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Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac
"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, hockey-stick growth, hustle culture, impact investing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen special economic zone , side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, super pumped, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, WeWork, Y Combinator
lang=en. 54 found him near Ocean Beach: Anita Balakrishnan, “How Ryan Graves became Uber’s first CEO,” CNBC, May 14, 2017, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/05/14/profile-of-ubers-ryan-graves.html. 54 Graves’s Tumblr: ryangraves, Tumblr, http://ryangraves.tumblr.com/. 54 One personal favorite: ryangraves, Tumblr, http://ryangraves.tumblr.com/post/516416119/via-fuckyeahjay-z. 55 thirty new customers: Brian Lund, “From Dead-End Job to Uber Billionaire: Meet Ryan Graves,” DailyFinance, July 3, 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20140707042902/http://www.dailyfinance.com/on/uber-billionaire-ryan-graves/. 55 small, metallic statue of an ape-man: ryangraves, Tumblr, http://ryangraves.tumblr.com/post/336093270/dpstyles-crunchie-closeup-aka-the-heisman-of. 56 Graves posted to his Facebook: Ryan Graves, “Into the Infinite Abyss of the Startup Adventure,” Facebook, February 14, 2010, https://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=476991565402. 58 “Uber CEO ‘Super Pumped’ ”: Michael Arrington, “Uber CEO ‘Super Pumped’ about Being Replaced by Founder,” TechCrunch, https://techcrunch.com/2010/12/22/uber-ceo-super-pumped-about-being-replaced-by-founder/. 59 posed for an Instagram snapshot: Uber HQ (@sweenzor), Instagram Photo, September 18, 2013, https://www.instagram.com/p/eatIa-juEa/?taken-by=sweenzor. 59 hailed UberCab’s model: Leena Rao, “UberCab Takes the Hassle Out of Booking a Car Service,” TechCrunch, https://techcrunch.com/2010/07/05/ubercab-takes-the-hassle-out-of-booking-a-car-service/. 59 one TechCrunch article by Arrington said: Michael Arrington, “What If UberCab Pulls an Airbnb?
The audience read the list as Kalanick rattled them off aloud: Always Be Hustlin’ Be An Owner, Not Renter Big Bold Bets Celebrate Cities Customer Obsession Inside Out Let Builders Build Make Magic Meritocracy & Toe-Stepping Optimistic Leadership Principled Confrontation Super Pumped Champions Mindset / Winning Be Yourself Some of the employees in the audience were confused. “Is this a joke?” one twenty-seven-year-old whispered to a colleague sitting next to him. “Is this still part of the whole professor act?” The list read like Amazon’s corporate values run through a bro-speak translation engine. People in Kalanick’s world were not happy or sad, they were “super pumped” or “super unpumped.” Company brainstorming meetings were “jam sessions.” Half the company enjoyed Kalanick’s colorful vocabulary.
Publisher's Notice Page numbers listed in the ebook correspond to the print edition of this book. You can use your device’s search function to locate particular terms in the text. SUPER PUMPED THE BATTLE FOR UBER MIKE ISAAC Copyright © 2019 by Mike Isaac All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America First Edition For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to Permissions, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, please contact W.
Unleashed by Anne Morriss, Frances Frei
"side hustle", Airbnb, Donald Trump, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Jeff Bezos, Netflix Prize, Network effects, performance metric, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, super pumped, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, WeWork, women in the workforce
It’s a model that reveals another foundational truth about leadership: some of your best people don’t always want you in the room. Culture gives you the confidence to exit. Do you have a culture problem? By June of 2017, the mandate to change the culture at Uber could not have been stronger. This was not lost on then-CEO Travis Kalanick. As reported by Mike Isaac in Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber, while Kalanick was on leave, he drafted an email to the company that he never ended up sending.a The email was humbled and reflective, mirroring the version of Kalanick we had gotten to know earlier that spring. He opened with a sober take on Uber’s culture challenges: “Over the last seven years, our company has grown a lot—but it hasn’t grown up.”7 Kalanick took responsibility for the company’s cultural missteps, including its emphasis on growth at all costs and its transactional approach to stakeholder relationships.
Nancy Hass, “And the Award for the Next HBO Goes To … ,” GQ, January 29, 2013, https://www.gq.com/story/netflix-founder-reed-hastings-house-of-cards-arrested-development. 6. McCord tells the complete story herself in her terrific book, Powerful: Building a Culture of Freedom and Responsibility (USA: Silicon Guild, 2017). 7. Mike Isaac, Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2019), 265. 8. Anyone who cares about getting culture right should read Susan Fowler, Whistleblower: My Journey to Silicon Valley and Fight for Justice at Uber (New York: Viking, 2020). 9. Dara Khosrowshahi, “Uber’s New Cultural Norms,” LinkedIn (blog), November 7, 2017, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/ubers-new-cultural-norms-dara-khosrowshahi/. 10.
., 167, 168, 177 Scooby Snacks, 78 Scrub Daddy, 157 self-distraction, 6–8, 18–19 self-improvement, 20–21 self-trust, 56–57 severity, 61, 63, 64–65, 66, 67, 77 sexual harassment, 106 Shark Tank, 156–157 “sink or swim” approach, 109, 112 SMART goals, 79 Smith, Fred, 166 social media, 52 Southwest Airlines, 136–138, 161 standards-devotion matrix, 62–67, 70–87 standard setting, 78–80 Starbucks, 168 Stonewall, 110 strategic confusion, 135 strategic value stick, 145, 150, 151, 155 strategic wedge, 152–153, 154–156, 191 strategy, 12–14, 132, 135–163 changing, 162 communication of, 156–161 defined, 136–138 growth, 152–154 planning, 154–156 strategic trade-offs, 136–141 suppliers and, 144–148 value-based, 135–136 value creation and, 141–144 writing about, 158 Stripe, 14 Su, Lisa, 62 Sulla, 72, 73 Super Pumped (Isaac), 172–173 Super You, 139 suppliers, 144–148, 153–154 talent attracting diverse, 95–104 retaining, 120–122 task forces, 92 TaskRabbit, 5, 148–152, 161 Tatum, Lisa Skeete, 14 teams building, 54 diverse, 48–49 leadership of, 13 terminations, 84, 85–86 360-degree reviews, 117–119 “toe-stepping,” 178–179 Ton, Zeynep, 147–148 tough love, 62, 86–87 toxic employees, 123 Toyota, 153–154 Toyota Production System (TPS), 153–154 trade-offs, 136–141 Trader Joe’s, 44 trust, 12, 13, 31–58 attributes of, 34, 36 authenticity and, 34–37, 47–54, 57 diagnosing your own level of, 35–39 empathy and, 34–41, 51, 57 as foundation of leadership, 33–34 logic and, 41, 45–46, 51, 57 rebuilding, 1, 55–56 in yourself, 56–57 trust anchor, 35, 37 trust drivers, 34, 35 trust triangle, 34, 36–37 trust wobble, 35–39, 42–44 Twitter, 102 Uber, 31–32, 51, 54–56, 114, 172–174, 178–179 United States Army, 16–18 USAID, 43 US Soccer Federation (USSF), 121–122 ValMax.
Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination by Adam Lashinsky
"side hustle", Airbnb, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, gig economy, Golden Gate Park, Google X / Alphabet X, hustle culture, independent contractor, information retrieval, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, pattern recognition, price mechanism, ride hailing / ride sharing, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, super pumped, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, young professional
As for Graves, he told the technology news site TechCrunch that he was “super pumped” Kalanick was joining Uber full time, a comment the snarky site mocked in its headline given Graves’s demotion. Despite his hurt feelings and subsequent feuds with Kalanick over his right to be called a founder, Graves stayed with Uber in senior positions, and on its board, for years. He also coined a phrase that’s central to the Uber culture. Years later Uber employees continued to say, without a whiff of irony, that they were “super pumped” about just about anything. On the day Kalanick became CEO, in October 2010, a man carrying a clipboard showed up at UberCab’s offices looking for Ryan Graves.
Built for Growth: How Builder Personality Shapes Your Business, Your Team, and Your Ability to Win by Chris Kuenne, John Danner
Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, business climate, call centre, cloud computing, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gordon Gekko, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, super pumped, supply-chain management, zero-sum game
The tool is a rating from 0 to 100, with truly exceptional performance earning above 100. “We are honest with ourselves and with each other,” Phillips says. “If you are not at one hundred, say, ninety, we are telling you it is fixable. If you are at an eighty, we are telling you to go.” Transparent. Quantitative. Unambiguous. “We had something our competitors did not—super-pumped-up employees.” Another Explorer, Mark Bonfigli, the founder of Dealer.com, applied this same kind of systems thinking to improve the human-touch elements of recruiting and culture in his company, allowing it to scale to more than a thousand employees and ultimately selling it to DealerTrack for over $1 billion.
Bonfigli then realized his engaged and energetic sales and customer care teams could be a competitive weapon in the marketplace. He explains: “We did have a few inventions that were sort of cool and separated us, but the reality was some of our competitors had a more robust solution. We had something they did not have—happy, enthusiastic, inspired, and super-pumped-up employees who were smiling on the other end of the phone.” What started as a systematic way to ensure the health of his workforce turned into Dealer.com’s competitive advantage. As an Explorer, you are a magnet for like-minded problem solvers. You are clear, to the point of being blunt, in your communications and your expectations for your teams.
Right of Way: Race, Class, and the Silent Epidemic of Pedestrian Deaths in America by Angie Schmitt
active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, Covid-19, COVID-19, crossover SUV, desegregation, Donald Trump, global pandemic, invention of air conditioning, Lyft, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, super pumped, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, wikimedia commons
Laura Bliss, “Former Uber Backup Driver: ‘We Saw This Coming,’” Citylab, March 27, 2018, https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2018/03/former-uber-backup-driver-we-saw-this-coming/556427/. 13. Pete Bigelow, “NTSB Scrutinizes ‘Automation Complacency’ after Uber Crash,” Automotive News, December 11, 2019, https://www.autonews.com/mobility-report/ntsb-scrutinizes-automation-complacency-after-uber-crash. 14. Mike Isaac, Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber (New York: Norton, 2019), loc. 405 of 880, iBooks. 15. Paayal Zaveri, “Uber’s Revenue and Bookings Growth Slowed Slightly in the Second Quarter of 2018, Company Reports,” CNBC, August 15, 2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/15/uber-q2-2018-revenue-bookings-slow-slightly.html. 16.
Dan Albert, telephone interview, October 22, 2019. 20. National Transportation Safety Board, “Preliminary Report Released for Crash Involving Pedestrian, Uber Technologies, Inc., Test Vehicle,” press release, May 24, 2018, https://www.ntsb.gov/news/press-releases/Pages/NR20180524.aspx. 21. Isaac, Super Pumped, loc. 403, iBooks. 22. Richard Lawler, “Uber Will Not Face Criminal Charges for Last Year’s Self-Driving Crash,” Engaget, March 5, 2019, https://www.engadget.com/2019/03/05/uber-autonomous-fatal-crash-criminal-charges/. 23. National Association of City Transportation Officials, “NTSB Finds Inadequate Safeguards in Place for Self-Driving Vehicle Testing across U.S.,” November 21, 2019, https://nacto.org/2019/11/21/ntsb-finds-inadequate-safeguards-in-place-for-self-driving-vehicle-testing/. 24.
Always Day One: How the Tech Titans Plan to Stay on Top Forever by Alex Kantrowitz
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, hive mind, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, new economy, Peter Thiel, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, robotic process automation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, super pumped, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, wealth creators, zero-sum game
Dow Jones & Company, October 25, 2018. https://www.wsj.com/articles/at-netflix-radical-transparency-and-blunt-firings-unsettle-the-ranks-1540497174?mod=hp_lead_pos4. Ideas at Tesla come from the top: Duhigg, Charles. “Dr. Elon & Mr. Musk: Life Inside Tesla’s Production Hell.” Wired. Condé Nast, December 13, 2008. https://www.wired.com/story/elon-musk-tesla-life-inside-gigafactory. Uber’s culture is famously troubled: Isaac, Mike. Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2019. CHAPTER 1: INSIDE JEFF BEZOS’S CULTURE OF INVENTION Bezos drives Amazon’s inventive culture through fourteen leadership principles: “Leadership Principles.” Amazon.jobs. Accessed October 3, 2019. https://www.amazon.jobs/en/principles.
Lab Rats: How Silicon Valley Made Work Miserable for the Rest of Us by Dan Lyons
Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, impact investing, income inequality, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, RAND corporation, remote working, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software is eating the world, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, super pumped, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, web application, WeWork, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, young professional
They seemed mostly bemused. Some companies try to instill a little bit of Silicon Valley culture by building miniature start-ups inside their old-company walls, hiring Millennials who fan out across the organization, wearing Converse sneakers and untucked shirts, running hackathons and teaching oldsters how to get “super pumped” and “mastermind some shit” in a “jam sesh,” as Uber founder Travis Kalanick once put it. Also, many companies are latching on to faddish Silicon Valley management methodologies, like Agile and Lean Startup, because they are convinced that these tech-spawned ideas will make them as nimble as start-ups.
No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention by Reed Hastings, Erin Meyer
Airbnb, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, global village, hiring and firing, job-hopping, late fees, loose coupling, loss aversion, out of africa, performance metric, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, subscription business, super pumped
Former Netflix vice president of engineering, Daniel Jacobson, worked at National Public Radio (NPR) for a decade in Washington, DC, before working at Netflix for a decade. He explained the benefits of the family ethos at NPR like this: I began at NPR in late 1999 as the first full-time software engineer hired online. When I got there, I was super-pumped. People who want to work at NPR believe in the mission and love the organization’s dedication to news and information. That shared purpose resulted in a culture that at times felt more like a family than a workplace. It was very appealing, and I developed a lot of close relationships at work. NPR had such a strong family culture that many people turned it into their real family.
Palace Coup: The Billionaire Brawl Over the Bankrupt Caesars Gaming Empire by Sujeet Indap, Max Frumes
"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Bear Stearns, Blythe Masters, business cycle, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, Donald Trump, family office, fear of failure, fixed income, Jeffrey Epstein, mortgage debt, NetJets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, super pumped, Travis Kalanick
He was charming, glib, and, by billionaire standards, down-to-earth. By 2006, he was married to the former Carolyn Pleva, a fashion designer, and had three sons. By all accounts he was happily married and adored his wife and children. “I married my trophy wife. I come home every day and smile. One of the secrets to my success is being super-pumped up every day,” Rowan once said. Rowan even bragged that there had been no divorces among Apollo partners. Rowan’s reputation for feeling secure and comfortable in his own skin proved to be another contrast with Harris. One Apollo partner put it this way: “Josh Harris wakes up in the morning thinking about Marc Rowan.
The Cult of We: WeWork, Adam Neumann, and the Great Startup Delusion by Eliot Brown, Maureen Farrell
"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, cloud computing, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, future of work, gender pay gap, global pandemic, global supply chain, Google Earth, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hockey-stick growth, housing crisis, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Network effects, new economy, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-oil, railway mania, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, Steve Jobs, super pumped, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, WeWork, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Thanks to Tripp Mickle for talking us through a new craft we all knew nothing about. Thanks to Bradley Hope for all his counsel on the publishing world and investigative reporting. Our text builds on strong works of others that chronicled Silicon Valley’s unicorn party. Thanks for the kind suggestions from Mike Isaac, whose Super Pumped shared many similar themes on the rise and ouster of Uber’s CEO. Reeves Wiedeman was a generous and decorous competitor, and his Billion Dollar Loser, also on WeWork, is well worth a read. Thanks to all our colleagues at other outlets whose work on WeWork helped inform this book, including Ellen Huet, Gillian Tan, Cory Weinberg, Meghan Morris, Steve Bertoni, Charles Duhigg, and Moe Tkacik.
The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin
3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, super pumped, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce
Megan Rose Dickey, “Lyft’s Rides Are So Social,” Business Insider, March 16, 2014; Travis Kalanick, Uber Policy White Paper, “Principled Innovation: Addressing the Regulatory Ambiguity,” April 12, 2013 (“compete”). 4. “Didi Chuxing’s Founder Cheng Wei,” Times of India, August 8, 2016. 5. Interview with Jean Liu. 6. Mike Isaacs, Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber (New York: W. W. Norton, 2019), chapters 27–30; Farhad Manjoo, “Uber’s Lesson,” New York Times, June 21, 2017; Anita Balakrishnan, “Here’s the Full 13-Page Report of Recommendations for Uber,” CNBC, June 13, 2017. Chapter 40: Auto-Tech 1. Michael Sivak, “Younger Persons Are Still Less Likely to Have a Driver’s License Than in the 1980s,” January 6, 2020, https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/01/20200106-sivak.html. 2.