corporate personhood

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pages: 581 words: 162,518

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights by Adam Winkler

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, desegregation, Donald Trump, financial innovation, glass ceiling, income inequality, invisible hand, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, the scientific method, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, yellow journalism

Beginning with Bank of the United States v. Deveaux, and for most of American history, corporate personhood has been deployed in precisely the opposite way from how today’s critics of Citizens United imagine. Counterintutively, it has usually been populist opponents of corporations who have argued in favor of corporate personhood. For them, treating corporations as people was a way to limit the rights of corporations. And many of the most important Supreme Court decisions extending rights to corporations did not rely on corporate personhood at all. More commonly, the Supreme Court rejected the idea that a corporation was an independent, legal person with rights and duties all its own, and instead allowed the corporation to claim the rights of its members.

Ironically, it was the famously liberal New Deal and Warren courts of the mid-twentieth century that first extended liberty rights to corporations. This long view also illuminates the nuanced role of corporate personhood in the story of corporate rights. Many critics of Citizens United believe that corporations have the same rights as individuals because the Supreme Court defines them as people. The proposed constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United is based on this idea, declaring that only human beings are people under the terms of the Constitution. Yet corporate personhood has played only a secondary role in the corporate rights movement. While the Supreme Court has on occasion said that corporations are people, the justices have more often relied upon a very different conception of the corporation, one that views it as an association capable of asserting the rights of its members.

Another issue on which corporationalists and populists disagreed was corporate personhood. From the start, the Supreme Court has wrestled with whether corporations should be considered “people” under the Constitution and what exactly that might mean. Some critics of Citizens United argue that the reason corporations have constitutional rights today is that the Supreme Court has said that corporations are people. Indeed, one proposed response to Citizens United has been a constitutional amendment to clarify that corporations are not people under the language of the Constitution and do not have the rights of people. Yet, as we will see, corporate personhood has played only a small role in the expansion of constitutional rights to corporations.


pages: 75 words: 22,220

Occupy by Noam Chomsky

corporate governance, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Martin Wolf, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, union organizing

Van de Water, “Romney Budget Proposals Would Require Massive Cuts in Medicare, Medicaid, and Other Nondefense Spending,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, revised February 16, 2012. ** Allison Kilkenny, “Report: 26 Arrested at Occupy Foreclosure Auction Blockade January 27, 2012, In These Times. †† Bailey McCann, “Cities, states pass resolutions against corporate personhood,” January 4, 2012, CivSource. http://civsourceonline.com/2012/01/04/cities-states-pass-resolutions-against-corporate-personhood/ ‡‡ Emily Ramshaw and Jay Root, “A New Rick Perry Shows Up to GOP Debate,” The Texas Tribune, October 18, 2011. Occupy Howard Zinn Memorial Lecture Occupy Boston, MA, Dewey Square, October 22, 2011 It’s a little hard to give a Howard Zinn memorial lecture at an Occupy meeting.

Chomsky speaks to the many options and opportunities that exist to change the system, and he points to examples in which the movement’s vision has already impacted city council proposals, debates and resolutions, such as the case of New York City Council Resolution 1172, which formally opposes corporate personhood and calls for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution to permanently ban it. The resolution creates clear dividing lines between the rights of corporations and the rights of citizens, and it adds to the momentum produced by a growing list of cities—including Los Angeles, Oakland, Albany and Boulder— that have passed similar resolutions.†† Underling Occupy’s success has been its focus on the daily details of organizing.

But unless the process that is taking place here and elsewhere in the country and around the world, unless that continues to grow and to become a major force in the social and political world, the chances for a decent future are not very high. QUESTIONS FROM OCCUPY BOSTON Regarding fixing political dysfunction in this country, what about enacting a Constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood or to get corporate money out of politics? These would be very good things to do, but you can’t do this or anything else unless there is a large, active, popular base. If the Occupy movement was the leading force in the country, you could push many things forward. But remember, most people don’t know that this is happening.


Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, Seymour Hersh, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

As noted above, by the early twentieth century legal theorists and courts were coming consistently to adopt and implement the Court’s 1886 (Santa Clara) principle that these “collectivist legal entities” have the same rights as persons of flesh and blood,50 rights since expanded far beyond those of persons, notably by the mislabeled “free trade agreements.” The conception of corporate personhood evolved alongside the shift of power from shareholders to managers, and finally to the doctrine that “the powers of the board of directors…are identical with the powers of the corporation.”51 As corporate personhood and managerial independence were becoming established in law, the control of corporate management of the economy had reached the stage that elicited Woodrow Wilson’s description of the “very different America” that was taking shape, cited above.

., 12, 45 Afghanistan and, 263–64 Arabs and, 192–93 Axis of Evil speech, 138 “democracy promotion” and, 42, 44–46, 66, 143, 144 economic policies, 64 Europe and, 170 expansion of military capacity under, 136 Hamas and, 147 Iraq and, 23, 24, 42–44, 140, 141 North Korea and, 138, 139 on “Palestinian state,” 178, 186 preventive war doctrine, 23 (See also Bush doctrine) Syria and, 144 Tony Blair and, 170 torture and, 260 Venezuela and, 66 “vision,” 203 Bush doctrine, 23, 24, 42, 51, 239 Butler, Lee, 165 Calderón, Felipe, 216 Cambodia, 312n15 Camp David 2000 Summit, 179, 225 Canada, 69, 243 Canova, Tim, 221 capital investment and productivity, 76 Carothers, Thomas, 45, 270–71 Carriles, Luis Posada, 51 Carter, Jimmy, 41, 62, 254, 302n23 Castro, Fidel, 51–53 Caterpillar, 217–18 Catholic Church, history of, 272–74 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) “torture paradigm,” 260, 262, 264 Chang, Ha-Joon, 72, 91 Chávez, Hugo, 98, 100, 141, 142 Chellaney, Brahma, 167–68 Cheney, Dick, 259, 260, 266 Chile, 92–93, 116 China, 69, 78, 114 Christianity, history of, 272–74 Cirincione, Joseph, 135 Citigroup/Citicorp, 219–20 civilians, responsibility to protect, 20 climate change, 95, 111, 217, 232 Clinton, Bill, 24, 168, 171, 179, 180, 187, 223 Haiti and, 11 Iraq and, 128, 129 NATO and, 136 Operation Gatekeeper, 29 torture and, 262 Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 186, 189, 225, 226 Clinton doctrine, 24 Clive, Robert, 14 cocaine, 215 Cochabamba, 104 Cohen, Roger, 21 Cold War, 37 Colombia, 58–59, 215 colonialism, 14–15, 17, 22. See also imperialism; specific topics Columbus, Christopher, 3, 18–19 “Convergence program” and “Convergence plus,” 180–81, 203 Cooper, Helene, 137 cooperative security location (CSL), 58–59 corporate law, 30–31 corporate personhood debate, 31–35 corporations, nature of, 30–31 Correa, Rafael, 57 “crisis of democracy,” 98 Crocker, Ryan, 132 Cuba, 14, 22, 49–53 economic warfare against, 51–53, 55 Guantánamo Bay and, 31 Haiti and, 14 Henry Cabot Lodge and, 22 Spain and, 14, 22, 50 U.S. diplomacy with, 136 U.S. intervention in 1898, 14, 22–23, 50, 136 Cuban Five, 51 Cuba-Venezuela relations, 69–70 Cumings, Bruce, 138, 139 Dahlan, Muhammad, 147, 148 Davidson, Basil, 81 Day of Mourning in Panama, 134 Dayan, Moshe, 148–49, 160, 186 Dayton, Keith, 201, 202 Declaration of Principles for U.S. and Iraqi governments, 140 “defense industrial base,” 277.

See “American exceptionalism” Fall, Bernard, 122 Fayyad, Salam, 253–54 Federal Reserve Board, 113 Feldman, Noah, 52 Felix, David, 71, 83, 107, 219 Ferguson, Thomas, 32, 108, 208 financial crises, 93, 107, 108, 207, 228 deregulation and, 219 financial liberalization and, 105, 108 recent and current, 63, 73, 109, 110, 212–13, 217, 221–22, 226 Savings & Loan crisis, 211 See also housing bubble financial institutions, 92, 107–11, 113, 209, 228 Charles Schumer and, 221 China as model for, 114 Glass-Steagall Act and, 219 globalization and, 35, 73 Haiti and, 10 recent bailouts of, 105, 219–21 Timothy Geithner and, 221 financial instruments, 220, 221 financial liberalization, 72, 93, 97–98, 105, 107, 108, 111, 114 financial sector, 93, 107, 110–11 financial liberalization and the power of, 212 Iran and, 174 Joe Biden and, 216 Obama and, 212, 228–29 Patriot Act and, 174 financialization of the economy, 34, 79, 93, 94, 97, 231 Fites, Donald, 218 Florida, 23, 24, 49, 51 Fourteen Points (Woodrow Wilson), 48 Framework Agreement of 1994, 138 France, 80 Franklin, Bruce, 56 Franks, Tommy, 57 Fraser, Doug, 218 free speech, corporate personhood and, 32–34 “free trade,” 6, 37, 78, 93 criticism of the term, 90 drug trade and, 78–79 “free circulation of labor” and, 29 vs. protectionism, 6, 76–78, 80, 81, 89, 211 Reagan and, 12 slavery and, 78, 79 See also neoliberalism “free trade agreements,” 31, 90–91, 93, 103–4 monopoly pricing rights in, 86 national security exemptions in, 86 See also North American Free Trade Agreement freedom of association, 208 Freeman, Chas, 171 French colonies, 7.


pages: 537 words: 99,778

Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky

activist lawyer, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, different worldview, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor

If, on the other hand, as the movement has grown, GA has become so hyper-bureaucratic that it has effectively stalled effective organization, the Spokes Council model claims to remedy that by giving those who determine where and how we eat or receive mail a separate decision-making structure through which to work, enabling the rest to use GA to consider ‘larger’ ideas, for instance, the constitutional amendment abolishing corporate personhood and overthrowing Citizens United. Regardless, on Friday 28 October a 9/10ths vote (note: not consensus) passed the Spokes Council Model, and there will no longer be nightly GAs at 7pm in Liberty Park. The Bureaucracies of Anarchy Part 2: People Before Process 14 December 2011 Some time in early October I showed up to an OWS organizers’ meeting at 16 Beaver Street. 16 Beaver, like 56 Walker or Charlotte’s Place, is one of these magically anachronistic spaces in lower Manhattan that feel like something out of Patti Smith’s Just Kids – free space for art, activism and organizing, embedded in some of the most expensive real estate in the world.

He, like many, feels being broke, struggling with cashflow and financial uncertainty, as being a different identity than that of being poor. As Occupy Wall Street and then the local Occupy Boston began to gain their legs and solidify their place in the public discourse, so too did an analysis. Corporate personhood, bank bailouts, executive bonuses and general Wall Street excess at the expense of democracy were at the top of the list of grievances. Personal stories have been told: stories of unemployment lasting two or more years, home foreclosures, bankruptcy due to medical expenses, untenable student loan debts and more.

Moving beyond individual interests to a collective understanding of shared interests for economic justice. Protecting and improving social safety net and entitlement programs such as unemployment insurance, food stamps, foreclosure protection and other social safety net programs, needs to be the context in which other demands such as financial industry regulation and an end to corporate personhood are placed. Messaging and tactics deployed against direct attacks to the social safety net that hit poor communities the hardest, with that distinctive Occupy analysis that ties economic hardship to big finance, could be powerful. A move in this direction would also create an opening for solutions to immediate needs of people now and in the long term.


pages: 284 words: 92,387

The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement by David Graeber

Bretton Woods, British Empire, corporate personhood, David Graeber, deindustrialization, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, financial innovation, George Gilder, John Markoff, Kim Stanley Robinson, Lao Tzu, late fees, Money creation, Occupy movement, payday loans, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, seigniorage, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, working poor

If there was going to be an assembly, it was going to be beforehand, to determine what exactly that demand was: that Obama establish a committee to reinstate Glass-Steagall (the Depression-era law that had once prevented commercial banks from engaging in market speculation) or a constitutional amendment abolishing corporate personhood, or something else. Colleen pointed out that Adbusters was basically founded by marketing people and their strategy made perfect sense from a marketing perspective: get a catchy slogan, make sure it expresses precisely what you want, then keep hammering away at it. But, she added, is that kind of legibility always a virtue for a social movement?

By the next day the listserv for our little group was up and all the people who had been at the original meeting started trying to figure out who we were, what we should call ourselves, what we were actually trying to do. Once again, it all started with the question of the one single demand. After throwing out a few initial ideas—Debt cancellation? Abolishing permit laws to legalize freedom of assembly? Abolish corporate personhood?—Matt Presto, who had been with Chris among the first to rally to us at Bowling Green, pretty much put the matter to rest when he pointed out there were really two different sorts of demands. Some were actually achievable, like Adbusters’ suggestion—which had appeared in one of their initial publicity calls—of demanding a commission to consider restoring Glass-Steagall.

It’s interesting to think about what a parallel strategy might look like for Occupy Wall Street: that is, a mode of engagement with the existing political structure that rather than compromising its directly democratic process would actually help foster and develop it. One obvious approach might be an attempt to promote one or more constitutional amendments, which has already been proposed in some quarters: for example, for eliminating money from political campaigns, or an abolition of corporate personhood. There are parallels to that, too: in Ecuador, for example, indigenous groups that mobilized to put a moderate left-of-center economist named Rafael Correa in power insisted, as their expected payback, that they play a major role in writing a new constitution. One could anticipate a lot of problems here, particularly since one is working within the confines of a constitutional structure that was, as noted in the last chapter, largely designed to prevent direct democracy, but if nothing else, it would be far easier to create firewalls in this sort of process than if one was dealing directly with elected officials


The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan

Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl

With shareholders, real people, effectively gone from corporations , the law had to find someone else, some other person, to assume the legal rights and duties firms needed to operate in the economy. That "person" turned out to be the corporation itself. As early as 1793, one corporate scholar outlined the logic of corporate personhood when he defined the corporation as a collection of many individuals united into one body, under a special denomination, having perpetual succession under an artificial form, and vested, by the policy of law, with the capacity of acting, in several respects, as an individual, particularly of taking and granting property, of contracting obligations, and of suing and being sued, of enjoying privileges and immunities in common."

.: First Amendment of, 103 Fourteenth Amendment of, 16 consumer democracy, 143-44, 145-47, 151 consumers, 24, 45-46, 60, 72, 102, 119, 144, 150, 162, 163, 166 children as, 112, 122, 127, 129; see also children's marketing environmental issues and, 146 unsafe products and, 61-65, 73-74, 149 corporate laws, 1-2, 6-16, 28 "best interests of the corporation" principle in, 35-36 charter revocation, 156-58, 161 constituency statutes, 159 corporate "personhood" in, 15-16, 17, 28, 79, 154, 158 English, 6-8, 9, 13, 38-39 limited liability in, 11-13, 79, 154 social responsibility vs., 35-39, 41, 46,57 see also regulatory laws corporate mascots, 26 corporations: amorality of, 53-59, 69, 79, 88-89, 110,134 backlash against, 25-27, 140-43 benevolent, 18-19, 151 church replaced by, 134 definition of, 3 democracy corrupted by, 101-2 devastation as opportunity for, 111, 124-25 dominance of, 5, 21-27, 134, 139-40,153,159 elimination of, 159-60 English banning of, 6-8, 9 exploitation by, 74, 112, 118, 122, 123, 138, 139, 140, 148, 149, 163 as "Frankenstein monsters," 19, 149 as government creations, 153-58, 164 grant theory of, 16 historical development of, 5-21, 153,156 as institutions, 1-3, 28, 50, 56-57, 59,64 as instruments of destruction, 71-73,110 natural entity theory of, 16, 154-55 Nazis assisted by, 87-89 no accountability of, 152 nonprofit, 166 philanthropy of, 30, 31, 45, 47-49 political systems as viewed by, 88-89 profits and, 31, 34, 36, 41, 45, 48, 49, 50,51,52,53,55,57,58,62,69, 88-89 profits and, 31, 34, 36, 41, 45, 48, 49, 50,51,52,53,55,57,58,62,69, 73,82,88-89,101,103,105, 113,117,122,126-27,138,154, 165 psychopathy of, 28, 56-59, 60, 69, 79, 85, 110, 122, 134, 158, 161 public good and, 156, 158 public-purpose, 160-61 "rising tide lifts all boats" principle of, 142-43 and self-interest as human nature, 116-17,134-35,138 self-interest of, 1-2, 28, 37-39, 44-50,58-59,60,61,80,101-2, 105,109-10,117-18,134,142, 149, 156, 160, 161, 167 cost-benefit analysis, 62-65, 79-80, 149-50,152 in oil industry, 82-83 costs: externalized, 61, 62-65, 71-73, 149-50 of social responsibility, 45, 47-48, 49 'creative destruction" toys, 126-27 Croix de Feu, 91 Back Matter Page 1 70 2 NOTES 6.


pages: 196 words: 54,339

Team Human by Douglas Rushkoff

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, disintermediation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, game design, gig economy, Google bus, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hockey-stick growth, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, invisible hand, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, new economy, patient HM, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Vannevar Bush, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

As they have already discovered, the more they can trigger our social instincts and tug on our heartstrings, the more likely we are to engage with them as if they were human. Would you disobey an AI that feels like your parent, or disconnect one that seems like your child? Eerily echoing the rationale behind corporate personhood, some computer scientists are already arguing that AIs should be granted the rights of living beings rather than being treated as mere instruments or slaves. Our science fiction movies depict races of robots taking revenge on their human overlords—as if this problem is somehow more relevant than the unacknowledged legacy of slavery still driving racism in America, or the twenty-first-century slavery on which today’s technological infrastructure depends.

Schor, The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (New York: Basic Books, 1993). They came up with two main innovations Douglas Rushkoff, Life, Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back (New York: Random House, 2011). 46. human beings now strive to brand themselves in the style of corporations Taylor Holden, “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Corporate Personhood,” Harvard Law and Policy Review, November 13, 2017. the New York Stock Exchange was actually purchased by its derivatives exchange in 2013 Nina Mehta and Nandini Sukumar, “Intercontinental Exchange to Acquire NYSE for $8.2 Billion,” Bloomberg, December 20, 2012. 47. digital technology came to the rescue, providing virtual territory for capital’s expansion Joel Hyatt, Peter Leyden, and Peter Schwartz, The Long Boom: A Vision for the Coming Age of Prosperity (New York: Basic Books, 2000).


pages: 427 words: 112,549

Freedom by Daniel Suarez

augmented reality, big-box store, British Empire, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, corporate personhood, digital map, game design, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, RFID, Shenzhen special economic zone , special economic zone, speech recognition, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the scientific method, young professional

NSA: "Sixteen lawsuits were filed by Daemon-infected multinationals yesterday in federal district courts." Now the corporate side of the table fell into stunned silence for a moment. BCM: "Which companies?" NSA (handing over a list): "They're filing suit against the U.S. government. Its lawyers claim that the Daemon has a constitutional right to exist under the precedent of corporate personhood." CSC: "Holy hell . . ." BCM: "The Daemon has lawyers?" NSA: "And it's retained lobbyists. We're negotiating with the courts to keep these cases classified; however, we can't be certain what the judicial branch is going to do about them." BCM: "This is insane. The Daemon is a computer virus, not a corporation."

Or maybe the attorneys are just following instructions from the corner office. We don't know yet. Either way, we should be able to get the courts to close a nineteenth-century loop-hole that has unanticipated twenty-first-century consequences." BCM: "Wait. Let's just wait a second. There are complex considerations relating to an entire body of legal precedents on corporate personhood, and the rights of free speech to corporate interests have a necessary and guiding effect on policy. Let's not do anything rash. We should let these cases run their course. We'll have neutralized the Daemon before they get their day in court, and then these companies will be back in the fold."

CIA (writing notes): "What was the name of that case again?" BCM: "This is a perfect example of why government isn't nimble enough to deal with the Daemon. It's using our own laws and government institutions against us. To divide us. We should be helping one another." NSA: "Wait a minute. Nobody's dividing anyone. Does corporate personhood expose us to danger?" BCM: "That's not the point. What I'm saying is that we can't follow legal niceties in dealing with this thing. We cannot demonstrate weakness. Ever." FBI: "Our laws demonstrate weakness?" The corporate side of the table conferred for a moment, and then the lobbyist turned to face the intelligence directors again.


pages: 286 words: 87,168

Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel

air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, disinformation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta-analysis, microbiome, Money creation, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-Keynesian economics, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income

It’s what is driving the pharmaceutical companies behind the opioid crisis in the United States; the beef companies that are burning down the Amazon; the arms companies that lobby against gun control; the oil companies that bankroll climate denialism; and the retail firms that are invading our lives with ever-more sophisticated advertising techniques to get us to buy things we don’t actually want. These are not ‘bad apples’ – they are obeying the iron law of capital. Over the past 500 years, an entire infrastructure has been created to facilitate the expansion of capital: limited liability, corporate personhood, stock markets, shareholder value rules, fractional reserve banking, credit ratings – we live in a world that’s increasingly organised around the imperatives of accumulation. From private imperative to public obsession But understanding the inner dynamics of capital only partly explains the growth imperative.

The preferences of the majority who want to sustain our planet’s ecology for future generations are trumped by a minority of elites who are quite happy to liquidate everything. If our struggle for a more ecological economy is to succeed, we must seek to expand democracy wherever possible. That means kicking big money out of politics; it means radical media reform; strict campaign finance laws; reversing corporate personhood; dismantling monopolies; shifting to co-operative ownership structures; putting workers on company boards; democratising shareholder votes; democratising institutions of global governance; and managing collective resources as commons wherever possible.63 I opened this book by pointing out that large majorities of people across the world are questioning capitalism and yearning for something better.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Journal of Supreme Court History vol. 24 no. 3 (2011): 269–281. 9. Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company 118 US 394, decided May 10, 1886, available online at https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/118/394/case.html, accessed April 7, 2016. 10. Ciara Torres-Spelliscy, “The History of Corporate Personhood,” Brennan Center for Justice, April 7, 2014, available online at https://www.brennancenter.org/blog/hobby-lobby-argument, accessed April 7, 2016. 11. Jacqueline Jones, “Southern Diaspora: Roots of the Northern ‘Underclass,’ ” in Michael B. Katz, ed., The Underclass Debate (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993), 29. 12.

., 117, 124, 134–135 Calhoun, John, 32 California Life Pension movement, 87–88 Caliver, Ambrose, 84 Carnegie, Andrew, 45–46, 50 Carter, Jimmy, 111–112 Caudill, Harry, 103, 107 Child labor, 64–65 Childcare, 65–66, 103, 110, 115, 125–126 Children, 25, 52, 58–59, 64–66, 102, 115 Christianity, 29, 44, 65, 116, 134–135 Citizens United (2010), 134, 143–144, 147 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 104, 114 Civil War, 33–35, 152 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 82, 94 Clay, Henry, 15 Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 62 Clinton, Bill, xvii, 117, 124–130, 132, 135 Clinton, Hillary, 117, 127 Cold War, 97–98, 119, 123, 142, 153 Collectivism, 147–148 Colored Farmers’ Alliance and Cooperative, 43 Community Action Agencies, 105 Congress of Industrial Organizations, 90 Constitution, 2, 8, 37, 114–115, 129 Contract with America, 117, 125 Cook, Noah, 22 Cooke, Jay, 40 Coolidge, Calvin, 75 Cooper, Anna Julia, 66 Corporate personhood, 37, 42, 55, 134, 143–144, 147 Coughlin, Father Charles, 89 Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), 98, 105 Coxey, Jacob Sechler, 54–55 Crummell, Alexander, 71 Croly, Herbert, 67–69 De Tocqueville, Alexis, 19 Debs, Eugene V., 63–64, 74 Declaration of Independence, 2, 5, 16 Deindustrialization, 120–121, 142 Dew, Thomas, 32 Dewey, John, 69, 84–85, 88 Disraeli, Benjamin, ix, 154 Distributive justice, 112–114, 123 Donnelly, Ignatius, 44 Drugs, War on, 117–118, 128–130, 132 Drury, Victor, 50 DuBois, W.


pages: 326 words: 88,905

Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt by Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban decay, wage slave, white flight, women in the workforce

I saw this man talking in short phrases and people were repeating them. I don’t know whose idea it was, but that started on the first night. The first general assembly was a little chaotic because people had no idea . . . “a general assembly, what is this for?” At first it was kind of grandstanding about what were our demands. Ending corporate personhood is one that has come up again and again as a favorite and. . . . What ended up happening was, they said, “OK, we’re going to break into work groups.” “People were worried we were going to get kicked out of the park at 10 P.M.,” she goes on, speaking of the first night. “This was a major concern.

., 20, 51 Collier County, 203 Collier County Sheriff’s Department, 179, 197, 202 Commerce Bank of Toronto-Dominion Bank, Norcross and, 91 Communist Party, 230, 240, 241 Complaint Investigation and Resolution Process, 222 Cone, James, 102 Conner Strong & Buckelew, 88 Connor, “Bull,” 263 Convict labor, 64, 196 Cooper Medical School, 91 Cooper University Hospital, 91, 94 Cordero, Angel: on Norcross, 94 Coriolanus (Shakespeare), 267 Cornu, Sharon, 242 Corporate culture, 238, 242, 267, 269 Corporate personhood, ending, 253 Corporate power, 236, 237, 238, 242 Corporate state, 233–234, 244, 263 decay of, 232 suffering/rage of, 237 Corporations, 264 assault by, 174 more and, 265 workers and, 219–220 Corruption, 72–73, 90, 229, 230, 240–241 Coyotes, smuggling by, 187 Crazy Horse, 16, 24 death of, 41, 43, 44 resistance by, 13, 41 Crazy Horse Memorial Highway, 41 Crazy Horse Ride, 41, 43–44 illustration of, 42–43 Crew leaders, 187, 199, 210 Crips gang, 64 Cross and the Lynching Tree, The (Cone), 102 Crow Dog, Leonard, 47–48, 52, 56 illustration of, 47 Crum, Matt, 164 Culture, 4, 46, 130, 239, 255, 256 corporate, 238, 242, 267, 269 dominant, 40 Custer, George Armstrong, 8, 9, 10, 11, 23, 41 D&S Pioneer Service, 3 Daniels, Destry, 133 Davis, Lallois (Lolly), 102–103 on poor, 101 story of, 103–108 (illus.)


pages: 128 words: 38,847

The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age by Tim Wu

AltaVista, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, open economy, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Chicago School

There is an unfortunate tendency within enforcement agencies to portray breakups and dissolutions as off the table or only for extremely rare cases. There is no legal reason for that presumption: Indeed, the original practice favored dissolution as the default remedy—implied in the very word “antitrust.” Too much of the resistance to dissolution comes from taking too seriously the legal fiction of corporate personhood. In reality, a large corporation is made up of sub-units, whether functional or regional, or independent operations that have been previously acquired. It is not “impossible” to administer a breakup as is sometimes claimed. Many breakups are akin to the spinoffs or dissolutions that are not uncommon in business practice as it stands, such as AOL-Time-Warner’s decision to break itself up into multiple units in the early 2000s.


pages: 538 words: 121,670

Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress--And a Plan to Stop It by Lawrence Lessig

asset-backed security, banking crisis, carried interest, circulation of elites, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Edward Glaeser, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Martin Wolf, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Pareto efficiency, place-making, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Savings and loan crisis, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

Just four years prior, in 2006, independent expenditures totaled $37,394,589). 43. It is for this reason that I am skeptical of the utility of efforts to try to “reverse” Citizens United by denying corporate personhood. The root problem is an influence that drives representatives away from a focus on “th cocutp:e People alone.” Even if a reform were to achieve the reversal of corporate personhood, that wouldn’t by itself change the existing skew of influence. 44. Of course not all courts are this enlightened. In Miles v. City of Augusta, 710 F.2d 1542 (11th Cir. 1983), the Court refused “to hear a claim that” a talking cat’s First Amendment rights had been infringed, finding the cat not a “person” under the Fourteenth Amendment. 45. 494 US 652, 660 (1990). 46.


Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, American ideology, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Herbert Marcuse, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

That’s independent of how long it might take to ratify something like that. If enough people get interested in the issue, they may turn to more radical goals and, I think, more principled ones. Which takes us to the principled issue. I think Citizens United is a very bad decision. However, it’s kind of the icing on the cake. The idea of corporate personhood goes back a century. It wasn’t instituted by Citizens United. And we should be thinking about that. Why should corporations be granted personal rights? By now corporations have rights way beyond persons of flesh and blood. They are immortal, they are protected by state power. In fact, the basis of a corporation is limited liability, meaning as a participant in a corporation you’re not personally liable if it, say, murders tens of thousands of people at Bhopal.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, independent contractor, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

More attention was paid to the shutdown of the Panda Cam, a livestream of a bear cub, than to the suffering of America’s poorest citizens. Water is a human right, but who is a human being? Corporations, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in June, as the parched citizens of Detroit started filling up at water fountains. “In its last day in session, the high court not only affirmed corporate personhood but expanded the human rights of corporations, who by some measures enjoy more protections than mortals—or ‘natural persons,’” wrote Dana Milbank at the Washington Post. The mortals of Detroit enjoy no such protection. Perhaps that is why the city’s corporate venues—like its high-end golf club, hockey arena, football stadium, and over half of the city’s commercial and industrial users—still have their water running despite owing over $30 million, while its most impoverished residents have their water, and their rights, taken away.


pages: 207 words: 52,716

Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons by Peter Barnes

Albert Einstein, car-free, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Garrett Hardin, hypertext link, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, jitney, money market fund, new economy, patent troll, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

.”: Walter Hickel, Crisis in the Commons: The Alaska Solution (Oakland, Calif.: ICS Press, 2002), p. 217. 120 a handful of corporations: Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (London: Penguin Books, 1982 [originally published 1776]). 121 corporations were persons”: The Supreme Court decision that established corporate personhood was Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, 118 U.S. 394 (1886). 122 Fortune 500 sales: I computed the annual sales of Fortune 500 corporations from data available (for a fee) on Fortune magazine’s website. See http:// money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500_archive/full/1955/index.htm. 123 “So great has been the change . . .”: John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), p. 2. 124 scarce factor is trees: See www.worldchanging.com/archives/004143.html. 125 capitalism’s stages: I’m pleased to note that ecological economist Herman Daly has a two-stage schema similar to mine.


pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

This attack on classical liberalism was sharply condemned by the vanishing breed of conservatives. Christopher G. Tiedeman described the principle as “a menace to the liberty of the individual, and to the stability of the American states as popular governments.” In his standard legal history, Morton Horwitz writes that the concept of corporate personhood evolved alongside the shift of power from shareholders to managers, and finally to the doctrine that “the powers of the board of directors . . . are identical with the powers of the corporation.” In later years, corporate rights were expanded far beyond those of persons, notably by the mislabeled “free trade agreements.”


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, Garrett Hardin, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, independent contractor, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

That’s the basis of the recent Hobby Lobby case before the Supreme Court, which decided that a corporation’s personhood entitles it to deny aspects of a health plan with which it morally disagrees.5 It’s also the driving force behind the Citizens United case, in which corporations were granted the right to free speech formerly reserved for humans—but not the corresponding limitations on campaign donations. And these cases all trace back to the most hard-fought battle of all, won during Lincoln’s era, of corporate “personhood” itself.6 The objective, true to the corporation’s three other core commands, was to give railway corporations the same rights to land as that of its local human inhabitants. This way, people would no longer be able to object to railways’ seeking right of passage through their towns or property.


pages: 273 words: 93,419

Let them eat junk: how capitalism creates hunger and obesity by Robert Albritton

Bretton Woods, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, means of production, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, the built environment, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile

Economist (1993) “A survey of the food industry”, December 4. Economist (1994) “A survey of television”, February 12. Economist (1996) “A survey of living with the car”, June 22. Economist (2000) “A survey of agriculture and technology”, March 25. Economist (2003) “A survey of food”, December 13. Edwards, J. and Morgan, M. (2004) “Abolish corporate personhood”, [online] <www.reclaimdemocracy.org/personhood/edwards_morgan_corporate.html>. Eisenitz, G. (1997) Slaughterhouse, New York: Prometheus. Ellis, H. (2007) Planet Chicken, London: Sceptre. Ellwood, W. (2001) The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization, Toronto: New Internationalist Publications.


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Garrett Hardin, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

Collingwood, Charles Colombia Colombian Permanent Committee for Human Rights colonialism Columbia Journalism Review Columbus, Christopher Command and Control (Schlosser) Committee on Public Information commons communism Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) Congo consent, manufacture of Constantine, Emperor Contras Copenhagen Global Climate Change Summit Corcoran, Paul corporations personhood and Costs of War Project counterinsurgency Counterterrorism Security Group Creveld, Martin van Crimea Crisis of Democracy, The (Crozier) Cruickshank, Paul Cruz, Ted Cuba Bay of Pigs and missile crisis and Cyprus Daily Mail (London) Damascus, Syria Danger and Survival (Bundy) Darwish, Mahmoud Davar Dayan, Moshe Debs, Eugene debt Declaration of Independence defense spending deindustrialization democracy Democratic Party Dempsey, Martin Depression deregulation Dewey, John Dhanapala, Jayantha Diem, Ngo Dinh Diskin, Yuval Dobbs, Michael Dole, Bob Domínguez, Jorge Dorman, William Dostum, Abdul Rashid Dower, John Dreazen, Yochi Dreyfus, Alfred drones Duarte, Sergio due process Dulles, John Foster E1 project East Asia Eastern Europe East Timor Ebadi, Shirin Economic Charter of the Americas economic crises crash of 2008 Economic Policy Institute Ecuador education efficient market hypothesis Egypt Israeli treaty with Israeli war of 1967 Einstein, Albert Eisenhower, Dwight D.


pages: 370 words: 107,983

Rage Inside the Machine: The Prejudice of Algorithms, and How to Stop the Internet Making Bigots of Us All by Robert Elliott Smith

Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, AI winter, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic bias, Amazon Mechanical Turk, animal electricity, autonomous vehicles, Black Swan, British Empire, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, corporate personhood, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, discovery of DNA, disinformation, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Gerolamo Cardano, gig economy, Gödel, Escher, Bach, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, p-value, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Pierre-Simon Laplace, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, stochastic process, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, twin studies, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, women in the workforce, Yochai Benkler

Hayek’s neoliberal theories, which gained widespread acceptance in the 1980s and 1990s, were based on the idea that the pursuit of individual, economic self-interest leads to the creation of greater value, which inevitably benefits society and results in the improvement of humankind and their general lot in life. The individual self-interest being pursued in this case is that of Facebook, a legal person (thanks to the notion of ‘corporate personhood’), whose board and directors are mandated to deliver the maximum value to the company’s shareholders. Facebook’s algorithms are the virtual limbs of this corporate body, tasked with reaching out into the marketplace and finding the best financial returns. In such a situation, where only a single agenda is present, the optimization algorithms involved are the ultimate realization of the rational agents at the centre of two centuries of economic theory.


pages: 481 words: 125,946

What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, global pandemic, Google Glasses, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

In addition to passing the maturity/sanity/humanity test, perhaps the copy needs to pass a reverse Turing Test (a Church-Turing Test?). Rather than demonstrating behavior indistinguishable from that of a human, the goal would be to show behavior distinct from human individuals. (Would the current U.S. two-party system pass such a test?) Perhaps the day of corporate personhood (Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819) has finally arrived. We already vote with our wallets. Shifts in purchasing trends result in differential wealth, lobbying, R&D priorities, etc. Perhaps more copies of specific memes, minds, and brains will come to represent the will of We the (hybrid) People of the world.


pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disinformation, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Seymour Hersh, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Tax Reform Act of 1986, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Four years later, another Pennsylvania township, Porter, challenged the constitutional rights of corporations with passage of an ordinance stating, “Corporations shall not be considered to be ‘persons’ protected by the Constitution of the United States or the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.” In June 2006, California’s Humboldt County took this legislation one step farther, passing a resolution that not only directly challenged corporate personhood but also banned all out-of-county corporations from making political contributions in local campaigns. In 2005, Charlevoix Township in Michigan was one of dozens of cities to approve ordinances giving local government the authority to limit the size of big-box stores. That same year, Maryland passed legislation requiring organizations with more than 10,000 employees in the state to spend at least 8 percent of their payroll on health benefits.


pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, different worldview, domesticated silver fox, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, global pandemic, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta-analysis, microaggression, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Tragedy of the Commons, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, twin studies, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Cheese’s, 342n Churchland, Patricia, 541 Cinderella effect, 367 cities, 296, 298–99 civilizing process, 617 Civil War, 409, 662 Battle of Gettysburg, 554, 644 Clark, Kenneth and Mamie, 415 class, see socioeconomic status Clay, Henry, 285 cleanliness, 564–65 climate, 302–3 Clinton, Bill, 640 cognition, 617–18 adolescence and, 159 cognitive load, 49–50, 416–17, 546 empathy fatigue, 534–35 emotion and, 54–58 empathy and, 528, 531–35, 552 frontal cortex and, 47–50, 159 stages of cognitive development, 176–79 cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 61 Cohen, Dov, 285, 286, 287 Cohen, Jonathan, 47, 58, 609 Cohn, Alain, 491 Cohn, Roy, 396 Colburn, Lawrence, 657, 658n, 658, 660, 670 Coles, Robert, 181n Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Diamond), 302 collectivist cultures, 97, 156, 206–7, 273–82, 474, 501–3 Coming of Age in Samoa (Mead), 122 compassion, 15, 522, 523, 542 acts of, 542–45, 551, 614 effective, 545–46 in animals, 523–26 in children, 527–28 self-interest in, 547–50, 642 wealthy people and, 533–34 see also empathy compatibilism, 586 competition, 2–4, 15, 16 moral judgment and, 495–500 COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase), 256–58 conditioned place preference, 103 confidence, 102–3, 237 confirmation biases, 403 conflict monitoring, 528–29 conflict resolution, sacred values in, 575–79, 643–44 conformity, see obedience and conformity congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 215–18 consequentialism, 504–7, 520 consolation behavior, 525–26 contact theory, 420, 626–30 cooperation, 3, 4, 15, 547, 633–35 moral judgment and, 495–500, 508–9 optimal strategy for, 345–53 punishment used to promote, 635 starting, 353–54, 508–9 corporate personhood, 411n, 503 Correll, Joshua, 86 corruption, 267 Corry, Stephen, 315 cortex, 29 Cotton, Ronald, 641–42 Craddock, Sandie, 124 CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone), 125, 129, 132, 708–9 Crick, Francis, 714 crime: abortion and, 190–91 broken window theory of, 95–96 income inequality and, 295 in 1970s and 1980s, 311 organized, 395–96 urbanization and, 296 Crimean War, 662 criminal justice system, 171, 253, 398, 502–3, 580–600, 608–12 adolescents and, 170–71, 589–90, 592–93 brain damage and, 590–91, 597, 598, 601–2, 609 and causation vs. compulsion, 593 cognitive biases in jurors, 582 and diminished responsibility for actions, 587 free will and, see free will judicial decisions, 448, 449, 483, 583, 643 neuroimaging data and, 582, 599 and starting a behavior vs. halting it, 594–95 and time course of decision making for action, 592–93 crises, cultural, 301–3 culture(s), 7, 11, 21, 266–327 adolescence and, 155–56 changes in, over time, 276–77 childhood and, 202–10 collectivist, 97, 156, 206–7, 273–82, 474, 501–3 crises and, 301–3 definitions of, 269–71 differences in, 271–73 gender-related, 272 diffusion and, 621 egalitarian, 291–96 of honor, 207, 283, 284, 501 American South, 207, 284–88, 501 honor killings in, 288–91, 290 human universals in, 271–72 hunter-gatherer, 291, 315–25, 318, 372–73, 407, 499, 616–17, 620 gods in, 297 Hadza, 317–19, 318, 498, 620 violence in, 319–25, 322 individualistic, 97, 156, 206–7, 273–82, 474, 501–3 learning in, 457 long-lasting effects of, 267 math skills and, 266–67, 406 moral judgments and, 275, 493–503 pastoral, 282–83, 288, 379 religion and, 283, 304 prehistoric and contemporary indigenous, 305–26, 307, 310, 318, 320, 322 religion in, see religion sensory processing and, 276 similarities in, 271–72 stratified, 291–96 stress responses and, 274–75 violence and, 272 Cushing’s syndrome, 151n Cyberball, 165–66, 529–30, 559 Dalai Lama, 544 Dale, Henry, 692 Dalton, Katharina, 123 Daly, Martin, 367 Damasio, Antonio, 28, 56, 61, 97, 507, 538 Darden, Chris, 396 Darkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon (Tierney), 312n Darwin, Charles, 230n Darwin’s finches, 379 Das, Gopal, 147 Davidson, Richard, 544 Davis, Richard, 574–75 Dawkins, Richard, 330, 333, 361, 362 DeCasper, Anthony, 210–11 deception, 512–17 Decety, Jean, 180, 532 decision making, 38–39, 46–47 De Dreu, Carsten, 116–17 De Kock, Eugene, 629–30 Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence (Wrangham and Peterson), 316, 317 Dennett, Daniel, 607, 668–69 deontology, 504, 505, 520 depression, 143, 437, 602–3 childhood adversity and, 196–97 5HTT variant and, 246 Descarte, René, 28 Descartes’ Error (Damasio), 28 despotism, avoidance of, 324 DeVore, Irven, 384, 427, 651 De Waal, Frans, 271, 444, 457, 484–87, 525, 526 diabetes, 379–80 gestational, 359n dichotomizing, 392 see also Us/Them dichotomies Dictator Game, 497, 498 Diallo, Amadou, 86 Diamond, Jared, 302 Diana, Princess of Wales, 401n–2n disgust, 411, 560–65 adolescents and, 160n insular cortex and, 41, 46, 69, 398–99, 454, 560–61 interpersonal, 399 moral, 398, 454, 561–65 political orientation and, 453–55 Us/Them and, 398–99 dishonesty, 512–17 Disney, Walt, 84 DNA, 108, 147, 223, 225–33, 261–62 as blueprint for constructing proteins, 712–14 exons and introns and, 230–31 mutations and polymorphisms and, 714–17 noncoding, 226 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 328 dog(s), 112 deception in, 513 dog-meat market and, 510, 510 feral Moscow, 378, 379 scenario of saving person vs., 368, 371 doll studies, 415 Donohue, John, 190 dopamine (mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine system), 30, 64–77, 84, 103, 151, 275, 390, 555–56, 692 in adolescence, 162–64, 163 arbitrary signals and, 391 charitable acts and, 548–50 childhood adversity and, 196 D4 receptor, gene for (DRD4), 256, 258, 260, 261, 279 7R variant, 256, 279–81 empathy and, 534, 545, 546 genes and, 255–58, 264, 279–81, 280 L-DOPA and, 693 DRD4 gene, 256, 258, 260, 261, 279 7R variant of, 256, 279–81 drone pilots, 645–46 drought, 303 drugs, 65, 76, 196 neuropharmacology, 693–94 Drummond, Edward, 586 Dunbar, Robin, 429 Dunbar’s number, 430 Dweck, Carol, 595 Dylan, Bob, 184 Eakin, John, 554 East Asia, 277–78 Eckford, Elizabeth, 640 E. coli, 343, 380 economic games and game theory, 18, 55, 66, 77, 89, 93, 104, 112, 116, 255, 272, 292, 345, 393, 398, 497–500, 609, 610, 624 Dictator Game, 497, 498 hunger and, 92, 449 language effects on, 92–93, 491 Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD), 92, 116, 345–46, 372, 393, 557, 633, 634 public good, 495–96 third-party punishment, 497 Tit for Tat, 346–53, 363, 634, 666 Contrite, 350 Forgiving, 350, 351 Ultimatum Game, 38–39, 106, 486, 497, 498, 500, 610, 635 educational attainment, 263 egalitarian cultures, 291–96 egalitarianism, 167, 180–81 Eichmann, Adolf, 464, 475 Eisenberger, Naomi, 165 Eisenegger, Christoph, 106 Eldredge, Niles, 374–75, 385 Elias, Norbert, 617 Ellsberg, Daniel, 652 El Niños, 302 Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, 641 Ember, Carol, 319, 321 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 520 emotional contagion, 522 in animals, 523–26, 569 in children, 527–58 brain and, 22–28 cognition and, 54–58 eyes and, 89, 97 and frontal cortical changes in adolescence, 160 reappraisal and, 60–61, 160, 453 empathy, 3, 4, 15, 18, 46, 169, 454, 521–52, 617 in adolescence, 167–69 affective side of, 528–31, 552 cognitive load and, 534–35, 546 cognitive side of, 528, 531–35, 552 compassionate acts and, 542–45, 551, 614 effectiveness in, 545–46 emotional contagion, 522 in animals, 523–26, 569 in children, 527–28 group loyalty and, 395 mimicry and, 102, 522–24 mirror neurons and supposed role in, 540–41 pain and, 86, 133, 169, 180, 395, 522, 523, 527, 532, 533, 540, 545–47, 550–52, 560, 568 self-interest in, 547–50, 642 stress and, 133 Us/Them and, 532–35 wealthy people and, 533–34 in young children, 179–81 endocrinology, 7 basics of, 707–10 see also hormones Enlightenment, 615, 617 environmental degradation, 302 envy, 15, 67 epilepsy, 605–6, 610, 611 epinephrine, 27, 126 equality, 395 Escherichia coli, 343, 380 estrogen, 117, 118, 144, 158 genes and, 260 prenatal, 211–13 ethology, 10, 81–84 Evans, Robert, 294–95 evolution, 7, 15, 21, 328–86 adaptation in, 380–85 basics of, 328–31 behavior and, 331–32 continuous and gradual, 374–80 evidence for, 329–30 exaptation in, 381, 569 fossil record and, 329, 330, 375, 376 founder populations and, 353–54, 633 genes and, 328–29, 373–74 genotype vs. phenotype in, 360–62 group selection in, 332–33, 426 human, 365–73 individual selection in, 366–68 kin selection in, 368–72, 499 and reciprocal altruism and neo-group selectionism, 372–73 as tournament vs. pair-bonded, 365–66 individual selection in, 333–36, 366–68 intersexual genetic conflict and, 359–60 kin selection in, 336–42, 368–72, 499, 570 cousins and, 339–40 green-beard effect and, 341–42, 353, 390, 409, 633, 637 and recognizing relatedness, 340–41, 570 misconceptions about, 328–29 multilevel selection in, 360–65 natural selection in, 330–31 neo-group selection in, 360, 363–65, 372–73 observed in real time, 379–80 and pair-bonding vs. tournament species, 354–58, 360, 365–66, 383 parent-offspring conflict and, 358–59 punctuated equilibrium in, 374–80, 384–85 reciprocal altruism and, 342–54, 372–73 optimal cooperation strategy and, 345–53 starting cooperation and, 353–54 selection for complexity and, 329 selection for preadaptation and, 329 sexual selection in, 330–31 sociobiology and, 331–33, 374–76, 380–84 spandrels and, 381–82, 382 survival of the fittest and, 328–29 tinkering and improvisation in, 381, 568–69 evolutionary psychology, 331–32 executions, 170–71, 472, 582 firing squads, 471–72 executive function, 48 sustained stress and, 130–31 see also cognition; frontal cortex executive stress syndrome, 436 eyes, social impact of, 89, 97, 623 Facebook, 164, 667 faces, 85–89, 129, 275 amygdala and, 85, 89, 388, 395, 408–9, 416, 418 beauty in, and confusion with goodness, 88, 443 disgust and, 411 dominant, 432, 433 eyes, social impact of, 89, 97, 623 fear and, 85, 395, 411 fusiform response to, 80, 85–86, 88, 114, 122n, 388, 402 gender of, 88 infants and, 391–92 race of, 85–87, 89, 391–92, 398, 408–9, 418–19, 614, 628–29 testosterone and, 102, 104 voting and, 442–44 FADS2 gene, 246 Fail-Safe (Burdick and Wheeler), 349n–50n Fairbanks, Lynn, 337 fairness and justice, 323–24, 449, 450 children’s sense of, 181, 483–84 see also morality and moral decisions Farah, Martha, 195 fascism, 202, 308, 401 fear: aggression and, 44 amygdala and, 34, 36–40, 42, 44, 85, 87–90, 97, 129 faces and, 85, 395, 411 innate vs. learned, 36 pheromones and, 90 sustained stress and, 128–30 Fehr, Ernst, 55, 106, 517 Felt, W.

The dying Armistead asked after Hancock’s well-being and requested that Bingham send his warm greetings to his old friend. * The punch line here is how such individuals barely register with us as people—as we’ll see, neuroimaging supports this. A recent finding highlights the opposite concerning the weird American legal notion of “corporate personhood”—when people contemplate the morality of corporate actions, they activate Theory of Mind networks, just as when contemplating the morality of actions of fellow humans. * With the reminder that “competence” is used not in the everyday sense where “low competence” would seem pejorative but simply as a measure of agency


pages: 504 words: 129,087

The Ones We've Been Waiting For: How a New Generation of Leaders Will Transform America by Charlotte Alter

"side hustle", 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disinformation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Hangouts, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job-hopping, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, microaggression, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, passive income, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, white picket fence, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Occupiers felt no need to sharpen their collective demands to a single concrete point, because any one demand might exclude hundreds of other priorities. There was no single objective but dozens, hundreds, or none, depending on whom you asked. Occupy Seattle held votes on its website over demands such as “end corporate personhood” and “universal education,” but a nationwide, officially sanctioned list of demands never emerged, partly because there was never a unifying governing body authorized to decide what Occupy stood for and what it didn’t—which was just the way the activists wanted it. The press couldn’t understand this.


Stacy Mitchell by Big-Box Swindle The True Cost of Mega-Retailers, the Fight for America's Independent Businesses (2006)

big-box store, business climate, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, European colonialism, Haight Ashbury, income inequality, independent contractor, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Ray Oldenburg, RFID, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

See also downtowns Penjajawoc Marsh, 108 Penn, Felicia, 219 Pennsylvania: Carlisle, 33; East Lampeter, 67; Lancaster, 89; Philadelphia, 15, 87; Whitpain, 89 Penofin Performance Coatings, 55 Perrette, Virginie-Alvine, 96 Peskin, Aaron, 217 Petrocelli, Bill, 176, 177 PetSmart, 158 pet stores, 158–59, 232 pharmacies: consolidation among, 11; and consumer choice, 154–56; cooperatives in, 247; destruction of historical landmarks, 89–90; health insurance discrimination against independent, 155–56, 190; increase in independents, 226–27; level of service, local vs. chain 154–56; market share for corporate retailers, xii, 11; pricing, 134–35; trade association, 226–27 place, sense of, 79–80, 83–85, 92–96, 105, 124. See also community life police expenses from chain retail, 67–68 politics: and consumer vs. citizen identity, 4, 205, 209–210; and corporate personhood, 208, 218; corporate retail clout in, 164, 171, 175, 177, 182, 201–2; and power of citizen groups, 205; and public spaces’ value, 83–85, 92–96; and quality of community life, 77, 81; and restrictions on megaretail, 192–93. See also campaigns, grassroots pollution, 88, 106, 114–19, 218 Pomp, Richard, 174 Popelars, Craig, 143 Portland Development Corporation (PDC), 203–4 poverty, xiv, 57–58, 59, 64–65, 69–70 Powell Mercantile, 235–37 predatory expansion strategies of corporate retailers, 7, 8, 36–37, 102–3, 135 predatory pricing, xi, 178–83 INDEX Presser, Steve, 102, 105 Price, Sol, 9, 60 Price Club, 9, 10 price discrimination, 183–190 price flexing, 134–35 pricing: corporate retail strategies for, xvii, 54–55, 127–37, 185–87; loss leader, 7, 29, 30, 130–31, 135, 148, 181 private-label products, 25, 50–51 Procter & Gamble, 21, 24 product diversity.


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, longitudinal study, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

“I Â�don’t want to be bolshevistic,” wrote one Texan in support of Depression-Â�era antichain legislation, but€“it certainly is no permanent relief or progÂ�ress for the government to create temporary jobs and distribute money and in a few days it all winds up in Chicago or New York City in the hands of a few extremely wealthy men, owners of the chains and utilities.”61 Patman, the leading ConÂ�gresÂ�sional champion of the inÂ�deÂ�penÂ�dent stores, pointed out that while 200 companies controlled more than half the country’s corporate wealth, only eleven of these were based in the West and a mere nine in the South: “‘How a true Texan can favor ownership and control of local€business by Wall Streeters,” he concluded, “I cannot understand.’”62 Members of the Ku Klux Klan in Clarke County, Georgia, railed against the chain owners as a “‘Little Group of Kings in Wall Street’” and warned 21 TO SERVE GOD AND WAL - Â�M ART that Jewish and Catholic immigrants were using the chain to pauperize native-Â�born white ProtÂ�esÂ�tants.63 Employing a metaphor familiar to rural ProtÂ�esÂ�tants, a 1937 novel cast chain stores as evidence of the approaching Apocalypse.64 Even the fundamental myth of corporate personhood came up for debate: contrasting “arÂ�tiÂ�fiÂ�cial beings” like the American Retail Federation to tangible, “honest-Â�to-Â�God citizens,” Patman attacked the premÂ�ise that legal incorporation permitted companies to claim the constitutional protections of private citizens.65 The suspicion of “foreigners” was echoed in charges of shady business practices.


The Cigarette: A Political History by Sarah Milov

activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, global supply chain, Herbert Marcuse, imperial preference, Indoor air pollution, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, land tenure, new economy, New Journalism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, Torches of Freedom, trade route, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Lamoreaux, The Great Merger Movement in American Business, 1895–1904 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 1; Jonathan Levy, Freaks of Fortune: The Emerging World of Capitalism and Risk in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), 276–277. 27. Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 118 U.S. 394 (1886); Enstad, Cigarettes, Inc., 75–76. As Enstad notes, what was significant about the creation of corporate personhood was the way in which it augured a shift in the public imagination of the corporation as a private rather than public entity. 28. Enstad, Cigarettes, Inc., 67. 29. Brandt, Cigarette Century, 32–36. 30. P. G. Porter, “Origins of American Tobacco Company,” Business History Review 43, No. 1 (1969): 59–60. 31.


pages: 526 words: 160,601

A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America by Bruce Cannon Gibney

1960s counterculture, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate personhood, Corrections Corporation of America, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, failed state, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Menlo Park, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Savings and loan crisis, school choice, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Snapchat, source of truth, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The time to act had been sometime in the 1980s or 1990s, before there were billions of facts/dollars on the ground, all eager to undo McCain-Feingold. By the 2000s, it became trivial to dispose of irritants like McCain-Feingold, and courts dispatched them in a series of cases culminating in Citizens United v. FEC (2010).* Anyway, political theatre aside, the Boomers were largely content with the idea of corporate personhood and speech, and the culture of political money. Hillary Clinton said she despises the idea of PACs, but she’s enjoyed several, most quite large. Lest this seem merely academic, the corrosive money politics of the Boomer era have become so entrenched and pervasive that the Supreme Court now seems unable to even define corruption.


pages: 772 words: 203,182

What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bear Stearns, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, compensation consultant, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, independent contractor, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, Money creation, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Goodman, as quoted in “A Fresh Look at the Apostle of Free Markets,” New York Times, April 13, 2008. 9 Catherine Rampell, “Same Old Hope: This Bubble Is Different,” New York Times, Sept. 14, 2009. 10 Mathias Döpfner, “On the Search for the Honor of the Merchant,” Handelsblatt, Nov. 19, 2011. 11 John Carswell, The South Sea Bubble (London: Cresset Press, 1960). Catherine Rampell, “Same Old Hope: This Bubble Is Different.” 12 Timothy H. Parsons, The Rule of Empires (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 170, 194, 201–202. 13 John Gillespie and David Zweig, Money for Nothing (New York: Free Press, 2010), 20–24 and Jan Edwards, “Challenging Corporate Personhood,” Multinational Monitor, November 2002. 14 Amrit Dhillon, “Fresh Brew,” Sydney Morning Herald, June 5, 2010. 15 Ralph Nader, The Nader Reader, Feb. 21, 2000, speech. 16 R. Jeffrey Smith, “DeLay Trial a Window Into Influence,” Washington Post, Dec. 1, 2010. 17 Justin Fox, “What the Founding Fathers Really Thought about Corporations,” HBR Blog Network, Harvard Business Review, e-mail exchange between Justin Fox and Brian Murphy, April 1, 2010, http://blogs.hbr.org/fox/2010/04/what-the-founding-fathers-real.html 18 John Kay, “Beware the Bailout Kings and Backbench Barons,” Financial Times, May 20, 2009. 19 Luke Mitchell, “Understanding Obamacare,” Harper’s Magazine, December 2009. 20 Hedrick Smith, Who Stole the American Dream (New York: Random House, 2012). 21 Charles Morris, “A Recession Can Clear the Air,” Washington Post, Nov. 16, 2008. 22 Northeast Public Power Association (NEPPA), “Deregulation Continues to Impact Retail Electric Prices in Region,” NEPPA News Line, vol. 43, no. 12, December 2007.


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, disinformation, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, Ian Bogost, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck, Yochai Benkler, you are the product

Among these, several became essential shelter for the surveillance capitalists’ bold actions, secret operations, and rhetorical misdirection: (1) democracy was to be constrained in favor of actively reconstructing the state as the agent of a stable market society; (2) the entrepreneur and the corporation were conflated, enshrining “corporate personhood,” rather than the rights of citizens, as the focus of legal protections; (3) freedom was defined negatively, as “freedom from” interference in the natural laws of competition, and all control was understood as coercive, except for market control; and (4) inequality of wealth and rights was accepted and even celebrated as a necessary feature of a successful market system and a force for progress.