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The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin
Apple II, Bob Noyce, business cycle, collective bargaining, computer age, George Gilder, informal economy, John Markoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, open economy, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War
Noyce, “Candles to Computers,” 229. 35. My front teeth almost fell out: Bob Noyce to Home, 13 Aug. 1945, reprinted in D. S. Noyce, “Candles to Computers,” 231. 36. Another insignificant student: letter fragment, 16 July , reprinted in D. S. Noyce, “Candles to Computeres,” 230. We expect great things from you: Samuel Stevens to Robert Noyce, 7 May 1945, courtesy Grinnell College. 37. Interest in Smythe report: Bob Noyce to Family, 22 Jan. , ASB. 38. He never pushed himself forward: Scott Crom, interview by Evan Ramstad, April 1995, courtesy Evan Ramstad. 39. Adrenaline and gasoline: Ralph Noyce to Bob Noyce, 29 Oct. 1945, DSN. 40. Noyce’s academic work: various letters, especially Bob Noyce to Home, undated but probably spring 1946, DSN. You won’t know: Ralph Noyce to Bob Noyce, 29 Oct. 1945, DSN. 41. I’m just sorry I’ve got such brothers: Bob Noyce to Home, Wednesday night [no date, but probably 1947], ASB. 42. $5 in the bank, $4 in my pocket: Bob Noyce to Folks, 23 Sept. , DSN. $19 to buy shoes, not war bond: Harriet Noyce, “I Remember,” 36.
Wriggled them just right: Reid, The Chip, 50. A gross overstatement: Grant Gale, untitled recollections of Bob Noyce, n.d., Gale Papers, GCA. MIT tuition scholarship: Philip M. Morse to Bob Noyce, 25 March 1949, MITP. Best returns on the time spent studying: Bob Noyce to Family Everywhere, 4 May 1949. 314 Notes to Pages 28–36 Chapter 2: Rapid Robert 1. Noyce’s scholarship: Noyce’s graduate school record, MITP. Cost of a year at MIT: MIT Bulletin, June 1949, Catalogue Issue, 1949–1950. Construction site injury: Ralph Noyce to Mother, 9 Aug. 1949, ASB. Noyce shocked by country club extravagance: Bob Noyce to Folks, 7 March , ASB. 2. Determination to secure a research fellowship: Bob Noyce to Dear Family, 20 April . 3. MIT as a giant basement: Penny Noyce, interview by author. 4. Remote and austere: Bud Wheelon , interview by author, 8 Oct. 2002. 5.
The Fairchild attorneys would have been hard pressed to explain why they were in any position to charge another firm with questionable practices on this front. Moreover, as Fairchild counsel Roger Borovoy, who thought they might have had a case, explains with a sigh, neither he nor anyone else at Fairchild relished the prospect of suing Noyce: “We just said, ‘The hell with it.’ There was no way Sherman Fairchild, who was still active, would sue Bob Noyce. . . . All the up Sherman ever had was from Bob Noyce. Bob Noyce made Fairchild. So why screw around with this [talk of a suit] any more?”11 Grove, Vadasz, and the MOS team in the Intel lab found the notion that they might be significantly benefiting from Fairchild’s silicon gate research laughable. Recall the difference between lab work and production. Fairchild’s work had never left the lab. There were no transistors rolling off the lines with silicon gates at Fairchild and certainly no integrated circuits.
Microchip: An Idea, Its Genesis, and the Revolution It Created by Jeffrey Zygmont
Albert Einstein, Bob Noyce, business intelligence, computer age, El Camino Real, invisible hand, popular electronics, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
For more information, please contact the Special Markets Department at the Perseus Books Group, 11 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, or call (800) 255-1514 or (617) 252-5298, or e-mail email@example.com. Text design by Jeff Williams Set in 11-point New Aster by the Perseus Books Group First printing, January 2003 123456789 10—06 05 04 03 Bob Noyce said that "optimism is an essential ingredient for innovation. How else can the individual welcome change over security, adventure over staying in safe places?" To Bob Noyce, and every other optimist. CONTENTS Acknowledgments ix Prologue: Changing Minds xiii = PART I LAYING THE FOUNDATION = 3 22 40 49 58 76 94 104 120 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen Thinking Small The Wild West First Contact Team Choices Chipping Away Calculated Gains Adding Contenders Common Ground Great Debates : PART II BUILDING THE Changing Guards Computers for Cooks Call Forwarding Common Computing New Language Building Muscles Epilogue: Mutual Aid Notes Index 133 140 154 170 183 200 213 221 235 VII ACKNOWLEDGMENTS SOON AFTER I STARTED RESEARCHING this book, I recognized that the story could not be accurately told unless it showed how free enterprise encouraged so much exuberant invention.
Intel was still so small that Ted Hoff's immediate supervisor was Bob Noyce, the chief executive. But that arrangement wasn't for austerity alone. From lessons learned at Fairchild, Intel's bosses believed a technology company had to remain lean so that it would be flexible and fast-acting enough to make inevitable changes. Managers had to be involved, not aloof. They had to keep the troops energized and engaged. Sclerosis at any level might cause a company to miss an unanticipated change, and thereby miss a big chance. Corporate flexibility also meant that workers were allowed to operate with a wide range of freedom. People had assigned responsibilities, but they could also wander into other inquiries, as long as they wandered productively. Therefore Bob Noyce didn't flinch when Ted Hoff came from out of the blue in July 1969 to worry over Busicom's mixed up circuit sketches.
Faggin was the circuit designer hired by Intel early in 1970 to manifest Ted Hoff's original, 4004 microprocessor. Shima was one of visiting Busicom engineers who had arrived in June 1969 to oversee development of the calculator chips that Hoff had turned into the 4004. Shima had stayed, joining Intel and directing design of the 8080 chip in 1974. Bob Noyce would later call him the world's most influential microprocessor designer. That's very high praise. But in the large scheme of events, Shima and Faggin and even Bob Noyce himself were only a few of the many strivers who advanced their art by responding to the enticements of corporate ownership. Likewise, Wang Labs wasn't the only organization to permute computing toward popular acceptance. With micro- 198 MICROCHIP processors, any person could make a computer if he or she had enough patience and determination, plus some basic skills in circuitry, an electronics parts catalog, and a soldering stick.
The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara
"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K
Three months into their start-up’s existence, without having yet made a single chip, the Traitorous Eight landed a contract to manufacture 100 silicon transistors for an onboard computer for “the manned missile,” a new long-range bomber. Wisely, Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore were adamant that Fairchild conduct its own research, rather than depending on government contracts that would not let them own resulting patents. “‘Government funding of R&D has a deadening effect upon the incentives of the people,” declared Noyce. “This is not the way to get creative, innovative work done.” But having the government as a customer? That was less of a problem. In 1958, 80 percent of Fairchild’s book of business came from government contracts. That was only a preview of an even bigger windfall.17 In those Fairchild labs in early 1959, Jean Hoerni discovered a way to place multiple transistors on a single silicon wafer by protecting them with a coating of chemical oxide. Hoerni’s “planar process” allowed his colleague Bob Noyce to experiment with linking the transistors together, creating an integrated circuit, or IC, more powerful than any device before it.
The money “is not now available, and it is unlikely ever to be available,” Bush’s science advisor told Congress flatly. Back in the Valley, high-tech power players felt that the new president just didn’t get it.36 Another, bigger jolt came only a few months later. Bob Noyce died suddenly in Austin in June 1990, felled by a heart attack at the age of 62. Sematech no longer had its dynamic chief executive. The bereaved Valley crowd lost one of their technological pioneers and their most reliable liaison to Washington’s power brokers. His death signaled a generational change, the end of an era when Valley leaders had been men much like Bob Noyce: crew-cut engineers in shirtsleeves who were children of the Depression, molded by the Cold War, makers of tangible things like chips and computer terminals.37 As if to underscore the passage of the founding generation, the Cold War had come to an end.
It was this ecosystem that ultimately gave Northern California its competitive edge. Even after the ascension of the chipmakers and the mini companies, go-it-alone entrepreneurship was a shaky proposition, requiring market knowledge and resources that no federal contract could provide. By and large, electronics entrepreneurs were young men from modest backgrounds, book smart but not Wall Street smart. These would-be Bob Noyces and Ken Olsens needed management advice. Guidance on marketing, sales, advertising. Legal help with writing contracts and filing patents and allocating stock options. And they needed money. Traditional banks—or, for that matter, most investors—were unwilling to give it to young men who’d never worked outside an academic lab, and who often were building products for which there wasn’t yet a market.
Alpha Girls: The Women Upstarts Who Took on Silicon Valley's Male Culture and Made the Deals of a Lifetime by Julian Guthrie
Airbnb, Apple II, barriers to entry, blockchain, Bob Noyce, call centre, cloud computing, credit crunch, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, new economy, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, phenotype, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, web application, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce
The original Gold Rush days of 1849 were dominated by mining companies and merchants hawking overpriced goods. It was ruled by men: Samuel Brannan, Levi Strauss, John Studebaker, Henry Wells, and William Fargo. Women, outnumbered and overmatched, were mostly reduced to entertainers, companions, wives, or housekeepers. Things were not that different in the more recent gold rush. The Valley was always a region dominated by men, from William Hewlett, Dave Packard, Bob Noyce, Gordon Moore, Andy Grove, Larry Ellison, Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak to, decades later, in the twenty-first century, Larry Page, Sergey Brin, Mark Zuckerberg, Elon Musk, Tim Cook, Travis Kalanick, and Marc Benioff. Mary Jane, fueled by peanut butter sandwiches packed in wax paper for the two-day journey, was under no illusion that it would be easy to navigate the old boys’ club of Sand Hill Road and Silicon Valley.
Intel needed its new 8086 sixteen-bit microprocessor chip to “crush” the competition, Motorola’s sixteen-bit 68000 chip. MJ flew around the country with one of Intel’s so-called SWAT teams, hosting seminars and meetings to sell customers on how Intel’s microprocessors would automate manufacturing, run assembly lines and satellites, and change the way businesses operated. Intel, from founders Gordon Moore and Bob Noyce to COO Andy Grove, poured everything into Operation Crush. Media strategist Regis McKenna—who also handled marketing for Apple—ran a $2 million advertising campaign, using images from artist Patrick Nagel. Intel offered trips to Tahiti to the top salespeople. A young man named John Doerr, brimming with competitive energy, sold the microprocessors as if his life depended on it, employing such then-novel techniques as videos to help him sell.
As the middle child, she was often called upon by the other kids to be the tiebreaker. Her opinion mattered. In her years at Purdue, she was defined in part by her aptitude in math. That fluency gave her the confidence to solve problems in other fields. It had helped her when she was hired at Intel, where she learned to perform under pressure and work in close, cohesive teams, under the direction of visionaries Andy Grove, Bob Noyce, and Gordon Moore. During her graduate years at Stanford business school, she had met trailblazers like Steve Jobs and Sandy Kurtzig, who arrived driving a Ferrari and carrying a pink briefcase. She still remembered Kurtzig’s parting words: “You can’t play the game if you’re not in it.” Then she’d landed a dream job as a venture capitalist working for Reid Dennis. The people-loving, bow-tie-wearing Dennis set a tone of ethics and decency at the firm that continues today.
Troublemakers: Silicon Valley's Coming of Age by Leslie Berlin
AltaVista, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, discovery of DNA, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, Leonard Kleinrock, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, packet switching, Ralph Nader, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, union organizing, upwardly mobile, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce
About six minutes into his address, Jobs tells the story of being fired from Apple when he was thirty years old. “The focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating,” he says. The next lines are easy to overlook but vital for anyone who wants to understand how Silicon Valley works: “I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down—that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly.”1 Throughout his career, Jobs spent time with older entrepreneurs such as Intel’s Robert Noyce and Andy Grove, as well as with Regis McKenna, a former employee of National Semiconductor who founded Silicon Valley’s leading public relations and marketing firm. In 2003, I asked Jobs why he spent so much time with the semiconductor pioneers. He said he “wanted to smell that second wonderful era of the valley, the semiconductor companies leading into the computer.”
Sears gave Atari six months to manufacture the games for the Christmas season and also loaned the company $1.5 million through Sears Bank.72 Shortly after the Sears deal was inked, Al Alcorn and the engineering team at Atari learned a lesson that surprised one high-tech company after another in the early 1970s. The “softer” side of a consumer product—packaging, in particular—can prove more difficult to master than the technical innards. (“How hard can it be?” may be the five most foolish words in high technology.) When Intel tried to sell digital watches built around its chips, the technology worked fine, but the business was lost on watchbands and display boxes. That experience, Intel cofounder Bob Noyce would later say, had taught him that “when the other guy’s business looks too good, you don’t know enough about it.”73 For Atari, the problem was the plastic case that held the Home Pong electronics and attached to a television. Alcorn, who was responsible for the case, could not find anyone who could build it. He flew to Los Angeles to visit a company that sounded promising. No luck. With Sears’s holiday-season deadlines approaching, Bushnell grew so panicked that he assigned a group to start designing a wooden case that would never have worked for large-volume production.
Alcorn usually had little time for who-did-what arguments, but he now made an exception. He told his son, “Go to Nolan’s daughter and say, ‘If your daddy invented Pong, how come he had to ask my daddy to come fix his machine when it broke down?’ ” * * * I. Alcorn and Lee used an AMI chip for Home Pong, but they had originally considered an Intel chip instead, and Alcorn invited Intel cofounders Gordon Moore and Bob Noyce to visit Atari. When Don Valentine, who consulted for Atari, heard about the visit, he, in Alcorn’s description, “went ballistic, saying ‘You told them what we’re doing?’ ” When Alcorn assured him that Noyce and Moore had signed a nondisclosure agreement, Valentine, who had both worked for and competed against the Intel founders, replied, “That’s like going after a tank with a flyswatter.” II.
Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World With OKRs by John Doerr
Albert Einstein, Bob Noyce, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Haight Ashbury, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Ray Kurzweil, risk tolerance, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, web application, Yogi Berra, éminence grise
Then he added a zinger: “John, venture capital, that’s not a real job. It’s like being a real estate agent.” Andy Grove’s Legacy When Grove died at seventy-nine after years of stoic suffering with Parkinson’s disease, The New York Times called him “ one of the most acclaimed and influential personalities of the computer and Internet era.” He wasn’t an immortal theorist like Gordon Moore or an iconic public figure like Bob Noyce. Nor did he publish enough to rest beside Peter Drucker in the pantheon of management philosophy. Yet Grove changed the way we live. In 1997, three decades after his experiments at Fairchild, he was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year, “ the person most responsible for the amazing growth in the power and the innovative potential of microchips.” Andy Grove was a rare hybrid, a supreme technologist and the greatest chief executive of his day.
Sample the arithmetic coprocessor no later than June 15 (Engineering). ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OBJECTIVE (Q2 1980) Deliver 500 8MHz 8086 parts to CGW by May 30. KEY RESULTS Develop final art to photo plot by April 5. Deliver Rev 2.3 masks to fab on April 9. Test tapes completed by May 15. Fab red tag start no later than May 1. Turning on a Dime Early on, just after the first of the year, Bob Noyce and Andy Grove staged a Crush kickoff at the San Jose Hyatt House. Their directive to Intel’s management corps was simple and clear: “We’re going to win in 16-bit microprocessors. We’re committed to this.” Andy told us what we had to do and why we had to do it, and that we should consider it a priority until it was done. There were close to one hundred people at the meeting. The message penetrated two levels of management off the bat, and to a third level within twenty-four hours.
The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar
But on paper, Shkreli’s move was a huge success: if one could get one’s hands on the precise data for a labor productivity calculation, it would probably show that Shkreli’s workers became 25 to 50 times more productive at a stroke of the pricing pen.19 Another example that makes one scratch one’s head is illustrated by a discussion that coauthor William Davidow had in the 1970s with Robert (Bob) Noyce, the inventor of the integrated circuit and the president of Intel. Bob was complaining that the financial analysts who followed the company were criticizing him because employee productivity was not growing. Bob justifiably pointed out that the number of transistors being produced by each Intel employee was growing at a rate of about 40 percent per year, but that prices were falling so fast that the dollar output per employee was not growing at all.
Businesses are being forced by competition, or by the fact that their business models have changed, to sell their products and services at reduced prices. As a result, they cannot monetize the effects of their productivity increases. They are reducing their workforces in response—at best, rehiring workers as part-time contractors—and paying less to the workers who remain. The problem now facing the entire economy is very similar to the problem Bob Noyce wrestled with forty years ago as president of Intel. His employees were becoming 40 percent more productive each year when output was measured in terms of transistors produced per employee. Unfortunately for Bob, his prices were under great pressure as his factories and those of his competitors flooded the market with transistors. In the end, Bob and his competitors were saved by an explosion in demand from the creation of brand-new industries—such as the personal computer.
The Road Ahead by Bill Gates, Nathan Myhrvold, Peter Rinearson
Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, California gold rush, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Donald Knuth, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, glass ceiling, global village, informal economy, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, medical malpractice, Mitch Kapor, new economy, packet switching, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture
Like vacuum tubes, transistors act as electrical switches, but they require significantly less power to operate and as a result generate much less heat and require less space. Multiple transistor circuits could be combined onto a single chip, creating an integrated circuit. The computer chips we use today are integrated circuits containing the equivalent of millions of transistors packed onto less than a square inch of silicon. In a 1977 Scientific American article, Bob Noyce, one of the founders of Intel, compared the $300 microprocessor to ENIAC, the moth-infested mastodon from the dawn of the computer age. The wee microprocessor was not only more powerful, but as Noyce noted, "It is twenty times faster, has a larger memory, is thousands of times more reliable, consumes the power of a lightbulb rather than that of a locomotive, occupies 1/30,000 the volume and costs 1/10,000 as much.
One of the main reasons we don't already have a working highway is that there isn't sufficient bandwidth in today's communications networks for all the new applications. And there won't be until fiber-optic cable is brought into enough neighborhoods. Fiber-optic cable is an example of technology that goes beyond what Babbage or even Eckert and Mauchly could have predicted. So is the speed at which the performance and capacity of chips have improved. In 1965, Gordon Moore, who later cofounded Intel with Bob Noyce, predicted that the capacity of a computer chip would double every year. He said this on the basis of having examined the price/performance ratio of computer chips over the previous three years and projecting it forward. In truth, Moore didn't believe that this rate of improvement would last long. But ten years later, his forecast proved true, and he then predicted the capacity would double every two years.
Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart Into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender, Rick Tetzeli
Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Charles Lindbergh, computer age, corporate governance, El Camino Real, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, market design, McMansion, Menlo Park, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog
While Steve looked to his elders at Apple for guidance, he also sought it out elsewhere. He didn’t yet have the skills to build a great company, but he admired those who had pulled it off, and he would go to great lengths to meet them and learn from them. “None of these people were really in it for the money,” he told me. “Dave Packard, for example, left all his money to his foundation. He may have died the richest guy in the cemetery, but he wasn’t in it for the money. Bob Noyce [cofounder of Intel] is another. I’m old enough to have been able to get to know these guys. I met Andy Grove [CEO of Intel from 1987 to 1998] when I was twenty-one. I called him up and told him I had heard he was really good at operations and asked if I could take him out to lunch. I did that with Jerry Sanders [founder of Advanced Micro Devices] and with Charlie Sporck [founder of National Semiconductor] and others.
But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at thirty I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating. I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down—that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the Valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me—I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over. I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me.
More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
In turn, after personality clashes, eight employees of Shockley’s company departed to found Fairchild Semiconductor. In 1959, Jack Kilby and Bob Noyce of Fairchild developed the microchip, which could be made with silicon or another material that acted as a semiconductor. On the chip was an integrated circuit, consisting of tiny transistors, resistors and capacitors.9 In 1965, Gordon Moore, another Fairchild employee, wrote a famous paper, stating that, by shrinking transistors, engineers would be able to double the number that fit on a chip every year. While he later amended this to a doubling every two years, he correctly forecast the exponential growth of computing power.10 Along with Bob Noyce, Gordon Moore founded Intel in 1968. Fifty years later, Intel is one of the largest technology companies in the word, responsible for designing semiconductors and microprocessors.
How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets by Andy Kessler
Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, animal electricity, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
So he started with this bulk N-type, opened a bunch of holes in it and diffused in impurities to create P-type regions. Done with that, he opened a bunch more holes in the middle of the P-type and diffused in impurities to create N-type regions. When finished, he had NPN devices, as many as he could fit. I think Hoerni started with eight devices. But Hoerni did no better than Kilby. He still needed wires to connect the devices. In early 1959, his colleague, Bob Noyce, came up with the solution. Noyce grew an insulator, Silicon Dioxide, which is glass, over the top of the entire circuit. Then again using a mask and photoresist, he cut holes in the glass where he needed to connect to the N, the P and the N regions. Noyce then deposited molten aluminum over the top of the glass, which ran into the holes to make a connection. One more mask and photoresist step removed unwanted aluminum so you were automatically left with flat “wires” connecting the transistors (vs.
Eat People: And Other Unapologetic Rules for Game-Changing Entrepreneurs by Andy Kessler
23andMe, Andy Kessler, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Netflix Prize, packet switching, personalized medicine, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, wealth creators, Yogi Berra
I’ve met Bill Gates many times, first after Microsoft went public. Gates was pitching Wall Street about upgrading to Windows from DOS (without much luck). Eventually, Wall Street discovered spreadsheets, which lowered their costs and made it vastly easier to do things like take two companies or two financial instruments and merge them into something financeable. I met Gordon Moore and Andy Grove and Bob Noyce, the founders of Intel, just as they almost lost out to cheap Japanese memory makers—before turning the massive company on a dime to sell processors (at high margins) to the IBMs and Compaqs and then Dells of the world, driving faster and faster computers so better and better graphics could make computers easier to use for business and making all of us more productive—well, except for those of us who love video games.
Built for Growth: How Builder Personality Shapes Your Business, Your Team, and Your Ability to Win by Chris Kuenne, John Danner
Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, business climate, call centre, cloud computing, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gordon Gekko, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, zero-sum game
It’s no surprise many builders—perhaps you included—choose to embark on that adventure with cofounders. That’s a decision that immediately puts the issue of Builder Personality front and center—for both of you. Just take a look at this partial list of cobuilders: Apple: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Microsoft: Bill Gates and Paul Allen Ben & Jerry’s: Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield Intel: Gordon Moore and Bob Noyce P & G: William Procter and James Gamble Airbnb: Nathan Blecharczyk, Brian Chesky, and Joe Gebbia Google: Sergey Brin and Larry Page Rent the Runway: Jenn Hyman and Jenny Fleiss Warby Parker: Neil Blumenthal, Dave Gilboa, Andrew Hunt, and Jeffrey Raider Pinterest: Ben Silbermann, Evan Sharp, and Paul Sciarra Eventbrite: Julia Hartz and Kevin Hartz HP: Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard These builder partnerships cut across industry, geographic, gender, and cultural lines.
Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
As an experienced entrepreneur, I can assure you this argument is completely ridiculous. Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, would have worked just as hard for a tiny fraction of the rewards he reaped. The founders of Fairchild Semiconductor widely regarded as the seminal Silicon Valley startup—were thrilled to strike it rich when the parent company bought them out for the princely sum of $250,000 each. In the words of Bob Noyce, “The money doesn’t seem real. It’s just a way of keeping score” (http://www.stanford.edu/class/e140/e140a/content/noyce.html, originally published by Tom Wolfe in Esquire, December 1983). 16. Matt Taibbi, “The Great American Bubble Machine,” Rolling Stone, April 5, 2010, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-great-american-bubble-machine-20100405. 17. Works Progress Administration, in 1939 renamed the Work Projects Administration. 18.
Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages by Carlota Pérez
agricultural Revolution, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, distributed generation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Hyman Minsky, informal economy, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, market fundamentalism, new economy, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, post-industrial society, profit motive, railway mania, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus
This, apart from being an efficient way of transmitting a thought model, seems particularly suited to the type of explanation proposed, where a recurrent historical sequence has unique manifestations each time around. chapter title PART ONE Technological Revolutions as Successive Great Surges of Development 1 2 Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital The Turbulent Ending of the Twentieth Century 3 1. The Turbulent Ending of the Twentieth Century On a day like any other in November 1971, a small event in Santa Clara California was about to change the history of the world. Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore launched Intel’s first microprocessor, the precursor of the computer on a chip. It was the big-bang of a new universe, that of all-pervasive computing and digital telecommunications. Chips were powerful, they were cheap and they opened innumerable technological and business possibilities. At that time not many people had heard of venture capital or ‘angels’. Though many common citizens in the USA had stocks and bonds, few followed the daily changes in the stock market.
Wall Street Meat by Andy Kessler
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, banking crisis, Bob Noyce, George Gilder, index fund, Jeff Bezos, market bubble, Menlo Park, Pepto Bismol, pets.com, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, undersea cable, Y2K
Although I wanted to ask Monsieur Gassee about product issues, such as what chips they used, he stood in a corner, shrugging his shoulders, doing his best Inspector Clouseau imitation, repeating “I dieu nut kneeaauuww.” Sculley’s “no place for Steve Jobs” line was on the front page of every paper the next morning. Bob and I went to see several other companies, as well as to an Intel analyst meeting. I met Intel’s three founders, Gordon Moore, Andy Grove and Bob Noyce. I also met a cast of characters who would follow me around like a bad dream for the next decade. They were the other semiconductor analysts around the Street, my competitors: The number one analyst, Alan Rieper at Cowen, Tom Kurlak at Merrill Lynch, and Jim Barlage at Smith Barney. “These are the enemy,” Bob explained to me, “these are the Institutional Investor All-American analysts. Destroy at all costs.”
The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson
1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
While he looked at you he never blinked and never swallowed. He absorbed everything you said and then answered very levelly in a soft baritone voice and often with a smile that showed off his terrific set of teeth. The stare, the voice, the smile; it was all a bit like the movie persona of the most famous of all Grinnell College’s alumni, Gary Cooper. With his strong face, his athlete’s build, and the Gary Cooper manner, Bob Noyce projected what psychologists call the halo effect. People with the halo effect seem to know exactly what they’re doing and, moreover, make you want to admire them for it. They make you see the halos over their heads.54 As a kid, Noyce benefited from a situation that was common back then: “Dad always managed to have some sort of workshop in the basement.” Young Noyce loved to make things, including a vacuum-tube radio, a sled with a propeller, and a headlight to use on his early-morning paper route.
“I blackmailed Larry Roberts into becoming famous,” Taylor later said.45 When Roberts first moved to Washington, around Christmas, he and his wife stayed for a few weeks with Taylor while looking for a home. Even though they were not destined to be personal pals, the relationship between the two men was cordial and professional, at least during their years at ARPA.46 Roberts was not as genial as Licklider, nor as extroverted as Taylor, nor as congregational as Bob Noyce. “Larry’s a cold fish,” according to Taylor.47 Instead he had a trait that was just as useful in promoting collaborative creativity and managing a team: he was decisive. More important, his decisiveness was based not on emotion or personal favoritism but rather on a rational and precise analysis of options. His colleagues respected his decisions, even if they disagreed with them, because he was clear, crisp, and fair.
The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
As a result, the elite tech firms have never had to deal with such problems as factory fires or employees working themselves to exhaustion or even death—except in occasional exposés about their plants in China and other developing countries.124 Keeping the worst exploitation far away, firms like Apple have avoided the kind of domestic scrutiny—and labor activism—that has plagued automakers, petrochemical processors, port operators, and, in the past, the more industrially oriented firms that created Silicon Valley in the first place. A critical difference with traditional industries has been the almost total absence of organized labor. Not so much anti-union as post-union, the new Oligarchs have lived in an atmosphere untroubled by the labor activism that has cast firms such as Walmart and McDonald’s in a negative light. “Remaining non-union is an essential for survival for most of our companies,” Intel founder Bob Noyce said over two decades ago. More recently, venture capitalist Marc Andreessen declared that “there doesn’t seem to be a role” for unions in the modern economy because people are “marketing themselves and their skills.” Amazon, which has the kind of warehouse facilities that could be organized, has battled unions not only in the United States but also in more union-friendly Europe as well.125 The good news for the tech sector is that they need less people than ever before.
Blitzscaling: The Lightning-Fast Path to Building Massively Valuable Companies by Reid Hoffman, Chris Yeh
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business intelligence, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, database schema, discounted cash flows, Elon Musk, Firefox, forensic accounting, George Gilder, global pandemic, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, transaction costs, transport as a service, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, web application, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, yellow journalism
Most of the iconic companies that have shaped and defined the technology industry—Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Apple, Google, Facebook—are known for their distinctive cultures, regardless of their era. The same can be said for more recent start-up market leaders like Airbnb and Salesforce.com. Typically, the credit for these cultures goes to the founders. Bill Hewlett and David Packard are synonymous with the HP Way. Bob Noyce, Gordon Moore, and Andy Grove are referred to as the Intel Trinity. Steve Jobs, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, and Mark Zuckerberg are seen as the sources of Apple’s, Google’s, and Facebook’s cultures. Yet while the personalities of the founding team play a critical role in defining an organization’s culture, it is more accurate to say that an organization’s culture emerges over time based on the actions of many people, not just the founders.
The Four: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Divided and Conquered the World by Scott Galloway
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, California gold rush, cloud computing, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, follow your passion, future of journalism, future of work, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Khan Academy, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, passive income, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, working poor, young professional
Could Apple have maintained this pace into the current decade had Steve Jobs survived his illness? Probably. Because for all of his less than savory traits, he accomplished one important thing: he turned Apple, after the risk-averse years under John Sculley, into a company—arguably the biggest company ever—that made taking risks its first option. Unlike every other Fortune 500 CEO, Steve Jobs punished careful thinking, and history recorded the results. Steve Jobs—not Bob Noyce at Intel or David Packard at HP—became the first person to found a company and then make it the most valuable company in the world. Stores, touch screens, and a reheated MP3 player all, at the time, made no sense. For all the good that Jobs did for Apple, he was also a destructive force inside the company. He bullied employees; his attitudes around philanthropy and inclusiveness were small; his mercurial personality and megalomania kept Apple perpetually in borderline chaos.
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
The shift to silicon, literally building the new revolution on sand, was first accomplished by Texas Instruments (in Dallas) in 1954 (a move facilitated by the hiring in 1953 of Gordon Teal, another leading scientist from Bell Labs). The invention of the planar process in 1959 by Fairchild Semiconductors (in Silicon Valley) opened up the possibility of the integration of miniaturized components with precision manufacturing. Yet the decisive step in micro-electronics had taken place in 1957: the integrated circuit (IC) was co-invented by Jack Kilby, a Texas Instrument engineer (who patented it), and Bob Noyce, one of the founders of Fairchild. But it was Noyce who first manufactured ICs by using the planar process. It triggered a technological explosion: in only three years, between 1959 and 1962, prices of semiconductors fell by 85 percent, and in the next ten years production increased by 20 times, 50 percent of which went to military uses.44 As a point of historical comparison, it took 70 years (1780–1850) for the price of cotton cloth to drop by 85 percent in Britain during the industrial revolution.45 Then, the movement accelerated during the 1960s: as manufacturing technology improved and better chip design was helped by computers using faster and more powerful micro-electronic devices, the average price of an integrated circuit fell from $50 in 1962 to $1 in 1971.
When he was turned down he took a job in Silicon Valley, with a subsidiary of Beckman Instruments, mainly because his mother lived in Palo Alto. With the support of Beckman Instruments he decided to create there his own company, Shockley Transistors, in 1956. He recruited eight brilliant young engineers, mainly from Bell Labs, attracted by the possibility of working with Shockley; one of them, although not precisely from Bell Labs, was Bob Noyce. They were soon disappointed. While learning the fundamentals of cutting-edge micro-electronics from Shockley, they were turned off by his authoritarianism and stubbornness which led the firm into dead-ends. In particular, they wanted, against his decision, to work on silicon as the most promising route to the larger integration of transistors. Thus, after only one year they left Shockley (whose firm collapsed) and created (with the help of Fairchild Cameras) Fairchild Semiconductors, where the invention of the planar process and of the integrated circuit took place in the next two years.
Running Money by Andy Kessler
Andy Kessler, Apple II, bioinformatics, Bob Noyce, British Empire, business intelligence, buy and hold, buy low sell high, call centre, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, family office, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, interest rate swap, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Long Term Capital Management, mail merge, Marc Andreessen, margin call, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, pets.com, railway mania, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Toyota Production System, zero-sum game
So Hoerni created a mask, like a photo negative, with a bunch of openings where he wanted to diffuse in impurities, and then ﬂipped on a light. Wherever the photoresist remained after the chemical bath, the impurities would not diffuse underneath. When ﬁnished, he had his integrated transistors, as many as he could ﬁt. I think Hoerni started with eight devices. But Hoerni did no better than Kilby; he still needed wires to connect the devices. In early 1959, his colleague, Bob Noyce, came up with the solution. Noyce blew in some oxygen and grew an insulator, silicon dioxide, literally glass, over the top of the entire circuit. Then, again using a mask and photoresist, he cut holes in the glass where he needed to connect to the transistor nodes. Noyce then deposited molten aluminum over the top of the glass, which ran into the holes to make a connection, so you were left with ﬂat wires connecting the transistors.
Concentrated Investing by Allen C. Benello
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, asset allocation, barriers to entry, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bob Noyce, business cycle, buy and hold, carried interest, Claude Shannon: information theory, corporate governance, corporate raider, delta neutral, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, family office, fixed income, high net worth, index fund, John von Neumann, Louis Bachelier, margin call, merger arbitrage, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, survivorship bias, technology bubble, transaction costs, zero-sum game
Shortly after meeting Buffett in 1967, Rosenfield bought $5,252 worth of Berkshire Hathaway—300 shares—for the endowment, and persuaded Buffett to join Grinnell’s board, which he did in 1968.20 Grinnell held the Berkshire position for more than 20 years, finally selling between 1989 and 1993 for $3.7 million for reasons that neither Buffett nor Rosenfield could remember.21 The endowment would make a second serendipitous investment when Robert Noyce, a Grinnell trustee and alumnus, offered Grinnell stock in his then-private start-up, NM Electronics.22 Noyce had almost been expelled from Grinnell for stealing a pig and roasting it at a campus luau.23 He would have been expelled but for the intervention of his physics professor who felt that Noyce was the best student he’d ever taught. 24 The professor managed to persuade the school to reduce the expulsion to a one-semester suspension.25 Noyce never forgot the favor, and made the stock available to the school if it wanted it.26 Rosenfield told Noyce that the endowment would take all the stock he’d let it have.27 Grinnell’s endowment took 10 percent of the $3 million private placement (Grinnell put up $100,000, and Rosenfield and another trustee put up $100,000 each).28 Shortly thereafter the company, then renamed Intel, went public in 1971. Grinnell started selling the stake in 1974, at which time it was worth $14 million, more than half the value of the $27 million endowment. Noyce was concerned that Grinnell should have so much exposure to a single name associated with him, and cajoled Rosenfield to sell. He recalls, “Bob [Noyce] was trembling about it. He’d say, ‘I don’t want the college to lose any money on account of me.’ But I’d say, “We’ll worry about that, Bob. We’ll take the risk.”29 Noyce eventually wore Rosenfield down, however, and Grinnell fully exited the stake by 1980. On its sale, the Intel investment had generated a profit of 4,583 percent. Rosenfield told Zweig, “I wish we’d kept it. That was the 162 Concentrated Investing biggest mistake we ever made.
Late Bloomers: The Power of Patience in a World Obsessed With Early Achievement by Rich Karlgaard
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, fear of failure, financial independence, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hiring and firing, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Sand Hill Road, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Toyota Production System, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor
In 1971 it released a promising new product, the microprocessor, but as revolutionary as it was, its financial contribution to Intel’s bottom line throughout the 1970s was small. Memory chips were Intel’s bread and butter. But in the late 1970s, Japanese and then South Korean companies entered the memory chip market and undercut Intel on price. By the early 1980s, Intel was in a financial crisis. Grove suggested a radical solution: Intel should quit the memory chip business and bet its future on the microprocessor. There was heated disagreement. Bob Noyce thought quitting the memory business was the same as losing. But Grove persisted. As he recounted years later, “I asked Gordon [Moore], you know, what would happen if somebody took us over? What would the new guy do? To which Gordon said, ‘The new owner would get rid of us (laughter) and get out of the memory business.’ ” Intel did just that. It quit a fading and futile business to focus on its future.
Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson
air freight, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fixed income, game design, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Jony Ive, lateral thinking, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, profit maximization, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog
“It’s a common trait in people who are charismatic and know how to manipulate people. Knowing that he can crush you makes you feel weakened and eager for his approval, so then he can elevate you and put you on a pedestal and own you.” Ann Bowers became an expert at dealing with Jobs’s perfectionism, petulance, and prickliness. She had been the human resources director at Intel, but had stepped aside after she married its cofounder Bob Noyce. She joined Apple in 1980 and served as a calming mother figure who would step in after one of Jobs’s tantrums. She would go to his office, shut the door, and gently lecture him. “I know, I know,” he would say. “Well, then, please stop doing it,” she would insist. Bowers recalled, “He would be good for a while, and then a week or so later I would get a call again.” She realized that he could barely contain himself.
Arriving without an entourage or any fanfare, and looking relaxed in the same black sweater he had worn for his developers conference speech, he stood on a podium with clicker in hand and spent twenty minutes showing slides of the design to council members. When a rendering of the sleek, futuristic, perfectly circular building appeared on the screen, he paused and smiled. “It’s like a spaceship has landed,” he said. A few moments later he added, “I think we have a shot at building the best office building in the world.” The following Friday, Jobs sent an email to a colleague from the distant past, Ann Bowers, the widow of Intel’s cofounder Bob Noyce. She had been Apple’s human resources director and den mother in the early 1980s, in charge of reprimanding Jobs after his tantrums and tending to the wounds of his coworkers. Jobs asked if she would come see him the next day. Bowers happened to be in New York, but she came by his house that Sunday when she returned. By then he was sick again, in pain and without much energy, but he was eager to show her the renderings of the new headquarters.
The Myth of Capitalism: Monopolies and the Death of Competition by Jonathan Tepper
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, diversification, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, means of production, merger arbitrage, Metcalfe's law, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, passive investing, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, undersea cable, Vanguard fund, very high income, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game
And the idea was that they were advancing technology for a region, not any single company's technology. We often think in the U.S. that people or companies create success, but what Silicon Valley shows us is that often it's communities of people across a region.”3 If Noyce thought Shockley was God in the early 1950s, Steve Jobs idolized Noyce in the 1970s. When Apple was starting, Noyce was already a legend with Intel. “Bob Noyce took me under his wing,” Jobs said. “He tried to give me the lay of the land, give me a perspective that I could only partially understand.” Jobs continued, “You can't really understand what is going on now unless you understand what came before.”4 Although Jobs worshipped Noyce, he failed to give his own Apple employees the same freedoms that allowed Noyce's best innovations to flourish. In 2014 it came to light that Jobs had been preventing employees from moving to other companies.
The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, yellow journalism, zero-coupon bond
He wished the departing partners Godspeed with what might be perceived as the subtlest trace of irony: “This makes good sense for them, since most of them have the ability and motivation to surpass our objectives and I am relieved from pushing for results that I probably can’t attain under present conditions.”15 “Financial genius is a rising market,” as Kenneth Galbraith would later say.16 Now Buffett had more time to pursue the personal interests he had spoken about, and less pressure—at least in theory. After King’s speech, Rosenfield easily recruited Buffett to become a Grinnell trustee. Given Buffett’s dislike of committees and meetings, this signified how much he had been touched by the convocation—as well as how close he had grown to Rosenfield. Naturally, he went straight onto the finance committee, where he found the trustees to be a group of like-minded men. Bob Noyce, who ran a company called Fairchild Semiconductor, which made electronic circuits—something about which Buffett knew little and had even less interest—was chairman. Noyce, a former Grinnell graduate who had once been expelled from school for stealing a pig to roast at a luau—a serious offense in a pig-farming state—had the aura of a man who knew what he was about.17 Yet “he was really a regular guy.
Though proud of having husbanded, tended, and compounded his partnership, with minimal risk, from seven investors and $105,000 to more than three hundred people and $105 million, Buffett had become an elder of the market, seemingly eclipsed by young barnstormers who could flash a couple of years’ worth of showy numbers and joy-ride new investors into giving them $500 million nearly overnight. He seemed especially—and comfortably—antiquated when it came to all the new technology companies that were forming. At Grinnell College, he showed up for a meeting to find his fellow trustee Bob Noyce itching to leave Fairchild Semiconductor. Noyce, Gordon Moore (its research director), and its assistant director of research and development, Andy Grove, had decided to start a nameless new company in Mountain View, California, based on a vague plan to extend the technology of circuits to “higher levels of integration.”23 Joe Rosenfield and the college endowment fund each said they would put in $100,000, joining dozens who were helping to raise $2.5 million for the new company—which was soon to be named Intel, for Integrated Electronics.
BusinessWeek declared “The Death of Equities,” as if no one would ever buy stocks again. A mood of deep pessimism settled on the country. Investors piled into gold, diamonds, platinum, art, real estate, rare coins, mining stocks, feedlot cattle, and oil; “cash is trash” was the watchword of the day. High school girls wore necklaces made of Krugerrand coins. A brash new trustee at Grinnell, Steve Jobs, protégé of the esteemed Bob Noyce, tried to talk the investment committee into selling all the stocks and buying gold.36 An engineer in his mid-twenties, Jobs was obviously a very smart guy, but the investment committee demurred, and Grinnell did not buy gold. In Forbes, Buffett wrote the opposite: It was time for investors to buy stocks. “The future is never clear,” he wrote; “you pay a very high price in the stock market for a cheery consensus.
Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley
air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, undersea cable, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
Its founders, Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, had both worked at Shockley Semiconductor, the company started by one of the three Bell Labs scientists who had invented the transistor. In 1970 an even smaller company called Computer Terminal Corporation approached Intel about having it manufacture a new chip that CTC had designed. The interesting thing about the new chip was that CTC wanted it to hold an entire computer on a single piece of silicon; in other words, it would be a computer on a chip, something that had never been done before. Bob Noyce allegedly responded that his company could do it, but it would be a dumb business move for Intel, which was in the business of selling chips. “If you have a computer chip, you can only sell one chip per computer,” he said, “while with memory you can sell hundreds of chips per computer.” Still, money talked; CTC and Intel signed a $50,000 development contract. The project did not go smoothly. Intel was unable to deliver on time and CTC decided it would rather build its own computer out of separate chips than wait any longer for Intel.
Gamers at Work: Stories Behind the Games People Play by Morgan Ramsay, Peter Molyneux
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bob Noyce, collective bargaining, game design, index card, Mark Zuckerberg, oil shock, pirate software, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Von Neumann architecture
You should always save today’s cash for tomorrow’s cash. Ramsay: How successful was Pong? Bushnell: We did about 35,000 units. They were each getting about $1,000 a piece, so we made about $35 million on it. Ramsay: In terms of staff, did you recruit any advisors? Did you know anyone who could provide you insight into the business side? Bushnell: I had a good relationship with a guy named Bob Noyce, who was one of the founders of Intel. I really looked up to him, and would often give him a call when I had a thorny problem. Jerry Sanders from AMD was another guy that I would tap from time to time. Those were probably the two major mentors who I would say I had in the Valley. I also tried over and over again to hire a president. And I hired a couple of guys from Hewlett-Packard. I hired my brother-in-law, who was a chief executive officer.
Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator
Po Bronson: At Shockley Semiconductor some people who felt mistreated, who felt mismanaged, left. They went over to a new funder, Fairchild, who said, “Yes, we’ll take you guys over here.” Steve Jobs: Fairchild was the second seminal company in the Valley, after Hewlett-Packard, and really was the launching pad for every semiconductor company in the whole semiconductor industry which built the Valley. Po Bronson: Then Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore left Fairchild to start Intel, and that just didn’t happen anywhere else in the country. Labor laws were different in other states. Brad Handler: It’s just a public policy difference from hundreds of years ago. Jamis MacNiven: Then Moore created this law he’s famous for: computer power doubling every eighteen months. Alvy Ray Smith: Moore’s law went into play in 1965, and from then on the more powerful computer you have, the smaller they got.
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
Irwin: The Cell Phone Guy It was wonderful for consumers for all these networking breakthroughs to occur, but someone had to pack them into a phone you could carry in your pocket to get the full frontal revolution—and no individual was more responsible for this mobile phone revolution than Irwin Jacobs. In the pantheon of the great innovators who launched the Internet age—Bill Gates, Paul Allen, Steve Jobs, Gordon Moore, Bob Noyce, Michael Dell, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Andy Grove, Vint Cerf, Bob Kahn, Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Mark Zuckerberg—save a few lines for Irwin Jacobs, and add Qualcomm to the list of important companies you’ve barely heard of. Qualcomm is to mobile phones what Intel and Microsoft together were to desktops and laptops—the primary inventor, designer, and manufacturer of the microchips and software that run handheld smartphones and tablets.
Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game
Officially, the eight men founded Fairchild Semiconductor. Predictably, given the Fairchild connection, their first customer was IBM, servicing the military. Before long, Fairchild exercised his option to buy all of Fairchild Semiconductor. While the eight men made substantial windfalls, the investment structure lacked the unlimited-upside element now intrinsic to the idea of the Silicon Valley start-up. In 1968 two of the original eight, Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, looked to start another company. Given the optimism of the capital markets about anything to do with electronics and computing at the time—the same conditions that valued Ross Perot’s six-year-old EDS at over $200 million—the pair were able to forgo a corporate sponsor this time in setting up their new venture. They again turned to Arthur Rock as their banker to help raise the money.
The Golden Passport: Harvard Business School, the Limits of Capitalism, and the Moral Failure of the MBA Elite by Duff McDonald
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, deskilling, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, family office, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, global pandemic, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Menlo Park, new economy, obamacare, oil shock, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, pushing on a string, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, urban renewal, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Y Combinator
That model has been mimicked by almost every venture capital firm that followed it, most of whom would love to mimic its performance as well: Funded with just $5 million, by the time the firm was dissolved just seven years later, it had generated 54 percent annual returns, generating some $90 million in capital gains for its investors.1 One of their investments was Silicon Valley’s first-ever unicorn: Scientific Data Systems, which sold to Xerox for $1 billion in 1965. But Rock was just getting started. In 1968, he funded two of the Fairchild Eight once again, kicking in $300,000 (along with Venrock’s Peter Crisp, below) when Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore bolted Fairchild to found Intel. A subsequent call from former Intel employee Mike Markkula led Rock to invest in Apple Computer. Interestingly, the HBS-bred Rock never found a true connection with the iconoclastic Steve Jobs, and supported the hiring of Pepsi-Cola president John Sculley to replace Jobs as CEO of Apple in 1983. Sculley’s tenure was marked by both highs (for example, the introduction of the PowerBook) and lows (for example, the ouster of Jobs, the commitment to the PowerPC chip), but Apple didn’t truly soar until its visionary cofounder returned.