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Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy by Alexandrea J. Ravenelle
"side hustle", active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Howard Zinn, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, precariat, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, very high income, white flight, working poor, Zipcar
“It made the most money, so that’s why I had this inner conflict; but I was like, ‘Is this really worth it?’” she said. “So it’s really frustrating, but yeah, I took it off and I started doing some exercise, and my back sort of got to somewhat normal now.” Workers getting injured on the job isn’t anything new. The neighborhood where I conducted my research was within walking distance of the Asch Building, home of the notorious 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, in which 143 young women and men perished. The fire was one of the largest workplace accidents in US history and is often considered an impetus for changes to American labor law and for the New Deal.3 A SHORT HISTORY OF WORKERS’ COMPENSATION Workers’ compensation is hardly a new concept. The first known policy on worker compensation is the Sumerian Nippur Tablet No. 3191, dated to 2050 BCE, which provided compensation for specific injuries, including fractures.
Although Congress passed the Employers’ Liability Acts of 1906 and 1908, softening the restrictions of contributory negligence, the conditions of workers were still largely ignored.7 In early 1911, the states of Washington and Wisconsin passed comprehensive workers’ compensation laws, but the true movement toward workplace protections and compensation for injury didn’t occur until the March 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire.8 In the year after the fire, nine other states passed regulations, followed by thirty-six others before the decade was done. In New York, the fire also led to the development of the Committee on Public Safety, headed by Frances Perkins—the future U.S. secretary of labor—and led to new legislation to protect workers, including the “54-hour bill” granting workers shorter hours. The New York State Legislature also created the Factory Investigating Commission to “investigate factory conditions in this and other cities” and to provide “remedial measures of legislation to prevent hazard or loss of life among employees through fire, unsanitary conditions, and occupational diseases.”9 The state commission’s reports helped modernize the state’s labor laws, making New York State “one of the most progressive states in terms of labor reform,” and led to the passing of sixty new laws that granted better building access and egress, mandated the installation of alarm systems and automatic sprinklers, increased requirements for fireproofing and fire extinguishers, improved eating and toilet facilities for workers, and limited the workweek for women and children.10 MODERN WORKERS, WITHOUT GENERATIONS OF PROTECTION In a cruel irony, workers in the sharing economy—hailed as the height of the modern workplace—find themselves without any of the workplace protections enjoyed by their great grandparents.
See also Hello Alfred algorithm-based acceptance and response rates, 5, 55; overview, 2, 5, 6; anti-trust law violations and, 71; deactivation and, 82–83; negative reviews and, 13; opaqueness of, 84–85; TaskRabbit, 1–2 alienation, 37 Amazon Family, 30–31, 73 American labor history: overview, 8, 89; accident rates, 93; breaks, 87; British law and, 64–65; collective bargaining attempts, 64–65; early 20th century strikes, 68–70; early strikes, 64; 19th century strikes, 65–66, 67, 68; piecemeal system, 68; ten-hour workdays, 65; textile industry and, 66–67; Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire of 1911, 92, 93, 226–27n3, 227n8; unionization attempts, 64–65, 93; workers’ compensation, 92–94 anonymity, 23, 48, 91, 156 apps, 2, 6, 50, 53 Arets, Martijn, 28fig. 2 Arieff, Allison, 231n4 Arkwright, Richard, 66 Aronowitz, Stanley, 37 Asch Building, 92, 226–27n3 Autor, David, 181, 186 background checks: criminal activity and, 140, 144; drivers and, 143; Googling clients, 170–72; screening mechanisms, 113–15; trust and, 29, 208; Uber and, 43, 167 Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency, 68, 69 Barnes vs.
We Are All Fast-Food Workers Now: The Global Uprising Against Poverty Wages by Annelise Orleck
airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Food sovereignty, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McJob, means of production, new economy, payday loans, precariat, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor
I kind of feel like a hero, knowing that I’m helping people stay in their homes, pay their bills, and be able to eat. That’s something that a lot of people haven’t been able to do lately. We’re trying to change that. And I think we will.”7 CHAPTER 8 1911—2011 History and the Global Labor Struggle FOR GARMENT WORKERS, March 25, 2011, was a critical moment. Hundreds poured into the Great Hall at Cooper Union in New York City to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Many famous political figures had spoken in the column-lined auditorium during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton, President Abraham Lincoln, antislavery activists Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison, Lakota chief Red Cloud and Arapahoe chief Little Raven. Now, the room buzzed as a thirty-five-year-old Bangladeshi garment union leader named Kalpona Akter slowly climbed the stairs to the stage.
Over the next few months, between twenty thousand and forty thousand young garment workers, immigrant Jews from Eastern Europe, Catholics from Ireland and southern Italy, and a few native-born white and black Protestants marched and picketed along the streets of Lower Manhattan. It was the largest women’s strike the country had ever seen.1 In the years that followed, women garment workers across the US organized, struck, and unionized. But they found that unionism could only take them so far. They also needed enforceable labor law. That need was indelibly burned into the national consciousness on March 25, 1911, when a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, in the heart of Greenwich Village, took 146 young workers’ lives. In a terrible half hour, thousands watched as young people jumped to their deaths from eighth-story windows, some burning even as they fell. Between 1911 and 1938, outrage over the fire galvanized support for the passage of minimum wage, maximum hours, and safety laws. Triangle seared the conscience of a nation, forging a new consensus that workers should not have to put their lives on the line to earn their daily bread.
Trade union leaders were arrested, imprisoned, kidnapped, tortured, and even murdered because Bangladesh had a special position to preserve: as the cheapest place on earth to produce clothing.2 Bangladeshi garment workers earned less than one-third the wages of their Indian and Pakistani counterparts, one-fifth of what Chinese workers earned, and less than a tenth of what some garment workers were paid in Thailand. Bangladesh has, since the 1980s, been the threat that hangs over the heads of garment workers the world over, says Cambodian union leader Ath Thorn. “If you keep asking for a higher wage, the factory will close and move to Bangladesh,” his members have been told anytime they ask for raises.3 It took an unbearable tragedy, a twenty-first-century Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, to make Bangladeshi workers finally, painfully, visible to the world. On April 24, 2013, the twenty-first-century garment industry was literally shaken to the ground when vibrations from a thousand sewing machines opened cracks in the Savar building in Dhaka and it collapsed, killing 1,134 workers. Families lost loved ones—often their only breadwinners. Thousands of survivors suffered life-changing injuries.4 Photos of bodies wrapped in cloth and dazed survivors staggering from the rubble were beamed round the world.
Economic Dignity by Gene Sperling
active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, offshore financial centre, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, speech recognition, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, traffic fines, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
Not even two years before the fire, in the biggest female-led strike up to that point, known as the Uprising of the Twenty Thousand, a majority of the city’s thirty thousand garment workers walked out in protest of unsafe working conditions, pay, hours, and lack of union rights as well as protections against indignities like sexual harassment. At the end of the strike, 85 percent of the city’s shirtwaist workers had joined the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU),35 but the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory remained anti-union.36 At the time, New York, like most states, had new factory safety laws on the books, but they were rarely enforced, with “standards for fire drills, fire escapes, and sprinkler systems [in New York] . . . followed ‘only where practicable.’”37 The Fire Department of the City of New York had cited the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory multiple times for failing to provide sufficient fire escapes, yet had taken no meaningful action against the owners.38 Following the tragic fire, a citizens’ Committee on Safety was established to spur workplace safety legislation.
Her activism on worker safety took a turn when she was having tea with friends in New York’s Washington Square one spring afternoon in 1911, a full two decades before the start of the New Deal.30 At the time, Perkins, then just thirty years old, was deeply engrossed in the fight for workers’ rights through her role leading the New York office of the National Consumers League. On that day, Perkins heard commotion and cries for help coming from the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory and ran to the scene, where she witnessed the “horrifying spectacle”31 of more than fifty young female workers forced to jump to their deaths from the burning building.32 The women, Perkins recalled watching, “had been holding on until that time, standing in the windowsills, being crowded by others behind them, the fire pressing closer and closer, the smoke closer and closer.”33 The ninth-floor exits had been closed by management seeking to prevent theft, keep out union organizers, and prevent walkouts.
The reforms and investigations would go beyond workplace safety to address low wages, long hours, unsanitary conditions, and child labor, with the adoption of thirty-six new laws at the city and state levels that eventually served as models for other states and for the New Deal’s labor laws in the 1930s.40 Perkins later said that the legislation in New York was a “turning point” in “American political attitudes and policies towards social responsibility,” and described the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire as “the day the New Deal was born.”41 Later, in her role as secretary of labor, Perkins led the agency to create the Bureau of Labor Standards in 1934, the first permanent federal agency established primarily to promote safety and health for workers. This was the predecessor of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which was created in 1971. IDA TARBELL: SMALL BUSINESSES UP AGAINST A MONOPOLY Another way economic domination can undercut a basic sphere of dignity is when entrepreneurs and small business owners are crushed under brutally unfair, unchecked monopolistic practices.
The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan
Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl
Every cost it can unload onto someone else is a benefit to itself, a direct route to profit. Patricia Anderson's family's burns-externalities; Wendy D's exploitation and misery-externalities . These and a thousand other points of corporate darkness, from Bhopal and the Exxon Valdez to epidemic levels of worker injury and death and chronic destruction of the environment, are the price we all pay for the corporation's flawed character." The 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory disaster stands as a notorious example of a company's callous disregard for its employees. The owners of the factory in lower Manhattan's garment district had kept their employees, mostly young immigrant women, locked in to prevent them from leaving their workstations and thus slowing production . When fire broke out at the factory, the workers had no way to get out. Some of them jumped out of windows to their deaths.
Some of them jumped out of windows to their deaths. Others stayed and were burnt alive. Altogether 146 of them died. Just two years earlier, sixty thousand New York City garment workers, led by the recently formed International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, had taken to the streets to protest sweatshop conditions, low wages, and unsafe workplaces in what came to be known as "The Great Revolt." In the wake of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory blaze, half a million people protested in the streets of New York. The union continued to press for legal protections of workers, though it was not until 1938 that sweatshops, child labor, and industrial homework were finally banned by President Franklin Roosevelt's administration 's Fair Labor Standards Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act, still in force today, is typical of the system of regulatory laws designed to solve, or at least mitigate, the problem of corporate externalities.
The Next Factory of the World: How Chinese Investment Is Reshaping Africa by Irene Yuan Sun
barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, Computer Numeric Control, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, manufacturing employment, means of production, mobile money, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population
Rather than curbing industrialization to prevent its excesses, the experience of countries that have already developed show that paradoxically, further industrialization that leads to further excesses is what eventually creates the political and social pressures for regulation and reform. The history of labor protection laws in the United States makes this abundantly clear. Basic safety regulations were enacted only after horrific industrial accidents galvanized the public to press for reform. In 1911, a fire erupted at the Triangle shirtwaist factory, where young female workers had been locked in by an unsympathetic foreman, killing 146 young women in the deadliest workplace accident in New York City’s history. This tragedy was also the city’s deadliest building fire until September 11, 2001. Only in its sad aftermath were thirty-six new state laws regulating workplace safety conditions passed, even though the young women who worked and died in the factory had been agitating for better conditions for a year before the fire.11 Similarly, it took six disastrous mine blasts in 1940 for the US government to finally begin mine inspections.12 The point is not that these accidents were somehow necessary, or that we shouldn’t work toward better working conditions and accident-prevention mechanisms, but that history shows effective regulation to always come after industrialization swings into full motion, not before.
., 17–19, 21, 22–23, 73–74 supply chains, 55–57, 113 Taiwan, manufacturing in, 19, 26, 29, 184n6 Taiyuan clothing factory, 71–72 Tanzania, 41, 157 Teachers Service Commission (TSC), 131 technology automation and, 9, 55, 58–61, 172–173 downtime from malfunctioning, 114, 115 obsolete, 37 test and learn approach, 145–146 textile manufacturing, 61–66 Asian, 39 automation in, 58–61 clothing manufacturing vs., 52 Nigeria, 33–41 Thatcher, Margaret, 20 Thompson, E. P., 98, 101–102 time, concepts of, 101–103 timeshare models, 133–134 traded sectors, 94–95 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 72 Transparency International, 77, 136–137 transparency programs, 82 Triangle shirtwaist factory, 83 Trump, Donald, 72, 174 trust, 110, 123–124, 126 in local institutions, 140–141 Tung, Lawrence, 31–32, 42, 45, 61 Turkana Boy, 175 “Unable to Remain in Africa, Unable to Go Back to China” (Xiao Nie & Sang Bu), 125–126 undertakers, 85 unemployment rates, 94 union movements, 8, 102–105 women in, 102–107 working conditions and, 79–81 United Nations, 20, 93–94 Conference on Trade and Development, 146 Millennium Development Goals, 22, 153 United Nigeria Textiles, 35 United States entrepreneurial failure rates in, 114 investment in Africa, 43 labor protection laws, 83 peak manufacturing employment in, 93 size of economy in, 179n2 trade policy with Lesotho, 66, 72 USAID, 154 Uzbekistan, 73–74 Vaccine Alliance, The, 154 Vietnam, 60–61 Vodacom, 146 Vodafone, 143–144 Volkswagen, 2 vulnerable jobs, 94 Walmart, 47, 56, 95 Wang Yuan, 129–132 Washington Consensus, 20–22, 29–30, 37, 135, 180n4 Weber, Max, 135 WeChat, 124–127 Wempco, 31–32 Williamson, John, 180n4 women, in union movements, 102–105, 106 worker skills training, 129–134 working environments, 79–81 World Bank, 20–21, 37, 63, 73, 94, 114–115, 159, 174 World Health Organization, 157 World Trade Organization, 162 Wu, Mr., 84–85, 93 Xi Jinping, 173–174 Xue, John, 138–140 Zaf Gebretsadik, 120–123, 127 Zi Ran, 124–127 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply grateful to the people whom I’ve had the privilege of writing about in this book.
Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion by Elizabeth L. Cline
big-box store, business cycle, clean water, East Village, feminist movement, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the sewing machine, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, megacity, race to the bottom, Skype, special economic zone, trade liberalization, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, Veblen good
In 1909, twenty thousand New York City garment workers, many of them teenage girls, went on strike and demanded better pay and working conditions at their jobs. Garment workers at the time worked thirteen-hour days, had no days off, and made about $6 a week, according to historical information collected by the AFL-CIO. Some of the strikers were beaten up and taken to jail; some were even shot. Among the strikers were workers from the doomed Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, which made those ubiquitous turn-of-the-century blouses with the high collar, puffed sleeves, and cinched waists. Two years after the “Strike of 20,000,” the infamous fire at the Triangle factory occurred. The fire caused national outrage, with four hundred thousand people attending the funeral procession in New York. It was the catalyst for quick and wide-reaching social change. A Factory Investigating Commission was set up and more than thirty state workplace safety and employment laws were passed within two years.
., 210 recycling: of clothing, 122–23, 125, 128 of textiles, 128–31, 133, 135–37, 212 Reebok, 154 Refashion Co-Op, 201 refashioning, 134, 200–202, 206 ReFashionista, 200 Reference, 46 Reid, Sally, 44, 149–50, 165 Reilly, Joan, 75 repair: of clothing, 132, 193–94, 197, 201, 220 of shoes, 132–33, 218–19 Rice, Paul, 159 Richford, Rhonda, 31 Riley, Robert, 74–75 Rinaldi, Don, 132–33 Roark Collective, 211 Rock & Republic, 66 Ross, Robert, 144 Rucci, Ralph, 71–72, 75 Rudes, Jeff, 43 Rue 21, 2 Rykiel, Sonia, 68, 73 Saipan, 146 Salvation Army, 10, 119–20, 126–27, 130, 136–37 Sanchez, Julio Cesar, 138–39, 140 Sarazcloset.com, 202 Save the Garment Center, 87, 214 Scafidi, Susan, 105–9, 111, 112 Schenkenberg, Marcus, 30 Schrader, Abe, 39, 66, 85 Schullström, Ingrid, 145 Schultz, Lisa, 18 Schwartz, David, 98 Scott, Tristan, 207–12, 215, 217 Ship ’n Shore, 87 shopping malls, 26 ShopSmart, 121 seamstresses and tailors, 9, 10, 42, 58, 80–81, 87, 194 Searching for Style, 65 Sears, 21, 53, 81 Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles (SMART), 130 secondhand clothing, 201–2 exporting of, 135–36, 137 refashioning of, 134, 200–202, 206 thrift stores, 9–10, 119–21, 126–28, 130–32, 136–37, 188–89, 199, 204 see also vintage clothing Service and Style: How Department Stores Fashioned the Middle Class (Whitaker), 20, 80–81, 93 Seventeen, 23, 85–86 Sex and the City, 33, 64, 65, 76 sewing machines, 42, 138–39, 192–96 sergers, 82 sewing your own clothes, 9, 80–81, 85–87, 187–88, 190–200, 206 refashioning used items, 134, 200–201, 206 Sheen, Charlie, 19 shoedazzle.com, 122 shoes, 122, 132 repairing of, 132–33, 218–19 shopping hauls, 13–15, 122 Siegle, Lucy, 125, 135, 136 Simmel, Georg, 115 Single, 213 Six Items or Less, 191 slow fashion, 190, 208–10, 216, 220 slow food, 190, 208 Sonia Rykiel, 68, 73 South China Morning Post, 173 sportswear, 45 Sprigman, Chris, 110 Starbuck, Eliza, 60–61, 73, 89–90, 191, 203–6, 212 Starr, Malcolm, 39 Steele, Valerie, 80, 86, 103–4 Stone, Sharon, 19 Stubin, Eric, 129–31, 133 Sussman, Nadia, 55–56 Swapaholics, The, 202 sweaters, 214 Swimmer, Susan, 19–20 Syracuse University, 146–47 tailors and seamstresses, 9, 10, 42, 58, 80–81, 87, 194 Talbots, 146 Target, 2, 6, 15, 19, 22–24, 30–34, 69, 70, 77, 78, 91, 113, 131, 146, 213, 221 Isaac Mizrahi and, 24, 28, 33, 70 Missoni and, 69–71 Tech Talk, 71 textile manufacturing: in China, 123–24, 165 environmental impact of, 123–25 factories, 48–51, 123–24 with man-made fibers, 83–85, 124–25 textile recycling, 128–31, 133, 135–37, 212 Textile World, 84 Theory, 114 Thomas, Dana, 67, 68 thrift stores, 9–10, 119–21, 126–28, 130–32, 136–37, 188–89, 199, 204 Time, 22, 76, 98, 196 Times (London), 101 T.J. Maxx, 2, 8, 13, 30 TNS Mills, 50 Today Show, The, 19 Tommy Hilfiger, 18, 23, 24, 67, 91, 141, 146 Topshop, 100 Trans-Americas Trading Co., 129–30, 133 Trebay, Guy, 110 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, 44, 142–43 Trovata, 109 Tucker, 114 Ullman, Myron, 95–96 Umbro, 40, 148, 181 Uniform Project, 191 unions, 38, 44, 48, 51, 140–44, 154, 155, 163 UNIQLO, 2, 33, 70 UNIS, 60 UNITE HERE, 48 Universal Studios, 40 Urban Outfitters, 13, 43, 60–61, 73, 204, 205 USA Today, 202 Usigan, Ysolt, 71 Valentino, 62, 63 Van Meter, Jonathan, 17, 19 Variety, 31 Varsity, 148 Veblen goods, 77 Versace, 6 Very Sweet Life, 187–88 Very Sweet Life, 190 VF, 181 Victoria’s Secret, 189 videos, YouTube, 12, 13–15, 122 Vietnam, 165, 180 vintage clothing, 133–34, 135, 201–2, 204 designs copied from, 112–13, 120 refashioning of, 134, 200–202, 206 Vogue, 17, 22, 30, 31, 34, 64, 65, 114, 171 Vogue.com, 113 von Furstenberg, Diane, 62, 110, 171 Wagner, Robert, 143 Wagner, Stacy, 158 Wall Street Journal, 43, 92, 93, 95 Walmart, 2, 12, 13, 15, 18, 23, 24, 26–27, 30, 31, 70, 95, 96, 100, 131, 144, 181 factories and, 144–48, 151, 159 Walton, Sam, 95 Wanamaker’s, 1 Ward, Andy, 36–38, 41, 43, 45, 52, 53, 142, 214 Warner Brothers, 148 Washington Monthly, 53, 148 Washington Post, 132, 185 well-spent.com, 60 What’s in a Dress?
The Road to Character by David Brooks
Cass Sunstein, coherent worldview, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, follow your passion, George Santayana, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, New Journalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile
Perkins spoke in the upper-crust tones befitting her upbringing—like Margaret Dumont in the old Marx Brothers movies or Mrs. Thurston Howell III—with long flat a’s, dropped r’s, and rounded vowels, “tomaahhhto” for “tomato.” A butler rushed in and announced that there was a fire near the square. The ladies ran out. Perkins lifted up her skirts and sprinted toward it. They had stumbled upon the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, one of the most famous fires in American history. Perkins could see the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors of the building ablaze and dozens of workers crowding around the open windows. She joined the throng of horrified onlookers on the sidewalk below. Some saw what they thought were bundles of fabric falling from the windows. They thought the factory owners were saving their best material.
But if you serve the work—if you perform each task to its utmost perfection—then you will experience the deep satisfaction of craftsmanship and you will end up serving the community more richly than you could have consciously planned. And one sees this in people with a vocation—a certain rapt expression, a hungry desire to perform a dance or run an organization to its utmost perfection. They feel the joy of having their values in deep harmony with their behavior. They experience a wonderful certainty of action that banishes weariness from even the hardest days. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire wasn’t the only event that defined Frances Perkins’s purpose in life, but it was a major one. This horror had been put in front of her. And like many people, she found a fiercer resolve amid a flood of righteous rage. It wasn’t just that so many people had died—after all, they could not be brought back to life; it was also the “ongoing assault on the common order that the fire came to symbolize.”
Do You Mind if I Cancel?: (Things That Still Annoy Me) by Gary Janetti
And just underneath that, its twin voice whispering: “Why not you? Why hasn’t it happened for you yet? Why is it easier for everyone else? It’s not fair!!” During this time, I’m working the overnight shift four days a week. I’m off the other three. More time to not write. I live in a sixth-floor walk-up on Christopher Street in a rent-controlled apartment. The kind of tenement building that you usually see in movies about Italian immigrants or the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Walking my bicycle up and down the six flights of stairs to ride to and from the hotel. In my early twenties I work as a bicycle teen-tour leader for American Youth Hostels, an organization that has long since gone out of business, probably because they had people as unqualified as myself leading their tours. (Two of the kids on my trips were hit by cars, not my fault, but I’ll admit it makes me look unlucky at best.)
Alistair Cooke's America by Alistair Cooke
Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, interchangeable parts, joint-stock company, Maui Hawaii, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl, wage slave, Works Progress Administration
The country must stop talking about German-Americans and Italian-Americans and Polish-Americans: ‘We have room for but one language here, and that is the English language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Americans.’ There must be no more ‘hyphenated Americans.’ Roosevelt’s aim was a double one: to liberate the immigrant from his daily grind in a polyglot compound, and to set him free from the hampering liabilities of his native tongue. The first aim did not begin to be achieved until 1911, when there was an appalling fire in New York’s Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. It took a hundred and forty lives, roused the needle workers to go on strike, and wakened the public conscience. And at the end of it, the airless sweatshop, with its two exits leading to one rickety staircase, was abolished by New York State law. So was the peddling out of piecework to the immigrant’s home. It took this trauma to start the Jewish garment workers organizing in unions for decent hours and tolerable wages, and it marked the fiery beginning of their emergence into New York politics.
John 51, 52–3 Smith, Sir Thomas 49 Smithsonian Institution 288 Spanish explorations 20–37. see also New Spain Spice Islands 21 Staël, Mme de 205 Stamp Act 78, 92 Standard Oil Company of Ohio 195 Stanford, Leland 174 steamboats 151, 152 steel industry 196–7 Stevenson, Adlai E. 225 stock market crash (1929) 245–6 stockyards 176 Strategic Air Command 272–6 suburbs 283–5, 286 Supreme Court 113–16, 155, 156, 164, 222, 223, 249, 289, 290 Sutherland, Justice George 115 Sutter, Johann August 135–6 Szilard, Leo 263 Taft, William Howard 224, 225 Talleyrand, Charles 129 Tammany organization 217, 230 taxation of the colonies 77–9, 81–2 Tecumseh (Shawnee chief) 132 telegraph, invention of 190 Teller, Edward 263 Thoroughgood, Adam 55 Tippecanoe, battle of 132 tobacco 52–3, 55, 56 Tocqueville, Alexis de 13, 15, 153 Tojo, Gen. Hideki 259 Torrio, Johnny 245 Toussaint L’Ouverture, Pierre 128 Townsend, Charles 79 Tracy, Marquis de 40–41 transcontinental railroad 171–5 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory 225 Truman, Harry 164, 235, 247, 266, 290 Tudor, Frederic 282–3 Turkey Red wheat 11, 178 Turner, Nat 291 Twain, Mark 1, 4, 7 Tweed, William Marcy “Boss” 217 United Nations 102, 266–8, 271, 293 United States Steel Corp. 197, 223 Ustinov, Peter 71 Valley Forge, Pa. 89, 293 Vanderbilt, Cornelius 200 Vanderbilt, William K. 201 Verrazano, Giovanni 37 Versailles, Treaty of 231, 231–2, 234 Vespucci, Amerigo 19 Victoria (queen) 119, 178, 181, 206 Vietnam War 269–70 Vinci, Leonardo da 22 Voltaire 46 wagon trains 137–43, 145 Walker, Thomas 123 War of 181–2, 132 Warren, Chief Justice Earl 116, 290 Warren Joseph 80 Washington, George 74, 78, 87–90, 91, 99, 102, 103, 105, 107, 108, no, 132, 162, 209, 253, 254, 258, 293 Washington, Martha 88, 89 Wells, H.
Operation Chaos: The Vietnam Deserters Who Fought the CIA, the Brainwashers, and Themselves by Matthew Sweet
Berlin Wall, British Empire, centre right, computer age, Donald Trump, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, South China Sea, Stanford prison experiment, Thomas Malthus, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra, éminence grise
“You don’t have to say anything,” she declared. “I know it already!” In Warren’s little apartment in Frankfurt, packed with deserter revolutionaries, Cooky Pollack told stories of pre-war radicalism. She spoke of her flight from Russia after the failed 1905 revolution. How she’d done political organizing among the cloth cutters and prostitutes of New York. She told the story of the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, in which 146 New York garment workers, mostly Jewish immigrants like her, were burned or choked to death; how some had jumped to their deaths because the owner had locked the exits to prevent workers taking unauthorized breaks. She told them of the optimism she had felt in the 1920s and ’30s. (“We thought we had it in our hands!” she said.) And she told them of the great blow that came in the late 1940s, when the FBI indicted the leadership of the American Communist Party, and she and her husband went to a CP meeting in the Adirondacks, where a rented mob attacked the delegates.
John Bosco High School Stockholm Stockholm Research Collective Stockholm University Stone, Roger Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, “Star Wars”) 175 Strollo, Vincent Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Suall, Irwin Suburban Life Sullivan, Ed Svahnström, Bertil Swarthmore College Sweden deserters find asylum in draft resisters find exile in EAP and elections of 1968 elections of 1979 elections of 2014 GLADIO and Palme assassination and political neutrality of public cools toward American exiles in Vale moves to welfare state withdraws asylum for deserters Sweden: Heaven and Hell (film) Swedish Aliens Commission Swedish anti-war movement Swedish Committee for Vietnam Swedish Death Index “Swedish Deserters” (CIA précis) Swedish Film Institute Swedish intelligence Swedish Ministry of the Interior Swedish National Archives Swedish police Sylvia, Robert Symbionese Liberation Army Syvriotis, Nick Takman, John Talbott, Strobe Tarpley, Webster Tate, Charles Tavistock Institute Taxi Driver (film) Taylor, Thomas Tegin-Gaddy, Kerstin Temple University, Third World Solidarity rally Terrorists, The (Sjöwall and Wahlöö) Terry Whitmore, for Example (film) There Are No Naughty Children (Israel and Israel) They Would Have Died Anyway (Ekberg) Third State of Imperialism, The (LaRouche) Thorsson, Inga Three Fs of Charm, The (Foley) Tibet Tidsignal (student newspaper) Time Time to Live, A (film) Tito, Josip Broz Tokyo University Tomkiewicz, Stanislaus Torres, Jose Torsåker farm torture Tracy, Spencer Trap, The (TV drama) Treml, Vladimir Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Trier, Lars von Trotsky, Leon Trotskyists Trotsky: The Prophet Armed (Deutscher) Trump, Donald Trump, Melania Tuesday (newspaper supplement) Turgenev, Ivan Turk, Larry Turkish-Syrian border Turner, Stansfield Tyresö suburb UFOs Ukraine Ulvaeus, Björn Umiliani, Piero Underground Railway Underwood, Lamont Claxton Union of American Exiles in Britain United Committee of South Slavic Americans United Nations Conference on the Human Environment United Press International (UPI) U.S.
Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (And Other Concerns) by Mindy Kaling
Right and trying to find jobs—but who also bust ghosts. I’m not an idiot, though. I know the demographic for Ghostbusters is teenage boys, and I know they would kill themselves if two ghostbusters had a makeover at Sephora. I just have always wanted to see a cool girl having her first kiss with a guy she’s had a crush on, and then have to excuse herself to go trap the pissed-off ghosts of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire or something. In my imagination, I am, of course, one of the ghostbusters, with the likes of say, Emily Blunt, Taraji Henson, and Natalie Portman. Even if I’m not the ringleader, I’m definitely the one who gets to say “I ain’t afraid a no ghost.” At least the first time. Contributing Nothing at Saturday Night Live I WAS A dreadful guest writer on Saturday Night Live. Not like, destructively bad or anything, just a useless, friendly extra body in the SNL offices eating hamburgers for free, like Wimpy from Popeye.
The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation by Carl Benedikt Frey
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, factory automation, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, game design, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, oil shock, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Turing test, union organizing, universal basic income, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game
Among the many casualties, one proprietor of a large paper mill in Lambertville, New Jersey, got his clothing caught in the shafts and “was thrown violently to the floor and the top of his head was torn off.”14 Another engineer in Newark, New Jersey, was “crushed to a pulp” after he was trapped in the shafts of the engine. Beyond machinery accidents, explosions and fires were a constant threat. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire of 1911 in New York City, described by the news media as the “the worst calamity that has befallen us since the burning of the Slocum,” cost the lives of 148 workers, most of them young women.15 As fire ravaged the factory, many people jumped out of the windows—only to be picked up either squashed or fearfully injured. Few of the workers who escaped death but were left seriously injured or disabled received any meaningful compensation to support themselves and their families.
., 152 steam engine: development of, 73; economic virtuosity of, 107; impact of on aggregate growth, 136; universal application of, 249 steel production, changed nature of, 13 Stephenson, George, 109 Stevenson, Betsey, 336 stocking-frame knitting machine, 10, 54, 76 strikes, protection of car companies from, 276 “stylized facts of growth,” 205 subjective well-being, 255 Summers, Lawrence, 261, 349 supercomputers, 290 supply of technology, obstacles to, 77 “symbolic analysts,” 235 task simplification, example of, 311 tax credits, 355–58 taxing and spending, redistributive, 271 tax revenue, 133 technological gap (1500–1700), 51 technology companies, location decisions of, 260 telephone operator, vanishing of, 201 telescope, 59 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Act of 1933, 363 Tesla, Nikola, 152 textile industry, 38, 55, 95 Thirty Years’ War, 58 Thompson, E. P., 90 3D printing, 22 three-field system, 42 Tiberius, Roman Emperor, 40 Tilly, Charles, 58 Tinbergen, Jan, 14, 213, 225 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 147, 207, 270 Toffler, Alvin, 257 Torricelli, Evangelista, 52, 76 tractor use, expansion of, 196 trade, expansion of, 68 trade unions, emergence of, 190 treaty ports, 88 Trevithick, Richard, 109 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (1911), 194 truck driver, 340–41 trucker culture, ending of the heyday of, 171 Trump, Donald, 278, 280, 286, 331 Tugwell, Rexford G., 179 Tull, Jethro, 54 Turing test, 317 Turnpike Trusts, 108 Twain, Mark, 21, 165, 208 typewriter, 161–62 typographers, computer’s effect on jobs and wages of, 247 unemployment, 246, 254; AI-driven, 356; American social expenditure on, 274; average duration of, 177; blame for, 141; fear of, 113; mass, fears of, 366; technological, 12, 117 union security agreements, 257 United Auto Workers (UAW) union, 276 United Nations, 305 universal basic income (UBI), 355 universal white male suffrage, 270 unskilled work, 350 urban-rural wage gap, 209 Ure, Andrew, 97, 104, 119 U.S.
The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the sewing machine, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management
Though garment making might seem a safe occupation, particularly when contrasted with laboring in a steel mill or coal mine, conditions in the industry were not pleasant. The female immigrant workers who dominated work in the apparel industry, in addition to receiving low wages and working long hours, suffered from unsafe working conditions. Needles could pierce fingers and sometimes require finger amputations. Workers were typically locked in the rooms. Perhaps the best-known disaster in U.S. manufacturing history was the New York City Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in March 1911, in which 148 employees died, most of them young women, in conditions very similar to those of the Bangladesh clothing factory fires of 2012–13: As flames spread throughout the eighth floor, workers jumped to their deaths. Scores of charred bodies were found piled against closed doors. They had been kept bolted, a newspaper reported, to safeguard employers from the loss of goods by the departure of workers.57 There were fire escapes, but they could not handle the 700 fleeing workers.
., 196, 414 music, 411; digital media for, 435–38; on phonograph records, 186–90, 204, 411; post-World War II, 427–29, 439; on radio, 192, 195, 196, 421 Myspace (social network), 456 Nader, Ralph, 400 nails, 110 narcotic drugs, 222–23 National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 194, 413 National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters, 309 National Bureau of Standards, 562 National Cancer Act (1971), 470 National Industrial Recovery Act (1933–1935), 542 National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act; 1935), 543 natural gas, 634 NBC Symphony, 196 Nelson, Richard, 573 Netflix, 436–37 net investment, 586–87 networks: for cell phones, 430–31; Internet as, 442–43, 453–57; for medical care, 494–95; radio, 194; social, 456–57; television, 416–17, 425–26 Newcomen,, Thomas, 568 New Deal, 15, 18; legislation and programs of, 315–17; Social Security during, 516; wages increased during, 541–43, 548 new molecular entities (NMEs), 479 New Orleans, Battle of, 4 news, 433–35; Internet for, 443; movie newsreels, 200; post-World War II broadcasting of, 411; radio broadcasting of, 196; World War II broadcasts of, 413–14 newspapers, 172, 174–77; in 1870, 49; decline of, 433–35 Newsweek (magazine), 434 New York (New York): air travel between Chicago and, 396–97; air travel between Los Angeles and, 398; bacteriological laboratory in, 218; buses in, 160; early television in, 415–16; elevated trains in, 147; General Slocum disaster in, 239; housing in, 102–3; Ladies’ Protective Health Association in, 221; long-distance telephone service for, 183, 185; omnibus service in, 143–44; rail transport between Chicago and, 133, 135, 136, 140; subways in, 130, 148; tenements in, 97; Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in, 272; World’s Fair (1939–1940) in, 356, 363, 413, 592 New York Stock Exchange, 582 nickelodeons, 198–99, 205 Nixon, Richard, 357, 419 nonwhites: life expectancy of, 212; See also blacks Nordhaus, William: on global warming, 634; on Moore’s Law, 446; on price of light, 119; on value of health and life expectancy, 242–44, 323 nursing schools, 230 nutrition. See diet; food Obama, Barack, 628–29 Obamacare (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; 2010), 493–95, 496–97 obesity, 345–47, 371, 469 O’Brien, Jeffrey, 479 occupations: from 1870 to 2009, 254–56; distribution of, 52–54; gender differences in, 509–10; licensing of, 649; polarization hypothesis on, 615–16; transformations in, 249 O’Conner, Sandra Day, 505–6 The Official Guide of the Railways, 138 oil changes, for automobiles, 386 old age.
See labor unions Traffic Service Position System (TSPS), 430 transistors, 430, 571 transportation: air travel, 393–400; automobiles replace horses for, 149–52; driverless cars for, 599–601; horses for, 143–45; internal combustion engines invented for, 374; Interstate Highway System for, 389–93; inventions in, during and after Civil War, 4; paved roads for, 157–59; post-World War II, 376–78, 525; railroads for, 47–48; steam-powered railroads for, 132–42; streetcars for, 146–47; transition in, 129–32; See also automobiles travel: Internet for, 456; See also air travel; personal travel; transportation traveling salesmen, 290 Treaty of Ghent (1814), 4 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, 272 trolley cars (streetcars), 146–47 Trollope, Anthony, 40–41 Trout, Robert, 196 trucks, 376; driverless, 599–600 True Story (magazine), 177 tuberculosis, 466 Turner, Damian, 483 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 112 turnpikes, 159 Twain, Mark, 126, 419 typewriters, 452 Uchitelle, Louis, 498 underemployment, 626 Underwood, William, 72 unemployment, 272–73, 328, 643; benefits for, 315; decline in, 604; education and, 513–14; New Deal programs and, 316 unions.
I Hate the Internet: A Novel by Jarett Kobek
Anne Wojcicki, Burning Man, disruptive innovation, East Village, Edward Snowden, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, liberation theology, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, packet switching, PageRank, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Whole Earth Catalog
These girls ain’t on the side of the angels. Many women have worked for the devil. It’s a tradition, darlings. How else does one explain that ghastly thing known as Sarah Palin? All these crazy young ones are lining up to burn in their very own Shirtwaist Factories, screaming that they’re empowered by the very technology that’s set them aflame. Remember, the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house.” The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire was one of the great disasters in American life. It happened in 1911 on Washington Square in New York City. It happened in a building that is now part of New York University’s campus. Back in New York, whenever Baby and Adeline had walked past the building in question, Adeline asked odd questions like, “Baby, when you’re attending classes in that building, do you ever feel as if a shade will reach out from the netherworld and clutch you in its grasp?
The Narcissist Next Door by Jeffrey Kluger
Albert Einstein, always be closing, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Columbine, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, impulse control, Jony Ive, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, twin studies, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game
John Patterson, the head of National Cash Register, toyed with his senior employees like a cat with a yarn ball, firing top executives and then rehiring them, simply to break their spirits. Clothing makers Max Blanck and Isaac Harris were so concerned with cutting losses at their sweatshop on the upper floors of a building near Washington Square Park in Manhattan that they locked the doors from the outside to prevent their workers—mostly young women and girls—from making off with the merchandise. The company was the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, and when a fire broke out there on March 25, 1911, many of the trapped girls had no choice but to jump to their deaths on the sidewalk below. Ultimately, 146 of them perished. The workplace has never been a democracy, and it wasn’t designed to be. Companies without a clear organizational chart and well-defined lines of power sound wonderfully collaborative, except for the fact that they almost always fail.
Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Members of the IWW worked toward the elimination of the capitalist state, which they thought to be incompatible with democracy.40 They also campaigned in favor of free speech, suing state and local governments, and their radicalism left them open to state repression.41 In New York, New Jersey, and Massachusetts, garment workers’ unions, supported by the Socialist Party, mounted great strikes under the aegis of the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL).42 White, male craft union leaders asserted that employees could negotiate fair contracts with their employers; women employees, who were paid less as a matter of course, did not agree.43 The WTUL supported “protective legislation” that used assumptions about women’s greater physical weakness or their importance as mothers to target women for shorter hours and for minimum wages. Protective legislation established entities like wages boards and arbitration tribunals and supported the appointment of female factory inspectors, interposing the power of the state between employer and employee.44 The sacrifice of 146 women to industrial excess in the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire showed just how necessary these protections were. The employers of these young, immigrant workers had locked the exit doors of the building in order to deter theft, so that women had a choice between flinging themselves from the ninth-floor windows of the ten-story Asch building or burning to death.45 Democrats and Republicans attempted to appeal to workers by claiming that their platforms promoted economic prosperity for all.
Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux
back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
Furthermore, he argues, “Having slipped catastrophes like the 1914–1945 worldwide conflicts (with 100 million dead), or the nuclear threat of the 44 cold war years that followed, there are also reasonable grounds to believe we can work out our problems. The daily advances in science and technology lend hope that on balance things can be even better.”17. Unfortunately for them, the nineteen-year-olds whose futures were blown to pieces at Verdun, Iwo Jima, or Khe Sanh; the young immigrant women incinerated in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire; and the kidnapped slaves from Africa worked to death on cotton plantations did not “slip the catastrophes” of history. We cannot ask them if their sacrifices were worth it. If we could, it is unlikely that most of them would have volunteered to die or suffer in order to produce our world. People will sacrifice—though not nearly as much as our mythology teaches—for their living children or grandchildren, but hardly ever for descendants unborn, and never for someone else’s unborn progeny.
No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein
Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor
Germany: 30 percent of energy comes from renewables US Energy Information Administration, “Germany’s Renewables Electricity Generation Grows in 2015, but Coal Still Dominant,” Today in Energy, May 24, 2016, https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=26372. Howard Zinn: “The really critical thing isn’t…” Howard Zinn, Terrorism and War (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002), 110. Remembering When We Leapt 1911 fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City: death toll “The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire,” Occupational Safety and Health Administration website, accessed April 18, 2017, https://www.osha.gov/oas/trianglefactoryfire-account.html. When Utopia Lends a Hand Gilded Age strikers: “cooperative commonwealth” Alex Gourevitch, From Slavery to the Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015), http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/files/history-culture-society-workshop/files/introduction_and_chapter_4.pdf.
The Future Won't Be Long by Jarett Kobek
Berlin Wall, British Empire, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban decay, wage slave, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional
Like the way in which an entire society, regardless of individual affiliations, can internalize and metastasize bad ideas as solid actualities despite all the evidence to the contrary. Like how if there is a hell, every American citizen is going there and when we arrive we will see these images projected on rocky walls in a random and repeating order: a manacled slave, a Cherokee walking on bloody stumps, the charred flesh of a woman throwing herself out of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, a Vietnamese girl inhaling Agent Orange, a queen being bashed at the corner of Sullivan and Houston, and a ten-year-old Chinese boy building a television. Like the way my mother used to tuck me into bed when I was eight years old. Like the way that my father hugged and kissed me. Like the way that my family wouldn’t tell me that my grandmother was dead until she was buried. Like the way that one unexpected death causes decades of suffering.
More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
Female workers were treated even worse. The match girls at Britain’s Bryant and May factory worked from 8am in winter and 6.30am in summer and continued until 6pm, with breaks of 30 minutes for breakfast and an hour for lunch. The work was done standing up and paid 4 shillings a week, but girls could be fined 3d for talking or going to the toilet without permission.96 In 1911, 146 workers died (123 of them women) when the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York caught fire. The owners had locked the doors to the stairwells to prevent theft and unauthorised breaks.97 The growing militancy of unions across Europe worried governments, who feared that they might form the basis for a broader revolutionary movement. This may have encouraged some governments to take a more aggressive approach to foreign policy and to use patriotism as a way of distracting workers from their economic concerns.
Adaptive Markets: Financial Evolution at the Speed of Thought by Andrew W. Lo
"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, Arthur Eddington, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, backtesting, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, break the buck, Brownian motion, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Carmen Reinhart, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, diversification, diversified portfolio, double helix, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Ernest Rutherford, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, framing effect, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, housing crisis, incomplete markets, index fund, interest rate derivative, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, martingale, merger arbitrage, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, old-boy network, out of africa, p-value, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, prediction markets, price discovery process, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, RAND corporation, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sam Peltzman, Shai Danziger, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical arbitrage, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, Thales and the olive presses, The Great Moderation, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, US Airways Flight 1549, Walter Mischel, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
As a toddler, Pete was taken away by Child Protection Services because of his frequent injuries, and kept under observation at a local hospital, only to have his foot break there and remain undiscovered for a day and a half. As an adult, Pete has experienced so many injuries to his left knee that his leg may require amputation. Why does this happen? Because people with congenital analgesia lack the feedback to prevent the injurious behaviors that pain warns us about. Many regulations arise from pain. I learned in grade school about the horrible fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in Manhattan on March 25, 1911, when 146 young garment workers—129 women and 17 men—died, many by jumping from the flames from the upper stories of the factory building. New York State passed sixty new laws regarding Fixing Finance • 379 worker safety over the next two years and new organizations such as the American Society of Safety Engineers were formed. Today, all commercial buildings are required to have a number of safety features such as sprinkler systems, fire alarms, maximum occupancy limits, and clearly marked emergency exits that trigger the alarms when they’re used.
The Rough Guide to New York City by Martin Dunford
Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, buttonwood tree, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Thorp, Exxon Valdez, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, market bubble, Norman Mailer, paper trading, post-work, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, Yogi Berra, young professional
Turn-of-the-century development CONTEXTS | History 436 In 1898, boosted by the first wave of Asian immigrants, New York’s population topped three million for the first time, making it the largest city in the world. Nearly half its residents were foreign-born, with Ellis Island, the depot that processed arrivals, handling two thousand people a day. Many immigrants worked in sweatshops for the city’s growing, notoriously exploitative garment industry. Although workers began to strike for better pay and conditions, it took the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (see p.106) to rouse public and civic conscience; within months the state passed 56 factory-reform measures, and unionization spread through the city. On the upside of New York’s capitalist expansion, the early 1900s saw some of the city’s wealth going into adventurous new architecture. In Soho classical facades were mass-produced from cast iron, and the Flatiron Building of 1902 announced the arrival of what was to become the city’s trademark – the skyscraper.
Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor
bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra
The largest single industrial accident in the United States was directly caused by smoking: in 1947 careless handling of cigarettes was blamed for igniting 2,600 tons of ammonium nitrate on a ship in the harbor of Texas City, Texas, killing six hundred people and causing an explosion so powerful it knocked planes from the sky. Smoking caused the crash of a Russian-made Ilyushin-18 plane on Christmas Eve 1987 at Canton, killing twenty-three passengers. And cigarettes caused the infamous Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911, killing 146 New York City garment workers. Tobacco fires don’t get a lot of attention, but in the United States alone from 1970 through 2000, fires killed about four thousand people per year, with about a quarter of these being traceable to cigarettes.11 The tragedy is magnified by the fact that it is not that hard to make (relatively) fire-safe cigarettes: all you have to do is wrap a few tiny bands of thickened paper around the rod; these bands extinguish the cigarette unless a smoker is actively pulling on it, preventing a dropped cigarette from kindling a fire.