Boeing 737 MAX

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pages: 511 words: 132,682

Competition Overdose: How Free Market Mythology Transformed Us From Citizen Kings to Market Servants by Maurice E. Stucke, Ariel Ezrachi

affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, delayed gratification, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Garrett Hardin, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Chrome, greed is good, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, income per capita, independent contractor, information asymmetry, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, mortgage debt, Network effects, out of africa, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price anchoring, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, sunk-cost fallacy, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ultimatum game, Vanguard fund, winner-take-all economy, Yochai Benkler

-Boeing-crashes-raise-doubts-over-FAA-certification. 16.Leslie Josephs, “DOT’s Watchdog Says FAA to Improve Air Safety Oversight Procedures by This Summer,” CNBC, March 27, 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/27/faa-boeings-737-max-to-face-heat-in-congress.html. 17.Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA Efforts Have Improved Safety, but Challenges Remain in Key Areas, statement of Gerald L. Dillingham before the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, April 16, 2013, https://www.gao.gov/assets/660/653801.pdf. 18.GAO, Aviation Safety, 3; Susan Webb Yackee and Simon F. Haeder, “Boeing 737 Max: The FAA Wanted a Safe Plane—but Didn’t Want to Hurt America’s Biggest Exporter Either,” The Conversation, March 22, 2019, https://theconversation.com/boeing-737-max-the-faa-wanted-a-safe-plane-but-didnt-want-to-hurt-americas-biggest-exporter-either-113892; Testimony of Daniel K.

Feezell, Coaching for Character: Reclaiming the Principles of Sportsmanship (Champaign IL: Human Kinetics, 1997), 15. 5.Brooksley Born, interview, Frontline, PBS, October 20, 2009, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/warning/interviews/born.html. 6.The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report, 34. 7.Testimony of Alan Greenspan before the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, April 7, 2010, https://fcic.law.stanford.edu/hearings/testimony/subprime-lending-and-securitization-and-enterprises, 92–93. 8.Financial Crisis Inquiry Report, xviii. 9.Theo Leggett, “Boeing Admits Knowing of 737 Max Problem,” BBC News, May 6, 2019, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-48174797. 10.Dominic Gates, interview, “Fatal Flaw,” 60 Minutes Australia, Nine Network, May 5, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QytfYyHmxtc. 11.“Fatal Flaw,” 60 Minutes Australia; Dominic Gates, “Long before First 737 Max Crash, Boeing Knew a Key Sensor Warning Light Wasn’t Working, but Told No One,” Seattle Times, May 5, 2019, https://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/long-before-first-737-max-crash-boeing-knew-a-key-sensor-warning-light-wasnt-working-but-told-no-one/. 12.

“Fatal Flaw,” 60 Minutes Australia; Dominic Gates, “Long before First 737 Max Crash, Boeing Knew a Key Sensor Warning Light Wasn’t Working, but Told No One,” Seattle Times, May 5, 2019, https://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/long-before-first-737-max-crash-boeing-knew-a-key-sensor-warning-light-wasnt-working-but-told-no-one/. 12.“Fatal Flaw,” 60 Minutes Australia. 13.Boeing, “About the Boeing 737 MAX,” accessed May 10, 2019, https://www.boeing.com/commercial/737max/index.page; Boeing, “737 MAX: By Design,” accessed May 10, 2019, https://www.boeing.com/commercial/737max/by-design/#/max-reliability. 14.Dominic Gates, “Facing Sharp Questions, Boeing CEO Refuses to Admit Flaws in 737 Max Design,” Seattle Times, April 29, 2019, https://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/facing-sharp-questions-boeing-ceo-refuses-to-admit-flaws-in-737-max-design/. 15.Laurent Belsie, “‘Too Cozy.’


Succeeding With AI: How to Make AI Work for Your Business by Veljko Krunic

AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, correlation coefficient, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, high net worth, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, job automation, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, minimum viable product, natural language processing, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart cities, speech recognition, statistical model, strong AI, tail risk, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, web application, zero-sum game

title=Maneuvering_Characteristics_Augmentation_System&oldid=9148 99059 Leggett T. What went wrong inside Boeing’s cockpit? BBC News. [Cited 2020 Jan 8.] Available from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/boeing_two _deadly_crashes Wikimedia Foundation. Boeing 737 MAX groundings. Wikipedia. [Cited 2020 Jan 8.] Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boeing_737 _MAX_groundings&oldid=934819447 Wikimedia Foundation. Smart city. Wikipedia. [Cited 2019 Sep 10.] Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city Tesla Autopilot—Review including full self-driving for 2019. AutoPilot Review. 2019 Apr 23 [cited 2019 Sep 7].

Playing Atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv. 2013 Dec; arXiv:1312.5602 [cs.LG]. Simonite T. When it comes to gorillas, Google Photos remains blind. WIRED. 2018 Jan 11 [cited 2018 Jul 2]. Available from: https://www.wired.com/story/when-itcomes-to-gorillas-google-photos-remains-blind/ Gallagher S. UK, Australia, others also ground Boeing 737 MAX after crash [Updated]. Ars Technica. 2019 Mar 12 [cited 2020 Jan 8]. Available from: https:// arstechnica.com/information-technology/2019/03/another-737-max-jet-crashprompts-groundings-by-china-indonesia-ethiopia/ Wikimedia Foundation. Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System. Wikipedia.


pages: 384 words: 93,754

Green Swans: The Coming Boom in Regenerative Capitalism by John Elkington

agricultural Revolution, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Boeing 737 MAX, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, deglobalization, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Rosling, impact investing, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, placebo effect, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The future is already here, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Spring. 9.Theo Leggett, “What Went Wrong Inside Boeing’s Cockpit?,” BBC News, May 17, 2019. See also: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/boeing_two_deadly_crashes. 10.Henry Grabar, “The Crash of the Boeing 737 Max Is a Warning to Drivers, Too,” Slate, March 12, 2019. See also: https://slate.com/technology/2019/03/boeing-737-max-crashes-automation-self-driving-cars-surprise.html. 11.John Gapper, “Boeing’s Hubris Blinded It to a Lurking Danger,” Financial Times, April 11, 2019. 12.Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking Press, 2005.

As it happens, Boeing had played a significant part in my family’s story, with cousins working with the company, the eldest of whom was Mr. Boeing’s personal lawyer for many years. It was one of those brands you trusted, literally, with your life. But what caught the world’s attention was that this crash was the second of its type involving Boeing’s commercially successful 737 Max 8 aircraft. I have never been afraid of flying, though I have certainly had frightening moments in flight. But reading the transcripts of the last words of the doomed crew certainly gives one pause. Here is how the BBC described the last moments of the Ethiopian Airlines crew: “As alarms sounded in their cockpit, the captain and first officer struggled to regain control of their stricken aircraft.


The Myth of Artificial Intelligence: Why Computers Can't Think the Way We Do by Erik J. Larson

AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, Black Swan, Boeing 737 MAX, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Elon Musk, Ernest Rutherford, Filter Bubble, Georg Cantor, hive mind, ImageNet competition, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, retrograde motion, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yochai Benkler

Another reason deduction falls endlessly victim to relevance prob­ lems is that ­there are, invariably, many pos­si­ble ­causes for the occurrence of something in our day-­to-­day experience (and in science). Accidents like aircraft crashes, for instance, can typically be analyzed by pointing to proximate (close by) and distal (farther away) ­causes, together explaining the disaster. Take the recent Boeing tragedies. After two crashes of Boeing 737 Max planes occurred in the span of six months in 2018, investigators discovered a software glitch in an anti-­stall system, the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAT). A redesign of the older Boeing 737–800 114 T he P rob­lem of I nference had enabled larger engines to be fitted, but only by placing them forward of and slightly above the wings.

It was also discovered that pi­lots of the new Max received inadequate training. This was surely not helped by Boeing’s marketing pitch for its redesigned aircraft, claiming that the Max would not require expensive retraining of pi­lots already trained on the 737–800. Thus, the tragic crashes can be attributed to multiple ­causes. Inferring why Boeing’s 737 Max crashed involves considering a number of pos­si­ble ­causes, and perhaps no single cause by itself fully accounts for the catastrophes. Deduction ­can’t speak to ­these real-­world scenarios. By requiring that inferences must certainly be true, deduction invariably misses what might be true, in contexts where relevance is determined by a mix of ­factors that a­ ren’t necessary but still are operative in certain situations.

By requiring that inferences must certainly be true, deduction invariably misses what might be true, in contexts where relevance is determined by a mix of ­factors that a­ ren’t necessary but still are operative in certain situations. In Plato’s universe of unchanging forms, triangles must have three sides, and some ­things are True with a capital T. In messy experience, few ­things we witness or analyze are like triangles. Th ­ ey’re like the Boeing 737 Max—or an ordinary conversation (as ­we’ll see). Intelligence—­ whatever it is—is more than deductions. We are cognitive systems ourselves, and it’s clear that ­we’re not only deductive systems. Successful human-­level AI, this suggests, c­ an’t be wholly deductive e­ ither. P rob­lems with D eduction and I nduction 115 ­A fter the failure of what critics dubbed “good old-­fashioned artificial intelligence,” which dominated AI before the modern era (up through the 1990s), AI scientists abandoned deductive approaches to inference en masse.


pages: 272 words: 76,154

How Boards Work: And How They Can Work Better in a Chaotic World by Dambisa Moyo

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Boeing 737 MAX, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, don't be evil, Donald Trump, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global pandemic, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, long term incentive plan, Lyft, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, old-boy network, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, remote working, Ronald Coase, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, surveillance capitalism, The Nature of the Firm, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, WeWork, women in the workforce

“Global Investors Driving Business Transition.” www.climateaction100.org. Coase, R. H. “The Nature of the Firm.” Economica 4, no. 16 (November 1937): 386–405. www.jstor.org/stable/2626876?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. Cohan, Peter. “Delays in Boeing’s 737 MAX and 777X Could Weigh on Stock.” Forbes, June 6, 2019. www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2019/06/06/delays-in-boeings-737-max-and-777x-could-weigh-on-stock/#61de1af3e678. Cohn, Yafit. “Independent Chair Proposals.” Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance, August 22, 2016. https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2016/08/22/independent-chair-proposals-2/.

This could come from managing a global employee base, with multiple jurisdictions governing the employment rights, or from experience with the political and economic risks inherent in global trade. Achieving a balance of expertise in the boardroom is crucial. Often, in times of trouble, an imbalance in a board’s composition can help explain why a company is facing challenges. For instance, in 2019, when Boeing was dealing with two fatal 737 MAX crashes, the company was criticized for having too many board members with financial backgrounds and too few who had engineering or technological expertise and may have been better equipped to grapple with safety issues. As part of the company’s response to this criticism, in September 2019 Boeing created an aerospace safety committee on its board to oversee the development, manufacturing, and operation of its aircraft and services and to boost the transparency of engineering decisions.


pages: 482 words: 121,173

Tools and Weapons: The Promise and the Peril of the Digital Age by Brad Smith, Carol Ann Browne

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, call centre, Celtic Tiger, chief data officer, cloud computing, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, immigration reform, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, national security letter, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school vouchers, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

To the contrary, the reaction to the FAA’s delegation of some regulatory certification to Boeing during the 737 MAX certification process has reflected official and public unease. The response quickly focused on requiring that the FAA base its assessment of the plane’s safety fixes on additional outside review. Steve Miletich and Heidi Groover, “Reacting to Crash Finding, Congressional Leaders Support Outside Review of Boeing 737 MAX Fixes,” Seattle Times, April 4, 2019, https://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/reacting-to-crash-finding-congressional-leaders-support-outside-review-of-boeing-737-max-fixes/. Back to note reference 10. Ballard C.


pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

These character dispositions of pilots are formed through long bodily practice and cognitive formation. Of course, confidence and assertiveness are desirable only if the pilot (or driver) really does have an adequate grasp of the situation—a better grasp than the automation does. In October 2018, a Boeing 737 MAX 8 crashed in Indonesia, and then another plane of the same model crashed in Ethiopia in March 2019. As it happens, the 737 is one of those legacy designs that has been kept viable through iteration, as new systems get retrofitted to an airframe that never anticipated their necessity. In particular, it has been fitted with newer engines that are more fuel efficient, to keep the plane competitive.

See also driverless cars; semiautonomous cars; Uber efficiency of, 246–247 experimental designs for, 246 predictive problems of, 259 programming local social norms, 259 safety of, 86–87, 301 virtues of, 122 autonomous intersections, 21, 245–246 Autosteer, 86–89 Barbe, Emmanuel, 226 Basic Rider course, 236–237 behavior constraint, 258 behavior modification, 309 behavioral data, 304 behavioral surplus, 273, 302 behind the Martin’s, 1 being scared, tonic effect in, 15 Belgium, 267 Bennett, Bob, 290 Bergson, Henri, 169 Berkeley High School, 108 Berlin Auto Show, 139 Berlinski, Claire, 226 better self, 170 bicycle moralists, 179–183 bicycles, 12, 182–183 big data, 303 Bills, John, 221–222 The Black Box Society (Pasquale), 286–287 blueprinting an engine, 148–149 Boeing 737 MAX 8, 124 Bogost, Ian, 9–10 Boyle, T. Coraghessan, 299–300 braking, automated, 97 Brexit, 271–272 Brin, Sergey, 292 British Ford Escort, 80 brittleness of navigation systems, 99–100 Brooks, Rodney A., 113 Brown, Arthur Roy, 176 Bruges, Belgium, 267 Bulgaria, 250 Burke, Edward, 221 Cadogan, Garnette, 2 Caliente, Nevada, 200–202 Caliente 250, 22–23.


pages: 447 words: 111,991

Exponential: How Accelerating Technology Is Leaving Us Behind and What to Do About It by Azeem Azhar

23andMe, 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, digital map, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Garrett Hardin, gender pay gap, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, hiring and firing, hockey-stick growth, ImageNet competition, income inequality, independent contractor, industrial robot, intangible asset, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, price anchoring, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, subscription business, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, Tragedy of the Commons, Turing machine, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, winner-take-all economy, Yom Kippur War

At the moment, however, we can’t even have a public conversation about where these red lines are – the rules are made in private. We also need external parties to be given oversight of the outcomes of that process, such as the operation of the algorithms that shape what we do and don’t see on digital platforms. When two Boeing 737 MAX aeroplanes crashed in quick succession in 2018–19, Boeing was forced to redesign key aspects of the aircraft. The 737 MAX was not allowed to fly again until it had passed a number of safety inspections. Boeing did not decide when the revamped 737 MAX was safe to fly; the Federal Aviation Administration did.


pages: 661 words: 156,009

Your Computer Is on Fire by Thomas S. Mullaney, Benjamin Peters, Mar Hicks, Kavita Philip

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, business cycle, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dark matter, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, financial innovation, game design, glass ceiling, global pandemic, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Landlord’s Game, low-wage service sector, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, mobile money, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, the built environment, the map is not the territory, Thomas L Friedman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, union organizing, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, Y2K

Increasingly, as corporations have been able to place themselves in the role of arbiter of their own products and value, it has meant that democratic input into the process of deciding which technologies are safe, useful, or worthwhile has been short-circuited. Even with established technologies with good safety records, like commercial airliners, this can create a disaster surprisingly quickly. Before the automated MCAS system forced two Boeing 737 Max airplanes to drop out of the sky in quick succession in 2019, killing hundreds of people, Boeing engineers had argued that the system was unsafe. But they were overruled by management. Boeing was able to force the dangerous new feature through, undetected, because the government agency meant to regulate them was instead letting the corporation largely call the shots.

See also Accent, bias algorithms, 121, 127–128 antisemitic, 265 class, 4–6, 88, 136, 161–162, 174, 184, 265 class in India, 299, 302–303, 308 data, 66, 205 design-value, 81 discrimination (see Discrimination) facial recognition, 118–119 hiring, 256–257, 260–263, 267 implicit, 257, 262 societal, 152, 179–180 speech technology, 180–181, 190–191, 193 technical training, 253–254, 265 technology, 214, 218, 232 unconscious, 6, 256 Big tech, 12, 87, 191, 254–255, 257 Biometrics, 121, 128–129, 208 Bioshock, 237–238 Bioshock Infinite, 238–239 Bitcoin, 5, 44–45 BITNET, 323–324 Black. See African American(s) Black Girls Code, 255, 263 Block switching, 83 Blockchain, 44–45 Body economic, 79 national, 77–78, 86, 86t Boeing, 19–20, 23 MCAS, 19 737 Max tragedies, 19–20 Bolivia, 45 Bonaparte, Napoleon, 39 Borsdorf, Johannes H., 168–169 Boston Marathon Bombing, 120 Business Process Management, 308 Brandenburg v. Ohio, 373 Brazil, 103–104, 234, 324 BSD (programming language), 273 Bug. See also Thompson hack feature, not a, 4, 7, 18–19, 148–151, 153, 214, 223, 262, 303 Bureaucracy, 78, 80, 86t, 88, 109, 150, 175 Burmese, 339, 344, 354 Bush, Randy, 324–326 Bush, Vannevar, 348 C (programming language), 273–277, 279, 281–284, 286 backslash, 279, 281–282 commands, 279, 282–283, 285, 287 C++, 273, 275, 290 C#, 273 Objective C, 273 Cable, 5, 100–102, 104, 107, 111, 321 infrastructure, 103–104 internet, 95, 98–99 materials, 94 networks, 5 television, 315, 317 undersea, 72, 93, 99 Caldwell, Samuel Hawks, 348–350 Call centers, 5, 56 Amazon, 37 Indian, 105, 298, 302, 305, 307 Cambridge Analytica, 118 Capital, 6, 31, 202, 316, 378, 380 cultural, 299 global, 88 intensive, 277, 313–314 investment, 44, 301, 314–315, 332 physical, 46, 107 venture, 15–16, 53, 175, 255–256, 267 Capitalism, 46, 87, 171, 368 welfare, 160–161, 167, 170–174 Carceral state, 206, 208 Carlin, George, 59 Carnegie Mellon University, 257 Cart Life, 241 Cartography, 95–96, 107 Catholicism, 171, 173–175 CCM (Commercial content moderation), 56–58, 62, 66, 122 CDC (Center for Disease Control), 20 CDU (Christian Democratic Union), 170 Cellular phones (cell), 7, 306, 317, 332, 365, 378 and M-PESA, 7, 322, 326–328, 333 Safaricom, 326–328, 333 SIM card, 326–328 Chex Quest, 237 Child pornography, 6, 117–125, 127–130 limit case, 129 server storage, 383 Child Victim Identification Program, 122–123, 125 China, 7, 45, 104, 227 accent bias, 188, 189t apps, 332 Communists, 348 IMEs, 351, 357 Input Wars, 351 language, 188 People’s University (Beijing), 357 rising superpower, 153 writing interfaces, 381 Chinese keyboard, 345, 345f, 348–350, 353, 367 Chinese typewriter, 346, 350 dian, 351, 352f, 352 difficulty score, 344–345 MingKwai keyboard, 346–349, 347f, 353 and QWERTY keyboard, 338–339, 342, 346, 350–351, 353–354, 357 retrieval system, 346–347, 349–350, 353 script, 221 search writer, 350 Christian, 161, 170–171, 187 Central Intelligence Agency, 80 Cisgender, 154 Clark, David D., 71 Class bias, 4–6, 88, 136, 161–162, 174, 184, 265 capitalist, 171 dominant, 180–181, 190 equality, 80, 86t exposure, 301–302 India, 299, 302–303, 308 investor, 53 lower, 162 management, 142 Marxist, 171–173 meritocracy, 138, 150 middle, 73, 80, 86, 139, 241 technocratic, 21 upper, 300- 302 upper-middle, 18 working, 79, 141–142, 288, 301, 309 Cloud definition, 33–34 and electricity, 33–34, 44 enables other industries, 46 as factory, 7, 35–36, 42–43, 45–46, 321 and infrastructure, 33–35 kilowatt-hours required, 34 physical, 31–32, 34, 44–46 supply chain, 45 Code Arabic, 191 Assembly, 275, 277, 281, 286 Black Girls Code, 255, 263 breaking, 138–139 (Colossus) Code.org, 253, 255, 259 Code2040, 255, 260 Coding, Girls Who Code, 253, 255, 263 cultural, 302 digital, 284, 289 dress, 145, 164–165, 298 education, 6 empire, 76 #YesWeCode, 253, 264–266 HLL (high-level language), 275, 277–278, 284, 290 Hour of Code, 253, 263–264 is law, 126 platforms, 321 robotics, 201, 203, 205 social media, 59 source, 273–292 passim (see also Source code) switching, 184, 190 typing, 188, 351 writers, 24, 145, 256–259, 262–267, 300, 381 Yes We Code, 255 Code.org, 253, 255, 259 Code2040, 255, 260 Coding, Girls Who Code, 253, 255, 263 Cold War, 137, 152, 169 computer networks, 75–76, 83–84 network economy, 87 technology, 17–18, 94, 137 typewriter, 227 Collision detection, 242–243 Colonialism, 19, 91, 93, 105, 109, 245 cable networks, 93, 99, 101 colonization, 186, 378 digital, 331 Europe, 110, 147–148, 343 internet, 111, 129 language as, 186–188 metaphors, 94 stereotypes, 96, 102, 104 technocolonialist, 103–104 Colossus, 17, 139, 143 Comcast, 35 Commercial content moderation (CCM), 56–58, 62, 66, 122 Commodity computational services, 33 Common sense, 73, 96 Communications Decency Act, 60–61 Compaq, 318 Complex scripts, 188, 222, 344–345, 350 CompuServe, 320, 325 Computer anthropomorphized (see Robots) conservative force, 15 control and power, 23 critiques of, 5 men, 142 utility, 35, 320 humans as, 43, 140, 384 Computer science, 18, 58, 66, 112, 367 artificial intelligence, 58, 66 education, 256, 263 Thompson hack, 275, 291 women in, 254 Computing, 135–155 passim artificial intelligence, 56 Britain and, 21, 138, 148–152 Chinese, 350–351, 353–354 and class, 142–143 cloud, 78, 87 companies, 13, 18–19 devices, 40–41, 45 education, 368 and empire, 147–148 environment, 382 global, 350, 377 hacking, 289–291 history of, 7, 17, 35, 38, 43, 46, 137, 153–154 Latin alphabet, 357 masculinity, 263 management, 23 manufacturing, 39 media, 4–8, 377–380 meritocracy narratives, 137, 153–154, 381 networks, 77, 199, 320–321 personal, 354 power, 328 software, 318 typing and, 220, 226, 337, 339, 341, 344 underrepresented groups and, 253, 255–256, 264, 266 and women, 17, 43, 135, 139–142, 144–147 Concorde, 145, 146f Congress, 11–12, 82, 154 Content antisemitic, 265 app, 319, 321 child abuse, 118–119, 122, 125 commercial content moderation (CCM), 56–58, 62, 66, 122 filtering, 57 illegal, 62 internet, 317, 319 moderation, 54–57, 123, 126, 380–382 moderators, 5, 380–382 review, 121, 128–130 social media, 59, 61–63, 66, 232, 321, 329–331 terrorism, 57, 66, 130 violent, 117 web, 317 Contractor, 35, 53, 56, 266 CorelDraw, 298 COVID-19, 14, 20, 377 Cox, Chris, 61 Creating Your Community, 266 Creative destruction, 4 Crisis, 4, 6, 16, 21, 150, 235, 297, 383–384 Covid-19, 20 identity, 58–60 point, 13 Y2K, 104 CSNET, 81 Cybernetics, 75, 78–80, 83, 86, 86t, 88 cyberneticist, 77, 81–82 Cyberpunk, 100–101, 107, 110 Cybersyn, 75, 79–80, 85, 86t CyberTipline, 125 Dalton gang, 287–289 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 383 Dartmouth College, 235 Data biased, 66, 205 due process, 206 objective, 205 processing, 38, 40–41, 119, 206, 300 socially constructed, 205 value-neutral, 372 Data broker Salesforce, 87 SAS, 87 Data entry, 5, 104, 150, 367 David, Paul, 337–338, 351, 353, 357–358 Davies, Donald, 83 Death, 15, 120, 186, 371, 373, 379 Covid-19, 12 gaming, 233–234, 236 life-or-, 6, 206, 266 technology and dying well, 378 Decolonization, 91, 104, 111–112 Deep Blue, 7 De Kosnik, Benjamin, 108–109, 110 Dell, 318 Delphi, 290 Democratic Republic of Congo, 45 Denmark, 44, 128–129 de Prony, Gaspard, 39–40 Design values, 73–76, 84–88 American, 81–84 Chilean, 79–81 Soviet, 77–78 state, 75, 78, 80, 83, 86, 86t Devanagari, 339, 342, 344, 350, 354 Developing world, 93, 103, 105, 180, 325, 330–332 Devi, Poonam, 304 Diamond, Jared, 338, 351, 353, 357–358 Difference Engine, 40 Digital coding, 284, 289 colonialism, 91, 93–94, 103, 331 computers, 38, 41, 138 connectivity, 379 economies, 13, 22, 29, 31, 33, 35, 45, 145 forensic work, 123, 126, 128, 354 future, 101 gaming, 241 imperialism, 186–187, 191 inclusion, 303 infrastructures, 126, 151, 155 invisibility, 98, 100, 204 labor, 6, 147, 101, 354 materiality, 5 networks, 83 platforms, 66, 118, 199, 201 politics and, 110, 112 predigital, 96–97, 152 revolution, 29, 32 surveillance state, 119, 130 technology, 40, 64, 123–124, 200, 382 vigilantism, 120 Disability, 12, 15, 160 Disasters, 11–15, 19–20, 22–24, 54, 204, 338, 364 Discrimination.


pages: 651 words: 186,130

This Is How They Tell Me the World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race by Nicole Perlroth

4chan, active measures, activist lawyer, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Boeing 737 MAX, Brian Krebs, cloud computing, commoditize, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, defense in depth, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, gender pay gap, global pandemic, global supply chain, index card, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, open borders, pirate software, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ransomware, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Seymour Hersh, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

If the next 9/11 struck tomorrow, the first question we would ask ourselves is the same question we asked some two decades ago: How did we miss this? But in the two decades since 9/11, the threat landscape has been dramatically overhauled. It is now arguably easier for a rogue actor or nation-state to sabotage the software embedded in the Boeing 737 Max than it is for terrorists to hijack planes and send them careening into buildings. Threats that were only hypotheticals a decade ago are now very real. Russia proved it can turn off power in the dead of winter. The same Russian hackers who switched off the safety locks at the Saudi petrochemical plant are now doing “digital drive-bys” of American targets.


pages: 342 words: 101,370

Test Gods: Virgin Galactic and the Making of a Modern Astronaut by Nicholas Schmidle

bitcoin, Boeing 737 MAX, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, crew resource management, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, game design, Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Norman Mailer, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, trade route, twin studies, X Prize

The board hired an outsider, Dennis O’Donoghue, to review the program in search of weaknesses and vulnerabilities. O’Donoghue was a former marine and NASA test pilot. He had spent a decade at Boeing before retiring in Oregon to grow pinot noir grapes. He was the right guy at the right time for the job. Boeing’s 737 Max was having all kinds of problems—two recent accidents that killed hundreds of innocent people, grounding the fleet—and O’Donoghue, who had not conducted the safety review of that jet, felt somehow responsible; according to one Virgin employee who spoke with him, O’Donoghue felt confident that had he done the review, he would have caught the problem and those people would still be alive.


pages: 241 words: 75,417