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Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen
activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
That meant neighborhood improvement, social services, education, and keeping the neighborhood racially integrated.34 By the time Logue arrived in 1960, the dream of a mixed-race Washington Park was appearing increasingly doubtful, but the Snowdens and their neighbors looked to federal urban renewal to help them preserve as much integration as possible and to sustain a viable black middle-class community.35 Eradicating “blight”—the goal of urban renewal agencies like the BRA—became their obsession as well, as did seizing other opportunities made possible by urban renewal, such as good BRA and ABCD jobs for blacks both downtown and on-site in Roxbury, where more than eighty were employed.36 With their enthusiasm for urban renewal and a vision of an integrated Washington Park well aligned with Logue’s, the Snowdens and Freedom House became the BRA’s local clearinghouse for urban renewal from 1961 to 1968 and the pillar of the twenty-five member Washington Park Steering Committee that the Snowdens assembled.
Logue, he argued, fought against attempts to turn participation into control, “but in practice the two were very difficult to separate from one another.”112 Keyes would himself conclude many years after his fieldwork of the mid-1960s, “Looking back, there had never been anything in Boston like the city-wide engagement of citizens that took place because of urban renewal!”113 While there is much to value in the groundswell of community activism stimulated by Boston’s urban renewal, its prevalence in the 1960s and 1970s raised crucial questions about the future of urban planning and redevelopment in the city. In the wake of urban renewal, Boston, like many other cities, found itself struggling to implement even good projects with community benefits. Harry Cobb, the Pei partner who planned Government Center and who increasingly recognized urban renewal’s limitations, issued a heartfelt warning. As much as he appreciated the populist “cure” to the urban renewal “disease,” he worried that “what’s been lost is the capacity to think about the city in larger terms as it does need to be thought of.”
Cass, EJL, Series 6, Box 150, Folder 420. 33. On Washington Park urban renewal, see Keyes, Rehabilitation Planning Game, 143–90; Heath, Act of Faith; John H. Spiers, “‘Planning with People’: Urban Renewal in Boston’s Washington Park, 1950–1970,” JPH 8, no. 1 (August 2009): 221–47; Jennifer Hock, “Bulldozers, Busing, and Boycotts: Urban Renewal and the Integrationist Project,” JUH 39, no. 3 (May 2013): 433–53; David R. Gergen, “Renewal in the Ghetto: A Study of Residential Rehabilitation in Boston’s Washington Park,” Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review 3 (1967–68): 243–310; Report to the Community: Urban Renewal Reaches Midway Point in Washington Park, BRA, 1965; Walter L. Smart, The Washington Park Relocation Story, 1962/1966, BRA, April 1966; Benjamin Feit, “Freedom House and Boston’s Urban Renewal: The Determining Role of a Civic Organizing Institution in the Reshaping of Washington Park” (senior thesis, Yale University, April 2006). 34.
Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara
conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor
The result of this process, unveiled in February 2001, was the Cape Flats Renewal Strategy (CFRS), a joint effort led by the provincial government and involving also the municipal government, local communities, and the private sector in implementing an integrated and multisectoral approach to development on the Cape Flats. The CFRS was intended to combat crime on the Flats in line with directives laid out in the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) and to complement the National Urban Renewal Programme (NURP). It was linked, at least conceptually, to the urban renewal process under way in the city center through its incorporation of the spatial governance model of reclaiming and revitalizing key geographic nodes. The CFRS, like the central city’s improvement district model, also foregrounds crime and security, making very clear that its primary task of urban renewal is to address the “gang phenomenon.” The goal here, according to law enforcement and political authorities, is not simply a “cleanup” for which a “broken window” strategy will suffice, though it will have a role to play.
Critics from township communities and from many civil society organizations that were focused on crime reduction, rehabilitation, and development claimed that implementation was tilted from the start in favor of police priorities, with social crime prevention efforts losing out to aggressive, deterrence-oriented hard policing tactics that leaned too heavily on the use of overwhelming force. In the process, social development, including youth development, while still a goal of urban renewal on the Flats, was neglected in practice. For too many young people in the townships, as the arrest statistics in the preceding chapter indicate, the primary experience they had with the new strategy was through the police. Policing was quickly becoming the central mechanism in the urban renewal program and a primary institution mediating relations between the state and the people, as the police not so quietly slipped into the role of de facto agents of underdevelopment. Understanding how and where young people fit into urban renewal on the Cape Flats—the focus of the next chapter— thus turns on an understanding of how gangsterism and policing have come to largely define the parameters of development practice in this vast territory to the east of the city’s core.
Central to understanding this process is the concept of social order. Urban renewal under conditions of neoliberalism is best understood as a sociospatial ordering project, but one that manifests differently in 106 â•‡ ·â•‡ Gangsterism and the Policing of the Cape Flats different urban spaces. The role of policing in developing the city center mirrors urban renewal in South Africa as a whole, where both conceptually and practically it provides for the police to play a central role in the transition away from the urban geography of apartheid, in whose creation and reproduction they also figured prominently, and toward a new democratic division of space and distribution of resources. Unlike in the past, however, the role of the police is not to enforce an urban renewal whose goal is to pacify the population. Rather, law enforcement is meant to participate in a process of reform that incorporates less militaristic, human security perspectives in approaching crime and security challenges.
City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae
agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration
The accounting and regulatory processes are intricate beyond ordinary understanding, but the big story is that Lee and Logue could export nearly all the net costs of renewal work. At the same time, the state of Connecticut had, with some urging from Lee, passed Public Act 24 (1958), Public Act 8 (1958), and Public Act 594 (1961) offering state funding for the local share of specified aspects of urban renewal.19 The net effect of these machinations is that the local percentage of total urban renewal costs was very low indeed. City urban renewal cash spending from locally generated revenues appears to have amounted to as little as 5 percent of total urban renewal costs during the Lee era as a whole. Not only was the funding largely beyond the pockets of New Haven voters, it was largely beyond the control of city government at large. Funds came directly into the accounts of the Redevelopment Agency and provided Logue and his successors with considerable leverage in dealing with budgets.
But, most of all, a large number of mainly Italian-American whites were lost to the neighborhood in a very short period of time.44 A major residential story in late twentieth-century New Haven is the decentralization of white households and their replacement by people of color—but on a rough two-for-three basis, two new families of color for three departed white families basis—so that total population in the central city diminished pretty steadily over the decades. Did urban renewal and highway construction cause these shifts? I do not think so, at least not in any simple way. These changes were 342 E X T R A O R D I N A R Y P O L I T I C S under way long before Lee came to power in 1954, and they have continued since. The earliest instances of “white flight” trace to the 1920s, long before blacks arrived in numbers and long before urban renewal began.45 One could say that the visibility of urban renewal, reinforcing the certification of workingclass neighborhoods as slums, may have sent a signal that encouraged departure. And, certainly, the highways made it easier to move into relatively distant suburbs and still hold on to a city job. These are credible guesses. What can be said with complete confidence is that urban renewal failed to reverse the growing trend toward the suburbanization of whites, most notably middle-class whites.
This story, titled “Snow Tickets,” evokes the older habits of urbanism that came under so much pressure at mid-century, and it introduces the politician who would dramatically attempt to renew the city when he was elected mayor. xiv P R E F A C E Chapters 9 and 10 are about the Dick Lee era, urban renewal, and the realization that the city was not going to return to its former glory even with massive federally funded intervention. The first of these chapters tells the story of a growing rivalry between Irish and Italian groups in city politics, and of Lee’s eventual uneasy marriage of the two groups in the Democratic Party. It also tells how Lee came to be an advocate of urban renewal, and how the idea of the “slumless city” emerged from his early career. Chapter 10 tells the story of Lee as mayor. In this period Lee overcame many of the limitations of city government by creating parallel institutions, funded externally and managed by technocrats whose aims and loyalties had nothing to do with city politics. His urban renewal effort was run from what he called the Kremlin, dominated by Ed Logue and other brilliant, often Yale-educated figures who were able to operate almost entirely outside normal political constraints.
The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America by Jon C. Teaford
anti-communist, big-box store, conceptual framework, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, East Village, edge city, estate planning, Golden Gate Park, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, rent control, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, young professional
In a number of cities of the trans-Mississippi West, federally financed urban renewal proved so unacceptable that it never was implemented. Although business leaders in Omaha’s chamber of commerce were eager to apply federal dollars to that city’s graying core, the local electorate and city council were adamantly opposed to the program and repeatedly defeated renewal proposals. Consequently, there were no federal urban renewal projects in the Nebraska metropolis.75 Because of its refusal to adopt zoning ordinances, Houston was automatically ineligible for federal urban renewal money. Moreover, Houston residents did not seem to care; one official observed that “urban renewal was not even in our lexicon.”76 Strong ideological scruples motivated opponents of federal urban renewal in Fort Worth, where the Citizens Committee for Protection of Property Rights led the crusade against government condemnation of blighted properties.
Carl Abbott, The Metropolitan Frontier: Cities in the Modern American West (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993), p. 45. 79. Adde, Nine Cities, p. 181. 80. Chester Hartman, “The Housing of Relocated Families,” in Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, ed. James Q. Wilson (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966), p. 306. 81. Marc Fried, “Grieving for a Lost Home: Psychological Costs of Relocation,” in Urban Renewal, ed. Wilson, p. 360. 82. Wolf Von Eckardt, “Bulldozers and Bureaucrats,” New Republic, 14 September 1963, p. 15. 83. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949–1962 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964), pp. 54–55. 84. Herbert J. Gans, “The Failure of Urban Renewal,” in Urban Renewal, ed. Wilson, p. 541. 85. Gillette, Between Justice and Beauty, p. 165. 86. Hartman, “Housing of Relocated Families,” pp. 305, 310, 318–20. 87.
Moreover, Houston residents did not seem to care; one official observed that “urban renewal was not even in our lexicon.”76 Strong ideological scruples motivated opponents of federal urban renewal in Fort Worth, where the Citizens Committee for Protection of Property Rights led the crusade against government condemnation of blighted properties. In a 1966 referendum, Fort Worth conservatives decisively consigned urban renewal to oblivion when voters rejected it by a 4 to 1 margin.77 Nearby Dallas was equally offended by the prospect of federal assistance and never signed on to the program. In 1965 Salt Lake City voters rejected federal money by a 6 to 1 margin after a campaign that, according to one urban scholar, “described urban renewal as a violation of the divinely given right of property ownership.”78 In 1964 Denver residents defeated an urban renewal proposal, following the lead of a city council member who deemed public condemnation of land for resale to private interests as “immoral.”79 Two years later, Denver’s electorate changed its mind and approved the scheme.
City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco by Chester W. Hartman, Sarah Carnochan
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, business climate, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, John Markoff, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, young professional
Traditional controls of public power, so endemic in American government, run a little thin with these agencies.1 The SFRA was established in 1948 in anticipation of passage by Congress of the 1949 Housing Act, which introduced the urban renewal program. Like redevelopment bodies in general, SFRA is a semiautonomous entity with vast independent legal, ﬁnancial, and technical powers and 15 16 / Chapter 2 resources. Its commissioners are appointed by the mayor and conﬁrmed by the Board of Supervisors. During the heyday of urban renewal—the 1960s and ﬁrst half of the 1970s—the agency had access to massive sums of federal funds; between 1959 and 1971, it was able to secure $128 million in federal urban renewal dollars for the city. Its relative freedom from local control and its direct access to federal money tended to reduce city hall control over its activities. Its large technical staff developed an exclusive familiarity with the complex arcana of federal urban renewal statutes and administrative regulations.
The ratio of annual administrative budget to total grant was 1:77 for Pittsburgh and 1:55 for Boston, while San Francisco had a 1:22 ratio. 7. For portraits of the few ﬁgures in the urban renewal game who rivaled Herman, see (on Robert Moses) Jeanne Lowe, Cities in a Race with Time (New York: Random House, 1967), 45 – 109, and Robert Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974); (on Edward Logue) Richard Schickel, “New York’s Mr. Urban Renewal,” New York Times Magazine (1 March 1970). See also Jewel Bellush and Murray Hausknecht, eds., “Entrepreneurs and Urban Renewal: The New Men of Power,” in Urban Renewal: People, Politics and Planning (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1967), 289 – 97. Further description of Herman is found in William Lilley III, “Herman Death Ends an Era,” National Journal (18 September 1971): 1939.
Without the land, the scheme was only so much paper. Here, as in many similar situations, the ideal solution seemed to be the urban renewal program, but the program was available only for “blighted” areas, and, according to the City Planning Department, Swig’s original four blocks did not qualify. One large area South of Market had been approved earlier as a possible urban renewal project. Known as Area D, it was farther from Market Street and the central business district and thus less attractive to private developers than the blocks Swig proposed. City planning director Paul Oppermann had studied the Swig area and reported that two of the four original blocks were only 10 percent blighted. Oppermann determined that to use urban renewal to erect the center in these blocks would be a perversion of the program’s purpose, and he recommended that development of Swig’s area be left to the private market.
Hollow City by Rebecca Solnit, Susan Schwartzenberg
blue-collar work, Brownian motion, dematerialisation, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, low skilled workers, new economy, New Urbanism, pets.com, rent control, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, wage slave
"^ a mall-like version of Japantown was Iron- rebuilt, backed by investors from Japan and opposed by THE SHOPPING CART AND THE LEXUS many Japanese-American community (which had dispersed in the local after returning ft-om the where internment camps following World Western Addition, bauhaus bunkers were the Afi-ican Americans displaced by urban renewal, but a signifi- move back and the second phase of urban renewal displaced another 13,500 dents of the Western Addition. Chester Hartman, who at resi- has written exten- about urban renewal in San Francisco, concludes that the Redevel- sively opment Agency "became much downtown as Else- house cant portion of the 4,000 families evicted were unable to all, War II). built to in the some of 49 a powerful land as and aggressive army out to capture The Agency turned could it sweeping out the poor, with the atically full backing of the to system- power city's elite.">° In the some Western Addition, urban renewal met with In make them more mixed response: some opposed them, and many believed the promises, sought to a palatable or to advance their own leaders agendas.
"^ The housing conditions were sometimes vile, but they were the result rather than the cause of social problems (the poet Michael McClure, who visited many of the homes while working 1960, for the census in remembers them cious).'* as airy and gra- Nevertheless, urban renewal went forward, propelled by the peculiar official belief that problems caused by poverty and racism could be cured by architecture often architecture that removed population is now make would exclude (just as the homelessness often addressed by attempting to away the homeless go —not into houses, just out of sight or out of town). By the time urban renewal in the Victorian houses that Western Addition had begun its second where the campaign, the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency could write, "San Francisco is now developing programs to correct blighted and congested were removed to be Fillmore Center — so they were retically, everyone in who was uously aging and deteriorating faster than replaced.
what that produced was the front against urban renewal. and class tensions to were two attempts It loss was much more hostile. Unfortunately of an opportunity to create a The agency became masters at planting racial ensure that there was no effective coalition. There to create a common organization for the people of the Western Addition [and] the people South of Market to take velopment. There were great tragedies. the failure stemmed common One of the tragedies fi-om the racism of the South of on was redethat Market men. They THE SHOPPING CART AND THE LEXUS 51 From inside were overwhelmingly white and overwhelmingly Americans as sellouts. They were racist. so opposed to any They saw African compromise [that] they probably cut the best deal that was ever cut with urban renewal in the city."^^ ists Though they ended up with a net loss of rooms, the TOOR activ- delayed hotel destruction and forced the city to provide better reloca- tion support Still, and to build a few large residential facililies for seniors.
Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski
additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional
Although it’s only a short walk from the U.S. Capitol, the neighborhood is a part of the city that few tourists ever see. A focus of urban renewal in the 1950s, the area was essentially bulldozed and replanned as a collection of superblocks following the idealistic but misguided urban design formulas of that era. The result is a mixture of Brutalist-style federal office buildings, apartment blocks, public housing projects, parking, and lots and lots of wide open space. “A five-minute walk can seem awfully long if there’s nothing there,” Thom tells his listeners. He reminds them that he first came to Southwest in 1965, as an architecture student on a scholarship tour. He recalls being appalled by the devastating effects of urban renewal and saying to himself, “There must be a better way to build cities.” After describing the general context of Southwest, Thom asks people to gather around a small architectural model that he uses to explain his concept.
In the railroad age, hotels, nightclubs, and offices had clustered around the downtown train station. Airports couldn’t be built downtown, of course, but parts of downtown could be brought to the airport. * * * In 1967, Pritzker bought an unfinished hotel in central Atlanta and built a giant atrium hotel, initiating an architectural trend that has lasted until the present day. Over the last two decades, his downtown hotels have been a part of urban renewal in Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas, Pittsburgh, Minneapolis, Miami, and Memphis. Stanley Durwood’s company, too, returned to the city. The multiplex was born in the suburbs, and the sprawling one-story buildings were built in suburban malls, often near one of Frank Turner’s highway interchanges. This year, a thirteen-screen Loews Cineplex opened on Forty-Second Street in Manhattan. Early next year, AMC will open a twenty-five-screen movie theater across the street, incorporating part of the old Empire Theater into its design, neatly closing a forty-year-old circle.
Like Vienna’s early Ringstrasse and Paris’s more recent Promenade Plantée—old urban infrastructure transformed—the High Line is an example of McLuhan’s Law of Technological Second Lives. Downtown “The almighty downtown of the past is gone—and gone for good,” writes Robert Fogelson in Downtown, his stimulating new history of a long-neglected subject. “And it has been gone much longer than most Americans realize,” he continues. The provocative second part of this statement encapsulates his thesis: that long before the failures of urban renewal, the intrusions of urban interstate highways, and the competition of suburban shopping malls and office parks, the primacy of downtown was on the wane. Most recent books that deal with downtowns have done so in the context of urban advocacy, describing them as a precious part of our heritage that needs to be saved, revitalized, restored. They tend to cast a rosy and nostalgic light on the past.
Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin
1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional
He had never liked the immigrants, namely Jews, who in his time thronged the streets of the tenement districts of the Lower East Side. Critics of urban renewal, though, added what we would now call positive goals of affordability and diversity to James’s hostility to overbuilding. In Boston the sociologist and urban planning researcher Herbert Gans wrote a stunning indictment of how local elites needlessly destroyed the Italian working-class district of the West End, coining the term “urban village” to depict the close-knit, family-based, ethnic community that was displaced in the name of slum clearance. Even more famously, in New York the journalist and community activist Jane Jacobs published a call to arms against the fatal machinery of modern urban planning, which brought in the bulldozers and “cataclysmic money” of urban renewal projects to destroy old, but still vibrant, neighborhoods.
Even more famously, in New York the journalist and community activist Jane Jacobs published a call to arms against the fatal machinery of modern urban planning, which brought in the bulldozers and “cataclysmic money” of urban renewal projects to destroy old, but still vibrant, neighborhoods. By the early 1960s, with urban renewal moving forcefully ahead, its opponents developed a modest, street-level defense of urban authenticity to confront the arrogance of both modernization and state power, which threatened to sweep away people as well as buildings.12 The men and women who spoke up for authenticity in the 1960s were a mixed group socially, culturally, and politically, and they argued for somewhat different visions of the city. They included three different groups: historic preservationists, often, like Henry James, members of the upper class who deplored the destruction of old buildings that embodied urban memory; community preservationists, political activists and socially conscious intellectuals such as Jacobs and Gans, who defended the right of all poor people not to be displaced by new building projects, and especially opposed “Negro removal,” the targeting of those who, because of racial discrimination, were least able to move to new homes in the suburbs; and gentrifiers, who since the 1940s had begun to move into poor neighborhoods, buying and restoring late nineteenth-century houses with “great symbolic value” to nurture an urban lifestyle untainted by modernity.
The much-quoted set piece in the first section of Jacobs’s best-selling 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities—an hour-by-hour description of the “intricate sidewalk ballet” on Hudson Street, outside her window—dramatizes the neighborly interdependence of local shopkeepers, housewives, schoolchildren, and customers at the corner bar, all patron saints of social order in the city’s neighborhoods who were either scorned or ignored by the powerful forces that controlled urban renewal. Jacobs also argued for authenticity as a democratic expression of origins, for a neighborhood’s right, against the decisions of the state, to determine the conditions of its own survival. Death and Life raised an alarm against the arrogance of state power, especially as it was personified by Robert Moses, the larger-than-life administrator who headed the most important state and city redevelopment agencies in New York City from the 1930s to the 1960s.
How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz
affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Black people in Detroit and all across the country not only were pushed into city centers and held there by racist suburban policy but were repeatedly internally displaced by the forces of “urban renewal.” Federally funded highways began cutting through Detroit after World War II. The highways weren’t just ways to subsidize white flight to the suburbs; local politicians considered them a “handy device for razing the slums.” Detroit displaced nearly 2,000 black families from one area along Gratiot Avenue in 1947 for the sole purpose of getting rid of a section of the city that used more tax dollars than it gave back. Mayor Albert Cobo called urban renewal the “price of progress.” The effect of decades of segregation is that black Americans are poorer and less likely to achieve success than whites. In Stuck in Place, a study of the apartheid-like conditions of black America, New York University sociologist Patrick Sharkey found that over the last half century there has been virtually no improvement in the income of African Americans.
From 9th Street and Fifth Avenue, you can also see past Washington Square Park, past SoHo, all the way to the tip of Manhattan to Freedom Tower, or 1 World Trade Center—what once was the Twin Towers. The site is rarely criticized today because the buildings occupy hallowed ground, but before September 11 the Twin Towers were considered examples of terrible urban planning. And they were one of New York’s biggest “urban renewal” projects: to make way for the massive structures, some 33,000 workers and small-business owners were displaced. Planners and politicians often like to pretend we’ve moved past the urban renewal era—when highways and super-tall buildings were rammed through neighborhoods (most often majority-black ones, though in the case of the original World Trade Center many of the displaced were Syrian) in the belief that whatever came next would be more profitable and less social-service-intensive than what was there before.
Exchange value is a place’s potential economic worth. In a society in which land can be bought and sold, every place has both a use value and an exchange value. The inherent problem with this setup is that the poorer you are, the more likely it is that places that provide you with use value don’t offer an increased exchange value for anyone else. Molotch and Logan point out that in the heyday of urban renewal—when highways and housing projects were forced on top of low-income neighborhoods, displacing tens of thousands—the main metric for deciding where these projects should go was not crime, education, or the health of its residents, but whether those areas could be used for more profitable things. Detroit destroyed an area of the city based on the fact that the area’s residents took more tax revenue in the form of government services than they produced in the form of property taxes.
Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders
barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
A second, but less pronounced, perception related to the southern growth corridor (Woree and Edmonton, in particular) and the housing affordability, employment insecurity and transport problems faced by residents. Manifestations of disadvantage, however, distinguish these two localities, as discussed below. Because the areas are delimited sections of larger ABS spatial aggregates (such as postcodes or statistical local areas), the presence and level of disadvantage can only be gleaned through local knowledge and on-site visits. Public housing and urban renewal The planned urban renewal of Manoora surfaced in each interview as a major initiative to tackle the spatial expression of conspicuous inequalities in Cairns. During the discussions, however, it became clear that Manoora was grouped in people’s perceptions with Mooroobool and Manunda, two other areas of public housing concentration located in the same central Cairns postcode zone. Approximately half the public rental stock in Cairns converges within postcode 4870 containing Manoora, Mooroobool and Manunda (Figure 6.5).
These seemingly disadvantaged suburbs are situated prominently alongside high-cost real estate in the city, producing stark spatial juxtapositions of low- and highcost housing. Manoora, for example, is overlooked in many spots by extremely expensive housing. This appears to be a product of the city’s topography—leafy hillside suburbs edge the lower income plains suburbs in many spots and new semi-gated communities of high-cost housing sit up the hill from areas of cheaper homes. Urban renewal refers to the current strategy of Australian State housing authorities that aims to address the concentration of disadvantage on public housing estates. Urban renewal initiatives can take a number of forms including upgrading ageing public dwellings, demolishing stock, selling off some public housing and/or relocating tenants. But overall, this policy has been ‘little 174 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 174 MOVING IN AND OUT OF DISADVANTAGE debated or systematically analysed’ (Arthurson 1998, p. 35), although the policy impetus clearly derives from concern over the lack of social mix in public housing estates.
They are thus implicated in two forms of mobility—they are destinations in regional in-migration to Cairns, and they are places of ‘churn’ in housing. The Urban Renewal Program for Manoora follows Housing Queensland policy in recommending that no more than 20 per cent of houses in any one area contain public housing residents (referred to, rather innocently in the interviews, as the ‘salt and pepper’ approach). Based on the philosophy that concentrations of poor people ‘stigmatise’ communities, the government aims to 175 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 175 CREATING UNEQUAL FUTURES? ‘scatter’ low-income families throughout Cairns, particularly through the southern growth corridor. Relocating residents, one community worker said, ‘provides people with a new start’. Another social service professional echoed this sentiment and said ‘urban renewal will make a difference to the quality of lives’.
The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021 by Greg Clark
Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, congestion charging, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global value chain, haute cuisine, housing crisis, industrial cluster, intangible asset, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rent control, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
I then detail the effect of the new mayoral system on the way London has been managed, and how the relationships with the different tiers of government, both ‘upwards’ and ‘downwards’, have evolved. While many aspects of the impetus towards self-government remain more aspirational than real, one area where integrated organisation and resources has been achieved is in city promotion, which is featured in the concluding section of the chapter. Acquisition of new global roles, and expansion of existing proficiencies, has required that London’s policy makers undertake numerous projects of urban renewal and regeneration since 1991. The story of redevelopment and re-use of brownfield land, waterfronts, markets, stations, stadia and high streets is told in Chapter 6. After the mixed experience of the London Docklands Development Corporation in the 1980s, the 1990s constituted a noticeable shift towards the deployment of public sector physical infrastructure investments to catalyse wider private sector activity.
Later, under New Labour, the New Deal for Communities initiative sought a more proactive rehabilitation of dysfunctional social housing estates. The dual focus on connectivity infrastructure and property-led regeneration as a form of social engineering – such as occurred in Hackney’s Holly Street Estate – was indicative of the dominant role that bricks and mortar played in the architecture of urban renewal at this time. With this in mind, the assessment of Simon Clark, Partner and Head of European Real Estate at Linklaters, is that “in the 1990s London became much more conscientiously involved in its own reinvention. Major urban development projects and major infrastructure initiatives, as well as key celebrations, enabled London to believe it was possible to physically change the city to create new capacity and new quarters and new local identities” (personal communication, 6 December 2011).
Conversely, the fact that Canary Wharf had had patchy impact on the adjacent areas of East London, with benefits mostly confined to the former Docklands area from Limehouse to Royal Victoria Dock, meant that the Olympics came to be seen as a viable opportunity to undertake more comprehensive social regeneration in East London. Late 1990s regeneration: Marrying infrastructure and pluralism The ascent of New Labour’s Model of post-industrial services and consumer-led economy in the late 1990s had a considerable impact upon the trajectory of urban renewal. At this point, policymakers for London embraced the already circulating idea that an image of liveability must be central to the capital’s competitive capability in a global knowledge economy where diversity and inclusivity had become paramount. London’s global city roles required not only a suitable range of high-end housing and corporate real estate, but an accompanying cultural, leisure and retail offer.
Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus
But the bigger problem seems to be that in such cases the demolition team has to collaborate with social workers – a sensible policy, only in this case the social workers’ contract has expired and the demolition cannot continue without them. Such are the mundane causes of the tragic scenes around us – all of this because of bureaucratic incompetence. It is a stark reminder that you can design all the masterplans you like, but if the administrative process that’s supposed to deliver an urban renewal project doesn’t function, then lives get ruined. In Brazil, the bureaucratic machinery needs redesigning as much as the urban fabric. One of the houses standing alone in the rubble has a smartly tiled facade and a hanging chair out on the balcony. My guide says it’s the most beautiful house in the area, and the owner was offered an unprecedented 138,000 reais ($63,000) in compensation. She’s lucky, but she didn’t accept it because she says she can’t find anything of comparable size for that money.
There are dozens or even hundreds of other sites across the city where people will be forced out against their will and insufficiently compensated. ‘They’re just relocating poverty,’ my guide says. An Olympic Legacy? In 2010, Mayor Eduardo Paes announced that all of Rio’s favelas would be upgraded by 2020. It was a bold statement, and one that the Brazilian architecture community met with optimism rather than disbelief. The mayor’s primary tool in this sweeping transformation was an urban renewal programme called Morar Carioca – Carioca Living. With 8 billion reais of funding, it was the most ambitious slum regeneration project ever launched, dwarfing Favela-Bairro. In the same vein as its predecessor, Morar Carioca was to continue the process of stitching the favelas into the urban fabric of Rio. However, one of the weaknesses of Favela-Bairro, in hindsight, was that it did too little to improve the quality of housing in the favelas, and this new programme was to address that shortcoming.
We’ve seen how effective these methods were. Dramatic falls in homicide rates, traffic congestion, traffic accidents and water usage, and a burgeoning civic pride. However, his impact on Bogotá, though powerful, was an intangible one. That is not quite true – in one sense it was highly material. Mockus restored the city’s finances. He inherited a city with a deficit and left it with a healthy budget for urban renewal projects. He did this partly by raising taxes. Much as he had done at the university, he persuaded 55,000 of Bogotá’s wealthiest residents to pay an extra 10 per cent in tax. He also sold off part of the municipal telecommunications company (and when he was accused of neoliberalism for selling off a public asset, he was able to counter that not many neoliberals are in favour of raising taxes).
Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
He ended up preferring pay raises to strikes, and the increasing costs of city government were then hidden with increasingly creative bookkeeping, which led straight to New York’s near bankruptcy in 1975. Cavanagh’s fatal flaw was his penchant for razing slums and building tall structures with the help of federal urban-renewal dollars. Detroit’s housing market had peaked in the 1950s and was already depressed when Cavanagh took office. The city was shedding people and had plenty of houses. Why subsidize more building? Successful cities must build in order to accommodate the rising demand for space, but that doesn’t mean that building creates success. Urban renewal, in both Detroit and New York, may have replaced unattractive slums with shiny new buildings, but it did little to address urban decline. Those shiny new buildings were really Potemkin villages spread throughout America, built to provide politicians with the appearance of urban success.
We mustn’t ignore the needs of the poor people who live in the Rust Belt, but public policy should help poor people, not poor places. Shiny new real estate may dress up a declining city, but it doesn’t solve its underlying problems. The hallmark of declining cities is that they have too much housing and infrastructure relative to the strength of their economies. With all that supply of structure and so little demand, it makes no sense to use public money to build more supply. The folly of building-centric urban renewal reminds us that cities aren’t structures; cities are people. After Hurricane Katrina, the building boosters wanted to spend hundreds of billions rebuilding New Orleans, but if $200 billion had been given to the people who lived there, each of them would have gotten $400,000 to pay for moving or education or better housing somewhere else. Even before the flood, New Orleans had done a mediocre job caring for its poor.
The Renaissance Center dominates the skyline. Riding on the People Mover feels like a trip to Disney World, if Disney World were in the middle of a desperate city. But as in other declining places, billions were spent on infrastructure that the city didn’t need. Unsurprisingly, providing more real estate in a place that was already full of unused real estate was no help at all. The failures of urban renewal reflect a failure at all levels of government to realize that people, not structures, really determine a city’s success. Could an alternative public policy have saved Detroit? By the time Young was elected, Detroit was far gone, and I suspect that even the best policies could only have eased the city’s suffering. But it is possible to imagine a different path, if it was taken during earlier decades, when the city was far richer.
Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
Architect David Glasser visited a former single-family villa in Quito, for example, that housed 25 families and 128 people but had no functioning municipal services.40 Although rapidly being gentrified or torn down, some of Mexico City's vedndades are still as crowded as Casa Grande, the famous tenement block housing 700 people which anthropologist Oscar Lewis made famous in The Children of Sanche% (1961).41 In Asia the equivalents are the decayed (and now municipalized) ^amindar mansions of Kolkata and the poetically named "slum gardens" of Colombo which constitute 18 percent of the city's rundown housing.42 The largest-scale instance, although now reduced in size and population by urban renewal, is probably Beijing's inner slum, the Old City, which consists of Ming and Qing courtyard housing lacking modern facilities.43 Often, as in Sao Paulo's once-fashionable Campos Eliseos or parts of Lima's colonial cityscape, whole bourgeois neighborhoods have devolved into slums. In Algiers's famous seaside district of Bab-elOued, on the other hand, the indigenous poor have replaced the colon working class.
After a final defiance — the bulldozing of Colonia Santa Ursula in Ajusco in 29 Young and Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, p. 98; Deborah Posel, "Curbing African Urbanization in the 1950s and 1960s," in Mark Swilling, Richard Humphries, and Khehla Shubane (eds), Apartheid City in Transition, Cape Town 1991, pp. 29-30. 30 Carole Rakodi, "Global Forces, Urban Change, and Urban Management in Africa," in Rakodi, The Urban Challenge in Africa, pp. 32-39. 31 Urban Planning Studio, Columbia University, Disaster-Resistant Caracas, New York 2001, p. 25. September 1966 - he was deposed by President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, a politician notorious f or his many ties to foreign capital and land speculators. A fast-growth agenda that included tolerance for pirate urbanization on the periphery in return for urban renewal in the center became the PRI policy in La Capital.32 A generation after the removal of barriers to influx and informal urbanization elsewhere, China began to relax its controls on urban growth in the early 1980s. With a huge reservoir of redundant peasant labor (including more than half of the labor force of Sichuan, according to the People's Daily) the loosening of the bureaucratic dike produced a literal "peasant flood."33 Officially sanctioned migration was overshadowed by a huge stream of unauthorized immigrants or "floaters."
Two residents were shot dead; the rest were trucked out to the countryside, 40 kilometers from their old homes, and left to fend for themselves.28 The most extraordinary contradictions between residual ideology and current practice, however, are enacted in China, where the still putatively "socialist" state allows urban growth machines to displace millions of history's former heroes. In a thought-provoking article comparing recent inner-city redevelopment in the PRC to urban renewal in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Yan Zhang and Ke Fang claim that Shanghai forced the relocation of more than 1.5 million citizens between 1991 and 1997 to make way for skyscrapers, luxury apartments, malls, and new infrastructure; in the same period nearly 1 million residents of Beijing's old city were pushed into the outskirts 29 In the beginning, urban redevelopment in Deng Xiaoping's China, as in Harry Truman's America, consisted of pilot housing projects that seemed to pose little threat to the traditional urban fabric.
World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen
active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
Over the last 20 years, the priority has been to attract investment to business districts such as La Défense, and to prestigious cultural projects, IT and research clusters. Governments have invested large sums to improve Charles de Gaulle Airport and its connections to La Défense and Paris Orsay. The Government also backed Paris 59 bids to host the Olympics, up until 2005 when it surprisingly lost the bid to London for the 2012 Games. Its global perspective was, to some extent, balanced by a commitment to affordability: a ‘Law for Solidarity and Urban Renewal’ makes it compulsory for communes to have 20–25% of social housing in the housing stock by 2020, while the State now offers public subsidies to lower the price of land for housing delivery. In 2008 an important shift occurred when central government appointed a Minister for Le Grand Paris to help a larger Paris “be a decisive national asset in the competition of the twenty‐first century”, according to the official mandate (Lefevre, 2012).
Lower‐ and middle‐income groups have been largely pushed out of the inner city, although the local authorities have tried to invest to make the suburban ‘red belt’ a more acceptable living location for professionals. The French Prime Minister has expressed determination to meet the ambitious target of 70,000 units a year, a figure far in excess of those proposed in London and New York. The Mobilisation Plan for Development and Housing intends to support communities that innovate to raise the housing rate. The State is also running a New Programme for Urban Renewal at the national level, which has already identified or provided support to 119 housing development and urban upgrade projects in the Paris Region. In addition to co‐financing, it helps mobilise local actors around social and development objectives. It forms part of a broader co‐operation mechanism entitled ‘State‐Region Contracts’, which set out a joint budgetary and planning vision between regions and central government.
Such co‐ordination means that when, for example, national government land and buildings are vacated or de‐centralised from Tokyo, they are passed on to the TMG, which actively redevelops in favour of a more attractive mixed‐use model (Fujita and Child Hill, 2005; Pham, 2015). The national Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) retains prerogatives over local urban planning, especially over urban renewal regulations and railway networks. It also oversees the Urban Renaissance Agency – a quango that manages real estate and urban development projects, and has major stakes in Tokyo regeneration schemes, such as the Otemachi district, Minato Mirai 21 and Yokohama (Pham, 2015). The PM’s Office is influential in setting the investment and business promotion agenda for Tokyo. It sets general goals and targets (for example, increasing foreign direct investment by Y35 trillion by 2020) and runs FDI promotion projects, such as Invest Japan and the National Strategic Special Zone initiatives, both of which have a strong bearing on Tokyo.
The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.
affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
Waddell, 1987. [1987.1100.1]) 1.2 Shift change at the Ford River Rouge Plant (courtesy of the Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University) 1.3 Aerial view of Detroit’s West Side, 1937 (© Detroit News) 2.1 Typical African American neighborhood, 1942, by Arthur Siegel, United States Office of War Information (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 2.2 Black-owned home and garden plot in the Eight Mile–Wyoming neighborhood, 1942, by John Vachon, United States Farm Security Administration (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 2.3 Clearance of land for urban renewal near Gratiot Avenue and Orleans Street, on Detroit’s Lower East Side, 1951 (courtesy of the Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University) 3.1 Detroit Housing Commission map of proposed public housing projects in Detroit in the 1940s (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 3.2 Wall separating the black Eight Mile–Wyoming neighborhood from an adjacent white area in northwest Detroit, 1941, by John Vachon, United States Farm Security Administration (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 3.3 Billboard protesting black occupancy of the Sojourner Truth Homes, February 1942, by Arthur Siegel, Office of War Information (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 3.4 Black family moving into the Sojourner Truth Homes, February 1942, by Arthur Siegel, Office of War Information (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 3.5 George Edwards, Democratic candidate for mayor in 1949 (courtesy of the Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University) 4.1 Black maintenance worker in Allison Motors Plant, 1942, by Arthur Siegel, Office of War Information (courtesy of the Library of Congress) 4.2 Black sanitation workers, Detroit, mid-1950s (courtesy of the Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University) 5.1 Factory—Detroit (1955–56), by Robert Frank (Robert Frank Collection.
Another nonprofit, Challenge Detroit, leveraged support from major employers and launched a fellowship program to recruit about thirty emerging leaders from around the world to Detroit each year.28 The sense that gentrification, creativity, and youthful talent are the ticket to Detroit’s rebirth is one manifestation of what urbanists call the neoliberalization of the city, namely the faith that market-based solutions are more rational and efficient than democratic processes: the reliance on the private sector to provide what were once public services such as education, sanitation, and housing, and the creation of a “favorable business climate,” by weakening of labor power and workplace regulations as well as reducing taxes to attract capital. In this view, cities are locked in perpetual competition—just like business firms—and need to cut costs and create incentives to promote capital formation and growth.29 This is an old story in Detroit, one that began with public-private partnerships during the era of urban renewal (using federal funds to demolish “blighted” neighborhoods, to construct market-rate housing, and to attract new investment). This process accelerated in the 1970s and 1980s, as the city used eminent domain to clear land for redevelopment and tax incentives to attract businesses and retail downtown, like the high-rise Renaissance Center in the 1970s. In 1980, Detroit spent millions to host the Republican National Convention, touted as evidence of the city’s rebirth.
In 1958, the Wayne County road commissioner predicted “that little difficulty will be experienced by families facing displacement because of highway construction,” even though the families on highway sites received only a thirty-day notice to vacate and the commission made no efforts to assist families in relocation.51 Compounding the housing woes of inner-city blacks was the city’s extensive urban renewal program. The centerpiece of Detroit’s postwar master plan was the clearance of “blighted areas” in the inner city for the construction of middle-class housing that it was believed would revitalize the urban economy. Like most postwar cities, Detroit had high hopes for slum removal. City officials expected that the eradication of “blight” would increase city tax revenue, revitalize the decaying urban core, and improve the living conditions of the poorest slum dwellers.
The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square by James Traub
Anton Chekhov, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, intangible asset, Jane Jacobs, jitney, light touch regulation, megastructure, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
“They were using the development designation as a carrot to try to get us to agree to the low values,” says Robert Brandt, who directed the family’s real estate operations. “The numbers they were putting on the table for our properties were grossly inadequate.” The Brandts fought back in letters to the editor and op-ed articles; they hired a prominent social scientist to trumpet the evils of urban renewal; and they ended with a fusillade of litigation. The implacable opposition of the Brandts and other powerful real estate forces demonstrates why it was so difficult to use urban renewal laws to revitalize Times Square: the state was seizing property with great current economic value and even greater potential value. If the state had to pay what the owners considered fair value, the project would never happen. But the battle also proved why forceful state action was necessary. The businesses that catered to Times Square’s population did very well; they had no more incentive to enter a more respectable line of work that would draw different customers than opium farmers have to grow wheat.
I love overhearing conversations in the subway. I love the accidental quality of city life, the incongruous and the surreal. And to say that you love cities is to say that you love old cities, for only cities built before the advent of the automobile have the density that makes these myriad accidents and incongruities possible. (I do not love thee, Phoenix.) Jane Jacobs, that great champion of cities and dauntless foe of urban renewal, believes in density to the exclusion of almost everything, including open space and grass. And when I think of Times Square during the epoch I am most inclined to sentimentalize—the era of Damon Runyon and A. J. Liebling, the era just before and after 42nd Street—I think of an infinitely dense and busy asphalt village, or even a series of micro-villages, such as Jacobs loves, in the space of a few blocks.
The prize would not necessarily go to the best or most popular idea— Alexander Parker, after all, had no plans to ask anybody whether they wanted a convention center—so the debate over the redevelopment of 42nd Street was also a struggle over who had “the public interest” at heart, and who would be able to impose that vision. It is quite possible that there were no good answers to the problem of re-creating 42nd Street. There were only answers that would disappoint different people, in different ways. ALEXANDER PARKER’S BULLDOZER approach was already becoming passé by the mid-1970s, for the excesses of “urban renewal” had convinced even the most pragmatic that cities could not survive the wholesale destruction of their history and texture. Now 42nd Street began to attract reformers who recognized that the block still had a life of its own, and who thus wanted to rejuvenate rather than flatten it. In 1976, just as Parker was wowing the business press with his grandiose plans, an advertising executive and urban gadfly named Fred Papert was establishing the 42nd Street Development Corporation in hopes of revitalizing the western end of the street.
Free to Choose: A Personal Statement by Milton Friedman, Rose D. Friedman
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, Corn Laws, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, invisible hand, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration
The apartments are on the average subsidized in the amount of more than $200 per month. "Director's Law" at work again. Urban renewal was adopted with the aim of eliminating slums—"urban blight." The government subsidized the acquisition and clearance of areas to be renewed and made much of the cleared land available to private developers at artificially low prices. Urban renewal destroyed "four homes, most of them occupied by blacks, for every home it built—most of them to be occupied by middle- and upper-income whites."18 The original occupants were forced to move elsewhere, often turning another area into a "blighted" one. The program well deserves the names "slum removal" and "Negro removal" that some critics gave it. The chief beneficiaries of public housing and urban renewal have not been the poor people. The beneficiaries have, rather, been the owners of property purchased for public housing or located in urban renewal areas; middle- and upper-income families who were able to find housing in the high-priced apartments or townhouses that frequently replaced the low-rental housing that was renewed out of existence; the developers and occupants of shopping centers constructed in urban areas; institutions such as universities and churches that were able to use urban renewal projects to improve their neighborhoods.
The beneficiaries have, rather, been the owners of property purchased for public housing or located in urban renewal areas; middle- and upper-income families who were able to find housing in the high-priced apartments or townhouses that frequently replaced the low-rental housing that was renewed out of existence; the developers and occupants of shopping centers constructed in urban areas; institutions such as universities and churches that were able to use urban renewal projects to improve their neighborhoods. As a recent Wall Street Journal editorial put it, The Federal Trade Commission has looked into the government's housing policies and discovered that they are driven by something more than pure altruism. An FTC staff policy briefing book finds that the main thrust seems to come from people who make money building housing—contractors, bankers, labor unions, materials suppliers, etc.
Allen Wallis put it in a somewhat different context, socialism, "intellectually bankrupt after more than a century of seeing one after another of its arguments for socializing the means of production demolished—now seeks to socialize the results of production." 2 In the welfare area the change of direction has led to an explosion in recent decades, especially after President Lyndon Johnson declared a "War on Poverty" in 1964. New Deal programs of Social Security, unemployment insurance, and direct relief were all expanded to cover new groups; payments were increased; and Medicare, Medicaid, food stamps, and numerous other programs were added. Public housing and urban renewal programs were enlarged. By now there are literally hundreds of government welfare and income transfer programs. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established in 1953 to consolidate the scattered welfare programs, began with a budget of $2 billion, less than 5 percent of expenditures on national defense. Twenty-five years later, in 1978, its budget was $160 billion, one and a half times as much as total spending on the army, the navy, and the air force.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism
But whatever soulless little bottom-line god the Ramada executives pray to told them that Saratoga's main street was of no importance in the corporation's grand scheme to maximize their profits, so they of fered four blank brown fire doors and those lovely ventilation grilles. Meanwhile, the hotel's main entrance on the parking lot side of the building is connected to the life of the town only by cars. Facing this main entrance are blocks and blocks that were designated an urban renewal zone in the 1960s. Here stood little stores with dwellings up stairs (i. e . , affordable housing), public amenities like saloons and lunch rooms, and even a sprinkling of small factories or workshops. Here lived the shop clerks, laborers, small artisans, and in some cases the owner of the business below. All the urban renewal blocks on each side of Broadway were turned into parking lots. In twenty years, not a single new building has gone up on them. As a result the business district has been reduced pretty much to one street : Broadway. Wherever arson has eliminated a build ing on Broadway in the past fifteen years, the property has been turned into yet another parking lot, which is to say a little dead noplace be tween the buildings.
In fact, part of the Corbu doctrine of the Esprit Nouveau, as filtered through Corbu Purism, was a rejection of decorative art per se. Except that for all his rejection of decorative art, his pavilion ended up being about style anyway : the style of no style. In a decade preoccupied with glamour, what could be more chic? The pavilion held another curiosity : an exhibit of Le Corbusier's Plan Voison, a fanciful urban renewal scheme to bulldoze the Marais district of Paris-a massive historic chunk of the city a stone's throw from the Louvre that included the Place de Bastille and the old Palais Royale (Place de Vosges )-and replace it with a gargantuan "Radiant City" complex of twenty-four sixty-story high-rises set amid parklike grounds and served by limited-access automobile roads. Sound familiar? The Esprit Nouveau house was largely ignored, or laughed at, and yet in five years the reductive, industrially inspired manner of building that it illustrated-as promoted also by Gropius, his Bauhaus colleague Lud wig Mies van der Rohe, Bruno and Max Taut, J.
In a peculiar way, /America seemed eager to emulate the postwar devastation of European \cities, to envy their chance to clear away the rubble and begin again. Bulldozing the entire downtown of a Worcester, Massachusetts, or a 7 8 _ Y E S T E R D A Y ' S T O M O R R O W New Haven, Connecticut, and starting over from scratch, didn't seem like such a bad idea. Americans certainly did not respond to the postwar "urban renewal" schemes with anything like the gape-mouthed horror of Parisians contemplating Corbu's plan Voison in 1925. Finally, the Radiant City appealed to all the latent Arcadian yearnings in our culture. It was the old romantic idea-going back to William Penn---of combining the urban with the rural, of living close to nature, of creating a city out of buildings in a park. That it might end up, in practice, as "buildings in a parking lot," as Lewis Mumford put it, was a possibility that planners and architects did not admit.
The power broker : Robert Moses and the fall of New York by Caro, Robert A
Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, British Empire, card file, centre right, East Village, friendly fire, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, land reform, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional
So far ahead was New York that when scores of huge buildings constructed under its urban renewal program were already erected and occupied, administrators from other cities were still borrowing New York's contract forms to learn how to draw up the initial legal agreements with interested developers. When Moses resigned from his urban renewal directorship in i960, urban renewal had produced more physical results in New York than in all other American cities combined. Says the federal official in charge of the early years of the program: "Because Robert Moses was so far ahead of anyone else in the country, he had greater influence on urban renewal in the United States—on how the program developed and on how it was received by the public—than any other single person." Parks, highways, urban renewal—Robert Moses was in and of himself a formative force in all three fields in the United States.
For, except for a few driving lessons he took in 1926, Robert Moses never drove a car in his life. In 1949, the federal government enacted a new approach to the housing problems of cities: urban renewal. The approach was new both in philosophy —for the first time in America, government was given the right to seize an individual's private property not for its own use but for reassignment to another individual for his use and profit—and in scope: a billion dollars was appropriated in 1949 and it was agreed that this was only seed money to prepare the ground for later, greater plantings of cash. Most cities approached urban renewal with caution. But in New York City, urban renewal was directed by Robert Moses. By 1957, $133,000,000 of public monies had been expended on urban renewal in all the cities of the United States with the exception of New York; $267,000,000 had been spent in New York.
The banker was interested in who got Housing Authority and urban renewal contracts; unconcerned with the aims and principles of government, he wasn't interested in where Housing Authority and urban renewal projects were located, why they were located there or how they were built: the factors that Moses was interested in. The banker ran the Housing Authority for Moses. The Housing Authority projects built were the projects Moses wanted built—on the sites where Moses wanted them built, to the specifications Moses desired. In 1953, when Shanahan's term expired, Moses wrote Impellitteri: "It is of the utmost importance" that "Torn" be reappointed. It was—to him. The influence Shanahan exercised for Moses was not limited to housing or urban renewal. Time and time again, on highway proposals by Moses on which the city's officials were divided, the banker's power helped tip the scales in Moses' favor.
The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida
banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
From 1940 onward, suburbs grew considerably faster than cities, and by the early 1960s, the population of suburbanites exceeded that living in cities.8 This period also saw the decline of many inner cities, from Newark and Philadelphia to St. Louis and Detroit, as more affluent, largely white residents fled older urban neighborhoods for the safety and comfort of suburbia. The abandonment and decay of so many of these once-great inner cities was a tragic development by any standard—one that was made worse by the ravages of government-sponsored urban renewal. I never got to see my father’s boyhood home, which was demolished in one of Newark’s major urban renewal projects. But the growth of the suburbs stretched out the boundaries of metropolitan areas. The city of Detroit exploded from some 40 square miles in 1910 to 139 square miles by 1950, not counting its rapidly growing suburban rings, a fact that could be easily traced in the ascending names of its major roadways: Six Mile Road, Seven Mile Road, and Eight Mile Road, continuing on to Nine Mile Road, Ten Mile Road, and all the way to Eighteen Mile Road and beyond in the suburbs.
Community groups, local foundations, and nonprofits—not city hall or business-led economic development groups—drove its transformation, playing a key role in stabilizing and strengthening neighborhoods, building green, and spurring the development of the waterfront and redevelopment around the universities. Many of Pittsburgh’s best neighborhoods, such as its South Side, are ones that were somehow spared from the wrath of urban renewal. Others, such as East Liberty, have benefited from community initiatives designed to remedy the damage done by large-scale urban renewal efforts that left vacant lots in place of functioning neighborhoods and built soulless public housing high-rise towers. That neighborhood is now home to several new community development projects, including a Whole Foods Market, which provides local jobs as well as serving as an anchor for the surrounding community. This kind of bottom-up process takes considerable time and perseverance.
“I don’t know if you can take a whole state to a psychiatrist, but the whole Florida economy was based on migration flows.”13 If a picture is worth a thousand words, here’s one that has to be worth ten thousand: online video of a bulldozer razing brand-new homes in a suburban Sunbelt development. I call it the “suburban bulldozer”—a tip of the hat to the much older phrase “federal bulldozer,” which referred to the government-sponsored demolition of inner-city neighborhoods during the heyday of federal urban renewal in the 1950s and 1960s.14 The story behind the video was that Guaranty Bank of Austin had taken over the homes in foreclosure—four in the suburban Texas development and another twelve in California. The bank said it was tearing them down to create a “safe environment” for the neighbors. It’s interesting to pause there and note that brand-new homes, standing empty, could be seen as posing a danger to a neighborhood.
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
See also specific bridges Bridj, 284–85 Broadway (Los Angeles), 68–69 Broadway (New York City), 13, 85 desire lines and history of, 73–74 Gehl study, 78 Herald Square, 85, 92–94 Madison Square plaza, 85, 86, 86–89, 88 redesign, 85–89, 92–95, 143–44 Times Square plan. See Times Square plan Bronx Fordham Road. See Fordham Road Grand Concourse bike lane, 158 Moses’s “urban renewal” projects, 16 Southern Boulevard, traffic fatalities, 220 Bronx Hub, 106 Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, 15 Brooklyn Barclays Center, 278 Bedford Avenue bike lane, 163, 164 Flatbush Avenue, 75 Fourth Avenue, 59 Gowanus Expressway, 59 Grand Army Plaza, 164, 165 Kent Avenue bike lane, 144, 162–64 Montague Street, car-free event, 120–21 Moses’s “urban renewal” projects, 16 New Lots Avenue plaza, 106 Nostrand Avenue, 75 Ocean Parkway, 152–53 Pearl Street plaza, 80–82, 81, 254 Prospect Park West, speeding on, 164–65, 169, 171–72 Prospect Park West bike lane.
A native of Scranton, Pennsylvania, Jane Jacobs moved to Depression-era New York City and emerged as an unlikely urban visionary in her adopted West Village neighborhood. Her signature work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), was an urban revelation, declaring in accessible language how a city’s design can nourish or destroy its quality of human life. She blasted the urban planners of the first half of the twentieth century for “urban renewal” programs that destroyed old buildings—and the neighborhoods with them—in the name of progress and for building in their place cold, sterile high-rises set back on superblocks, sucking life away from the street. As she wrote the manuscript for the book, Jacobs took her primary inspiration not from engineering manuals and texts on urbanism, but by following the people she saw on the street outside her second-story window—what she called “The Ballet of Hudson Street.”
Enabled by successions of mayors and governors and fueled by billions of federal dollars in Works Progress Administration and Interstate Highway funds, Moses amassed as many as twelve directorships and leadership positions over vital public works agencies, from the New York City Parkway Authority to the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority to the state parks. The federal government created massive public works programs to build new urban roads and housing to replace the “slum” infrastructure of the nineteenth century. Moses was first in line to provide these “urban renewal” projects. The almost incomprehensible list of projects that he moved from planning to implementation from 1918 to his departure from government in 1968 included seventeen parkways and fourteen expressways that ringed and connected the city, and aesthetic and engineering marvels like the Verrazano-Narrows, Bronx-Whitestone, and Triborough bridges. He more than doubled the acreage of city parks, built the United Nations and Lincoln Center, and brought innumerable playgrounds, public pools, and public beaches to millions of New Yorkers who couldn’t afford summer homes or sleep-away camps to gain refuge from the hot summer days.
Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
Competing Interests and Divergent Needs Almost every day, somewhere in Toronto, Vancouver, New York, or Chicago, there is a community meeting about building a suburban mall, establishing a mosque, or organizing a shelter for the homeless. In these meetings, divergent conceptions of what is needed and how to develop it emerge, reflecting the differences of class, culture, and race of the proponents. This was what bedevilled the urban renewal programs of the 1960s and 1970s,5 and it continues to resonate in current controversies concerning gentrification and area development. With immigration and the consequent explosion of ethno-racial diversity, the differences of community interests have also taken on the cultural colours and politics of identity. An Asian mall is proposed in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County, and political battle lines are drawn between the Chinese community and the long-established White suburbanites.
It has experimented with various organizational models for the planning and implementation of slum improvement programs. They have ranged from public-sponsored mega-projects, to public-private consortiums and community-managed development and delivery of services. These tools and lessons continue to be a part of urban planning’s repertoire for slum improvement and overcoming social deprivation. One lesson that came out of the urban renewal programs of the 1960s and 1970s is that physical rebuilding alone is not enough for overcoming slum conditions. There have to be simultaneous efforts for social reconstruction and empowering people through the provision of social services and community organization. The physical and social-development programs have to be interlinked to unfold a process of comprehensive community renewal. Another lesson from the earlier programs is that the large-scale clearance of slums tears apart viable communities and displaces long-settled residents, and so has to be avoided.
This policy helps mix social classes and ethno-racial groups. Yet one need not be a Pollyanna about the promise of such strategies. The displacement and squeezing of minorities, particularly Blacks and Latinos in US cities and poor immigrants in Canada, continues to be the fallout from the public and private redevelopment of deprived neighbourhoods. Redevelopment occurs in spoonfuls rather than in the massive doses of the urban renewal programs. Community-based social development in poor neighbourhoods is another strategy commonly used in deprived neighbourhoods and areas of ethno-racial concentrations. Toronto has a network of multiservice neighbourhood centres in Malvern, Thorncliffe, Fairlawn, Davenport, and other poor neighbourhoods of immigrants. These centres offer youth counselling, job search assistance, English language classes, seniors’ clubs, settlement assistance, after-school programs, and so on.
The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs
., New York, in 1961 Acknowledgment is made to the following publications for permission to reprint portions of this book which first appeared in their pages: Architectural Forum, the Columbia University Forum, Harper’s Magazine, The Reporter. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jacobs, Jane, 1916– The death and life of great American cities / Jane Jacobs.—1st Vintage Books ed. p cm Originally published: New York: Random House,  ISBN 0-679-74195-X 1 City planning—United States 2 Urban renewal—United States. 3. Urban policy—United States I. Title HT167.J33 1992 307.76′097 3—dc20 92-50082 Ebook ISBN 9780525432852 v4.1 a TO NEW YORK CITY where I came to seek my fortune and found it by finding Bob, Jimmy, Ned and Mary for whom this book is written too Acknowledgment So many scores of persons helped me with this book, wittingly and unwittingly, that I shall never fully be able to acknowledge the appreciation I owe and feel.
Reap they the field that is none of theirs, strip they the vineyard wrongfully seized from its owner… A cry goes up from the city streets, where wounded men lie groaning… If so, he was also thinking of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, St. Louis, San Francisco and a number of other places. The economic rationale of current city rebuilding is a hoax. The economics of city rebuilding do not rest soundly on reasoned investment of public tax subsidies, as urban renewal theory proclaims, but also on vast, involuntary subsidies wrung out of helpless site victims. And the increased tax returns from such sites, accruing to the cities as a result of this “investment,” are a mirage, a pitiful gesture against the ever increasing sums of public money needed to combat disintegration and instability that flow from the cruelly shaken-up city. The means to planned city rebuilding are as deplorable as the ends.
And by analogy, the principles of sorting out—and of bringing order by repression of all plans but the planners’—have been easily extended to all manner of city functions, until today a land-use master plan for a big city is largely a matter of proposed placement, often in relation to transportation, of many series of decontaminated sortings. From beginning to end, from Howard and Burnham to the latest amendment on urban-renewal law, the entire concoction is irrelevant to the workings of cities. Unstudied, unrespected, cities have served as sacrificial victims. * * * *1 Please remember the North End. I shall refer to it frequently in this book. *2 Readers who would like a fuller account, and a sympathetic account which mine is not, should go to the sources, which are very interesting, especially: Garden Cities of Tomorrow, by Ebenezer Howard; The Culture of Cities, by Lewis Mumford; Cities in Evolution, by Sir Patrick Geddes; Modern Housing, by Catherine Bauer; Toward New Towns for America, by Clarence Stein; Nothing Gained by Overcrowding, by Sir Raymond Unwin; and The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, by Le Corbusier.
When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson
affirmative action, business cycle, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
They retained zoning and other restrictions that allowed only affluent blacks (and in some instances Jews) to enter, thereby intensifying the concentration and isolation of the urban poor.” Other government policies also contributed to the growth of jobless ghettos, both directly and indirectly. Many black communities were uprooted by urban renewal and forced migration. The construction of freeway and highway networks through the hearts of many cities in the 1950s produced the most dramatic changes, as many viable low-income communities were destroyed. These networks not only encouraged relocation from the cities to the suburbs, “they also created barriers between the sections of the cities, walling off poor and minority neighborhoods from central business districts. Like urban renewal, highway and expressway construction also displaced many poor people from their homes.” Federal housing policy also contributed to the gradual shift to jobless ghettos. Indeed, the lack of federal action to fight extensive segregation against African-Americans in urban housing markets and acquiescence to the opposition of organized neighborhood groups to the construction of public housing in their communities have resulted in massive segregated housing projects.
Their stay in the projects was relatively brief. The economic mobility of these families “contributed to the sociological stability of the first public housing communities, and explains the program’s initial success.” The passage of the Housing Act of 1949 marked the beginning of the second policy stage. It instituted and funded the urban renewal program designed to eradicate urban slums. “Public housing was now meant to collect the ghetto residents left homeless by the urban renewal bulldozers.” A new, lower-income ceiling for public housing residency was established by the federal Public Housing Authority, and families with incomes above that ceiling were evicted, thereby restricting access to public housing to the most economically disadvantaged segments of the population. This change in federal housing policy coincided with the mass migration of African-Americans from the rural South to the cities of the Northeast and Midwest.
None of the other industrialized democracies has allowed its city centers to deteriorate as has the United States. In European countries, suburbanization has not been associated with the abandonment of cities as residential areas. “The central governments continued to treat cities as a national resource to be protected and nurtured.” Indeed, the city centers in Europe remain very desirable places to reside because of better public transportation, more effective urban renewal programs, and good public education that is more widely available to disadvantaged students. Moreover, unlike in the United States, cheap public transportation makes suburbanized employment sites more accessible. It will be difficult to address growing racial tensions in U.S. cities unless we tackle the problems of shrinking revenue and inadequate social services and the gradual disappearance of work in certain neighborhoods.
Machinery of Freedom: A Guide to Radical Capitalism by David Friedman
back-to-the-land, Fractional reserve banking, hiring and firing, jitney, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, means of production, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog
Here again, I know of no precise calculations that have measured the overall effect. One could list similar programs for many pages. State universities, for instance, subsidize the schooling of the upper classes with money much of which comes from relatively poor taxpayers. Urban renewal uses the power of the government to prevent slums from spreadinAg, a process sometimes referred to as 'preventing urban blight'. For middle-class people on the border of low-income areas, this is valuable protection. But 'urban blight' is precisely the process by which more housing becomes available to low-income people. The supporters of urban renewal claim that they are improving the housing of the poor. In the Hyde Park area of Chicago, where I have lived much of my life, they tore down old, low-rental apartment houses and replaced them with $30,000 and $40,000 town houses.
'Gift, Sale, Payment, Raid: Case Studies in the Negotiation and Classification of Exchange in Medieval Iceland', Speculum, 61 (1986). Miller is a law professor who has written extensively on Medieval Iceland. He writes as a legal scholar not an economist, and his conclusions are not always the same as mine. Public Policy Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964). The book that showed what urban renewal does to, not for, the poor. Leslie Chapman, Your Disobedient Servant (London: Chatto and Windus, 1978). A fascinating first-hand account of the mechanics of Friedman's first law — why things cost twice as much when governments do them. The author was a British bureaucrat who tried to reduce the costs of his part of the bureaucracy by modest measures such as not heating buildings that nobody occupied.
Quack's cancer cure — should be repealed. Also laws requiring cars to have seat belts. The right to control my life does not mean the right to have anything I want free; I can do that only by making someone else pay for what I get. Like any good right winger, I oppose welfare programs that support the poor with money taken by force from the taxpayers. I also oppose tariffs, subsidies, loan guarantees, urban renewal, agricultural price supports — in short, all of the much more numerous programs that support the not-poor — often the rich — with money taken by force from the taxpayers — often the poor. I am an Adam Smith liberal, or, in contemporary American terminology, a Goldwater conservative. Only I carry my devotion to laissez-faire further than Goldwater does — how far will become clear in the following chapters.
Pocket New York City Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Right: Museum of Modern Art exterior (architects: Yoshio Taniguchi and Kohn Pedersen Fox) HUW JONES/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © New York City Top Sights Guggenheim Museum (Click here) This stunning museum has an enviable collection of 20th-century art and welcomes exhibits from all over the world. Right: The Shapes of Space, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, April 14–September 5, 2007. ©The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York. Used with permission. JEAN-PIERRE LESCOURRET/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © New York City Top Sights The High Line (Click here) Refurbished rail tracks have been transformed into grassy catwalks in the sky. It’s the paradigm of urban renewal gone right, enjoying its status as one of the city’s most beloved public spaces. ALAN COPSON/CORBIS © New York City Top Sights Times Square (Click here) Like it or loathe it, Times Square offers the quintessential New York conglomeration of bright lights and oversized billboards that soar above the relentless crowds and thick streamers of concrete. IZZET KERIBAR/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © New York City Top Sights World Trade Center Site (Click here) A soaring new tower, a memorial museum and a pair of reflecting pools are as much a symbol of hope and renewal as they are a tribute to those who perished on 9/11.
Greenwich Village, Chelsea & the Meatpacking District Top Sights The High Line C3 Sights 1 Washington Square Park F4 2 Chelsea Market C3 3 New York University G4 4 Astor Place G4 5 Pier 45 C5 6 Grace Church G4 7 Chelsea Art Museum B2 8 Chelsea Hotel E1 9 Chelsea Piers Complex B2 10 Forbes Collection F3 11 Downtown Boathouse D5 New York Trapeze School (see 11) Eating 12 RedFarm D4 13 Tartine D4 14 Cookshop C2 15 Le Grainne C2 16 Tomoe F5 17 Billy's Bakery D2 18 Spotted Pig D4 19 Minetta Tavern F5 20 Café Cluny D4 21 Taïm E4 22 Tertulia E4 23 Barbuto C4 24 Joe's Pizza E5 25 Souen G3 26 Co D1 Drinking 27 Little Branch E5 28 Marie's Crisis E4 29 Art Bar D3 30 Vin Sur Vingt E3 31 Bathtub Gin D2 32 Vol de Nuit F4 33 Boom Boom Room C3 Le Bain (see 33) 34 Kettle of Fish E4 35 124 Old Rabbit Club F5 36 Julius Bar E4 37 G Lounge E2 38 Barracuda E1 39 Cubbyhole D3 40 Rawhide D2 Entertainment 41 Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre D1 42 Comedy Cellar F5 43 Sleep No More B1 44 Village Vanguard E4 45 Blue Note F5 46 Cherry Lane Theater E5 47 Angelika Film Center G5 48 Smalls Jazz Club E4 Duplex (see 34) 49 IFC Center E5 50 Le Poisson Rouge F5 51 Magnet Theater D1 52 Atlantic Theater Company D2 53 Kitchen C2 Shopping 54 Barneys Co-op D2 55 Yoyamart D3 56 Strand Book Store G3 57 Printed Matter C2 Bonnie Slotnick Cookbooks (see 36) 58 Three Lives & Company E4 59 The Bathroom E4 60 Jeffrey New York C3 Greenwich Letterpress (see 34) 61 Marc by Marc Jacobs D4 62 Stella McCartney C3 63 Nasty Pig D2 64 Forbidden Planet G3 65 Abracadabra F2 66 192 Books C2 Top Sights The High Line www.thehighline.org Gansevoort St 7am-7pm L, A/C/E to 14th St-8th Ave, C/E to 23rd St-8th Ave, M11 to Washington St, M11, M14 to 9th Ave, M34 to 10th Ave In the early 1900s, the area around western Chelsea was the largest industrial section of Manhattan and a set of elevated tracks were created to move freight off the cluttered streets below. The rails eventually became obsolete, and in 1999 a plan was made to convert the scarring strands of metal into a public green space. On June 9, 2009, part one of the city’s most beloved urban renewal project opened with much ado, and it’s been one of New York’s star attractions ever since. LOGAN MOCK-BUNTING/CORBIS © Don’t Miss Public Art In addition to being a haven of hovering green, The High Line is also an informal art space featuring a variety of installations, both site-specific and stand-alone. For detailed information about the public art on display at the time of your visit, check out www.thehighline.org/about/public-art.
Secret Staffers As you walk along the High Line, you’ll find dedicated staffers wearing shirts with the signature double-H logo who can point you in the right direction or offer you additional information about the converted rails. Group tours for children can be organized on a variety of topics, from the plant life of the high-rise park to the area’s history. The Industrial Past It’s hard to believe that The High Line – a shining example of brilliant urban renewal – was once a dingy rail line that anchored a rather unsavory district of thugs, trannies and slaughterhouses. The tracks that would one day become the High Line were commissioned in the 1930s when the municipal government decided to raise the street-level tracks after years of accidents that gave Tenth Ave the nickname ‘Death Avenue.’ The project drained over $150 million in funds (equivalent to around $2 billion by today’s dime) and took roughly five years to complete.
Working by Robert A. Caro
Robert Moses gazing down on Riverside Park lodged in my imagination and, in my imagination, became entangled in a mystery: I had previously been aware only of the Robert Moses of the 1950s and ’60s: the ruthless highway builder who ran his roads straight through hapless neighborhoods, the Robert Moses of the Title I urban-renewal scandals—some of the biggest and most sordid scandals of twentieth-century New York, scandals almost incredible both for the colossal scale of their corruption (personally “money honest” himself, Moses dispensed to the most powerful members of the city’s ruling Democratic political machine what one insider called “a king’s ransom” in legal fees, public relations retainers, insurance premiums, advance knowledge of highway routes and urban renewal sites, and insurance-free deposits in favored banks, to insure their cooperation with his aims) and for the heartbreaking callousness with which he evicted the tens of thousands of poor people in his way, whom, in the words of one official, he “hounded out like cattle.”
And bridges, roads, parks, and beaches are only a part of the mark that Robert Moses left on New York. During the time in which he controlled—controlled absolutely—the New York City Housing Authority, the authority built 1,082 apartment houses, containing 148,000 apartments which housed 555,000 people: more people than, at the time, lived in Minneapolis. Those apartments are mainly for persons of low income. For persons of higher income, he created, under urban-renewal programs, tens of thousands of additional apartments. He was the dominant force, moreover, behind such supposedly “private” housing developments as Stuyvesant Town, Peter Cooper Village, Concord Village, and Co-op City—and such monumental features of the New York landscape as Lincoln Center, the United Nations headquarters, Shea Stadium, the New York Coliseum, and the campuses of Fordham, Pratt, and Long Island Universities.
Over and over you hear about some collection of written documents, and you have to try to find them. You know, you put it together from so many different places. But you always needed something in writing. In the latter chapters of the book, I write about how Moses threw people out of their homes to build his highways. I was able to get a pretty good conservative figure: about 250,000 people. He threw out about the same number for his “urban renewal” slum-clearance projects. So he threw about half a million people out of their homes. But it was hard to document. It wasn’t so hard to document for the highways, because the federal government required some sort of documentation. But for the slum clearance, the federal government didn’t require anything. Moses would just take a site, like the area between Central Park West and Amsterdam Avenue between 97th and 100th Streets.
A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare
"Robert Solow", affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hedonic treadmill, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
As early as 1829, a group of concerned New York citizens pressured the Common Council to level some Five Points tenements to make way for a new road, citing their occupation “by the lowest description and most degraded and abandoned of the human Species.”25 Even the famed Trinity Church was a slumlord until publicity outed it; its response was to raze the dilapidated tenements it owned, putting up office buildings in their place, thus destroying more housing, however bad it may have been.26 Owing to the efforts of Riis and others, Mulberry Bend (where we could find the Bandits’ Roost and Thieves’ Alley made infamous by his iconic photographs) was finally destroyed late in the nineteenth century, leaving many uprooted and homeless. 27 Boston leveled an entire Irish neighborhood, “squalid Fort Hill,” in the late 1860s,28 just as more recent slum clearance and urban renewal projects (“negro removal,” some called it during the 1960s) also destroyed intact, if fragile, communities, ones that may not seem to be communities in the minds of well-to-do reformers.29 While it is undertaken in the guise of a progressive-minded reform, one wonders what happens to the denizens of these poorest of areas, for whatever the rhetoric, urban renewal has been a project of the white middle and business classes. In post–World War II New York, it was black and Puerto Rican neighborhoods that were displaced for new housing or commercial ventures, but few blacks and Puerto Ricans were to be found after the “improvements” were made.
crime and violence in and employment opportunities and ethnic mutual aid societies exploitative economic practices extended family networks female-headed common households history of isolation of the modern ghetto mutual dependence networks nineteenth-century and the pathology of the ghetto and the political economy of the ghetto and prostitution public housing and urban renewal efforts and race “race mixing,” and “slumming,” social organization of statistics on world’s slum dwelling population and underground local economies See also Five Points (New York City); Lower East Side (New York City) urban renewal efforts U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) U.S. Commission on Civil Rights U.S. Conference of Mayors U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Justice U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs U.S.
Index abolitionism abortion abusive relationships African American women domestic violence homeless women leaving sexual violence women on welfare Addams, Jane adoption advertising messages The Affluent Society (Galbraith) African Americans and AFDC program anonymous letters to FDR and orphanages Civil War service and colonial jails convict labor/leasing Depression-era disenfranchisement families and marriage and the Freedmen’s Bureau generosity to tramps and ghetto communities and government redlining policies and history of the welfare state and history of welfare in the South homeless population incarceration rates infant mortality rates Jim Crow era mortality rates and New Deal programs and NWRO54 and official poverty rates post-abolition lives poverty over the life course and public housing/urban renewal efforts and radical organizing and sexual violence and Social Security Act as tenant farmers tramps and vagrants underrepresentation/neglect in histories of poverty and welfare women on welfare and work/employment See also slaves and slavery; women, African American African Marine Society Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) actual benefits received and African Americans eligibility for unmarried women and labor market effects recipients’ lodging of complaints and standards of “moral fitness,” stigma and shame of receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (cont.)
Building the Cycling City: The Dutch Blueprint for Urban Vitality by Melissa Bruntlett, Chris Bruntlett
active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, car-free, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, intermodal, Jones Act, Loma Prieta earthquake, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, the High Line, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
Michelle Provoost of the Rotterdam-based research collective Crimson Architectural Historians. “People lived right in the middle of that industrious climate, in small, dark, and unhealthy homes. There was a huge dissatisfaction with this pre–World War II city that we would probably not understand today.” That discontent with a mixed, messy city—especially among the ruling classes—manifested itself in an “urban renewal” plan similar to those seen in North American cities. As Provoost points out, planners in Rotterdam were already devising radical transformations to unclutter and “sober up” the city, even before the bombs fell: “They were tearing down huge parts of the inner city to create more space for urban traffic. The bombardment came as a shock, of course, and it was a disaster. But also at the very same moment some people were saying: ‘This is a gift from God.’”
Everyone had clearly been romanced by images of crowded Manhattan sidewalks, which never actually materialized in Rotterdam because of the problematic way the zoning code had pushed housing out of the city center. “The inner city became windy and uncozy, and people were very critical of it,” reveals Provoost. “In the seventies, this critique came to a pinnacle, leading to the narrowing of streets to make them cozy again.” Thus began three decades of reversing the damage done in the name of urban renewal and retrofitting streets designed “according to the demands of modern fast traffic” to a more human scale. Wide, grass-lined boulevards were established down the center of many arterial roads, and these were integrated into a fast, frequent tramway system that would never get stuck behind single-occupant vehicles. Sidewalks were widened, and generously proportioned one-way cycle tracks were built on both sides, completely separated from automobiles.
This provides an effective, real-life anecdote to back up Kevin Mayne’s insistence that the places with the best bike infrastructure are the ones that sell the most pedelecs, and the global e-bike market won’t fulfill its potential without great places to ride. Concludes Van Duren: “Even without the e-bike, the concept of the cycle superhighway can be a game-changer. But with the e-bike it makes it even stronger.” 05 DEMAND MORE Up to here the old city pattern disappeared. Urban renewal began in this neighborhood. In commemoration, this memorial set in 1986. — JODENBREESTRAAT MONUMENT Amsterdam Amsterdam is a city filled with monuments, commemorating everything from beloved royalty to forgotten war heroes, but few are as overlooked as the nondescript stone turtle on Jodenbreestraat (“Jewish Broad Street”) in the city’s historic Jewish Quarter. Nestled between two bustling cycle tracks, and sitting on a stone pedestal that bears a short poem by writer Jacob Israël de Haan, it has come to represent the slow, deliberate pace of a city that consistently chooses the bicycle above all modes of transportation, making up a staggering 70 percent of traffic (including pedestrians!)
Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis
Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
Booker started to campaign for residents’ rights and stayed living in Brick Tower until it was demolished in 2006. Booker failed to win the mayorship on his first attempt in 2002, but won with a 72 per cent majority in 2006, when the incumbent Sharpe James stepped down from the race (and two years later was convicted for corruption). Booker’s campaign gained media attention; Oprah Winfrey called him ‘a genius’ and he ran on a ticket of public safety, urban renewal and respect. While many dismissed the new mayor as ‘all talk’, Booker understands the power of communication. As well as holding regular surgeries to which citizens are invited to bring their worries, Booker often spends his evenings riding alongside the patrolmen on the streets, talking to the people he finds. Following the murders of three young men he even entered the pulpit to spread his message.
The project did not die, however; rather, in 1971, it dropped off the list of proposals eligible for federal inter-state funding and fell into a bureaucratic black hole. Moses lost his crown and his regal bearing; once the epitome of the master planner, America’s very own Baron Haussmann, he was soon held up to be the example of how not to build a city. The stories of Geddes, Howard, Le Corbusier and Moses do not mean that all planning is bunk, and that all ‘top-down’ management for urban renewal is flawed. Neither should we see Jane Jacobs as a white knight or a small-time Nimby defending her patch against the forces of progress. Cities should be built for people, and architecture must concern itself with the many different ways of building communities, not breaking them apart. Urban planning often ignores the human element when in fact it needs to be at the centre of any project. We must be as careful to plan the spaces between buildings as the buildings themselves.
In particular, this new discipline was interested in the role of place identity, how a certain environment feeds into a sense of self; the impact of density upon a sense of well-being; the problems of noise, weather and pollution; how women and men perceive the urban environment; how design improves a sense of place. This movement therefore combines the results of studies in environmental psychology and psychological priming with the latest ideas in architecture. As Harold Proshanksy of the New York Graduate Center noted, the discipline is hardwired with the hope of improving the city and as a result has developed a number of strategies that underpin our ideas of urban renewal. In general these efforts focus on well-meaning areas such as healthcare, crime reduction and combatting poverty. What does a healthy city look like? Can we build places that make us safer? What are the changes to infrastructure that make a real difference to people’s ability to succeed? It is often the small or unexpected moments that make up our experience. Thus the height of a window, letting in the sun at only certain parts of the day, can have an impact on happiness.
Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city
The neighboring block to the south (indicated in green on the diagram on p.26) is perhaps even more interesting, as the spaces between the buildings have been partially redeveloped in an urban renewal program to create higher-quality outdoor spaces. The variation in styles, ages, and types of buildings gives the streets plenty of character. There are larger apartment buildings alongside small townhouses, older construction and newer infill. Each building has its own particularities, which helps to give the streets a distinct neighborhood identity. Connected Outdoor Greenspace The traditional Copenhagen block is made up of multiple buildings fronting the street, each with its own back courtyard. Historically, the courtyards were hard surfaces with smaller outbuildings—toilets, wash houses, storerooms, workshops—rather than green spaces and gardens. As part of an urban renewal project on this particular block, the courtyards have cleared of walls and most outbuildings, while new soft landscaping has been added.
Courtyard Entrances There are multiple entrances to the block’s inner world, with private back doors or shared staircase entrances as well as gated passageways between buildings. Usually the common courtyard is not locked and can be accessed by the public. However, the very clear spatial order reflects a sense of social control, which should be respected by any guests. Distinct Layers of Outdoor Space The urban renewal program added small, completely private spaces to the inner courtyard for the ground-floor apartments. There are two other distinct layers of outdoor space in the inner courtyard. One comprises the old, individual courtyards closest to the buildings, which are partly preserved but now somewhat greener. The other includes the large, communal green space in the middle. Each of these layers of outdoor space invites different kinds of activities and behaviors.
Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani
addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
Both in the cities and in the villages, the lack of infrastructure, whether it is rural roads or modern airports, is impeding Indians from accessing education, health, markets and employment. And finally, every Indian, whether he is looking for a job or a college, or is a customer, now wants to tap opportunities across the entire country. My own sense of how these ideas have come into the mainstream has evolved since the time I was heading the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF), and working on the reforms we needed for the city’s urban renewal. My early approach was a technocratic one, where I mainly focused on “getting things done.” It took me a few years and some frustrated initiatives to realize that our cities were being held back by political and financial weaknesses, not just weaknesses in operational issues. I made some progress, but in 1999, rejuvenating our cities was still seen as an elite task and the popular take was that India’s “true reformers” worked in the rural areas.
A decade later, however, urban reform has become the policy bandwagon everybody is clambering on, and every progressive minister across the country wants a piece of the urban development pie. As these various ideas become priorities for our voters, we are seeing large investments earmarked for them. Primary education is getting an unprecedented amount of money under new initiatives. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM) is the first major thrust to revitalize Indian cities with significant money and a reform agenda, and the eleventh five-year plan (2007-12) has earmarked $500 billion for India’s infrastructure. And the buoyancy of our direct-tax revenues has enabled the government to pave the way toward a unified, single market. But the allocation of funds is just one aspect of what it takes to implement an idea whose time has come.
The eGovernments Foundation I support is also using IT systems to streamline property tax and accounting systems in city governments across the country. Improving management to garner more revenues becomes especially critical now as an old tax, the octroi, is being abolished in nearly all states. Local bodies are now searching for new alternatives in their financing, such as municipal bonds. These have become especially important in the light of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM), which requires investments from municipal bodies of well more than Rs 300 billion in the next seven years, up to half of which can be market borrowings. This is compelling municipal corporations across cities to obtain credit ratings from agencies such as Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd (CRISIL), ICRA and Credit Analysis and Research Ltd (CARE).bs A change in attitudes “Our cities have gained new political relevance with our economic growth,” Ramesh says.
Gang Leader for a Day by Sudhir Venkatesh
Did the politicians really have the will or the power to relocate tens of thousands of poor black people? “The projects will be here forever,” was the phrase I heard from one tenant after another. Only the most elderly tenants seemed to believe that demolition could be a reality. They had already seen the government use urban renewal— or, in their words, “Negro removal”—to move hundreds of thousandsof black Chicagoans, replacing their homes and businesses with highways, sports stadiums, universities—and, of course, huge tracts of public housing. From the outset urban renewal held the seeds of its own failure. White political leaders blocked the construction of housing for blacks in the more desirable white neighborhoods. And even though blighted low-rise buildings in the ghetto were replaced with high-rises like the Robert Taylor Homes, the quality of the housing stock wasn’t much better.
And even though blighted low-rise buildings in the ghetto were replaced with high-rises like the Robert Taylor Homes, the quality of the housing stock wasn’t much better. Things might have been different if housing authorities around the country were given the necessary funds to keep up maintenance on these new buildings. But the buildings that had once been the hope of urban renewal were already, a short forty years later, ready for demolition again. A mid all this uncertainty, I finally heard from J.T. He called with the news that his promotion was official. He asked if I still wanted to join him in meetings with some citywide BK leaders. “They’re actually interested in talking with you,” he said, surprise in his voice. “They want someone to hear their stories, about jail, about their lives. I thought they might not want to talk because of what’s going on”—he meant the recent gang arrests—“but they were up for it.”
San Diego, University of California at (UC San Diego) Sarina Sears segregation Serena shorties Shorty-Lee (gang member) Shuggie (J.T.’s daughter) social workers sociologists on gangs on poverty quantitative sociology invention of Sonny (pimp) South Illinois South Shore Southwest Side squatters at back-to-school party cars fixed by fees paid by as informants in stairwells Taneesha incident and see also Brass -Note State Street Stay-Together Gang Stones Stony Island Avenue strays Taneesha Tanya taxes and fees on prostitutes on squatters Taylor, Robert T-Bone (gang member) as accounting major arrest and death of at Catrina’s funeral drive-by shooters beaten up by gang ledgers of pay of promotion of on recruitment drive at S.V.’s meeting Tenant Patrol Tillman, Jerry Timothy (pimp) Torrance, John Henry, see J.T. (John Henry Torrance) truck drivers turf wars Turner, Ms. underground economy (outlaw capitalism) unemployment United Center urban renewal Vaux, Calvert Venkatesh, Sudhir (author) Autry and at basketball tournament party Billy-Otis dispute and Black Kings’ ledgers given to at Black Kings’ regional meetings Boys & Girls Club grant proposal written by at Boys & Girls Club meeting car break-in at Carla’s birthday party at Catrina’s funeral CIA rumor about Clarisse helped by on clothing drive as “director of communications,” dissertation of at drive-by shooting economics papers on Black Kings by fellowships received by former Robert Taylor tenants and as gang leader as hustler Johnny’s meeting with at J.T.
Off the Books by Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh
business climate, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, new economy, refrigerator car, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban renewal, working poor, Y2K
From the late nineteenth century onward, Chicago's black communities (and those in other major industrialized cities) were the repositories for public indignation and, eventually, some type of social reform. The clarion call of distress over a population living outside the social mainstream occurred every two or three decades. Depending on the political climate (conservative or progressive), policies like mass arrest and incarceration, urban renewal and housing construction, philanthropic investment and community development, would follow to integrate the disenfranchised. America's concern in the nineties for the dispossessed black inner city, seeing in it a form of existence that must be razed and then restored, is really part of a long history of inveighing against and expressing moral outrage at how the minority poor live. In the midst of this public clamor and sometimes self-righteous inspection, Maquis Park and many other alienated and poor black communities perdure.
Nationally, TIFs have generally had minimal benefits for poor, working-class, and middle-class minorities, whether they are residents or aspiring businesspersons.3 Moreover, cities without TIF-style economic development fare better in terms of active commercial development.4 In Chicago, minority and poor businesspeople have been shut out of development when their area is subject to TIF initiatives. Typically, the TIF designation ends up as a form of urban renewal in which the government exercises domain powers to amass large parcels of land and turns them over to private corporate entities that have no previous relationship to the area and that are not always minority-run. Where entry into inner-city markets has been successful, city governments have not cultivated local entrepreneurship but have instead recruited outsiders—typically upper-income professionals with established credit histories and a track record of business development—to take advantage of cheap rents and low-wage labor pools in the ghetto.
Importantly, they are the most visible signs that urban poor communities do contain a heady spirit of work and entrepreneurship. They receive far less attention than their counterparts who have left the ghetto and formed successful businesses elsewhere. And so they should remind us that the inner city's entrepreneurial capacity is not restricted to its potential as a space of development for outside parties—which is typically the view of civic and government leaders who support urban renewal and gentrification. Perhaps the most illuminating study of work in American ghettos was written nearly a half century ago, in the sixties. In Tally's Corner, Eliot Liebow studied inner-city streetcorner men, not small business owners, but his writings are still instructive. Unlike the middle-class bureaucrat, made popular in William H. Whyte's postwar depiction of the "organization man," inner-city dwellers define their relationship to work less in terms of their present occupation and lifestyle, and more in terms of their future vocation and unrealized lifestyle.15 Like the aspiring actor who happens to be waiting tables, Liebow's subjects see themselves as men in-the-making, specifically in terms of imagined futures as successful businessmen and family providers.
Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce
It was, in that sense, a very closed society. “I think that’s part of why I couldn’t wait to graduate college. I went to college where my parents had gone, and then I went straight to New York. Because I thought not only ‘big city,’ exciting, et cetera, but ‘Ooh, wouldn’t it be good to get away from all this?’ ” Ruth majored in psychology and studied social work in graduate school. While she was away, urban renewal came to Baton Rouge, and her grandparents’ home fell victim to development. “When they were in their early seventies and I was nineteen,” she said, “their little neighborhood and their house all fell to eminent domain. They were retired by that time. My grandfather had had a heart condition for a very long time, but he was functioning pretty well. My grandmother, I guess she lived another year and died.
And I mean white churches, because black churches didn’t have big national things in the first place. So I meet regularly with the Lutheran man and the United Church of Christ man and the Methodist man, and a new Roman Catholic man. So this group of inner-city executives of the churches decided that what was needed was a national center to retrain clergy—not seminarians but those who were already sitting in various downtown places that were now surrounded by alienated brown people, while urban renewal was doing its stuff, often making things worse. “Don Benedict, who was running the Chicago City Missionary Society, which was a United Church of Christ operation, said, ‘I think Chicago is the right place to do it because it’s a very, very black-white city, and a lot of churches have national offices in Chicago’ (they don’t now, but they did then), ‘and I have a place for it to be, right by the First Congregational Church on the West Side, and you can have that free.’
The ritual life of a cathedral necessarily evokes attention to performance, which had also been an important part of his growing up, but I asked how that all flowed together with architecture and design. “Well, it doesn’t—it really doesn’t flow,” he said, “but it explodes when I come to the cathedral, because that is the opportunity to be architect, complete the cathedral, make the cathedral the center of the city, the center of urban renewal”—he circled his hand—“and it’s also there that I recognize that the city is not all Episcopalian and not all Christian. This notion of a cathedral—think of those windows—it’s a cosmic notion. It’s to hold an entire people.… My whole interfaith thing starts there—it wasn’t part of Chicago at all.” I grinned. “You mean you weren’t even an ecumenical Christian when you went to Chicago?” “Oh, I was very ecumenical, but I was very Christian.
Automating Inequality by Virginia Eubanks
autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, experimental subject, housing crisis, IBM and the Holocaust, income inequality, job automation, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, payday loans, performance metric, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, statistical model, strikebreaker, underbanked, universal basic income, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, zero-sum game
As the perception of increased resources for the homeless rises, the city’s fragile tolerance for homeless encampments may unravel. Shortly before voters committed to providing new resources to shelter the unhoused, the city council rewrote a municipal ordinance to reauthorize the kind of aggressive sweeps of tent encampments that were common before the Jones and Lavan rulings. Like the public housing that was supposed to replace the boardinghouses and SRO hotels demolished during urban renewal in the 1950s, new affordable housing development may founder in the face of active obstruction by professional middle-class and wealthy Angelenos. The problem is not that the city lacks adequate data on what kind of housing is needed to address the homelessness problem. Rather, poor and working-class people and their allies may not be able to overcome explicit political resistance from organized elites.
See also eligibility rules equity as a national value Errington, Sue eugenics expungement “failure to cooperate” fair hearings Family Assistance Program (FAP) false negatives false positives “fear of falling” Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) Flaherty, David food banks food stamps. See also Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Ford, Ezell Ford, Ira B. Ford, Mabel Ford, Shawntee foster care fraud detection and algorithms and Indiana technologies and universal basic income (UBI) Freeland, Mary Galton, Francis Gambrill, Eileen “gaming” the system Gandy, Oscar Gangadharan, Seeta Peña Garcetti, Eric Garza, Alicia gentrification. See also urban renewal Gilbert, Fred Gilens, Martin Gillespie, Sarah Goldberg v. Kelly Gordon, Pat Gray, Freddie Great Depression Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Great Recession of 2007 Gregory, Justin E. Gresham, Jane Porter Grzyb, Patrick Gustafson, Kaaryn Hankins, Tanya harm reduction Hawkins, Amanda Green health care and child neglect and mental health and passbook system and poorhouses as a right and surveys health-care fraud health-care system and employment and Indiana providers and employees health insurance and Indiana start dates for See also Medicaid Higgins, Will Hippocratic oath for technology and administration Holden, Ollice Holland, Gale Holly, Chris Holmes, Oliver Wendell Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) homelessness and criminalization of poverty and encampments Homeless Outreach Program Integrated Care System (HOPICS) Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority (LAHSA) Measure H (sales tax increase) Measure HHH (Homelessness Reduction and Prevention, Housing and Facilities Bond) “no wrong door” approach shelters and storage units See also housing Honkala, Cheri Hoover, J.
See also food stamps surveillance Talley, Monique task-based case management system Taylor, Linda “technology poor” Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) Thomas, George Tillmon, Johnnie Tolley, Anne Tometi, Opal “Tough on Crime” laws Trattner, Walter triage system Troy, New York Trump, Donald truth commissions Tyler, Dennis Uber United States Interagency Council on Homelessness United Way Universal Basic Income (UBI) Universal Declaration of Human Rights urban renewal. See also gentrification Vaithianathan, Rhema Vietnam War Villaraigosa, Antonio Volponi, Catherine Voluntary Community Assistance Network (V-CAN) Vulnerability Index-Service Prioritization Decision Assistance Tool (VI-SPDAT) Wagner, David Walters, Paul M. Ware, Nathanial Welch, Peggy welfare and public assistance benefits as personal property and due process eligibility modernization eligibility rules for and “mop-up” programs and privatization racial discrimination in sanctions social insurance as distinct from public assistance and voluntary resettlement plan “welfare queen” stereotype See also individual programs welfare diversion welfare rights movement and Adequate Income Act backlash against Mothers for Adequate Welfare National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO) success of West, Terry White, Magner white supremacy Wilde, Dylan Willis, Tom Wilmot, William Wong, Julia Carrie Workflow Management System (WFMS) Works Progress Administration (WPA) World Courts of Women World War II Xerox Yates, John Van Ness Yellow Pages test Young, Omega Zimmerman, Roger Zuckerberg, Mark MORE PRAISE FOR AUTOMATING INEQUALITY “In this remarkable chronicle of ‘how the other half lives’ in the age of automation, Eubanks uncovers a new digital divide—a totalizing web of surveillance ensnaring our most marginalized communities.
City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast
big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
For more information, please contact the Special Markets Department at Perseus Books, 2300 Chestnut Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19103, or call (800) 810-4145, ext. 5000, or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Designed by Jack Lenzo Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Pendergrast, Mark, author. Title: City on the verge : Atlanta and the fight for America’s urban future / Mark Pendergrast. Description: New York : Basic Books,  | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016039907| ISBN 9780465054732 (hardcover) | ISBN 9780465094981 (electronic) Subjects: LCSH: Urban renewal—Georgia—Atlanta. | Community development—Georgia—Atlanta. | City planning—Georgia—Atlanta. |Urban policy—Georgia—Atlanta. | Social stratification—Georgia—Atlanta. Classification: LCC HT177.A77 P46 2017 | DDC 307.3/41609758231—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016039907 E3-20170406-JV-NF CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright Dedication INTRODUCTION Atlanta’s Livable Future PART I: BUILDING THE BELTLINE PROLOGUE Walking the BeltLine CHAPTER 1 Ryan Gravel’s Epiphany CHAPTER 2 City on the Move CHAPTER 3 First Bumps Along the BeltLine CHAPTER 4 Two Atlantas: The Racial Divide CHAPTER 5 Learning to Fly While Building an Airplane CHAPTER 6 Mansions and Cat Holes CHAPTER 7 A Stake in the Ground CHAPTER 8 The Public’s Health CHAPTER 9 Impossible but Inevitable PART II: NEIGHBORS CHAPTER 10 East BeltLine: Chic, Walkable Neighborhoods CHAPTER 11 South BeltLine: A Slow Dance to Better Communities CHAPTER 12 West BeltLine: Trouble and Promise CHAPTER 13 North BeltLine: Easy Streets CHAPTER 14 Outside and Inside the BeltLine CHAPTER 15 The Future of Atlanta Epilogue: Georgia on My Mind Acknowledgments About the Author Also by Mark Pendergrast More Advance Praise for City on the Verge Glossary Photo Credits Note on Sources Index To the memory of: Willie Mae Pughsley (c. 1908–1975), otherwise known as Nee by the Pendergrast family and John Brittain (Britt) Pendergrast Jr. (1917–2016), my remarkable father, the epitome of a Southern gentleman—kind, wise, smart, principled, humble, loving, and funny This book is also dedicated to my equally remarkable mother, Nan Schwab Pendergrast (1920–), compassionate, ever-curious nature-lover and environmentalist, human rights activist, and still my writing mentor and biggest supporter These two photos—of traffic on I-75/85 and bikers on the BeltLine—represent two sides of Atlanta.
The dotted line is the somewhat longer trail, which sometime departs from the corridor. INTRODUCTION ATLANTA’S LIVABLE FUTURE Atlanta is on the brink of either tremendous rebirth or inexorable decline. At the center of a perfect storm of failed American urban policies, Atlanta has the highest income inequality, and its metro area features the longest commutes, in the country; attempts at twentieth-century urban renewal blasted highways through the city center and destroyed neighborhoods; suburban sprawl impaired the environment even as it eroded the urban tax base and exacerbated a long history of racial injustice. Although many cities across America suffer these problems, the issues have collided nowhere so conspicuously as in Atlanta. Consequently, Atlanta’s quest for reinvention maps onto America’s broader struggle to renew its cities: to transcend racism, segregation, and gaping economic divides, to transition from cars to public transit and walkable environments, to find new prosperity in the ruins of vanished industries.
Getting People onto the BeltLine To keep people focused on the BeltLine vision, in 2010 Fred Yalouris came up with Art on the BeltLine, an annual event to put temporary sculpture, mosaics, paintings, and other art onto the future corridor. To kick off the event, New Orleans transplant Chantelle Rytter proposed a lantern parade, drawing five hundred people with homemade lanterns onto the muddy, weedy trail at night in a glorious, ghostly procession. “Atlanta needed to believe that the creepy place behind the dumpsters would become our country’s best urban renewal project,” she recalled. The BeltLine Lantern Parade would become an annual tradition, with thousands more participating each year. Art on the BeltLine was a hit, luring people onto the trails, with young artists vying to win space in each year’s exhibits. By the third year the program received nearly two hundred submissions from graffiti artists, sculptors, painters, performers, and dancers.
New Localism and Regeneration Management by Jon Coaffee
Such an approach should have fewer targets and closer consultation with stakeholders to develop “quality-based routes to excellence” as well as giving greater managerial discretion and flexibility to those in charge (see also Done, 2004). In short, the argument is for a far more nuanced, “pragmatic localism” where “models” of change are replaced by “ingredients”, “menus” and “frameworks” of alternative methods of service delivery and community capacity building, which are selected according to local circumstances of place and not centrality prescribed targets. Notes 1. Often referred to in North America as urban renewal. 2. This was connected to the introduction of the single regeneration budget (SRB). The SRB was a re-packaging and streamlining of government grants introduced in 1994. The aim was to make it easier for local authorities to apply for funds. 3. For a critique of UK regeneration policy under the Conservative government (1979-1997), see Thornley (1993). 4. In particular, the Maud report (1967) and Baines report (1972). 5.
They work to criteria set by the commissioning agency (central government departments, local authorities or regeneration agencies). The criteria define the scope of the evaluation and, as a consequence, “rule in” or “rule out” certain questions and methodologies. In the UK there has been a concern in the recent past to examine the extent to which regeneration initiatives have added to the capacity of local economies or have increased the potential for urban renewal through physical infrastructure developments. In some cases this has resulted in quantitative studies that seek to explore the relationship between such investments and improvements in economic outputs. Whilst these approaches have some value they do not provide a “holistic” picture of what is happening within particular neighbourhoods nor do they capture the differential experiences of those living and working in their communities.
The Slow Fix: Solve Problems, Work Smarter, and Live Better in a World Addicted to Speed by Carl Honore
Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Broken windows theory, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, clean water, clockwatching, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, drone strike, Enrique Peñalosa, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Exxon Valdez, fundamental attribution error, game design, income inequality, index card, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, lateral thinking, lone genius, medical malpractice, microcredit, Netflix Prize, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game, urban renewal, War on Poverty
CHAPTER TEN CATALYZE: First among Equals Every great institution is the lengthened shadow of a single man. His character determines the character of the organization. Ralph Waldo Emerson Rush hour in Bogotá is not what it used to be. At least not for people like Manuel Ortega. These days, the 42-year-old banker commutes from the suburbs on a bus that has helped turn the Colombian capital into a darling of the green movement and a case study in urban renewal. The TransMilenio is no ordinary transport network. In the middle of its widest boulevards, Bogotá has carved out nine dedicated bus lanes that crisscross the city like an overground rail network. Each lane is set apart from the remaining road space by low walls, allowing fleets of red articulated buses to glide along unimpeded by ordinary traffic. Instead of waiting outdoors at conventional bus stops, passengers use swipe cards to enter enclosed stations made of metal and glass.
“It was an endless war to get the cars off the sidewalks and then to make the sidewalks wider,” says Peñalosa. “Car-owners were the ones who held the power in town, they were the rich and no one had ever dared touch them before. They felt they had a divine right to drive and park wherever they wanted. They looked down on buses as the transport for the poor. It was a war to the death.” Peñalosa paid a steep price for that. Just over a year after he took office, opposition to his plans for urban renewal grew so virulent that he and his wife sent their then 12-year-old daughter away to live in Toronto. “I was public enemy number one; the only person more hated than me was the head of the guerrillas,” he says. “I remember praying in the morning: ‘God, please just let me get through this day.’ I didn’t even ask for the week, the month or the year. I just wanted to survive each day.” Many politicians would have buckled under the onslaught.
And whatever the time constraints, always distrust fixes that look too good to be true, because they usually are. H.L. Mencken hit the nail on the head when he warned: “There is always an easy solution to every human problem – neat, plausible, and wrong.” Yet the Slow Fix does get easier with experience. What you learn forging one solution can often be applied to similar problems elsewhere. All those years studying urban renewal and shaping the transformation of Bogotá have turned Enrique Peñalosa into a globetrotting Florence Nightingale for failing cities. “I’m now like a doctor who can just look at the patient’s colour and know what he’s suffering from,” he says. “I can drive through a city and just looking out the window I can tell you what is going wrong with it and what you have to do to make it right.” Slow Fix know-how can also travel from one sphere to another.
City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
Gentrification Europe and America have learned from past mistakes and accepted that slum clearance is not the only answer to what used to be termed ‘urban blight’. When it comes to urban renewal today, incremental revitalisation is the approach favoured by planners. Gentrification can also play an important, though controversial, role. Gentrification refers to the way a working-class area is gradually colonised by the middle classes. It is said to have begun in Philadelphia in the 1950s, when wealthy people moved back into the riverside area of Society Hill, restoring the once grand eighteenth-century houses. This influx of the moneyed classes is not always welcomed by the locals. One Philadelphia resident observed bitterly that ‘urban renewal means Negro removal’.86 It is, however, a process that has been part of urban life for many years. In 1836, Charles Dickens noted how as an area of London became more middle class, its ‘old tottering public-house’ was converted into ‘spacious and lofty “wine-vaults”’, with its name displayed in gold-leaf lettering.87 One result of gentrification is the displacement of poor communities.
In the 450 blocks of the Lower East Side – described in 1899 as ‘a picture of human misery unparalleled in the world’ 76 – the density was 300–700 per acre, and in one area it reached an astonishing 1,000 people an acre, more crowded than the worst parts of London, Paris or even Bombay.77 In the nineteenth century, one answer to the problem seemed to be slum clearance. ‘The poor we shall have always with us, but the slum we need not have,’ wrote Jacob Riis, author of the seminal exposé of tenement life, How the Other Half Lives (1890).78 This and works such as Andrew Mearns’ The Bitter Cry of Outcast London (1883) spurred reformers to campaign for the demolition of the worst slums. The dramatic scheme of urban renewal carried out by Georges-Eugène Haussmann in Paris from 1853 had shown what could be achieved. After the First World War, slum clearance gained momentum in Britain, where some 250,000 houses were demolished and replaced with new council houses. The dilapidated four-storey tenements of Glasgow’s East End were swept away and, by the 1970s, some 100,000 residents had been rehoused. It now has the highest proportion of public housing in Britain after Tower Hamlets in London.
The guest list included Harrison Ainsworth, William Gladstone, Mark Twain, Arthur Conan Doyle, Oscar Wilde and many others.144 This reputation for glamour and celebrity has remained a key ingredient of life at the best hotels. Their very names evoke instant images of exclusivity and style – New York’s Waldorf Astoria, Raffles in Singapore, Lucerne’s Schweizerhof or the Adlon in Berlin. One of the largest and most glamorous hotels ever built was in France. The Grand Hôtel was a jewel in the crown of ‘Nouveau Paris’, as it was known after Baron Haussmann’s radical programme of urban renewal that began in 1853. Sited in the Place de l’Opéra, in the fashionable 9th arrondissement, it was designed by Alfred Armand, who had also worked on the impressive Grand Hôtel du Louvre (1855).145 The Grand was built in fifteen months (1861–2), with construction work continuing day and night under arc lamps. Napoleon III had commissioned Haussmann to transform Paris into a modern city and the Grand was one of the capital’s new glories.
Norman Foster: A Life in Architecture by Deyan Sudjic
Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, low cost airline, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, Murano, Venice glass, Norman Mailer, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, young professional
In Foster’s time in New Haven, these disastrous strategies were directed with what were no doubt the best intentions by an ambitious mayor, Richard Lee, who saw himself as the Robert Moses of the Kennedy era, and was determined to make New Haven into an international model for urban renewal. He was remarkably successful at lobbying Washington to divert federal funds to New Haven ahead of other cities. The money allowed him to turn the place into a laboratory for wholesale urban redevelopment. Lee justified calling in the bulldozers to demolish large swathes of his city by talking melodramatically about what he called the ‘shame’ brought upon New Haven by the 10,000 disease-carrying rats that he claimed his rat catchers had exterminated while cleaning up a single city block. His was a form of urban renewal that reflected what was soon to become American strategy in Vietnam. He was ready to destroy the city in order to save it. But before the real impact of what he was doing became apparent, he got himself on the cover of Saturday Evening Post looking young and statesmanlike.
It was a ceremony overshadowed by the glamorous lustre of the President of the United States, just ahead of the Cuban missile crisis. John F. Kennedy came to Yale to collect an honorary degree, and to deliver a speech that spoke of America’s obligations to the world. Foster stayed on the East Coast for a few more months. His town-planning qualification from Manchester got him a job with Pedersen and Tilney, a local firm working on urban renewal schemes in New Haven, that was his first practical experience of working beyond the scale of the individual building. Foster helped to find a way to secure Federal funding for a Pedersen and Tilney project in Massachusetts, arguing that the area had been blighted by a nearby airbase. Then he drove to San Francisco by way of Cape Canaveral in a little sports car, an MGA, to work for Anshen and Allen.
Rats by Robert Sullivan
An even less visible but more significant result of Gray's rat strike was the way in which Gray's grassroots group energized grassroots groups like it all over the city, and possibly the U.S.—one historian wrote that Gray's strike helped spawn the National Tenants' Organization, in 1969. It was the time in America when urban renewal was paving over old neighborhoods in New York in the name of progress and relocating them for the sake of highways, for sterile planned cities that were like laboratory cities, not at all wild. The chief formulator of urban renewal in New York and, because of his influence, in cities all over America was Robert Moses, the city's master builder. Most historians argue that Robert Moses and his destructive policies were finally halted by a liberal elite—groups of upper-middle-class homeowners who organized in Greenwich Village, for instance—but some people say it was the power of the tenants movement that stopped Robert Moses.
He appeared relaxed and was making me feel comfortable: hearing that I was from New York City, he said that his brother-in-law, a musician, had played with Tito Puente, the salsa player from the Bronx. The bodyguard drove and he was doing a good job of being quiet and formidable-looking. As we all drove out of the rat-infested neighborhood and into the beautifully renovated downtown, the mayor was going over some of his impressive credentials as an advocate for urban renewal and job creation; he talked about some of the factories he had encouraged to open up in the area; he talked about job creation plans. I was making notes when I made a remark that questioned whether crime was not somehow linked to poverty. "If you're looking for a poverty angle—well, if people really wanted to get a job they could," the mayor said, and turned around in his seat to look at me.
Big Capital: Who Is London For? by Anna Minton
Airbnb, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, land value tax, market design, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, quantitative easing, rent control, Right to Buy, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban renewal, working poor
Watt and Minton, ‘London’s housing crisis and its activisms’ 35. Perraudin, Frances, ‘Government criticised for holding housing bill debate lasting until 2 am’, Guardian, 6 January 2016 36. Topple, Steve, ‘The Housing and Planning Bill reveals how little Tory MPs think of the public’, Independent, 13 January 2016 3. DEMOLITIONS 1. Lees, Loretta, ‘The urban injustices of New Labour’s “new urban renewal”: the case of the Aylesbury Estate in London’, Antipode, 2013 2. ‘Faulty Towers: Understanding the Impact of Overseas Corruption on the London Property Market’, Transparency International UK, March 2017 3. ‘Knock It Down or Do It Up? The Challenge of Estate Regeneration’, London Assembly Housing Committee, February 2015. The report showed that between 2005 and 2015 around fifty estates with over 30,000 homes were subject to estate regeneration schemes which almost doubled the number of homes and increased the number of private homes tenfold but simultaneously entailed a net loss of 8,000 social rented homes. 4.
Analysis of Freedom of Information requests, Heygatewashome.org, http://heygatewashome.org/displacement.html 8. Bar-Hillel, Mira, ‘Elephant and Castle estate revamp “ripped off taxpayers” ’, Evening Standard, 6 February 2013 9. Minton, Anna, ‘Scaring the living daylights: the local lobby and the failure of democracy’, SpinWatch, 2013 10. ‘Knock It Down or Do It Up?’ 11. Lees, Loretta, Slater, Tom and Wyly, Elvin, Gentrification, Routledge, 2008 12. Lees, ‘The urban injustices of New Labour’s “urban renewal” ’ 13. Lees, Slater and Wyly, Gentrification 14. Minton, ‘Scaring the living daylights’ 15. Moore, Keith, ‘Muggers’ “paradise”, the Heygate Estate is demolished’, BBC News London, 15 April 2011 16. Aylesbury Estate Freedom of Information request dated 1 March 2016, Southwark Council 17. Campkin, Ben, Remaking London: Decline and Regeneration in Urban Culture, IB Tauris, 2013 18. Jacobs, Jane M. and Lees, Loretta, ‘Defensible space on the move: revisiting the urban geography of Alice Coleman’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.
Why Government Is the Problem by Milton Friedman
But they would be far fewer, and much more could be done to reduce their number and help the remainder. Homelessness What produced the current wave of homelessness around the country, which is a disgrace and a scandal? Much of it was produced by government action. Rent control has contributed, though it has been even more damaging in other ways, as has the governmental decision to empty mental facilities and turn people out on the streets and urban renewal and public housing programs, which together have destroyed far more housing units than they have built and let many public housing units become breeding grounds for crime and viciousness. Family Values Government alone has not been responsible for the extraordinary collapse that has occurred in family values and the resulting explosion in the number of teenage pregnancies, illegitimate births, and one-parent families.
B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional
The models were wonderful, but they reduced the individual to the scale of an ant, paving the way for Moses to start driving expressways through the Bronx, and demolishing swathes of Manhattan for the building of the Lincoln Center during the 1940s and 1950s. By the time of the 1964 New York World’s Fair, once more dominated by Robert Moses, by now already under attack as the dark genius of urban renewal, the very idea of the city of tomorrow had gone senile. Moses distrusted modern art even more than he distrusted modern architecture, and his one attempt at involving the younger generation of artists ended in embarrassment. Warhol painted 13 Most Wanted Men, a mural that caused a brief scandal before being obliterated on orders from Moses. The 1964 fair marked the convergence of the expo tradition with that of Disney.
It was left to deliver morally improving but empty rhetoric about sustainability and new technology that Prince Albert might have recognized, but not much in the way of innovation. The more superficially sophisticated that the world appears to become, the more its public rituals signal that its underlying preoccupations remain as intoxicatedly atavistic as they have ever been. Like the Olympic Games and the Grand Prix circuit, the expo movement comes wrapped in the appearance of a glossy sense of modernity. For all the alibis of urban renewal, the real significance of the expo is closer to the motivations of the Easter Island head builders, or the ritual festivals of the Mayans. They are massively profligate undertakings that involve pouring huge resources into events that in the case of the Grand Prix races last less than two hours. The calculations of everyday reality do not apply. These are events that are to be understood as reflecting national prestige, or the imposition of cohesion, or else the rampant pursuit of sheer spectacle for the sake of spectacle.
The Abu Dhabi Guggenheim has been on hold, restarted and delayed, while a referendum in Helsinki rejected the mayor’s plans to build one in Finland. It’s an outrageously ambitious strategy, one that has transformed the world’s perceptions of what constitutes a museum. No longer is a museum primarily seen as a place to care for precious artefacts. Nor is it a national treasure house. The most successful museums have become a focus for entertainment, urban renewal and spectacle. Success is judged by size: by the number of visitors – anything less than five million a year excludes you from the first division – and the Guggenheim can’t achieve that even counting all its outposts. The current incarnation of the Guggenheim is the work of former director Thomas Krens; it is one that has both dazzled ambitious politicians looking to repeat the perceived success of the Bilbao outpost and attracted the scorn of other museums.
Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West
Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor
Much of the thinking was inspired by the critical writings of the great urbanists Lewis Mumford and Jane Jacobs, who had reminded us that cities are people and not just infrastructure in the service of the automobile and corporate concrete-and-steel high-rises. Jane Jacobs gained her fame and notoriety during the 1950s and ’60s battling plans to run a four-lane limited-access highway through Greenwich Village in New York City, where she then lived. This was the height of the period of “urban renewal” and “slum clearance” in which massive, unattractive high-rise public housing projects were erected along with major four-lane highways running through downtown city areas with little regard for the urban fabric or the human scale. The man behind all of this in New York City was Robert Moses, the powerful mastermind who reshaped and rejuvenated the infrastructure of the city over a period of almost forty years.
These are populated with all those crazy people who contribute to the urban buzz and proliferation of galleries, restaurants, and diverse cultural activities that help make New York such a great city—all of which the prophet Moses might well have unwittingly destroyed had it not been for Saint Jane the savior. New York and the rest of us should be eternally grateful to her. Many cities across the globe have suffered from this vision of urban renewal and slum clearance, all carried out with the very best of intentions and often for good reason. However, all too often the sense of community is neglected, to say nothing of the plight of those being displaced, leading to untold unintended consequences. In too many cases seemingly exitless highways have cut through traditional neighborhoods, leading to isolated islands literally cut off from the major arteries of the city.
As a footnote to this piece of urban history, it is ironic that NYU’s long-term strategic plans include a proposal to redevelop the Washington Square Village complex by demolishing those very same high-rise apartment buildings and restore the area to its original structure—plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose. In an interview4 in 2001 Jane Jacobs was asked: What do you think you’ll be remembered for most? You were the one who stood up to the federal bulldozers and the urban renewal people and said they were destroying the lifeblood of these cities. Is that what it will be? To which she replied: No. If I were to be remembered as a really important thinker of the century, the most important thing I’ve contributed is my discussion of what makes economic expansion happen. This is something that has puzzled people always. I think I’ve figured out what it is. Alas, she was wrong.
Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland
business cycle, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor
But in addition, for Jacobs, the neighborhood itself had to be well situated in relation to a larger urban space that would provide a supportive context (of pedestrian flows, adjacent destinations, etc.) for the neighborhood. Jacobs was writing more or less explicitly against the utopian programs of urban renewal that posed one kind of challenge to her ideal of com plex urban order; Berman cites another: suburbanization. In the decades following World War II, not only were older neighborhoods being wiped clean for urban renewal but jobs and those lucky enough to have them were being moved out of inner cities to suburban spaces, leaving the inner city to wither and die. For Berman, this more or less gradual process was made catastrophic in New York by the expressway system masterminded by Robert Moses, which ravaged the fabric of the five boroughs to make M anhattan accessible to suburbanites commuting by car.
The very density, anonymity, and complexity of city life counterbalances the centripetal force of commu nity self-organization and self-identification, compelling or encouraging urban dwellers to frequent “public spaces [where] people encounter other people, meanings, expressions, issues, which they may not understand or with which they do not identify.”40 City living not only fosters the de velopment of multiple, different affinity groups but also brings members of those groups into regular contact with others: the complexity of the city thus fosters not just self-contained difference but related difference. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs provides a pio neering account of the city as matrix of immanently related difference. H er work opposed not only the practices and programs of urban renewal rampant in post-World War II America but also the modernist view of city planning promulgated by Le Corbusier and others starting early in the century.41 The modernist city planner sought to simplify and ratio nalize the city: his ideal was a gridlike plan whereby various urban func tions—commercial, recreational, industrial, residential, and so on—would be carefully segregated from one other and the “formal layout” of city structure purified accordingly.42 To Jacobs, such single-use functionalism and geometrical moralism were anathema: she favored, instead, the rich complexity of multiuse urbanism as it emerged over time, without the need for top-down planning.43And where Follett emphasized the self-sufficiency of the neighborhood, Jacobs emphasized its necessary imbrication in the larger structures and dynamics of the surrounding city.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Virtually every downtown was in absolute and relative decline, virtually no housing being built in the center city, office space growing at half the rate required to maintain regional market share, industrial zones being abandoned, and retail almost completely deserting the downtown for the suburbs. Most downtown department stores were closed by the end of the 1980s. The middle class left most center cities, leaving only the poor, who have the most social welfare needs and the least financial ability to pay the taxes to support these services. Certainly there were much-publicized efforts at revitalization; the Johnson administration launched the Model Cities program and urban renewal in the 1960s, city planners in the 1970s closed main streets to pretend the city was a suburban mall, and in the 1980s the federal government handed out Urban Development Action Grants. These programs had limited success at best, and most failed to achieve their objectives of returning center cities to health. Over time, these programs were putting billions of dollars into cities, but the cities were offering a kind of lifestyle the market did not want at the time.
., 75, 186n34 Redevelopment, xi, 40, 61, 80, 125– 129, 153, 156–158, 167–169 Regional malls, 5, 35, 39, 109, 155, 159 Regional-serving walkable urbanism, 118, 124–128, 135–139, 173–174, 195n22 downtown-adjacent, 90, 119–122, 128, 132, 136, 146 greenfield town, 123 redeveloped malls, 118, 125–128 suburban town, 80, 88, 90, 97–98, 118, 122–123, 129 traditional downtown, 35–36, 99, 118–119, 167 REIT, 49–50, 58 Resolution Trust orporation (RTC), 47–49, 183n6 Reston Town Center, 102, 119, 123–124, 125f, 127, 136, 153 Retail chains, 109, 146–149 Retirement, 51, 128, 153, 160 Revitalization, 5, 88, 106, 129, 146, 156, 169 model cities program, 29 urban development action grants, 29 urban renewal, 29 Road diet, 197n7 Roulac, S., 8, 177n5 Rural areas, 22–23 S&Ls, 46–49, 182–183 crisis, 46 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA-LU), 164–165, 198n18 Schmid, T., 186n36 Seattle, 37, 98 Segregation, (see also Social segregation) 39–40, 65 Seinfeld, 87, 90, 106, 131 Shearin, R., 194n12 Shibut, L., 182n2 Shoup, D., 67, 184n6 Singer, A., 177n4 Smith-Lovin, L., 181n9 Social engineering, 25, 44, 67, 84, 137 segregation, 68–71 Solomon, D., 180n28 Southworth, M., 180n28 Sprawl, 78, 93, 122, 131, 151, 160, 184n4, 186n29 Street grid, 5, 199 INDEX | 207 Stein, B., 185n23 Strip malls, 5, 90, 92, 118, 125, 131, 148 Subdivisions, 6, 28, 35, 47, 50, 55, 88 Subsidies, 9, 11, 29–31, 67, 112, 144, 151, 162, 171–173 Suburban town center, 88, 90, 129 Superhighways, 17–21 Sustainable development, 112 Target market, 54–55 Terrestrial affiliation, 64, 67, 115, 184n1 Toll roads, 161 Torng, G-W., 189n6 Town center, 87–90, 112, 123, 129 Traditional neighborhood development (TND), 93, 117 Transect, 191n3 Transit-oriented development, 112, 117, 190n27, 199n20 Transportation, 3–4, 21–22, 27–32, 40, 63, 67–68, 74–81, 83, 93, 96, 116, 127, 142, 144, 151, 163, 166, 171–175, 181n1 infrastructure, 142, 165 Transportation Equity Act, 164, 182 Unemployment rate, 12, 69 Urbanism, see Walkable urbanism U.S.
The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Coupled with policies in 1949 to stimulate "urban redevelopment," later broadened in 1954 to "urban renewal," monumental changes took root in cities. For Americans, this new roadscape meant accumulating more miles per capita by car than other modes, or than anywhere else in the work. Tectonic forces reinforced a continued march up Mount Auto. These include increases in: Population. As there were more people, there was more collective daily travel to everyday destinations like work, school, and the store.17 Workforce participation. More women started working outside the home. Income. With money, people can satisfy wants in addition to needs, and the means by which that income is acquired (work) required more travel as well. Auto mass production. Ford's process spread widely, thereby dropping the relative price of auto-mobility.18 Developed area. Urban renewal gutted blighted and working neighborhoods alike.
Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins
Liverpool Street was adapted rather than demolished, its restoration financed by air rights over part of its tracks. There followed an internal battle within BR to save Wilson’s office range at 50 Liverpool Street, a saving that was critical to the Victorian character of the site. The outcome required the office range to be completely rebuilt in 1985–91. A final skirmish saved the two-storey arcade of shops across the road. Liverpool Street is a reminder that urban renewal is about choices, not inevitability. Today’s station offers variations on a Victorian theme. The separate entrance gateways to Liverpool Street and Bishopsgate are new, marked by two towers with lantern tops. They carry GER cartouches. New also is the internal concourse, the shopping arcades and, most extraordinary, the entire eastern shed. BR’s in-house architects, Nick Derbyshire and Alastair Lansley, were meticulous in retaining or replicating Wilson’s proportions, details and fittings.
Many had crossed England after landing from the Continent at Hull (see here) and now had to troop downhill to the harbour for their last hazardous voyage. Lime Street languished through the 20th century in relative squalor. Outside its gates we can still see the remains of the disaster that was Liverpool development in the 1960s under its ardently Socialist chief planner, Graeme Shankland. His slash-and-burn approach to urban renewal took the form of destroying historic buildings and erecting an excruciating shopping centre facing the station, which even he later regretted. The area degenerated until, in 2008, the buildings in front of Lime Street were demolished to reveal at least part of the original terminus to the square. The impact is sensational. Today, the pillared frontage can at last gaze down on the Grecian masterpiece of St George’s Hall opposite, although it is still elbowed aside by Waterhouse’s ponderous hotel – now a student residence – next door.
Grand Central: How a Train Station Transformed America by Sam Roberts
accounting loophole / creative accounting, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, New Urbanism, the High Line, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, Y2K
A decade later, modernization of the old Commodore Hotel, the first project in Midtown by Donald Trump, ignited a revival of 42nd Street. And 30 years later, a major renovation restored the station as an architectural gem and a destination not merely for train travelers, but also for shoppers, restaurant-goers, and other visitors. Grand Central anchored the revival of Midtown Manhattan, a revival that would spread west to Bryant Park, behind the New York Public Library, and Times Square and become emblematic of urban renewal at its best. Just recently, the Lincoln Building, originally named for the former president, was rechristened One Grand Central Place, in affirmation of the terminal’s cachet and the city’s resurgence. THIS BOOK IS MORE THAN A STORY ABOUT TRANSPORTATION. It’s about the expansion of the city of New York into a metropolis and the aggregation of metropolitan government, which mirrored the ruthless consolidation of corporate America and of the nation’s railroads.
Another contributing factor may have been that, although it was home to the Long Island Rail Road, until the post–World War II consolidation and bankruptcies of New Jersey railroads, Penn Station didn’t have a monopoly on commuters coming in from the west, many of whom went to Hoboken or Jersey City and got to the city on ferries or took the Tube, while, of course, Grand Central Terminal had all the traffic coming from the north right from the start. Also Grand Central to Wall Street is a straight shot on the subway for commuters. Fully a century later, the West Side of Manhattan is developing largely in spite of Penn Station, not because of it. EVEN BEFORE IT WAS FINISHED, Grand Central became the impetus for an extraordinary urban renewal and repurposing of nearby property. American Express’s stables, the Steinway piano factory, and the F & M Schaeffer Brewery would give way to fashionable apartments, hotels (the Ambassador, Biltmore, Commodore, Ritz-Carlton, and Waldorf-Astoria, the new Grand Central Palace, the Roosevelt, the Barclay and Park Lane), a post office, and the Central’s own offices—all lures for the multicolored cabs that, Thomas Wolfe wrote, now descended on Grand Central “like beetles in flight.”
Bikenomics: How Bicycling Can Save the Economy (Bicycle) by Elly Blue
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, Boris Johnson, business cycle, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
The automobile gained an irrevocable place on city streets just in time for the new prosperity that came after World War II. Cities at that time were often crowded and poor. Those who could afford it now began to move into the suburbs, thanks to the automobile. They could live in commuting distance from city office and industrial jobs but live separate from the mayhem, with their nuclear family in their own small estate. Over the following decades, inner cities were gutted by urban renewal and inner-city freeways and these new suburbs seemed more and more attractive. And as more people wanted to buy houses, the investment of building new neighborhoods seemed more and more attractive to developers. In the last decade, new development rose to fever pitch, aided by heavy subsidies to builders and ill-considered bank loans to new home owners who could in no way afford them. Ultimately the housing bubble burst in 2008, ushering in the recession that we are in now.
But the hospital in the neighborhood wanted to add a new wing—and they wanted the land right in the core of the district. Community activists fought back and lost. The land was claimed, the theater, music halls, and restaurants at the heart of the neighborhood were torn down … and then nothing. The new wing of the hospital fell through, and the land sat empty for decades. The neighborhood around it failed to thrive until an urban renewal district was born. A light rail line was built to the neighborhood. Newcomers could, and did, get assistance buying houses and opening increasingly upscale businesses. Police started responding more promptly to calls from the area, and enforcing complaints against such grievous crimes as African American youth hanging out on their blocks and playing music. Property values rose, and rents right along with them.
Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game
What happened was a generation of American growth, two and a half decades of spreading prosperity that is still broadly nostalgized. In this period of time, Americans built the interstate highway system, the largest public works project in the history of mankind. These transportation investments broke the stifling stability of high land values, making abundant raw land available to the masses at affordable prices. Investments in infrastructure systems accelerated. Through Urban Renewal initiatives, new planning theories were put into practice, remaking entire neighborhoods. Policymakers quickly discovered that the tools for fighting deflation in the Great Depression worked even better for expanding the economy during the post-war boom. Focusing again on housing, the FHA used the same approach of lowering down payments and insuring banks against default. This time it wasn’t fighting a deflationary spiral; it was expanding demand for housing, dramatically increasing prices.
., 102–104 illusion of, 57–60 Wealth creation, in place-oriented government, 176–180, 177t–179t White flight, 111 Why Liberalism Failed (Deneen), 211 Whyte, William “Holly,” 158 Wikipedia, 196 Women, in workplace, 95–96 The World Until Yesterday (Diamond), 58, 84 World War I, 86–87 World War II: confirmation bias of Pacific Islanders after, 183–185 economic stability following, 89–91 Z Zoning: and changes in building use, 137 as constraint on growth, 167–168 and neighborhoods, 21 neighborhoods atrophied by, 163 and urban renewal, 117 WILEY END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley’s ebook EULA.
Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn
affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional
“In order to increase efficiency and protect pedestrians from traffic accidents, the great plaza that provided access to all the buildings was connected to neighboring blocks on three sides by bridges (in the process removing customers from city streets and damaging local businesses). Unfortunately, the plaza had to be closed four to five months out of the year due to danger that falling ice posed to pedestrians.”50 As one of the last of the massive urban renewal efforts in New York City, the World Trade Center complex was widely regarded as prima facie evidence of that era’s brutal disregard for the humanistic fabric of a city. It wore this legacy boldly, just the way its domineering public developer had intended. The 1960s plan for the World Trade Center complex embodied a planning concept woefully out of date at the start of the twenty-first century: a superblock assemblage dominated by skyscrapers rising up out of a vast open plaza (figure 1.7).
He was a good but not distinguished builder, as were his competitors in the tight world of New York real estate—Mortimer Zuckerman of Boston Properties, Jerry Speyer of Tishman Speyer, John Zuccotti of Brookfield Properties, Richard LeFrak of the LeFrak Organization, to name a few. He was not like one of his well-known partners, William Zeckendorf Jr., son of legendary “Big” Bill, a man of big visions. The senior Zeckendorf assembled seventy-five parcels formerly housing smelly slaughterhouses on the East Side of Manhattan where the United Nations rose in 1947, and he built large-scale urban renewal projects in many cities (Century City in Los Angeles, Mile High Center in Denver, and Place Ville Marie in Montreal, among others) before his development company, Webb & Knapp, went bankrupt in 1965. Zeckendorf Jr. was more conservative than his father, but equally intense about building projects and of being in the game, although less focused than Silverstein on making the last dollar. “The idea of building and creating was more important to him than earning a lot of money from these buildings,” Herbert Sturz, a former chairman of the New York City Planning Commission, told the Wall Street Journal during the bidding for the World Trade Center.20 Like others in the real estate industry, Silverstein became a philanthropist and a contributor to political campaigns.
In time, though, the LMDC’s redevelopment responsibilities extended beyond Ground Zero to include all of the southern portion of the island, from Canal Street down to Battery Park and from the Hudson across to the East River—“some of the most valuable, most important, and most heavily populated real estate in the world,” as Whitehead saw it.9 The area of approximately twenty miles square traversed several distinctive neighborhoods: Chinatown, Tribeca, Battery Park City, and the financial district (see map 3.2). Map 3.2 The neighborhoods of lower Manhattan. Cartography: C&G Partners for the author The division of power between the state and the city is an age-old issue for mayors. For more than two decades during the era of ambitious federal support for revitalizing the nation’s urban centers beginning with the federal highway and urban renewal programs of the 1950s, mayors succeeded in winning the fight for local control.10 This victory, however, stands as an exception to the historical pattern. Under the U.S. Constitution, cities have no formal legal standing. Because of 9/11, Ground Zero was one place where this arrangement might have been different, remarked Carl B. Weisbrod. But from the start, the process of governing for rebuilding was structured in such a way that precluded the city’s active involvement in rebuilding lower Manhattan; only through the mayor’s appointments to the LMDC board did the city have some say over the distribution of an unprecedented pledge of federal dollars.
Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg
carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty
According to one political activist on the Northeast Side, these fears explain why no one analyzed or publicized the traumatic impact of the heat wave on hotel dwellers. The concerns of housing advocates are well founded. In the last fifty years, two changes in government policy have eliminated or degraded the stock of hotel buildings and reduced the quality of life for their residents; moreover, additional pressures from realtors and neighborhood groups have led several hotel proprietors to sell their buildings. First, the urban renewal programs of the 1950s and 1960s and urban development programs of the 1970s led to the destruction or conversion of most of the old SROs, but neither the city nor the federal government has funded or assisted much new hotel-style public housing since then. From 1960 to 1980 Chicago lost 85 percent of its one-room units in the West Madison region, 48 percent of its units in the South State Street area, and 84 percent of its units on the Near North Side, for a total loss of more than seven thousand units in these three areas alone.
The out-migration in Little Village was more gradual than in North Lawndale, though, in part because in 1940 the home ownership rate of 36 percent in Little Village was more than twice the rate in North Lawndale, where only 16 percent of the homes were owner occupied.65 The relatively slower pace of suburban out-migration from Little Village meant that the area did not open itself to African-Americans to the extent that North Lawndale did, and instead local realtors marketed housing in the area to the city’s growing Mexican-American communities as well as to Mexican immigrants. Beginning the mid-1950s, Mexican Americans who had been displaced from their Near West and North Side homes by urban renewal programs and new highways took refuge in Little Village, and by the late 1960s the area had acquired a decidedly Latino identity. In one telling sign of the transformation, the Bohemian Settlement House, which had been founded in 1896 and was a major community institution, changed its name to Casa Aztlan in 1970.66 Figure 33. Street vendors attract shoppers outdoors. Photo by Rona Talcott.
See Little Village spatial concentration: increasing, 231 spatial distribution: of mortality, 81–85, 259n.6 spatial transformation, 48 Starks, Robert, 154 Staten, Clark, 129–30, 134 Steele, John, 154 Steinberg, Ted, 161 Stewart, Ernie, 102 stigma, 27, 59–60, 76, 110, 156 street life: as vital link in communication network, 116–17 “streetcorner world” of men, 76 substance use. See drug use support services: paramilitary organizations and, 142, 232 support systems, 71, 159. See also social networks suspiciousness, 76–77 Taub, Richard, 263n.38 television, 59, 215, 275n.1. See also media; news transportation, 226; access to, 80, 225 trauma centers, 131 Twenty-sixth Street (Calle Mexico), 110–12 urban heat island effect, 16 urban renewal and development programs, 66 urban research, Chicago school of, 22 utilities costs, heat-related, 159, 206 Vaughan, Kevin, 237 violence: of everyday life, 97–103; and isolation, 54–55 violent crime, 127, 256n.31, 259–60n.9; elderly persons, danger, and, 51, 101. See also crime; fear violent crime rates, 55, 82–83; in Districts 10 and 11, 88; in Little Village, 109, 120 vulnerability, 248n.31; rhetoric of, vs. language of empowerment and consumerism, 157.
Concretopia: A Journey Around the Rebuilding of Postwar Britain by John Grindrod
Berlin Wall, garden city movement, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, megastructure, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, Right to Buy, side project, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, young professional
Instead, he stressed that the complex ‘served only to complement the “real Bolton” around it’.25 Arndale and Ravenseft were keen on shopping centres, but they tended to avoid larger town centre redevelopment schemes, with their ring roads, bus stations and covered markets. Many councils, though, were dead set on just such integrated projects, and it was held against the developers that ‘they picked up all the plums of urban renewal, leaving the local authorities to do the unremunerative chores.’26 In the late fifties at the Elephant and Castle – the great, tangled road junction forming the gateway to south London, and at the heart of a large working class community – just such a complex scheme was underway. The sheer scale of the development there – whether of the big roads with their roundabouts and underpasses, or of the massive multi-level flats, offices, college, cinema and shopping centre – was awe-inspiring.
The early sixties planners would no doubt be shocked that their futuristic plans for city centres never came to pass, and by the ongoing ad hoc sprawl of car-dependent trading estates. A few years ago I visited New York and explored Rochester’s huge Midtown Plaza, the inspiration for the Elephant and Castle’s shopping centre. This jauntily designed trinket box of a scheme was eerily deserted. Almost all the shops had closed and it was scheduled for demolition, the optimistic early sixties vision of urban renewal overtaken by out-of-town developments and the long arm of the internet. On 7 April 1971, the Queen opened Birmingham’s completed inner ring road, an idea that had been gestating since 1917. The local dignitaries who gathered that spring day to see their ambitious project given the royal blessing, less than a decade after Buchanan’s Traffic in Towns was published, could not have known that, apart from the odd project, the age of the grand urban road scheme was over.
Delegations were sent to study the other new towns, particularly cutting-edge Cumbernauld, and the planners set to work designing future-proof housing schemes, shopping centres and road networks. In an audacious move, Cox employed his very own visionary to rival Copcutt: Graeme Shankland, a young and controversial London County Council planner who had got into all sorts of trouble as a leading light in yet another modernist splinter group – this one called SP UR. The Society for Promotion of Urban Renewal had frightened the residents of Boston Manor in London when the BBC showed their plan to demolish the entire district and rebuild it as a futuristic landscape of towers and walkways. Several prominent members of SP UR went on to design the Barbican. Yet Cox was adamant that Shankland, despite his bad boy reputation, was the man for Hook, refusing to take on the job without him.12 After a year’s work by Cox and his team, the authorities decided that it would be quicker and cheaper to expand the nearby towns of Basingstoke and Aldershot, and the Hook scheme was abandoned.
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
Vertical stacking would, the argument went, allow land to be used much more intensively than through the more traditional horizontal separation of land uses in cities. One master plan for the comprehensive redevelopment of central Birmingham outlined the underlying ideas. ‘A factor which is absolutely essential in any modern master plan is the principle of segregation’, it suggested. ‘No project for urban renewal, be it extensive or quite local, will match up to modern necessities unless it provides for proper segregation of operations.’ Such a shift, it was argued, was ‘essential for safety, for maximum concentration of use, and for amenity and comfort … The transport design should, therefore, aim at the segregation of pedestrians, city roads, service roads, and car park roads, leading to multi-level circulation of functions such as two-storey shopping.’13 Shaped by the thinking of the Tatton-Browns, between 1955 and 1970, the City of London embarked on an ambitious programme of vertical segregation.
‘I draw an automobile on this regained ground [for parking], and I let air and vegetation go through.’14 In the process, as historian David Gissen points out, ‘the clean-up of the modern sewer and the banishment of the cellar from modernity represented a victory of the rhetoric of light and air over the dark, the tepid and the dank.’15 However, basements have also had their advocates. Some philosophers, as part of the wider backlash against the steamroller of modernist urban renewal, have been keen to point out the psychosocial importance of cellars and basements. French phenomenologist Gaston Bachelard, for example, argued passionately that housing provided more than technologically modern and sanitised ‘machines for living’ (in Le Corbusier’s infamous phrase). Housing architecture, Bachelard countered, also needed to address primordial psychological human needs for spaces within which dreamlike experiences could link with subconscious cultures of nature.
See Jamie Peck, ‘Economic Rationality Meets Celebrity Urbanology: Exploring Edward Glaeser’s City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2016 (forthcoming). 6Paul Goldberger, ‘Too Rich, Too Thin, Too Tall, Vanity Fair, May 2014. 7As well as blocking out light, new towers often create wind systems at ground level that can be uncomfortable and even dangerous to those on the street. 8Lloyd Alter, ‘It’s Time to Dump the Tired Argument That Density and Height Are Green and Sustainable’, Treehugger, 3 January 2014, available at treehugger.com. 9Ibid. 10Samuel Zipp ‘The Roots and Routes of Urban Renewal’, Journal of Urban History 39:3, May 2013, p. 372. 11Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, p. 146. 12Paul Christoph Haacke, ‘The Vertical Turn: Topographies of Metropolitan Modernism’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2011, available at escholarship.org/uc/item/1857736f. 13Fosco Lucarelli and Mariabruna Fabrizi, ‘The Trellick Tower: The Fall and Rise of a Modern Monument’, San Rocco Magazine 5, Fall 2012. 14Sigfried Giedeon, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995 . 15Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, New York: Dover, 1987 , p. 280. 16This term comes from the US Citizens Housing Council, 1940.
Rough Guide to San Francisco and the Bay Area by Nick Edwards, Mark Ellwood
1960s counterculture, airport security, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, period drama, pez dispenser, Port of Oakland, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional
An entertaining side trip is into the towering, triangular atrium of the adjacent Hyatt Regency, where the inverted shape of the terraces above gives the feeling that it could cave in at any moment. Mel Brooks fans will recognize this as the spot where the comic lost his marbles in 1977’s High Anxiety. Outside, it’s perhaps fitting that Justin Herman Plaza – named in honor of San Francisco’s father of urban renewal who, in the name of progress, bulldozed acres of historic buildings in the Western Addition after World War II – should be home to San Francisco’s least revered modernist work of art. FrenchCanadian artist Armand Vaillancourt’s 1971 Quebec Libre!, known locally as simply the Vaillancourt Fountain, is a tangled mass of square concrete tubing that looks as if it were inspired by air conditioning ducts.
By 1906, though, the heyday of the Victorians (and Queen Victoria herself) had already passed, and when many of the all-wood houses went up in flames in April of that year, the axe-stripped hillsides of Marin didn’t have enough building material left to replace them. This disaster was compounded by the fashion shift away from the Victorians’ excessive ornamentation in favor of less embellished stone and stucco homes. For a good chunk of the twentieth century, local Victorians became an endangered species: many were torn down during Justin Herman’s hurricane of urban renewal in the Western Addition (see p.135), while others were maimed simply through their owners’ economies. By the 1960s, though, grassroots support swelled for the structures, and the Victorian Alliance was formed to campaign for their preservation. A survey by the National Endowment for the Arts found only 13,487 Victorians remaining in the city (down from a pre-1906 peak of more than 58,000), of which only half had been unaltered.
Japanese-Americans were forcibly incarcerated in camps across the state by the federal government and forced to sell off their property at below-market prices. They only returned to the area in significant numbers following the construction of Japantown. Many of the cheap homes were sold to lower-waged African-Americans, and soon jazz clubs and black-owned businesses lined the streets. That is, until the area was leveled by the dual forces of 1960s urban renewal and blunderheaded civic planner Justin Herman. He demolished dozens of blocks of precious Victorian housing, replacing them with acres of monolithic concrete apartment blocks. Thanks to Herman and his henchmen, there’s now little to see in the area other than the famed Fillmore Auditorium, 1805 Geary Blvd at Fillmore (t 415/346-6000, w www.thefillmore.com), where promoter Bill Graham put on carnivalesque psychedelic rock shows for thousands of hallucinating hippies in the 1960s.
The Great Shark Hunt: Strange Tales From a Strange Time by Hunter S. Thompson
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, buy low sell high, complexity theory, computer age, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Francisco Pizarro, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, job automation, land reform, Mason jar, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl
A good example of the majority viewpoint shows up in the housing situation, which at the moment is inextricably linked with urban renewal. As it happens, the urban-renewal project centers mainly in the downtown Negro district, and most of the people who have to be relocated are black. It also happens that the only part of town to which Negroes can move is the West End, an old and tree-shaded neighborhood bypassed by progress and now in the throes of a selling panic because of the Negro influx. There is a growing fear, shared by whites and Negroes alike, that the West End is becoming a black ghetto. Frank Stanley, Jr., the Negro leader who said "Integration here is a farce," blames urban renewal for the problem. "All they're doing is moving the ghetto, intact, from the middle of town to the West End." Urban-renewal officials reply to this by claiming the obvious: that their job is not to desegregate Louisville but to relocate people as quickly and advantageously as possible.
We enjoy national prestige for sane and sensible race relations." All this is true -- and so it is all the more surprising to visit Louisville and find so much evidence to the contrary. Why, for instance, does a local Negro leader say, "Integration here is a farce"? Why, also, has a local Negro minister urged his congregation to arm themselves? Why do Louisville Negroes bitterly accuse the Federal urban-renewal project of creating "de facto segregation"? Why can't a Negro take out a mortgage to buy a home in most white neighborhoods? And why is there so much bitterness in the remarks of Louisvillians both black and white? "Integration is for poor people," one hears; "they can't afford to buy their way out of it." Or, "In ten years, downtown Louisville will be as black as Harlem." What is apparent in Louisville is that the Negro has won a few crucial battles, but instead of making the breakthrough he expected, he has come up against segregation's second front, where the problems are not mobs and unjust laws but customs and traditions.
The Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen
Asian financial crisis, Bernie Madoff, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, income inequality, indoor plumbing, life extension, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, school choice, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban renewal
The proper role of government in society is beyond the scope of this discussion. But still it is a general principle that the most fundamental functions of government are worth more than the extra, addon, or optional things that governments do. A dollar spent on very basic police and courts and army protection is worth more than a dollar spent on refurnishing a warehouse in Minneapolis under the guise of urban renewal. A dollar spent on welfare for the poorest is more valuable than a dollar spent extending the program to better-off but still poor cases. And so on. Yet when it comes to national income accounting, and measuring GDP, we are valuing every one of these different expenditures at $1. In our measurements, we are assuming that the quality, importance, and efficacy of government stays constant as the size of government grows.
Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns
anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, creative destruction, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
For every NBI student who found Rand harsh or was the target of an unprovoked rage, there is another who remembers Rand’s sensitivity and caring. Jan Richman, a Los Angeles NBI representative, described her first meeting with Rand: “[She] said that I should take my glasses off. I took them off, and she said, you have very beautiful eyes. You shouldn’t hide them behind glasses; get contact lenses. I remember I felt like crying.” Martin Anderson, the author of a controversial book that attacked federal urban renewal programs, The Federal Bulldozer, was a professor at Columbia Business School when he and his girlfriend attended an NBI lecture they saw advertised in the New York Times. There he befriended Alan Greenspan, who invited him to several smaller events with Rand. Anderson remembers Rand as a “pussycat,” a warm and caring figure. It was Rand, alone out of a late-night café crowd, who noticed his trouble and helped prepare his coffee when a broken arm left him unable to open a package of cream.
Albert Ellis, Is Objectivism a Religion? (New York: Lyle Stuart, 1968); John Hospers to AR, May 25, 1960, ARP 146-H01. 47. Letters, 531, 532. 48. Ibid., 532, 535, 533. 49. Karen Reedstrom, “Interview with Laurence I. Gould,” Full Context, November 1991, 3. 50. Jan Schulman, née Richman, September 26, 1997, Oral History, ARP; Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal 1949–62 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964); Martin Anderson, interview with author, January 11, 2008. Charles and Mary Ann Sures also emphasize the warmer side of Rand in Facets of Ayn Rand (Irvine, CA: Ayn Rand Institute, 2001). 51. Karen Reedstrom, “Interview with Roger Donway,” Full Context, May 1992, 1; Karen Reedstrom and David Saum, “Interview with Ronald E. Merrill,” Full Context, November 1995, 7. 52.
The Conservatives: Ideas and Personalities throughout American History Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009. Alpers, Benjamin L. Dictators, Democracy, and American Public Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. Amadae, S. M. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Anderson, Martin. The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal 1949–62. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964. Anderson, Martin, and Barbara Honegger, eds. The Military Draft: Selected Readings on Conscription. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1982. Andrew, John A., III. The Other Side of the Sixties: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of Conservative Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997. Baker, James. Ayn Rand. Boston: Twayne, 1987.
If Then: How Simulmatics Corporation Invented the Future by Jill Lepore
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, anti-communist, Buckminster Fuller, computer age, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, game design, George Gilder, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, index card, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, job automation, land reform, linear programming, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, Peter Thiel, profit motive, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
He moved into a house in Cambridge a few blocks from Pool.18 In the spring of 1967, Moynihan secured a contract for Simulmatics with the Eastman Kodak Company, in Rochester, New York.19 That summer, Simulmatics hired Moynihan as a consultant, for a term of three years, and appointed him to the research board. He was in the New York office often.20 Moynihan, then forty, was to be paid a minimum of $10,000 a year. He was also given a sizable amount of stock.21 Moynihan and Coleman teamed up on a Simulmatics project on urban design (which was another way of talking about “urban renewal”).22 But in joining Simulmatics, Moynihan had one particular research interest, above all: he wanted to know whether the computer simulation of urban problems could be used to predict race riots. This project began in Rochester. Since the riots there in 1964, community, civil rights, and labor organizers had pressed for change, including the institution of job training programs and fair employment practices at the Eastman Kodak Company.23 The company had made few changes.
She did that, and then she walked out of the courthouse and joined the march.2 Simulmatics died. The fantasy of predicting human behavior by way of machines did not. Instead, it took new forms, forms that depended on forgetting that Simulmatics had ever existed. By the time Simulmatics declared bankruptcy, the automated computer simulation of human behavior had fallen into disrepute, a casualty of McNamara’s simulated Vietnam, and of the disaster of urban renewal, its systems gone awry, its predictions proven wrong. In what one historian has called “the twilight of simulation,” universities stopped dedicating funding to systems analysis and simulation, journals stopped publishing, labs closed. MIT shut down its Urban Systems Lab, once headed by Ithiel de Sola Pool, in 1974. For a while it seemed that simulation would live on only in the form of computer games; the first version of SimCity appeared in 1989.3 The people who’d worked for Simulmatics scattered.
“For anyone interested in an offbeat RANK speculation where the risks are tremendous, but the future exciting, we suggest you look closely at SIMULMATICS CORP. which is traded Over-the-Counter and presented quoted at 5–5½. This is a new company that is attempting to introduce a new idea to business and government by using human behavioral factors along with other data in electronic computers. The areas in which they can apply their technique are many and varied, for example: urban renewal, traffic patterns, new product introduction and advertising selection and marketing strategy. The officers of the company are the social scientists’ who’s who of the academic world, representing Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Yale, Harvard, and MIT. SIMULMATICS already has one contract from the Department of Health Education and Welfare and presently is negotiating an additional $800,000 of business.
City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar
Sidewalks, once the thoroughfares of every city, disappeared in the suburbs; now Americans make less than 6 percent of their daily trips by foot and, not surprising, one-third of Americans are obese. The results are unsustainable at the most personal and the most global levels. But while America changed — the market trending toward urban, mobile lifestyles — highways failed to change with it. Their role of connecting parts of the country hundreds of miles apart is undeniable, but in cities undergoing urban renewal, highways are increasingly problematic. Their blight on cities is generally recognizable as both causing great disinvestment in the area immediately surrounding them and also being particular to the cities they affect. Interstate 10 severs the New Orleans neighborhoods of the French Quarter, foreground, and the Treme. Image: Infrogmation / Creative Commons In New Orleans, a highway was initially proposed in the 1960s to cut through the French Quarter, but instead an elevated highway along Claiborne Avenue was chosen.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
As a reminder of how the federal government had become essential even to road building within cities, the last third of the Expressway couldn’t have been built at all without a very healthy contribution from the Highway Trust Fund, for which it qualified after a few hundred yards were shoehorned into the plans for Interstate 95. It was, along with the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, the Master Builder’s last great success, and his swan song. By the time it opened, any notion that the Cross-Bronx Expressway would revive the Bronx specifically, and be a model for urban renewal generally, was the punch line to a joke. The Expressway hadn’t just destroyed East Tremont. Despite all the care Moses and his engineers lavished on keeping the Grand Concourse as grand as ever—the Concourse, unsurprisingly, with its 180-foot-wide streets and monumental architecture, was very much in the Moses style—it was already sliding into a vicious cycle of poverty and crime. Though there are many reasons for the decline of urban centers in the 1960s (city centers had trouble retaining their appeal even without limited-access highways crisscrossing them), the Cross-Bronx Expressway had made a dozen middle-class New York neighborhoods less and less desirable as places to live, and by the 1970s the Bronx had become a poster child for urban blight in America.
Bruce Ratner, who was the CEO of the development company, had been the city’s consumer affairs commissioner around the same time I headed the Traffic Department. Despite his pedigree—four of his uncles had founded the multibillion-dollar family corporation in 1920—he was a down-to-earth, unassuming guy. A year before, Forest City Ratner had received the go-ahead from the relevant city and state authorities to start work on redeveloping the two dozen acres that had been designated the Atlantic Yards Urban Renewal Area, specifically the Long Island Rail Road yards between Atlantic Avenue and Pacific Streets.a The Atlantic Yards project called for a complex of residential and commercial buildings, but its centerpiece was to be a basketball and hockey arena, Barclays Center. Bruce had bought the NBA’s New Jersey Nets in 2004 and had spent the following two years planning to move the team to a new arena by the time he called on Sam Schwartz Engineering to design a transportation plan for it.
From Bauhaus to Our House by Tom Wolfe
In July of 1972, the city blew up the three central blocks of Pruitt-Igoe with dynamite. The Pruitt-Igoe projects, St. Louis, July 15, 1972. Mankind finally arrives at a workable solution to the problem of public housing. That part of the worker-housing saga has not ended. It has just begun. At almost the same time that Pruitt-Igoe went down, the Oriental Gardens project went up in New Haven, the model city of urban renewal in America. The architect was one of America’s most prestigious compound architects, Paul Rudolph, dean of the Yale School of Architecture. The federal government’s Department of Housing and Urban Development, which was paying for the project, hailed Rudolph’s daring design as the vision of the housing projects of the future. The Oriental Gardens were made of clusters of prefabricated modules.
Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep
battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal
At the close of World War II the Athenian oversaw substantial rebuilding in his battered nation, using American money provided by the Marshall Plan. He coined the term “ekistics” to describe the scientific study of human settlement, and he founded a firm that grew over many years to employ a staff of four hundred. They worked everywhere from Baghdad to Rio de Janeiro to cities in the United States—an urban renewal project in Philadelphia, the waterfront in Louisville, the redevelopment of Washington, D.C. Time magazine once described Doxiadis as a man who had “helped resettle 10 million humans in 15 countries.” As he considered the plan for a suburb at Korangi in 1958, Doxiadis recorded misgivings in his diary. “Several aspects of the problem begin to worry me,” he wrote. The site had been chosen before his arrival.
It was the price he paid for becoming, in effect, the chief planner to the king. He worked for the government of Pakistan for much of the next decade. Doxiadis’s firm planned the new capital city, Islamabad, laid out in a green valley in the northern reaches of the country. Broad lawns surrounded public buildings. Future generations of American visitors would get the feeling that they had arrived in an American urban renewal project from the 1960s: Pakistan’s presidential palace brings to mind the Kennedy Center in Washington, no coincidence since the two buildings had the same American architect, Edward Durell Stone. In Islamabad, General Ayub Khan and his chief planner seized the rare opportunity of a blank slate. The city grew so rapidly that in time heavy traffic overwhelmed its broad thoroughfares, but it stood apart for decades as probably the most orderly and comfortable metropolis in Pakistan.
The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin
autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional
On the ground, as Witold Rybczynski notes, the rise of successful urban cores increasingly has very little to do with Jacobs’s romantic notions about bottom-up organic urbanism: The most successful urban neighborhoods have attracted not the blue-collar families that she celebrated, but the rich and the young. The urban vitality that she espoused—and correctly saw as a barometer of healthy city life—has found new expressions in planned commercial and residential developments whose scale rivals that of the urban renewal of which she was so critical. These developments are the work of real estate entrepreneurs, who were absent from the city described . . . but loom large today, having long ago replaced planners and our chief urban strategists.96 As Rybczynski notes, the current rise of “urban vitality” derives not from the idiosyncratic, diverse, and, if you will, democratic form that Jacobs celebrated but from something more an expression of self-conscious corporate marketing.
(2009, April 28). “China Faces a Grad Glut After Boom at Colleges,” Wall Street Journal, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB124087181303261033. ——— (2013, June 16). “China’s Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million into Cities,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/16/world/asia/chinas-great-uprooting-moving-250-million-into-cities.html. JONES, E. Michael. (2004). The Slaughter of Cities: Urban Renewal as Ethnic Cleansing, South Bend: St. Augustine Press. JONES, Emrys. (1990). Metropolis: The World’s Great Cities, Oxford: Oxford University Press. JONES, Francis M. (1973). “The Aesthetic of the Nineteenth-Century Industrial Town,” The Victorian City: Images and Realities, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. JONES, Gavin W. (2009, December 2–4). “Recent Fertility Trends, Policy Responses and Fertility Prospects in Low Fertility Countries of East and Southeast Asia.”
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
This is what Kasarda means when he says that cities exist to create jobs. Barely a year later, on June 22, 1988, the city and state announced a $700 million plan to essentially build a new airport atop the existing one, with long parallel runways, a sweet spot in between for the hub, and room to grow on either side. The next day, local officials announced what they dubbed the Louisville Airport Improvement Program: the condemnation, under “urban renewal” statutes, of the homes of 3,760 families in a half-dozen communities. Looking at a before-and-after mural hanging in the offices of the airport authority, one can see that entire neighborhoods have been wiped off the map. No one left empty-handed, at least—nearly $400 million was set aside to pay for buyouts of homes and businesses, including Minors Lane Heights, now the site of a “Renaissance Zone.”
They had worked so hard and so closely together under occasionally harrowing circumstances—Linda had had more than one gun waved in her face when she knocked on residents’ doors—that their manner suggested not just a married couple, but a married vaudeville couple, with Burt playing the polished magician and Linda his frazzled assistant. Exasperation still leaks into Burt’s voice when he describes the homeowners’ gut reaction to the improvement program: howling and lawsuits. Part of the problem was the “urban renewal” clauses in their foreclosures. Although he had tried to convince them that the payouts would be greater, a little extra cash had meant nothing to their pride—their homes were not blighted. They sued, took the relevant agencies to the Supreme Court, and won. Burt and Linda sighed and found another statute that would get the job done. Twenty years on, neighborhoods like Edgewood and Highland Park—wedged between highways on one side and the airport on the other—have turned feral, as if civilization had vanished and the land was returning to wilderness.
Its mayor at the time, Kwame Kilpatrick, had dismissed this expedition as a conspiracy. But no one cared what he thought after the “hip-hop mayor” quit office to serve time for perjury. Not that he was wrong—each ringleader flew here scheming to raise a new city beyond the ruins of his own. Can an aerotropolis save Detroit? The city that most desperately needs one is also its worst-case scenario. The self-styled “Renaissance City” has been a laboratory—and cemetery—for urban renewal fads since the 1970s. Perhaps the city’s most pathetic symbol of abortive rebirth is the People Mover, an elevated monorail gliding empty past downtown towers deserted for decades. Kasarda proposes custom-building cities by companies for companies, guaranteeing their survival by tailoring them to clients’ specifications— beginning with the airport. But this is exactly what happened in Detroit: the city was reshaped politically, economically, and geographically to suit the needs of the Big Three—Ford, GM, and Chrysler.
The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff
3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, basic income, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, means of production, performance metric, post-work, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded in 1909, was funded with money from numerous foundations, including Rosenwald, Peabody, and Rockefeller, and served as a crucial counterweight to the growing appeal of the Communist Party for black Americans during the 1920s. New Deal legislation of the 1930s was written by the Social Science Research Council, a Rockefeller organization, while Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs were developed from the Ford Foundation’s “Gray Areas” experiments—urban renewal programs designed to curb urban unrest and political organizing.13 The story today is similar. The consequences of skyrocketing inequality are of increasing concern, particularly to the super-elites. They worry about the long-term economic impacts of inequality, in terms of growth and innovation, and the political consequences of inequality—social unrest and demands for redistribution, particularly from the middle and upper-middle classes who believe in meritocracy.
A History of British Motorways by G. Charlesworth
However, although the administrative arrangements covering urban modernisation may have been improved, economic difficulties and consequent cuts in capital investment in the public sector, pressures for the promotion of public transport together with strong environmental arguments against some forms of redevelopment and road building in urban areas, public participation and inquiry procedures, markedly slowed down urban renewal in the 1970s. Select Committees In 1972: a detailed review of urban transport planning was carried out by a Select Committee of the House ofCommons!3. After commenting that transport problems particularly in larger cities were the cause of "increasing public concern" they said there were doubts about the direction and efficiency of transport planning adducing as evidence for this: complaints about train and bus services; public demonstrations against urban motorways; dissatisfaction with traffic congestion; and "the swamping of city streets by private motor cars and intrusive heavy lorries".
It is clear that environmental and social factors are much more important in relation to urban motorways than to those in rural areas, and attempts to compare investment in rural and urban motorways are bound to be affected by the subjective nature of some of the assessments which have to be made. It is also clear that investment in motorways in urban areas is much more expensive than in rural areas although urban motorways can sometimes be fitted into more comprehensive schemes of urban renewal. New roads to by-pass urban communities have been successful not only in relieving congestion but also in improving amenity, particularly where heavy lorry traffic has been concerned. Motorways have undoubtedly proved valuable in this respect and the argument as to whether all-purpose by-passes specifically designed to by-pass local areas are a more efficient use of resources than the building of motorways as a system is one which does not seem to have been researched in depth.
The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
The idea is similar to tax increment financing (TIF), which is used in redeveloping dilapidated areas in cities such as Chicago, Albuquerque, and Almeda. The basic idea is that the province would use the revenue generated from property taxes in the newly developed areas to finance urban renewal projects in the older sectors of the city. However, because the end goal of these initiatives is economic, the programs often receive criticism for being too much like a Robin Hood scheme—stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. But if the notion of urban renewal also included energy savings and environmental protection for the whole region, “energy financing” would ultimately benefit both the rich and the poor. The property tax revenue from new developments could be put into a fund that would help subsidize building owners in blighted areas of the city to retrofit their buildings.
Lonely Planet Pocket Berlin by Lonely Planet, Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, G4S, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
(www.alexacentre.com, in German; Grunerstrasse 20; 10am-9pm Mon-Sat; U-/S-Bahn Alexanderplatz) ALDOPAVAN/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Potsdamer Platz Despite the name, Potsdamer Platz is not just a square but Berlin’s newest quarter, birthed in the ’90s from terrain once bisected by the Berlin Wall. A collaborative effort by the world’s finest architects, it is a vibrant showcase of urban renewal. A visit here is easily combined with the Kulturforum, a cluster of top-notch museums and concert halls, including the world-famous Berliner Philharmonie. Top Sights Potsdamer Platz (Click here) Gemäldegalerie (Click here) Best of Berlin Historical Sites Topographie des Terrors (Click here) Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand (Click here) Checkpoint Charlie (Click here) Art Gemäldegalerie (Click here) Neue Nationalgalerie (Click here) DaimlerContemporary (Click here) Berliner Philharmonie (Click here) Live Music Berliner Philharmonie (Click here) Getting There Bus The 200 comes from Zoologischer Garten and Alexanderplatz, the M41 from the Hauptbahnhof and the M29 from Checkpoint Charlie.
The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, Kickstarter, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
Time was of the essence, he pointed out, because " here and there, in the midst of the decaying slum areas, substantial new properties of various sorts are beginning to rise—some created by private initiative, some by public." These new investments could " block the logical projection of the needed new arteries." In short, it would be easier and cheaper to take advantage of the blight before the blight was cleaned up. To read these passages today, tucked into the dense text of a little-known 1939 report, is to feel a twinge of foreboding, for the urban-renewal formula laid out in Toll Roads and Free Roads was exactly that adopted by cities across the nation a few years later—and because, for all of its clarity and comprehensiveness, the document overlooked an important element of the slum areas it targeted: degraded though they might be, they were home to millions of people. *** Among those praising Toll Roads and Free Roads was Miller McClintock, the originator of the friction theory, who'd long corresponded with MacDonald; he called the report " an excellent example of economic common sense and practical administrative statesmanship."
Some of the coming construction might be tough medicine. " Admittedly, an expressway through a densely populated area does involve razing numerous buildings, including many dwellings," MacDonald wrote. But " in most instances" the selected routes aimed for " sections where property values are low, and most of the buildings are of the type that should be torn down in any case, to rid the city of its slums." MacDonald's boss, General Fleming, went so far as to propose that Truman assign him the nation's entire urban renewal effort, arguing that highway and housing officials would be able to better choreograph their efforts. The president wasn't interested; he instead backed what became the Housing Act of 1949, which replaced decrepit slums with often-bleak public housing projects. Still, the Chief threw Public Roads into its part of changing the cityscape. Surveys were under way in Little Rock and Tulsa even before the 1944 act was put to a vote.
Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett
Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
For Corbusier, each tower of twenty-eight storeys could hold 900 people; Corbusier began by thinking the plan would consist of fifty towers. 27. See Florian Urban, Tower and Slab (London: Routledge, 2012), pp. 148–64. 28. Campanella, The Concrete Dragon, pp. 144–71, especially pp. 163ff. 29. So, too, Marc Fried found that a level-and-rebuild urban renewal project in Boston in the mid-twentieth century prompted profound social disorientation; see Marc Fried, ‘Grieving for a Lost Home: Psychological Costs of Relocation’, in Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, ed. James Q. Wilson (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966), pp. 359–79. 30. Herbert J. Gans, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian-Americans (New York: Free Press, 1982). 31. Sharon Zukin, Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982). 32.
Frommer's London 2009 by Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince
airport security, British Empire, double helix, East Village, Edmond Halley, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, Maui Hawaii, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, Stephen Hawking, sustainable-tourism, urban renewal, young professional
The pomp and circumstance of the British Empire live on at The Ritz—only the Empire is missing. See p. 199. • Cruising London’s Waterways: In addition to the Thames, London has an antique canal system, with towpath walks, bridges, and wharves. Replaced by the railroad as the prime means of transportation, the canal system was all but forgotten until it was rediscovered by a new generation. Now undergoing a process of urban renewal, the old system has been restored, with bridges painted and repaired, and paths cleaned up, for you to enjoy. See “River Cruises along the Thames,” on p. 249. • Spending Sunday Morning at Speakers Corner: At the northeast corner of Hyde Park, a British tradition carries on. Speakers sound off on every imaginable subject, and “inyour-face” hecklers are part of the fun. You might hear anything from denunciations of the monarchy to antigay rhetoric.
The artist lived and died on the river’s banks and painted its many changing moods. See p. 214. Strolling through Covent Garden: George Bernard Shaw got his inspiration for Pygmalion here, where the cockney lass who inspired the character of Eliza Doolittle sold violets to wealthy opera-goers. The old market, with its cauliflower peddlers and butchers in blood-soaked aprons, is long gone. What’s left is London’s best example of urban renewal and one of its hippest shopping districts. There’s an antiques market on Monday and a crafts market Tuesday through Saturday. See p. 286 for market details. When you’re parched, there are plenty of pubs to quench your thirst, including the Nags Head, 10 James St., WC2 (& 020/ 7836-4678; p. 308), an Edwardian pub that’ll serve you a draft of Guinness and a plate of pork cooked in cider. Rowing on the Serpentine: When the weather’s right, head to Hyde Park’s 17-hectare (42-acre) man-made lake—the name derives from its winding, snakelike shape—dating from 1730.
The City of London still prefers to function on its own, separate from the rest of London. It maintains its own Information Centre at St. Paul’s Churchyard, EC4 (& 020/73321456), which is open daily from 10am to 5:50pm. The East End Traditionally, this was one of London’s poorest districts, nearly bombed out of existence during World War II. In the words of one commentator, Hitler created “instant urban renewal” here. The East End extends east from the City Walls, encompassing Stepney, Bow, Poplar, West Ham, Canning Town, and other districts. The East End is the home of the cockney. To be a true cockney, it’s said that you must be born within the sound of the Bow Bells of St. Mary-leBow church, an old church rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren in 1670. These days, many immigrants to London make their homes in the East End.
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
Nine years later, this time as a sociologist, I was still walking Belleville, working with immigrant workers’ committees, and studying social movements against urban renewal: the struggles of what I labeled “La Cité du Peuple,” reported in my first book.87 More than thirty years after our first encounter, both Belleville and I have changed. But Belleville is still a place, while I am afraid I look more like a flow. The new immigrants (Asians, Yugoslavs) have joined a long-established stream of Tunisian Jews, Maghrebian Muslims, and southern Europeans, themselves the successors of the intra-urban exiles pushed into Belleville in the nineteenth century by the Hausmannian design of building a bourgeois Paris. Belleville itself has been hit by several waves of urban renewal, intensified in the 1970s.88 Its traditional physical landscape of a poor but harmonious historic faubourg has been messed up with postmodernism, cheap modernism, and sanitized gardens on top of a still somewhat dilapidated housing stock.
We both agreed that the new architectural monuments of our epoch are likely to be built as “communication exchangers” (airports, train stations, intermodal transfer areas, telecommunication infrastructures, harbors, and computerized trading centers). 86 For a useful debate on the matter, see Lillyman et al. (1994). 87 Castells (1972: 496ff). 88 For an updated social and spatial, illustrated history of Belleville, see the delightful book by Morier (1994); on urban renewal in Paris in the 1970s, see Godard et al. (1973). 89 Boyer (1994). 90 Jacobs (1993). 91 Machimura (1995: 16). See his book on the social and political forces underlying the restructuring of Tokyo: Machimura (1994). 7 The Edge of Forever: Timeless Time We are embodied time, and so are our societies, made out of history. Yet the simplicity of this statement hides the complexity of the concept of time, one of the most controversial categories in the natural and social sciences alike, whose centrality is underlined by current debates in social theory.1 Indeed, the transformation of time under the information technology paradigm, as shaped by social practices, is one of the foundations of the new society we have entered, inextricably linked to the emergence of the space of flows.
Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City by Mike Davis
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, invisible hand, job automation, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mass immigration, new economy, occupational segregation, postnationalism / post nation state, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor
So far there has been little legal challenge to the foothill com- munities' legislation of exclusionary barriers, but in suburban now the largest minority in Chicago, where Latinos are 112 out of 149 incorporated communities, the Justice Department has had to file suit to prevent ethnic cleansing." what Thus in critics have termed "city-sponsored western suburban Addison, following a large Latino influx in the 1980s, the village purchased and de- stroyed most of a sprawling apartment complex that was the center of an immigrant community. In charging Addison with violat- ing the Fair Housing Act, an assistant attorney general observed, "This is not urban renewal, it is urban destruction motivated by the national origin of the residents." torney General's Office Similarly, the Illinois At- denounced (whose Latino population exploded from percent in 1990) for using Latinization. the illegal Cicero 8.6 percent in 1980 to 37 occupancy ordinances to stop "The town has made no number of inner-suburban secret that it wanted to Hispanics."
Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein
"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Northern cities were still solidly Democratic, but faltering economies produced local conflicts between white and black Democrats that threatened to weaken the party. Many jobs and much of the middle class had moved from cities such as Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston to the suburbs, or even farther away from urban areas during the 1950S and 1960S. Cities attempted to attract the middle class back with arts centers, sports stadiums, hospitals, and universities, and this form of urban renewal often destroyed working-class neighborhoods, Such victims relocated in adjacent quarters, which became overcrowded and turned run-down areas into genuine slums.10 At the same time, the continued black migration from the South turned cities like Newark, Detroit, and Gary into majority-black municipalities. Even in cities where African Americans were not a majority, black politicians sought political representation commensurate with their numbers and thus challenged other Democrats for power.
Carter, The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1995), 456–65. 6. Witcover, Marathon, 185. 7. New York Times, Nov. 5, 1975. 8. Harry McPherson, A Political Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), 37–39. 9. Harry McPherson Oral History Interview, 4/9/69, 7, Internet Copy, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, Tex. 10. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949–1962 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964). For the story of the Hough neighborhood in Cleveland, see Todd Swanstrom, The Crisis of Growth Politics: Cleveland, Kucinich, and the Challenge of Urban Populism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1985), 98–100. 11. Margaret Weir, Politics and Jobs: The Boundaries of Employment Policy in the United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 86. 12.
Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
Toronto’s answer to the redlining of poor districts—the denial of federally guaranteed mortgages that doomed so many African-American and immigrant neighborhoods in the United States—was “white-painting.” In the ‘70s, proto-gentrifiers, young professionals the Toronto Star dubbed “urban adventurers,” slapped coats of acrylic on century-old downtown rowhouses, brilliantly proclaiming their intentions to build lives in the city. At the same time, Canadian efforts at urban renewal tended to be far more modest. After experiments with concrete-slab housing projects—among them the blighted Regent Park and St. James Town—proved unpopular, Toronto built a modern neighborhood of low-rise brick row houses called the St. Lawrence community. A textbook example of what would now be called transit-oriented infill, the relative prosperity and low rates of rental turnover of this central-city neighborhood remain a reproach to crime-ridden Le Corbusier–inspired projects in other cities (at least those that haven’t been demolished).
The salvation of cities could start with a rethinking of ill-conceived urban freeways. Milwaukee, San Francisco, Baltimore, and New Haven have already revived neighborhoods by tearing out stretches of inner-city expressways, and Seattle’s Alaskan Way Viaduct, New Orleans’s Interstate 10, Cleveland’s West Shoreway, and parts of Philadelphia’s Interstate 95 could be turned into tree-lined, stoplighted boulevards, or torn out altogether. (Kick-starting urban renewal by removing the expressways that initiated blight in the first place would also be sweet justice.) I’ve been traveling the world as a straphanger for years now, and I’m not going to pretend it was always an uplifting experience. Riding public transport, you see a bit of everything. In Shanghai, I watched a tiny boy beggar enter a metro car, throw himself on his knees in front of a well dressed woman on a bench seat, and repeatedly kowtow, bashing his forehead on the floor until she handed him a coin.
The Streets Were Paved With Gold by Ken Auletta
British Empire, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, Ronald Reagan, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working-age population
Two 1975 audits by state Comptroller Arthur Levitt disclosed that in fiscal 1973, city officials borrowed money by claiming as collateral $324 million in fictitious state and federal aid. The audits revealed that by June 30, 1975, the city had overstated—by a staggering $408.3 million—its real-estate taxes. The city accomplished this feat by including in its tax base properties that paid no taxes: “diplomatic properties … vacant land, city-occupied office buildings, an urban-renewal land site, Carnegie Hall, and even a public park and high school.” The audit showed that these “receivables” were then knowingly pledged to repay $380 million of tax anticipation notes issued on June 11, 1975. To borrow, the city claimed revenues it did not have and had no hope of getting. An October 1, 1974, memo from Clifford to Comptroller Goldin stated: “to balance the expense budget, the City employs a series of unsound budgeting and accounting practices including carrying forward bogus receivables … [and] overestimation of revenues.… In New York City, we create a receivable not when we bill for services, not when we deliver reimburseable services, but when we estimate revenues.… In this method overestimations of state and federal aid need never be recognized, they can simply be rolled over.… The total amount of bad receivables which may have been rolled forward may exceed $500 million.”
When you start losing population, you start losing your mom-and-pop stores and your buying power. It kind of feeds on itself.” Many of those mom-and-pop stores—groceries, luncheonettes, dry-cleaning shops—don’t show up on the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports because they often paid salaries off the books. Many were victims of “progress.” Such major construction projects as the Cross Bronx Expressway, urban renewal, the World Trade Center in downtown Manhattan, uprooted neighborhoods and the satellite businesses that serve them. Perhaps eventually those people and businesses would have left anyway. Older cities like New York suffer from obsolescence. Small garment center lofts were designed to serve neighborhood retail haberdashers, not large discounters like J. C. Penney with more than 1,700 stores. What was the effect of taxes, which are high in New York and Philadelphia?
Frommer's England 2011: With Wales by Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince
airport security, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, congestion charging, double helix, Edmond Halley, George Santayana, haute couture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Murano, Venice glass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Sloane Ranger, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, sustainable-tourism, the market place, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional
An easy trip from London, Kew 8 04_615386-ch01.indd 804_615386-ch01.indd 8 8/24/10 2:06 PM8/24/10 2:06 PM W W W W W W W Wandering through Covent Garden: George Bernard Shaw got his inspiration for Pygmalion here, where the character of Eliza Doolittle sold violets to wealthy operagoers. The old fruit-and-vegetable market, with its Cockney cauliflower peddlers and butchers in blood-soaked aprons, is long gone. But what’s left is just as interesting: Today’s Covent Garden is London’s best example of urban renewal. An antiques market is in the piazza on Monday, a crafts market Tuesday through Saturday. See p. 107 and p. 215. Enjoying a Traditional Afternoon Tea: Nothing is more typically British, and it’s a great way to spend an afternoon. We suggest our favorite places for tea on p. 165. Viewing the Turners at the Tate: Upon his death in 1851, J. M. W. Turner bequeathed his personal collection of 19,000 watercolors and some 300 paintings to the people of Britain.
At the Boathouse, you can rent a boat by the hour. With the right companion, it’s one of the most idyllic ways to spend a sunny London afternoon. See p. 198. Cruising London’s Waterways: In addition to the Thames, London is riddled with an antique canal system, complete with towpaths, bridges, and wharves. Replaced by the railroad, the system was forgotten until rediscovered by a new generation. An urban renewal effort has restored the system, with bridges painted and repaired, and towpaths cleaned up. See p. 207. Watching the Sunset at Waterloo Bridge: Waterloo Bridge is the best place in London to watch the sun set over Westminster. From here, you can also see the last rays of sunlight bounce off the city spires in the East End. The Best London Experiences THE best LONDON EXPERIENCES 1 THE BEST OF ENGLAND & WALES W Gardens, as it’s known, possesses the largest herbarium on earth.
The city of Coventry, heavily bombed in World War II, is visited mainly for its outstanding modern cathedral. BIRMINGHAM & THE WEST MIDLANDS The area known as the West Midlands embraces the so-called “Black Country.” Birmingham, nicknamed “Brum,” is Britain’s largest city after London. This sprawling metropolis is still characterized by its overpass jungles and tacky suburbs, as well as its great piles of Victorian architecture. Urban renewal is underway, however. The English marshes cut through the old counties of Shropshire and Herefordshire. The Ironbridge Gorge was at the heart of the Industrial Revolution, and the famous Potteries are in Staffordshire. EAST ANGLIA (ESSEX, CAMBRIDGESHIRE, NORFOLK & SUFFOLK) SUGGESTED ENGLAND ITINERARIES The Regions in Brief 4 East Anglia, a semicircular geographic bulge northeast of London, is the name applied to these four very flat counties.
Masters of Mankind by Noam Chomsky
affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, failed state, God and Mammon, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, nuremberg principles, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system
Similarly, it may be true, in the abstract, that “the techniques of economic stimulation and stabilization are simply neutral administrative tools capable of distributing national income either more or less equitably, improving the relative bargaining position of either unions or employers, and increasing or decreasing the importance of the public sector of the economy.56 But in the real world, as the same author points out, these “neutral administrative tools” are applied “within the context of a consensus whose limits are defined by the business community.” The tax reforms of the “new economics” benefit the rich.57 Urban renewal, the war on poverty, expenditures for science and education, turn out, in large measure, to be a subsidy to the already privileged. There are a number of ways in which the intellectual who is aware of these facts can hope to change them. He might, for example, try to “humanize” the meritocratic or corporate elite or the government bureaucrats closely allied to them, a plan that has seemed plausible to many scientists and social scientists.
From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War
As Katherine Hayles has observed, such devices “functioned as exchangers,” bringing “man and machine into equivalence.”49 In the process, they served to exemplify in real, concrete terms—and thus to legitimate—the claims of cyberneticians and systems theorists that just as information itself spanned multiple domains, their theory could be deployed in multiple disciplines. Over the two decades following World War II, such claims found a home in massive military research projects; in a variety of academic disciplines, including management theory, clinical psychology, political science, biology, and ecology; and ultimately in the urban renewal projects of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society.50 As Katherine Hayles and Steve Heims have shown, cybernetics’s migration into the social and, to some extent, the physical and biological sciences was driven in large part by the Macy Conferences.51 Sponsored by the Macy Foundation in the late 1940s and early 1950s, these meetings brought together biologists, physicists, and mathematicians, including cyberneticians such as Arturo Rosenblueth and Warren McCulloch, psychiatrists such as Ross Ashby, and sociologists and anthropologists such as Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead.
Bowker, “How to Be Universal,” 108. 47. Ibid., 116. 48. Pickering, “Gallery of Monsters.” For more on Ashby’s homeostat, see Hayles, How We Became Posthuman, 65 – 66. 49. Hayles, How We Became Posthuman, 62. [ 266 ] N o t e s t o Pa g e s 2 6 _ 3 2 50. See Lilienfeld, Rise of Systems Theory. For a fascinating study of the roles defense planners and cybernetics played in cold war attempts at urban renewal, see Light, From Warfare to Welfare. 51. Hayles, How We Became Posthuman; Heims, Social Science for Post-War America. 52. According to Hayles, these meetings ultimately helped bring into existence a new cultural category, the “posthuman.” Within this view, she writes, the world consists of information patterns and the boundaries of the individual body and mind are highly porous, and because of these facts, the human being can be “seamlessly articulated with intelligent machines.”
Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker
airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise
“I was born here, I’ve lived here all my life and I know the beauty of Bordeaux, it is part of me,” he said. “We had been a city of millionaires fascinated by the river and trade since the eighteenth century, a golden age . . . then Bordeaux lost its role, no trade, no industry, and we treated our city’s patrimony badly . . . our wines are absolutely magical, so why wasn’t Bordeaux seductive, too?” Delaux said the tourism campaigns were planned in parallel with Juppé’s urban renewal. “Before, Bordeaux was absolutely not touristic—no, not at all. Tourists were condescending towards Bordeaux. They were only interested in the vineyards.” The public works proceeded apace, cleaning the city, uncovering buildings that had been shrouded in two centuries of filth. “We were shocked by its beauty.” The tourism policy was built around the city and the wine—“le vin et la ville”—and coordinated between the city, region, and national governments and tourism agencies.
., 1996 Olympics in, 350, 351 Atlantic, 370 Atlantis Hotel, Dubai, 178–79, 180, 196 ATOUT France, 46, 47, 52, 66, 75 Auschwitz, Poland, 106 Australia, Chinese tourists in, 307 Baedeker, Karl, 26 Baedeker travel guides, 23 Bahamas, 157, 161 ship registry of, 140 Bahrain, 172, 193 Baker, Simeon, 127 Bali, 197, 281 Banda, Rupiah, 229–30, 237–38 Bangkok, 37, 281 Bangladesh, 183 Bank of China, 236 Barboza, David, 314–15 Barcelona, 1992 Olympics in, 350 Bargemon, France, 73 Bar Harbor, Maine, 152 Barro Colorado, 248 Baumgartner, Jean-Claude, 273–74 Bayon, 93, 98 Beijing, China, 296 architectural and cultural destruction in, 297–99 “Democracy Wall” in, 297 International Tourism Conference in, 303–4, 306 Tiananmen Square massacre in, 305, 330 2008 Olympics in, 293–94, 322, 323, 333 Beijing Marriott Hotel City Wall, 312–13, 315, 316 Belize, 130–31, 150, 153 Belize Audubon Society, 153 Bennett, Paul, 152 Berlin Wall, fall of, 13, 173 Bethlehem, West Bank, 185 Bhutan, 21 bin Laden, Osama, killing of, 366 Bin Tahnoon Al Nahyan, Sultan, 193 Bizzaro, Andrea, 219 Bjørnøy, Helen, 162–63 Black Lamb and Grey Falcon (West), 25 Blum, Léon, 52 BOAC, 172 Bordeaux, France, 37, 58–66 Tourism Bureau of, 64 Bordeaux City, France, 58–59 tourism policy of, 64–65 urban renewal in, 59–60, 61–62, 63, 64–66 Bordeaux Uncorked, 63–64 Bosnian War, 25 Botswana, 208, 209, 233 Bourdain, Anthony, 32 Bowling, Charles, 370 Bradesco Bank, 275 Brazil, 36–37, 272–76 deforestation in, 275 sex tourism in, 116 2016 Summer Olympics in, 273, 276, 362 U.S. visa applications in, 364 Brazilian tourists, in U.S., 365 Brenes Mora, Alberto Manuel, 251 British Airways, 175 British tourists: declining U.S. travel of, 356 in France, 49, 50–51 Brocon Group, 112 Broderick, Douglas, 100 Bruner, Edward M., 241–42 Bryson, John, 365 Buddha Zen Hotel, 338–39 Budowski, Gerardo, 251 Building Towers, Cheating Workers (Human Rights Watch), 187 Burj Al Arab Hotel, 195, 200 Burj Khalifa, 167, 177–78 Burma, 19 Burton, Richard, 25 Bush, George W., 348, 354, 359 Bush (George W.) administration, 353, 354, 358, 359–60, 366, 374 Bushcamp Company, 214, 217, 219, 225–29 Byrd, Richard E., 24 Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 82 Caballos-Lascuráin, Héctor, 266 Cabrini, Luigi, 35 California, 161 Calvo, José, 252 Cambodia, 37, 87–89 evictions and land seizures in, 109–13 foreign investment in, 96, 99, 100 French colonial legacy of, 89 Khmer Rouge in, 88, 90, 92, 95, 104, 105–8 money-laundering in, 113 orphanages in, 101–3 poverty and unemployment in, 91 private coastline development in, 111–12 Tourism Ministry of, 105, 108–10, 119 U.N. peacekeeping mission to, 89, 114–15 Vietnamese invasion of, 106 wealth inequality in, 101 Cambodia, tourism in, 14, 21, 89–121 Asian tourists in, 93 beach resorts in, 92, 105 casinos in, 112–13 corruption in, 91–92, 96, 100–101, 104, 108–9 “dark tourism” in, 92, 107 as development strategy, 99 as percentage of economy, 92 sex trade in, 92, 93, 104–5, 111, 114–21 South Korea and, 98–99 travel philanthropy scams in, 101–2, 103 see also Angkor temples Cambodian War, 87–88 Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of, 385 Camp, Beatrice, 364 Canada, 16, 377 capuchin monkeys, 252, 261–62 carbon emissions, 20, 38, 195–96, 199–200, 271, 276 Carnival Corporation, 133 Carnival Cruise Lines, 137–38, 140–41, 143, 149 Arison and, 133–34, 136–37 Diamonds International and, 149 illegal waste water dumping by, 159 ship registry of, 140 Carnivale (cruise ship), 137 Carr, Greg, 238–39 Carr, Norman, 217–18 Carte Blanche (Deaver), 180 Catholic Relief Services, 259 Center for Responsible Travel (CREST), 259–60, 268 Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development, 153 Centers for Disease Control, U.S., 379 Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 260 Centre Georges Pompidou, 56 Cerro Frantzius, 250 Certification for Sustainable Tourism, 261 Cézanne, Paul, 47 Chakari, Mohammad Sidiq, 183 Changqing Nature Reserve, 336 Charles de Gaulle Airport, 56–57, 171 Château Haut-Bailly, 60–61 Cheng, Henry K.
Future Shock by Alvin Toffler
Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, social intelligence, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game
As technological change roars through the advanced economies, outmoding whole industries and creating new ones almost overnight, millions of unskilled and semiskilled workers find themselves compelled to relocate. The economy demands mobility, and most Western governments—notably Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the United States—spend large sums to encourage workers to retrain for new jobs and leave their homes in pursuit of them. For coalminers in Appalachia or textile workers in the French provinces, however, this proves to be excruciatingly painful. Even for big-city workers uprooted by urban renewal and relocated quite near to their former homes, the disruption is often agonizing. "It is quite precise to speak of their reactions," says Dr. Marc Fried of the Center for Community Studies, Massachusetts General Hospital, "as expressions of grief. These are manifest in the feelings of painful loss, the continued longing, the general depressive tone, frequent symptoms of psychological or social or somatic distress ... the sense of helplessness, the occasional expressions of both direct and displaced anger, and tendencies to idealize the lost place."
The uneven, rocketing rates of change, the shifts and jerks in direction, compel us to ask whether the techno-societies, even comparatively small ones like Sweden and Belgium, have grown too complex, too fast to manage? How can we prevent mass future shock, selectively adjusting the tempos of change, raising or lowering levels of stimulation, when governments—including those with the best intentions—seem unable even to point change in the right direction? Thus a leading American urbanologist writes with unconcealed disgust: "At a cost of more than three billion dollars, the Urban Renewal Agency has succeeded in materially reducing the supply of low cost housing in American cities." Similar debacles could be cited in a dozen fields. Why do welfare programs today often cripple rather than help their clients? Why do college students, supposedly a pampered elite, riot and rebel? Why do expressways add to traffic congestion rather than reduce it? In short, why do so many well-intentioned liberal programs turn rancid so rapidly, producing side effects that cancel out their central effects?
Energy: A Human History by Richard Rhodes
Albert Einstein, animal electricity, California gold rush, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Copley Medal, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Dmitri Mendeleev, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, energy transition, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, flex fuel, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, nuclear winter, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Simon Kuznets, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Vanguard fund, working poor, young professional
Siting coal-burning industry there, like siting factories in suburban industrial parks today, would help clear London’s smoke-fouled air. It would also, Evelyn added, give employment to “thousands of able Watermen” delivering the products of industry upriver into the city, would free up “Places and Houses” within the city for conversion into “Tenements, and some of them into Noble Houses for use and pleasure” with attractive river views. (Urban renewal and gentrification have ancient antecedents.) Moving industry to the suburbs would help prevent fires as well, Evelyn concluded. He thought accidental fires originated in “places where such great and exorbitant Fires are perpetually kept going.”36 London in the year of Fumifugium’s first publication, 1661, was indeed only five years away from her Great Fire of 1666, which burned out all the city within the old medieval walls.
., 270 tryworks, 129, 130 Tschudi, Johann Jakob von, 213–14 tsunamis, 335–36 tuberculosis, 87, 114–15, 225 turnpikes, 81–82 turpentine, 138, 139–40, 143, 156, 160 Tyldesley, 122 Tyne River, 10, 44, 46, 85, 86, 87 typhoid, 25, 217, 224 U-boats, 265, 266 Ukraine, 332 Union Army, 159 Union Carbide, 297 Union Navy, 160–64 Southern ports blockaded by, 160 Union Oil Company of California, 299 Union Pacific Railroad, 217 United Kingdom, 285, 298 United Mine Workers, 269–70 United Nations, 226, 315 General Assembly of, 284 United States, xii, 59, 81, 133, 191 gas lighting in, 123–25 Midwestern, 150, 264 New England in, 7, 128, 130, 134, 145, 211, 234, 264 population of, 80, 136 Southern, 160 thirteen original colonies of, 109 United States Public Health Service, 293, 294–95 uranium, 272–80, 273, 280, 286, 315 U235, 274, 275, 277, 290–91 U238, 274–75, 277, 291 urban renewal, 14 U.S. Steel, 295, 297 Utrecht, 300 vacuums, 22–24, 23, 39, 52, 55–57, 67, 68, 88 partial, 24, 28, 31, 36, 37 Vanguard I satellite, 329, 329 Varadi, Peter, 329–30 Vauxhall, 27 Veblen, Thorstein, 247 Venice, 29 Vermont, 145, 150, 201, 264 Versailles, 27, 62 Virginia, 139 vitriol, 113 Vivian, Andrew, 71–73 Vivian, John, 73 V Laboratory Nuclear Center, 285 Volta, Alessandro, 110, 111, 173–76, 175, 176, 177 Volti, Rudi, 230 Von Guericke, Otto, 22, 23, 28 wagons, 96, 157 coal, 85, 85 horse-drawn, 80 wagonways, 44–48, 45, 65, 83, 87 Wahhabi sect, 251, 252, 253 Wales, 20, 45, 74, 85 Walker, James, 97, 100–101 Wampanoag Indians, 127–28 Wanackmamak, Chief, 127 War Emergency Pipelines, 266 War of 1812, 92n, 135, 136 War of the Electric Currents, 200, 206 Washington, George, 82 Washington Monument, 204n Washington Post, 270 waste, xiv animal and human, 83 industrial, 13 mining, 64 nuclear, 292, 337 petroleum, 158, 165, 167 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), US, 337 watches, 87 pocket, 28, 108 water: condensation of, 55–56 draining of, 67, 94 falling, 81, 184, 185–87, 190, 198 heating of, 24, 26, 37, 100 injection of, 88 in mine shafts, 18, 21, 30, 33, 36–38, 43, 48, 88 potable, 122, 162 pressurized (PWR), 98, 283, 313 pumping of, xii, 32, 33, 59, 60, 64, 100 rain, 122, 153–55 salt-, 151–52, 176, 225 sea, 94, 162 steam produced from, 29–30, 38–39, 54–55 underground, 165, 166 volume of, 189 Water Row, 87 Watertown, Mass., 123 Watson, James, 321 Watt, Gregory, 119, 121 Watt, James, xiii, 49–58, 68, 84, 107, 110, 114–16, 119, 120–21 “factitious airs” machine of, 115–16, 117 separate condenser of, 56–57, 56, 67 steam engine developed by, xi, xii, 50–58, 65–67 Watt, James, Sr., 49, 53, 114 Watt, Jessy, 115 Watt, Margaret Millar “Peggy,” 53 Waverly, 163–64 Wear River, 44, 45 Webb, Beatrice, 42, 81–82 Webb, Sidney, 42, 81–82 Wedgwood, Josiah, 59, 107, 116 Wedgwood, Thomas, 116, 117 Weidlein, Edward R., 297, 299 Weinberg, Alvin, 314–15 welding, 257–61, 266 arc, xiv, 258–60, 259 electric, 257, 261–62 West Indies, 7, 141 Westinghouse, George, 192–98, 200, 204, 225–26, 257 Westinghouse, Herman, 192 Westinghouse Electric Company, 197, 198, 285–88, 314 Westminster Bridge, 81, 123 Westminster Palace, 8, 10 whales, xiii–xiv, 101, 125, 126, 138, 160 blubber of, 129–30, 130 sperm, 129, 129, 134, 162 spermaceti oil of, 128–32, 129, 134, 137, 138, 143, 160–61, 164 whaling, 126, 128–31, 133–37, 138, 160–64 wheels: carriage, 71–72 iron, 65, 69, 86 mill, 153 steering, 75 water-, 186, 188, 202 Whewell, William, 22n Whig party, 110 White, Gilbert, 105–6 Whitehall Palace, 4 Whitney, Henry, 217 Wilkinson, John, 59–60 Willamette Falls Electric Company, 198 William I, King of England, 107 Willoughby, Percival, 44–45 Wilson, Robert E., 242 wind, xiv, 45, 171, 326–28, 330 turbines, 327, 331 windmills, 27, 33, 327, 327 Windsor, 4 Winslow, Lanier & Co., 201 Winsor, Frederick Albert, 122–23 Witton Park Colliery, 91 Wollaton, 44 Wollaton Pits, 44 wood, 3–8, 82, 119, 178, 187, 223 buildings of, 4, 7 burning of, 4, 6, 8 cost of, 4, 5, 6, 48, 59 destruction and waste of, 8 fire-, 4–5, 137 as fuel, xii gathering of, 64 implements of, 4 scarcity of, 3, 5–7, 8, 47, 48, 64, 81, 108 selling of, 5, 7 transport of, 7 Wood, Robert, 61 wool, 82, 209 Woolwich, 92 Wordsworth, Dorothy, 40, 81 Wordsworth, William, 40, 81, 84 Workers’ Health Bureau, 246 World Primary Energy Substitution, 338–39, 339 World War I, 164, 260–61, 328 World War II, 164, 226, 264–68, 275, 281, 293, 295, 298, 305–6, 308, 329 Worsley, 62 Wrigley, E.
Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History by Kurt Andersen
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, always be closing, American ideology, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Burning Man, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, hive mind, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, Joan Didion, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Picturephone, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Seaside, Florida, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, Wall-E, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, éminence grise
Among the unfortunate effects was the national consensus that the way to deal with urban neighborhoods full of old buildings (and black people) in older cities was wholesale demolition and replacing them with massive new buildings and highways. In 1963 New York City began demolishing one of its two grand railway terminals, Pennsylvania Station, just fifty-three years old—mainly because it was not new. Federally funded “urban renewal,” as its promoters had just rebranded it, wrecked and maimed many more neighborhoods than it renewed or revived. Just before the policies of the best and brightest in Washington started destroying villages in Vietnam in order to save them, a kind of nonlethal dress rehearsal had taken place in American cities. When we talk about The Sixties, we usually mean the full-on Vietnam War era, not the first few years of the decade.
In the later 1960s, “almost overnight, everything stopped looking futuristic” in fashion and instead became riffs on the exotically foreign or—because in the ’60s the past was an especially foreign country—the bygone “Victoriana, Edwardiana, twenties and thirties influences.” All at once, the past started to seem charming to many more people, while purely excited, hopeful visions of the future came to seem naïve or absurd.*2 Earlier I mentioned midcentury urban renewal as an example of America’s love for the new turning single-minded and reckless. It was like an autoimmune disease, when misguided antibodies destroy healthy human tissue. But even as that demolition of old buildings and neighborhoods was going full speed, local activists (in New York City most of all) and a few enlightened owners (in Omaha, for instance) started to beat it back—another example of how American citizens have placed essential checks and balances on excessive and misguided power.
The Rough Guide to New York City by Martin Dunford
Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, buttonwood tree, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Thorp, Exxon Valdez, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, market bubble, Norman Mailer, paper trading, post-work, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, Yogi Berra, young professional
Lincoln Center One of the boulevards that lead out from Columbus Circle, Broadway, continues north to the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, an imposing group of six marble-and-glass buildings arranged around a large plaza between 63rd and 66th streets. It’s not, as most assume, named for President Abraham Lincoln; rather, it honors the name of the surrounding area in Manhattan’s early times, likely named Lincoln for a tenant farmer who tilled the land here. Robert Moses came up with the idea of creating a cultural center here in the 1950s as a way of “encouraging” the area’s gentrification, one of his rare exercises in urban renewal that has been extremely successful. A number of architects worked on the plans, and the complex was finally built in the mid-1960s on a site that formerly held some of the city’s poorest slums. In a case of life imitating art imitating life, once the slums were emptied and their residents moved to ghettos farther uptown, the deserted area became a movie set: before construction began in 1960, the run-down buildings served as the open-air location for West Side Story, which was based on the stage musical set here.
In the early 1970s, and then again in the late 1990s, things began to turn around, and the beginnings of redevelopment became evident. Years of disgraceful living conditions brought residents to a boiling point, and slumlords and absentee landlords were held accountable for their roles in the area’s ruin. A plethora of urban and community grants were put into effect for commercial and retail development, housing, and general urban renewal. Some years later, that initial investment is paying off: Harlem’s historic areas are well maintained and there seems to be construction everywhere you turn. Savvy locals have purchased many of the district’s nineteenth-century brownstones, which are some of the most beautiful in the city. The federally established Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone, encompassing Harlem and part of the South Bronx, is pumping millions into various area projects – many of them retail-driven.
It hasn’t always been so tranquil: two large bronze slabs on the grounds mark the particularly bloody Battle of Washington Heights during the Revolutionary War. The Morris–Jumel Mansion and around 214 Within easy walking distance of Audubon Terrace and the cemetery is the Morris–Jumel Mansion, 65 Jumel Terrace at 160th St and Edgecombe Ave (Wed–Sun 10am–4pm; $4; T 212/923-8008, W www.morrisjumel.org). Another uptown surprise, the mansion somehow survived the urban renewal (or better, destruction) that occurred all around it, and is now one of the city’s more George Washington Bridge The Cloisters Museum and around The only reason most visitors come this far uptown is to see The Cloisters Museum in Fort Tryon Park (Tues–Sun: March–Oct 9.30am–5.15pm; Nov– Feb 9.30am–4.45pm; suggested donation $20, $15 seniors, $10 students, includes same-day admission to the Metropolitan Museum; T 212/923-3700, W www.metmuseum.org).
Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing
Apothecary & Soap Shoppe This Old Town shop is filled with bins of herbal- and citrus-scented bath salts, and handmade soaps and lotions with unusual scents such as cotton candy, lemongrass, and eucalyptus. d Map N5 • 2765 San Diego Ave • (619) 574-1115 Whole Foods With an emphasis on fresh organic food, you’ll find flavorful produce, a great assortment of imported cheese and olives, a deli that specializes in healthy takeout, and all the vitamins you’ll ever need. d Map C4 • 711 University Ave • (619) 294–2800 Diego Ave • (619) 692-0466 Wear It Again Sam Vintage clothing includes party dresses, leopard jackets, and Western wear. d Map C4 • 3823 5th Ave • (619) 299-0185 Village Hat Shop If you want to keep the sun off your head, this is the right 82 . Adams Avenue & Park Boulevard Antique Row Still untouched by San Diego’s urban renewal boom, antique stores, second-hand book and record shops, and retro-clothing boutiques are sprinkled along these streets in east Hillcrest and Normal Heights. d Adams Ave: Map D4 • Park Blvd: Map D4 Price Categories $ $$ $$$ $$$$ $$$$$ For a three course meal for one with half a bottle of wine (or equivalent meal), taxes and extra charges. under $20 $20–$40 $40–$55 $55–$80 over $80 Places to Eat Kemo Sabe If you like to experiment with wild combinations of ethnic flavors, you’ll have fun here.
Back to School: Why Everyone Deserves a Second Chance at Education by Mike Rose
blue-collar work, centre right, creative destruction, delayed gratification, George Santayana, income inequality, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, new economy, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, urban renewal, War on Poverty
The typical study would not capture the motives and decisions of that woman in the fashion program and the guy who joined the navy. Furthermore, no matter how refined the collection and analysis of statistical data, without knowledge of the history and culture and daily reality of the place from which the data were 14 I N T RO D U C T I O N collected, policy makers can make huge blunders, as the history of failures in urban renewal and agricultural development illustrate. In general, the makers of education policy have not learned this lesson. The heightened attention these studies of student success have brought to the community college (and likewise to adult school) has definitely put reform of two-year colleges on the map—a welcome development, for that segment of postsecondary education typically gets little attention.
Half Empty by David Rakoff
He is trying to get a knot of puzzled German tourists to move, but he squeaks out a high-pitched gibberish that only seems to increase his frustration, as the Germans just look at him. Perplexed Northern Europeans—hereafter PNEs—turn out to be just one of the mainstays of the area, along with leafleting evangelicals, sex workers, harmless ambulant schizophrenics, and beat cops. There are some places where an intrinsic melancholy might be reason enough to stay away, I suppose, although I can’t think of any. Hollywood Boulevard recently underwent a major urban renewal, a charge led by the building of the Kodak Theatre complex, current home of the Oscars and American Idol telecasts. But the neighborhood’s dilapidated, honky-tonk charms, and they are legion, lie in the vestiges of its storied past that endure obstinately: Grauman’s Egyptian Theatre, currently home of the American Cinematheque, with its sandstone forecourt and hieroglyphics, looking like something straight out of the Valley of the Kings; the polychrome-plaster opulence of the El Capitan Theatre, restored and now owned by Disney; the affronted but intact dignity of Marlene Dietrich’s star as it sits for eternity in front of Greco’s New York Pizzeria; similarly the star of June Havoc, baby sister to Gypsy Rose Lee, which welcomes shoppers to the rubber and fetish extravaganza of Pleasure’s Treasures.
The Participation Revolution: How to Ride the Waves of Change in a Terrifyingly Turbulent World by Neil Gibb
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, gig economy, iterative process, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kodak vs Instagram, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, performance metric, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, urban renewal
In September 2012, the United Nations Settlements Program announced the launch of “block by block”, an initiative designed to encourage people to re-imagine 300 run-down public spaces across the globe using Minecraft; its first area of focus being the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya. This project is something that Lisa is particularly interested in. She was trained as a designer in Taipei but wasn’t able to find any meaningful work. The UN initiative has suggested a means for her and her friends to start to use Minecraft to develop and pitch ideas for urban renewal back in Taiwan – something her network of Minecraft co-creators had started to explore. In October 2013, Minecraft received what might be the ultimate accolade. It was affectionately parodied in the American TV programme South Park. The show’s Corey Lanskin character summed it up thus: “Minecraft, it don’t got no winner. It don’t got no objective. You just fuckin’ build an’ shit.” Like many a good joke, this gets to the essence of what Minecraft is about far better than any wordy academic analysis.
Beer Money: A Memoir of Privilege and Loss by Frances Stroh
With a population drop of over 50 percent, the city was returning the valueless land to farmland, trying to consolidate the occupied area into a more sustainable footprint. No longer could Detroit afford the trash collection, police force, and fire protection in so widespread an area, and the grocery chains had fled the city because of the ever-rising crime, putting vegetables in high demand. Come springtime, grassroots urban renewal groups would be working the fields, planting everything from romaine to rutabaga. “Just surreal,” I said, staring out the window. “I mean . . . I can’t believe we still own an office building down here.” Bobby kept his eyes on the road. “John’s trying to get government leases now.” He turned down the volume on the radio. “But the city can’t even afford the infrastructure upgrade to keep the stoplights running—Did you know they’re trying to sell the entire stoplight grid to a private contractor?”
Frommer's Paris 2013 by Kate van Der Boogert
Airbnb, airport security, British Empire, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, eurozone crisis, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, music of the spheres, place-making, starchitect, sustainable-tourism, urban renewal
Passengers are increasing by about 5% (about 25,000 people each year), so to maintain the same quality of service would require 25 new trains. But as the lines are already saturated none have been added. Strikes and breakdowns are frequent occurrences. Many believe that the solution lies in better integrating Paris into the surrounding suburbs—or better integrating the surrounding suburbs into Paris, depending on how you look at it, and President Nicolas Sarkozy seemed to agree. In April 2009, he launched an ambitious urban renewal project, Le Grand Paris, which aims to improve transportation and housing in the Paris metropolitan region, while making Paris a greener, more sustainable 21st-century city. Internationally-renowned architects, like Jean Nouvel, Roland Castro, and Richard Rogers, lead teams that are responsible for generating new ideas and analyzing Paris’s urban development. Ideas so far include a monorail-style Métro running above the périphérique (the ring road that surrounds Paris, known as the périph), green housing estates, and transforming Paris into a port city by linking it to Le Havre with a high-speed train.
However, many commentators felt that the debate ignored the colonial legacy, and that the real but unspoken question was “Can one be black, Arab, Asian, and still be French?” The debate is particularly pertinent in Paris because the majority of Paris’s immigrant populations live on the other side of the périphérique in the banlieues. This means that there is a physical, as well as psychological, divide between Parisians and the Paris region’s immigrant population. What is sure is that if Le Grand Paris or other urban renewal projects are to succeed, they must include these new Parisians. Key to this identity debate is the position of Islam in France, which is home to the largest Muslim population in Europe—Muslims account for roughly 8% of the French population. In January 2010 the government began a campaign to ban the burqa (the veil that covers all of a woman’s face). Sarkozy claimed that it was not welcome in France, a secular country that values gender equality.
Berlin by Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, indoor plumbing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
Although equipped with modern conveniences such as private baths and lifts, these giant developments had little open space, green areas or leisure facilities. Return to beginning of chapter CRITICAL RECONSTRUCTION While mass housing mushroomed on the peripheries, the inner city suffered from decay and neglect, especially in the shadow of the Berlin Wall and nowhere more so than in Kreuzberg. To kick-start the district’s revitalisation, another Interbau was held in 1978. It would blend two architectural principles: ‘careful urban renewal’, which would focus on preserving, renovating and reusing existing buildings; and ‘critical reconstruction’, which meant filling vacant lots with new buildings that reflected the layout or design of surrounding structures. The goal was to re-knit the urban fabric that had been torn apart by Speer’s megalomania, wartime bombing and hasty postwar planning. Under the leadership of Josef Paul Kleihues, the royalty of international architecture descended upon Berlin to take up the challenges of Interbau.
Since 1958 Will Lammert’s haunting sculpture of 13 fatigued women has commemorated the site’s history. 9 Museum Blindenwerkstatt Otto Weidt The small Museum Blindenwerkstatt Otto Weidt is set up in the original workshop of Otto Weidt and tells the story of how this German broom and brush maker saved many of his blind and deaf Jewish workers from the Nazi death camps. 10 Block der Frauen Inge Hunzinger’s 1994 sandstone sculpture called Block of the Women stands in Rosenstrasse on the site where German women peacefully but tenaciously protested the planned deportation of their Jewish husbands, in a rare and courageous act of defiance against the Nazi regime. Also see the boxed text. Return to beginning of chapter POTSDAMER PLATZ & TIERGARTEN Drinking; Eating; Shopping; Sleeping Despite the name, Potsdamer Platz is not just a square but Berlin’s newest quarter and a stunning showcase of urban renewal. It’s built on terrain once bifurcated by the Wall, a short walk south of the Brandenburger Tor on the edge of Tiergarten. After 1989, big developers quickly swooped on the real estate of the former death strip (which was several hundred metres wide here) and pretty soon an international cast of ‘starchitects’, including Helmut Jahn, Renzo Piano and Rafael Moneo, got to work. Their goal: to create an urban quarter that would be as dynamic and vibrant as the historic Potsdamer Platz.
The Economists' Hour: How the False Prophets of Free Markets Fractured Our Society by Binyamin Appelbaum
"Robert Solow", airline deregulation, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, starchitect, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus
They had a sense of the moral rightness, if you will, of service to your country, or at least being liable for such service.”46 The Mercenary Professor Among the economists who played a leading role in ending the draft, Martin Anderson was the only who had served in the military: he enrolled in the ROTC program at Dartmouth College and then spent 1958–1959 as a second lieutenant in army intelligence.47 After returning to academia, he earned a doctorate in economics at MIT and joined the faculty at Columbia’s business school, where he taught finance. Anderson, quickwitted and gregarious, had a contrarian bent. In 1964, he published The Federal Bulldozer, which called for the end of urban renewal projects, then widely regarded as the epitome of progressive urban policy. Anderson argued the government was destroying far more housing than it was creating, and he mocked the premise that poor families were finding better housing. If such housing existed, he wrote, “wouldn’t it be far simpler and much cheaper to advise people of these attractive bargains without going to all the trouble of tearing their homes down?”
Friedman was twenty-nine when the United States entered World War II, but he was exempted from the draft while he worked for the Treasury. In a 1996 interview, Friedman said that he stayed at Treasury to stay out of the war. “The only reason to stay on at Treasury was to avoid the draft,” he said. His second wartime job, at Columbia, preserved his exemption. See “Rose and Milton Friedman: Our Early Years,” Hoover Digest, 1996. 48. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949–1962 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964), 56. 49. Martin Anderson, Impostors in the Temple (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), 37. 50. Martin Anderson, “An Analysis of the Factors Involved in Moving to an All-Volunteer Force,” April 1969 and July 10, 1969, Martin Anderson Collection, Richard Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, Calif.; available at nixonfoundation.org/2015/02/ towards-volunteer-force/.
Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
Mixed-use neighborhoods, as opposed to residential-only neighborhoods, allow us to reestablish and rediscover what Oldenburg calls “third places,” where people get together to develop friendships, discuss issues, and interact, in the process building a feeling of community identity. (Thefirst and second places are home and work.) The disappearance of third places—a trend that began about the same time many of us took off for the suburbs—has been part of a decline in informal public life in the United States. Old neighborhoods and their cafes, taverns, and corner stores fell to urban renewal, freeway expansion, and newer neighborhoods zoned residential only. Third places are the bedrock of community life, according to Oldenburg. Distinctive, informal gathering places, they make us feel at home; they nourish relationships and a diversity of human contact; they help create a sense of place and community; they evoke civic pride; they provide numerous opportunities for serendipity; they promote companionship; they allow people to relax and unwind after work; they are socially binding; they encourage sociability instead of isolation; they make life more colorful; and they enrich public life and democracy.
The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
She went over the whole sad history of those inﬂuential thinkers who saw 84 WEB n.0 cities as horrid, dirty, overcrowded places ﬁlled with the dregs of humanity who needed planners to come in and rationalize, de-densify, and order their spaces for them. Jacobs instead looked out her window and analyzed what worked in cities, seeking those “ﬁne grained mixtures of street-uses” that enliven any great city. She valued mixed-use areas, where people live, work, shop, and play in contiguous spaces, at discontinuous times. As urban renewal destroyed these kinds of neighborhoods in favor of single-use ones—think of the Lincoln Center arts complex in New York City or the Cabrini Green housing projects in Chicago—cities no longer were able to knit themselves together as well as remain safe, enjoyable, and viable. Jacobs wanted stimulating, mixed-use cityscapes to enhance urban economic actants. These urbanites develop technologies, export them out of the city, and establish cosmopolitan habits.
Lonely Planet Andalucia: Chapter From Spain Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, credit crunch, discovery of the americas, Francisco Pizarro, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, Skype, trade route, urban renewal
The sharp modernism of Expo ‘92 was reflected in its giant international exhibits and the infrastructure projects that were built to support them, including the spectacular river-spanning Alamillo and Barqueta bridges. Keen to keep the ball rolling, Seville continued its march into the 21st century under the auspices of proactive city mayor Alfredo Sánchez Monteseirín (1999–2011), who reacted to the challenges of climate change and urban renewal with fiery aplomb. In the space of just five years, Monteseirín oversaw the opening of an overland tram, a subterranean metro, a bike-sharing scheme and an electric car-sharing project. At the same time, he helped launch two architectural icons that would rival the Gothic cathedral in their audacity: the controversial Metropol Parasol and the carefully revived El Pabellon de la Navegación. What next?
If you arrive after 2pm you’ll have to wait for a table. It’s located about 1.5km northeast of the Plaza de las Monjas. Catch bus number 6 from the city bus station and get off at Plaza Huerto Paco. Walk one block south down Avenida de las Adoratrices and turn left on Calle Villamundaka. Drinking CAFE Café Central Offline map Google map (Calle Duque de la Victoria 6; closed Sun) A bit of tradition amid the relentless urban renewal of the centre, the Café Central feels like it’s been there forever with its steel counter, marble-top tables and super-attentive waiters. No churros here, but it’s alright to get them at Bar Paco Perdigones across the way and tote them over. Information Municipal Tourist Information Kiosk (Plaza de las Monjas; 10am-2pm & 5-8.30pm Mon-Sat) Download a bluetooth guide of Huelva here. Regional Tourist Office (www.turismohuelva.org; Plaza Alcalde Coto Mora 2; 9am-7.30pm Mon-Fri, to 3pm Sat & Sun) Well informed and helpful.
Frommer's San Francisco 2012 by Matthew Poole, Erika Lenkert, Kristin Luna
airport security, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-work, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration, young professional
At its center stands the five-tiered Peace Pagoda, designed by world-famous Japanese architect Yoshiro Taniguchi “to convey the friendship and goodwill of the Japanese to the people of the United States.” Surrounding the pagoda, through a network of arcades, squares, and bridges, you can explore dozens of shops featuring everything from TVs and tansu chests to pearls, bonsai, and kimonos. Kabuki Springs & Spa (see the “Urban Renewal” box below) is the center’s most famous tenant. But locals also head here for its numerous authentic restaurants, teahouses, shops, and the Sundance multiplex movie theater. There is often live entertainment on summer weekends and during spring’s cherry blossom festival, including Japanese music and dance performances, tea ceremonies, flower-arranging demonstrations, martial-arts presentations, and other cultural events.
Some find it depressing, others find it fascinating, but everyone agrees that it ain’t what it was in the free-lovin’ psychedelic Summer of Love. Is it still worth a visit? Not if you are here for a day or two, but it’s certainly worth an excursion on longer trips, if only to enjoy a cone of Cherry Garcia at the now-famous Ben & Jerry’s Ice Cream Store on the corner of Haight and Ashbury streets, and then to wander and gawk at the area’s intentional freaks. Urban Renewal • Kabuki Springs & Spa, 1750 Geary Blvd. ( 415/922-6000; www.kabukisprings.com), the Japan Center’s most famous tenant, was once an authentic, traditional Japanese bathhouse. The Joie de Vivre hotel group bought and renovated it, however, and it’s now more of a Pan-Asian spa with a focus on wellness. The deep ceramic communal tubs—at a very affordable $22 to $25 per person—private baths, and shiatsu massages remain.
Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman
23andMe, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
For others this presented a natural experimental condition: “This, for us, was a great experimental opportunity because we had seven years of background data off these twelve streams and a few of them were very strongly affected by the sewage improvements and a few of them were not.” Considered as an “experiment,” the new sewage system provided a unique occasion for a novel study that no other researcher has had the ability to enact. Long-term data stretching before and after a change will open a window of understanding on urban renewal. Many cities in America and around the world are going through a similar process. But, how are these new data to be reconciled as a single longitudinal arc? Scores of variables that were well understood are thrown into a complex flux—making environmental claims difficult for those scientists to assert. Instruments: Breakdown and Automation In a longitudinal study instruments come to be part of the field sites themselves.
Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams
Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K
"Our primary goal was to fight Tammany Hall, Carmine DeSapio and his henchman,"Carmine DeSapio holds the dubious distinction of being the first Italian-American boss of Tammany Hall, the New York City political machine. For more information on DeSapio and the politics of post-war New York, see John Davenport, "Skinning the Tiger: Carmine DeSapio and the End of the Tammany Era," New York Affairs (1975): 3:1. says Lippman. "I was the representative to the city council and was very much involved in creating a viable urban-renewal plan that went beyond simply adding more luxury housing to the neighborhood." Such involvement would blossom into greater political activity during the 1960s. By 1965, Lippman had become an "outspoken" supporter for political candidates like William Fitts Ryan, a Democratic elected to 36 Congress with the help of reform clubs and one of the first U.S. representatives to speak out against the Vietnam War.
The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang
3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator
Camden had the highest crime rate in the United States in 2012, with 2,566 violent crimes for every 100,000 people, 6.6 times the national average. The population declined from 102,551 in 1970 to 74,420 in 2016. “Between 1950 and 1980… patterns of social pathology emerged [in Camden] as real elements of everyday life,” wrote Howard Gillette Jr., a history professor at Rutgers. “Camden and the great majority of its citizens remain, after the fall, strivers for that illusive urban renewal that invests as much in human lives as it does in monetary return.” Matt Taibbi in Rolling Stone described Camden as “a major metropolitan area run by armed teenagers with no access to jobs or healthy food” in 2013, noting that 30 percent of the population was 18 or younger. Between 2010 and 2013, the state of New Jersey cut back on subsidies that supported many of the services in Camden, resulting in a surge in violent crime.
Uncanny Valley: A Memoir by Anna Wiener
autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Extropian, future of work, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, means of production, medical residency, new economy, New Urbanism, passive income, pull request, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, union organizing, universal basic income, unpaid internship, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional
Not that we needed one—we were all, as the CEO liked to remind us, Down for the Cause. San Francisco was an underdog city struggling to absorb an influx of aspiring alphas. It had long been a haven for hippies and queers, artists and activists, Burners and leather daddies, the disenfranchised and the weird. It also had a historically corrupt government, and a housing market built atop racist urban-renewal policies—real estate values had benefited as much from redlining as from discriminatory zoning practices and midcentury internment camps—but these narratives, along with the reality that an entire generation had been prematurely lost to AIDS, undercut its reputation as a mecca for the free and freakish, people on the fringe. The city, trapped in nostalgia for its own mythology, stuck in a hallucination of a halcyon past, had not quite caught up to the newfound momentum of tech’s dark triad: capital, power, and a bland, overcorrected, heterosexual masculinity.
Times Square Red, Times Square Blue by Samuel R. Delany
. — (Sexual cultures : new directions from the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-8147-1919-8 (cloth : perm. paper) — ISBN 0-8147-1920-1 pbk. 1. Sex-oriented businesses—New York (State)—New York. 2. Sex customs—New York (State)—New York. 3. Times Square (New York, N.Y.)—Social life and customs. 4. Times Square (New York, N.Y.)—Social conditions. 5. Homosexuality, Male—New York (State)—New York. 6. Urban renewal—New York (State)—New York—History—20th century. I. Title. II. Series. HQ146.N7 D45 1999 306.74'09747—dc21 99-6130 CIP New York University Press books are printed on acid-free paper, and their binding materials are chosen for strength and durability. Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 For Bruce Benderson Contents Acknowledgments Writer’s Preface ix xi Part 1.
Lonely Planet London by Lonely Planet
Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, East Village, Etonian, financial independence, haute couture, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, place-making, post-work, Skype, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent
Islington & Kings Cross Top Sights British Library A6 Sights 1 Eastern Curve Gardens H2 2 Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art E3 3 Euston Fire StationA7 4 London Canal Museum B5 5 Ridley Road Market H2 6 St Pancras ChambersA6 Eating 7 A Little of What You Fancy H3 8Acorn HouseB6 9 Addis B6 10 Afghan Kitchen D5 11 Breakfast Club D5 Café Oto (see 35) 12Duke of CambridgeE5 13 Gallipoli D4 14Georgian Iberian RestaurantC4 15 Le Mercury D4 16Mangal OcakbasiH1 17 Masala Zone D4 18 Morgan M C2 19OttolenghiD4 20 Rodizio Rico D5 Drinking & Nightlife 21 Bar 23 H1 22 Barrio North E4 23 Big Chill House B6 24 Bull D4 25 Camino B6 26 Castle D5 Dalston Superstore (see 38) 27 Egg A3 28 Green D5 Jazz Bar Dalston (see 40) 29 Junction D2 30Passing CloudsH3 31 Public House D3 32 Ruby Lounge B5 33 Somers Town Coffeehouse A6 Entertainment 34 Arcola Theatre H2 35 Café Oto H2 36London's Little Opera House at the King's Head TheatreD4 37 O2 Academy Islington D5 38 Rio Cinema H1 39 Union Chapel D3 40 Vortex Jazz Club H2 Shopping 41 Annie's Vintage Costumes & Textiles D5 42Camden PassageD5 43 Gill Wing D3 44 Housmans B6 45 Past Caring E4 Sleeping 46Clink261B6 47Clink78C6 48Premier InnA7 49Rough LuxeB6 50St Pancras Renaissance HotelA6 51YHA St Pancras InternationalA6 Hampstead & Highgate Top Sights Hampstead HeathB3 Highgate CemeteryC2 Kenwood House B2 Sights 1 Burgh HouseA3 2 Fenton House A3 3 Highgate Cemetery EntrancesD2 4 Highgate Wood C1 5 Keats House B4 6 No 2 Willow Road B4 7 Parliament Hill C3 8 Sculptures by Henry Moore & Barbara HepworthB2 Eating 9Gaucho GrillA3 10 La Gaffe A3 11 Wells Tavern B3 12 Woodlands A3 Drinking & Nightlife 13BoogalooD1 14 Flask Tavern C2 15 Garden Gate B4 16 Holly Bush A3 17 Spaniard's Inn A2 Entertainment 18 Bull & Gate D4 19 Everyman Hampstead A4 20 Forum D4 Sports & Activities 21Hampstead Heath Men's PondC3 22Hampstead Heath Mixed PondB3 23Hampstead Heath Women's PondC2 24 Parliament Hill Lido C4 Sleeping 25Hampstead GuesthouseB4 Camden Top Sights Camden MarketD3 London Zoo C4 Sights 1 London Central Islamic Centre & Mosque A6 2 London Zoo (Entrance)B4 3 Primrose Hill B3 4 Regent's Park C5 Eating Bar Gansa (see 14) 5 Belgo Noord C2 6EngineerC3 7 Haché D3 8 Mango Room D3 9 Manna B2 10 Marine Ices C2 11 Market D3 12 Mestizo E6 13 York & Albany D4 Drinking & Nightlife 14 Bar Vinyl D3 15 Black Cap D3 16 Crown & Goose D4 17Edinboro CastleD4 18 Lock Tavern D2 Proud Camden(see 28) 19 Queen's B3 Entertainment 20 Barfly C2 21 Electric Ballroom D3 22 Jazz Café D3 23 Koko E4 24 Lowdown at the Albany D7 25 Roundhouse C2 Shopping Buck Street Market (see 21) 26 Canal Market D2 27 Lock Market D2 28 Stables Market C2 Sleeping 29International Student HouseD7 York & Albany (see 13) Hampstead & North London Eating | Drinking & Nightlife | Entertainment | Shopping | Sports & Activities Sights North London is a collection of small neighbourhoods, ancient villages that were slowly drawn into London as the metropolis expanded. King’s Cross has historically been a blight on the capital’s landscape, but the opening of the beautiful St Pancras International train terminal and the urban renewal behind the station (the University of London will move there in 2014) is making this part of town more attractive. The rest of North London certainly doesn’t suffer from an image problem: with wonderful parks, amazing views and some of the best pubs around, it’s a great place for a more sedate day out. King’s Cross & Euston British Library Cultural Building Offline map Google map See Click here.
Unstoppable, though, is London’s biggest urban development project, the 200-hectare Olympic Park Offline map in the Lea River Valley near Stratford, where most of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympiad will take place. Front and centre will be Zaha Hadid’s stunning Aquatics Centre, a breathtaking structure suitably inspired by the fluid geometry of water. The spotlight may be over East London, but parts of South London are undergoing energetic and perhaps even visionary urban renewal. A vastly expensive commercial, business and transport regeneration scheme, the London Bridge Quarter (www.londonbridgequarter.com) in Borough consists of the Shard, a brand new piazza, The Place – the so-called Baby Shard (a misnomer) – and the transformation of London Bridge Station as the focal point of access. Although still a glass-clad concrete stub at the time of writing, the spike-like Shard will poke dramatically into Borough skies from 2012, its sharp form visible from across London.
The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih
Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K
There is no better historical example than that explored in Jane Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, her critique of the modernist planning policies of the 1950s and 1960s, an era when New York City developer Robert Moses was razing entire swaths of neighborhoods for planned housing projects and communities. Jacobs argued for preserving her small neighborhood on Hudson Street and resisting massive urban renewal, because the intimate sidewalks served an important social function. She argued that sidewalks provided three important things: safety, contact, and the assimilation of children in the community. In the summary of Jacobs’s vision of the sidewalk, there are parallels to wikis and how to build community: Street safety is promoted by pavements clearly marking a public/private separation, and by spontaneous protection with the eyes of both pedestrians and those watching the continual flow of pedestrians from buildings.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Lippincott eISBN 9781429932110 First eBook Edition : May 2011 Published in 2000 by North Point Press First paperback edition, 2001 10th anniversary paperback edition, 2010 The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition as follows: Duany, Andres. Suburban nation : the rise of sprawl and the decline of the American Dream / Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck.—1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Urbanization—United States. 2. Suburbs—United States. 3. Community development, Urban—United States. 4. Urban renewal—United States. 5. Urban policy—United States. I. Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth. II. Speck, Jeff. III. Title. HT384.U5 D83 2000 307·76′0973—dc21 990052186 10th Anniversary Paperback ISBN: 978-0-86547-750-6
The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the Sea by Sebastian Junger
That spring Ethel remembers the older boys being excused from school to fight the brush fires that were raging across Cape Ann; the fires burned through a wild area called Dogtown Common, an expanse of swamp and glacial moraine that was once home to the local crazy and forgotten. The bridge was the northern terminus of Boston's Route 128 beltway, and it basically brought the twentieth century to downtown Gloucester. Urban renewal paved over the waterfront in the 1970s, and soon there was a thriving drug trade and one of the highest heroin overdose rates in the country. In 1984, a Gloucester swordfishing boat named the Valhalla was busted for running guns to the Irish Republican Army; the guns had been bought with drug money from the Irish Mafia in Boston. By the end of the 1980s the Georges Bank ecosystem had started to collapse, and the town was forced to raise revenue by joining a Section 8 subsidized-housing program.
Toast by Stross, Charles
anthropic principle, Buckminster Fuller, cosmological principle, dark matter, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Extropian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, gravity well, Khyber Pass, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, NP-complete, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, performance metric, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, speech recognition, strong AI, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, Y2K
But if this is for real . . . ” “Pretty heavy?” He grinned. “You’re going to have to re-write the route discovery code. Never mind, it’ll run a bit faster . . . ” I rose out of cubicle hell in a daze, blinking in the cloud-filtered daylight. Eight years lay in ruins behind me, tattered and bleeding bodies scattered in the wreckage. I walked to the landscaped car park: on the other side of the world, urban renewal police with M16’s beat the crap out of dissident organizers, finally necklacing them in the damp, humid night. War raged on three fronts, spaced out around a burning planet. Even so, this was by no means the worst of all possible worlds. It had problems, sure, but nothing serious—until now. Now it had just acquired a sucking chest wound; none of those wars were more than a stubbed toe in comparison to the nightmare future that lay ahead.
Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie
British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, financial exclusion, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor
Demolition and concrete As 1970 approached, St Ann’s Victorian back-to-backs came down, the cobbled streets were covered in tarmac, and there was a need for cheap mass housing throughout the UK’s cities. Modernist interpretations vaguely linked to the works and writings of Le Corbusier’s visions of homes and cities began to spring up all over the UK, from the Thamesmead estate and Trellick Tower in London, to Manzoni’s concrete modernist dream of Birmingham. Local authorities on tight budgets have since been accused of plagiarising modernist theories on urban renewal which often failed to understand the essential humanism behind Le Corbusier’s plans, and his would-be imitators led modernist architecture to being blamed for the problems of Western cities in the 1960s and 1970s. During this period the inner-city middle class moved out to the suburbs, leaving the poorest whites and minority ethnic groups within their new concrete estates. However, in St Ann’s there had never been an obvious middle class, although all of the small businesses were run by independent and small business men and women often coming from the migrant population, who had made the area vibrant and colourful; but these businesses had also been demolished, and after that, they never returned.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
In the past 20 years, Charlotte has done something no other American city has done: It has ripped out its historic city center, put up a brand-new one, and made the rebuilt downtown into a functional, generally appealing economic and cultural enclave. Even the recession that has badly damaged the city’s two big banks and economic drivers, Bank of America and Wachovia (and forced Wachovia to merge with Wells Fargo), has not diminished the entertainment vibrancy and affluent ambience of the downtown streets. Many big cities, including a significant number in the South and West, tried wholesale urban renewal in the mid- to late twentieth century, nearly always with disastrous results. Charlotte, for now at least, seems to have beaten the odds. It has done that for many reasons, but one above all: the presence of two of America’s four biggest banking institutions. Bank of America and Wachovia wanted to stay in downtown Charlotte, they wanted it to be a showplace, and they paid for what they wanted.
Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
—Harriet Tregoning, founder of the National Smart Growth Network North Point Press A division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux 18 West 18th Street, New York 10011 Copyright © 2012 by Jeff Speck All rights reserved Published in 2012 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux First paperback edition, 2013 Grateful acknowledgment is made to Charles Marohn for permission to use an excerpt from Grist. The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition as follows: Speck, Jeff. Walkable city: how downtown can save America, one step at a time / Jeff Speck. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-374-28581-4 (alk. paper) 1. Central business districts—United States—Planning. 2. Pedestrian areas—United States—Planning. 3. Urban renewal—United States. 4. City planning—United States. I. Title. HT175 .S64 2012 307.1'2160973—dc23 2012018934 Paperback ISBN: 978-0-86547-772-8 www.fsgbooks.com www.twitter.com/fsgbooks • www.facebook.com/fsgbooks eISBN 9781429945967 ●This program, now in its twenty-sixth year, has served nearly one thousand mayors, with dramatic results. More information can be found at micd.org. ●54 out of 100.
White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Sharon Rotbard
British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, continuation of politics by other means, European colonialism, global village, housing crisis, illegal immigration, megastructure, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal
The task of designing a park within the same stretch was given to poet and landscape architect, Hillel Omer. Just as Jaffa’s Old City had been carved up in the 1950s under a banner of ‘development’, ‘planning’ is still offered today as a justification for the continued dismantling of Jaffa’s remaining Palestinian neighbourhoods, Ajami and Jabaliya; Manshieh’s final destruction was also couched in the language of ‘renovation’ and ‘urban renewal’. As it happened, the project outlined by Niv, Reifer, Schwartz and Schwartz, which promised extensive corporate development, did not take off. While elements of their blueprint were included in the final outline for the neighbourhood, most of the area was left in its flattened form, despite the dizzying investment and the high commercial expectations. Manshieh in the 1960s. Courtesy of the Zvi Elhayani Collection, Archive of Israeli Architecture.
Cities: The First 6,000 Years by Monica L. Smith
clean water, diversified portfolio, failed state, financial innovation, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, South China Sea, telemarketer, the built environment, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
Those bigger blocks were used in the market galleries as well as in other civic structures like temples and ball courts, lending a strikingly different appearance to the built environment. Christopher Jones links this stylistic upgrade to the reign of a ruler named Jasaw in the early eighth century A.D. who had the good fortune of having not only a sense of style but also enough longevity to carry out extensive renovations. Jasaw’s building programs also included the paving of causeways that led into the plaza and its marketplace, all wrapped up in a grand program of urban renewal carried out under the watchful eye and generous patronage of the city overlord. Lavish, distinctive architectural styles have appeared over and over again in cities, often identified with some great ruler, like the Roman emperor Augustus, the Angkorian ruler Jayavarman VII, or Queen Victoria. The development of a stylistically distinctive “era” associated with a ruler wasn’t due to the fact that the ruler was herself or himself an architect or engineer or had much to do with the construction process.
The Socialist Manifesto: The Case for Radical Politics in an Era of Extreme Inequality by Bhaskar Sunkara
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, inventory management, labor-force participation, land reform, land value tax, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Occupy movement, postindustrial economy, precariat, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, We are the 99%
As part of this shift, historic labor parties were transformed into social liberal ones, their appeals designed more for middle-class professionals than their long-neglected working-class bases.29 ANTHONY CROSLAND’S THE Future of Socialism was at its most poignant in its demands for “not only higher exports and old-age pensions, but more open-air cafes, brighter and gayer streets at night… brighter and cleaner eating houses, more riverside cafes, more pleasure gardens on the Battersea model.” The welfare state certainly should not be the end point of human ambitions. But those who embraced Crosland’s moderate legacy in bids to modernize their old parties proved better able to enact his dreams of green urban renewal than of social equality. Does that mean that the decades of effort to build social democracy were in vain? We can recall Rosa Luxemburg’s comparison of reformism with the “labor of Sisyphus,” the giant in Greek mythology, eternally pushing a boulder uphill, only to see it slide down again when it nears the top. But even after years of slippage, the boulder hasn’t come crashing all the way down.
Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cycling by Carlton Reid
1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bike sharing scheme, California gold rush, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Yom Kippur War
Moses is usually painted as a monster intent on putting cars where we now know cars shouldn’t go, but this ignores his massive earlier influence on New York. For 44 years, from 1924 until 1968, Moses built parks, highways, bridges, playgrounds, housing, tunnels, zoos, and exhibition halls. The job of parks commissioner was just one of many he held simultaneously. In The Power Broker, his 1974 biography of Moses, Robert Caro called Moses a genius and “perhaps the single most influential seminal thinker” in twentieth-century urban renewal, but Caro was also highly critical of the commissioner’s autocratic style and bombast. After he forced the New York Aquarium to up-sticks to Coney Island a wag wrote: No one opposes Commissioner Moses, Even the fishes accede to his wishes. Caro’s Pulitzer Prize-winning book was dismissive of Moses’ 1930s-style belief in the hegemony of the car. Moses’ Triborough Bridge complex—the “biggest traffic machine ever built,” according to Caro—was built without sidewalks or bike paths, and his New York was one of automobiles and skyscrapers, a vision of concrete that came to be discredited by later planners.
A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent
The privatization of the ejidos in Mexico during the 1990s had analogous effects upon the prospects for the Mexican peasantry, forcing many rural dwellers off the land into the cities in search of employment. The Chinese state has sanctioned the transfer of assets to a small elite to the detriment of the mass of the population and provoking violently repressed protests. Reports now indicate that as many as 350,000 families (a million people) are being displaced to make way for the urban renewal of much of old Beijing, with the same outcome as that in Britain and Mexico outlined above. In the US, revenue-strapped municipalities are now regularly using the power of eminent domain to displace low- and even moderate-income property owners living in perfectly good housing stock in order to free land for upper-income and commercial developments that will enhance the tax base (in New York State there are more than sixty current cases of this).15 The neoliberal state also redistributes wealth and income through revisions in the tax code to benefit returns on investment rather than incomes and wages, promotion of regressive elements in the tax code (such as sales taxes), the imposition of user fees (now widespread in rural China), and the provision of a vast array of subsidies and tax breaks to corporations.
The Global Minotaur by Yanis Varoufakis, Paul Mason
active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, planetary scale, post-oil, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, structural adjustment programs, systematic trading, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War
To put the importance of the Kennedy–Johnson social programmes in perspective, it helps to note that, from 1955 until Kennedy’s election in 1960, economic growth tailed off in the United States – a petering out that affected mostly the poor and the marginal. After eight years of Republican rule (1952–60), Kennedy was elected on a New Deal-alluding platform. His New Frontier manifesto promised to revive the spirit of the New Deal by spending on education, health, urban renewal, transportation, the arts, environmental protection, public broadcasting, research in the humanities, etc. After Kennedy’s assassination, President Johnson, especially after his 1964 landslide victory, incorporated many of the (largely un-enacted) New Frontier policies into his much more ambitious Great Society proclamation. While Johnson pursued the Vietnam War abroad with increasingly reckless vigour, domestically he attempted to stamp his authority by means of the Great Society, a programme that greatly inspired progressives when it set centre stage the goal of eliminating not only poverty for the white working class, but also racism.
Lonely Planet London City Guide by Tom Masters, Steve Fallon, Vesna Maric
Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Clapham omnibus, congestion charging, dark matter, discovery of the americas, double helix, East Village, financial independence, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, Nelson Mandela, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, young professional
Further east lie the East End and Docklands: the East End is ‘real’ London, a multi-ethnic yet strangely traditional stretch of the city that’s the home of the famous cockney. It’s currently being transformed for the 2012 Olympics, which are centred around the valley of the River Lea in and around Stratford at the East End’s furthest edge. Docklands is another, albeit government- and financial-sector–driven, example of urban renewal – now seriously rivalling the City as the home of money men and London’s tallest skyscrapers. The future belongs to the east, due not only to the Olympics but also to the Thames Gateway, a huge development of the Thames estuary. North London is a hilly collection of charming villages, which often seem to exist as worlds within themselves, such as old-money Hampstead and Highgate, celebrity-filled Primrose Hill, fashionable Islington, hippie Stoke Newington and well-heeled Crouch End.
Return to beginning of chapter NORTH LONDON Drinking; Eating; Shopping; Sleeping North London is a nebulous term for an area made up of many smaller neighbourhoods, most of which are ancient villages that have slowly been drawn into London’s dark matter over the centuries as the metropolis has expanded. Starting north of Euston Rd, this region of the capital includes King’s Cross and Camden Town – two names both likely to elicit a response from Londoners. King’s Cross has historically been one of the capital’s nastiest urban blights, but a redevelopment of the tube station, the opening of the beautiful St Pancras International train terminal and the slow but thorough urban renewal going on elsewhere is making King’s Cross more and more desirable, although it’s fair to say it’ll be a while before we’re all meeting there for drinks. Camden is an even stranger beast – much reviled among Londoners for its touristy market Click here and ‘crusty’ locals, outside of the Lock and away from Camden High St the area is actually a wonderful place full of great bars, restaurants and some architectural gems.
The Sushi Economy: Globalization and the Making of a Modern Delicacy by Sasha Issenberg
air freight, Akira Okazaki, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, call centre, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, global supply chain, haute cuisine, means of production, Nixon shock, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, telemarketer, trade route, urban renewal
“Thinking about the heady days of my youth, there always seemed to be sushi and cocaine intermingled together—often served off the same platter.” Sushi began to adapt to a pullulating city’s shifting moods and attitudes, its alternating affections for high culture and low, its willingness to succumb to faddishness all while impervious to the attendant embarrassment. In Japanese Village Plaza, an openair mini-mall bizarrely styled as a mountain hamlet by a city government that saw it as an urban-renewal solution to Little Tokyo’s problems, sushi spun around a conveyor belt at the inexplicably named Frying Fish, a nod to the kaiten-zushi popping up all over Japan at the time. Nearby, Sushi Kappo Bukyu opened with a different gimmick: all you can eat in an hour for $12.99. On the side of its sake cups, California Beach, in Newport Beach, promised ROCK & ROLL SUSHI. At Sushi on Tap, in Studio City, all the chefs were tap dancers, who would every twenty minutes come out from behind the bar and dance.
Farm City: The Education of an Urban Farmer by Novella Carpenter
back-to-the-land, crack epidemic, David Attenborough, dumpster diving, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Mason jar, McMansion, New Urbanism, Port of Oakland, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, urban decay, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
The Black Porter’s Union was headquartered in West Oakland, a major nexus for the railroad lines. From those stable, well-paying jobs sprang a community. But it wasn’t just African Americans, Ali said; there were Norwegians and Chinese people, too—a multiethnic community in which people mostly got along. “But they broke it up,” Melvin said, sighing. “They” was the city of Oakland and the federal government and something called urban renewal, Melvin told me. First came the construction of Oakland’s main post office, in the heart of the burgeoning black community. Though the post office was supposed to provide jobs, the leveling of homes with tanks, actual military tanks, alienated many. And when the jobs did come, there were only a few. Then came BART, which used eminent domain to raze hundreds of homes and businesses. To cap off the destruction, they built an expressway and highways 24 and 980 through predominantly African American neighborhoods.
After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton
Until they started to recreate the Altmarkt area, the only memorial that they had was in the cobblestones: little individual letters on steel pegs saying that this was where all these people were cremated. The cars rolled over it and the people walked over it without realising.’ Rüdiger Patzschke, a Berlin architect, helped found the Association for the Historic Dresden Newmarket (Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden) to rebuild the area as near as possible to exactly how it had been. Gabriele Tagliaventi – a leading figure in European urban renewal – and his students at the University of Ferrara began work on a plan for all of the Newmarket. ‘A lot of people don’t realise that parts of the city were not blown down,’ Dr Russell says. ‘If you go out into the suburbs where the hills and all those great villas and the three castles are, there is a lot of beauty which survived. Of the city centre only a limited amount will be rebuilt in the old style.
The Fractalist by Benoit Mandelbrot
Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, discrete time, double helix, Georg Cantor, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, linear programming, Louis Bachelier, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Olbers’ paradox, Paul Lévy, Richard Feynman, statistical model, urban renewal, Vilfredo Pareto
But this had been an old village northeast of the city center, on the sunny southwest slope of a steep hill just beyond the fortifications that, until 1860, marked the city limits. Belleville is in the east end of Paris, at the bottom in terms of prestige—and far from the promise of its travel brochure name. In Paris, like in London, the prevalent winds blow from the west, so the nice area is the west end. The rue de Chaumont was (and remains) a small dead-end street in the middle of a beat-up area long slated for urban renewal (which came decades later). At numbers 5–7 stood a clean and relatively nice building. Having found it, Father spoke to the concierge, who was also the owner, and in effect, he was given an exam. Reassured that we were not homeless derelicts but a middle-class, down-at-the-heels family, the owner let us rent a flat: two narrow rooms end to end, railroad-style, from street to courtyard. One was the parents’ room, filled by the dining table and bed; the other was the sons’ room, filled by study tables and beds.
Floating City: A Rogue Sociologist Lost and Found in New York's Underground Economy by Sudhir Venkatesh
Cheap hotels and adult video parlors sat next to gleaming new condos and renovated brownstones. In this sense, Hell’s Kitchen had become a sort of postmodern neighborhood, stuck between genres—just like the world music my more artsy academic colleagues admired. Once again, all this would have been a rare sight in Chicago. Gentrification and urban development took place there, to be sure. Indeed, the national program of “urban renewal” was first developed in Chicago in an effort to reclaim seedy areas. But Chicago mayors typically sent bulldozers into down-and-out neighborhoods and then resold the land for private development—sports stadiums, universities, highways. It was a rapid-fire form of social bleaching. Gentrification in New York was like an IV drip. As old buildings came down, property changed hands, creating new neighborhoods in a more organic way.
The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce
Robert Moses ‘took a meat axe to the Bronx’ (in his own infamous words) and long and loud were the lamentations of neighbourhood groups and movements, which eventually coalesced around the rhetoric of the inveterate urban reformer Jane Jacobs, at the unimaginable destruction of valued urban fabric but also at the loss of whole communities of residents and their long-established networks of social integration. Once the brutal power of state expropriations and older neighbourhood destruction for purposes of highway construction and urban renewal had been successfully resisted and contained by the political and street agitations of ’68 (with Paris once more an epicentre but with violent confrontations everywhere from Chicago to Mexico City and Bangkok), a far more insidious and cancerous process of transformation began through fiscal disciplining of democratic urban governments, the freeing up of land markets from controls, property speculation and the sorting of land to those uses that generated the highest possible financial rate of return.
The Water Will Come: Rising Seas, Sinking Cities, and the Remaking of the Civilized World by Jeff Goodell
Airbnb, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, creative destruction, desegregation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, fixed income, Frank Gehry, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
(Illustration courtesy of Reinaldo Borges) In Miami, as in every other city in the world, there is hope that if sea levels rise slowly enough, it will erode the politics of denial and inspire innovation and creative thinking, and the whole crisis will be manageable. People who don’t want to live with the risk of higher water can move to Denver, while the people who want to experiment with a platform city and new ways of living with water can remain behind, pioneers in a watery urban renewal. The problem is, rising seas also raise other kinds of risks—including the risk of sudden catastrophe. In Miami, the biggest concern is a potential nuclear disaster at the Turkey Point nuclear power plant, which sits on the edge of Biscayne Bay just south of Miami, completely exposed to hurricanes and rising seas. “It is impossible to imagine a stupider place to build a nuclear plant than Turkey Point,” said Philip Stoddard, the mayor of South Miami and an outspoken critic of the plant.
The Great Depression: A Diary by Benjamin Roth, James Ledbetter, Daniel B. Roth
bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, financial independence, Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, short selling, statistical model, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration
This family has bought much real estate this way and in the next few years will reap a harvest. 6/28/62 The U—family bought half of East Federal St. at sheriff sales in the 1930s. However down-town real estate has gone to pot because of the growth of suburban shopping centers. The U—family still owns half of E. Federal St. but the buildings are empty and they cannot sell. 7/10/70 Almost all of E. Federal has been purchased by Urban Renewal at modest prices. The stores are vacant or have been torn down. The cheap E. Federal stores have moved to W. Federal and the good stores have moved to the suburbs. AUGUST 17, 1931 I just came back from a short stay at Geneva-on-the-Lake. Summer resorts seem to be particularly hard hit. Hotels are empty and everybody is bidding for business at cut-rate prices. This is a good time to buy summer resort homes or even large mansions of the rich people.
The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida
affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional
And today’s suburbs, like today’s cities, have divided into areas of concentrated affluence and concentrated disadvantage. During the mid-1980s, before anyone thought of the suburbs as being on a downward trajectory, the urban designer David Lewis, a Carnegie Mellon colleague of mine at the time, told me that the future project of suburban renewal would likely make our vast twentieth-century urban renewal efforts look like a walk in the park. Indeed, with their enormous physical footprints, shoddy construction, and hastily put up infrastructure, many of our suburbs are visibly crumbling. Across the nation, hundreds of suburban shopping malls are dead or dying; countless suburban factories, like their urban counterparts a couple of generations ago, have fallen silent. In some suburbs, we are witnessing a decline that is so steep it has been dubbed the onset of “slumburbia.”2 Incongruous as it might seem, the suburban dimension of the New Urban Crisis may well turn out to be bigger than the urban one, if for no other reason than the fact that more Americans live in suburbs than cities.
Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional
It shook public confidence in the safety of industrialized system building, and this, coupled with the revelations of bribery and corruption in the awarding of building contracts, as revealed by the Poulson affair, which broke towards the end of the 1960s, made people receptive to new ideas. The centralized planning initiatives of the post-war years were not standing up to scrutiny. Looking at cities through history, the authors recalled how planning everywhere rides roughshod over the people who live there, from Haussmann’s Paris, which was cleared by demolition gangs, to American urban renewal projects which uprooted local people with scant compensation. ‘What would happen if there were no plan? What would people prefer to do, if their choices were untrammelled?’ the essay asked. The authors proposed ‘a precise and carefully observed experiment in non-planning’ in a few appropriate places. ‘At the least, one would find out what people want; at the most, one might discover the hidden style of mid twentieth-century Britain,’ they wrote.9 At the time, and as the authors had predicted, the essay was very controversial.
The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion by Virginia Postrel
Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, factory automation, Frank Gehry, indoor plumbing, job automation, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, washing machines reduced drudgery, young professional
Lynn Pan, Shanghai Style: Art and Design Between the Wars (South San Francisco, CA: Long River Press, 2008) pp. 247–53. Ruan Lingyu is often described as the Chinese Garbo. Pan notes that “between the 1980s and 1990s (and even into the 2000s) furniture like the kind seen in the movies . . . filled whole warehouses in Shanghai, sourced from prewar houses that were demolished in the frenzy of urban renewal that overtook the city during those decades.” 17. Robert Sklar, Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies (New York: Vintage Books, 1994) pp. 222–27. 18. Howard Gutner, Gowns by Adrian, p. 9. 19. Colin McGinn, The Power of Movies: How Screen and Mind Interact (New York: Pantheon, 2005) p. 18. 20. Jackie Stacey, Star Gazing: Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship (London: Routledge, 1994) p. 67. 21.
Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game
Take the cost of housing, which is often the greatest financial burden people face. Land-use laws, zoning restrictions, height restrictions, and minimum-lot-size requirements all constrain the supply of housing and help to raise prices in many areas.31 Rent-control laws, among other evils, lead to poor quality of rent-controlled units and higher prices for non-rent-controlled units. So-called urban renewal projects have demolished much of the affordable housing once available to low-income Americans, largely in order to appease outsiders who had enough money to live elsewhere.32 And the government’s “affordable housing” crusade helped spur the housing bubble that drove up the cost of many houses, to the detriment of everyone who didn’t yet own homes. Then there are energy costs, which not only affect us directly through gas and electricity prices, but also indirectly, by adding to the production and transportation costs of all the others things we buy.
Emergence by Steven Johnson
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush
Still, the top-heavy structure of mass media may keep those loops relatively muted for the foreseeable future, at least where the tube is concerned. Feedback, after all, is usually not a television thing. You need the Web to hear it wail. * * * In June of 1962, a full year after the appearance of The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Lewis Mumford published a scathing critique of Jane Jacobs’s manifesto in his legendary New Yorker column, “The Sky Line.” In her prescriptions for a sidewalk-centric urban renewal, “Mother Jacobs”—as Mumford derisively called her—offered a “homemade poultice for the cure of cancer.” The New Yorker critic had been an early advocate of Jacobs’s work, encouraging her to translate her thoughts into a book while she was a junior editor at Architecture Forum in the midfifties. But the book she eventually wrote attacked Mumford’s much-beloved Ebenezer Howard and his “garden cities,” and so Mumford struck back at his onetime protégé with full fury.
Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Blue-collar white workers who had their own modest homes saw any black movement into these neighborhoods as detrimental to their property values.19 Even when African Americans could get their mortgages guaranteed by the federal government, as with GI Bill–entitled veterans, banks were reluctant to extend credit. The upwardly mobile black middle class pushed the boundaries of urban settlement, leaving behind the poorest black people concentrated in areas that then became neglected ghettoes. The construction of highways, and “urban renewal” without replacement of destroyed housing, left formerly prosperous black neighborhoods disconnected and devastated; evicted residents had nowhere to live. Public housing was also racially segregated, and needy white families were placed into public housing more rapidly than were black families.20 The drive for racial equality in the 1950s focused on the legal and social realms rather than the economic realm.
Roads: An Anthropology of Infrastructure and Expertise (Expertise: Cultures and Technologies of Knowledge) by Penny Harvey, Hannah Knox
“Tradition, Change and Land Rights: Land Use and Territorial Strategies amongst the Piaroa.” Critique of Anthropology 23 (4): 349–72. Fujimura, J. H. 1992. “Crafting Science: Standardized Packages, Boundary Objects, and ‘Translation.’ ” In Science as Practice and Culture, edited by A. Pickering, 168–211. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gandolfo, D. 2009. The City at Its Limits: Taboo, Transgression, and Urban Renewal in Lima. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Garcia Morcillo, J. 1982. “Nueva Conquista y Colonizacion de la Amazonia Peruana.” Historia 16 (51): 62–64. Gluckman, M. (1940) 2002. “ ‘The Bridge’: Analysis of a Social Situation in Zululand.” Reprinted in The Anthropology of Politics: A Reader in Ethnography, Theory, Critique, edited by J. Vincent, 53–58. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. ——. 1963. “Gossip and Scandal.”
Municipal Dreams: The Rise and Fall of Council Housing by John Boughton
British Empire, deindustrialization, full employment, garden city movement, ghettoisation, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Right to Buy, rising living standards, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, young professional
Research has shown, however, that the commonly deployed trope of three workless generations is very largely an urban myth. 2Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Sustainable Communities: People, Places and Prosperity, 2005, 65. 3Madanipour, Cars and Allen quoted in Dave Adamson, The Impact of Devolution: Area-Based Regeneration Policies in the UK (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, January 2010), 9, jrf.org.uk, accessed 14 March 2017. 4Adamson, The Impact of Devolution: Area-Based Regeneration Policies in the UK, 9–10. 5‘Report of the Social Exclusion Unit: A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal National Strategy Action Plan’, Cabinet Office, January 2001, 8, neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk, accessed 14 March 2017. 6Aylesbury Tenants and Leaseholders First website, aylesburytenantsfirst.org.uk, accessed 14 March 2017. 7Christopher Beanland, ‘Channel 4’s Aylesbury Estate Ident Gets a Revamp – Starring the Residents’, Guardian, 14 March 2014, theguardian.com, accessed 15 March 2017. 8Loretta Lees, ‘The Urban Injustices of New Labour’s “New Urban Renewal”: The Case of the Aylesbury Estate in London’, Antipode, vol. 46, no. 4, 2014, 923–4. 9Southwark Council, Aylesbury Area Action Plan, January 2010, 179. 10David Blackman, ‘ “Where Did it All Go Wrong?” in Regeneration’, Inside Housing, 22 February 2002, insidehousing.co.uk, accessed 15 March 2017. 11Southwark Council, Southwark Affordable Rent Product Study July 2015, 5–6, and London’s Poverty Profile: Southwark, londonspovertyprofile.org.uk, accessed 17 March 2017. 12Colin Marrs, ‘Javid Rejects Aylesbury Estate CPO as Breach of Human Rights’, Architects’ Journal, 19 September 2016, architectsjournal.co.uk, accessed 8 June 2017. 13Heygate was Home, ‘Broken Promises’, heygatewashome.org, accessed 8 June 2017. 14Jon Kirk, ‘Welcome to the Aylesbury Estate – Once So Grim its Residents Dubbed it a Hell-Hole’, The People, 24 June 2007. 15Cited in Karl Murray, ‘Understanding the Impact of the Economic Down Turn on BAME Communities: A Case Study of the Aylesbury Estate in the London Borough of Southwark’, Black Training and Enterprise Group, June 2012, 11, bteg.co.uk, accessed 22 March 2017. 16Murray, ‘Understanding the Impact of the Economic Down Turn on BAME Communities: A Case Study of the Aylesbury Estate’, 12. 17Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, ‘The New Deal for Communities Experience: A Final Assessment’ (Department of Communities and Local Government, March 2010), 6, extra.shu.ac.uk, accessed 23 March 2017. 18Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, ‘The New Deal for Communities Experience: A Final Assessment’, 40. 19See Paul Watt, ‘Housing Stock Transfers, Regeneration and State-Led Gentrification in London’, Urban Policy and Research, vol. 27, no. 3, 2009. 20Gene Robertson, ‘Labour’s Legacy’, Inside Housing, 7 May 2010, insidehousing.co.uk, accessed 24 March 2017. 21London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Housing Evidence Base, June 2016, 86, towerhamlets.gov.uk, accessed 27 March 2017. 22Jennifer Maureen Lowe, ‘Social Justice and Localities: The Allocation of Council Housing in Tower Hamlets’, PhD thesis, Queen Mary College, University of London, March 2004, 150–2. 23Tower Hamlets Fairness Commission, ‘Who Lives in Tower Hamlets?
The Lost Decade: 2010–2020, and What Lies Ahead for Britain by Polly Toynbee, David Walker
banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, centre right, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Attenborough, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy transition, Etonian, first-past-the-post, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Dyson, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, moral panic, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Right to Buy, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, smart meter, Uber for X, urban renewal, working-age population
Marvin Rees, the elected mayor, was brought up in poor and predominantly minority-populated St Paul’s and was keenly aware of plural identities. In his spacious office in Bristol’s commanding 1930s city hall, he lived twin stories. Since he took office in 2016 Bristol had lost 50 per cent of its government grant, and yet he felt he needed to talk positively about the social programmes, housebuilding, growth and urban renewal. Duality marked Rees’s own story as a mixed-race Bristolian. ‘When I was growing up, there was plenty of abuse,’ he remembers. But now he suits Bristol, a healing symbol in a city that was made wealthy by black enslavement. In the teeth of austerity, the city had managed to keep children’s centres going, along with holiday food programmes and libraries, by drawing down reserves and putting up council tax to the maximum.
The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature by Steven Pinker
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Defenestration of Prague, desegregation, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Hobbesian trap, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Joan Didion, long peace, meta analysis, meta-analysis, More Guns, Less Crime, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Rodney Brooks, Saturday Night Live, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the new new thing, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, ultimatum game, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
Le Corbusier was frustrated in his aspiration to flatten Paris, Buenos Aires, and Rio de Janeiro and rebuild them according to his scientific principles. But in the 1950s he was given carte blanche to design Chandigarh, the capital of the Punjab, and one of his disciples was given a clean tablecloth for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. Today, both cities are notorious as uninviting wastelands detested by the civil servants who live in them. Authoritarian High Modernism also led to the “urban renewal” projects in many American cities during the 1960s that replaced vibrant neighborhoods with freeways, high-rises, and empty windswept plazas. Social scientists, too, have sometimes gotten carried away with dreams of social engineering. The child psychiatrist Bruce Perry, concerned that ghetto mothers are not giving children the enriched environment needed by their plastic brains, believes we must “transform our culture”: “We need to change our child rearing practices, we need to change the malignant and destructive view that children are the property of their biological parents.
Sur, Mriganka Switzerland symbiosis Symons, Donald Szathmáry, Eörs Take Our Daughters to Work Day Taliban Tasmania Taylor, Joan Kennedy Tay-Sachs technology Tennyson, Alfred, Lord testosterone see also androgens Tetlock, Philip thalamus Thaler, Richard Thatcher, Margaret theory of mind art and chimpanzees and culture learning and Theory of Moral Sentiments, The (Smith) Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall Thornhill, Nancy Wilmsen Thornhill, Randy thought, language and “Thousand and One Nights, The” Thucydides Tierney, Patrick Tiger, Lionel Tilghman, Shirley Tinbergen, Niko tobacco industry Todorov, Tzvetan Tolstoy, Leo Tooby, John toolmaking Tootsie totalitarianism trade Traffic Tragic Vision traits: emergenic heritability of Machiavellian Trivers, Robert Trudeau, Pierre Truman, Harry S. Tuchman, Barbara Turkheimer, Eric Turner, Frederick Turner, Mark Turner, Terence Turner’s syndrome Tversky, Amos Twain, Mark twin studies 2001: A Space Odyssey Ultimatum game United Nations United States Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Grammar Universal People universals, human see also specific topics Updike, John urban renewal usury utopianism Utopian Vision Valian, Virginia Vanatinai van Buren, Abigail van Gogh, Vincent Vasquez, John Veblen, Thorstein vegetarianism Venter, Craig Verbal Behavior (Skinner) Vietnam War violence fear and feuds and honor and morality and prevention of as public health problem Violence Initiative visual illusions visual system arts and Vonnegut, Kurt Waddington, C.
Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux
back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
The New Deal restored the earlier idea of internal development as a conscious national enterprise, which had been lost in the late nineteenth century when industrialization morphed into finance capitalism and the westward expansion morphed into the thirst for overseas empire. Roosevelt understood that investment is the future-shaping act. The government financed dams, rural electrification, schools, roads and bridges, agricultural research, parks, and conservation and urban renewal projects and connected these infrastructure needs of the future to the immediate need to create jobs. Social Security, unemployment compensation, and other social insurance programs reflected a political ethos of taking shared responsibility for tomorrow. The United States would remain a private market economy, but be guided by shared public goals. The age of Roosevelt lasted almost fifty years as the framework by which the governing class managed the nation’s economy, under Republicans as well as Democrats.
Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky
activist lawyer, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, different worldview, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor
The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is, I want to argue, one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights.’5 The construction of a thing called ‘The Oakland Commune’ at a plaza that was renamed after Oscar Grant was, in this sense, not a franchise of Occupy Wall Street but a revolutionary defense of that particular space, the demand that we who occupy it have the right to decide what will be made of it. * * * At this point, then, we have to talk about Oakland itself, about what ‘Oscar Grant’ means to the people who made that name the center of their protest (or what it would mean if Occupy Oakland renamed itself ‘Decolonize and Liberate Oakland.’6) The broad and racialized social restructuring that Oakland has undergone in the last half century – an ‘urban renewal’, after the end of segregation, that has melded seamlessly into suburbanization and gentrification – is a process that has analogs in cities across the United States. But the Bay Area is also unique, and the fact that Oscar Grant was a young African American man traveling on the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system – and was shot and killed by a police officer charged with policing BART – is a perfect symbol of the forms of differential inclusion through which Oakland has been formed and reformed (as this blogger describes too precisely for me to need to replicate7).
Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo
Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel
He noted that “low population density and the loss of natural daily social gatherings on the porch, the street, or the corner drugstore made sharing experiences and insulating problems more difficult.”5 Residents of transient communities lacked not only long-term relationships with friends and neighbors but the benefits of living close to older generations of their own families. Weiss’s colleague Mark Fried referred to the loneliness of working-class residents of Boston’s West End “grieving for a lost home” after their neighborhood was razed for what was then called urban renewal.6 This was a community of people rich in attachments, both to the place and to one another. Just a few years ago you could get a taste of what the West End had been like by walking through Boston’s North End—a chaotic jumble that seemed to operate as an extended family. But now gentrification threatens the established connections in that community as well. In most industrialized nations, champions of modernism like New York’s “master builder” Robert Moses continued until very recently to bulldoze older neighborhoods to run expressways through cities, and urban planners built huge housing projects—“vertical slums”—to warehouse the poor.
Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
Better Blocks, for example, creates community improvement flash mobs. They band people together to paint bike lanes on streets, plant trees in public spaces, and create outdoor cafés and pop-up shops—all without governmental approval. Not only does this help them build their community, the point they make with these crowdsourced, temporary urban improvements usually leads to changes in legislature and long-term urban renewal.27 6. Host Events. This has been discussed before, but it’s worth repeating: nothing brings people together like, well, actually bringing people together. 7. Technical Optimization. If you want a larger online presence, don’t forget the tried and true: search engine optimization tactics, AdWords, Facebook advertising, etc. Monetization Okay, so you are, after all, an entrepreneur, and making money—at some point—matters to you.
The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd
West Berlin's industries only limped through the decades during which the half-city was a subsidized political symbol and an economic absurdity. But East Berlin remained a major industrial center until 1990. Only the demise of the East German economy shut down the old factories along the upper Spree and jerked it over to the Western European norm of empty factories and unemployed proletarians. Despite war and urban renewal, the valley of the Spree across much of Berlin remains a landscape of old industrial structures. Among them are the innovative and influential factory buildings built for AEG by Peter Behrens between 1909 and 1914 (years during which his assistants included Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe). Very few of the city's older buildings predate 1850. Even the inner city was utterly transformed in the half-century before 1914, as old houses were replaced one by one with new and larger buildings.
The Revolt of the Public and the Crisis of Authority in the New Millennium by Martin Gurri
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, business cycle, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, David Graeber, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, job-hopping, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, too big to fail, traveling salesman, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, young professional
Scott has called the twentieth century’s “high modernist” approach to government routinely gambled on colossal projects designed to bring perfection to the social order. Authoritarian examples of such projects were Stalin’s collectivization of Soviet agriculture, Mao Zedong’s “Great Leap Forward” for China, and Julius Nyere’s “villagization” of Tanzania. Democratic examples included the building of the city of Brasilia, “urban renewal” housing projects like Chicago’s Cabrini Green, and the various “wars” waged by the US government against poverty, crime, drugs, and cancer. The purpose in each case was to engineer perfection in social relations by the application of political power. High modernist ideology was a utopian faith: it assumed that rational planning and scientific knowhow, if imposed on a gigantic enough scale, could eradicate the miseries of the human condition, from tyranny and inequality to hunger and disease.
Among Schoolchildren by Tracy Kidder
Perhaps they were cleaner in memory than they ever were in fact, but back then, in the late 1950s, the Flats still looked like a thriving part of a thriving city. But even by then Holyoke's industries had fallen into a decline, which by the 1970s became altogether visible. As the city's population fell, from nearly seventy thousand at the peak to about forty thousand in the 1980s, the buildings of the Flats deteriorated. Some mills were abandoned. In the name of urban renewal—and partly in order to limit the size of the growing Puerto Rican population—City Hall presided over the demolition of many old apartment blocks. Most dramatically, the Flats burned. For years, flames lit the nighttime sky over Holyoke. Fires started in old wiring. Pyromaniacs and people bent on personal vendettas and professionals interested in insurance money set fires, and several were fatal.
Le Freak: An Upside Down Story of Family, Disco, and Destiny by Nile Rodgers
If you’re over forty, you’ve likely heard me play classical guitar on a popular Savarin coffee commercial from the seventies.) A typical show at the Apollo featured a variety of artists. The first artist on the bill for my maiden night was Screamin’ Jay. The music director knew that I could sight-read right through the show, so he told me I didn’t have to make Jay’s rehearsal. I just needed to be backstage an hour before the curtain. I used this free time to casually tour this familiar part of Harlem. Urban renewal was in full effect. The Apollo was just two blocks from the old Black Panther office, and around the corner from the Gold Lounge, where my old band had been overshadowed by a triple homicide. I walked east on 125th Street to Seventh Avenue and saw the New York State Office Building (President Clinton’s future office site). A few months earlier, we community protesters had closed it down; now it was buzzing with construction workers.
Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How It Changed the World by Laura Spinney
Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, dark matter, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, experimental subject, Francisco Pizarro, global pandemic, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, trade route, urban renewal
And next door, Miranda grew more and more alarmed and appalled by that brutal and exuberant world, that implacable jungle growing beneath his windows with roots thicker and more treacherous than serpents, undermining everything, threatening to break through the soil in his yard and shake his house to its very foundations. When President Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves came to power in 1902, he launched an ambitious programme of urban renewal with the goal of turning Rio into a showcase of modern, republican civilisation. In his vision of the cidade maravilhosa, the marvellous city, there was no place for the cortiços, those nests of disease whose inhabitants, condemned by their biology, were ‘locked into a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection’.11 They were razed and their inhabitants forced out. Six hundred homes were destroyed to make way for the magnificent Avenida Rio Branco, so that by the time the American travel writer Harriet Chalmers Adams described the city in 1920, she could write that ‘This portion of the city has been cooler ever since, as the breezes sweep through the wide avenue from waterfront to waterfront.’12 But the easy mixing of the different classes that had once characterised Rio, their coming together in the seeking of pleasure–especially when it came to music and dancing–had gone.
Rick Steves Florence & Tuscany 2017 by Rick Steves
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, carbon footprint, Dava Sobel, Google Hangouts, index card, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, place-making, Skype, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wikimedia commons, young professional
From Terontola by Train: Nearly hourly high-speed trains to/from Rome, Florence, and Assisi stop at Terontola, 10 miles away (linked to Cortona’s Piazza del Mercato or Camucia station by hourly buses, 20-30 minutes, check schedule at bus stop or at www.etruriamobilita.it). FLORENTINE & TUSCAN HISTORY ETRUSCANS, ROMANS, AND “BARBARIANS” (550 B.C.-A.D. 1000) FLORENCE’S FLOURISHING, PISA’S PEAK, AND SIENA’S SUMMIT (1000-1400) THE QUATTROCENTO: A PROSPEROUS RENAISSANCE CITY UNDER MEDICI PRINCES (1400s) DECLINE, MEDICI DUKES, RENAISSANCE GOES SOUTH (1500-1800) ITALIAN UNIFICATION, UNCONTROLLED URBANIZATION, URBAN RENEWAL (1800s TO TODAY) This chapter presents Florence and Tuscany’s history in a nutshell, divided into major historical periods. For each era, I’ve given a list of sights you can see during your travels that bring that period to life. ETRUSCANS, ROMANS, AND “BARBARIANS” (550 B.C. – A.D. 1000) In prehistoric times, much of what we today call “Tuscany” was part of the Etruscan Empire. This mysterious early civilization built hilltop forts (such as at Fiesole), traded metals with other Mediterranean peoples (including the Golden Age Greeks), established agriculture in central Italy, and buried their dead in distinctive caskets that show the deceased lounging at an eternal banquet.
Sights • Michelangelo’s Florentine works—David, Medici Chapels, and Laurentian Medici Library • Pitti Palace and Boboli Gardens (the later Medici palace) • Later paintings (Uffizi) and statues (Bargello) • Destruction of the original Duomo facade (Duomo Museum) • Medici Chapels—pompous tombs of (mostly) later Medici • Ponte Vecchio cleaned up for jewelry shops • Baroque interiors of many older churches • Galileo’s fingers, telescopes, and experiments in the Galileo Science Museum ITALIAN UNIFICATION, UNCONTROLLED URBANIZATION, URBAN RENEWAL (1800s TO TODAY) After years of rule by Austrian nobles, Florence peacefully booted out the Ausländers and joined the Italian unification movement. The city even served briefly as modern Italy’s capital (1865-1870). It enjoyed an artistic revival of both medieval (Neo-Gothic) and Renaissance (Neoclassical) styles. The Duomo finally got its long-wished-for facade. The 20th century was turbulent, with rapid population growth and rapid industrialization.
Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell
1960s counterculture, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, commoditize, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce
Immediately after this seemingly minor change in the tax code, the nationwide number of new retail projects shot up, and the size of shopping centers became larger. The tax code offered little incentive for upkeep and rehabilitation, so it fostered the now familiar pattern of sparkling new malls being built next door to faded old ones. Meanwhile, Hanchett argues, direct federal grants during the ﬁrst ten years of urban renewal, aimed at alleviating the crisis of housing and jobs in the older downtowns, totaled only $712 million, “less than a single year’s tax expenditure for accelerated depreciation in real estate” (ibid., 1107). 31. Ibid., 1105. 32. Ibid., 1104–5. 33. Ibid., 1105. Investment in real-estate structures rose by 56 percent in the ﬁrst ﬁve years of the Reagan administration, under which Congress enacted new tax shelters that reaccelerated the building boom.
The Caryatids by Bruce Sterling
carbon footprint, clean water, failed state, impulse control, negative equity, new economy, nuclear winter, semantic web, sexual politics, social software, starchitect, stem cell, supervolcano, urban renewal, Whole Earth Review
Why do you own a giant war machine that destroys the homes of helpless refugees with heat rays?” “What, you mean in an immersive-world simulation? I can’t remember my roles in immersive worlds—there are just too many.” “No, I meant last August,” said Feininger politely. “In the streets of Los Angeles. You were lasciviously dancing on the top of a giant walking tripod that fired laser weapons into people’s homes.” “Oh that!” said Radmila. “You mean our urban-renewal festival.” “That behavior truly baffles us in the Acquis,” said Feininger. “Please try not to worry,” said Radmila, wide-eyed. “I’m just an actress. It’s all for show.” “Leaving aside the social-justice aspects of preferentially wrecking the neighborhoods of the poor,” said Feininger, “are you aware of what happens, technically speaking, within the legs of those tripods?” “Should I be?” “I know the sinister genius who constructed that device,” said Feininger.
Cultureshock Paris by Cultureshock Staff
Then came Greeks, Armenians and Turks, and most recently Asians, Arabs and Africans—again, some with legal papers, others without—bringing a tangible instability and some anger (sometimes explosive) to the area, as the French endlessly debate how to handle the large immigrant influx and its high 52 CultureShock! Paris rate of unemployment. Today this population congregates to the sides of the boulevard de Belleville at the Arab and Asian shops, Muslim and Jewish establishments and the crowded, inexpensive market. Much of this western side where the 20e and the 11e abut is rundown, but some parts bear the mixed results of urban renewal. In the 1960s, the 20e began to experience the same faceless development as parts of the 13e and 15e, but the outcry of the residents, les Bellevillois, caused at least some areas to be preserved. Thus, this hilly northern part of the district contains apartment blocks, charming cottages and dismal slums. The area immediately above the steep Parc de Belleville is up-and-coming, with new cafés and bars enlivening the area; downhill, it approaches boulevard de Belleville and the unsettled area described above.
The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations by Christopher Lasch
cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, feminist movement, full employment, George Santayana, impulse control, Induced demand, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Norman Mailer, road to serfdom, Scientific racism, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, yellow journalism
From the 1870s down to the First World War, advocates of research, social service, and liberal culture vied for control of the other enterprises. The corporate policies of the university both internal and external-addition of new departments and pro- university. Faculties divided into adherents of one or another of these programs, while students and administrators injected their grams, cooperation in war research, participation in urban renewal programs-now had to be made by administrators and the idea of the service university or multiversity whose lacilities were own interests into the debate. In the end, none of these faction achieved a decisive victory, but each won substantial concessions. The introduction of electives, together with extracurricular diversions of various kinds, helped to pacify the students. The elective system alscvrepresented a compromise between the demands of the undergraduate college, still organized around an older cond ception of general culture, and the research-oriented graduate an professional schools that were being superimposed on it.
Lonely Planet's Best of USA by Lonely Planet
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, mass immigration, obamacare, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration
MoMA PS1 A smaller, hipper relative of MoMA, MoMA PS1 (%718-784-2084; www.momaps1.org; 22-25 Jackson Ave, Long Island City; suggested donation adult/child $10/free, admission free with MoMA ticket; hnoon-6pm Thu-Mon; bE/M to 23rd St-Court Sq, G/7 Court Sq) is a master at hunting down fresh, bold contemporary art and serving it up in a Berlin-esque, ex-school locale. Forget about pretty lily ponds in gilded frames. Here you’ll be peering at videos through floorboards and debating the meaning of nonstatic structures while staring through a hole in the wall. TOP EXPERIENCE The High Line A resounding triumph of urban renewal, the High Line is a remarkable linear public park built along a disused elevated rail line. This aerial greenway attracts millions of visitors each year. CHRIS TOBIN / GETTY IMAGES © Great For… y Don’t Miss The third and final part of the High Line, which opened in 2014 and bends by the Hudson River at 34th St. 8 Need to Know Map; %212-206-9922; www.thehighline.org; Gansevoort St; h7am-11pm Jun-Sep, to 10pm Apr, May, Oct & Nov, to 7pm Dec-Mar; gM11 to Washington St, M11, M14 to 9th Ave, M23, M34 to 10th Ave, bL, A/C/E to 14th St-8th Ave, C/E to 23rd St-8th Ave; F 5 Take a Break A cache of eateries, from sushi joints to creperies, is stashed within Chelsea Market at the 14th St exit.
Lonely Planet Ireland's Best Trips by Lonely Planet
WHY THIS IS A CLASSIC TRIP CATHERINE LE NEVEZ, WRITER Journeying from Killarney to Dungarvan, this trip not only incorporates all of Ireland’s definitive elements but also plenty of unexpected ones, from the Titanic’s fateful final port to exotic animals roaming free in an island-set zoo to a spine-tingling former prison – as well as countless opportunities for serendipitous detours (because, of course, serendipity is what makes a road trip a true classic). Top of Chapter TRIP HIGHLIGHT 7 Cork City Ireland’s second city is first in every important respect – at least according to the locals, who cheerfully refer to it as the ‘real capital of Ireland’. A flurry of urban renewal has resulted in new buildings, bars and arts centres and tidied-up thoroughfares. The best of the city is still happily traditional, though – snug pubs with regular live-music sessions, excellent local produce in an ever-expanding list of restaurants and a genuinely proud welcome from the locals. Cork swings during the Guinness Jazz Festival (www.corkjazzfestival.com), with an all-star line-up in venues across town in late October.
The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
Picturesque, with many scenic views, it’s also richly detailed and alive, allowing you to feel elevated in spirit, floating in a garden in space where butterflies, birds, humans, and other organisms mingle. In a practical sense, it’s a lofty shortcut, a sky alley that avoids all the intersections. A million people have already strolled its landscaped corridors, and it’s inspired other cities hoping for similar sky parks. Chicago, Mexico City, Rotterdam, Santiago, and Jerusalem are among those following suit with their derelict trestles, each an urban renewal project featuring regional plants and its own special character or sense of humor. In Wuppertal, Germany, the rails-to-trails corridor includes a brightly colored LEGO-style bridge. Like the wastewater wetlands, such projects are widening our notion of recycling and yielding an urban lifestyle that’s interwoven with nature. As one salve in our medicine cabinet of good ideas, these vest-pocket urban parks and wildlife corridors have deep roots around the world, from nest boxes for storks in Romania, Switzerland, Poland, Germany, Spain, and other havens along their well-flapped migration routes to species-rich Central Park in the heart of New York City, London’s eight city parks (in several of which deer roam), the temperate rainforest of Vancouver’s Stanley Park, Moscow’s Losiny Ostrov (“Moose Island”) National Park, Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai, sod roofs and greenways from Germany to the Faroe Islands, St.
Pour Your Heart Into It by Howard Schultz
Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate raider, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, job satisfaction, market design, Ray Oldenburg, shareholder value, The Great Good Place, urban renewal, working poor, zero-sum game
Starting in 1969, Boeing, Seattle’s largest employer, had such a drastic downturn in orders that it had to cut its workforce from 100,000 to less than 38,000 in three years. Homes in beautiful neighborhoods like Capitol Hill sat empty and abandoned. So many people lost jobs and moved out of town that one billboard near the airport joked, “Will the last person leaving Seattle—turn out the lights?” That famous message appeared in April 1971, the same month that Starbucks opened its first store. At that time, also, an urban renewal project was threatening to tear down the Pike Place Market. A group of developers wanted to build a commercial center with a hotel, convention hall, and parking lot in its place. In a referendum, Seattle’s citizens voted to preserve Pike Place as it was. Seattle in those days was just beginning to shed its image as an exotic, isolated corner of America. Only the adventurous moved here, thousands of miles from family in the East or Midwest or California, sometimes on their way to the mines and mountains and fishing grounds of Alaska.
Discover Greece Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
ATHENS & AROUND ATHENS’ HIGHLIGHTS ATHENS’ BEST… ATHENS WALKING TOUR DISCOVER ATHENS & AROUND Excursions from Athens Piraeus Temple of Poseidon Peania & Around Hydra Top of chapter Athens & Around Ancient and modern, with equal measures of grunge and grace, bustling Athens is a heady mix of history and edginess, lively cafes and alfresco dining, chaos and pure fun. The magnificent Acropolis that rises majestically above the sprawling metropolis has stood witness to the city’s many transformations. In over a decade of radical urban renewal, Athens has reinvented itself. Post-Olympics Athens is conspicuously wealthier, more sophisticated and more cosmopolitan. The shift is evident in the stylish new restaurants, shops and hip hotels, and in the emerging artsy-industrial neighbourhoods and entertainment precincts. The car-free historic centre is an open-air museum, yet the city’s cultural and social life takes place around these ancient monuments, reconciling past and present.
Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand
agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K
You should provide clean water, toilets, electricity, garbage collection and disposal, and maybe let people build their own houses if they can, using materials that you can provide,” says Aprodicio Laquian, the Filipino-Canadian planner who practically invented the idea of slum-dweller-designed urban rehabilitation in the 1960s. . . . These sorts of schemes, known as “slum upgrading” or “sites and services,” have been at the heart of the most successful urban-renewal projects of the past 40 years. As the 2003 UN report points out, “When more than half of the urban population lives in them, the slums become the dominant city.” A city planet has every reason to learn to understand slums, to respect the people there, and to help clear the way for them to become full citizens. That in turn helps the world, for practical as well as ethical reasons. There’s more to be said about what the world gains from its urban majority, and how.
Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson
addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, business cycle, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K
But what were the comparable metrics when it came to fairness? Diversity? Equality of opportunity? Community involvement? I knew how many tons of nylon we’d recycled. But how do you quantify what is so much the qualitative? How much social sustainability had we created, and how much was enough? My right brain seemed inadequate for the challenge. Fortunately, our guest speaker that night, Majora Carter, a visionary voice in city planning who views urban renewal through an environmental lens, had a lot to say to us about some of these things. Carter was awarded a 2005 MacArthur “genius” grant after founding Sustainable South Bronx, a community organization that pushes for eco-friendly practices (such as green and cool roofs). Equally important are job training and green-related economic development for her neighborhood. She currently runs a green economic consulting firm that bears her name.
Lonely Planet Cape Town & the Garden Route (Travel Guide) by Lucy Corne
Berlin Wall, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, haute couture, haute cuisine, load shedding, Mark Shuttleworth, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Robert Gordon, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl
In national and provincial elections two years later the ANC were equally triumphant, and Ebrahim Rasool – a practising Muslim whose family had been moved out of District Six when he was 10 – was appointed premier of the Western Cape. Conscious of their core vote in the Cape Flats, the ANC-led city council vowed to improve the lot of township folk by upgrading the infrastructure in the informal settlements and boosting investment in low-cost housing, such as the N2 Gateway Project. Urban renewal projects were also announced for Mitchell's Plain, one of the deprived coloured areas of the city blighted, like so many Cape Flats suburbs, by the murderous drug trade. Particularly deadly has been the rise in addiction to methamphetamine, known locally as ‘tik’. Xenophobia & Football Battling charges of corruption and blamed for disruptive rolling power cuts caused by the Western Cape’s overstretched nuclear power station at Koeberg, the ANC narrowly lost out to the Democratic Alliance (DA) in the municipal elections of March 2006.
The Rough Guide to Toronto by Helen Lovekin, Phil Lee
airport security, British Empire, car-free, glass ceiling, global village, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, place-making, urban renewal, urban sprawl
The latest addition to the Ontario Place waterpark is a climbing structure for kids that not only sprays, sloshes and slithers, but also boasts the largest tipping bucket in Canada, which dumps one thousand litres of water on the already soaking children every six minutes. | Gardens, wetlands, waterparks & zoos For an account of Toronto Zoo, see p.99. K I D S ’ TO R O N TO oronto does an excellent job of keeping visitors with children in good spirits. Its reputation as being both safe and clean goes a long way toward promoting a family-positive image, and many attractions were speciﬁcally created with families in mind – a result of urban renewal and development coinciding with the maturing of the Baby Boom generation. In addition, Toronto is unusual in that a signiﬁcant portion of its population lives within city limits, so parks or playgrounds are always close at hand. Major cultural institutions such as the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Royal Ontario Museum (see p.67 and p.79, respectively), as well as attractions like the Ontario Science Centre (see p.104), have innovative programming speciﬁcally designed for children.
The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them by Joseph E. Stiglitz
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of DNA, Doha Development Round, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population
Just four hours from Detroit, Pittsburgh, too, grappled with white flight. But it more rapidly shifted its economy from one dependent on steel and coal to one that emphasizes education, health care, and legal and financial services. Manchester, the center of Britain’s textile industry for more than a century, has been transformed into a center of education, culture, and music. America does have an urban renewal program, but it is aimed more at restoring buildings and gentrification than at maintaining and restoring communities, and even at that, it is languishing. American workers were sold “free” trade policies on the promise that the winners could compensate the losers. The losers are still waiting. Of course, the Great Recession and the policies that created it have made this, like so many other things, much worse.
The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover
airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal
Five hundred lives were lost in building the nineteen miles of road, which included twenty-two bridges and seven tunnels. His nephew, Louis Napoléon—elected the first president of France’s Second Republic in 1848, before restoring the monarchy and becoming Emperor Napoléon III in 1852—focused more on home. The industrial revolution was taking hold in France; buoyed by a popular mandate to restore and remake his chaotic nation, Napoléon III undertook a program of massive urban renewal. The ramshackle, medieval quarters of Paris were symbols not only of poverty and disease but of insurrection. Among his early projects was construction of the grand boulevards of Paris. Though the Champs-Élysées had begun to take shape nearly two centuries before, Napoléon III (through his prefect, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann) expanded the concept, tearing down twisting crowded districts dating from the Middle Ages and remaking the fractious city by endowing it with, in Haussmann’s words, “spaces, air, light, verdure and flowers, in a word, with all that dispenses health.”
The Job: The Future of Work in the Modern Era by Ellen Ruppel Shell
3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, big-box store, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban renewal, white picket fence, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game
In those early days, the entire student body fit into two rooms at the Dayton YMCA, fifty-five men gathering after finishing up their day jobs as ditchdiggers or farmhands to learn bookkeeping and mechanical drawing. Photos from the period show a windowless room festooned with American flags and men of various ages in dark suits staring stiffly at the camera. In 1948 what was then known as “YMCA College” was rechristened Sinclair College in honor of deceased YMCA secretary David A. Sinclair. A quarter century later, the college moved to its current home, a sixty-five-acre wedge of urban renewal on the western edge of downtown Dayton, just minutes off the interstate. Convenience, and plenty of parking space, seemed to be central features. “For many of us, college is one of the few things you do only once—you go when you’re eighteen, stay until you’re twenty-two, and never go back,” Johnson said. “But that model doesn’t work for everyone. Sinclair is a place you can come back to again and again for the rest of your life—to refresh, retrain.”
Dopesick: Dealers, Doctors, and the Drug Company That Addicted America by Beth Macy
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, centre right, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, invisible hand, labor-force participation, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, single-payer health, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor
“On the other side of the cities [many Americans] live in, there’s poverty and poor health probably just as bad,” he said. In Appalachia, he conceded, poverty and poor health were not only harder to camouflage; they were increasingly harder to recover from. For decades, black poverty had been concentrated in urban zones, a by-product of earlier inner-city deindustrialization, racial segregation, and urban renewal projects of the 1950s and 1960s that decimated black neighborhoods and made them natural markets for heroin and cocaine. Whites had historically been more likely to live in spread-out settings that were less marred by social problems, but in much of rural America that was clearly no longer the case. These were the same counties where Donald Trump performed best in the 2016 election—the places with the most economic distress and the highest rates of drug, alcohol, and suicide mortality.
Capitalism: the unknown ideal by Ayn Rand
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, East Village, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, profit motive, the market place, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, War on Poverty, yellow journalism
The following authors are not exponents of Objectivism, and these recommendations should not be understood as an unqualified endorsement of their total intellectual positions. Anderson, Benjamin M., Economics and the Public Welfare: Financial and Economic History of the United States, 1914-1946, Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1949. Anderson, Martin, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1964. Ashton, T. S., An Economic History of England: The Eighteenth Century, New York: Barnes and Noble, 1955. ——, The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, London: Oxford University Press, 1948. Ballvé, Faustino, Essentials of Economics, Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1963. Bastiat, Frédéric, Economic Sophisms, Princeton, New Jersey: D.
The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic
Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen
The World Trade Center had a personality, and it was what gave the towers their impact, as much as their height. The towers were interpreted as a signal of power and authority by those who wanted to challenge America’s hold on the world. They were, it was insinuated, the personification of the evils of capitalism. The idea of building them was first put forward by David Rockefeller, as part of an urban renewal proposal that would have the effect of safeguarding his investment in the area. His brother Nelson, from his Albany citadel, ensured its financial viability when, as Governor of New York State, he leased space in them for 1,000 civil servants. But they were actually built by a group of public officials in a bid to revitalize the local economy of the city, badly damaged by the loss of traditional employers as shipping operations in Manhattan vanished in the 1950s.
Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne
addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K
At that rate, Extreme Commuters listening in their cars can habla español in a week without giving up any other activities. And after a couple months, they could be U.N. translators, if their current jobs don’t work out. Or books on tape. Extreme Commuters are the transportation equivalent of speed readers. They could get through War and Peace in twelve days, or The Da Vinci Code in five. Lyndon Johnson said he was declaring war on poverty and beginning massive urban renewal because, he predicted, 95 percent of Americans were going to live in cities. But in fact, people have spread out across the country to suburbs and exurbs faster than anyone could have predicted. (This just proves how hard it is to make assumptions about what America will look like fifty years from now—while you’re focused on a few big trends, other microtrends seep in and upset your expectations.)
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff
addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game
Patrons thought they were visiting a theme-park museum when, of course, they were really just visiting a mall. For most visitors the connection felt real enough—at least compared with whatever else they were getting in their home neighborhoods and office parks. These projects were hailed as successes from nearly all corners. Landmarks were being restored, and the uniqueness of place was being celebrated. Urban-renewal advocates issued reports showing how these projects lowered crime in the streets, relieved residents of boredom, and increased tourism. Theme malls served as a compelling enough proof-of-concept for developers to attempt the Gruen Transfer on an even greater scale: they would transform whole districts into master-planned shopping environments. Instead of requiring people to get to a mall, why not just bring the mall to them?
The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl
anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, North Sea oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty
‘Liberalism’ at home, embodied in such programmes as the ‘War on Poverty’ which particularly infuriated conservatives, was in fact necessary to allow the offensive turn of foreign policy. The outward thrust of the Kennedy policy was based firmly in domestic reforms and expansionary measures, even if it was often left to his successor to win final congressional approval. In his own lifetime, Kennedy succeeded in having passed an improved minimum wage, low-cost housing projects and urban renewal, as well as a $900 million public works programme.78 Employment was still recovering from the 1958 and 1959/60 recessions when Kennedy came to power. At first, the new administration refrained from substantial state intervention and seemed to continue the passive attitude of its predecessor, allowing unemployment to rise again in 1961. By 1962, however, capital accumulation accelerated and employment opportunities improved accordingly.
The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly
"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional
This entire section draws heavily upon William Easterly, Laura Freschi, and Steven Pennings, “A Long History of a Short Block: Four Centuries of Development Surprises on a Single Stretch of a New York City Street,” DRI Working Paper No. 96, Development Research Institute, New York University, New York, NY, 2013. 24. “Shacktown Pulls Through the Winter,” New York Times, March 26, 1933, accessed September 10, 2013, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00C1FFE3D5E1A7A93C4AB1788D85F478385F9. 25. Arthur C. Holden, “Planning Recommendations for the Washington Square Area” prepared for the Washington Square Association, 1946, 12. 26. Hilary Ballon, “Robert Moses and Urban Renewal,” in Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York, eds. Hillary Ballon and Kenneth T. Jackson (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007). 27. Holden, “Planning Recommendations,” 17, 42. 28. Ibid., 54. 29. “South Village: Slum Clearance Plan Under Title I of the Housing Act of 1949,” January 1951 and “Washington Square South: Slum Clearance Plan Under Title I of the Housing Act of 1949,” January 1951, Robert Moses Papers, New York Public Library Manuscript and Archives Division, New York. 30.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
As Anthony Flint recounts in Wrestling with Moses, Jacobs was dumbstruck when she learned about the plans in the pages of the New York Times in February 1961, a month after submitting the manuscript for Death and Life of Great American Cities. “Her home and neighborhood, the very neighborhood she had identified as a model of city living in the book she had just written, were now targeted by the urban renewal machine that Robert Moses had set in motion.”21 The blight study was a trick she knew well. “It always began with a study to see if a neighborhood is a slum,” Jacobs had noted in her manuscript. “Then they could bulldoze it and it would fall into the hands of developers who could make a lot of money.”22 In place of the funky nineteenth-century neighborhood of bohemians and ethnics would rise modern middle-class tower blocks.
The Voice of Reason: Essays in Objectivist Thought by Ayn Rand, Leonard Peikoff, Peter Schwartz
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, cuban missile crisis, haute cuisine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, medical malpractice, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, source of truth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, War on Poverty
If a man who earns his living hears constant denunciations of his “selfish greed” and then, as a moral example, is offered the spectacle of the War on Poverty—which fills the newspapers with allegations of political favoritism, intrigues, maneuvering, corruption among its “selfless” administrators—what will happen to his sense of honesty? If a young man struggles sixteen hours a day to work his way through school, and then has to pay taxes to help the dropouts from the dropout programs—what will happen to his ambition? If a man saves for years to build a home, which is then seized by the profiteers of Urban Renewal because their profits are “in the public interest,” but his are not—what will happen to his sense of justice? If a miserable little private holdup man is hauled off to jail, but when the government forces men into a gang big enough to be called a union and they hold up New York City, they get away with it—what will happen to the public’s respect for the law? Can anyone wish to give his life to defend the rights of South Vietnam—when the rights of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Albania, East Germany, North Korea, Katanga, Cuba, and Hungary were not defended?
A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook
Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, starchitect, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
In trying to bestow a healthy city upon their Indian subjects, the British were hoping to stave off calls for self-rule, but the paternalism that undergirded the trust made it a lightning rod. Many of the “slum dwellers” that the British wanted to rehouse in their “improvement” schemes simply wanted to stay put, valuing the preservation of their communal life over any material benefits that the trust might offer. Indian tenants and landlords opposed to the demolitions of their neighborhoods tried to stop the urban renewal effort through thousands of petitions and court cases. And many Bombayites spurned the trust’s offer of new housing in a new neighborhood, instead finding or building themselves new accommodations close to their old demolished homes. To the Bombayites, the trust embodied everything that was demeaning about British rule. The whole concept behind the trust—that the colonial authorities paternalistically bestow modernity upon their charges—crystallized the humiliation of the Raj.
The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World by Randall E. Stross
Albert Einstein, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, death of newspapers, distributed generation, East Village, Ford paid five dollars a day, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Livingstone, I presume, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban renewal
Edison had drawn up blueprints: Commerford Martin, Forty Years of Edison Service, 1882–1922 (New York: New York Edison Press, 1922), 34. When the directors: TAE to George Gouraud, 7 March 1881, PTAED, LB008024. This letter book copy is exceedingly difficult to read. A typeset and annotated copy is provided in PTAE, 5:996–997. Etna Iron Works: Roach’s property was located on Goerck Street, a street that later disappeared in the course of urban renewal. The two partners decided: Jehl, Reminiscences, 744. One reporter marveled: “The Doom of Gas,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1 May 1882, PTAED, MBSB52192. The family doctor: Leslie D. Ward to TAE, 18 January 1882, PTAED, D8214C. Often he napped on the premises: Dyer and Martin, Edison, 400. He insisted on custom building: Friedel and Israel, Edison’s Electric Light, 173. Edison had originally planned: Dyer and Martin, Edison, 385.
The Right to Earn a Living: Economic Freedom and the Law by Timothy Sandefur