marginal employment

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pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Ecologically, such subsidies favour resource use at the expense of resource conservation. Then there are subsidies for enterprise benefits; these lower the demand for workers doing low-productivity services. And, as will be shown, enterprise benefits are a burden on youth since old agers and migrants are more prepared to labour without them. Labour subsidies, including earned-income tax credits and marginal employment subsidies, are also in reality subsidies to capital, enabling companies to gain more profits and pay lower wages. They have no economic or social equity justification. The rationale for the main labour subsidy, tax WHY THE PRECARIAT IS GROWING 55 credits, is that as the poor and less educated in rich countries face the stiffest competition from low-cost labour in developing countries, governments need to subsidise low wages to provide adequate incomes.


pages: 343 words: 91,080

Uberland: How Algorithms Are Rewriting the Rules of Work by Alex Rosenblat

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, call centre, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Chrome, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, job automation, job satisfaction, Lyft, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ralph Waldo Emerson, regulatory arbitrage, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social software, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, urban planning, Wolfgang Streeck, Zipcar

For her, the benefit of Uber is the chance it affords to learn new things while simultaneously gaining her son’s respect. With Uber’s flexible model, she can work when she wants to. Supplemental earners—who are largely retirees, working professionals, and empty nesters—are primarily motivated to work for social reasons. My research suggests that they benefit most clearly from Uber’s employment model of independent contract labor, since they gain more opportunities for marginal employment and are less vulnerable to the same business practices (e.g., rate cuts) that prompt strikes and protests by drivers who rely on Uber as a significant source of their household income. PART-TIME DRIVERS The majority of Uber’s drivers work part time. My research has revealed three common motivations among them for doing this kind of work: it compensates for a career transition, it allows for much-needed flexibility, or it fills the need for a “good bad job.”


pages: 267 words: 79,905

Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders

barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

All parties have a strong interest in seeing the redundant workers find new employment as soon as possible so as to reduce the demand on their contribution (Schmid and Auer 1998, p. 20). In summary, the innovative part of this notion of transitional labour markets is that it moves beyond seeing incomes policy as just alleviating ‘poverty’, and embraces questions of social inclusion. And social inclusion means working in jobs based on proper social standards when it comes to wages and hours, not working in low-quality jobs which marginal employers are prepared to create because of government subsidies (such as tax credits schemes). Transitional labour markets provide a policy framework which takes us beyond the impoverished visions of the future 225 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 225 CREATING UNEQUAL FUTURES? which bedevil the current debates.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

New York: Oxford University Press. Bluestone, Barry, and Bennett Harrison. 2000. Growing Prosperity: The Battle for Growth with Equity in the Twenty-First Century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Collins, Randall. 1979. The Credential Society: A Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification. New York: Academic Press. Flynn, Nicolet. 2003. “The Differential Effect of Labor Market Context on Marginal Employment Outcomes.” Sociological Spectrum 123, no. 3: 305–30. Frank, Robert H. 2007. Falling Behind: How Rising Inequality Harms the Middle Class. Berkeley: University of California Press. Fraser, Jill Anresky. 2001. White-Collar Sweatshop: The Deteriorations of Work and Its Rewards in Corporate America. New York: Norton. Gladwell, Malcolm. 2008. Outliers: The Story of Success. New York: Little, Brown.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

But as intelligent technology, as well as renewable energies, become more agile and cheaper, the United States is likely to see similar productivity gains spread to the remaining sectors of the economy where productivity has remained relatively flat for the last thirty years. The conundrum is that if productivity advances brought on by the application of intelligent technologies, robotics, and automation continue to push more and more workers to marginal employment or unemployment around the world, the diminishing purchasing power is likely to stifle further economic growth. In other words, if smart tech replaces more and more workers, leaving people without income, who is going to buy all of the products being produced and services being offered? Intelligent technology is only just beginning to impact the world economy. In the next several decades, tens of millions of workers across every industry and sector are likely going to be displaced by machine intelligence.


The-General-Theory-of-Employment-Interest-and-Money by John Maynard Keynes

bank run, business cycle, collective bargaining, declining real wages, delayed gratification, full employment, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, marginal employment, means of production, moral hazard, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, secular stagnation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, working-age population

The classical postulates do not admit of the possibility of the third category, which I shall define below as ‘involuntary’ unemployment. Subject to these qualifications, the volume of employed resources is duly determined, according to the classical theory, by the two postulates. The first gives us the demand schedule for employment, the second gives us the supply schedule; and the amount of employment is fixed at the point where the utility of the marginal product balances the disutility of the marginal employment. It would follow from this that there are only four possible means of increasing employment: (a) An improvement in organisation or in foresight which diminishes ‘frictional’ unemployment; (b) a decrease in the marginal disutility of labour, as expressed by the real wage for which additional labour is available, so as to diminish ‘voluntary’ unemployment; 8 J. M. Keynes (c) an increase in the marginal physical productivity of labour in the wage-goods industries (to use Professor Pigou’s convenient term for goods upon the price of which the utility of the money-wage depends); or (d) an increase in the price of non-wage-goods compared with the price of wage-goods, associated with a shift in the expenditure of non-­ wage-­earners from wage-goods to non-wage-goods.