–183, 185 New Digital Age, The (Schmidt), 66 Newitz, Annalee, 60 Newton, Isaac, 17, 166 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 152 New York Times, 170 Nielsen ratings, 102 Note Book (Nunokawa), 53 @NSA_prismbot, 194–195 Nunokawa, Jeff, 53 Nyby, Christian I., II, 95 Of the Subcontract, Or Principles of Poetic Right (Thurston), 12, 140–145 OK Google, 51 One-way functions, 162–163 Ontology Apple and, 62–63, 65 computationalist approach and, 8 consciousness and, 178 culture machines and, 62–65, 68–69 Google and, 159–160 ideology and, 68 imagination and, 69, 73–74 of information, 8, 63, 69–71 mathematics and, 84 meaning and, 8, 21–22, 26, 39 money and, 156–159, 178–179 Netflix and, 92, 94, 96 Siri and, 62–65, 71–73, 82, 84 work of algorithms and, 122 Open source software, 6, 162, 167 ORION, 19, 47 Orwellian surveillance, 132–134 Page, Larry, 155–156 PageRank, 20, 111, 155–159, 169, 177–178, 189 Pariser, Eli, 46, 50 Parisian Great Exhibition, 80 Pasquale, Frank, 21 Pension funds, 151, 168 Perfect knowledge, 13, 65, 71, 73, 190 Perry Mason (TV series), 95–96 Phaedrus (Plato), 37 Phoenix, Joaquin, 77 Pickers, 132–134 Pitts, Walter, 28 Planned Parenthood, 64 Plato, 4, 31, 37–38, 40, 82 Popova, Maria, 175–176 Post, Emil, 9 Pragmatic Chaos (Netflix), 89–90 Pragmatist approach algorithmic, 2, 18–25, 42 effective computability and, 25–26 experimental humanities and, 193 growing power of computation and, 27 justice and, 146 models of reason and, 47 reframing humanities and, 193 Siri and, 58, 62 Privacy, 49, 62, 75, 90, 160–161, 163, 173 Private keys, 163 Programmability, 16, 178 Programmable culture, 169–175 Programmed Visions (Chun), 33 Project Loon, 66 Proofs, 15, 24–25, 41, 44 Protocol (Galloway), 50 Public keys, 163 Purdy, Jedediah, 146–147 Quantum mechanics Netflix and, 91–94, 96, 99, 112 Wiener and, 26–27 Raley, Rita, 194–195 Ramsey, Stephen, 52 Raymond, Eric, 6 Reading Machines (Ramsey), 52 Religion, 1, 7, 9, 49, 69, 71, 80, 136 Rendell, Paul, 30 Rice, Stephen P., 144–145 Rid, Thomas, 199n42 Riskin, Jessica, 136–137 Robotics, 31, 34, 43–45, 132–134, 188 Rood of Grace, 137 Rotten Tomatoes, 96 RSE encryption, 163 Samantha (Her), 77–85, 154, 181 Sample, Mark, 194–195 Sandvig, Christian, 107, 131 Sarandos, Ted, 98, 100, 104 Schmidt, Eric, 66, 73, 127 Schwartz, Peter, 160–161 Scorsese, Martin, 59 Searle, John, 4 Shannon, Claude, 27 Sharing economy, 54, 123, 127–129, 145, 148 Shoup, Donald, 127 Silicon Valley, 3, 9, 30–31, 49, 54, 87, 100, 124, 182 SimCity (game), 194 Simondon, Gilbert, 40, 42–44, 53, 59, 84, 106, 118 Singhal, Amit, 72, 76 Siri abortion scandal and, 64 abstraction and, 64–65, 82–84 anticipation and, 73–74 as beta release, 57 CALO and, 57–58, 63, 65, 67, 79, 81 cognition and, 57–65, 71–84 computationalist approach and, 65, 77 consciousness and, 57–65, 71–84 conversation and, 57–65, 71–84 DARPA and, 11, 57–58 Easter eggs in, 60, 148 effective computability and, 58, 62, 64, 72–76, 81 emotional work and, 148 Enlightenment and, 71–76, 79–80, 82 gender and, 60–61, 80 interfaces and, 59–60, 63, 75, 77 intimacy and, 11, 75–81 language and, 57–65, 71–84 launch of, 57 machine learning and, 62–65, 182 market issues and, 59, 75–77 meaning and, 65 ontology and, 62–65, 71–73, 82, 84 parsing data and, 182 performing knowledge and, 59–61 quest for knowledge and, 71–75, 82, 84 reading, 58–59 reduced abilities of, 59 speed of, 131 Skinner boxes, 61, 115–116, 119–120, 122 Smith, Adam, 12, 146–147 Smith, Kevin, 88 Sneakers (film), 3 Snow Crash (Stephenson), 1, 3–5, 9, 17, 36, 38, 50 Social behavior, 22, 146 addiction and, 114–119, 121–122 discrimination and, 21, 130 exploitationware and, 115–116 Social gaming, 114, 118, 120–122 Social media, 6 Arab Spring and, 111, 186 changing nature of, 171 digital culture and, 3, 7, 18, 22, 43, 49, 66, 87, 156, 160, 191, 193–194 Enlightenment and, 173 identity formation and, 191 in-person exchanges and, 195 intellectual connection and, 186 newsfeeds and, 116, 177–178 peer review and, 194 raising awareness and, 174 Spoiler Foiler (Netflix) and, 101–102, 108 transaction streams and, 177 Uber and, 148 Software agency and, 6 Apple and, 59, 62 apps and, 6, 8, 9, 15, 59, 83, 91, 94, 102, 113–114, 124, 128, 145, 149 blockchains and, 163–168, 171, 177, 179 cathedrals of computation and, 6–8, 27, 33, 49, 51 Chun on, 33, 42, 104 Church-Turing thesis and, 25 consciousness and, 77 dehumanizing nature of, 116 depersonification of, 6 digital materiality and, 53 experience and, 34 as foundation of computational expression, 47 imagination and, 186, 194 in-house affect and, 59 interfaces and, 124 (see also Interfaces) logic of general substitutability and, 33 Manovich and, 112 material layers and, 48 as metaphor for metaphors, 35 Metaverse, 50 networks vs. individuals and, 118 open source, 6, 162, 167 Pasquale on, 21 reality and, 10 self-modification and, 1, 38 Weizenbaum and, 33–40 Solaris (Lem), 184 Sourcery, 3, 10, 17, 21, 33–34 Space of computation, 2–5, 9, 21, 42, 45, 76, 154, 185 Spacey, Kevin, 98–99, 106–107 Spoiler Foiler (Netflix), 101–102, 108 SRI International, 57, 59, 63, 169 Srinivasan, Balaji, 169 Star Fleet Federation, 67 Star Trek computer anticipation and, 73–74 conversation and, 67 Google and, 11, 65–82, 159, 186 interfaces and, 67–68 LCARS and, 67–68 Memex and, 186–189, 195 public expectations and, 67 Star Trek: The Next Generation (TV series), 67 Stephenson, Neal, 1, 3–5, 9, 17, 36, 38, 50, 51 Stiegler, Bernard, 43–44, 53, 106 Streaming content, 49, 54, 87, 90–92, 97, 99, 101–102, 104, 205n39 Strogatz, Steven, 44, 183 Sumerian myths, 3, 5, 16 SuperPACs, 174 Symbolic logic, 2, 21, 24, 39, 41, 44, 54–55 Symposium (Plato), 82 Tacit negotiation, 20 Taggers, 54, 88, 92–93, 96, 99 Tanz, Jason, 116 TaskRabbit, 124 Taylorism, 93 Teller, Astro, 66 Terminator (film series), 191 Terrorism, 163, 178 Theory of Communicative Action, The (Habermas), 109 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 12, 146–147 Thiel, Peter, 170–171, 174 Third parties, 59, 114, 125, 132–133, 147, 162, 170–171 Thurston, Nick, 12, 140–145 Tindr, 128 Transaction fees, 164–165 Transcendent Man (Kurzweil), 184 Transparency bazaar model and, 6 cryptocurrency and, 160–164, 168, 171, 177–178 feedback and, 146 freedom and, 9 interfaces and, 189 market issues and, 160–164, 168, 171, 177–178 politics of algorithms and, 18, 20 proprietary platforms and, 9 Traveling salesman problem, 19 “Trending Topic” widget, 180 Turing, Alan, 8, 23, 42, 79–80, 182 Turing Machine, 182 Berlinski and, 9, 24 computability boundary and, 23–24 concept of, 23 effective computability and, 42 finite-time processes and, 42 game of life and, 29–31 language and, 33, 41 McCulloch-Pitts Neuron and, 28 as though experiment, 23–24 as uniting platform, 25 Turing’s Cathedral (Dyson), 6 Turing test, 43, 79–82, 87, 138, 142 Turner, Fred, 3, 46 Twain, Mark, 151 Twitter, 53, 101–102, 173, 177, 179, 194–195, 210n43 Uber, 9, 12, 97, 138 abstraction levels of, 129 African Americans and, 130 business model of, 54, 93–94, 96 feedback system of, 145–148 interface economy and, 123–133, 145, 147 massive infrastructure of, 131 threats to, 129 Ubiquitous computation algorithms and, 3–4, 15, 33, 43, 54, 119, 124–125, 127, 178, 189–190 Bitcoin and, 178 colonization of margins and, 119 gamification and, 124 imagination and, 189–190 interfaces and, 189 Uber and, 125, 127 Unit Operations (Bogost), 118 U.S.S.

Uber depends on abstracting away the complexities, regulations, and established conventions of hailing a cab, turning the hired car experience into a kind of videogame. That mode of abstraction has been so successful that an entire genre of Silicon Valley startups can now be categorized as “Uber for X,” where that X is actually a double abstraction. First, we adapt Uber’s simplifying, free-agent “sharing economy” business model to another economic arena. Then we make all such arenas fungible, a variable X that can stand for any corner of the marketplace where ubiquitous computing and algorithmic services have yet to disrupt the status quo. Like Turing’s original abstraction machine, these systems extend a symbolic logic into the cultural universe that reorders minds and meanings that come into contact with them.


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The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

McDonald's helped its low-paid full-time workers to make a personal budget that assumed they worked a second job to make ends meet. Such a depressed labor market is essential to the sharing economy. Now paid less, forced to work part-time or be unemployed, individuals participate in the sharing economy to cover income shortfalls. Individuals renting out their houses, cars, or labor make a fraction of what they would receive in traditional full-time jobs, without any employment benefits. In the sharing economy it is “possible for a cash-flush tech start-up to have homeless workers.”10 Having ridden the globalization wave with The World Is Flat, New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman now endorses the sharing economy, celebrating new micro-entrepreneurs. It isn't entrepreneurship. Former US Labor secretary Robert Reich termed it the “share-the-scraps” economy.

When they came for me, there was no one left to speak out.” 7 Technology and innovation are touted as sources of future employment. The sharing economy (also known as the peer economy, collaborative economy, and gig economy) is based on the ubiquitous Internet, improved broadband connectivity, smartphones, and apps. Individuals with spare time, houses, rooms, cars, and the like can use them as sources of work and income. The economy that benefits everyone focuses on transport (Uber, Lyft, Sidecar, GetTaxi, Hailo), short-term accommodation (Airbnb, HomeAway), small tasks (TaskRabbit, Fiverr), grocery-shopping services (Instacart), home-cooked meals (Feastly), on-demand delivery services (Postmates, Favor), pet transport (DogVacay, Rover), car rental (RelayRides, Getaround), boat rental (Boatbound), and tool rental (Zilok). Its cheerleaders frame the sharing economy in lofty utopian terms: it's not business, but a social movement, transforming relationships between people in a new form of Internet intimacy.

One reporter joked: “who would want to stop a man with twelve apartments from making ends meet?”9 Peer-to-peer brokers reduce costs, decreasing the income of service providers. The sharing economy requires abundant cheap contract laborers to be available at the touch of a smartphone screen. Full-time employees with normal benefits would make the model unworkable. Comparisons to Wikipedia and open-source software are misleading. In those cases, the individuals are employed elsewhere. They contribute their services free for the joy of participation and contribution, as well as recognition as a member of a community. The sharing economy exploits low-wage workers in a weak economic environment. Despite improving economic statistics, the deterioration in real living conditions is evident. In 2013, US retailer Walmart hosted a Thanksgiving food drive for its workers.


pages: 290 words: 72,046

5 Day Weekend: Freedom to Make Your Life and Work Rich With Purpose by Nik Halik, Garrett B. Gunderson

Airbnb, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, business process, clean water, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, Ethereum, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial independence, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Home mortgage interest deduction, Isaac Newton, litecoin, Lyft, market fundamentalism, microcredit, minimum viable product, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Nelson Mandela, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, side project, Skype, TaskRabbit, traveling salesman, uber lyft

Essentially, you are creating and selling pre-built brands and assets to business owners. The Sharing Economy Also referred to as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy is based on people sharing their access to goods and services, and coordinating this sharing via community-based online services. In this new model, people rent beds, cars, boats, and other assets directly from each other instead of owning things themselves or purchasing them from traditional retailers and service companies. Just as Amazon allows anyone to become a retailer, sharing services lets people act as a taxi service or hotel. At the time of this writing, the consumer peer-to-peer rental market is valued at $26 billion.10 Harvard Business Review argues that the term “sharing economy” is a misnomer and that a more accurate term for it is “access economy.”11 We won’t split hairs.

Consult with a specialist first before setting up your policy. Barry Dyke. The Pirates of Manhattan (Orlando, Fl. International Drive, 2007). http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2014/12/where-to-start.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiverr http://www.go-globe.com/blog/mobile-apps-usage/ http://fortune.com/2015/07/29/video-game-coach-salary/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharing_economy https://hbr.org/2015/01/the-sharing-economy-isnt-about-sharing-at-all Cecilia Kang, “Podcasts Are Back — and Making Money,” Washington Post, September 25, 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/podcasts-are-back--and-making-money/2014/09/25/54abc628-39c9-11e4-9c9f-ebb47272e40e_story.html?utm_term=.3bc42ee6f691 http://www.edisonresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/The-Podcast-Consumer-2016.pdf http://www.globalwellnessinstitute.org/global-wellness-institute-study-34-trillion-global-wellness-market-is-now-three-times-larger-than-worldwide-pharmaceutical-industry/ http://www.statista.com/topics/962/global-tourism/ Richard Paul Evans, The Five Lessons a Millionaire Taught Me About Life and Wealth (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006).

Maximize Your Production Call to Action Your Debt Free Plan PART III: INCOME GROWTH MAKE MORE MONEY 11 INCREASE YOUR ACTIVE INCOME • Start, Experiment, and Learn • Start as Small as Possible • Continuous Improvement 12 IT DOESN’T TAKE MONEY • Three Types of Capital: Garrett’s Value Equation • Leverage and Maximize Your Current Assets • Be Resourceful 13 EXPLORING ENTREPRENEURIAL IDEAS • Personal Services • E-Commerce • Fix and Flip • Domain Trading • The Sharing Economy • Online Opportunities • Direct Sales/Network Marketing 14 ANALYZE INCOME OPPORTUNITIES • Income Opportunity Score Sheet 15 BEFORE YOU QUIT YOUR JOB • Milestones to Accomplish • The Mindset to Cultivate • A Bridge Out Call to Action Your Entrepreneurial Income Plan PART IV: WEALTH CREATION GROW MORE MONEY 16 BUILD PASSIVE CASH FLOW • Three Levels of Entrepreneurs • Transitioning from Solopreneur to Entrepreneur • From $5,000 to $2.3 Million in 27 Months • From Golden Handcuffs to Freedom • What If Your Business Can’t Be Scaled 17 REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW • Cash Flow Is King • Building Your Real Estate Cash Flow Machine • Buying Your First Property • Fix-up Costs Before Renting • Overcoming the Down Payment Hurdle • Real People Building Real Estate Wealth • Tips from 27 Years of Real Estate Investing • You Can Do This!


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The Corruption of Capitalism: Why Rentiers Thrive and Work Does Not Pay by Guy Standing

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, first-past-the-post, future of work, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, information retrieval, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mini-job, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Neil Kinnock, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, nudge unit, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, openstreetmap, patent troll, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, quantitative easing, remote working, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, structural adjustment programs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

To reinforce the point, in the USA one of the founders of CrowdFlower indiscreetly revealed that ‘the firm sometimes paid workers $2 to $3 an hour, rather than the federal minimum wage of $7.25, or paid workers in points for various online reward programs and videogame credits.’38 It will be hard to prevent that sort of outcome. THE REAL SHARING ECONOMY Describing rentier platforms as the sharing economy is misleading and mischievous, allowing platforms to claim they are merely facilitating neighbourly sharing rather than providing a commercial service. One genuine sharing online community is Couchsurfing, which enables travellers to find a bed for a night offered for free by other members of the community. But Couchsurfing has been marginalised by the big commercial ventures, notably Airbnb. Rentier platforms are also feeding off the erosion of the social commons and commodifying some of its traditional forms. For instance, by offering cheap taxi rides they may reduce the numbers using subsidised public transport and accelerate the loss of public bus services. The real sharing economy is exciting some analysts.

Brokers should also provide insurance cover, including accident insurance, for taskers while on jobs contracted through their platforms. If this is a ‘sharing economy’, as its advocates claim, costs as well as benefits should be shared. As an emerging ‘profession’, labour brokers should be registered and required to join an association that develops ethical codes and monitors their conduct. In the UK, work has started on a consumer trust mark for online platforms, including labour brokers, intended to promote good practice for handling consumer complaints. Minimum requirements will be set by the Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship at Oxford University’s Said Business School, working in collaboration with Sharing Economy UK. This trade body, created in March 2015 by twenty-eight online businesses, includes Airbnb, car-hire service Zipcar and cleaner-booking platform Hassle.com.

A new breed of online lender, expanding rapidly in the USA with names like ZestFinance and LendUp, provides short-term small loans with annual interest rates of up to 390 per cent per annum. Some do not charge interest but levy a flat fee. A feature of all these companies is that they require full access to their clients’ bank accounts and other personal data, which they use to determine whether to provide loans, what interest rate to charge and for how long to lend. THE PLATFORM DEBT MACHINE The misnamed ‘sharing economy’ is also fostering indebtedness. App-based taxi services, such as Uber and Lyft, have tie-ups with lenders that enable drivers to buy vehicles on credit. Big car companies are becoming involved. In January 2016, General Motors announced a deal with Lyft, under which it would supply rental vehicles to Lyft drivers. In 2015, Ford introduced a pilot scheme in London and six US cities allowing customers buying cars on credit to rent them out through peer-to-peer car rental platform companies.


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Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

With Airbnb, runners will have more choices for more convenient places to stay than ever before, and many people in Boston will have some extra income. Airbnb is one of the leaders in what’s known as the “sharing economy.” That’s one of the most popular business buzzwords of 2015. A Google search of that phrase yields more than 30 million hits. According to Google trends, there weren’t any news headlines with “sharing economy” in them before February 2010. There were a hundred in November 2015, more than twice as many as in September 2014. What’s novel and what isn’t here though? Airbnb and other companies that are part of the “sharing economy” are multisided platforms. What they have in common is that they are matching up people who have spare capacity—an extra room, a car, or a lawnmower, for example—with people who would benefit from that spare capacity.

In these final pages, we will try to give you some perspective on the excitement surrounding new matchmakers. Our five messages might sound contradictory, but they aren’t. Trust us. 1. Matchmakers have been around for millennia. Some of them were even part of the sharing economy of years past. 2. A lot of what the new market darlings do is old stuff. They just use technology to improve on things that other matchmakers have done for many years. 3. What is pioneering is that modern information and communications technologies have turbocharged the multisided platform business model. 4. The history of matchmakers suggests that today’s sharing-economy matchmakers won’t be the last to make waves. 5. Turbocharged matchmakers will transform industries. That will happen gradually over the space of decades, but in fast spurts, as innovative new matchmakers rapidly emerge and displace incumbents.

That’s why turbocharged matchmakers are behind the gales of creative destruction that are transforming industries worldwide. The End of History (?) Could this, then, be the golden age of matchmakers? It is remarkable that in the space of only about five years, companies like Airbnb and Uber have become global players in lodging and transportation. Similar sharing-economy matchmakers are popping up all over. With the turbocharged sharing economy, have matchmakers achieved their final destiny? Several millennia of experience strongly suggest otherwise. We expect that better, or at least different, matchmakers will come along and have their turn at disruption. With all due respect to the brilliant entrepreneurs behind today’s unicorns and yesterday’s huge IPOs, the telegraph was a far more important multisided platform in terms of its impact on the global economy than anything the Internet has yet spawned.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

The Metering Economy Perhaps blockchain technology can take us beyond the sharing economy into a metering economy where we can rent out and meter the use of our excess capacity. One problem with the actual sharing economy, where, for example, home owners agree to share power tools or small farming equipment, fishing gear, a woodworking shop, garage or parking, and more, was that it was just too much of a hassle. “There are 80 million power drills in America that are used an average of 13 minutes,” Airbnb CEO Brian Chesky wrote in The New York Times. “Does everyone really need their own drill?”32 The trouble is, most people found it easier and more cost-effective to make one trip to Home Depot and buy a drill for $14.95 than rent it for $10 from someone a mile away, making two trips. Wrote Sarah Kessler in Fast Company magazine: “The Sharing Economy is dead and we killed it.”33 But with blockchains we can rent our excess capacity for certain commodities that are pretty much zero hassle—Wi-Fi hot spots, computing power or storage capacity, the heat generated by our computers, our extra mobile minutes, even our expertise—without lifting a finger, let alone schlepping to and from some stranger’s house across the city.

_r=0. 26. http://techcrunch.com/2014/05/09/monegraph/. 27. www.verisart.com/. 28. http://techcrunch.com/2015/07/07/verisart-plans-to-use-the-blockchain-to-verify-the-authencity-of-artworks/. 29. Interview with Yochai Benkler, August 26, 2015. 30. Interview with David Ticoll, August 7, 2015. 31. Interview with Yochai Benkler, August 26, 2015. 32. www.nytimes.com/2013/07/21/opinion/sunday/friedman-welcome-to-the-sharing-economy.html?pagewanted=1&_r=2&partner=rss&emc=rss&. 33. Sarah Kessler, “The Sharing Economy Is Dead and We Killed It,” Fast Company, September 14, 2015; www.fastcompany.com/3050775/the-sharing-economy-is-dead-and-we-killed-it#1. 34. “Prosumers” is a term invented by Alvin Toffler in Future Shock (1980). In The Digital Economy (1994) Don Tapscott developed the concept and notion of “prosumption.” 35. Interview with Robin Chase, September 2, 2015. 36. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?

Perhaps even a world where we own our data and can protect our privacy and personal security. An open world where everyone can contribute to our technology infrastructure, rather than a world of walled gardens where big companies offer proprietary apps. A world where billions of excluded people can now participate in the global economy and share in its largesse. Here’s a preview. Creating a True Peer-to-Peer Sharing Economy Pundits often refer to Airbnb, Uber, Lyft, TaskRabbit, and others as platforms for the “sharing economy.” It’s a nice notion—that peers create and share in value. But these businesses have little to do with sharing. In fact, they are successful precisely because they do not share—they aggregate. It is an aggregating economy. Uber is a $65 billion corporation that aggregates driving services. Airbnb, the $25 billion Silicon Valley darling, aggregates vacant rooms.


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The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

These have reduced the transaction costs and friction in the system to a point where it is an economic gain for all involved, divided in much finer increments. Well-known examples of the sharing economy exist in the transportation sector. Zipcar provides one method for people to share use of a vehicle for shorter periods of time and more reasonably than traditional rental car companies. RelayRides provides a platform to locate and borrow someone’s personal vehicle for a period of time. Uber and Lyft provide much more efficient “taxi-like” services from individuals, but aggregated through a service, enabled by location services and accessed through mobile apps. In addition, they are available at a moment’s notice. The sharing economy has any number of ingredients, characteristics or descriptors: technology enabled, preference for access over ownership, peer to peer, sharing of personal assets (versus corporate assets), ease of access, increased social interaction, collaborative consumption and openly shared user feedback (resulting in increased trust).

Vision as the New Interface 4. Wearable Internet 5. Ubiquitous Computing 6. A Supercomputer in Your Pocket 7. Storage for All 8. The Internet of and for Things 9. The Connected Home 10. Smart Cities 11. Big Data for Decisions 12. Driverless Cars 13. Artificial Intelligence and Decision-Making 14. AI and White-Collar Jobs 15. Robotics and Services 16. Bitcoin and the Blockchain 17. The Sharing Economy 18. Governments and the Blockchain 19. 3D Printing and Manufacturing 20. 3D Printing and Human Health 21. 3D Printing and Consumer Products 22. Designer Beings 23. Neurotechnologies Notes Introduction Of the many diverse and fascinating challenges we face today, the most intense and important is how to understand and shape the new technology revolution, which entails nothing less than a transformation of humankind.

If, at the moment, blockchain technology records financial transactions made with digital currencies such as Bitcoin, it will in the future serve as a registrar for things as different as birth and death certificates, titles of ownership, marriage licenses, educational degrees, insurance claims, medical procedures and votes – essentially any kind of transaction that can be expressed in code. Some countries or institutions are already investigating the blockchain’s potential. The government of Honduras, for example, is using the technology to handle land titles while the Isle of Man is testing its use in company registration. On a broader scale, technology-enabled platforms make possible what is now called the on-demand economy (referred to by some as the sharing economy). These platforms, which are easy to use on a smart phone, convene people, assets and data, creating entirely new ways of consuming goods and services. They lower barriers for businesses and individuals to create wealth, altering personal and professional environments. The Uber model epitomizes the disruptive power of these technology platforms. These platform businesses are rapidly multiplying to offer new services ranging from laundry to shopping, from chores to parking, from home-stays to sharing long-distance rides.


Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler

Airbnb, Airbus A320, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar

Baidu intends to launch driverless electric vehicles on the market in about five years, whereby the production will be outsourced to a Chinese car manufacturer. Baidu has also announced a driverless bus for the year 2018. This page intentionally left blank CHAPTER 32 THE SHARING ECONOMY TREND From a financial perspective, the cars of private users and also of many commercial users can be described as underused assets. As already explained, most privately owned cars are not even used for an hour each day. Another point is that there is only one person in most cars on many journeys, which means that the standard capacity of five seats is also underused. This is where the sharing economy comes into play as a hybrid market model in between owning and gift giving. Sharing offers the possibility to make better use of underused assets (cars) by making them accessible to a community, which in turn leads to a reduced need for ownership of those assets [132, 90, 79].

New Types, New Segments 225 Contents vii PART 6 FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS FOR AUTONOMOUS DRIVING 23. Protection and Liability 233 24. Norms and Standards 241 25. Ethics and Morals 249 PART 7 IMPACT ON VEHICLES 26. The Vehicle as an Ecosystem 261 27. Vehicle Design 265 28. Human Machine Interaction 277 29. Time, Cost and Safety 295 PART 8 IMPACT ON COMPANIES 30. Business Models 311 31. Value Chains 327 32. The Sharing Economy 341 33. The Insurance Industry 353 Contents viii PART 9 IMPACT ON SOCIETY 34. Work and Welfare 363 35. Competitiveness 367 36. Emerging Societies 377 37. Urban Development 381 PART 10 WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE? 38. Agenda for the Auto Industry 395 39. Ten-Point Plan for Governments 401 Epilogue: Brave New World 409 Bibliography 413 Index 427 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This book could never have been written without the inspiring and instructive discussions we had with some special people.

Nonetheless, this generation doesn’t want to forego pleasure, so those who cannot afford, or want, to buy everything tend to swap products instead. In view of the useful lives of objects, the changed mindset initiated by Generation Y seems to make sense [4]. For example, a power drill is typically used for only 11 minutes a year, and lawn mowers are used only for a few hours every summer in many parts of the world. In a sharing economy, payment is still made using money or at least digital money but mutual trust may well turn out to be a kind of new currency. As previously explained, companies or persons could operate entire fleets of self-driving cars, primarily in urban areas. Customers would order such a car via an app, use it for a certain journey and pay a price related to the distance covered or time taken, or an agreed flat rate.


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Value of Everything: An Antidote to Chaos The by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cleantech, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, European colonialism, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, Google Hangouts, Growth in a Time of Debt, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interest rate derivative, Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, rent control, rent-seeking, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software patent, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Patents themselves should not be seen as ‘rights' (IPR), but rather as a tool with which to incentivize innovation in the sectors where they are relevant - but in such a way that the public sector also gets its return; drug prices could become ‘fairer', reflecting the collective contribution of different actors and making a healthcare system sustainable. The sharing economy would not be based on the ability of a few companies to use public infrastructure for free and the dynamics of network economies to monopolize a market. A true sharing economy must by definition respect the hard-won gains of all workers, irrespective of race, gender or ability. The eight-hour day, the weekend and holiday and sick pay fought for by workers' movements and trade unions were no less important economic innovations than antibiotics, the microchip and the Internet. In an era in which profits are being hoarded at record levels, it's important to understand what led to the agreements whereby business reinvested profits instead of hoarding them.

Common attribution is to Andrew Lewis, as blue_beetle on MetaFilter 2010, ‘If you're not paying for it, you're not the customer; you're the product being sold': http://www.metafilter.com/95152/Userdriven-discontent#3256046 65. M. J. Sandel, What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets (London and New York: Allen Lane and Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013). 66. Evgeny Morozov, ‘Don't believe the hype, the “sharing economy” masks a failing economy', the Guardian, 28 September 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/28/sharing-economy-internet-hype-benefits-overstated-evgeny-morozov; Evgeny Morozov, ‘Cheap cab ride? You must have missed Uber's true cost', the Guardian, 31 January 2016: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jan/31/cheap-cab- ride-uber-true-cost-google-wealth-taxation 67. Evgeny Morozov, ‘Where Uber and Amazon rule: welcome to the world of the platform', the Guardian, 7 June 2015: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jun/07/facebook-uber-amazon-platform-economy 68. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-02-28/in-video-uber-ceo-argues-with-driver-over-falling-fares 69. http://fortune.com/2016/10/20/uber-app-riders/ 70.

., More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature's Economics (Cambridge: University Press, 1989). Mirowski, P., ‘Learning the meaning of a dollar: Conservation principles and the social theory of value in economic theory', Social Research 57(3) (1990), pp. 689-718. Mishan, E. J., The Costs of Economic Growth (New York: Praeger, 1967). Morozov, E., ‘Don't believe the hype, the “sharing economy” masks a failing economy', the Guardian, 28 September 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/28/sharing- economy-internet-hype-benefits-overstated-evgeny-morozov Morozov, E., ‘Silicon Valley likes to promise “digital socialism” - but it is selling a fairy tale', the Guardian, 28 February 2015. Morozov, E., ‘Where Uber and Amazon rule: Welcome to the world of the platform', the Guardian, 6 June 2015. Morozov, E., ‘Cheap cab ride? You must have missed Uber's true cost', the Guardian, 31 January 2016: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jan/31/cheap-cab- ride-uber-true-cost-google-wealth-taxation Morozov, E., ‘Data populists must seize our information - for the benefit of us all', the Guardian, 4 December 2016: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/dec/04/data- populists-must-seize-information-for-benefit-of-all-evgeny-morozov Moulton, B.


Bit by Bit: How P2P Is Freeing the World by Jeffrey Tucker

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, altcoin, bank run, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, informal economy, invisible hand, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, obamacare, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, TaskRabbit, the payments system, uber lyft

The New York Times has praised this publication as “an improbable hit, buoyed by the radical stirrings of the Occupy movement.” In short, this publication is something of a harbinger of anti-market opinion. And given its popularity, it seems to speak for a sector of opinion that is intractably opposed to all forms of market action. So what does this publication say about the sharing economy? “Uber is part of a new wave of corporations that make up what’s called the ‘sharing economy,’” writes Avi Asher-Schapiro in the strangely titled article “Against Sharing.” “The premise is seductive in its simplicity: people have skills, and customers want services. Silicon Valley plays matchmaker, churning out apps that pair workers with work. Now, anyone can rent out an apartment with Airbnb, become a cabbie through Uber, or clean houses using Homejoy.”

How far they have fallen since the New Deal, when the left made its peace with the regimented corporate state. So far, the writer is just engaged in the usual agitprop. But he does introduce one very interesting argument. “At its core,” he writes, “the sharing economy is a scheme to shift risk from companies to workers.” Here is a remarkable claim. At last, a socialist has found a reason for a corporation to exist: to bear the speculative risk of investing in an uncertain future. Why any corporation would exist at all if it could not also gain some reward and therefore survive economically is the great unanswered question. All businesses form for a reason; it is not to bear all risk and then die. It’s true that under the sharing economy, workers own the enterprise themselves. Rather than depending on the “the man” to decide wages independent of productivity, the workers make money as a direct result of the services they provide. 13 So yes, of course, with worker ownership comes the bearing of risk.

Ten years ago, there was an emerging hysteria about how “quants” — super-smart number crunchers with private knowledge — were ruling the financial space, rigging the game and grabbing all available profits for themselves. Today, the same and better knowledge is being democratized with such services as Kensho, which is bringing quant-style power to every investor and institution, essentially running a Google-style search feature for investments, giving the information it gets based on real-time experience. These are the technologies of the peer-to-peer or sharing economy. You can be a producer, a consumer, or both. It’s a different model—one characterized by the word “equipotency,” 6 meaning that the power to buy and sell is widely distributed throughout the population. It’s made possible through technology. The emergence of the app economy—an emergent order not created by government or legislation—has enabled these developments, and they are changing the world.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

As with the Web, Andreessen says, the more people who use the new currency, “the more valuable Bitcoin is for the people who use it.”107 “A mysterious new technology emerges, seemingly out of nowhere, but actually the result of two decades of intense research and development by nearly anonymous researchers,” writes Andreessen, predicting the historical significance of this networked currency. “What technology am I talking about? Personal computers in 1975, the Internet in 1993, and—I believe—Bitcoin in 2014.”108 What Silicon Valley euphemistically calls the “sharing economy” is a preview of this distributed capitalism system powered by the network effect of positive feedback loops. Investors like Andreessen see the Internet—a supposedly hyperefficient, “frictionless” platform for buyers and sellers—as an upgrade to the structural inefficiencies of the top-down twentieth-century economy. Along with peer-to-peer currencies like Bitcoin, the new distributed model offers crowdfunding networks like the John Doerr investment Indiegogo, which enable anyone to raise money for an idea.

Fanning and Parker took Chris Anderson’s advice about the radical value of “free” to its most ridiculous conclusion. Not merely content to give their own stuff away for nothing, Napster gave away everybody else’s as well. Along with other peer-to-peer networks like Travis Kalanick’s Scour and later pirate businesses such as Megaupload, Rapidshare, and Pirate Bay, Napster created a networked kleptocracy, masquerading as the “sharing economy,” in which the only real abundance was the ubiquitous availability of online stolen content, particularly recorded music. Over the last fifteen years, online piracy has become an epidemic. In a 2011 report sponsored by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, it was estimated that piracy sites attracted 53 billion visits each year.6 In January 2013 alone, the analyst firm NetNames estimated that 432 million unique Web users actively searched for content that infringes copyright.7 A 2010 Nielsen report estimated that 25% of all European Internet users visit pirate sites each month,8 while a 2012 study funded by the United Kingdom’s Intellectual Property Office found that 1 in 6 of all British Web users regularly accessed illegally streamed or downloaded content.9 Such “abundance” has had a particularly catastrophic economic impact on the music industry.

As Robert Levine, Billboard’s former executive editor and author of the meticulously researched 2011 book Free Ride, argues, “The real conflict online is between the media companies that fund much of the entertainment we read, see and hear and the technology firms that want to distribute their content—legally or otherwise.”21 And it’s this struggle between an entertainment industry that, to survive, needs to be paid for its expensive content and an Internet built around the utopian idea that “information wants to be free,” Levine argues, that is “breaking” the Internet.22 Many of today’s multibillion-dollar Internet companies are complicit in the piracy epidemic. “Free” social networks like Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram, for example, have spurred the growth of the distribution of unlicensed content. What is left of the photography industry is particularly vulnerable to this kind of “sharing” economy. Because much of the content on these social networks isn’t accessible to the general public and instead is shared only between individuals, photographers find it nearly impossible to stop this form of unlicensed content use or even to accurately measure the extent of the illegal activity. As the American Society of Media Photographers notes, this problem has been compounded because networks like Instagram, Tumblr, and Facebook make very little effort to warn their members against the illegal sharing of images.23 Then there’s the Google problem.


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Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Jobs then forwarded Schmidt’s email around with this comment appended: “:)”19 Amazon, meanwhile, is famous for devising ways to goad its executives into fighting with one another—engaging in what the New York Times calls an “experiment in how far it can push white-collar workers”—while its blue-collar workers, often recruited through local temp agencies, are electronically tracked so that their efficiency is maximized as they go about assembling items in the company’s enormous fulfillment centers.20 For the rest of us, Amazon has come up with a nifty device for casual employment called “the Mechanical Turk,” in which tasks that can’t be done by computers are tossed to the reserve army of the millions, who receive pennies for their trouble. This last is a good introduction to the so-called sharing economy—“sharing” because you’re using your own car or apartment or computer, not your employer’s—which has been one of the few robustly growing employment opportunities of the Obama years. The magic derives from the way just about anyone can sign up at one of these sharing companies and work as a sort of temp, only hooked up with the client and employer via software, which makes it all digital and innovative and convenient. In nearly every other way, however, the sharing economy is one of the most lopsided, antiworker employment schemes to come down the pike in many years. The costs and risks associated with this industry—insurance, owning a car, saving for sickness and retirement—are all loaded onto the shoulders of the worker, and yet the innovator back in California who has written the software still helps himself to a large cut of whatever the proceeds of your labor happen to be.

As a student leader in the Sixties, she opposed the Vietnam War; as a senator in the Bush years, she voted for the Iraq War; as a presidential candidate, she has now returned to her roots and acknowledges that vote was wrong. On the increasingly fraught matter of the sharing economy—the battle of Silicon Valley and Uber versus the workers of the world—Hillary actually tried to have it both ways in the same speech in July 2015. She first said she approved of how these new developments were “unleashing innovation,” but also allowed that she worried about the “hard questions” they raised. That was tepid, but it was not tepid enough. Republicans pounced; they harbored no reservations at all about innovation, they said. Hillary’s chief technology officer was forced to double down on her employer’s wishy-wash: “Sharing economy firms are disrupting traditional industries for the better across the globe,” she wrote, but workers still needed to be protected.

Schmidt) Humphrey, Hubert Iacocca, Lee Illich, Ivan India Indiana IndyMac Bank inequality acceleration of Bill Clinton and Decatur and Democrats and education and Hillary Clinton and innovation and Massachusetts and Obama and professional class and Rhode Island and sharing economy and technocracy and infrastructure innovation Massachusetts and rules circumvented by Intel International Math Olympiad International Women’s Day International Year of Microcredit Internet. See also Silicon Valley; technocracy In the Shadow of FDR (Leuchtenburg) investment banks Iran Iraq War Isaacson, Walter It Takes a Village (H. Clinton) Jackson, Jesse Jackson, Robert Jefferson, Thomas Jobs, Steve jobs. See also unemployment NAFTA and sharing economy and training and Johnson, Dirk Jones, Jesse Jordan, Vernon JPMorgan Judis, John Justice Department Kahn, Alfred Kalanick, Travis Kamarck, Elaine Kennedy, Robert F.


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The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth by Jeremy Rifkin

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, failed state, ghettoisation, hydrogen economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, megacity, Network effects, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, renewable energy credits, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Millions of individuals are constructing the knowledge of the world and sharing it on Wikipedia, a nonprofit website that is the fifth-most-trafficked website, all for free.2 The sharing of a range of virtual and physical goods is the cornerstone of an emerging circular economy, allowing the human race to use far less of the resources of the Earth while passing on what they no longer use to others and, by doing so, dramatically reducing carbon emissions. The Sharing Economy is a core feature of the Green New Deal era. The Sharing Economy is now in its infancy and is going to evolve in many directions. But this much is assured: The Sharing Economy is a new economic phenomenon made possible by the digital infrastructure of communication, energy, and mobility that is changing economic life. To this extent, the Sharing Economy is the first new economic system to enter onto the world stage since capitalism and socialism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Already, a younger generation of digital natives—under the age of forty—are ensconced in this new hybrid economic system.

In provider/user networks, industries and sectors are replaced by “specialized competencies” that come together on platforms to manage the uninterrupted flow of goods and services in smart networks, returning sufficient profit, even at low margins, by the 24/7 continuous traffic across the system. Margins for some goods and services, however, shrink so low “toward zero” that profits are no longer viable even in capitalist networks because the goods and services produced and distributed are nearly free. This is already occurring and giving rise to a new phenomenon—the Sharing Economy. At any given time of the day, hundreds of millions of people around the world are producing and sharing their own music, YouTube videos, social media, and research. Some are taking massive open online courses (MOOCs), taught by professors at the best universities, and often receiving college credit, for free. All one needs is a smartphone, a service provider, and an electrical outlet to power up.

The goal is to work with a full range of transportation partners to develop seamless mobility services that can partner Ford’s autonomous self-driving electric vehicles with public transportation, bike-sharing and scooter-sharing services, and pedestrian walkways to ferry passengers and goods effortlessly, passing them off between the various modes of transportation to final destinations, with the objective of reducing congestion and carbon emissions.8 I joined Mark Fields, then CEO of Ford, in January 2017 on the opening day of the North American Auto Show in Detroit to introduce the new business model. Ford went on to sponsor the premiere of the film that our office coproduced with Vice Media, The Third Industrial Revolution: A Radical New Sharing Economy, at the Tribeca Film Festival and sponsored subsequent premieres of the film in Miami, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. The erection of the autonomous Mobility and Logistics Internet transforms the very way we view passenger mobility. Today’s youth are using mobile communication technology and GPS guidance on an incipient Mobility and Logistics Internet to connect with willing drivers in car-sharing services.


pages: 374 words: 97,288

The End of Ownership: Personal Property in the Digital Economy by Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz

3D printing, Airbnb, anti-communist, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, George Akerlof, Hush-A-Phone, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, peer-to-peer, price discrimination, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, software as a service, software patent, software studies, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, transaction costs, winner-take-all economy

Likewise, digital media and devices hobbled by license restrictions and DRM are already facts of life. Although important in their own right, these are all examples of a much broader and deeper cultural shift away from ownership. We see evidence of this transformation in the emergence of the so-called “sharing economy.” For those unfamiliar with the term, it refers broadly to services and business models that enable individuals and organizations to share, rent, and reuse resources, often enabled by technology. If you’ve ever gotten a ride in an Uber or spent the night in an Airbnb rental, you’ve taken part in the sharing economy. The range of goods and services in the sharing economy is staggering. In addition to rides and apartments, there are platforms for renting parking spots, bicycles, private planes, and clothes. Other platforms help neighbors share tools and household goods. LeftoverSwap and EatWith even apply the sharing model to meals.

That’s not to say we should do away with new models of allocating and sharing resources, or that we should favor incumbents at all costs. But we need to be fully aware of the bargains we are striking. There are losers in the sharing economy, and they aren’t just legacy taxi companies and expensive hotels. The savings Airbnb users realize and the company’s profits are in part the result of externalities—costs that Airbnb and its users aren’t bearing. In cities big and small, there is evidence that Airbnb contributes to rent increases for residents.2 As more housing units are devoted to the sharing economy, fewer are available for locals to rent. Long-term renters have even been evicted to make room for vacationers.3 The unseen costs of the sharing economy are also borne by the increasing number of workers classified as independent contractors. By insisting on that classification for its drivers, Uber—currently valued at over $50 billion—avoids paying the minimum wage, payroll taxes, health insurance, unemployment benefits, and workers compensation for the vast majority of its workers.4 That cost shifting isn’t apparent to Uber users.

And that sort of sharing, of course, is premised on individual ownership. You usually can’t lend something that you don’t own. But many of the services lumped together under the “sharing economy” moniker are premised on short-term, for-profit rentals. Most are built around the exchange of money for temporary access. Some services rely on a distributed network of individual owners connecting to end users through a technology platform. Others depend on a single provider that coordinates the needs of lots of users. The rapid growth of some of these efforts has attracted lots of attention. But we rented cars, stayed in hotels, and endured rented bowling shoes long before the first iPhone app. So what is it—if anything—that makes the sharing economy “disruptive”? For one, we see nonownership models moving from out-of-the-ordinary circumstances, like renting a car on vacation, to the everyday convenience, like ride sharing on your commute to work.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

We expect that corporations will become more willing and adept at spotting talented independent producers, and creating a personalized relationship with them that could range from full-time employment, to part-time work, right up to buying their IP or the business itself. Travelling light The major investment of the explorer and independent producer stage is in intangible assets – particularly transformational assets. So during these periods, financing is always going to be tricky. That is why developments in the technologies of the sharing economy are so interesting.19 The sharing economy is a great way of enabling people to remain asset-light or to bring income in to finance their asset accumulation. Sharing platforms such as Airbnb, Simplest, Lyft or even Dogvacay are all examples of an emerging economy where people share capacity of assets that they may have purchased or created. So not only is it possible to put off making big financial decisions, it is also possible to reduce the exposure to these financial decisions.

As our discussion about leisure and the working week showed, governments will need to allow for a significant range of lifestyle and work-style choices, and simple characterizations of full-time and part-time will make little sense. This is already apparent in what has been called the ‘sharing economy’. The growth of sharing businesses, such as Uber and Airbnb, has already brought to the fore complex questions such as ‘What is an employee?’ and ‘Who is responsible for benefits such as healthcare and pensions?’ In the past, trade unions have spoken for the collective rights of their members. The profiles of these unions are only just emerging in the sharing economy and we can expect more battles as the rights of these flexible workers are contested in the courts. Our discussion of transitions and partnerships is also challenging for governments. Currently, the unit of analysis for legislation is the typical familial household.

In thinking of possible lives for Jane’s 100 years, the flexibility that the ecosystem model offers makes the prospect of self-employment at certain stages a viable option. The technology that connects an individual to companies who want to buy their skills is becoming more global, cheaper and more sophisticated. These connecting platforms are already proliferating, leading to growing commentary about the ‘gig economy’ and the ‘sharing economy’. Technological change reduces information costs and so enables buyers and sellers to find each other more easily as well as determine the reliability and quality of each other from independent sources. The gig economy refers to the idea that there will be a rising number of people earning their income not through full- or part-time employment, but rather through providing a series of specific tasks and commissions to multiple sequential buyers.


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Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

Although a klutz with computers, Rome understood the nature of the tech industry more clearly because he did not shy from the gritty work of sorting out who gets what, when, and how. “We had to straighten out this congressman here who said something real positive about the sharing economy,” he told me at one point in our conversation. “We said, ‘What the fuck? Don’t you understand what it is?’” “What did you tell him?” I asked. “We said, ‘This isn’t any sharing economy—this is taking the responsibility of employment away from employers and putting it one hundred percent on people’s backs.’” Rome’s diagnosis was so simple and succinct, even a member of Congress could understand it. Of course, such hypocrisies are not confined to the phony “sharing economy.” They span the industry. Similarly, sympathy for the tech company perspective spans American political institutions, beginning with both major parties. “I look at the Democrats as the mafia,” Rome told me.

Camgirls’ forums were filled with sad stories about panic attacks, post-traumatic flashbacks, abusive customers, and costly website glitches. “I don’t have any real friends,” one camgirl wrote. “They are all at university or living their lives or having new relationships and I feel thoroughly forgotten about.” While traditional social institutions left such underemployed, undereducated young people behind, the postwork sharing economy came to the rescue by affording them the opportunity to serve as virtual strippers. Who says the tech industry doesn’t make room for women? * * * The sharing economy’s greatest success story was a YouTube celebrity for whom work and play and reality and artifice had merged beyond all recognition. There were many dubious aspects of his rise to stardom, not the least of which was his politics, beginning with the name he chose for himself: PewDiePie. It sounds even stranger when spoken, often in a drawn-out, high-pitched whine—“Pew-Dee-Piiiiiieee!”

They knew that well-paid programming jobs would also soon turn to smoke and ash, as the proliferation of learn-to-code courses around the world lowered the market value of their skills, and as advances in artificial intelligence allowed for computers to take over more of the mundane work of producing software. The programmers also knew that the fastest way to win that promotion to founder was to find some new domain that hadn’t yet been automated. Every tech industry campaign designed to spur investment in the Next Big Thing—at that time, it was the “sharing economy”—concealed a larger program for the transformation of society, always in a direction that favored the investor and executive classes. In the first seven years after the 2008 crash, sixteen million people left the U.S. labor force. And in that same period, thanks to Silicon Valley’s timely opportunism, the country gained an endless bounty of gigs. Tech startups, backed by Wall Street, swept in to offer displaced workers countless push-button moneymaking schemes—what Bloomberg News called “entrepreneurialism-in-a-box.”


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Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In a two-sided market, network effects created by the impact of users from one side of the market on other users from the same side of the market—for example, the effects that consumers have on other consumers and the effects that producers have on other producers. Same-side effects can be positive or negative, depending on the design of the system and the rules put in place. Sharing economy. The growing sector of the economy in which products, services, and resources are shared among people and organizations rather than having their availability limited to one proprietor. Often facilitated by platform businesses, sharing economy systems have the potential to unlock hidden or untapped sources of value and to reduce waste. Side switching. The phenomenon of platform users from one side of the platform joining the opposite side—for example, when those who consume goods or services produced on the platform begin to produce goods and services for others to consume.

Phil Simon, The Age of the Platform: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Have Redefined Business (Henderson, NV: Motion Publishing, 2011). 8. Feng Zhu and Marco Iansiti, “Entry into Platform-Based Markets,” Strategic Management Journal 33, no. 1 (2012): 88–106. 9. Jason Tanz, “How Airbnb and Lyft Finally Got Americans to Trust Each Other,” Wired, April 23, 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/04/trust-in-the-share-economy/. 10. Arun Sundararajan, “From Zipcar to the Sharing Economy,” Harvard Business Review, January 3, 2013, https://hbr.org/2013/01/from-zipcar-to-the-sharing-eco/. 11. Dan Charles, “In Search of a Drought Strategy, California Looks Down Under,” The Salt, NPR, August 19, 2015, http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/08/19/432885101/in-search-of-salvation-from-drought-california-looks-down-under. 12. Simon, The Age of the Platform. 13.

CHAPTER 11: POLICY 1. Kevin Boudreau and Andrei Hagiu, Platform Rules: Multi-Sided Platforms as Regulators (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2009), 163–89. 2. Malhotra and Van Alstyne, “The Dark Side of the Sharing Economy.” 3. Felix Gillette and Sheelah Kolhatkar, “Airbnb’s Battle for New York,” Businessweek, June 19, 2014, http://www.bloomberg .com/bw/articles/2014-06-19/airbnb-in-new-york-sharing-startup-fights-for-largest-market. 4. Ron Lieber, “A Liability Risk for Airbnb Hosts,” New York Times, December 6, 2014. 5. Georgios Zervas, Davide Proserpio, and John W. Byers, “The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Estimating the Impact of Airbnb on the Hotel Industry,” Boston University School of Management Research Paper 2013-16, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2366898. 6. Brad N. Greenwood and Sunil Wattal, “Show Me the Way to Go Home: An Empirical Investigation of Ride Sharing and Motor Vehicle Homicide,” Platform Strategy Research Symposium, Boston, MA, July 9, 2015, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2557612. 7.


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Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In response to these challenges, FLOK proposes the development of peer-production licenses under which only commoners, cooperatives, and nonprofits would enjoy free usage of intellectual property bounded by the commons; corporations would have to pay.83, 84, 85 At first glance, the so-called “sharing economy” appears to be based in these commons principles. At least in some superficial way, this is true. We have gone from buying music on records or CDs to downloading MP3 files to simply subscribing to Pandora or Spotify. Owning music—or a car, for that matter—is becoming less important than having access to it. This is certainly a step on the path from hoarding to sharing. Except the many sharing platforms and services are not sharing at all but renting. We don’t collectively own the vehicles of Zipcar any more than we collectively own Spotify’s catalogue of music. And as private companies induce us to become sharers, we contribute our own cars, creativity, and couches to a sharing economy that is more extractive than it is circulatory.

For the providers, on the other hand, these services create a new watermark for how many of one’s hours and assets should be grist for the ledger and ultimately in service of some corporation’s growth. It’s as if startups are out there writing algorithms to combat inefficiency and idleness by making sure that everything everyone owns is in use all the time. The platform collects its fee for putting user and provider, rider and driver, or guest and host together and enabling a new transaction where once there was none. Our assets are their new territory. Welcome to the sharing economy. Just as Lanier would have us share our data, these new companies would have us share our homes, cars, and anything else. Only it’s not really sharing; it’s selling. In fact, just as there used to be an Internet that ran entirely on “shareware,” there were originally free versions of these new asset-renting platforms. Couchsurfing.com created a global community of people who both give and receive space in their homes.

Under the guise of restoring a human, social, sharing element to these businesses, the crowdsharing apps actually replace skills, relationships, and local businesses with automated solutions—while a central server and the investors behind it can extract the lion’s share of the revenue. That’s why the final indignity will be on the Uber drivers themselves, when they are replaced with the automatic cars currently in development by Uber investor Google. The app will orchestrate the movements of robot vehicles even more seamlessly than those driven by humans, and Uber’s shareholders should do just as well—even better—in this more automated future. To them, the sharing economy is less a cultural ethos than part of a strategic transition toward more fully automated solutions. Peer-to-peer is not a means of including more people as value creators but a prelude to getting rid of them—first the skilled, fairly paid ones, and then the unskilled ones who took their places. It’s a pivot we’ve seen before. The Netflix DVD rental Web site offered more choice and more convenience than the brick-and-mortar video rental stores it replaced while employing far fewer people.


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The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

In fact, some futurists have called this economic aspect of the new socialism the “sharing economy” because the primary currency in this realm is sharing. • • • In the late 1990s, activist, provocateur, and aging hippy John Perry Barlow began calling this drift, somewhat tongue in cheek, “dot-communism.” He defined dot-communism as a “workforce composed entirely of free agents,” a decentralized gift or barter economy without money where there is no ownership of property and where technological architecture defines the political space. He was right about the virtual money since the content that Twitter and Facebook distribute is created by unpaid contributors—that is, users like you. And Barlow was right about the lack of ownership, as explained in the previous chapter. We see sharing economy services such as Netflix and Spotify move audiences away from owning anything.

Today we are not surprised by a microcommunity sharing an unlikely passion; we are surprised if there is not one. We can head out in the wilds of Amazon, Netflix, Spotify, or Google with pretty good confidence that we will uncover someone who has anticipated our most remote interests with a finished work or forum. Each niche is just one step away from a bestselling niche. Today the audience is king. But what about the creators? Who will pay them in this sharing economy? How will their creative acts be financed if the middle is gone? The surprising answer is: another new sharing technology. No method has been as beneficial to creators as crowdfunding. In crowdfunding the audience funds the work. The fans collectively finance their favorites. The technology of sharing enables the power of one fan who is willing to prepay an artist or author to be aggregated (with little effort) together with hundreds of other fans into a significant pool of money.

An open peer-to-peer scheme that enabled anyone to offer to the public ownership shares in their company (with some regulation) would revolutionize business. Just as we have seen tens of thousands of new products that would not have existed except by crowdfunding techniques, the new methods of equity sharing would unleash tens of thousands of innovative businesses that could not be born otherwise. The sharing economy would now include ownership sharing. The advantages are obvious. If you have an idea, you can seek investment from anyone else who sees the same potential as you do. You don’t need the permission of bankers, or the rich. If you work hard and succeed, your backers will prosper with you. An artist might use fans’ investments to build a company that sold her works over the long term. Or two guys in a garage with an amazing gizmo might be able to leverage that into an ongoing enterprise process that makes more gizmos instead of having to Kickstart each one.


pages: 168 words: 50,647

The End of Jobs: Money, Meaning and Freedom Without the 9-To-5 by Taylor Pearson

"side hustle", Airbnb, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Black Swan, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Hangouts, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, means of production, Oculus Rift, passive income, passive investing, Peter Thiel, remote working, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, Thomas Malthus, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog

Basecamp, a multi-million dollar project management software company, was started by Jason Fried and David Heinemeier Hansson, while living in different countries and while also running a web development consultancy. But it’s not just tech companies. Rent to Own: The Sharing Economy Over the last decade, a more publicly available internet has enabled the “Sharing Economy,” which has democratized the tools of production. Technology and the internet have brought trust and transparency to markets, which lets people share existing resources and repurpose them into higher and better uses to take them from a lower to a higher area of productivity. The sharing economy has made manufacturing more efficient—you can create increased inventory without immediately needing more supply. We saw the implications of this with CD Baby: it’s gotten dramatically cheaper—as much as one hundred times cheaper—to invest in entrepreneurship than it was a decade ago.

We saw the implications of this with CD Baby: it’s gotten dramatically cheaper—as much as one hundred times cheaper—to invest in entrepreneurship than it was a decade ago. Let’s use the hotel industry as an example. In the past, if there weren’t enough rooms in a city for visitors, Hilton went and built a new hotel. They would pay millions of dollars for a piece of land downtown, millions of dollars to construct a hotel, and then millions of dollars to hire staff to run it. The sharing economy version of that is a company called AirBnB, which allows homeowners to post their rooms online so people coming to visit can stay in them. It’s often less expensive than a hotel and many people like getting to know a city as a resident instead of as a tourist. Let’s say Julian has a house that he owns in Dallas, Texas. He usually has one spare bedroom, so he lists it on AirBnB as available.

Broadly this has had the same effect for entrepreneurs that CD Baby had for musicians. The cost of the tools needed to invest in entrepreneurship has dropped dramatically because the infrastructure has gotten so much more efficient. Let’s look at a few of the primary tools and how entrepreneurs are using them. Software as a Service (SaaS): Plug and Play Tools and Systems Software as a service has arisen primarily in the last decade and facilitates a large part of the sharing economy. Instead of having to buy expensive equipment or sign long-term contracts, entrepreneurs can buy month-to-month access to different services that they need. Previously, a new company would have had to buy accounting software that would cost hundreds of dollars. Now, instead of buying expensive accounting software, you can use a month-to-month service like Xero, which starts at $9 a month. Dan Norris of WP Curve runs his entire business using around $1,200 in subscriptions to software services each month.


pages: 285 words: 58,517

The Network Imperative: How to Survive and Grow in the Age of Digital Business Models by Barry Libert, Megan Beck

active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversification, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Oculus Rift, pirate software, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Wall-E, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Principle 6, Revenues 1. Brent Leary, “Amir Elaguizy of Cratejoy: Good Subscription Business Models Focus on Relationships Not Transactions,” Small Business Trends, August 14, 2015, http://smallbiztrends.com/2015/08/elaguizy-cratejoy-subscription-business-models.html. Principle 7, Employees 1. Travis Kalanick, “The Charms of the Sharing Economy,” Economist, The World in 2016 (single issue), November 6, 2015, http://www.theworldin.com/article/10631/charms-sharing-economy. 2. Ernst & Young, Study: Work-Life Challenges across Generations, http://www.ey.com/US/en/About-us/Our-people-and-culture/EY-work-life-challenges-across-generations-global-study. 3. Rena Rasch, “Your Best Workers May Not Be Your Employees,” IBM Smarter Workforce Institute, October 2014, http://www-01.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi-bin/ssialias?

—PHIL COWDELL, CEO, MediaCom North America “Get ready for a future in which everyone and everything are digitally connected, marginal costs approach zero, and openness to the ideas and assets that exist around the organization matter more than sheer scale. The successful firms of the future will embrace the principles for creating network value found in this prescient book.” —GEORGE DAY, Geoffrey T. Boisi Professor, Emeritus, the Wharton School “In the new world of crowd sourcing, the sharing economy, and the internet of everything, there is no question that every business is being transformed by a networked world. In The Network Imperative, Libert, Beck, and Wind break down this twenty-first century phenomenon and offer an actionable and effective approach for any business to not only ward off disintermediation, but also to set a path for long-term success.” —MICHAEL DISTEFANO, Senior Vice President and CMO, Korn Ferry; President, Korn Ferry Institute “Networks really are at the heart of our modern economic system.

Orchestrated well, with ongoing development of customer relationships—and not customer transactions—as the key performance indicator, each customer revisit will generate greater affinity and value for the customer as well as greater clarity and value to the firm. PRINCIPLE 7 EMPLOYEES From Employees to Partners Employment in society has overstretched itself. —Charles Handy, author and philosopher WHEN UBER PASSED THE MILLION-DRIVER MARK (that’s right—one million drivers) in late 2015, CEO Travis Kalanick wrote in the Economist, “I realised that sharing-economy companies really are pointing the way to a more promising future, where we have more power over when, where and how long to work. It’s a shift that has the potential to give people more flexibility, more freedom and more control over their lives, their jobs and their incomes.”1 One might think that this quotation is self-serving, given that Uber’s digital network business model is based on a network of freelance drivers.


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The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction by Jamie Woodcock, Mark Graham

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, global value chain, informal economy, information asymmetry, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, Lyft, mass immigration, means of production, Network effects, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, precariat, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Available at: http://www.publicseminar.org/2015/04/think-outside-the-boss Scholz, T. (2017a) Uberworked and Underpaid: How Workers are Disrupting the Digital Economy. Cambridge: Polity. Scholz, T. (2017b) Platform cooperativism vs. the sharing economy. In N. Douay and A. Wan (eds.), Big Data & Civic Engagement. Rome: Planum Publisher. Scott, W.R. (2001) Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Semuels, A. (2018) The Internet is enabling a new kind of poorly paid hell. The Atlantic, 23 January, Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2018/01/amazon-mechanical-turk/551192/ Silver, B.J. (2003) Forces of Labor, Workers’ Movements and Globalization since 1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Slee, T. (2015) What’s Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy. London: OR Books. Smith, A. (2016) Gig work, online selling and home sharing. Pew Research Centre, 17 November. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/17/gig-work-online-selling-and-home-sharing/ Solon, O. (2018) The rise of ‘pseudo-AI’: How tech firms quietly use humans to do bots’ work.

In the early stages, new kinds of gigs held ambiguous possibilities. As Sarah Kessler (2018: x) recounts in a story from a startup founder, the gig economy had a promise that ‘we could work for our neighbours, connect with as many projects as we needed to get by, and fit those gigs between band rehearsals, gardening, and other passion promises.’ At this point, some commentators began talking about the ‘sharing economy’ (Sundararajan, 2017), a term that sounds very optimistic in light of the evidence that followed. Although there have been changes in the gig economy, it still involves work. At its core, paid work involves a relationship in which one person sells their time to another. This entails transferring the ownership of labour power (the capacity to work) from the worker to the owner of capital (the owner of the things needed to produce work).

Peck, J. (2017) Offshore: Exploring the Worlds of Global Outsourcing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pollert, A. and Charlwood, A. (2009) The vulnerable worker in Britain and problems at work. Work, Employment and Society, 23(2): 343–62. Pollman, E. and Barry, J. (2016) Regulatory entrepreneurship. Southern California Law Review, 90: 383–442. Ravenelle, A. (2019) Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy. Oakland, CA: University of California Press. Raw, L. (2009) Striking a Light: The Bryant and May Matchwomen and their Place in History. London: Continuum Books. Richey, L.A. and Ponte, S. (2011) Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Roberts, S.T. (2016) Commercial content moderation: Digital laborers’ dirty work. In S.U. Noble and B.


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The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle Class Survives by Lisa Servon

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, employer provided health coverage, financial exclusion, financial independence, financial innovation, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, M-Pesa, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, precariat, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, too big to fail, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

These informal practices are not: Sudhanshu Handa and Claremont Kirton, “The Economics of Rotating Savings and Credit Associations: Evidence from the Jamaican ‘Partner,’” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 60, no. 1 (1999): 173–94; Sowmya Varadharajan, “Explaining Participation in Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAs): Evidence from Indonesia” (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2004). 141 almost less than one in ten: PricewaterhouseCoopers, “The Sharing Economy,” Consumer Intelligence Series, pwc.com/CISsharing, April 2015. the sharing economy: Havas Worldwide, “The New Consumer and the Sharing Economy,” Prosumer Report (New York: Havas, 2014). 8. INSIDE THE INNOVATORS 143 This moment is notable: Brett King, Breaking Banks: The Innovators, Rogues, and Strategists Rebooting Banking (Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, 2014), p. xv. Creative destruction, a term: Joseph Alois Schumpeter, The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle (London: Transaction Publishers, 1934). 144 Dave Birch, a director at: King, Breaking Banks, p. 42.

They pull a hundred dollars from my paycheck, and I get paid bimonthly, so that’s two hundred per month.” Indeed, research shows that the “sharing economy” is on the rise. This economy values shared resources and collaboration over accumulation and ownership, and it operates as a system of providers and users, although people often act in both roles. Providers offer goods and services to be shared, and users rent, pay for, or barter for what’s being offered. Best known for services like Zipcar, Lyft, and Airbnb, it extends to crowdfunding as well as the sharing of equipment and media. Advances in technology—mobile apps and web platforms—allow individuals to connect and then facilitate services and transactions. While almost less than one in ten adults has participated in the sharing economy as providers, consumers under age thirty-five make up 38 percent of the total.

Hamilton, Darrick, and William Darity Jr. “Can ‘Baby Bonds’ Eliminate the Racial Wealth Gap in Putative Post-Racial America?” Review of Black Political Economy, no. 37 (2010): 207–16. Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies. “Record Number of American Renters Feel the Strain of Housing Cost Burdens.” Interactive map. http://har​vard-cga.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/ Havas Worldwide. “The New Consumer and the Sharing Economy: Prosumer Report.” New York: Havas, 2014. Henderson, J. Maureen. “The Surprising and Smart Reason Millennials Love Payday Loans and Prepaid Debit Cards.” Forbes, February 22, 2014. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. “Pulling It Together: The Most Popular Provision in the ACA?” Washington, DC: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011. Himmelstein, David, Deborah Thorne, Elizabeth Warren, and Steffie Woolhandler.


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The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, creative destruction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, helicopter parent, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

Edelman and Michael Luca, “Digital Discrimination: The Case of Airbnb.com,” Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper 14-054 (2014). Discrimination may feed into users’ feedback, which would, perhaps less directly, lead to discrimination. Although we know of no research on the topic, the concern has seen much attention in the media. See, for example, “The Sharing Economy Is Not as Open as You Might Think,” The Guardian, November 12, 2014. A post titled “Can the Sharing Economy End Discrimination?” on the website of tech magazine Wired took the opposite view, albeit without providing any evidence in support of the argument. For a broader critique of the sharing economy, see Tom Slee, What’s Yours Is Mine (London: OR Books, 2015). 12. Peter Thiel, “Competition Is for Losers,” Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/peter-thiel-competition-is-for-losers-1410535536. Chapter 9. How Markets Shape Us 1.

Amazon and eBay serve this market-making role for buyers and sellers of just about everything; Angie’s List does it for plumbers, electricians, and other contractors on one side and those looking to fix or renovate their homes on the other. There need not be only two sides: Google’s Android is a meeting point for makers of smart phones like LG and Samsung, app designers, and consumers. The business networking service LinkedIn similarly brings together corporate recruiters, job hunters or employees, and advertisers. The list goes on, including some of the recent “sharing economy” companies that have gotten so much attention: Uber, Lyft, Airbnb, Postmates, and many other online marketplaces. The market maker faces a delicate balancing act in satisfying the needs and wants of each side. And indeed a platform isn’t much good unless all sides agree to participate. Just as no one would visit a supermarket that stocked only a limited supply of cornflakes, eBay wouldn’t get many visitors if the only items for bid were a couple of old Pez dispensers.

Sharing Economists aren’t the only ones trying to recast the world in our model’s image. If friction—informational, transactional, contractual—is all that stands between textbook economic models and the functioning of our real economy, then there is a vocal contingent out there (“there” being mostly Silicon Valley) that sees technology as the solution. When viewed through the lens of market frictions, the much-hyped notion of the sharing economy can be seen as an effort to bring free-market salvation to bricks, mortars, and automobiles. If you’ve ever tried to hail a taxi in San Francisco or rent a room in Washington, DC, you know the frictions of which we speak. The Bay Area’s sprawl, combined with strict regulations on the cab and livery businesses, used to leave you at the mercy of the two thousand or so taxi medallion holders that covered San Francisco’s 230 square miles.


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Dollars and Sense: How We Misthink Money and How to Spend Smarter by Dr. Dan Ariely, Jeff Kreisler

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bitcoin, Burning Man, collateralized debt obligation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, endowment effect, experimental economics, hedonic treadmill, IKEA effect, invisible hand, loss aversion, mental accounting, mobile money, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Uber for X, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

SHARING IS FAIRING What about the phrase “the sharing economy”? Companies like Uber, Airbnb, and TaskRabbit belong to “the sharing economy,” a phrase that frames these services in a positive way. Who doesn’t like to share and who doesn’t appreciate those who do? Who above the age of preschool doesn’t think of sharing as a wonderful human quality? No one, that’s who. The phrase “the sharing economy” conjures an image of the good side of humanity, and that causes most of us to value a service more. Certainly the language doesn’t draw attention to the negatives of the sharing economy. “Sharing” makes it all seem selfless, like we’re letting our little sister play with our Legos or donating a kidney to an orphan. But that’s not always the case. In fact, critics claim that the rise of the sharing economy is the by-product of a labor market providing no full-time jobs, few benefits, and little security, that it rolls back worker protections and takes advantage of the “free-agent nation,” which itself is another term designed to help us feel better about underemployment.

,” 205–6 honeymoon experience, 61–65, 69–71, 75 marriage proposal, 126 shopping for Optimum Slim cereal, 30 traveling with his family, 45, 55 unfulfilled friend’s party, 38 windfall hypothesis, 195 labor market in “sharing” economy, 160 Lambrecht, Anja, 33 Lanchester, John, 162 Langer, Ellen, 114 language, 149–66 overview, 154–55, 214–16, 220 adding value with rituals, 163–66, 179–80, 214–16, 220 choices based on descriptions vs. items, 153–56 consumption enhancement, 156–59, 163 double talk, 161–62 and expectations, 179–80 ignoring vs. immersing in, 149–52 language and fairness, 159–60 and restaurants, 150–55 sharing economy, 160–61 transformative ability of language, 162–63 Las Vegas, Nevada, 45–46 Levav, Jonathan, 50–51 listing price effect on Realtors’ estimates, 93–95, 98, 103 locksmith’s value, x, 133, 137, 140, 146 Loewenstein, George, 67, 77, 106–8, 191–92 loss aversion overview, 120–23 app for combating, 241 and employer’s retirement matching funds, 243 and investments, 123–25, 249 and Netflix new pricing scheme, 138, 138n overvaluing what we own, 219 and positive outcomes, 246–47 luxury items and resorts estate worth tens of millions, 119 prepaying vs. ala carte, 61–62, 69–70, 75–77, 228 relative price vs. real price, 29 malleable mental accounting, 53–54, 55 manipulation advertising copywriter skills, 119 new box and new price (same as old price), 30–31 pricing high to create excitement by lowering it, 104 self-manipulation, 221, 233 and transparency, 146–47, 220 winemakers and language manipulation, 151, 154–55, 162, 221 See also pricing Mansfield, Rob, 183–85, 190–91, 232 marshmallow test, 186 Martin, Jane, 41–43, 56 McGraw, Pete, 50–51 measurability, 24–25, 201, 204–5 Mencken, H.

See also retirement savings segregating gains and aggregating losses, 125–26 Seinfeld, Jerry, 68–69 self-awareness as barrier to commercial interests, 257–58 self-control, 183–96, 227–36 overview, 227 apps for monitoring, 241–42 arousal and other barriers to, 191–92 delayed gratification, 185 and gambling, 6, 45–46 and illusion of wealth, 249–51 mobile money-saving system in Kenya, 242–44 reconnecting to our future selves, 228–30 and retirement savings, 183–85, 188–89 reward substitution strategy, 234–36, 246 spending a windfall vs., 55–57, 58, 195, 250–51 technology working against, 239–41 vs. temptations, 189–91, 195–96, 230–31, 234, 239–40 Ulysses contracts, 230–34 utilizing apps for tracking opportunity costs, 241 and value in the present vs. future, 185–89, 192–96 See also retirement savings self-herding and anchoring, 99–100 self-worth and relativity, 38–39 Shafir, Eldar, 57–58 sharing economy, 160–61 Shiv, Baba, 175–76, 199 Shkreli, Martin, 148 ski trip sunk cost example, 129 Sobe energy drink experiment, 175–76, 199 Social Security number’s influence on value, 106–7 sports luminaries, 194–95 stereo system opportunity cost research, 12–13 stock market, 123–25, 169 stop and think, 253–58 stores bulk discounting practice, 31 high and low prices funneling consumer to middle option, 35–36, 101 relative price vs. real price, 28–31 “sales” on high priced items, 21–24 subscription offers illustrating relativity problem, 34–35 sunk costs, 126–30 Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen (Raspe), 173 tax refund “bonus,” 58–59 temptations, self-control vs., 189–91, 195–96, 230–31, 234, 239–40 Ten Financial Sins, 52 texting and driving, 189–90 Thaler, Dick on endowment effect, 114 on loss aversion, 123–25 on mental accounting, 43, 57–58 Thompkins, Susan “Aunt Susan,” 21–25, 199 time describing amount spent in a day vs. a year, 249–50 research on pain of paying effect, 72–75 separating pleasure of consumption from time of payment, 59–60, 61–62, 69–71, 80–83 spending wisely, xi toddlers, feeding airplanes to, 166 Toyota purchase opportunity cost, 11–12 transparency, 143–48, 162 trusting ourselves, 98–99, 169, 193, 218–19.


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Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

Stephen Crocker, “How the Internet Got Its Rules,” New York Times, April 6, 2009. 9. Andrew Leonard, “You’re Not Fooling Us, Uber! 8 Reasons Why the ‘Sharing Economy’ Is All About Corporate Greed,” Salon.com, February 17, 2014. 10. Lisa Fleisher, “Thousands of European Cab Drivers Protest Uber, Taxi Apps,” Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2014. 11. Megan McArdle, “Why You Can’t Get a Taxi,” The Atlantic, May 2012. 12. “Taxicab,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxicab. 13. “Taxicabs of the United Kingdom,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxicabs_of_the_United_Kingdom#cite_note-The_Knowledge-3. 14. Jeff Bercovici, “Uber’s Ratings Terrorize Drivers and Trick Riders. Why Not Fix Them?” Forbes.com, August 14, 2014. 15. Andy Kessler, “Brian Chesky: The ‘Sharing Economy’ and Its Enemies,” Wall Street Journal, January 17, 2014. 16. “Freelancing in America: A National Survey of the New Workforce,” 2014, independent study commissioned by the Freelancers Union and ElanceoDesk, http://chaoscc.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/freelancinginamerica_report-1.pdf. 17.

I understood clearly that we were on a path that was going to break a hundred-year-old industry. What I failed to appreciate back then was the much larger movement made possible by the Internet. Zipcar was a trailblazer. When you can connect and share assets, people, and ideas, everything changes, not just how you rent a car. Google, eBay, Facebook, OKCupid, YouTube, Waze, Airbnb, WhatsApp, Duolingo—all are part of this transformation of capitalism. Web 2.0, the sharing economy, crowdsourcing, collaborative production, collaborative consumption, and network effects are simply terms we’ve created along the way in an effort to capture what is going on. Attributing all this to “the Internet” misses the building blocks and therefore the ability to replicate this type of activity in a more controlled way. There is one structure that underlies all these—excess capacity + a platform for participation + diverse peers—and it is fundamentally changing the way we work, build businesses, and shape economies.

Well, Elinor Ostrom is not just my hero, but one for others as well, since she won the Nobel Prize in economics in 2009 for her analysis of economic governance especially for commons. Lots of us have heard about the tragedy of the commons: When people share a resource but don’t own it, everything goes to hell because they don’t care. As you know, this was not my experience with Zipcar, which proved to be a shock to investors and business pundits. And it was this reality that led to the founding of dozens of other successful sharing-economy companies. Ostrom identifies “common pool resources,” which have two characteristics: they produce a steady stream of benefits accruing from the resource, and it is very difficult to exclude individuals. You can see how this maps very closely to what is happening within the Peers Inc model. The platform for participation absolutely produces a steady stream of benefits, and the peers are free agents who opt in.


pages: 294 words: 82,438

Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World by Donald Sull, Kathleen M. Eisenhardt

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Checklist Manifesto, complexity theory, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, haute cuisine, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, Network effects, obamacare, Paul Graham, performance metric, price anchoring, RAND corporation, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Startup school, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Wall-E, web application, Y Combinator, Zipcar

They soon launched Air Mattress Bed & Breakfast, later Airbnb. Airbnb is among the most successful of the shared-economy companies. Unlike many traditional businesses, shared-economy companies have no single base of customers. Rather, these companies provide two-sided markets that connect sellers (or people with something to share) with buyers (who are willing to pay for the product or service)—like the transportation-network company Lyft, which connects passengers who need a ride to drivers who have a car, and TaskRabbit, an errand-outsourcing company that connects people who need something done with “taskers” who will do the job. For Airbnb, it’s connecting local residents with room to spare and travelers who need a place to stay. To grow, shared-economy companies have to keep both sides of the market—sellers and buyers—happy.

When they combine these and other learning processes like experiments and trial and error, people and organizations gain a particularly potent way to improve their rules. MULTITASKING WAYS TO LEARN You’ve probably heard of Airbnb. You may have used the site to rent a vacation house or an apartment in another city. Maybe you even know that its founders are the first billionaires of the so-called shared economy. You may not, however, have given much thought to the learning processes that helped propel Air­bnb’s founders to fortune and fame. Joe Gebbia and Brian Chesky met while they were industrial-design students at Rhode Island School of Design. Although they talked about starting a company together, they went their separate ways after graduation. Brian moved to Los Angeles, where he worked as a product designer (toilets were one of his products) with Simon Cowell’s reality television show American Inventor, and Joe landed in San Francisco.

This is reflected in teaching—our students learn best when they learn in multiple ways like reading articles, watching videos, having an in-class discussion, and hearing a lecture. It is also reflected on how Airbnb’s founders improved when they went to New York City and participated in the Y Combinator dinners. By pursuing various ways to learn, the Airbnb founders accelerated the improvement of their initial simple rules. Airbnb has become one of the leading shared-economy companies in the world, operating in almost two hundred countries and about thirty-four thousand cities, and is used by an estimated fifty to sixty thousand people per night. People improve their simple rules in a predictable pattern, and learning processes and combinations of processes can accelerate improvement. But occasionally a situation is so novel or demanding that just improving the current rules is not enough.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Some of this information is gleaned from the Car2Go website https://www.car2go.com/en/minneapolis/ April 3, 2015. 219 As quoted in Thomas Friedman's column: "just think how much better all this is for the environment — for people to be renting their spare bedrooms rather than building another Holiday Inn and another and another. ... The sharing economy — watch this space. This is powerful." See: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/21/opinion/sunday/friedman-welcome-to-the-sharing-economy.html?pagewanted=2&_r=0 220 Forecasts of the shared economy and local regulation, see: Rauch, Daniel E. and Schleicher, David (2015) Like Uber, But for Local Governmental Policy: The Future of Local Regulation of the "Sharing Economy" (January 14, 2015). George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No. 15-01. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2549919 221 National Multi-family Housing Coalition (2015-09) https://www.nmhc.org/Content.aspx?

We depict a transport context in most communities where new opportunities are prompted by the collision of slow, medium, and fast moving technologies. We develop a framework to conceive of concepts related to transport and accessibility more broadly. In this framework, transport systems are being augmented with a range of information technologies. Fresh flows of goods and information provide a foundational aspect. We discuss large scale trends revolutionizing transport: dematerialization, electrification, automation, the sharing economy, and big data. The culminating chapters provide strategies to shape future debates about infrastructure. Even if transport is not your bailiwick, there is something interesting for you here. We aim for a quick read—and to encourage you to think outside your immediate realm. By the end of this book (this evening, if you so choose) you will appreciate the changing times in which you live. You will, we hope, appreciate what is new about transport discussions and how definitions of accessibility are being reframed.

The Future of Sharing: Cloud Commuting For communities where densities are relatively low, incomes high, and thus taxis scarce, the most reliable strategy for timely point-to-point transport is for people to maintain personal transport close at hand. Cars and bikes, which they own, are parked at their homes, workplaces, or other destinations. But with more widespread use of information technologies, ownership and possession are no longer necessary prerequisites for on-demand mobility. Widely called the 'sharing economy' or 'collaborative consumption,' its manifestations in transport: carsharing and ridesharing are viable if not widespread. Couple these technologies with autonomous vehicles discussed in the previous chapter, and one arrives at what we term 'cloud commuting' — the convergence of ridesharing, carsharing, and autonomous vehicles.211 More formally, this range of options can be termed Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS).


pages: 389 words: 87,758

No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar

Kiva, the world’s largest online platform for peer-to-peer microlending, has facilitated loans worth more than $630 million, mostly in the emerging world.51 Kickstarter, a crowd-funding platform that connects entrepreneurs to individuals interested in funding creative projects, has facilitated pledges of more than $1.4 billion to fund 70,000 creative projects since 2009.52 Small or individual registered investment advisors are the fastest-growing segment of the investment advisory business in the United States; they purchase turnkey back-end systems from companies like Fidelity and Charles Schwab to get all the capabilities they need in order to provide direct advice to consumers.53 In markets such as search, e-commerce, social media, and the sharing economy, the low marginal costs of digital infrastructure allow upstarts to build business models with near-limitless scale. WhatsApp, the mobile messaging platform that Facebook recently snapped up for $19 billion, reached 500 million monthly active users within five years of its launch.54 Snapchat surpassed the photo-sharing activity on both Facebook and Instagram with 400 million users only two years after its foundation.55 Sharing economy start-ups are growing at breathtaking speed. In 2013, some 450,000 active users were launching the Uber app every week, and more than a million Lyft users had requested a ride with the tap of a button.56 Traditional players have also benefited from changes in marginal cost economics to enter new markets, grow rapidly, or optimize processes and cost structures.

In response, Hailo’s offices were vandalized.11 Meanwhile, on the day of the June protest, Uber announced that it would welcome black cabs into its service.12 London’s cabbies aren’t alone in finding their once-venerable and impregnable business models rapidly upended with apparent ease. Advances in technology have always disrupted the status quo. But they have never done so across so many markets and at the speed and scale that is being seen today. As digital platforms reduce to near zero the marginal costs of scaling up business activity, such platforms are enabling new business models, new entrants, and even new market models such as peer-to-peer transactions and the “sharing” economy. With lowered barriers to entry, it is now common to see small companies take on incumbents and gain critical mass in a matter of months. The boundaries separating sectors have become blurred, and digital capabilities are often driving the shift of economic values between players and sectors. While companies struggle with technological churn, consumers are big beneficiaries—far beyond the extent captured in official data releases.

The average company’s tenure on the S&P 500 fell to about eighteen years in 2012, down from sixty-one years five decades earlier.13 It’s no longer sufficient to regard large firms as potential competitors; start-ups with access to digital platforms can be born global, scale up in the blink of an eye, and disrupt long-standing rules of competition in markets ranging from taxi services to hotels and retail. Many of these micro-multinationals are upending competition by bringing about a new “sharing economy” in hospitality (Airbnb), transportation (Lyft), and even home Wi-Fi rentals (Spain’s Fon). Technology has leveled the playing field between large and small players and increased companies’ willingness to enter new markets and expand into new sectors. Microsoft took fifteen years to reach $1 billion in sales.14 Amazon reached that mark in fewer than five years.15 Netflix is no longer merely disrupting content distribution, but is also becoming a formidable force in original content production.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

the widest wealth gap since the Great Depression: Scott Neuman, “Study Says America’s Income Gap Widest Since Great Depression,” NPR, September 10, 2013, http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/09/10/221124533/study-says-americas-income-gap-widest-since-great-depression. As former U.S. vice president Al Gore put it: Al Gore, “The Turning Point: New Hope for the Climate,” Rolling Stone, June 18, 2014, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-turning-point-new-hope-for-the-climate-20140618. People have figured out that if they have idle assets: “The Rise of the Sharing Economy,” Economist, March 9, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21573104-internet-everything-hire-rise-sharing-economy. A phrase from Mastercoin’s David Johnston: David Johnston, “Johnston’s Law,” http://www.johnstonslaw.org/. among a host of overhyped Super Bowl XXXIV ads: Dashiell Bennett, “8 Dot-Coms That Spent Million on Super Bowl Ads and No Longer Exist,” Business Insider, February 2, 2011, http://www.businessinsider.com/8-dot-com-super-bowl-advertisers-that-no-longer-exist-2011-2?

It’s a big story, one that spans the globe, from the high-tech hub of Silicon Valley to the streets of Beijing. It includes visits to the mountains of Utah, the beaches of Barbados, schools in Afghanistan, and start-ups in Kenya. The world of cryptocurrencies comprises venture-capital royalty, high school dropouts, businessmen, utopians, anarchists, students, humanitarians, hackers, and Papa John’s pizza. It’s got parallels with the financial crisis, and the new sharing economy, and the California gold rush, and before it’s all over, we may have to endure an epic battle between a new high-tech world and the old low-tech world that could throw millions out of work, while creating an entirely new breed of millionaires. Are you ready to jump down the bitcoin rabbit hole? One FROM BABYLON TO BITCOIN The eye has never seen, nor the hand touched a dollar. —Alfred Mitchell Innes For any currency to be viable, be it a decentralized cryptocurrency issued by a computer program or a traditional “fiat” currency issued by a government, it must win the trust of the community using it.

Techies have a soft spot for killer apps, the ultimate disruptive technologies, and when taken to their extreme, the ideas driving each of these companies are about as disruptive as one can imagine. David Johnston is a senior board member at the Mastercoin Foundation, the body that coordinates the funding for the Mastercoin project, which offers a special software platform for developers to design special decentralized applications that can run on top of the bitcoin blockchain. He says blockchain technology “will supercharge the sharing economy,” that emerging trend in which apartment owners use Airbnb.com to rent out quasi hotel rooms and car owners sign up as self-employed taxidrivers for smartphone-based Uber and Lyft. The idea is that if we can decentralize the economy and foster multiple forms of peer-to-peer exchanges, people will figure out profitable ways to turn much of what they own or control into a marketable service. Johnston is known for having coined the term DApp, for “decentralized autonomous application,” to describe the kind of specialized software programs that could thrive in blockchain-based settings.


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The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, basic income, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, means of production, performance metric, post-work, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

At the bottom of the pyramid are the stressedout, struggling “unfree” freelancers, followed by the slightly better off, but probably still surviving on ramen (or the trust fund), “hustling” freelancers. Moving up past the “empowered” and the “influential” freelancers we reach the top: the “360 degrees Freelancer.” But the pinnacle isn’t about money, status, or applause. “It’s about giving back.”35 The Freelancers Union is part of an emerging social movement called “new mutualism” that’s grounded in the concept of a sharing economy. Jeremy Rifkin sees the sharing economy as the next big thing. He argues that hundreds of millions of people are already on board, sharing “information, entertainment, green energy, and 3D printed products at near-zero marginal cost.” People are also sharing more personal things like clothes, homes, and household items.36 “Flexible,” “diversified” freelancers are the archetypal sharers: They mentor. They give without asking what they get.

Maybe they’re part of a small cooperative of graphic designers who band together to help market each other and keep costs down. Or they make sure they buy from and work with other local freelancers to keep the ecosystem healthy. They buy their groceries at the local food co-op. They attend classes. They teach classes. They go to networking events not just to hand out business cards, but to find other freelancers that share their passions.37 In the new sharing economy we’ll all be freelancers. We’ll rent out our spare rooms on Airbnb and drive our cars for Lyft. We’ll have a “portfolio of jobs” and live our lives by “essentialist” principles: We will live with “intention and choice” and celebrate the joy of “fulfilling a purpose” and making “small choices that lead to big change.”38 It’s all about adapting ourselves and acquiring the necessary skills and connections to make it in the world.

Silva, “Constructing Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty,” American Sociological Review 77: 4, 2012, 508; see also Anthony Giddens, Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, New York: Polity Press, 1991. 26Gary Vaynerchuk, TED Talk, Web. 2.0 Expo, September 2008. 27Dan Schwabel, “Marie Forleo: How She Grew Her Brand to Oprah Status,” Forbes, May 16, 2013. 28See www.marieforleo.com/. 29Oprah Winfrey, Harvard commencement speech. 30O, The Oprah Magazine, March 2014. 31Madeleine Schwartz, “Opportunity Costs: The True Price of Internships,” Dissent, Winter 2013. 32Mark Babbitt, “25 Jobs in a 50-Year Career: Is Gen Y Ready?” Savvy Intern, October 9, 2013. 33See www.freelancersunion.org. 34Ibid.; Freelancers Union, Instagram, February 18, 2014. 35Freelancersunion.org. 36Jeremy Rifkin, “The Rise of the Sharing Economy,” Los Angeles Times, April 6, 2014. 37Freelancersunion.org. 38Ibid.; see also Atossa Araxia Abrahamian’s piece on the Freelancers Union in Dissent, Winter 2012. 39C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000 [1959], p. 6. 40Pierre Bourdieu, “The Forms of Capital,” in J. Richardson, ed., Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, New York: Greenwood, 1986, pp. 241–58. 41Miles Corak, “Income Inequality, Equality of Opportunity, and Intergenerational Mobility,” Discussion Paper No. 7520, Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, July 2013. 42Thomas Picketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2014. 43Jennifer Silva, “Becoming a Neoliberal Subject: Working-Class Selfhood in an Age of Uncertainty,” 2011, blogs.sciences-po.fr; Silva, “Constructing Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty.” 44Ruth Milkman, Stephanie Luce, and Penny Lewis, “Changing the Subject: A Bottom-up Account of Occupy Wall Street,” Murphy Institute, City University of New York, 2013. 45Fredric Jameson, “Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture,” Social Text 1 (Winter 1979), 130–48.


pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

The falling prices of smartphones and data services have led to new business models, which use the internet and information services to challenge existing players in fields ranging from retail to transportation. Traditional government domains are now being invaded by the private sector. The rise of the sharing economy, in which people directly share resources with one another, is further changing our understanding of business. In a time of such rapid change, government faces the challenge of implementing regulatory standards and protecting consumer rights in an ever-changing landscape. The mobile telephony network was among the first wave of technologies that required such efforts from the government. Let’s see how some of the newer challenges are shaping up. The rise of India’s sharing economy When Uber made its Indian debut in 2013, it became one of a clutch of taxi services debuting an unfamiliar business model. Instead of calling a central number, you could book a taxi using an app on a smartphone, track its location and arrival time via GPS, and pay via a credit card online.

http://ajayshahblog.blogspot.in/2014/12/policy-puzzles-of-digital-nirvana.html 8. 9 March 2013. ‘All eyes on the sharing economy’. Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/technology-quarterly/21572914-collaborative-consumption-technology-makes-it-easier-people-rent-items 9. 29 December 2014. ‘There’s an app for that’. Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21637355-freelance-workers-available-moments-notice-will-reshape-nature-companies-and 10. Kaka, Noshir, Madgavkar, Anu, Manyika, James, Bughin, Jacques, and Parameswaran, Pradeep. December 2014. ‘India’s tech opportunity: Transforming work, empowering people’. McKinsey Global Institute Report. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/indias_tech_opportunity_transforming_work_empowering_people 11. Fok, Evelyn. 31 January 2015. ‘Sharing economy fails to gain ground in Indian market as startups wary of model’.

Often, the new business models are different enough that they end up avoiding existing taxes. The incumbents label the newcomers as ‘tax evaders’ and the new solutions as ‘unsafe’. There is also the risk of the existing interests lobbying against innovations and using regulations to create a barrier to entry. In all these cases, the conflict between regulation and innovation has led to considerable friction in the market. The sharing economy is also giving rise to a new class of ‘micro-entrepreneurs’—small-scale service providers who can now find customers through an online marketplace.8 The US has seen the emergence of a plethora of start-ups that will bring you groceries and flowers, wash your clothes, deliver meals, clean your house, carry out your personal tasks, or send a doctor to your home if you’re ill. You can hire a talented designer over the internet to create a logo for your company, or find consultants to tackle a challenging problem at work.9 In urban India, you can now use apps to find cooks, cleaners and plumbers in your locality.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

In addition, we can expect battery technology to improve dramatically and allow self-driving vehicles to eventually get through an entire day without the need for a charge. The sharing economy for vehicles will thrive. Electric, self-driving vehicles will be significantly cheaper to run, but the average city dweller won’t even need to own a car, or they may choose to own a share in a vehicle. The user will simply rent a vehicle by the hour, and each vehicle will shuffle between owners or renters themselves, stopping to charge at the required charging station in quiet periods. The trend of young adults moving away from vehicle ownership is already becoming evident. Instead of asking for their own car when they reach driving age, teens are now asking their parents for an Uber account.6 So this is not just a factor of electric, self-driving cars; the sharing economy is already starting to shift behaviour towards dramatically different vehicle ownership models.

Phil Harrison, the former corporate vice president at Microsoft who led the division responsible for Microsoft’s Xbox, described this dynamic exponential growth in computing as a platform at the launch of the Xbox One at the Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) in 2013: “Day one of Xbox One, we will have the [cloud] server power equivalent to the entire computing power of the planet in 1999. There’s a tangible data point for you…” Phil Harrison, corporate VP of Microsoft’s Entertainment Division The sharing economy and the social media collective have produced an explosion of content, bytes/bits and data that we didn’t really see coming ten years ago. We predicted a linear increase in demand for data, and when mobile came along we rightly predicted more data usage, but we didn’t expect the explosion of data that occurred as a result of social media, the amplification of “sharing” and the rise of consumers as producers of content.

The current licensing system for bank charters, payments and remittances is trying to regulate a 19th-century problem in a 21st-century digital ecosystem. Let me give you a simple example of why the banking system that today requires a person’s identity to be tied to a bank account cannot survive this shift. When Your Self-driving Car Has a Bank Account While owning a car will definitely be an option in the future, many Millennials and their descendants will opt to participate in a sharing economy where ownership is distributed, or where self-driving car time is rented. So let’s take a scenario in 2025 to 2030 when a Millennial subscribes to a personalised car service guaranteeing access to an autonomous, self-driving car for a certain number of hours each day, or where they buy a “share” in a self-driving car. The car picks up the Millennial and takes them to work. During the journey, the car is alerted that it will be required again in approximately 6 hours.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Brabham, “Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving An Introduction and Cases,” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14, no. 1 (2008): 75–90, doi:10.1177/1354856507084420. 28. Alyson Shontell, “Founder Q&A: Make a Boatload of Money Doing Your Neighbor’s Chores on TaskRabbit,” Business Insider, October 27, 2011, http://www.businessinsider.com/taskrabbit-interview-2011-10 (accessed August 12, 2013). 29. Tomio Geron, “Airbnb and the Unstoppable Rise of the Share Economy,” Forbes, January 23, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2013/01/23/airbnb-and-the-unstoppable-rise-of-the-share-economy/ (accessed August 12, 2013). 30. Johnny B., “TaskRabbit Names Google Veteran Stacy Brown-Philpot as Chief Operating Officer,” TaskRabbit Blog, January 14, 2013, https://www.taskrabbit.com/blog/taskrabbit-news/taskrabbit-names-google-veteran-stacy-brown-philpot-as-chief-operating-officer/ (accessed August 12, 2013). 31. Johnny B., “TaskRabbit Welcomes 1,000 New TaskRabbits Each Month,” TaskRabbit Blog, April 23, 2013, https://www.taskrabbit.com/blog/taskrabbit-news/taskrabbit-welcomes-1000-new-taskrabbits-each-month/. 32.

The great irony of this information age is that, in many ways, we actually know less about the sources of value in the economy than we did fifty years ago. In fact, much of the change has been invisible for a long time simply because we did not know what to look for. There’s a huge layer of the economy unseen in the official data and, for that matter, unaccounted for on the income statements and balance sheets of most companies. Free digital goods, the sharing economy, intangibles and changes in our relationships have already had big effects on our well-being. They also call for new organizational structures, new skills, new institutions, and perhaps even a reassessment of some of our values. Music to Your Ears The story of music’s move from physical media to computer files has been told often and well, but one of that transition’s most interesting aspects is less discussed.

No longer can the seller expect to be insulated from competitors in other locations who can deliver a better service for less. Research by Michael Luca of Harvard Business School has found that the increased transparency has helped smaller independent restaurants compete with bigger chains because customers can more quickly find quality food via rating services like Yelp, reducing their reliance on brand names’ expensive marketing campaigns.17 The intangible benefits delivered by the growing sharing economy—better matches, timeliness, customer service, and increased convenience—are exactly the types of benefits identified by the 1996 Boskin Commission as being poorly measured in our official price and GDP statistics.18 This is another way in which our true growth is greater than the standard data suggest. Intangible Assets Just as free goods rather than physical products are an increasingly important share of consumption, intangibles also make up a growing share of the economy’s capital assets.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

The developer of one green project in Seattle that involves condos atop a Hyatt hotel is betting that the eight-hundred-square-foot size he’s offering will be a winner, as others in the field write the obituary of the “big house.” The Share Solution When I published The Overspent American in 1998, one sentence generated a reaction akin to outrage—my suggestion that neighbors could share expensive items that are only used periodically, such as riding mowers. Ten years later, it’s not only mowers that are being jointly owned, but tractors and even vehicles. The sharing economy is taking off. The best-known example is car sharing, pioneered in the United States by Zipcar, which makes vehicles available to urban members on a short-term basis. Its founder, Robin Chase, has moved on to create GoLoco, a ride-sharing service. Freecycle.org members are committed to the reciprocity of both giving and getting. IShareStuff.com allows individuals to post items they are willing to share and to contact others who have done the same.

On the other side of the ledger, shared ownership increases what economists call transactions costs—the time and effort of creating rules, setting up scheduling, and policing problems (although the Internet has dramatically reduced these costs). When money is cheap, nature isn’t counted, and time is expensive, as in the BAU economy, where incentives favor private ownership. A shift toward plenitude, which economizes on materials and is rich in time, enhances the value of sharing. Recapitalizing the Social: Economies of Reciprocity For the vanguard that is passionate about the sharing economy, it is a matter of more than ecological appeal. Sharing is a route to rebuilding social ties in a society that has experienced a rise in disconnection, loneliness, and individualism. Bioneers understand that reconstructing community, or recapitalizing the social, is a necessary adaptation for an economically and ecologically perilous world. There is now a large body of research on the state of social ties among Americans.

Ackerman, Frank Adobe Alliance advertising AeroGarden affluence, sustainability and Afghanistan, fab lab in Agarwal, Anil aggregate growth agriculture climate change and diversification and greenhouse gas emissions and information sharing and productivity in self-provisioning and subsidies for water stress and Alaska Permanent Fund Alperovitz, Gar alternative energy Amazon River Apache appliances alternative energy and energy efficiency and imports of material flow and prices of Arctic Ocean Arrow, Kenneth asset inequality atmospheric commons Auroville, India Australia health care in automobiles electric hybrid import volume of material flow and multifunctionality and New Work movement and prices of rebound effect and sharing of subsidies of aviation rebound effect in banking industry bubble in Barnes, Peter barter Baudrillard, Jean Becker, Gary Beckerman, Wilfred Beddington Zero ecovillage beef, greenhouse gases and Benkler, Yochai Benyus, Janine Bergmann, Frithjof BerkShares bicycles, sharing of Bija Vidyapeeth (Earth Citizenship) biocapacity biodiesel biodigesters biodiversity biomimicry birth rates Bixi Blair, Tony Blanc, Patrick Boston University Bourdieu, Pierre Bové, José Bowling Alone (Putnam) Boyce, James branding Braungart, Michael Brazil, ecological footprint in brewing British Columbia, University of Brookes, Leonard Brown, Kirk bulk buying Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Bush, George W. Business Alliance for Local Living Economies business-as-usual (BAU) economy decline of environmental impact of extra-market diversification and origin of term for systems dynamics and unemployment and California Closets Canada: health care system in hours worked in materials use in sharing economy in canning and preserving capitalism carbon dioxide atmospheric concentration of carbon footprint carbon pricing cashmere cell phones environmental impact of storage and disposal of Census of Manufactures Center for Alternative Technologies Center for Economic and Policy Research ceramics, imported, weight of chain stores, market power of Chase, Robin child care China commodities use by ecological footprint in greenhouse gas emissions and historical carbon emissions of Kuznets model and population and Chrysler Corp.


pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

It’s been estimated that globally, 60 percent of all occupations will, in the next few years, be substantially redefined because of new disruptive technologies.60 It’s not only low-level or menial jobs that will be automated—it’s all jobs. In fact, there’s a case to be made that “knowledge work”—radiology, law, sales, and finance—will actually be automated faster than more physical jobs in areas like healthcare and manufacturing. Moreover, even in fields where humans can’t be replaced entirely, the gig economy and the “sharing” economy—driven, of course, by tech firms—have dramatically increased the number of contingency workers without benefits.61 Beyond these relatively easy-to-track numbers is perhaps a deeper and more worrisome issue, which is the way in which data-driven capitalism has turned people into the factory inputs of the digital age. Companies used to rely on people not only as labor, but as customers that supported demand for their products (and thus demand for new labor).

Not only do the private companies that emerge from this unproductive cycle become bloated, so, too, do the venture funds themselves. Billion-dollar venture funds, once unheard of, are now commonplace. Last year, Sequoia raised an $8 billion seed fund, and SoftBank a whopping $100 billion fund. Big, of course, begets big. Charismatic CEOs and their PR teams drum out compelling narratives around these sectors (wearables, electric cars, the “sharing” economy, cybersecurity). Then they send market signals about their own “value” with announcements that play off these narratives: Uber’s $680 million purchase of self-driving truck firm Otto, for example. Venture capitalists and private equity investors keep the bubble going by buying into it at higher and higher valuations. As more and more heavyweight VCs bid up the value of start-ups, others have to follow.

She found that, not surprisingly, while Uber itself took most of the upside of the business, drivers were often left to bear the cost and the downsides of the disruptive technology on their own. Lyft, Uber’s biggest competitor, has always been known as the kinder, gentler ridesharing company, in part because its CEO Logan Green has been more inclined to discuss the downsides of the sharing economy in a thoughtful and open way (that and the fact that he hasn’t been caught on a dashcam screaming at his own drivers). Green is, for example, concerned about the potential mass displacement of drivers in the United States (which represents the largest single category of work for men with a high school degree or less) by autonomous vehicles. Drivers themselves have reported being able to make more money on Lyft relative to Uber, and have higher levels of job satisfaction.


pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

Other credits appear in the captions of the respective images. 978-0-698-40941-5 Cover design: Evan Gaffney Cover images: (city background) Merten Snijders/Getty Images; (cyclist) Biederbick & Rumpf/F1 Online/Superstock; (businessman) Massimo Colombo/Getty Images Version_1 To the men and women of the New York City Department of Transportation Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication Preface INTRODUCTION A New Street Code CHAPTER 1 The Fight CHAPTER 2 Density Is Destiny CHAPTER 3 Setting the Agenda CHAPTER 4 How to Read the Street CHAPTER 5 Follow the Footsteps CHAPTER 6 Battle for a New Times Square CHAPTER 7 Stealing Good Ideas CHAPTER 8 Bike Lanes and Their Discontents CHAPTER 9 Bike Share: A New Frontier in the Shared Economy CHAPTER 10 Safety in Numbers CHAPTER 11 Sorry to Interrupt, but We Have to Talk About Buses CHAPTER 12 Measuring the Street CHAPTER 13 Nuts and Bolts CHAPTER 14 The Fight Continues Photographs Acknowledgments Notes Index Preface My six-year, seven-month, eighteen-day tenure as New York City transportation commissioner began with a meeting at City Hall, at the foot of the Brooklyn Bridge, in early spring 2007.

Judged from the street and by the sight of ordinary people riding bikes as basic transportation and not as a political statement, a new road order for cities had become a self-evident fact on the streets of New York. “The biggest mischaracterization about the infamous New York Cycling War is that there’s a war at all,” wrote a columnist for The Wall Street Journal. “Look all around you. The bikes have won, and it’s not a terrible thing.” 9 Bike Share: A New Frontier in the Shared Economy Just after eleven p.m. my e-mail inbox exploded with messages from viewers tuned to The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. I was out that night at an event and had missed the entire show, but quickly figured out that Stewart had just given Citi Bike the full comic treatment. “There are a lot of important stories in the world right now,” Jon Stewart said to open the show, and “one of the most important is happening right here in New York City.”

All the lawsuits against Citi Bike were eventually dismissed, with judges citing the outreach report. Under Bloomberg’s successor, Citi Bike would expand far beyond its original launch area, moving up the Upper East and Upper West sides and into Long Island City, Queens, and Park Slope, Brooklyn. The Great Bike Panic could no longer be reported with a straight face. The bikes had truly won, forging a new frontier in the shared economy. 10 Safety in Numbers Early on a Thursday in late February, six-year-old Amar Diarrassouba and his older brother approached the intersection of 116th Street and First Avenue in East Harlem, the final crosswalk in their daily walk to Public School 155. When the light turned green, the driver of a tractor-trailer on 116th Street started to turn right onto First Avenue, into the crosswalk where Amar started crossing with his brother.


pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman

3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

To solve that, Puma created a bag that, rather than add to the clutter in your home when you stash it away, or the guilt you feel when you throw it out, would simply disappear. Put the brand’s Clever Little Shopper bag in hot water for three minutes and it harmlessly dissolves, so you can pour it safely down the plug. The social accommodation brand Airbnb, the car-sharing service Zipcar and music-streaming site Spotify are all examples of what is variously known, from slightly different angles, as the new trend for dis-ownership, the sharing economy and collaborative consumption. Now, thanks to these trends and the technologies that make them possible, you can enjoy the experience of a room, a house, a car, a CD, a handbag, a lawnmower, a musical instrument or even a dog – without all the hassle that comes with owning them. The success of Zipcar, for instance, reflects the space and cost that comes with keeping a car in a city, and the fact that, if you live in a city, you just do not need a car so much anymore.

As well as giving people the chance to borrow other people’s goods, it also lets them share a good they already own: their own home. Beyond the obvious financial reward, there is also a participatory, social good that comes with Airbnb. It provides the people who let their rooms and their homes, and the people who stay there, with real connections. As a result, they tend to feel part of the new, innovative sharing economy, they feel more connected to other people, and they have more stories to share. Apple has become the world’s leading brand because of its ruthless focus on experience. Think, for a moment, how easy it is to operate an Apple device, and how slim the operating manual is. How different is that to the manual that came with, say, your VHS recorder in the 1980s? Do you remember how complicated it was to record a TV show back then?

., Resource Revolution: Meeting the World’s Energy, Materials, Food, and Water Needs, a report from McKinsey & Company (November, 2011). Also, “Hitting our Limits?”, The Economist, 14 October 2011. “A technologist…” For examples of technology facilitating the shift from owning material things to experience, consider the success of Spotify, Zipcar, and the Kindle. Various sources, including: “All Eyes on the Sharing Economy”, The Economist, 9 Mar 2013. The Perfect Storm Applied more than 5,000 times Source: Everett M Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (New York: Free Press, 1962, fifth edition, 2003) Sherlock Holmes and the Mystery of the Krispy Kremes This story draws on a number of reports, including: Peter Laing, “Cops Tackle Krispy Kreme Traffic Chaos – and Pick up a Box of Doughnuts”, Deadline News, 15 February 2013; Shiv Malik, “Krispy Kremes Cause Chaos in Edinburgh Streets”, The Guardian, 15 February 2013; and Harriet Arkell, “Jam Doughnuts: Hundreds of Motorists Bring Traffic Chaos to M8 as They Queue for Opening of New Krispy Kreme”, Mail Online, 15 February 2013.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Beyond these situations in which a public interest must transcend governmental power structures, other industry sectors and classes can be freed from skewed regulatory and licensing schemes subject to the hierarchical power structures and influence of strongly backed special interest groups on governments, enabling new disintermediated business models. Even though regulation spurred by the institutional lobby has effectively crippled consumer genome services,3 newer sharing economy models like Airbnb and Uber have been standing up strongly in legal attacks from incumbents.4 In addition to economic and political benefits, the coordination, record keeping, and irrevocability of transactions using blockchain technology are features that could be as fundamental for forward progress in society as the Magna Carta or the Rosetta Stone. In this case, the blockchain can serve as the public records repository for whole societies, including the registry of all documents, events, identities, and assets.

The same templated altcoin issuance could extend to groups within these communities, like DeltaChiCoin or NeuroscienceConferenceCoin, to support any specific group’s activities. The Campuscoin issuance template could have specific prepackaged modules. First, there could be a module for buying and selling assets within the local community, an OpenBazaar- or Craigslist-like asset exchange module. Second, there could be a sharing economy module, a decentralized model of Airbnb for dorm rooms, Getaround for transportation including cars and bikes, and LaZooz peer-based ride sharing. Third, there could be a consulting or “advisory services” module for all manner of advice, mentoring, coaching, and tutoring related to classes, departments, majors, and careers. Recent graduates could earn Campuscoin by consulting to job-seeking seniors with specific services like advice and mock interviews; freshmen could provide counsel to high school seniors; and former students in a class could provide advice to current students.

The license would encompass anyone doing anything with anyone else’s Bitcoins, including basic wallet software (like the QT wallet).192 However, on the other hand, regulated consumer protections for Bitcoin industry participants, like KYC (know your customer) requirements for money service businesses (MSBs), could hasten the mainstream development of the industry and eradicate consumer worry of the hacking raids that seem to plague the industry. The deliberations and early rulings of worldwide governments on Bitcoin raise some interesting questions. One issue is the potential practical impossibility of carrying out taxation with current methods. A decentralized peer-to-peer sharing economy of Airbnb 2.0 and Uber 2.0 run on local implementations of OpenBazaar with individuals paying with cryptocurrencies renders traditional taxation structures impossible. The usual tracking and chokehold points to trace the consumption of goods and services might be gone. This has implications both for taxation and for the overall measurement of economic performance such as GDP calculations, which could have the beneficial impact of drawing populaces away from being overly and possibly incorrectly focused on consumption as a wellness metric.


pages: 307 words: 88,180

AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order by Kai-Fu Lee

AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, ImageNet competition, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, new economy, pattern recognition, pirate software, profit maximization, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Y Combinator

In the long run, resistance may be futile, but symbiosis will be rewarded. Finally, the internet-enabled sharing economy will contribute significantly to alleviating job losses and redefining work for the AI age. We’ll see more people step out of traditional careers that are being taken over by algorithms, instead using new platforms that apply the “Uber model” to a variety of services. We see this already in Care.com, an online platform for connecting caregivers and customers, and I believe we will see a blossoming of analogous models in education and other fields. Many mass-market goods and services will be captured by data and optimized by algorithms, but some of the more piecemeal or personalized work within the sharing economy will remain the exclusive domain of humans. In the past, this type of work was constrained by the bureaucratic costs of running a vertical company that attracted customers, dispatched workers, and kept everyone on the payroll even when there wasn’t work to be done.

In the past, this type of work was constrained by the bureaucratic costs of running a vertical company that attracted customers, dispatched workers, and kept everyone on the payroll even when there wasn’t work to be done. The platformatization of these industries dramatically increases their efficiency, increasing total demand and take-home pay for the service workers themselves. Adding AI to the equation—as ride-hailing companies like Didi and Uber have already done—will only further boost efficiency and attract more workers. Beyond the established roles in the sharing economy, I’m confident we will see entirely new service jobs emerge that we can hardly imagine today. Explain to someone in the 1950s what a “life coach” was and they’d probably think you were goofy. Likewise, as AI frees up our time, creative entrepreneurs and ordinary people will leverage these platforms to create new kinds of jobs. Perhaps people will hire “season changers” who redecorate their closets every few months, scenting them with flowers and aromas that match the mood of the season.

See PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) Q Qianlong (emperor), 29 Qihoo 360 (web security software), 41–42 QQ (messaging platform), 41–42, 58 QR codes, 74, 77 Qualcomm, 96 Q-Zone (social network), 58 R Reddit, 109 Reddy, Raj, 4 red envelopes, 60, 61 redistribution of wealth, 203–4, 206–8, 222 reducing work hours, 203, 205–6, 207 reinforcement learning, 12, 143 Renren (social network), 23, 42–43, 48 ResNet, 90 retraining, 203, 204–5, 207, 215, 216, 221–22 ride sharing, 68–69, 76, 79, 137–38 risk-of-replacement graphs, 155–57, 204, 205–6, 211 robot reporters, 108 robots and robotics, 129–30, 166–68, 230 rule-based approach to AI, 7–8 RXThinking, 114–15 S Schmidt, Eric, 90 science fiction, 144–45, 168, 172, 199, 230 Sculley, John, 177–78 search habits, divergent, 37–38 The Second Machine Age (Brynjolfsson and McAfee), 148–49, 150 self-driving cars AI chips and, 96, 97 approaches for deployment of, 131–35 China vs. U.S., 136 deep learning and, 10–11 in India, 138 political culture divide and, 101–2 ride-hailing companies and, 137 semiconductors, 96 “A Sense of Purpose” (Fink), 215 service jobs, creation of, and compensation for, 214–15, 216 service work and social investment stipend, 221, 222 Seven Giants of the AI age, 83, 91–92, 93, 94, 95, 169 sharing economy, 213–14 Shenzhen, China, 99, 125–26, 127, 130–31 shopping carts, perception AI–powered, 119–21, 124, 125 Silicon Valley Baidu’s AI lab in, 93 China’s competition with. See China and U.S., competition between China’s technology environment compared to, 15–16, 43–45, 49, 55, 57, 65, 71–73 China’s version of, 51–53, 63 Chinese copycat entrepreneurs and, 22–25, 28, 30–34, 49 chip development in, 96–97 data gathered by, 56 eBay and, 35–36 ecosystem of, 52–53 elite expertise in, 82, 83 entrepreneurs of, 15–16, 22, 26, 27, 52, 168 failure in China, 39–40 four waves of AI and, 106 global markets and, 137, 138 lean startup methodology and, 44–45 policy suggestions coming from, 201 resistance to product modifications, 24, 38, 39 resistance to subsidies, 76 ride sharing and, 68 universal basic income and, 207, 208–10, 218 world technology market domination, 2, 11–12 Silicon Valley (TV series), 55 Simon, Herbert, 7 Singapore, 20, 137, 146 T the singularity, 140–41, 142 Sinovation Ventures Guo’s attraction of, 52, 62 Lee’s founding of, 52, 57, 64, 67 startups incubated by, 57, 58 study by, 89 Smart Finance, 112–13, 163 smartphones China’s alternate internet universe and, 54, 61 Chinese leapfrogging of PCs with, 57–58 Chinese students and, 3, 83 chips in, 96 mini-iPhones, 32 Mobikes and, 78 mobile payments and, 74, 75 processing power in, 9 WeChat app for, 58–59, 61, 70 Zhongguancun and, 52 social entrepreneurship, 216–17 social investment stipend, 220–24 Softbank, 153 Sohoo (search engine), 31 solar panels, photovoltaic, 133 Solyndra, 100 Southeast Asia, 137, 169 South Korea, 146, 159, 228–29 Soviet Union, 3 Space Race, 3 SpaceX, 49 speech recognition advances in, recent, 161 Baidu and, 93 deep learning and, 5, 10 educational applications, 123 iFlyTek and, 104–5 international competitions in, 87, 104–5 Lee and, 177–78 legal applications, 115 in the mainstream, 143 Microsoft Research and, 81 neural networks and, 8–9, 10 privacy and, 124 speech synthesis, 104–5, 177 Sphinx, 8 Sputnik, 3 Sputnik Moment for China (2016), 3, 11 Steal Vegetables, 43 steam engine, 149, 150, 152, 154, 228 Stoppelman, Jeremy, 72 strawberry picking, 129 strong features vs. weak features, 110–11, 113, 191 structured data, 111–12 Summers, Lawrence, 151 super-app model, 70–71.


pages: 125 words: 28,222

Growth Hacking Techniques, Disruptive Technology - How 40 Companies Made It BIG – Online Growth Hacker Marketing Strategy by Robert Peters

Airbnb, bounce rate, business climate, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, digital map, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, pull request, revision control, ride hailing / ride sharing, search engine result page, sharing economy, Skype, TaskRabbit, turn-by-turn navigation, ubercab

Although facing stiff competition from Groupon, LivingSocial is still very much in the game and well positioned for even greater growth. Sidecar Defining the prevailing zeitgeist at any moment in time can be a powerful but difficult growth hack, but San Francisco-based Sidecar, a major competitor with Uber in the sector of peer-to-peer ride sharing seems to be a good market fit for the rapidly emerging Sharing Economy. In the months following its January 2012 launch in San Francisco, the company experienced 60% month-over-month growth and secured impressive funding starting with $20 million in seed money. Like Uber, SideCar opted for a “proof is in the pudding” approach to demonstrating its value at the influential SXSW tech conference in Austin, Texas from March 8-17, 2013. All rides during the conference were free, and drivers were paid as brand ambassadors.

The traditional idea has been that car ownership equates with freedom. For this age group, however, real freedom is simply having ready access to transportation that meets their needs. The fact that Sidecar is smartphone based further caters to this ethos since the basic assumption is that the smartphone is the central hub of activity and means of organization and connection for the current crop of twenty-somethings. Within this age bracket, the sharing economy has gained considerable traction as evidence by the success of other startups with a similar philosophical bent like AirBnB. With services like Sidecar, all parties benefit — riders and drivers. The latest iteration of the Sidecar app lets user tailor their rides by type of vehicle type, driver, and price as well as proximity to their current location. As proof of the traction of the sharing concept, during its first summer in operation, Sidecar snapped up an addition $10 million in funding.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

Silicon Valley’s anti-establishment coders hadn’t reckoned with the challenge of trust and how society traditionally turns to centralized institutions to deal with that. That failure was clear in the subsequent Internet 2.0 phase, which unlocked the power of social networks but also allowed first-mover companies to turn network effects into entrenched monopoly power. These included social media giants like Facebook and Twitter and e-marketplace success stories of the “sharing economy” such as Uber and Airbnb. Blockchain technologies, as well as other ideas contained in this Internet 3.0 phase, aim to do away with these intermediaries altogether, letting people forge their own bonds of trust to build social networks and business arrangements on their own terms. The promise lies not just in disrupting the behemoths of the Internet, however. Lots of large, twentieth-century, for-profit companies believe this technology can help them unlock value and pursue new money-making ventures, too.

To be clear, these numbers don’t only represent the total amount stolen by hackers; they also include the cost of legal actions, security upgrades, and so forth—the business losses that are generated by countless attacks every year. Even so, the data suggest that black-hat hackers are among the most financially successful innovators of the Internet era. This colossal failure to protect global commerce is directly attributable to a mismatch between the centralized way in which we process and store information and the decentralizing tendencies of a global “sharing” economy that’s pushing for more peer-to-peer and device-to-device commerce. As more people connect over peer-to-peer social networks and use online services, and as more so-called Internet of Things (IoT) devices such as smart thermostats and refrigerators and even cars join the network, ever more access points are created. Hackers use these points to find their way into the Internet’s ever-growing centralized data-stores and steal or otherwise mess with their contents.

In an environment where so many machine-to-machine exchanges become transactions of value, we will need a blockchain in order for each device’s owner to trust the others. Once this decentralized trust structure is in place, it opens up a world of new possibilities. Consider this futuristic example: Imagine you drive your electric Tesla car to a small rural town to take a hike in the mountains for the day. When you return you realize you don’t have enough juice in your car and the nearest Tesla Supercharger station is too far away. Well, in a sharing economy enabled by blockchains, you would have nothing to fear. You could just drive up to any house that advertises that it lets drivers plug into an outlet and buy power from it. You could pay for it all with cryptocurrency over a high-volume payments system, such as the Lightning Network, and the tokens would be deducted from your car’s own digital wallet and transferred to the wallet of the house’s electric meter.


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

It also holds appeal for the rentier class—which Piketty calls the “enemy of democracy”—as they would be assured of steady profits by collecting rents while the middle class loses independence.39 The younger generations, increasingly destined to be without property of their own, are even losing ownership of their personal data. They hand over large amounts of personal information, often unknowingly, to big tech firms in exchange for free services. Rather than the much-ballyhooed “sharing economy,” we are seeing an economy based on mining personal data for the benefit of a few companies. In this way, the middle class will become digital serfs in what Gaspard Koenig calls “digital feudalism.”40 CHAPTER 12 Culture and Capitalism Close ties and common goals shared between a powerful, wealthy class and a priestly or intellectual class have shaped many cultures throughout history, including the feudal era.1 Today a symbiosis between the economic oligarchy and the clerisy poses the biggest threat to the future of the middle class, as it serves to promote values and advance policies harmful to their well-being.

Today, some 40 percent of the Japanese workforce are “irregular,” also known as “freetors,” and this group is growing fast while the number of full-time jobs is decreasing. The instability in employment is widely seen as one reason for the country’s ultra-low birth rate.15 Many of today’s “precariat” work in the contingent “gig” economy, associated with firms such as Uber and Lyft. These companies and their progressive allies, including David Plouffe (who managed Barack Obama’s presidential campaign in 2008), like to speak of a “sharing” economy that is “democratizing capitalism” by returning control of the working day to the individual. They point to opportunities that the gig economy provides for people to make extra money using their own cars or homes. The corporate image of companies like Uber and Lyft features moonlighting drivers saving up cash for a family vacation or a fancy date while providing a convenient service for customers—the ultimate win-win.16 Yet for most gig workers there’s not very much that is democratic or satisfying in it.

One survey of gig workers in seventy-five countries including the United States found that most earned less than minimum wage, leading one observer to label them “the last of Marx’s oppressed proletarians.”17 The reasons for their precarious situation are not hard to locate. Gig workers lack many basic protections that full-time workers might have, such as enforcement of civil rights laws. Workers without representation, or even set hours, do not have the tools needed to protect their own position; they are essentially fungible, like day laborers anywhere. Robert Reich, former U.S. secretary of labor, has gone so far as to label the “sharing” economy a “share-the-scraps” economy.18 Rather than providing an “add on” to a middle-class life, gig work for many has turned out to be something closer to serfdom. Cultural Erosion in the Working Class The downward economic trajectory of the working class has been amplified by cultural decline. The traditional bulwarks of communities—religious institutions, extended family, neighborhood and social groups, trade unions—have weakened generally, but the consequences are most damaging for those with limited economic resources.19 Social decay among the working class echoes what occurred in the first decades of the industrial revolution, when family and community structures and bonds of religion buckled and often broke.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

In the aftermath of the financial crisis, Germany introduced a Kurzarbeit scheme to keep workers in their jobs part-time while using their remaining time to up-skill in programs jointly funded by industry, unions, and government. Is the sharing economy another path to economic salvation? Platforms that enable the rental of assets owned by others such as automobiles or housing have created economic activity that is expected to reach over $300 billion by 2020. Uber and Airbnb enjoy skyrocketing valuations because they provide the marketplace for billions of connected individuals to transact among themselves. Sharing economy is in fact a misnomer: It is rather the full flourishing of self-regulated peer-to-peer capitalism, one in which people get paid for work in micro-increments, but as they do, connectivity becomes the foundation of whatever stability they have.

In 2014, Ericsson managed to block a popular Xiaomi model from sale in India due to a patent infringement. That same year, Huawei sued fellow Shenzhen-based ZTE in a German court for the same reason! PRINTING, SHARING—AND TRADING The biggest threat to current patterns of global trade comes from the combination of 3-D printing (which allows more products to be manufactured locally at “home”) and the sharing economy (by which fewer goods are purchased but existing goods are consumed as services). Local prototyping and mass production together could bring about a severe long-term contraction in global shipping, inventories, and warehousing. If DHL’s largest clients—the U.S. military and hardware companies such as HP—suddenly printed all their components on-site at bases or client facilities, the courier business could go bust.

Connectivity allows us to get more usage and mileage, circulation and sharing, out of each tool and product. A new stage has even entered the supply circle before recycling—up-cycling—by which materials are repurposed in higher-value ways: Plastic becomes furniture, tires become boots, shipping containers become two-bedroom homes for dense cities or refugee camps. A supply chain world could be more sustainable if it follows a principle that animates the sharing economy: Unused value is wasted value. COMING HOME—BUT ONLY TO SELL AT HOME A half century ago, GE manufactured consumer goods at Appliance Park in Louisville, Kentucky, an SEZ-like town with its own power plant, fire department, and zip code. Rising costs, labor disputes, and outsourcing pushed down its employment from a peak of twenty thousand workers in the 1970s to only eighteen hundred by 2008.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

This is an important insight and suggests that jobs will be sliced and diced, with some tasks being automated, and other tasks being retained by the human who previously did the whole job. Some would argue that this process is already under way. Parts of the economies of developed countries are being fragmented, or Balkanised, with more and more people working freelance, carrying out individual tasks which are allocated to them by platforms and apps like Uber and TaskRabbit. There are many words for this phenomenon: the gig economy, the networked economy, the sharing economy, the on-demand economy, the peer-to-peer economy, the platform economy, and the bottom-up economy. Is this a way to escape the automation of jobs by machine intelligence? To break jobs down into as many component tasks as possible, and preserve for humans those tasks which they can do better than machines? Probably not, for at least two reasons. First, it is precarious, and secondly, the machines will eventually come for all the tasks.

Whether or not the new forms of freelancing opened up by Uber, Lyft, TaskRabbit, Handy and so on are precarious is a matter of debate, especially in their birthplace, San Francisco. Are the people hired out by these organisations “micro-entrepreneurs” or “instaserfs” - members of a new “precariat”, forced to compete against each other on price for low-end work with no benefits? Are they operating in a network economy or an exploitation economy? Is the sharing economy actually a selfish economy? Whichever side of this debate you come down on, the gig economy is a significant development: a survey by accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers found that as many as 7% of US adults were involved in it.[cclxv] But our concern here is not whether the gig economy is a fair one. It is whether it can prevent the automation of jobs by machine intelligence leading to widespread unemployment.

mt=2&i=361020299 [cclx] http://uk.businessinsider.com/high-salary-jobs-will-be-automated-2016-3 [cclxi] http://www.fiercefinanceit.com/story/will-regulatory-compliance-drive-artificial-intelligence-adoption/2016-01-05 [cclxii] http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/business/liverpool-fc-sponsor-standard-chartered-11104215 [cclxiii] http://www.cnbc.com/2015/12/30/artificial-intelligence-making-some-bosses-nervous-study.html [cclxiv] Assuming the work is happening on Earth. Wikipedia offers a more general but less euphonious definition: “Work is the product of the force applied and the displacement of the point where the force is applied in the direction of the force.” [cclxv] http://www.wsj.com/articles/can-the-sharing-economy-provide-good-jobs-1431288393 [cclxvi] https://www.edge.org/conversation/kevin_kelly-the-technium [cclxvii] https://www.singularityweblog.com/techemergence-surveys-experts-on-ai-risks/ [cclxviii] http://uk.businessinsider.com/social-skills-becoming-more-important-as-robots-enter-workforce-2015-12 [cclxix] http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/automated-teller-machines [cclxx] http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/03/a-brief-history-of-the-atm/388547/ [cclxxi] http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704463504575301051844937276 [cclxxii] http://kalw.org/post/robotic-seals-comfort-dementia-patients-raise-ethical-concerns#stream/0 [cclxxiii] http://viterbi.usc.edu/news/news/2013/a-virtual-therapist.htm [cclxxiv] http://observer.com/2014/08/study-people-are-more-likely-to-open-up-to-a-talking-computer-than-a-human-therapist/ [cclxxv] http://mindthehorizon.com/2015/09/21/avatar-virtual-reality-mental-health-tech/ [cclxxvi] http://www.handmadecake.co.uk/ [cclxxvii] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15551818 [cclxxviii] http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/19322 [cclxxix] http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/c5cf07c4-bf8e-11e5-846f-79b0e3d20eaf.html#axzz3yLGlrr1J [cclxxx] http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat11.htm [cclxxxi] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Man%27s_Sky [cclxxxii] http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/c5cf07c4-bf8e-11e5-846f-79b0e3d20eaf.html#axzz3yLGlrr1J [cclxxxiii] http://www.inc.com/john-brandon/22-inspiring-quotes-from-famous-entrepreneurs.html [cclxxxiv] http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi265.htm [cclxxxv] http://googleresearch.blogspot.co.uk/2015/06/inceptionism-going-deeper-into-neural.html [cclxxxvi] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-35977315 [cclxxxvii] http://fee.org/freeman/the-economic-fantasy-of-star-trek/ [cclxxxviii] https://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-11/16/iain-m-banks-the-hydrogen-sonata-review [cclxxxix] http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/dfe218d6-9038-11e3-a776-00144feab7de.html#axzz3yUOe9Hkp [ccxc] http://www.brautigan.net/machines.html [ccxci] As noted in chapter 3.4, Anders Sandberg is James Martin Fellow at the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University.


pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, break the buck, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, disruptive innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve, zero-sum game

These include wide-scale urbanization and the emergence of megacities, which render even more important the effective devolution of some power to cities and municipalities. Meanwhile, and perhaps more important, rapid technological innovations have enabled and empowered individuals like never before (something that we will return to later in the book). Today, so many more people in so many more places are enabled to connect and participate, and, soon, they will also be able to make a lot more things. It is the “sharing economy” in which so many more citizens can be productive entrepreneurs and collaborators, including by deploying existing (underutilized) assets. But it is a world that displaces existing workers and makes the political center weaker. More concerning, it is a world that makes cyberterrorism and nonstate terrorism more meaningful threats.3 Governments that look to the technological revolution to materially improve the welfare of both current and future generations while also countering its dark side need to understand the dual nature of these transformative innovations.

Banque de France, “Macroprudential Policies: Implementation and Interactions,” Financial Stability Review, April 2014. 6. Mohamed A. El-Erian, “3 Steps to Remove Financial System Risk,” Harvard Business School, August 15, 2007, http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5745.html. 7. Mohamed A. El-Erian, “Creative Self-Disruption,” Project Syndicate, April 7, 2015, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/consumer-sharing-economy-adaptation-by-mohamed-a--el-erian-2015-04. 8. Steve Lohr, “Banking Start-ups Adopt New Tools for Lending,” New York Times, January 19, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/19/technology/banking-start-ups-adopt-new-tools-for-lending.html. 9. For full disclosure, I have been recently involved in one of these efforts—“Payoff”—as an investor and board member of a start-up seeking to improve the financial services offered to households and small businesses.

See, for example, Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy (Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press, 2011). CHAPTER 28: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 1. Richard Dobbs, James Manyika, and Jonathan Woetzel, No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends (New York: PublicAffairs, 2015). 2. Mohamed A. El-Erian, “Creative Self-Disruption,” Project Syndicate, April 7, 2015, http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/consumer-sharing-economy-adaptation-by-mohamed-a--el-erian-2015-04. CHAPTER 29: WHAT HISTORY TELLS US 1. Richard Dobbs, James Manyika, and Jonathan Woetzel, No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends (New York: PublicAffairs, 2015). 2. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011). 3. Lea Wineman, “A Machine for Jumping to Conclusions,” Monitor on Psychology 43, no. 2 (February 2012). 4.


pages: 121 words: 36,908

Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase

Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

But a market, for any one particular type of thing or service, can also be considered as a technology, one with very different meanings and effects depending on the larger social structure in which it is embedded. In a society like ours, characterized by extreme concentrations of wealth and income, the market allocates social power in proportion to money—thus producing a society of “one dollar, one vote.” Consider the example of companies like the car-sharing service Uber, the errand-outsourcing website TaskRabbit, and the short-term rental market AirBnB. All represent themselves as part of the “sharing economy,” in which individuals make small exchanges of goods and services under conditions of fundamental equality. The idea is that I might rent out my apartment when I’m on vacation, and hire you to drive me somewhere when you have the spare time, and that we all therefore end up with a bit more convenience and a bit more money. In that case, nobody has enough wealth and power to exploit anyone else, which would make this a good example of what the sociologist Erik Olin Wright calls “capitalism between consenting adults” who have equal power in the marketplace.20 As they exist now, these companies really just demonstrate how unequal and nonconsensual our current system is.

The answer is not to attack the system of market planning, but to overthrow that underlying inequality. Ultimately, this means overcoming the capitalist system of resource distribution and approaching a world in which control of wealth is equalized—that is, where “the distribution of the means of payment” (to use Gorz’s phrase cited in Chapter 2) is essentially equal. But short of that, there are ways to turn some of the predatory “sharing economy” businesses into something a bit more egalitarian. Economics writer Mike Konczal, for instance, has suggested a plan to “socialize Uber.”26 He notes that since the company’s workers already own most of the capital—their cars—it would be relatively easy for a worker cooperative to set up an online platform that works like the Uber app but is controlled by the workers themselves rather than a handful of Silicon Valley capitalists.


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Yet his reading of what trust is is different from that of Uslaner; rather he believes that everyone has a set quantity of trust which is constantly being redistributed according to experience and circumstances. The fact that we no longer trust politicians and the police means not that we have lost trust but that we have placed our trust in other relationships and forms. Rather than signalling the end of trust, instead what we are seeing is its redistribution into other systems such as the proliferation of open source and sharing communities – what Burnham calls a ‘sharing economy’. As a result, as hierarchical trust has declined, a belief in the commons has become more important, as we ‘discover new values, and new ways of creating and extending trust, outside of existing damaged systems’.37 The Sculpt Me Point exhibit by Marti Guixe, Amsterdam, 2008 But, I asked, how does this reflect on the way we build cities? He then told me about some of his previous projects.

Trust was allowed to express itself spontaneously. Yet more importantly than this, Burnham reminded me that trust was not a building, it was not bricks and stones; instead it was the sharing of the process of building that created and nurtured trust. That we no longer trust governments, corporations and police does not mean that we have lost the art of trusting. We are already more trusting than we imagine in a new sharing economy that encompasses car clubs, Airbnb; World Book Night; peer-to-peer platforms; Wikipedia; Instagram; open source software such as the Linux operating system and the Firefox browser, as well as the Creative Commons code of practice. However, we need to be aware of how the uses of urban spaces can impact on this. We need spaces that allow us to be ourselves. We do not necessarily have to build new places in order to create these trusting spaces, we need to have open, public spaces where we can behave and interact in trusting ways.

., ‘William Bratton and the NYPD’, Yale School of Management, Yale Case 07-015, 12 February 2008, p. 14. 15. www.economist.com/node/12630201 16. Putnam, R., Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, Simon & Schuster, 2001, p. 115. 17. Ibid., p. 19. 18. Minton, A., Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the 21st-Century City, Penguin, 2009, p. 21. 19. Griffiths, R., The Great Sharing Economy, Cooperatives UK, Penguin, 2012, p. 1. 20. Ibid., pp. 4–11. 21. www.shareable.net/blog/policies-for-a-shareable-city 22. www.shareable.net/blog/policies-for-a-shareable-city-11-urban-agriculture 23. www.theuglyindian.com Chapter 6: Trust in the city 1. www.tampabay.com/news/humaninterest/article1221799 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/mar/23/obama-trayvon-martin-tragedy 5.


pages: 317 words: 87,566

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

Managers hope that their employees will also act as ‘brand ambassadors’ in their everyday social lives and seek advice on how to influence them to do this. Meanwhile, neuromarketers have begun studying how successfully images and advertisements trigger common neural responses in groups, rather than in isolated individuals. This, it seems, is a far better indication of how larger populations will respond.7 The rise of the ‘sharing economy’, exemplified by Airbnb and Uber, and studies such as the pay-it-forward experiment, offer a simple lesson to big business. People will take more pleasure in buying things if the experience can be blended with something that feels like friendship and gift exchange. The role of money must be airbrushed out of the picture wherever possible. As marketers see it, payment is one of the unfortunate ‘pain points’ in any relationship with a customer, which requires anaesthetizing with some form of more ‘social’ experience.

See Chicago School of economics divorce of from psychology, 61, 69 evolution of discipline of, 54 exceptional status attributed to, 26 function of, according to Coase, 156 happiness economics, 5, 74, 229, 252 as mathematical problem, 51 neo-classical economists/economics, 113, 123, 181 as phenomenon of the mind, 59 pop-economics, 152 reunion of with psychology, 64, 182 subjective sensation and, 55 as winner take all, 160 economies classical political economy, 49–50, 57 knowledge-based economy, 136 political economy, 50, 56 sharing economy, 188 social economy, 190 Edgeworth, Francis, 60, 84 Eisenhower, Dwight David, 255 Ello, 213 emotion definition, 75 as market research industry’s preferred version of happiness/pleasure, 74 emotional contagion, 225 empiricism, 27, 30, 152, 269 employee engagement, 106–9, 113, 126 employee fitness-tracking programmes, 240 employee-owned businesses, advantages of, 272 end of theory, 237 Enlightenment, 7, 19, 23, 27, 47, 85, 251 ennui, costs of, 108 enthusiasm, 251 entropy, law of, 115 ergonomics, 50, 116, 137 Essay on Government (Priestley), 13 European Commission, 255 European Management Forum, 1 evidence-based policy-making, 17 existentialism, 38 experience medicine, 126 experienced utility, measurement of, 64 experimental psychology, 81 Exxon Valdez oil spill, 62–3 eye tracking, 72, 97 eyes, focus on by Wundt, 79–81 Facebook, 10, 74, 100, 189, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 213, 220, 221, 224, 225, 238, 239, 257, 269 face-reading software, 222 facial coding, 76, 97 facial scanning/face-scanning technology, 72, 222, 276 farm experiences, benefits of, 246 fatigue, businesses’ concern about, 50, 116, 120 Fatigue Laboratory (Harvard Business School), 120, 122 FearFighter, 222 Fechner, Gustav as coining pleasure principle, 29 distrust of language, 32 dualism of, 28, 30, 265 on energy, 29, 115 as influenced by Hegel, 30 as monist, 33 as new age thinker, 28 parallels in English psychology to, 48 psychophysical methods of, 60 psychophysical parallelism, 259 as representing relationships between mind and world as numerical ratio, 35 on solving mind–body problem using mathematics, 27, 28 on theory of psychology, 29 weight-lifting experiments of, 30–1, 38, 49, 50, 59, 78 Federal Drug, Food and Cosmetic Act (US) (1938), 170 feedback loops/feedback mechanisms, 95, 103, 230, 276 feelings, adjustment of, 31–2 Ferriss, Tim, 112 fit notes, 112 Fitbit, 240 fitness-tracking ticket machine, 240 fMRI, 32, 231, 237, 241, 261, 262 focus groups, 102, 125 Foucault, Michel, 280n22 FP7 research (European Commission), 255 Freakonomics (Levitt and Dubner), 152 free markets, 19, 49, 57, 69, 140, 154, 181, 185, 274 Free: The Future of a Radical Price (Anderson), 185 Freud, Sigmund, 29, 164, 169, 198, 200, 203 Friedman, Milton, 149, 150, 154, 156–7, 159, 160, 161 friendship, 186, 187, 188, 191, 197, 201, 205, 208, 211, 212, 222, 225, 243, 258 friendvertising, 189 Gale, Harlow, 83, 85 Gallup (poll), 9, 106, 146, 219, 272 Gallup, George, 101 gaming, 205–6 The Genealogy of Morals (Nietzsche), 84 General Adaptation Syndrome, 129 General Medical Council (Britain), 110 General Motors (GM), 215–16 General Phonograph Manufacturing Company, 200 General Sentiment, 223 generosity, 185, 196 Georgetown University, 142 German Automobile Manufacturers’ Association, 217 Germany, influx of Americans taking university degrees and research training in, 83 Gershon, Michael, 231 Gilbert, Jeremy, 213 Gladwell, Malcolm, 72 global economic management, 3 Google, 37, 193 Graham, Richard, 205, 206 gratitude, 33, 131, 186, 187, 194, 196, 210, 276 group identity, 123 group psychology, 124, 125 Growing Well, 246, 247, 248, 250 Guze, Samuel, 169 Hague, William, 139–40, 141, 142, 144 Haidt, Jonathan, 73 Hall, G.

See positive psychology promise of practical utility of, 91 reunion of with economics, 64, 182 social psychology, 125, 189, 266 theory of, as balancing act, 67 The Psychology of Advertising (Scott), 86 psychopharmacology, 162 psychophysical parallelism, 259 psychophysics, 29, 30, 31 psychosomatic interventions/management/programmes/theories, 122, 124, 128, 135 psychotherapy, 124, 127 pulse rate, 25, 26, 27, 37, 79 punishment, 16, 19, 22, 23, 179, 183, 239 PwC, 119 Qualia, 36 quality of life measures, 126 quantitative sociological research, 98 quantified community, 233, 234 quantified self apps, 221 quantified self movement, 221, 228 quants, 237 questionnaires, 165, 175, 176 random acts of managerial generosity, 184 randomized sampling methods, 97 Rapley, Mark, 250 Rayner, Rosalie, 93 Reagan, Ronald, 144, 149, 159 Realeyes, 72 real-time health data, 137 real-time social trends, 224 recessions, 67–8, 252 Recognizing the Depressed Patient (Ayd), 164 reductionism, 27, 264 research ethics, 91–2, 225 resilience training, 35, 273 Resor, Stanley, 93–4, 95, 96 retail culture, 58 Ricard, Matthieu, 2, 4 Robbins, Lionel, 154 Robins, Eli, 169 Rockefeller Foundation, 97, 99, 121 Rogers, Carl, 146 Roosevelt, Franklin, 101, 146 Rowntree, Joseph, 99 RunKeeper, 240 Ryanair, 185 Salter, Tim, 110 sampling methods, 97–8 Santa Monica, California, 4 São Paolo, Brazil, Clean City Law, 275 scales, 146, 165, 175, 176 scanning technology, 75–6 scent logos, 73 Schrader, Harald, 44 scientific advertising, 215 scientific management, 118–19, 120, 136–7, 235 scientific optimism, 242 scientific politics, 77, 88, 145 scientists, as source of authority, 147–8 Scott, Walter Dill, 83, 85 screen time, 207 second brain, 231 secular religions, 260 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 163, 166 self-anchored striving, 147, 166, 175 self-anchoring striving scale, 146 self-forming groups, 200 self-help gurus, 210 self-help literature, 247 self-improvement, 212 self-monitoring, 258 self-optimization, 213 self-reflection, 211 self-surveillance, 221, 230 Seligman, Martin, 165, 277n5 Selye, Hans, 128–31, 133, 264 The Senses and the Intellect (Bain), 48 sentiment analysis/tracking, 6, 221, 223, 261 sexual orientation disturbance, 172 sharing economy, 188 shopping, 58, 74, 93, 188, 239 sick notes, 112 Sing Sing prison, 201 Smail, David, 250 smart cities, 220, 224, 239 smart homes, 239 smart watches, 37 smartphones, 10, 207, 222, 230 smiles/smiling, 36–7, 38 Smith, Adam, 49, 50, 52, 55 social, 1, 36, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 203, 204, 205, 207, 208, 211–12 social analytics, 188, 191, 193, 196 social capitalism, 212 social contagion, science of, 257 social economy, 190 social epidemiology, 9, 250, 254 social media, 188, 189, 199, 203, 207, 208–9, 213, 224, 261, 274 social media addiction, 206, 207 social network analysis, 204, 208 social networks, 193, 194, 195, 196, 213, 225 social neuroscience, 193, 195, 213, 214 social obligation, 184 social optimization, 181–214 social prescribing, 194, 212, 246, 271 social psychology, 125, 189, 266 social research, 98, 202, 226 social science, as converging with physiology into new discipline, 195 sociology, 254 sociometric analysis, 199 sociometric maps, 202 Sociometric Solutions, 239 sociometry, 199, 201, 202, 203 Spengler, Oswald, 121 Spitzer, Robert, 171–3, 176, 271 sponsored conversations, 189 sport, as virtue for political leaders, 140 sporting metaphors, 141 SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 163, 166 St Louis school of psychiatry, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 176, 179 Stanton, Frank, 99 Stigler, George, 150, 152, 153, 156–7, 158, 160 stress, 37, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 175, 250, 262, 272, 273 Stuckler, David, 252 subjective affect, science of, 6, 7 subjective feelings, relationship with external circumstances, 254 subjective sensation, 30, 45, 55, 61 Suicide (Durkheim), 227 Sully, James, 59, 84 surveillance, 231, 237, 238, 240, 242.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Soon, every town and neighborhood will have one, meaning that any individual or small team will be able to rent equipment and be as capital-empowered as an established corporation. A comparable transformation is taking place with biotech equipment. BioCurious, another Silicon Valley invention, is an open wetlab where enthusiasts take courses, use centrifuges and test tubes, and synthesize DNA. Genspace offers a similar resource in New York City. This rent-not-own philosophy further extends the current craze of collaborative consumption and the sharing economy. There’s less and less need to own a factory, a laboratory or even a scientific tool. Instead, why not rent those assets, reducing up-front investment and leaving the ownership and maintenance of state-of-the-art facilities to someone else? Further, given that the control mechanisms offered by software and the Internet allow the management of these capabilities at a distance, why build your own?

Community & Crowd Most large organizations are so busy managing their internals that they don’t leverage their communities at all, let alone the much larger crowd. Most have improved a bit in recent years—almost by default, thanks to social media—but even now a company’s online presence is mostly limited to a Facebook page half-heartedly managed by the marketing department. How can companies rise above prosaic participation in the Web 2.0 world and create a truly social business? How can they cooperate with the sharing economy or with peer-to-peer startups to boost innovation internally? How can they build a vibrant community around their products that will enable them to use P2P forums to drive down support costs? Zappos spends a great deal of time and money managing its community, and is an excellent example of a company that has launched a truly social business. The instant you declare yourself a fan of the company on social media, Zappos makes special deals available to you through its fans-only section.

Currently, one hundred twenty business leaders and thirty-four Fortune 500 companies are council members of Crowd Companies and, according to Owyang, over eighty global brands have experimented with these techniques. Owyang isn’t alone in his thinking: Shel Israel, co-author of the book Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy, noted recently that there have been many such labels attached to this new movement: the Sharing Economy, the Mesh Economy, Collaborative Consumption and the Collaborative Economy. We actually think Exponential Organizations works quite well as a label. But whatever the ultimate designation, it is clear that ExO attributes can and are being implemented by large organizations. In fact, as we wrote this book we were surprised to see how fast that implementation is occurring. What was little more than a loose theory when we sat down to outline the book has now taken on the trappings of a global movement.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

We can seek things out with a low personal cost of time and money. We can access these items with very little friction. This reduced friction creates opportunity for temporary connections with goods and services, which, in a physical world, would be too costly and cumbersome. This means where we used to have to buy items, we can now instead pay to use them when we need them. The sharing economy In a sharing economy we can enjoy the benefit of usage and status on a temporary basis. It’s an obvious solution when you consider that we only use much of what we own for a fraction of the time that it’s available to us, excluding such things as furniture and the fridge. Quite often, we now share or purchase collectively whatever we need, paying only for the time we use it. Instead of purchasing and owning idle assets, we can now access assets on demand.

The interest graph in action The anti-demographic recommendation engine Chapter 7: The truth about pricing: technology and omnipresent deflation Technology deflation Real-world technology deflation The free super computer The crux is human It’s getting quicker Technology curve jumping Technology stacking Omnipresent deflation Consumer price index trickery Connections and the impact on prices Economic border hopping The new minimum wage Notes Chapter 8: A zero-barrier world: how access to knowledge is breaking down barriers So what’s changed? Why do we even own stuff? The sharing economy Personal access Physical access Ownership is a mental state Commercial access Access to everything A personal global factory The clothing company The two-way street The laptop corporation Chapter 9: The infinite store: rebooting retail The physical and virtual challenges Retail was easy The retail revolution What retail forgot The discount death spiral Price and range equalise Same brand, different plan The questions that matter Selling online If you make, you retail (big and small) Border hopping and digital reinvention Experience > item Clues in coffee culture Chapter 10: Bigger than the internet: 3D printing A virtual physical reality The history of technology repeats The home factory Piracy on steroids Dad vs daughter Notes Chapter 11: Screen play: post–mass media Television is no more Device convergence Digital demarcation Mass-media platform fragmentation The legacy media challenge Blogs vs The New York Times Who do you trust?


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Even though blockchain technologies specifically have not seen mainstream adoption as a result, the underlying spirit of decentralization to a substantial degree has. Applications ranging from Apple's phones to WhatsApp have started building in forms of encryption that are so strong that even the company writing the software and managing the servers cannot break it. For those who prefer corporations to government as their boogeyman of choice, the advent of “sharing economy 1.0” is increasingly showing signs of failure to fulfill what many had originally seen to be its promise. Rather than simply cutting out entrenched and oligopolistic intermediaries, giants like Uber are simply replacing the middleman with themselves, and not always doing a better job of it. Blockchains, and the umbrella of related technologies that I have collectively come to call “crypto 2.0,” provide an attractive fix.

The blockchain is the latest digital value leveler as it impacts and shifts value within the cryptospace and into our physical spaces. The blockchain moves the power of transactions closer to the individuals, and it empowers any user on earth to align themselves with a decentralized application or organization, and start generating or moving their own nucleus of crypto value. Another benefit of this phenomenon is to put the sharing economy on steroids, as it melds (crypto) capital and labor with mobile, location-agnostic marketplace environments. We are in the early stages of understanding the movement, distribution and creation of “value” outside of the traditional norms of currency, commodity and property as the main vehicles for value transfer and appreciation. A new frontier will appear. HOW TECHNOLOGY PERMEATES Time to look into a crystal ball and predict the future of Bitcoin, blockchains, cryptocurrency, decentralized applications and cryptography-based protocols and platforms.


pages: 346 words: 89,180

Capitalism Without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy by Jonathan Haskel, Stian Westlake

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, future of work, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mother of all demos, Network effects, new economy, open economy, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, place-making, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, quantitative hedge fund, rent-seeking, revision control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Vanguard fund, walkable city, X Prize, zero-sum game

This is in part because software and data are intangibles, and the growing power of computers and telecommunications is increasing the scope of things that software can achieve. But the process of “software eating the world,” in venture capitalist Marc Andreessen’s words, is not just about software: it involves other intangibles in abundance. Consider Apple’s designs and its unrivaled supply chain, which has helped it to bring elegant products to market quickly and in sufficient numbers to meet customer demand, or the networks of drivers and hosts that sharing-economy giants like Uber and AirBnB have developed, or Tesla’s manufacturing know-how. Computers and the Internet are important drivers of this change in investment, but the change is long running and predates not only the World Wide Web but even the Internet and the PC. The rise of intangible investment becomes clear if we look at data for the economy as a whole. For some years, economists have been measuring those aspects of intangible capital not in the national accounts and building increasingly accurate estimates of the amount of intangible investment going on.

We know that innovation often involves investing in organizational change, such as creating a new business unit to sell a new product line. And it’s also possible to think of examples of companies that have invested to create valuable organizational assets outside their own firms. The remarkable Apple supply chain that Tim Cook was responsible for developing is clearly a long-term source of value for Apple, allowing it to bring products to market extraordinarily quickly. A valuable asset of so-called sharing-economy businesses like Uber or AirBnB is typically their network of committed suppliers—Uber’s drivers or AirBnB’s hosts. This too is an asset of lasting value that both companies have invested heavily to develop (and which they invest to protect, for example, against legal actions requiring them to treat their suppliers as employees). There’s a more general point here as well. It’s easy to identify examples of wasted spending by firms.

First of all, computer hardware has a direct, and in a sense trivial, synergy with one type of intangible: software. That’s the point of software. To put it another way, computers are physical devices that become useful and valuable when you fill them with useful, intangible information. Because computers and networks of computers deal in information, they also help make other intangible investment easier or more effective. Consider the network of big sharing-economy companies like Uber or AirBnB. There is nothing about their business models that absolutely requires computers and the Internet. Before everyone had a smartphone, there were networked cab companies, some of which, like London’s ComCab or Radio Taxis, used independent drivers. Before AirBnB, there were house-share clubs with brochures and telephone booking systems. Both the house-share clubs and the taxi networks made investments of time and money to develop their networks of suppliers.


pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, post-work, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, very high income, working-age population

Moderate reformers will find themselves losing ground to politicians keen to unpick elements of the era of moderation, from the move towards freer trade and capital flows to the elimination of labour-market protections. Politicians will promise to make markets create good jobs: by mandating higher minimum wages, supporting occupational certification and other job protections, and pushing firms to regularize work in sharing-economy sectors – by requiring payment of benefits and the guarantee of a certain number of regular hours, for instance. The global economy probably won’t reward these efforts either. But they benefit from securing the support of portions of the electorate who receive protections from such measures – whose slice of the pie is cut a bit larger. In a world in which the coalitions of interests that supported globalization are breaking down, the politics of protection could prove newly durable.

What’s more, ageing countries are not uniformly old; even in places with highly top-heavy population pyramids, a large share of the population is still of working age and is bound to be resentful of large numbers of people brought in expressly to fill jobs in one of the few sectors that reliably creates new employment. An openness and cosmopolitanism inspired by demographic change would be an encouraging political development. It might one day materialize. It hasn’t yet. THE SHARING ECONOMIES Could there be a constituency for a more benign set of policy innovations: for generous basic incomes tied to sensible work requirements, designed to encourage public-spirited labour contributions but leaving room for the individual’s freedom to live the way he or she wants to live? That might be a lot to ask. But we might expect generous welfare policy to emerge in places where the solidarity that appear is community-based, rather than class-based.

Ray labour abundance as good problem bargaining power cognitive but repetitive collective bargaining and demographic issues discrimination and exclusion global growth of workforce and immigration liberalization in 1970s/80s ‘lump of labour’ fallacy occupational licences organized and proximity reallocation to growing industries retraining and skill acquisition and scarcity and social value work as a positive good see also employment Labour Party, British land scarcity Latvia Le Pen, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Marine legal profession Lehman Brothers collapse (2008) Lepore, Jill liberalization, economic (from 1970s) Linkner, Josh, The Road to Reinvention London Lucas, Robert Lyft maker-taker distinction Malthus, Reverend Thomas Manchester Mandel, Michael Mankiw, Gregory marketing and public relations Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl Mason, Paul, Postcapitalism (2015) McAfee, Andrew medicine and healthcare ‘mercantilist’ world Mercedes Benz Mexico Microsoft mineral industries minimum wage Mokyr, Joel Monroe, President James MOOCs (‘massive open online courses’) Moore, Gordon mortality rates Mosaic (web browser) music, digital nation states big communities of affinity inequality between as loci of redistribution and social capital nationalist and separatist movements Netherlands Netscape New York City Newsweek NIMBYism Nordic and Scandinavian economies North Carolina North Dakota Obama, Barack oil markets O’Neill, Jim Oracle Orbán, Viktor outsourcing Peretti, Jonah Peterson Institute for International Economics pets.com Philadelphia Centennial Fair (1876) Philippines Phoenix, Arizona Piketty, Thomas, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2013) Poland political institutions politics fractionalization in Europe future/emerging narratives geopolitical forces human wealth narrative left-wing looming upheaval/conflict Marxism nationalist and separatist movements past unrest and conflict polarization in USA radicalism and extremism realignment revolutionary right-wing rise of populist outsiders and scarcity social membership battles Poor Laws, British print media advertising revenue productivity agricultural artisanal goods and services Baumol’s Cost Disease and cities and dematerialization and digital revolution and employment trilemma and financial crisis (2008) and Henry Ford growth data in higher education of highly skilled few and industrial revolution minimum wage impact paradox of in service sector and specialization and wage rates see also factors of production professional, technical or managerial work and education levels and emerging economies the highly skilled few and industrial revolution and ‘offshoring’ professional associations skilled cities professional associations profits Progressive Policy Institute property values proximity public spending Putnam, Robert Quakebot quantitative easing Race Against the Machine, Brynjolfsson and McAfee (2011) railways Raleigh, North Carolina Reagan, Ronald redistribution and geopolitical forces during liberal era methods of nation state as locus of as a necessity as politically hard and societal openness wealth as human rent, economic Republican Party, US ‘reshoring’ phenomenon Resseger, Matthew retail sector retirement age Ricardo, David rich people and maker-taker distinction wild contingency of wealth Robinson, James robots Rodrik, Dani Romney, Mitt rule of law Russia San Francisco San Jose Sanders, Bernie sanitation SAP Saudi Arabia savings glut, global ‘Say’s Law’ Scalia, Antonin Scandinavian and Nordic economies scarcity and labour political effects of Schleicher, David Schwartz, Anna scientists Scotland Sears Second World War secular stagnation global spread of possible solutions shale deposits sharing economies Silicon Valley Singapore skilled workers and education levels and falling wages the highly skilled few and industrial revolution ‘knowledge-intensive’ goods and services reshoring phenomenon technological deskilling see also professional, technical or managerial work Slack (chat service) Slate (web publication) smartphone culture Smith, Adam social capital and American Constitution baseball metaphor and cities ‘deepening’ definition/nature of and dematerialization and developing economies and erosion of institutions of firms and companies and good government and housing wealth and immigration and income distribution during industrial revolution and liberalization and nation-states productive application of and rich-poor nation gap and Adam Smith and start-ups social class conflict middle classes and NIMBYism social conditioning of labour force working classes social democratic model social reform social wealth and social membership software ‘enterprise software’ products supply-chain management Solow, Robert Somalia South Korea Soviet Union, dissolution of (1991) specialization Star Trek state, role of steam power Subramanian, Arvind suburbanization Sweden Syriza party Taiwan TaskRabbit taxation telegraphy Tesla, Nikola Thatcher, Margaret ‘tiger’ economies of South-East Asia Time Warner Toyota trade China as ‘mega-trader’ ‘comparative advantage’ theory and dematerialization global supply chains liberalization shaping of by digital revolution Adam Smith on trade unions transhumanism transport technology self-driving cars Trump, Donald Twitter Uber UK Independence Party United States of America (USA) 2016 Presidential election campaign average income Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Constitution deindustrialization education in employment in ethno-nationalist diversity of financial crisis (2008) housing costs in housing wealth in individualism in industrialization in inequality in Jim Crow segregation labour scarcity in Young America liberalization in minimum wage in political polarization in post-crisis profit rates productivity boom of 1990s real wage data rising debt levels secular stagnation in shale revolution in social capital in and social wealth surpasses Britain as leading nation wage subsidies in university education advanced degrees downward mobility of graduates MOOCs (‘massive open online courses’) and productivity see also education urbanization utopias, post-work Victoria, Queen video-gamers Virginia, US state Volvo Vox wages basic income policy Baumol’s Cost Disease cheap labour and employment growth and dot.com boom and financial crisis (2008) and flexibility and Henry Ford government subsidies and housing costs and immigration and industrial revolution low-pay as check on automation minimum wage and productivity the ‘reservation wage’ as rising in China rising in emerging economies and scarcity in service sector and skill-upgrading approach stagnation of and supply of graduates Wandsworth Washington D.C.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

More important, though, they discovered a bigger idea that has since blossomed into a multibillion-dollar company, a whole new way for people to make money and tour the world. The idea was to create a global network through which anyone anywhere could rent a spare room in their home to earn cash. In homage to its roots, they called the company Airbnb, which has grown so large that it is now bigger than all the major hotel chains combined—even though, unlike Hilton and Marriott, it doesn’t own a single bed. And the new trend it set off is the “sharing economy.” When I first heard Chesky describe his company, I confess to being a little dubious: I mean, how many people in Paris really want to rent out their kid’s bedroom down the hall to a perfect stranger—who comes to them via the Internet? And how many strangers want to be down the hall? Answer: a lot! By 2016, there were sixty-eight thousand commercial hotel rooms in Paris and more than eighty thousand Airbnb listings.

You knew the people in your community and everyone else from the outside was a stranger. What we did was give those strangers identities and brands that you could trust. Do you want a stranger staying in your home? No. But would you like Michelle who went to Harvard, works in a bank, and has a five-star rating as a guest on Airbnb? Sure!” Chesky would love to apply what Airbnb has learned about the sharing economy to other realms and experiences, or, as he once put it to me: “There are eighty million power drills in America that are used an average of thirteen minutes. Does everyone really need their own drill?” The distance between imagining something, designing it, manufacturing it, and selling it everywhere has never been shorter, faster, cheaper, and easier—for engineers and non-engineers alike.

He began by distinguishing between the evolution of “physical technologies”—stone tools, horse-drawn plows, microchips—and the evolution of “social technologies”—money, the rule of law, regulations, Henry Ford’s factory, the U.N.: Social technologies are how we organize to capture the benefits of cooperation—non-zero-sum games. Physical technologies and social technologies coevolve. Physical technology innovations make new social technologies possible, like fossil fuel technologies made mass production possible, smartphones make the sharing economy possible. And vice versa, social technologies make new physical technologies possible—Steve Jobs couldn’t have made the smartphone without a global supply chain. But there is one big difference between these two forms of technology, he added: Physical technologies evolve at the pace of science—fast and getting exponentially faster, while social technologies evolve at the pace at which humans can change—much slower.


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

But that’s how our eleven year old daughter explained my experiment with Uber and Airbnb to my wife. Yes, once again, I’m making myself uncomfortable. I’m an advisor to the School of Library and Information Science at San José State University. Since 2009, the program has embraced a 100% online model. Ironically, I’m here for a face to face meeting. And I’m using this visit to California as an opportunity to dip my toes into the infamous sharing economy. So, I’m not in a cab, and I’m not hitchhiking. I’m in a black town car with an Uber-qualified driver named Gustavo. I hailed him via mobile app. I must admit it was fun watching the little black car icon drive to my location. I already know a bit about my driver. He’s passed Uber’s insurance and background checks and has a 5 star rating. At the end of my flat rate ride (paid by phone) I can rate him and even write a review.

Our world is more livable because of her. Sadly, not all cities got the message. As my black Uber car cruises the freeways of San José, I’m besieged by the image of urban sprawl. It’s hard to feel at home in a place like this. But it’s not just the office parks and strip malls that are making me uncomfortable. I’m worried about meeting Sophie. Part of the reason I don’t participate in the sharing economy is I’m an introvert, and a shy one too. Hotels are easy. Staff rarely say more than hello. But Airbnb is different. I’m staying in a home with my host. It’s like crashing with a friend you don’t know. Of course, Sophie comes highly recommended. She has a 5-star rating and dozens of glowing reviews. I’m not at all worried about safety or security. And while I’m not sure I’d want our daughters being Airbnb hosts, I’m not a complete stranger to Sophie.


pages: 186 words: 49,251

The Automatic Customer: Creating a Subscription Business in Any Industry by John Warrillow

Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, David Heinemeier Hansson, discounted cash flows, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Network effects, passive income, rolodex, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, subscription business, telemarketer, time value of money, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Call them the Access Generation: a growing cohort of mobile, technically savvy young people who value access over assets. They prefer to stay nimble and rent a home rather than own one; listen to a song on Spotify rather than buy it from iTunes; or subscribe to Oysterbooks .com or Scribd rather than buy from a Barnes & Noble store. The Access Generation is behind the explosion of the new “sharing” economy. Sharing stuff has been around since stuff itself, but technology allows sharing to scale: websites like Airbnb match buyer and seller; your GPS-enabled iPhone allows you to find the closest Zipcar; Facebook and LinkedIn enable you to vet anyone you’re thinking of doing business with; and sites like PayPal allow you to safely pay for what you’re renting. Light-Switch Reliability When you walk into a room and turn on the light, you don’t hold your breath hoping the room will illuminate.

Power & Associates, 186–87 Jobs, Steve, 57 Kassensturz, 88 Kava, Jordana, 93–94 Kelly, Patrick, 35–36, 96, 164 Kerber, Tim, 49 Kirkpatrick & Hopes, 168–70 Klein, Bernard, 93 Køge, 24–25 Koum, Jan, 2, 113 K-Tipp, 88 LA Fitness, 180 laptops, 116 Lapwood, Nev, 171 large companies, 188–89, 194 lawn care, 104 Levine, Mark, 81–83, 87 Liechti, Samy, 83 LifeLock, 140 lifetime value (LTV), 128, 130, 138, 139, 142–43, 146, 151, 173 Ancestry.com and, 136 Constant Contact and, 137 HubSpot and, 133–34 Mosquito Squad and, 138 light-switch reliability, 19–20, 22 Lindt, 93, 94 LinkedIn, 19, 63, 140 Lippitt, Robb, 51 logo churn, 191–93 LoJack Stolen Vehicle Recovery System, 116 long tail, 21–22 Long Tail, The (Anderson), 16, 21 Lore, Marc, 84–85 Luciani, Patrick, 70 Lynda.com, 59 magazines, 16–17, 193 margin, 131–32 Ancestry.com and, 136 HubSpot and, 133–34 Mosquito Squad and, 138 MarketingSherpa, 52, 53 market research, 34–36 Martella, Roberto, 70 Matrix Partners, 129 McCabe, Kathy, 48–49 McDerment, Mike, 27, 144–48, 163 McGrath, Rob, 68 measuring progress, 125–34 Meeker, Matt, 19, 92 MemberGate, 49 membership website model, 47–55 Mequoda Group, 61, 154, 161, 179 messaging services, 2 WhatsApp, 1–2, 108–9, 113, 157 Microsoft, 22 Office, 24 Project, 146n Windows, 57 millennial generation, 18 MMORPGs (massively multiplayer online role-playing games), 111–12 monthly recurring revenue (MRR), 128, 139, 143, 149, 174 Ancestry.com and, 135, 136 CAC payback period and, 140–43 churn rate and, see churn rate Constant Contact and, 136, 137 HubSpot and, 132, 133–34, 135, 149 Mosquito Squad and, 138 SnowboardAddiction.com and, 171 Wild Apricot and, 189–91 Morningstar, 11, 12 Mosquito Squad, 31–32, 103–4, 138, 153–54, 197 Murdoch, Rupert, 16 music business, 57–58 Myspace, 146n National Dance Council of America, 49–50 Nelson, Perry, 165, 171–72, 178–79 Netflix, 35, 59, 63, 154, 155, 159, 166 NetSuite.com, 189 network model, 107–14 New Masters Academy, 59–62, 155, 166 newspapers, 16–17 New York Times, 17, 48, 82 Nicely Noted, 165, 171–72, 178–79 Nicholas, Don, 61, 154, 161, 179 Nightingale Conant, 66 Nike, 89 Nimsoft, 141–42 O’Brien, Chris, 187 onboarding, 132, 140, 142 90-day clock and, 176–82 One Wipe Charlies, 192 online reputation, 117 Onvia, 17 Osler Bluff, 162 Otis, 40 Outdoor Living Brands, 32 Oyster, 59 Panda, Sonu, 33, 158, 197 PayPal, 19 peace-of-mind model, 115–22 pets, 91–92 BarkBox and, 19, 92, 95, 165, 187 PetShopBowl.com and, 38 Tagg and, 115 PetShopBowl.com, 38 pharmacies, 31 photo printing, 156–57 Piranha Marketing System: The Seven Success Multiplying Factors to Dominate Any Market You Enter (Polish), 66 Pitney Bowes, 178 Plugg, 157 Polish, Joe, 66–67, 155 Portrait Software, 178 prioritizing customers, 75 private club model, 65–72 Private Retreats, 68 Procter & Gamble (P&G), 192 productivity applications, 100 profit-and-loss (P&L) statement, 125–28, 138 publishing, 16–17 QSS Group, 101 Qualcomm, 115 Quickbooks, 146n Quidsi, 15, 86 Radian6, 117 radioactive waste and devices, 36–37 Ravindran, Vijay, 12 razor blade business: Dollar Shave Club, 81–83, 84, 87–89, 157, 175–76, 192–93 Raz*War, 157–58, 193, 194 Raz*War, 157–58, 193, 194 Rdio, 58, 155 recession, 39–41 recurring revenue, 4, 6, 78, 104, 128 see also monthly recurring revenue reliability, 19–20, 22 “Renegotiation of Cash Flow Rights in the Sale of VC-Backed Firms” (Broughman and Fried), 147 RestaurantOwner.com, 49 Revolution Dancewear, 50–52 Rhapsody, 58 risk, 119–20, 121 RoleView, 150, 192 roof business, 118–20 Rosen, Lori, 88 Roth, Marcel, 83 Royal Melbourne Golf Club (RMGC), 65–66, 72 Running Room, 13 social status, 68, 69 SafetyNet, 116 sales approaches, 134–38 Salesforce.com, 18, 19, 74–75, 117, 159, 176 salespeople, 135, 167 Salon Speaker Series (Grano Speaker Series), 70–71, 159 scaling up, 171–94 Schwietzer, Robbie, 13 self-employed individuals, 188–89 Sellability Score.com, 3–4, 28, 31, 132, 149, 176, 182 selling subscriptions, see subscription selling “sharing” economy, 18–19 simplifier model, 99–105, 121 Site24x7.com, 117 skiing, 162 Skok, David, 129–30, 131, 150, 151, 185 Snaptracs, 115 SnowboardAddiction.com, 171 social proof, 67 socks: Blacksocks, 83, 84, 88, 151 Foot Cardigan, 165 software industry, 29–32, 74–75, 125–26 Spagnuolo, Marc, 47 SpicySubscriptions.com, 91 Spotify, 58 Springwise, 157 Standard Cocoa, 22, 93–94, 165 StitchFix, 91 Stone, Brad, 85 Strife, Carly, 92 strivers, 72 Stuart Hunt & Associates, 36–37 subscription economy, 11–25 competing in, 22–24 subscription models: all-you-can-eat library, 57–63 automatic payments in, 36–37 business valuation and, 28–32 challenges of adopting, 41–43 consumables, 81–90 convincing employees and partners about merits of, 168–69 customer loyalty and, 38 demand and, 33–34 front-of-the-line, 73–79 history of, 15–18 lifetime value of customer in, 32–33 market research and, 34–36 measuring progress in, 125–34 membership website, 47–55 need for, 27–43 network, 107–14 peace-of-mind, 115–22 private club, 65–72 recession risk and, 39–41 renaissance of, 18–22 sales approaches for, 134–38 simplifier, 99–105, 121 surprise box, 91–98 up-selling in, 38–39 using in your own business, 122 subscription selling, 153–70 burning platform strategy in, 166–67 freemium option in, 161–62, 164 gift offers in, 164–66 rational buying and, 157–59 subscription fatigue and, 154 10x vs. 10% idea in, 155–57 trial in, 161–64 ultimatum in, 159–60 Subscription Site Insider, 52, 53 surfing, 182–83 surprise box model, 91–98 swimming pools, 104 Tagg, 115 Tarence, Zen, 29–30 Target, 13, 89 Subscriptions, 15 TechCrunch, 157 technology, 99 telephone, 107–8 telephone sales, 135 The Live Event (TLE), 53 37signals, 144, 145–46 Thriveworks, 75–77 TIGER 21, 67–68, 72, 149, 159 Time Warner Cable, 23 TrendHunter.com, 91–92 trial offers, 161–64 Tri-State Elevator Co., 40–41 Trojan Horse, 94–95, 98 Twitter, 61, 63, 108, 117 ultimatums, 159–60 underwriting profit, 117, 118 user marketing, 108–9 vacation industry, 68–70, 73–74 Vagonis, Jim, 102–3, 181 valuation of businesses, 28–32 venture capital, 147–48, 151 viability threshold, 129–30 Volcker, Paul, 70 Wall Street Journal, 17, 48, 188 Walmart, 13, 84, 89 Goodies Co., 20–21, 35 Warrillow & Co., 5–6 website monitoring, 117 Wells Fargo, 126 Werdelin, Henrik, 92 WhatsApp, 1–2, 108–9, 113, 157 WhichTestWon.com, 52–53 Whiteman, Brian, 156 Whiteman, Julie, 156 Wild Apricot, 29, 184–85, 189–91 Wired, 16 Women’s Living, 179 Woodward, Bob, 71 Wood Whisperer Guild, 47 Workday, 135 World of Warcraft, 111–12 WP Engine, 177 Wunderlist, 100 Yoga Journal, 179 Zendesk, 77, 79, 163 Zide, Scott, 32 Zipcar, 19, 109–11, 113, 153 * The “first mover advantage” concept is severely overhyped.


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Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar

You might wake up to find your car has been repossessed and is gone. Renting carries with it the risk that you will be evicted if you miss a number of rental payments or cannot afford your rent after it has been increased by the landlord. People “self-assess” valuations in difficult circumstances whenever they buy insurance and are required, even if only implicitly, to decide how much money they would need if their house or car is destroyed. The sharing economy—exemplified by Zipcar, Uber, and Airbnb—is helping to accustom us to temporary “possessing” rather than “owning,” and simultaneously consuming and selling (and hence setting a price on) the same product. However, a COST would change life radically, which is why it should be tested in limited public and commercial markets before being applied more broadly. The most promising near-term application of a COST is to assets currently owned by governments and that have been or may soon be either sold off or leased to private citizens or businesses.

Leaders, political campaigns, and political scientists have begun to explore whether using QV to elicit public opinions allows them to more accurately answer the questions so crucial to their jobs: how can we form a platform and reach compromises that will respect the strongly held views of a range of citizens? In the coming years, experiments with QV will offer a proving ground for the practical utility of QV. RATING AND SOCIAL AGGREGATION Rating and social aggregation systems fuel today’s digital economy. Reputation systems are the crucial trust mechanisms that allow “sharing economy” services like Airbnb, VRBO, Uber, and Lyft to win consumer acceptance and give providers the confidence to adopt the system.46 They play a core role in the popular search services offered by Amazon, Google, Apple’s app store, and Yelp. Yet a growing body of evidence suggests these systems are badly broken. As noted above, almost all reviews cluster toward five stars, and a few at one star, making the resulting feedback biased and what statisticians call “noisy,” that is, not very accurate.47 Other online platforms, such as Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, and Instagram, gather limited information because they only allow “likes,” and other limited forms of response, rather than allowing participants to exhibit exceptional enthusiasm, or distaste, for particular content.

., 78 Cabral, Luís, 202 Cadappster app, 31 Caesar, Julius, 84 Canada, 10, 13, 159, 182 capitalism, xvi; basic structure of, 24–25; competition and, 17 (see also competition); corporate planning and, 39–40; cultural consequences of, 270, 273; Engels on, 239–40; freedom and, 34–39; George on, 36–37; growth and, 3 (see also growth, economic); industrial revolution, 36, 255; inequality and, 3 (see also inequality); labor and, 136–37, 143, 159, 165, 211, 224, 231, 239–40, 316n4; laissez-faire, 45; liberalism and, 3, 17, 22–27; markets and, 278, 288, 304n36; Marx on, 239–40; monopolies and, 22–23, 34–39, 44, 46–49, 132, 136, 173, 177, 179, 199, 258, 262; monopsony and, 190, 199–201, 223, 234, 238–41, 255; ownership and, 34–36, 39, 45–49, 75, 78–79; property and, 34–36, 39, 45–49, 75, 78–79; Radical Markets and, 169, 180–85, 203, 273; regulations and, 262; Schumpeter on, 47; shareholders and, 118, 170, 178–84, 189, 193–95; technology and, 34, 203, 316n4; wealth and, 45, 75, 78–79, 136, 143, 239, 273 Capitalism and Freedom (Friedman), xiii Capitalism for the People, A (Luigi), 203 Capra, Frank, 17 Carroll, Lewis, 176 central planning: computers and, 277–85, 288–93; consumers and, 19; democracy and, 89; governance and, 19–20, 39–42, 46–48, 62, 89, 277–85, 288–90, 293; healthcare and, 290–91; liberalism and, 19–20; markets and, 277–85, 288–93; property and, 39–42, 46–48, 62; recommendation systems and, 289–90; socialism and, 39–42, 47, 277, 281 Chetty, Raj, 11 Chiang Kai-shek, 46 China, 15, 46, 56, 133–34, 138 Christensen, Clayton, 202 Chrysler, 193 Citigroup, 183, 184, 191 Clarke, Edward, 99, 102, 105 Clayton Act, 176–77, 197, 311n25 Clemens, Michael, 162 Coase, Ronald, 40, 48–51, 299n26 Cold War, xix, 25, 288 collective bargaining, 240–41 collective decisions: democracy and, 97–105, 110–11, 118–20, 122, 124, 273, 303n17, 304n36; manipulation of, 99; markets for, 97–105; public goods and, 98; Quadratic Voting (QV) and, 110–11, 118–20, 122, 124, 273, 303n17, 304n36; Vickrey and, 99, 102, 105 colonialism, 8, 131 Coming of the Third Reich, The (Evans), 93 common ownership self-assessed tax (COST): broader application of, 273–76; cybersquatters and, 72; education and, 258–59; efficiency and, 256, 261; equality and, 258; globalization and, 269–70; growth and, 73, 256; human capital and, 258–61; immigrants and, 261, 269, 273; inequality and, 256–59; international trade and, 270; investment and, 258–59, 270; legal issues and, 275; markets and, 286; methodology of, 63–66; monopolies and, 256–61, 270, 300n43; objections to, 300n43; optimality and, 61, 73, 75–79, 317n18; personal possessions and, 301n47, 317n18; political effects of, 261–64; predatory outsiders and, 300n43; prices and, 62–63, 67–77, 256, 258, 263, 275, 300n43, 317n18; property and, 31, 61–79, 271–74, 300n43, 301n47; public goods and, 256; public leases and, 69–72; Quadratic Voting (QV) and, 123–25, 194, 261–63, 273, 275, 286; Radical Markets and, 79, 123–26, 257–58, 271–72, 286; taxes and, 61–69, 73–76, 258–61, 275, 317n18; technology and, 71–72, 257–59; true market economy and, 72–75; voting and, 263; wealth and, 256–57, 261–64, 269–70, 275, 286 communism, 19–20, 46–47, 93–94, 125, 278 competition: antitrust policies and, 23, 48, 174–77, 180, 184–86, 191, 197–203, 242, 255, 262, 286; auctions and, xv–xix, 49–51, 70–71, 97, 99, 147–49, 156–57; bargaining and, 240–41, 299n26; democracy and, 109, 119–20; by design, 49–55; elitism and, 25–28; equilibrium and, 305n40; eternal vigilance and, 204; horizontal concentration and, 175; imperfect, 304n36; indexing and, 185–91, 302n63; innovation and, 202–3; investment and, 196–97; labor and, 145, 158, 162–63, 220, 234, 236, 239, 243, 245, 256, 266; laissez-faire and, 253; liberalism and, 6, 17, 20–28; lobbyists and, 262; monopolies and, 174; monopsony and, 190, 199–201, 223, 234, 238–41, 255; ownership and, 20–21, 41, 49–55, 79; perfect, 6, 25–28, 109; prices and, 20–22, 25, 173, 175, 180, 185–90, 193, 200–201, 204, 244; property and, 41, 49–55, 79; Quadratic Voting (QV) and, 304n36; regulations and, 262; resale price maintenance and, 200–201; restoring, 191–92; Section 7 and, 196–97, 311n25; selfishness and, 109, 270–71; Smith on, 17; tragedy of the commons and, 44 complexity, 218–20, 226–28, 274–75, 279, 281, 284, 287, 313n15 “Computer and the Market, The” (Lange), 277 computers: algorithms and, 208, 214, 219, 221, 281–82, 289–93; automation of labor and, 222–23, 251, 254; central planning and, 277–85, 288–93; data and, 213–14, 218, 222, 233, 244, 260; Deep Blue, 213; distributed computing and, 282–86, 293; growth in poor countries and, 255; as intermediaries, 274; machine learning (ML) and, 214 (see also machine learning [ML]); markets and, 277, 280–93; Mises and, 281; Moore’s Law and, 286–87; Open-Trac and, 31–32; parallel processing and, 282–86; prices of, 21; recommendation systems and, 289–90 Condorcet, Marquis de, 4, 90–93, 303n15, 306n51 conspicuous consumption, 78 Consumer Reports magazine, 291 consumers: antitrust suits and, 175, 197–98; central planning and, 19; data from, 47, 220, 238, 242–44, 248, 289; drone delivery to, 220; as entrepreneurs, 256; goods and services for, 27, 92, 123, 130, 175, 280, 292; institutional investment and, 190–91; international culture for, 270; lobbyists and, 262; machine learning (ML) and, 238; monopolies and, 175, 186, 197–98; preferences of, 280, 288–93; prices and, 172 (see also prices); recommendation systems and, 289–90; robots and, 287; sharing economy and, 117; Soviet collapse and, 289; technology and, 287 cooperatives, 118, 126, 261, 267, 299n24 Corbyn, Jeremy, 12, 13 corruption, 3, 23, 27, 57, 93, 122, 126, 157, 262 Cortana, 219 cost-benefit analysis, 2, 244 “Counterspeculation, Auctions and Competitive Sealed Tenders” (Vickrey), xx–xxi Cramton, Peter, 52, 54–55, 57 crowdsourcing, 235 crytocurrencies, 117–18 cybersquatters, 72 data: algorithms and, 208, 214, 219, 221, 281–82, 289–93; big, 213, 226, 293; computers and, 213–14, 218, 222, 233, 244, 260; consumer, 47, 220, 238, 242–44, 248, 289; diamond-water paradox and, 224–25; diminishing returns and, 226, 229–30; distribution of complexity and, 228; as entertainment, 233–39, 248–49; Facebook and, 28, 205–9, 212–13, 220–21, 231–48; feedback and, 114, 117, 233, 238, 245; free, 209, 211, 220, 224, 231–35, 239; Google and, 28, 202, 207–13, 219–20, 224, 231–36, 241–42, 246; investment in, 212, 224, 232, 244; labeled, 217–21, 227, 228, 230, 232, 234, 237; labor movement for, 241–43; Lanier and, 208, 220–24, 233, 237, 313n2, 315n48; marginal value and, 224–28, 247; network effects and, 211, 236, 238, 243; neural networks and, 214–19; online services and, 211, 235; overfitting and, 217–18; payment systems for, 210–13, 224–30; photographs and, 64, 214–15, 217, 219–21, 227–28, 291; programmers and, 163, 208–9, 214, 217, 219, 224; Radical Markets for, 246–49; reCAPTCHA and, 235–36; recommendation systems and, 289–90; rise of data work and, 209–13; sample complexity and, 217–18; siren servers and, 220–24, 230–41, 243; social networks and, 202, 212, 231, 233–36; technofeudalism and, 230–33; under-employment and, 256; value of, 243–45; venture capital and, 211, 224; virtual reality and, 206, 208, 229, 251, 253; women’s work and, 209, 313n4 Declaration of Independence, 86 Deep Blue, 213 DeFoe, Daniel, 132 Demanding Work (Gray and Suri), 233 democracy: 1p1v system and, 82–84, 94, 109, 119, 122–24, 304n36, 306n51; artificial intelligence (AI) and, 219; Athenians and, 55, 83–84, 131; auctions and, 97, 99; basic structure of, 24–25; central planning and, 89; check and balance systems and, 23, 25, 87, 92; collective decisions and, 97–105, 110–11, 118–20, 122, 124, 273, 303n17, 304n36; collective mediocrity and, 96; competition and, 109, 119–20; Declaration of Independence and, 86; efficiency and, 92, 110, 126; elections and, 22, 80, 93, 100, 115, 119–21, 124, 217–18, 296n20; elitism and, 89–91, 96, 124; Enlightenment and, 86, 95; Europe and, 90–96; France and, 90–95; governance and, 84, 117; gridlock and, 84, 88, 122–24, 261, 267; Hitler and, 93–94; House of Commons and, 84–85; House of Lords and, 85; impossibility theorem and, 92; inequality and, 123; Jury Theorem and, 90–92; liberalism and, 3–4, 25, 80, 86, 90; limits of, 85–86; majority rule and, 27, 83–89, 92–97, 100–101, 121, 306n51; markets and, 97–105, 262, 276; minorities and, 85–90, 93–97, 101, 106, 110; mixed constitution and, 84–85; multi-candidate, single-winner elections and, 119–20; origins of, 83–85; ownership and, 81–82, 89, 101, 105, 118, 124; public goods and, 28, 97–100, 107, 110, 120, 123, 126; Quadratic Voting (QV) and, 105–22; Radical Markets and, 82, 106, 123–26, 203; supermajorities and, 84–85, 88, 92; tyrannies and, 23, 25, 88, 96–100, 106, 108; United Kingdom and, 95–96; United States and, 86–90, 93, 95; voting and, 80–82, 85–93, 96, 99, 105, 108, 115–16, 119–20, 123–24, 303n14, 303n17, 303n20, 304n36, 305n39; wealth and, 83–84, 87, 95, 116 Demosthenes, 55 Denmark, 182 Department of Justice (DOJ), 176, 186, 191 deregulation, 3, 9, 24 Desmond, Matthew, 201–2 Dewey, John, 43 Dickens, Charles, 36 digital economy: data producers and, 208–9, 230–31; diamond-water paradox and, 224–25; as entertainment, 233–39; facial recognition and, 208, 216, 218–19; free access and, 211; Lanier and, 208, 220–24, 233, 237, 313n2, 315n48; machine learning (ML) and, 208–9, 213–14, 217–21, 226–31, 234–35, 238, 247, 289, 291, 315n48; payment systems for, 210–13, 221–30, 243–45; programmers and, 163, 208–9, 214, 217, 219, 224; rise of data work and, 209–13; siren servers and, 220–24, 230–41, 243; spam and, 210, 245; technofeudalism and, 230–33; virtual reality and, 206, 208, 229, 251, 253 diversification, 171–72, 180–81, 185, 191–92, 194–96, 310n22, 310n24 dot-com bubble, 211 double taxation, 65 Dupuit, Jules, 173 Durkheim, Émile, 297n23 Dworkin, Ronald, 305n40 dystopia, 18, 191, 273, 293 education, 114; common ownership self-assessed tax (COST) and, 258; data and, 229, 232, 248; elitism and, 260; equality in, 89; financing, 276; free compulsory, 23; immigrants and, 14, 143–44, 148; labor and, 140, 143–44, 148, 150, 158, 170–71, 232, 248, 258–60; Mill on, 96; populist movements and, 14; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem and, 143 efficient capital markets hypothesis, 180 elections, 80; data and, 217–18; democracy and, 22, 93, 100, 115, 119–21, 124, 217–18, 296n20; gridlock and, 124; Hitler and, 93; multi-candidate, single-winner, 119–20; polls and, 13, 111; Quadratic Voting (QV) and, 115, 119–21, 268, 306n52; U.S. 2016, 93, 296n20 Elhauge, Einer, 176, 197 elitism: aristocracy and, 16–17, 22–23, 36–38, 84–85, 87, 90, 135–36; bourgeoisie and, 36; bureaucrats and, 267; democracy and, 89–91, 96, 124; education and, 260; feudalism and, 16, 34–35, 37, 41, 61, 68, 136, 230–33, 239; financial deregulation and, 3; immigrants and, 146, 166; liberalism and, 3, 15–16, 25–28; minorities and, 12, 14–15, 19, 23–27, 85–90, 93–97, 101, 106, 110, 181, 194, 273, 303n14, 304n36; monarchies and, 85–86, 91, 95, 160 Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, 121 eminent domain, 33, 62, 89 Empire State Building, 45 Engels, Friedrich, 78, 240 Enlightenment, 86, 95 entrepreneurs, xiv; immigrants and, 144–45, 159, 256; labor and, 129, 144–45, 159, 173, 177, 203, 209–12, 224, 226, 256; ownership and, 35, 39 equality: common ownership self-assessed tax (COST) and, 258; education and, 89; immigrants and, 257; labor and, 147, 166, 239, 257; liberalism and, 4, 8, 24, 29; living standards and, 3, 11, 13, 133, 135, 148, 153, 254, 257; Quadratic Voting (QV) and, 264; Radical Markets and, 262, 276; trickle down theories and, 9, 12 Espinosa, Alejandro, 30–32 Ethereum, 117 Europe, 177, 201; democracy and, 88, 90–95; European Union and, 15; fiefdoms in, 34; government utilities and, 48; income patterns in, 5; instability in, 88; labor and, 11, 130–31, 136–47, 165, 245; social democrats and, 24; unemployment rates in, 11 Evans, Richard, 93 Evicted (Desmond), 201–2 Ex Machina (film), 208 Facebook, xxi; advertising and, 50, 202; data and, 28, 205–9, 212–13, 220–21, 231–48; monetization by, 28; news service of, 289; Vickrey Commons and, 50 facial recognition, 208, 216–19 family reunification programs, 150, 152 farms, 17, 34–35, 37–38, 61, 72, 135, 142, 179, 283–85 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 50, 71 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 176, 186 feedback, 114, 117, 233, 238, 245 feudalism, 16, 34–35, 37, 41, 61, 68, 136, 230–33, 239 Fidelity, 171, 181–82, 184 financial crisis of 2008, 3, 121 Fitzgerald, F.


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Amazon: How the World’s Most Relentless Retailer Will Continue to Revolutionize Commerce by Natalie Berg, Miya Knights

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business intelligence, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, computer vision, connected car, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Elon Musk, gig economy, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, market fragmentation, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, QR code, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, remote working, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Skype, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, trade route, underbanked, urban planning, white picket fence

A ‘betterment zone’ allows customers to reflect in a mindfulness workshop, while reading rooms will be available for shoppers to unwind and tranquil green space will be featured both indoors and outside. The addition of allotments and farms gives shoppers the opportunity to select their own produce for their meal, while a network of waterways will not only offer an alternative route around the shopping centre but also access to watersports – one of the many leisure activities available. Westfield’s ‘Destination 2028’ concept also highlights the rise of the sharing economy, with ‘rental retail’ expected to become the norm for post-millennials seeking to rent everything from clothes to exercise gear. Pop-ups, temporary retail, and co-working spaces are also likely to emerge in the future of retail, according to Westfield. * * * A place to discover, a place to learn Retailers must not overlook the importance of discovery as they aim to create a more meaningful connection with shoppers.

Known for going the extra mile, Lush employees are also empowered to make their own decisions to better connect with the customer, whether that’s giving away a free sample or changing the merchandising mix to reflect the weather (ie putting out more colourful, cheery products on a rainy day). The result is a more meaningful, more memorable experience – and certainly one that goes beyond the transaction. A place to borrow Last but not least, we believe that the store of the future will be a place to borrow. The sharing economy has already disrupted transportation and tourism but has yet to make its mark on the retail sector – shops naturally want to sell, rather than lend, to their customers. Well, the times are a-changing. We are entering an age where access will trump ownership. This is due to the combination of a growing population, unprecedented connectivity and shifts in consumer values and priorities. We are no longer defined by our material possessions; instead we’re opting to spend less on stuff and more on experiences.

Available from https://gigaom.com/2011/11/10/airbnb-roadmap-2011/ [Last accessed 12/9/2018]. 28 Westfield (2017) Press release: Westfield launches style trial pop-up – rent this season’s looks, November. Available from: https://uk.westfield.com/content/dam/westfield-corp/uk/Style-Trial-Press-Release.pdf [Last accessed 1/7/2018] 29 Balch, Oliver (2016) Is the Library of Things an answer to our peak stuff problem? Guardian, 23 August. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2016/aug/23/library-of-things-peak-stuff-sharing-economy-consumerism-uber [Last accessed 1/7/2018]. 13 Retail fulfilment: winning the customer over the final mile ‘You do not want to give Amazon a seven-year head start.’ Warren Buffett, US business magnate1 In Chapters 11 and 12, we saw how the store of the future will have to evolve to simultaneously reduce friction and become more experiential. The influence of digital on the shopping journey has also increasingly seen the role of the store develop as an online fulfilment hub.


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The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-Hackers Is Building the Next Internet With Ethereum by Camila Russo

4chan, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, altcoin, always be closing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asian financial crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Donald Trump, East Village, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hacker house, Internet of things, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, mobile money, new economy, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X

Williams, and Stephanie Alexander, “Augur: A Decentralized Oracle and Prediction Market Platform (v2.0),” November 1, 2019, https://www.augur.net/whitepaper.pdf. 2. he wrote on GitHub: Vitalik Buterin, “Standardized_Contract_APIs,” GitHub, June 23, 2015, https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Standardized_Contract_APIs/499c882f3ec123537fc2fccd57eaa29e6032fe4a. 3. with their thoughts: Alex Van de Sande, “Let's talk about the coin standard,” Reddit, 2015, https://www.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/3n8fkn/lets_talk_about_the_coin_standard/. 4. issue being discussed: Fabian Vogelsteller, “ERC: Token standard #20,” GitHub, November 19, 2015, https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20. 5. ended up implementing: Rune Christensen, “Introducing eDollar, the ultimate stablecoin built on Ethereum,” Reddit, 2015, https://www.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/30f98i/introducing_edollar_the_ultimate_stablecoin_built/. 6. companies to build on: Jeff Wilcke, “Homestead Release,” Ethereum Foundation Blog, February 29, 2016, https://blog.ethereum.org/2016/02/29/homestead-release/. 7. world had Ethereum: Gavin Andresen, “Bit-thereum,” GavinTech (blog), June 9, 2014, http://gavintech.blogspot.com/2014/06/bit-thereum.html. 19: The Magic Lock 1. Slock.it’s blog posts: Slock.it, “Decentralizing the Emerging Sharing Economy,” Medium, Slock.it Blog, December 2, 2015, https://blog.slock.it/slock-it-decentralizing-the-emerging-sharing-economy-cf19ce09b957?c=20150901_vision%22%20%5Cl%20%220_blog. 2. automating governance rules: Christoph Jentzsch, “Decentralized Autonomous Organization to Automate Governance, Final Draft—Under Review,” 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20180913233456/https://download.slock.it/public/DAO/WhitePaper.pdf. 20: The DAO Wars 1. a blog post about it: Peter Vessenes, “More Ethereum Attacks: Race-to-Empty Is the Real Deal,” Vessenes (blog), June 9, 2016, https://vessenes.com/more-ethereum-attacks-race-to-empty-is-the-real-deal/. 2.

Christoph Jentzsch, a German theoretical physicist, had been working on testing and checking the compatibility among the different Ethereum clients. Christoph was known for being very good at his job, obsessive and meticulous, so when he jumped into a new venture, people paid attention. “With Uber, Airbnb, and others leading the way, we have to ask ourselves, ‘Is this how we want to build the sharing economy?’ Monopolistic companies that take extraordinary fees and have full control of the market?” said one of Slock.it’s blog posts.1 Slock.it cofounders, including Jentzsch’s brother, wanted to make it possible for people to rent, sell, and share their property without having to use intermediaries. Instead of going to platforms like Uber and Airbnb to get matched up and pay, the whole process would be done through a lock placed on each item.


pages: 330 words: 99,044

Reimagining Capitalism in a World on Fire by Rebecca Henderson

Airbnb, asset allocation, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, dark matter, decarbonisation, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, fixed income, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, greed is good, Hans Rosling, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, stocks for the long run, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, uber lyft, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Zipcar

It can reduce costs. It can create entirely new businesses—particularly if, like CLP, you are sophisticated enough to see how the world is changing before others do. Robin Chase founded Zipcar—a car sharing service—in 2000, nearly twenty years ago, years before the rest of us discovered the sharing economy. She saw Zipcar as part of a much larger vision for how the economy might be transformed. In one interview she explained: The collaborative economy is larger than the sharing economy. The sharing economy feels to me like it’s about assets. The collaborative economy is everything. It’s making clear and visceral to us that, if I can have real-time access not just to hard assets, but to people, to networks, to experiences, it means that the way I do my own personal life is completely transformed.


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

—PETER SCHWARTZ, futurist; cofounder and chairman, GBN, and partner in the monitor group “In this timely and extremely practical book, Gansky not only gives dozens of examples of sharing companies disrupting the status quo and experiencing exponential growth, but she also talks about why they’re successful—what it means to be a Mesh business and what you have to do to thrive as the world moves to a share economy.” —JOHN LILLY, CEO, Mozilla “Lisa Gansky has uncovered a revolution that even most of its perpetrators didn’t know existed. It’s a brave new marketplace, where consumers rule and business models are turned topsy-turvy. Where innovation and inspiration collide to create greener, cooler products and services that are high in value and values. And where disparate communities form, if only for an instant, to ignite companies and markets.

Many of us were concerned about one or a few companies controlling the channel that has become the Internet. Firefox’s intellectual property is held under a special type of open-source license. The code, developed by community and incorporated into Firefox, continues to be held by those members, who in return grant access to Mozilla to embed and use it. This “communal IP,” as I call it, is a wonderful example of the share economy ethos that was, and hopefully will remain, at the core of the Internet. Mozilla, Creative Commons, Wikipedia, and Architecture for Humanity remain strong embodiments of that ethos. The result is continuously organic improvement of the Web experience for all. These open communities and platforms are a terrific demonstration of the culture of gifting and generosity that fueled the “Web economy” in the mid-1990s.


pages: 164 words: 57,068

The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society by Charles Handy

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, bonus culture, British Empire, call centre, Clayton Christensen, corporate governance, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, falling living standards, future of work, G4S, greed is good, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, late capitalism, mass immigration, megacity, mittelstand, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Veblen good, Walter Mischel

The auction site eBay creates hundreds of thousands of virtual traders, buying and selling through the site. Everything you can do as a customer you can also do as a supplier, even write your own computer game if you so wish. You can sell a seat in your car, a meal in your home, a parking space outside your house, a loan of your bicycle, even time with your dog, along with limitless other services in the newly christened ‘sharing economy’. This new fashion is just one more example of the excluded middle, allowing you as an individual to bypass the conventional suppliers of these services by doing it yourself on the web. It is big business for some. By April 2014 Airbnb was valued by investors at $10 billion, bigger than Hyatt or the Intercontinental hotel groups, while the homeowners each earned an average of $7,530 in 2013 by renting out their rooms.

The result will be the reverse of the earlier movement. Employment will drop a bit, particularly in the domestic service sector. The capital goods sector may improve, although much of it will probably be imported. More people will shrink back into their homes rather than go out on the town. Our homes will increasingly become work hubs as we start to exploit all the opportunities of the new DIY and sharing economies. The worrying thought is that we will see less of other people except on the screens of our phones or computers, even if we work in some sort of organisation. It is this aspect of the DIY Second Curve that I will explore in the next essay, because we are all going to have to find our way up this curve, whether we like it or not. Fortunately those most affected by it, the up-and-coming generations, are enthusiasts for it, so all should be well for the future. 3 THE NEW DISRUPTION How will the information revolution change your life?


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Riding for Deliveroo: Resistance in the New Economy by Callum Cant

Airbnb, call centre, collective bargaining, deskilling, Elon Musk, future of work, gig economy, housing crisis, illegal immigration, information asymmetry, invention of the steam engine, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, Pearl River Delta, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

In reality, capitalism gives workers no choice: they have to sell their labour-power in order to get a wage and buy the stuff, the commodities, they need to survive. They can stop working for any one capitalist and go and get another job, but they can never stop working for the capitalist class altogether. You work and are exploited to make your boss rich, or you starve – some ‘freedom’.5 It’s not unusual to hear pundits argue that people who understand class as Marx did are living in the past. In the new ‘sharing economy’, everyone is a winner, they say. But that same struggle between workers and bosses that has defined the last two centuries of our history still defines it today. Society is still predominantly divided into two camps: that small group of people who live off the value produced by others, and that big group of people whose only choice is to work or starve. It doesn’t matter whether that system is organized by telegraph or by app, it’s still capitalism.

Brighton and Hove City Council (2010) Housing costs update Quarter 4 2010. www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/sites/brighton-hove.gov.uk/files/2010%20%284%29%20Housing%20Costs%20%28Oct-Dec%29.pdf; Brighton and Hove City Council (2017) Brighton & Hove housing market report Quarter 4 2017. www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/sites/brighton-hove.gov.uk/files/2017%20%284%29%20Housing%20Market%20Report%20%28Oct-Dec%29.pdf. 3. F. Kooti, M. Grbovic, L. M. Aiello, N. Djuric, V. Radosavljevic, and K. Lerman (2017) Analyzing Uber’s ride-sharing economy, in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference, ACM Press. 4. K. Bryan (2019) Deliveroo and Uber Eats takeaway riders rent jobs to ‘illegal immigrants’. The Times. www.thetimes.co.uk/article/deliveroo-and-uber-eats-takeaway-riders-rent-jobs-to-illegal-immigrants-ml36gvp93. 5. M. Perry (2000) Bread and work: social policy and the experience of unemployment, 1918–39. Pluto Press, p. 103. 6.


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The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

We are instead, Rifkin suggests, seeing the rise of the Collaborative Commons: The IoT [the Internet of Things] enables billions of people to engage in peer-to-peer social networks and cocreate the many new economic opportunities and practices that constitute life on the emerging Collaborative Commons. That platform turns everyone into a prosumer and every activity into a collaboration … allowing social capital to flourish on an unprecedented scale, making a shared economy possible.5 As a result, Rifkin argues, the Internet of Things and the networked nature of our digital form of life are moving us toward “the zero marginal cost society.” In turn, that challenges the central capitalist tenet, that increased human productivity requires increased human labor. “The traditional dream of rags to riches is being supplanted by a new dream of sustainable quality of life”—a life where we can spend more time engaged in pursuits that interest us, such as making music, cooking better food and thinking about philosophy.6 Rifkin thinks the same revolution is happening at the level of knowledge—perhaps especially there, since the wide availability of knowledge is the fuel powering the rest of our economy.

., 173–74 hypothetical loss of, 5 paradox of, 6, 12, 179 pool of data in, 95–100 surveillance and, 89–109 typified and dephysicalized objects in, 69 unequal distribution of, 144–45 see also Internet of Things information theory, 12 infosphere: defined, 10 feedback loop of social constructs in, 72–73 network of, 180 pollution of, 148 vastness of, 128 InnoCentive, 136–37, 141 institutions, cooperative, 60–61 intellectual labor, 139–40 International Telecommunications Union, 135 Internet: author’s experiment in circumventing, 21–24, 25, 35 in challenges to reasonableness, 41–63 changes wrought by, xv–xviii, 6–7, 10–11, 23, 180, 184–88 as a construction, 69 cost and profit debate over, 145 as epistemic resource, 143–45 expectations of, 80–83 as force for cohesion and democracy, 55–63 freedom both limited and enhanced by, 92–93 international rates of access to, 135, 144–45 monopolization and hegemony in, 145–46 as network, 111–13 “third wave” of, 7 see also World Wide Web; specific applications Internet of Everything, 184 Internet of Things: blurring of online and offline in, 71 defined, 7–8 integration of, 10 shared economy in, 140–41 threat from, 107, 153, 184–88 Internet of Us, digital form of life as, 10, 39, 73, 83–86, 106, 179–88 interracial marriage, 54 interrogation techniques, 105 In the Plex (Levy), 5–6 Intrade, 122–23, 136 intuition, 15, 51–53 iPhone, production of, 77–78, 80, 139, 144 IQ, 52 Iraq, 83 Iraq War, 137 ISIS, 128 isolation, polarization and, 42–43 I think, I exist, 127 James, William, 11 Jefferson, Thomas, 143 Jeppesen, Lars Bo, 137 joint commitments, defined, 117–18 journalism, truth and, 84 judgment, 51–55, 57 collective vs. individual, 117, 120–25 justice, 54 “just so” stories, 27–28 Kahneman, Daniel, 29, 51 Kant, Immanuel, 34, 58–60, 62, 85 Kitcher, Philip, 182 knowing-which, as term, 171 knowledge: in big data revolution, 87–190 changing structure of, 125–32 common, 117–19 defined and explained, xvii, 12–17 democratization of, 133–38 digital, see digital knowledge; Google-knowing distribution of, 134–35, 138, 141 diverse forms of, 130 economy of, 138–45 hyperconnectivity of, 184–88 individual vs. aggregate, 120–24 information vs., 14 Internet revolution in, xv–xviii minimal definition of, 14–15 as networked, 111–32 new aspects in old problems of, 1–86, 90 personal observation in, 33–35 political economy of, 133–54 as power, 9, 98–99, 133, 185–86 practical vs. theoretical, 169, 172 procedural, 167–74 recording and storage of, 127–28 reliability of sources of, 14, 27–31, 39–40, 44–45, 114–16 as a resource, 38–39 shared cognitive process in attainment of, 114–25 three forms of, 15–17 three simple points about, 14–17 truth and, 19, 126 understanding vs. other forms of, 6, 16–17, 90, 154, 155–73, 181 value and importance of, 12–13 knowledge-based education, 61 Kodak camera, 89 Koran, 48, 61 Kornblith, Hilary, 194 Krakauer, John, 169 Kuhn, Thomas, 159–60 Lakhani, Karim, 137 Larissa, Greece, 13, 15, 182 Leonhardt, David, 122–23 Levy, Steven, 5–6 liberals, 43 libraries, 22, 134, 153–54 of Alexandria, 8 digital form of life compared to, xvi, 17, 20, 44–45, 56, 63, 128 as epistemic resource, 145 Google treated as, 24 “Library of Babel” (Borges), 17 “Lies, Damned Lies, and ‘Fact-Checking’: The Liberal Media’s Latest Attempt to Control the Discourse” (Hemingway), 46 Lifespan of a Fact, The (D’Agata), 79 literacy, 35, 134 literal artifacts: defined, 69 social artifacts and, 71, 72 lobectomy, 168 Locke, John, 33–36, 39, 60, 67–70, 85, 127, 143 “Locke’s command,” 33–34 London Underground, mapping of, 112–13 machines, control by, 116 “mainstream” media, 32 censorship of, 66 majority rule, 120 manipulation: data mining and, 97, 104–6 of expectations, 80–82 persuasion and, 55, 57–58, 81–83, 86 manuals, 22 manufacturing, 138–39 maps, 21–22 marine chronometer, 137 marketing: bots in, 82 Glauconian, 58 targeted, 9, 90, 91, 105 marriage: changing attitudes toward, 53–54 civil vs. religious, 58–59 as social construct, 72 martial arts, 170 mass, as primary quality, 68 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), 150–53 mathematics, in data analysis, 160, 161 Matrix, The, 18–19, 75 Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor, 8, 158–59 measles vaccine, 7, 124 Mechanical Turk, 136, 141 media, 134 diversity in, 42 opinion affected by, 53 sensationalist, 77 memory: accessing of, 114, 115 in educational models, 152 loss of, 168–69 superceded by information technology, xv–xvi, 3, 4, 6, 94, 149 trust in, 28, 33 Meno, 13 merchandising, online vs. brick and mortar, 70 Mercier, Hugo, 54 metrics, 112 Milner, Brenda, 168–69 mirror drawing experiment, 169 misinformation, 6–7, 31–32 in support of moral truth, 78–80, 82 mob mentality, 32–33 MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), 150–53 moral dumbfounding, 52 morality, moral values, xvii, 6, 44, 53–54, 195 “Moses Illusion,” 29–30 motor acuity, mastery of, 170–71, 173 motor skills, 167–74 Murray, Charles J., 147 music, as dephysicalized object, 69–70 Nagel, Thomas, 84 naming, identification by, 94 narrative license, truth and falsehood in, 78–79 National Endowment for the Humanities, 61 National Science Foundation, 61 Nature, 158, 161 Netflix, 69, 145 Net neutrality, defined, 145 netography, 112–13 of knowledge, 125–32 networked age, 111 networks, 111–32 collective knowledge of, 116–25, 180 knowledge reshaped and altered by, 125–32, 133, 140 in problem solving, 136 use of term, 111–12 neural system, 26 neural transplants, 3, 5 Neurath, Otto, 128–29 neuromedia, 3–5, 12, 17–19, 113–14, 132, 149, 168, 180–82, 184 limitations of, 174 as threat to education, 153–54 Newton, Isaac, 175 New Yorker, 25, 26 New York Times, 122, 174 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 111 Nobel laureates, 149 noble lie, 83, 86 nonfiction, 79–80 NPR, 78, 80 NSA: alleged privacy abuses by, 98–100, 138 data mining by, 9, 91, 95–96, 108, 167 proposed limitations on, 109 Ntrepid, 81 nuclear weapons technology, xvii nullius in verba (take nobody’s word for it), 34 Obama, Barack, 7, 100 administration, 109 objectivity, objective truth, 45, 74 as anchor for belief, 131 in constructed world, 83–86 as foundation for knowledge, 127 observation, 49, 60 affected by expectations, 159–60 behavior affected by, 91, 97 “oceanic feeling,” 184 “offlife,” 70 OkCupid, 157 “onlife,” 70 online identity creation, 73–74 online ranking, 119–21, 136 open access research sharing sites, 135–36 open society: closed politics vs., 144–45 values of, 41–43, 62 open source software, 135 Operation Earnest Voice, 81 Operation Ivy, ix opinion: knowledge vs., 13, 14, 126 in online ranking, 119–20 persuasion and, 50–51 truth as constructed by, 85–86 optical illusions, 67 Oracle of Delphi, 16–17, 171 Outcome-Based Education (OBE), 61–62 ownership, changing concept of, 73 ox, experiment on weight of, 120 Oxford, 168 Page, Larry, 5–6 Panopticon, 91, 92, 97 perception: acuity of, 173 distinguishing truth in, 67–74 expectations and, 159–60 misleading, 29–30, 67 as relative, 67–68 perceptual incongruity, 159–60 personal freedom, 101 persuasion, 50–51, 54–55, 56–58 by bots, 82 phone books, 22 phone data collection, 95, 108 photography: privacy and, 89, 93 sexually-explicit, 99 photo-sharing, manipulation in, 82–83 Plato, 13–14, 16–17, 54, 59, 83, 126, 165–67 polarization, 7 herd mentality in, 66 isolated tribes in, 43–46 politics, 162, 196 accessibility in, 23 activism in, 66, 67 bias in, 43–46 closed, 144–45 elections in, 120–23 of knowledge, 133–54 opposition to critical thinking in, 61–62 persuasion in, 57–58, 82–83 power in, 86, 133 prediction market in, 122–23 Politifact, 46 Popper, Karl, 41–43 Postman, L.


pages: 206 words: 60,587

Side Hustle: From Idea to Income in 27 Days by Chris Guillebeau

"side hustle", Airbnb, buy low sell high, inventory management, Lyft, passive income, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, subscription business, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, Uber for X, uber lyft

DAY 5 Forecast Your Profit on the Back of a Napkin To estimate the profit of your side hustle, you don’t need a finance degree or a scientific calculator. You just need a napkin, a pen, and the power of observation. There’s a sharing economy service or app for everything these days. You can get paid to lend a set of tools to a neighbor you’ve never met. You can invest in a crowdfunding project led by strangers on a different continent. And now, several services let you rent out your car by the hour, day, or week to someone who needs it. If you have a car that you don’t drive every day, it’s one of the easiest ways to make some extra cash. In Los Angeles, Tahsir Ahsan took this hustle idea several steps further. After creating an account with Turo, one of the sharing economy services that operates as a middleman between renters and car owners, he quickly learned how to optimize his price and listing details to bring him just about as much business as he could handle.


pages: 254 words: 69,276

The Metric Society: On the Quantification of the Social by Steffen Mau

Airbnb, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, connected car, crowdsourcing, double entry bookkeeping, future of work, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, mittelstand, moral hazard, personalized medicine, positional goods, principal–agent problem, profit motive, QR code, reserve currency, school choice, selection bias, sharing economy, smart cities, the scientific method, Uber for X, web of trust, Wolfgang Streeck

A further classification is denoted by colour (up to 9,999 points), after which the stars become shooting stars. Those with the highest market reputation (more than a million positive ratings) are distinguished with a silver shooting star. It will come as no surprise that even portals which surround themselves with an aura of freedom, community and independence and are regarded as part of the sharing economy, such as Airbnb or Couchsurfing (‘Stay with locals and make travel friends’), are not averse to the use of ratings (Hamari et al. 2015; Lauterbach et al. 2009). On the contrary, these brokering systems would be unlikely to survive without the systematic recording and communication of reputational data, given that the interacting parties enter into a transaction with no knowledge of each other – a potentially high-risk proposition, especially when entrusting someone with your own four walls.

Haas, Peter M. (1992) ‘Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination’, International Organizations 46/1 (pp. 1-35). Habermas, Jürgen (2007) The Theory of Communicative Action, 2 vols., trans. Thomas McCarthy, Cambridge: Polity. Haffert, Lukas (2016) Die Schwarze Null. Über die Schattenseiten ausgeglichener Haushalte, Berlin: Suhrkamp. Hamari, Juho, Mimmi Sjöklint and Antti Ukkonen (2015) ‘The sharing economy: why people participate in collaborative consumption’, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 67/9 (pp. 2047-59). Han, Byung-Chul (2015) The Burnout Society, trans. Erik Butler, Stanford Briefs, an imprint of Stanford University Press. Han, Byung-Chul (2017) Psychopolitics: Neoliberalism and New Technologies of Power, trans. Erik Butler, London, and Brooklyn, NY: Verso.


Work in the Future The Automation Revolution-Palgrave MacMillan (2019) by Robert Skidelsky Nan Craig

3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, anti-work, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data is the new oil, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, post-work, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, wealth creators, working poor

This is exactly what a lot of companies have found when they try to bring high-skilled workers onto an Uberised platform: the workers end up going i­ ndependent 1 Srnicek (2016). 14 Two Myths About the Future of the Economy 135 since it makes more economic sense for them. One of the more prominent examples of this is Homejoy, which was a sort of Uber for home cleaning. It collapsed after many of its cleaners decided to leave the platform, because they could make more money elsewhere.2 Growth in the sharing economy and in these lean platforms tends to be premised not on being profitable right now, but on the promise that at some point in the future they will be profitable. At the current moment, most of these companies are losing significant chunks of money. This is a growth before profit model, which dictates that losses are part of the strategy. Uber is actually the worst offender here. Uber lost $1 billion a year to fight off a Chinese competitor, where it eventually gave up and moved out of China.3 It lost an estimated $3 billion in 2016, $4.5 billion in 2017, and in 2018 its losses have been accelerating (despite significant revenue growth).

., & Ruwitch, J. (2016, February 18). Uber Losing $1 Billion a Year to Compete in China. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/uber-china-idUSKCN0VR1M9 Jovanovic, B., & Rousseau, P. L. (2005). General Purpose Technologies. Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2005). Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w11093 Kosoff, M. (2017, November 9). Why the ‘Sharing Economy’ Keeps Getting Sued. Vanity Fair. Retrieved from https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/11/ postmates-worker-classification-lawsuit Levine, D., & Somerville, H. (2016, May 10). Uber Drivers, If Employees, Owed $730 Million More: US Court Papers. Reuters. Retrieved from http:// www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-tech-drivers-lawsuit-idUSKCN0Y02E8 Somerville, H. (2018, January 19). Softbank is Now Uber’s Largest Shareholder as Deal Closes.


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Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, longitudinal study, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Davenport, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

The economists Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok highlight online user reviews of platforms and other products as examples of a broad reduction in information asymmetries. This reduction has come about because of the diffusion of powerful technologies like smartphones, sensors, and networks, and because of ever-growing amounts of data. As Cowen and Tabarrok write, “Many of the exchanges in the sharing economy . . . use two-way reputational systems. That is the customer rates the Uber driver, but in turn the Uber driver rates the customer. Dual reputation systems can support a remarkable amount of exchange even in the absence of law or regulation.” In the case of Uber and others, much of this “remarkable amount of exchange” comes from temporary and part-time drivers. Many of these people would not find it worthwhile to go through a burdensome and time-consuming traditional background check or government licensing process, let alone to invest in an expensive taxi medallion.

Rawn Shah, “Driving Ridesharing Success at BlaBlaCar with Online Community,” Forbes, February 21, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/rawnshah/2016/02/21/driving-ridesharing-success-at-blablacar-with-online-community/#73ea3e4679a6. ¶ Benjamin Edelman, Michael Luca, and Dan Svirsky found in an experiment that Airbnb hosts were, on average, 16% less likely to rent to prospective guests whose newly created profiles included a distinctively African American name. Benjamin Edelman, Michael Luca, and Dan Svirsky, “Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment,” Ben Edelman.org, September 16, 2016, http://www.benedelman.org/publications/airbnb-guest-discrimination-2016-09-16.pdf. # See Figure 5 in Chapter 7 (page 156) for an explanation of the p×q (price times quantity, or revenue) rectangle. ** A 2016 study by economists at Uber, Oxford, and the University of Chicago used almost 50 million UberX rides across four US cities to estimate the actual demand curve for the service.

language=en. 209 “High reputation beats high similarity”: Ibid. 209 “can actually help us overcome”: Ibid. 211 SoulCycle: SoulCycle, “All Studios,” accessed February 6, 2017, https://www.soul-cycle.com/studios/all. 217 But if it’s costly to switch: See, for instance, Paul Klemperer, “Markets with Consumer Switching Costs,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 102, no. 2 (1987): 375–94; and Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner, “Installed Base and Compatibility: Innovation, Product Preannouncements, and Predation,” American Economic Review (1986): 940–55. 219 more than $15 billion in loans: Douglas MacMillan, “Uber Raises $1.15 Billion from First Leveraged Loan,” Wall Street Journal, July 7, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/uber-raises-1-15-billion-from-first-leveraged-loan-1467934151. 221 The lodging-industry benchmarking company STR: Bill McBride, “Hotels: Occupancy Rate on Track to Be 2nd Best Year,” Calculated Risk (blog), October 17, 2016, http://www.calculatedriskblog.com/2016/10/hotels-occupancy-rate-on-track-to-be_17.html. 221 In Los Angeles the daily hotel rate: Hugo Martin, “Airbnb Takes a Toll on the U.S. Lodging Industry, but Los Angeles Hotels Continue to Thrive,” Los Angeles Times, September 26, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-airbnb-hotels-20160926-snap-story.html. 223 Airbnb was responsible for a 10% decline: Gregorios Zervas, Davide Proserpio, and John W. Byers, “The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Estimating the Impact of Airbnb on the Hotel Industry,” last modified November 18, 2016, http://cs-people.bu.edu/dproserp/papers/airbnb.pdf. Chapter 10 THAT ESCALATED QUICKLY: THE EMERGENCE OF THE CROWD 229 the author Robert Wright: Robert Wright, Twitter page, accessed February 6, 2017, https://twitter.com/robertwrighter. 229 “Most newsgroup traffic”: Robert Wright, “Voice of America,” New Republic, September 13, 1993, http://cyber.eserver.org/wright.txt. 230 “The things [the Net] changes”: Ibid. 231 An estimated 130 million books: Leonid Taycher, “Books of the World, Stand Up and Be Counted!


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Some developers understand the blockchain not primarily as an end in its own right, but as an enabling payment and security infrastructure for capturing the value from situations and settings there’s no efficient way to monetize at present—something capable of “fractionalizing” industries, “liquifying” markets, and siphoning from the world that fraction of gain that has to date remained beyond the reach of the so-called sharing economy. In this vision, it is through the blockchain that the internet of things will acquire the ability to exchange access permission for payment, and via the internet of things that gradients of access will be inscribed on the physical world. Specifically, this means that the smart contract’s property of intrinsic enforcement need not be limited to exchanges of digital assets, or debts denominated in cryptocurrency like Ether, but can be extended to whatever tangible artifacts can be joined to the network. A rudimentary version of this proposition is already being trialled by a German startup called Slock.it (tagline: “the future infrastructure of the Sharing Economy”). Slock.it claims that its devices will function as a bridge between the blockchain and objects in the physical world, affording those objects “an identity, the ability to receive payments and the capability to enter complex agreements.”

Here’s where everything implied by intrinsic enforcement comes into its own, in the real world of apartments, storage lockers, conference rooms and cars: applied to such physical spaces, the smart contract functions as a potent gatekeeping mechanism, supporting ever-finer gradients of payment and remote access control. It’s easy to imagine such a module being retrofitted to doors and gates, replacing the code locks which have sprouted like fungus all over certain high-demand districts in recent years—the telltale sign of a property being rented on AirBnb. What we now know as the sharing economy, then, only begins to suggest what is possible in a world where the smart contract is grafted onto the pervasive fabric of sensing and actuation we think of as the internet of things. By giving blockchain-mediated smart contracts tangible real-world impact, Slock.it’s “smart locks” make something that might otherwise remain an abstraction concrete and easy to understand. But they also shed light on what this is all for, in the minds of the people currently working hardest to make it a reality.


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The Job: The Future of Work in the Modern Era by Ellen Ruppel Shell

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, big-box store, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban renewal, white picket fence, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game

far outpacing the growth in fossil fuels “Renewable Generation Capacity Expected to Account for Most 2016 Capacity Additions,” “Today in Energy,” US Energy Information Administration, January 10, 2017, https://www.eia.gov/​todayinenergy/​detail.php?id=29492. the interference—and cost—of a middleman Trebor Scholz, “Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy,” Medium, December 5, 2014, https://medium.com/​@trebors/​platform-cooperativism-vs-the-sharing-economy-2ea737f1b5ad. “capitalism in which profit” Lawrence H. Summers and Ed Balls, “Report of the Commission on Inclusive Prosperity,” Center for American Progress, January 15, 2015, https://www.americ­anprogress.org/​issues/​economy/​reports/​2015/​01/​15/​104266/​report-of-the-commission-on-inclusive-prosperity/. “In human terms” Louis O.

It was 2011, a time when most Americans distrusted unions, sensing corruption in their well-paid bureaucrats and economic stagnation in their rules. Like LePage, many of us pinned our hopes on a “free-agent nation” of market-driven employment relationships, whereby each of us would be free to negotiate our own best terms based on our perceived value to employers and customers. The idea of a “sharing economy” in which some of us started “sharing” our homes, cars, or other assets for a fee had just taken hold, and some of us felt ourselves well liberated from the yoke of “old-fashioned” employment contracts. But recently that thinking has shifted. In 2017, public support for unions was at a ten-year high, with roughly 60 percent taking a positive view. The number was even higher among workers aged eighteen to twenty-five, 75 percent of whom reported a “favorable view” of unions.


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Who Needs the Fed?: What Taylor Swift, Uber, and Robots Tell Us About Money, Credit, and Why We Should Abolish America's Central Bank by John Tamny

Airbnb, bank run, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Gilder, Home mortgage interest deduction, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, NetJets, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, War on Poverty, yield curve

It’s a resource produced in the real economy that, at its inception, not only expanded the range of places where individuals could work but also greatly expanded the markets that entrepreneurs could sell to. Stated otherwise, the capital that is an automobile isn’t just a consumption item. Instead, the dawn of the automobile meant that the business owner in a remote locale wasn’t limited to selling to fellow townsfolk; he could deliver his goods to customers far and wide. More recently, the car has turned consumers of automobiles into capitalists of a different kind. Thanks to Uber and the “sharing economy,” cars that we purchase for personal use are increasingly an economic resource we can charge people for rides in. Speaking of computers, does anyone remember brands such as Kaypro, Commodore, and Tandy Corporation’s TRS-80 Micro Computer? Those of us born in the 1960s and 1970s might recall all three from the 1980s, when visionary entrepreneurs started to mass market these items to consumers.

., 34–37, 108, 111, 129, 162, 164–65, 173 Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 142 Snow, John, 118 Solyndra, 59, 60 Soviet Union, 76–78, 80, 94 Splash (film), 22–23 Stanford University, 16–17 stimulus spending, 53, 141 student debt, 173–74 substitution effect and traditional banking alternatives, 105, 106–7 supply-side economics, 48–55, 79–80, 92–94, 141, 144 surge pricing, 12–14, 106–7, 165–66 Swanson, Bret, 143 Swift, Taylor, 9–12, 13, 162–63 Switzer, Barry, 18–19 tariffs, 3 taxes as barrier to economic growth and prosperity, 3 and Laffer curves, 50, 54–55 Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 142 and supply-side economics, 49–51, 79–80, 92–93, 141 technology innovation in Austin, Texas, 123–25 robots and job creation, 176–80 Ten Days That Shook the World (Reed), 23 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Texas Instruments, 155 The Theory of Money and Credit (von Mises), 87 Thiel, Peter, 28–29, 59, 150, 168 This Time Is Different (Reinhart and Rogoff), 168 Thwaites, Thomas, 64–65 Timiraos, Nick, 147, 148 toasters, 64–65 Town & Country (film), 23–24, 28 Townsend, Robert, 109 Trammel, Joel, 123–25 Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), 172–73 Truffaut, François, 24 Trump, Donald, 33–37 The 21st Century Case for Gold (Gilder), 68 The Twilight of Sovereignty (Wriston), 109 2008 financial crisis, 106, 110 Uber and “easy credit,” 115–16 and the “sharing economy,” 57 and surge pricing, 12–14, 106–7, 165–66 Ueberroth, Peter, 34–35 unicorn companies, 28, 148 University of Michigan, 16–17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 79, 103, 127, 148 University of Southern California (USC), 18–20 University of Washington, 20 USAA, 108 U.S. Treasuries market prices and cost of credit, 42 and “money multipliers” myth, 91–92 and mortgage-backed securities, 150–52 venture capital, 28–29, 109 Volcker, Paul, 170 von der Osten, Hans-George, 91 von Mises, Ludwig bank lending practices, 85, 88 dollar devaluation, 117 Human Action, 20 on market forces, 20, 152 on money and capital, 92, 94, 136–37, 161 on price of credit, 9 The Theory of Money and Credit, 9, 85, 87, 135 on why people borrow money, 87, 90, 148 Wachovia, 120 Wall Street bank bailouts, 127–30 Goldman Sachs, 41, 44, 45, 46 housing boom and “easy credit,” 113–14 increased regulation of banks, 119–20 and investment banking, 124–26 involvement with federal government, 129–31 as “price giver,” 126 Wal-Mart checking accounts, 108 Sam’s Club, 105, 106–7 “War on Poverty,” 60, 61 Warren, George, 167 WBH Energy, 73 Wealth and Poverty (Gilder), 118 The Wealth of Nations (Smith), 65, 67, 119, 140 wealth, paper currency, and real economic wealth, 1 Wells Fargo, 120 Wharton School of Business, 38 When Money Dies (Fergusson), 91, 121 White, Harry Dexter, 169 Winkler, Henry, 22 The Wire (television show), 135 Woodson, Charles, 16 Woods, Thomas E., Jr., 113–15 Wriston, Walter B., 109 Yellen, Janet, 149, 154, 156 yuan and Chinese economy, 137, 152–53 Zero to One (Thiel), 29, 97 Zuckerberg, Mark, 29 Zuckerman, Gregory, 66, 71, 72, 120


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